WorldWideScience

Sample records for model year highway

  1. Federal Highway Administration 100-year coating study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Highway Administration 100-Year Coating Study was initiated in August 2009 to search for durable : coating systems at a reasonable cost. The objective of the study was to identify and evaluate coating materials that can : provide 100 year...

  2. Area Based Models of New Highway Route Growth

    OpenAIRE

    David Levinson; Wei Chen

    2007-01-01

    Empirical data and statistical models are used to answer the question of where new highway routes are most likely to be located. High-quality land-use, population distribution and highway network GIS data for the Twin CitiesMetropolitan Area from 1958 to 1990 are developed for this study. The highway system is classified into three levels, Interstate highways, divided highways, and secondary highways. Binary logit models estimate the new route growth probability of divided highways and second...

  3. Modeling the highway transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, I.G.

    1986-01-01

    There will be a substantial increase in the number of spent fuel shipments on the nation's highway system in the next thirty years. Most of the spent fuel will be moving from reactors to a spent fuel repository. This study develops two models that evaluate the risk and cost of moving the spent fuel. The Minimum Total Transport Risk Model (MTTRM) seeks an efficient solution for this problem by finding the minimum risk path through the network and sending all the spent fuel shipments over this one path. The Equilibrium Transport Risk Model (ETRM) finds an equitable solution by distributing the shipments over a number of paths in the network. This model decreases the risk along individual paths, but increases society's risk because the spent fuel shipments are traveling over more links in the network. The study finds that there is a trade off between path risk and societal risk. As path risk declines, societal risk rises. The cost of shipping also increases as the number of paths expand. The cost and risk of shipping spent fuel from ten reactors to four potential repository sites are evaluated using the MTTRM. The temporary monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility in Tennessee is found to be the minimum cost and minimum risk solution. When direct shipment to the permanent sites is considered, Deaf Smith, Texas is the least cost and least incident free transport risk location. Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the least risk location when the focus is placed on the potential consequences of an accident

  4. Off-Highway Gasoline Consuption Estimation Models Used in the Federal Highway Administration Attribution Process: 2008 Updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report is designed to document the analysis process and estimation models currently used by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to estimate the off-highway gasoline consumption and public sector fuel consumption. An overview of the entire FHWA attribution process is provided along with specifics related to the latest update (2008) on the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use of Gasoline Model. The Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model is made up of five individual modules, one for each of the off-highway categories: agricultural, industrial and commercial, construction, aviation, and marine. This 2008 update of the off-highway models was the second major update (the first model update was conducted during 2002-2003) after they were originally developed in mid-1990. The agricultural model methodology, specifically, underwent a significant revision because of changes in data availability since 2003. Some revision to the model was necessary due to removal of certain data elements used in the original estimation method. The revised agricultural model also made use of some newly available information, published by the data source agency in recent years. The other model methodologies were not drastically changed, though many data elements were updated to improve the accuracy of these models. Note that components in the Public Use of Gasoline Model were not updated in 2008. A major challenge in updating estimation methods applied by the public-use model is that they would have to rely on significant new data collection efforts. In addition, due to resource limitation, several components of the models (both off-highway and public-us models) that utilized regression modeling approaches were not recalibrated under the 2008 study. An investigation of the Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2005 model was also carried out under the 2008 model update. Results generated from the NONROAD2005 model were analyzed, examined, and compared, to the extent that

  5. HIGHWAY, a transportation routing model: program description and users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Gibson, S.M.

    1982-12-01

    A computerized transportation routing model has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be used for predicting likely routes for shipping radioactive materials. The HIGHWAY data base is a computerized road atlas containing descriptions of the entire interstate highway system, the federal highway system, and most of the principal state roads. In addition to its prediction of the most likely commercial route, options incorporated in the HIGHWAY model can allow for maximum use of interstate highways or routes that will bypass urbanized areas containing populations > 100,000. The user may also interactively modify the data base to predict routes that bypass any particular state, city, town, or specific highway segment

  6. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described

  7. Mathematical model of highways network optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with the issue of highways network design. Studies show that the main requirement from road transport for the road network is to ensure the realization of all the transport links served by it, with the least possible cost. The goal of optimizing the network of highways is to increase the efficiency of transport. It is necessary to take into account a large number of factors that make it difficult to quantify and qualify their impact on the road network. In this paper, we propose building an optimal variant for locating the road network on the basis of a mathematical model. The article defines the criteria for optimality and objective functions that reflect the requirements for the road network. The most fully satisfying condition for optimality is the minimization of road and transport costs. We adopted this indicator as a criterion of optimality in the economic-mathematical model of a network of highways. Studies have shown that each offset point in the optimal binding road network is associated with all other corresponding points in the directions providing the least financial costs necessary to move passengers and cargo from this point to the other corresponding points. The article presents general principles for constructing an optimal network of roads.

  8. A comparative empirical analysis of statistical models for evaluating highway segment crash frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bismark R.D.K. Agbelie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study conducted an empirical highway segment crash frequency analysis on the basis of fixed-parameters negative binomial and random-parameters negative binomial models. Using a 4-year data from a total of 158 highway segments, with a total of 11,168 crashes, the results from both models were presented, discussed, and compared. About 58% of the selected variables produced normally distributed parameters across highway segments, while the remaining produced fixed parameters. The presence of a noise barrier along a highway segment would increase mean annual crash frequency by 0.492 for 88.21% of the highway segments, and would decrease crash frequency for 11.79% of the remaining highway segments. Besides, the number of vertical curves per mile along a segment would increase mean annual crash frequency by 0.006 for 84.13% of the highway segments, and would decrease crash frequency for 15.87% of the remaining highway segments. Thus, constraining the parameters to be fixed across all highway segments would lead to an inaccurate conclusion. Although, the estimated parameters from both models showed consistency in direction, the magnitudes were significantly different. Out of the two models, the random-parameters negative binomial model was found to be statistically superior in evaluating highway segment crashes compared with the fixed-parameters negative binomial model. On average, the marginal effects from the fixed-parameters negative binomial model were observed to be significantly overestimated compared with those from the random-parameters negative binomial model.

  9. An optimization model for improving highway safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promothes Saha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed a traffic safety management system (TSMS for improving safety on county paved roads in Wyoming. TSMS is a strategic and systematic process to improve safety of roadway network. When funding is limited, it is important to identify the best combination of safety improvement projects to provide the most benefits to society in terms of crash reduction. The factors included in the proposed optimization model are annual safety budget, roadway inventory, roadway functional classification, historical crashes, safety improvement countermeasures, cost and crash reduction factors (CRFs associated with safety improvement countermeasures, and average daily traffics (ADTs. This paper demonstrated how the proposed model can identify the best combination of safety improvement projects to maximize the safety benefits in terms of reducing overall crash frequency. Although the proposed methodology was implemented on the county paved road network of Wyoming, it could be easily modified for potential implementation on the Wyoming state highway system. Other states can also benefit by implementing a similar program within their jurisdictions.

  10. Analyses of Lattice Traffic Flow Model on a Gradient Highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta Arvind Kumar; Redhu Poonam; Sharma Sapna

    2014-01-01

    The optimal current difference lattice hydrodynamic model is extended to investigate the traffic flow dynamics on a unidirectional single lane gradient highway. The effect of slope on uphill/downhill highway is examined through linear stability analysis and shown that the slope significantly affects the stability region on the phase diagram. Using nonlinear stability analysis, the Burgers, Korteweg-deVries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-deVries (mKdV) equations are derived in stable, metastable and unstable region, respectively. The effect of reaction coefficient is examined and concluded that it plays an important role in suppressing the traffic jams on a gradient highway. The theoretical findings have been verified through numerical simulation which confirm that the slope on a gradient highway significantly influence the traffic dynamics and traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering the optimal current difference effect in the new lattice model. (nuclear physics)

  11. Modeling land development along highway 4 in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potjamas Chuangchang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the change of developed land in three different locations along Highway 4 Road from Phattalung to HatYai. The method involves creating a digitized grid of geographical coordinates covering the study area. The land-use codes and plot identifiers were recorded in database tables indexed by grid coordinates. Logistic regression of land development adjusted for spatial correlation was used to model its change over a 9-year period using land-use at the previous survey combined with location as a determinant. The results show increasing average percentages of developed land (3% in 2000 and 5% in 2009. Land development occurred mostly in the northern location along the Pattalung to HatYai road.

  12. 3D engineered models for highway construction : the Iowa experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    3D engineered modeling is a relatively new and developing technology that can provide numerous bene ts to owners, engineers, : contractors, and the general public. This manual is for highway agencies that are considering or are in the process of s...

  13. M5 model tree based predictive modeling of road accidents on non-urban sections of highways in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gyanendra; Sachdeva, S N; Pal, Mahesh

    2016-11-01

    This work examines the application of M5 model tree and conventionally used fixed/random effect negative binomial (FENB/RENB) regression models for accident prediction on non-urban sections of highway in Haryana (India). Road accident data for a period of 2-6 years on different sections of 8 National and State Highways in Haryana was collected from police records. Data related to road geometry, traffic and road environment related variables was collected through field studies. Total two hundred and twenty two data points were gathered by dividing highways into sections with certain uniform geometric characteristics. For prediction of accident frequencies using fifteen input parameters, two modeling approaches: FENB/RENB regression and M5 model tree were used. Results suggest that both models perform comparably well in terms of correlation coefficient and root mean square error values. M5 model tree provides simple linear equations that are easy to interpret and provide better insight, indicating that this approach can effectively be used as an alternative to RENB approach if the sole purpose is to predict motor vehicle crashes. Sensitivity analysis using M5 model tree also suggests that its results reflect the physical conditions. Both models clearly indicate that to improve safety on Indian highways minor accesses to the highways need to be properly designed and controlled, the service roads to be made functional and dispersion of speeds is to be brought down. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Statistical modeling of total crash frequency at highway intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash M. Roshandeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intersection-related crashes are associated with high proportion of accidents involving drivers, occupants, pedestrians, and cyclists. In general, the purpose of intersection safety analysis is to determine the impact of safety-related variables on pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles, so as to facilitate the design of effective and efficient countermeasure strategies to improve safety at intersections. This study investigates the effects of traffic, environmental, intersection geometric and pavement-related characteristics on total crash frequencies at intersections. A random-parameter Poisson model was used with crash data from 357 signalized intersections in Chicago from 2004 to 2010. The results indicate that out of the identified factors, evening peak period traffic volume, pavement condition, and unlighted intersections have the greatest effects on crash frequencies. Overall, the results seek to suggest that, in order to improve effective highway-related safety countermeasures at intersections, significant attention must be focused on ensuring that pavements are adequately maintained and intersections should be well lighted. It needs to be mentioned that, projects could be implemented at and around the study intersections during the study period (7 years, which could affect the crash frequency over the time. This is an important variable which could be a part of the future studies to investigate the impacts of safety-related works at intersections and their marginal effects on crash frequency at signalized intersections.

  15. Revenue Risk Modelling and Assessment on BOT Highway Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianti, T.; Setyawan, H. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The infrastructure project which is considered as a public-private partnership approach under BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) arrangement, such as a highway, is risky. Therefore, assessment on risk factors is essential as the project have a concession period and is influenced by macroeconomic factors and consensus period. In this study, pre-construction risks of a highway were examined by using a Delphi method to create a space for offline expert discussions; a fault tree analysis to map intuition of experts and to create a model from the underlying risk events; a fuzzy logic to interpret the linguistic data of risk models. The loss of revenue for risk tariff, traffic volume, force majeure, and income were then measured. The results showed that the loss of revenue caused by the risk tariff was 10.5% of the normal total revenue. The loss of revenue caused by the risk of traffic volume was 21.0% of total revenue. The loss of revenue caused by the force majeure was 12.2% of the normal income. The loss of income caused by the non-revenue events was 6.9% of the normal revenue. It was also found that the volume of traffic was the major risk of a highway project because it related to customer preferences.

  16. Crash prediction model for two-lane rural highways in the Ashanti region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Ackaah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Crash Prediction Models (CPMs have been used elsewhere as a useful tool by road Engineers and Planners. There is however no study on the prediction of road traffic crashes on rural highways in Ghana. The main objective of the study was to develop a prediction model for road traffic crashes occurring on the rural sections of the highways in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The model was developed for all injury crashes occurring on selected rural highways in the Region over the three (3 year period 2005–2007. Data was collected from 76 rural highway sections and each section varied between 0.8 km and 6.7 km. Data collected for each section comprised injury crash data, traffic flow and speed data, and roadway characteristics and road geometry data. The Generalised Linear Model (GLM with Negative Binomial (NB error structure was used to estimate the model parameters. Two types of models, the ‘core’ model which included key exposure variables only and the ‘full’ model which included a wider range of variables were developed. The results show that traffic flow, highway segment length, junction density, terrain type and presence of a village settlement within road segments were found to be statistically significant explanatory variables (p<0.05 for crash involvement. Adding one junction to a 1 km section of road segment was found to increase injury crashes by 32.0% and sections which had a village settlement within them were found to increase injury crashes by 60.3% compared with segments with no settlements. The model explained 61.2% of the systematic variation in the data. Road and Traffic Engineers and Planners can apply the crash prediction model as a tool in safety improvement works and in the design of safer roads. It is recommended that to improve safety, highways should be designed to by-pass village settlements and that the number of junctions on a highway should be limited to carefully designed ones.

  17. An integrated model for the Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hao

    2011-01-01

    In China, environmental issues caused by construction and operation of highway catch more and more attention, and thus environmental impact assessment of highway has become an important part of feasibility study. According to the Specifications for Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways...... in the People's Republic of China, this paper proposes an integrated model for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of highway. The model has two main characteristics. Firstly, the whole highway is divided into several sections, and then weight of each section is distributed by its importance. Secondly...

  18. Financial audit : District of Columbia highway trust fund's fiscal year 1999 and 1998 financial statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    This report presents the results of our audits of the financial statements of the District of Columbia Highway Trust Fund for the fiscal years ended September 30, 1999 and 1998, and our examination of the forecasted statements of the Fund's expected ...

  19. Highway three-dimensional modeling based on Vehicle-borne laser data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weili, Sun; Ruofei, Zhong; Jiangxia, Wei; Fanyang, Zeng

    2014-01-01

    The of Vehicle-borne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) scanning technology is an efficiently practical approach on the acquisition and application of 3D information and its geographic elements of highway(including road surface, rails, attached facilities, slopes, ditches, etc.). The acquired information is significant on many aspects such as road maintenance, reconstruction, survey, landscape design, visualized modelling and highway hazard supervision and prevention. The initial laser data cannot be directly used to construct highway 3D model, operations of pre-processing are necessary. This paper presented a set of procedure about pre-processing laser data and constructing TIN (Triangle Irregular Net) model of highway

  20. Microscopic modeling of multi-lane highway traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Nathan O.; Jagota, Anand

    2003-12-01

    We discuss a microscopic model for the study of multi-lane highway traffic flow dynamics. Each car experiences a force resulting from a combination of the desire of the driver to attain a certain velocity, aerodynamic drag, and change of the force due to car-car interactions. The model also includes multi-lane simulation capability and the ability to add and remove obstructions. We implement the model via a Java applet, which is used to simulate traffic jam formation, the effect of bottlenecks on traffic flow, and the existence of light, medium, and heavy traffic flow. The simulations also provide insight into how the properties of individual cars result in macroscopic behavior. Because the investigation of emergent characteristics is so common in physics, the study of traffic in this manner sheds new light on how the micro-to-macro transition works in general.

  1. Simple cellular automaton model for traffic breakdown, highway capacity, and synchronized flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple cellular automaton (CA) model for two-lane roads explaining the physics of traffic breakdown, highway capacity, and synchronized flow. The model consists of the rules “acceleration,” “deceleration,” “randomization,” and “motion” of the Nagel-Schreckenberg CA model as well as “overacceleration through lane changing to the faster lane,” “comparison of vehicle gap with the synchronization gap,” and “speed adaptation within the synchronization gap” of Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. We show that these few rules of the CA model can appropriately simulate fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown and highway capacity found in traffic data measured over years in different countries, like characteristics of synchronized flow, the existence of the spontaneous and induced breakdowns at the same bottleneck, and associated probabilistic features of traffic breakdown and highway capacity. Single-vehicle data derived in model simulations show that synchronized flow first occurs and then self-maintains due to a spatiotemporal competition between speed adaptation to a slower speed of the preceding vehicle and passing of this slower vehicle. We find that the application of simple dependences of randomization probability and synchronization gap on driving situation allows us to explain the physics of moving synchronized flow patterns and the pinch effect in synchronized flow as observed in real traffic data.

  2. Databases for highway inventories. Proposal for a new model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Casan, J.A.

    2016-07-01

    Database models for highway inventories are based on classical schemes for relational databases: many related tables, in which the database designer establishes, a priori, every detail that they consider relevant for inventory management. This kind of database presents several problems. First, adapting the model and its applications when new database features appear is difficult. In addition, the different needs of different sets of road inventory users are difficult to fulfil with these schemes. For example, maintenance management services, road authorities and emergency services have different needs. In addition, this kind of database cannot be adapted to new scenarios, such as other countries and regions (that may classify roads or name certain elements differently). The problem is more complex if the language used in these scenarios is not the same as that used in the database design. In addition, technicians need a long time to learn to use the database efficiently. This paper proposes a flexible, multilanguage and multipurpose database model, which gives an effective and simple solution to the aforementioned problems. (Author)

  3. HIGHWAY, a transportation routing model: program description and revised users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1983-10-01

    A computerized transportation routing model has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be used for predicting likely routes for shipping radioactive materials. The HIGHWAY data base is a computerized road atlas containing descriptions of the entire Interstate System, the federal highway system, and most of the principal state roads. In addition to its prediction of the most likely commercial route, options incorporated in the HIGHWAY model can allow for maximum use of Interstate highways or routes that will bypass urbanized areas containing populations greater than 100,000 persons. The user may also interactively modify the data base to predict routes that bypass any particular state, city, town, or specific highway segment

  4. Cost estimate modeling of transportation management plans for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Highway rehabilitation and reconstruction projects frequently cause road congestion and increase safety concerns while limiting access for road users. State Transportation Agencies (STAs) are challenged to find safer and more efficient ways to renew ...

  5. Modeling highway travel time distribution with conditional probability models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration's Office of Freight Management and Operations, the American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI) has developed performance measures through the Freight Performance Measures (FPM) initiative. Under this program, travel speed information is derived from data collected using wireless based global positioning systems. These telemetric data systems are subscribed and used by trucking industry as an operations management tool. More than one telemetric operator submits their data dumps to ATRI on a regular basis. Each data transmission contains truck location, its travel time, and a clock time/date stamp. Data from the FPM program provides a unique opportunity for studying the upstream-downstream speed distributions at different locations, as well as different time of the day and day of the week. This research is focused on the stochastic nature of successive link travel speed data on the continental United States Interstates network. Specifically, a method to estimate route probability distributions of travel time is proposed. This method uses the concepts of convolution of probability distributions and bivariate, link-to-link, conditional probability to estimate the expected distributions for the route travel time. Major contribution of this study is the consideration of speed correlation between upstream and downstream contiguous Interstate segments through conditional probability. The established conditional probability distributions, between successive segments, can be used to provide travel time reliability measures. This study also suggests an adaptive method for calculating and updating route travel time distribution as new data or information is added. This methodology can be useful to estimate performance measures as required by the recent Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP 21).

  6. A Stochastic Geometry Model for Multi-hop Highway Vehicular Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    dissemination. This paper exploits stochastic geometry to develop a tractable and accurate modeling framework to characterize the multi-hop transmissions for vehicular networks in a multi-lane highway setup. In particular, we study the tradeoffs between per

  7. Proposal for a New Model for Highway Records in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Paar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Highways are public roads, whose function is to integrate Croatia in the European transport system, link the regions of Croatia and facilitate transit traffic. They are public property for general use, owned by the Republic of Croatia, and they cannot be the subject of acquisition or other proprietary rights of any kind. Today, there are two types of highway record-keeping. The first is conducted by leading companies authorised to manage highways in order to develop a highway database, or create a highway register. The second is conducted by land-management systems; the Cadastre and Land Registry. They are the official public registers for keeping records of land plots, buildings and other structures, and their ownership. Procedures that need to be implemented in the second type of record-keeping often get "stuck" in practice. Based on the problems identified in this model and an analysis of the state of record-keeping, a proposal for a new model for highway records in the Cadastre and Land Registry is given. Keywords: highways; building plot; expropriation; record; Cadastre; Land Registry

  8. Numerical Modelling of Suspended Transport and Deposition of Highway Deposited Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Bach, Christine

    Good data for calibration and validation of numerical models are of high importance. In the natural environment data can be hard to archive and the stochastic nature have governing influence on the data archived. Hence for modelling of suspended transport and deposition of particles, originating ...... from the highway surfaces, in highway detention ponds, four experiments are carried out. To simplify the complexity of a real pond and for easy control and measurement the sediment transports where carried out in two rectangular channels....

  9. Approximation Algorithms for the Highway Problem under the Coupon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamane, Ryoso; Itoh, Toshiya; Tomita, Kouhei

    When a store sells items to customers, the store wishes to decide the prices of items to maximize its profit. Intuitively, if the store sells the items with low (resp. high) prices, the customers buy more (resp. less) items, which provides less profit to the store. So it would be hard for the store to decide the prices of items. Assume that the store has a set V of n items and there is a set E of m customers who wish to buy the items, and also assume that each item i ∈ V has the production cost di and each customer ej ∈ E has the valuation vj on the bundle ej ⊆ V of items. When the store sells an item i ∈ V at the price ri, the profit for the item i is pi = ri - di. The goal of the store is to decide the price of each item to maximize its total profit. We refer to this maximization problem as the item pricing problem. In most of the previous works, the item pricing problem was considered under the assumption that pi ≥ 0 for each i ∈ V, however, Balcan, et al. [In Proc. of WINE, LNCS 4858, 2007] introduced the notion of “loss-leader, ” and showed that the seller can get more total profit in the case that pi < 0 is allowed than in the case that pi < 0 is not allowed. In this paper, we consider the line highway problem (in which each customer is interested in an interval on the line of the items) and the cycle highway problem (in which each customer is interested in an interval on the cycle of the items), and show approximation algorithms for the line highway problem and the cycle highway problem in which the smallest valuation is s and the largest valuation is l (this is called an [s, l]-valuation setting) or all valuations are identical (this is called a single valuation setting).

  10. Highway runoff quality models for the protection of environmentally sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents novel highway runoff quality models using artificial neural networks (ANN) which take into account site-specific highway traffic and seasonal storm event meteorological factors to predict the event mean concentration (EMC) statistics and mean daily unit area load (MDUAL) statistics of common highway pollutants for the design of roadside ditch treatment systems (RDTS) to protect sensitive receiving environs. A dataset of 940 monitored highway runoff events from fourteen sites located in five countries (Canada, USA, Australia, New Zealand, and China) was compiled and used to develop ANN models for the prediction of highway runoff suspended solids (TSS) seasonal EMC statistical distribution parameters, as well as the MDUAL statistics for four different heavy metal species (Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb). TSS EMCs are needed to estimate the minimum required removal efficiency of the RDTS needed in order to improve highway runoff quality to meet applicable standards and MDUALs are needed to calculate the minimum required capacity of the RDTS to ensure performance longevity.

  11. A Generalized Mathematical Model for the Fracture Problem of the Suspended Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to answer dangling fracture problems of highway, the suspended pavement equivalent for non - suspended pavement, through the special boundary conditions has been suspended highway stress field of expression, in accordance with the 3D fracture model of crack formation, and establish a vacant, a general mathematics model for fracture problems of highway and analysis in highway suspended segment weight and vehicle load limit of highway capacity of Pu For overturning road inPu is less than the force of carrying more than compared to the work and fruit Bridge Hydropower Station Road engineering examples to verify suspended highway should force field expressions for the correctness and applicability. The results show that: when the hanging ratio R 0. 243177 limits of Pu design axle load 100kN. When the vertical crack in the vacant in the direction of length greater than 0. 1, the ultimate bearing capacity is less than the design axle load 100kN; when the hanging ratio R is less than 0. 5, the road to local fracture, the ultimate bearing capacity of suspended stress field expressions in solution; when the hanging ratio is greater than or equal to 0. 5, the road does not reach the limit bearing capacity of the whole body; torque shear surface of the effect is far less than the bending moments on shear planes.

  12. Procedures and models for estimating preconstruction costs of highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study presents data driven and component based PE cost prediction models by utilizing critical factors retrieved from ten years of historical project data obtained from ODOT roadway division. The study used factor analysis of covariance and corr...

  13. Highway extraction from high resolution aerial photography using a geometric active contour model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xutong

    Highway extraction and vehicle detection are two of the most important steps in traffic-flow analysis from multi-frame aerial photographs. The traditional method of deriving traffic flow trajectories relies on manual vehicle counting from a sequence of aerial photographs, which is tedious and time-consuming. This research presents a new framework for semi-automatic highway extraction. The basis of the new framework is an improved geometric active contour (GAC) model. This novel model seeks to minimize an objective function that transforms a problem of propagation of regular curves into an optimization problem. The implementation of curve propagation is based on level set theory. By using an implicit representation of a two-dimensional curve, a level set approach can be used to deal with topological changes naturally, and the output is unaffected by different initial positions of the curve. However, the original GAC model, on which the new model is based, only incorporates boundary information into the curve propagation process. An error-producing phenomenon called leakage is inevitable wherever there is an uncertain weak edge. In this research, region-based information is added as a constraint into the original GAC model, thereby, giving this proposed method the ability of integrating both boundary and region-based information during the curve propagation. Adding the region-based constraint eliminates the leakage problem. This dissertation applies the proposed augmented GAC model to the problem of highway extraction from high-resolution aerial photography. First, an optimized stopping criterion is designed and used in the implementation of the GAC model. It effectively saves processing time and computations. Second, a seed point propagation framework is designed and implemented. This framework incorporates highway extraction, tracking, and linking into one procedure. A seed point is usually placed at an end node of highway segments close to the boundary of the

  14. Application of Poisson random effect models for highway network screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ximiao; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Alamili, Samer

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, Bayesian random effect models that account for the temporal and spatial correlations of crash data became popular in traffic safety research. This study employs random effect Poisson Log-Normal models for crash risk hotspot identification. Both the temporal and spatial correlations of crash data were considered. Potential for Safety Improvement (PSI) were adopted as a measure of the crash risk. Using the fatal and injury crashes that occurred on urban 4-lane divided arterials from 2006 to 2009 in the Central Florida area, the random effect approaches were compared to the traditional Empirical Bayesian (EB) method and the conventional Bayesian Poisson Log-Normal model. A series of method examination tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of different approaches. These tests include the previously developed site consistence test, method consistence test, total rank difference test, and the modified total score test, as well as the newly proposed total safety performance measure difference test. Results show that the Bayesian Poisson model accounting for both temporal and spatial random effects (PTSRE) outperforms the model that with only temporal random effect, and both are superior to the conventional Poisson Log-Normal model (PLN) and the EB model in the fitting of crash data. Additionally, the method evaluation tests indicate that the PTSRE model is significantly superior to the PLN model and the EB model in consistently identifying hotspots during successive time periods. The results suggest that the PTSRE model is a superior alternative for road site crash risk hotspot identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preference heterogeneity in a count data model of demand for off-highway vehicle recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P Holmes; Jeffrey E Englin

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines heterogeneity in the preferences for OHV recreation by applying the random parameters Poisson model to a data set of off-highway vehicle (OHV) users at four National Forest sites in North Carolina. The analysis develops estimates of individual consumer surplus and finds that estimates are systematically affected by the random parameter specification...

  16. Comparison and calibration of numerical models from monitoring data of a reinforced concrete highway bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. M. de Andrade

    Full Text Available The last four decades were important for the Brazilian highway system. Financial investments were made so it could expand and many structural solutions for bridges and viaducts were developed. In parallel, there was a significant raise of pathologies in these structures, due to lack of maintenance procedures. Thus, this paper main purpose is to create a short-term monitoring plan in order to check the structural behavior of a curved highway concrete bridge in current use. A bridge was chosen as a case study. A hierarchy of six numerical models is shown, so it can validate the bridge's structural behaviour. The acquired data from the monitoring was compared with the finest models so a calibration could be made.

  17. The HAWK Highway: A Vertical Model for Student IEP Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quann, Monica; Lyman, Jennifer; Crumlish, Jamie; Hines, Sally; Williams, Lynn; Pleet-Odle, Amy; Eisenman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Special educators at an inclusive career-technical high school created a model to support annually increasing expectations for self-determination and levels of student participation in Individualized Education Program (IEP) planning and implementation. The grade-specific components of the model and supporting context are described. Students were…

  18. A Compromise Programming Model for Highway Maintenance Resources Allocation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a bilevel compromise programming model for allocating resources between pavement and bridge deck maintenances. The first level of the model aims to solve the resource allocation problems for pavement management and bridge deck maintenance, without considering resource sharing between them. At the second level, the model uses the results from the first step as an input and generates the final solution to the resource-sharing problem. To solve the model, the paper applies genetic algorithms to search for the optimal solution. We use a combination of two digits to represent different maintenance types. Results of numerical examples show that the conditions of both pavements and bridge decks are improved significantly by applying compromise programming, rather than conventional methods. Resources are also utilized more efficiently when the proposed method is applied.

  19. Modelling Air Pollution Near Arterial Roads and Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenouda, Deloor Abdel Shaheed

    In this study emissions of carbon dioxide (CO _2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NO_{rm x}) from vehicles are modelled by considering the instantaneous power generated by each vehicle and modifying the expressions developed by Post et al, (1981). The emissions from both spark ignition (SI) and diesel vehicles have been included. The model was used to estimate fuel consumption and emissions over a standard driving cycle. When used for spark ignition vehicles over a driving cycle, the influence of cold starts was quantified and allowance was made, in the case of equipped vehicles, for catalyst warm-up and for variations in catalyst efficiency. The model was validated against fuel consumption and emissions data obtained using ADR27 and ADR37 tests, and also against detailed, high time resolution analysis of ADR27 tests carried out by the Victorian EPA. The emissions model was used in conjunction with two pollution dispersion models viz: HIWAY and CALINE to compare predicted concentrations with an experimental data -set consisting of measurements of the pollutants of CO _2, CO, HC, and NO_ {rm x}, and were made under a variety of traffic and meteorological conditions. The measurements were made at locations up to 60 metres downwind from the roadside and to heights of 10m above the ground. A video camera was used to record the traffic flow, speed and type (classified simply as domestic, light or heavy commercial). The emission rates of CO, HC, and NO_ {rm x} (at slope 0^ circ) for spark ignition and diesel vehicles produced by the power-based emissions model were found to be similar to those produced by the California EPA, EMFAC7, emissions model.

  20. On the required complexity of vehicle dynamic models for use in simulation-based highway design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander; Brennan, Sean

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive project whose goal is to identify roadway design practices that maximize the margin of safety between the friction supply and friction demand. This study is motivated by the concern for increased accident rates on curves with steep downgrades, geometries that contain features that interact in all three dimensions - planar curves, grade, and superelevation. This complexity makes the prediction of vehicle skidding quite difficult, particularly for simple simulation models that have historically been used for road geometry design guidance. To obtain estimates of friction margin, this study considers a range of vehicle models, including: a point-mass model used by the American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) design policy, a steady-state "bicycle model" formulation that considers only per-axle forces, a transient formulation of the bicycle model commonly used in vehicle stability control systems, and finally, a full multi-body simulation (CarSim and TruckSim) regularly used in the automotive industry for high-fidelity vehicle behavior prediction. The presence of skidding--the friction demand exceeding supply--was calculated for each model considering a wide range of vehicles and road situations. The results indicate that the most complicated vehicle models are generally unnecessary for predicting skidding events. However, there are specific maneuvers, namely braking events within lane changes and curves, which consistently predict the worst-case friction margins across all models. This suggests that any vehicle model used for roadway safety analysis should include the effects of combined cornering and braking. The point-mass model typically used by highway design professionals may not be appropriate to predict vehicle behavior on high-speed curves during braking in low-friction situations. However, engineers can use the results of this study to help select the appropriate vehicle dynamic

  1. National Automated Highway System Consortium: Modeling Stakeholder Preferences Project

    OpenAIRE

    Lathrop, John; Chen, Kan

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final report of the Modeling Stakeholder Preferences Project. The results of the project consist of three results: 1) evaluation framework; 2) focus group non-quantitative findings/ recommendations; and, 3) performance/impact measures, their endpoints, rankings and weights, for each stakeholder group.

  2. A spatial generalized ordered response model to examine highway crash injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marisol; Paleti, Rajesh; Bhat, Chandra R

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a flexible econometric structure for injury severity analysis at the level of individual crashes that recognizes the ordinal nature of injury severity categories, allows unobserved heterogeneity in the effects of contributing factors, as well as accommodates spatial dependencies in the injury severity levels experienced in crashes that occur close to one another in space. The modeling framework is applied to analyze the injury severity sustained in crashes occurring on highway road segments in Austin, Texas. The sample is drawn from the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) crash incident files from 2009 and includes a variety of crash characteristics, highway design attributes, driver and vehicle characteristics, and environmental factors. The results from our analysis underscore the value of our proposed model for data fit purposes as well as to accurately estimate variable effects. The most important determinants of injury severity on highways, according to our results, are (1) whether any vehicle occupant is ejected, (2) whether collision type is head-on, (3) whether any vehicle involved in the crash overturned, (4) whether any vehicle occupant is unrestrained by a seat-belt, and (5) whether a commercial truck is involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. a Geographic Weighted Regression for Rural Highways Crashes Modelling Using the Gaussian and Tricube Kernels: a Case Study of USA Rural Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghayari, M.; Pahlavani, P.; Bigdeli, B.

    2017-09-01

    Based on world health organization (WHO) report, driving incidents are counted as one of the eight initial reasons for death in the world. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for regression on effective parameters of highway crashes. In the traditional methods, it was assumed that the data are completely independent and environment is homogenous while the crashes are spatial events which are occurring in geographic space and crashes have spatial data. Spatial data have spatial features such as spatial autocorrelation and spatial non-stationarity in a way working with them is going to be a bit difficult. The proposed method has implemented on a set of records of fatal crashes that have been occurred in highways connecting eight east states of US. This data have been recorded between the years 2007 and 2009. In this study, we have used GWR method with two Gaussian and Tricube kernels. The Number of casualties has been considered as dependent variable and number of persons in crash, road alignment, number of lanes, pavement type, surface condition, road fence, light condition, vehicle type, weather, drunk driver, speed limitation, harmful event, road profile, and junction type have been considered as explanatory variables according to previous studies in using GWR method. We have compered the results of implementation with OLS method. Results showed that R2 for OLS method is 0.0654 and for the proposed method is 0.9196 that implies the proposed GWR is better method for regression in rural highway crashes.

  4. Modelling Free Flow Speed on Two-Lane Rural Highways in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lovrić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Free flow speed is used as a parameter in transportation planning and capacity analysis models, as well as speed-flow diagrams. Many of these models suggest estimating free flow speed according to measurements from similar highways, which is not a practical method for use in B&H. This paper first discusses problems with using these methodologies in conditions prevailing in B&H and then presents a free flow speed evaluation model developed from a comprehensive field survey conducted on nine homogeneous sections of state and regional roads.

  5. Multiple logistic regression model of signalling practices of drivers on urban highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puan, Othman Che; Ibrahim, Muttaka Na'iya; Zakaria, Rozana

    2015-05-01

    Giving signal is a way of informing other road users, especially to the conflicting drivers, the intention of a driver to change his/her movement course. Other users are exposed to hazard situation and risks of accident if the driver who changes his/her course failed to give signal as required. This paper describes the application of logistic regression model for the analysis of driver's signalling practices on multilane highways based on possible factors affecting driver's decision such as driver's gender, vehicle's type, vehicle's speed and traffic flow intensity. Data pertaining to the analysis of such factors were collected manually. More than 2000 drivers who have performed a lane changing manoeuvre while driving on two sections of multilane highways were observed. Finding from the study shows that relatively a large proportion of drivers failed to give any signals when changing lane. The result of the analysis indicates that although the proportion of the drivers who failed to provide signal prior to lane changing manoeuvre is high, the degree of compliances of the female drivers is better than the male drivers. A binary logistic model was developed to represent the probability of a driver to provide signal indication prior to lane changing manoeuvre. The model indicates that driver's gender, type of vehicle's driven, speed of vehicle and traffic volume influence the driver's decision to provide a signal indication prior to a lane changing manoeuvre on a multilane urban highway. In terms of types of vehicles driven, about 97% of motorcyclists failed to comply with the signal indication requirement. The proportion of non-compliance drivers under stable traffic flow conditions is much higher than when the flow is relatively heavy. This is consistent with the data which indicates a high degree of non-compliances when the average speed of the traffic stream is relatively high.

  6. Multivariate poisson lognormal modeling of crashes by type and severity on rural two lane highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ivan, John N; Ravishanker, Nalini; Jackson, Eric

    2017-02-01

    In an effort to improve traffic safety, there has been considerable interest in estimating crash prediction models and identifying factors contributing to crashes. To account for crash frequency variations among crash types and severities, crash prediction models have been estimated by type and severity. The univariate crash count models have been used by researchers to estimate crashes by crash type or severity, in which the crash counts by type or severity are assumed to be independent of one another and modelled separately. When considering crash types and severities simultaneously, this may neglect the potential correlations between crash counts due to the presence of shared unobserved factors across crash types or severities for a specific roadway intersection or segment, and might lead to biased parameter estimation and reduce model accuracy. The focus on this study is to estimate crashes by both crash type and crash severity using the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) Multivariate Poisson Lognormal (MVPLN) model, and identify the different effects of contributing factors on different crash type and severity counts on rural two-lane highways. The INLA MVPLN model can simultaneously model crash counts by crash type and crash severity by accounting for the potential correlations among them and significantly decreases the computational time compared with a fully Bayesian fitting of the MVPLN model using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This paper describes estimation of MVPLN models for three-way stop controlled (3ST) intersections, four-way stop controlled (4ST) intersections, four-way signalized (4SG) intersections, and roadway segments on rural two-lane highways. Annual Average Daily traffic (AADT) and variables describing roadway conditions (including presence of lighting, presence of left-turn/right-turn lane, lane width and shoulder width) were used as predictors. A Univariate Poisson Lognormal (UPLN) was estimated by crash type and

  7. A GEOGRAPHIC WEIGHTED REGRESSION FOR RURAL HIGHWAYS CRASHES MODELLING USING THE GAUSSIAN AND TRICUBE KERNELS: A CASE STUDY OF USA RURAL HIGHWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aghayari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on world health organization (WHO report, driving incidents are counted as one of the eight initial reasons for death in the world. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for regression on effective parameters of highway crashes. In the traditional methods, it was assumed that the data are completely independent and environment is homogenous while the crashes are spatial events which are occurring in geographic space and crashes have spatial data. Spatial data have spatial features such as spatial autocorrelation and spatial non-stationarity in a way working with them is going to be a bit difficult. The proposed method has implemented on a set of records of fatal crashes that have been occurred in highways connecting eight east states of US. This data have been recorded between the years 2007 and 2009. In this study, we have used GWR method with two Gaussian and Tricube kernels. The Number of casualties has been considered as dependent variable and number of persons in crash, road alignment, number of lanes, pavement type, surface condition, road fence, light condition, vehicle type, weather, drunk driver, speed limitation, harmful event, road profile, and junction type have been considered as explanatory variables according to previous studies in using GWR method. We have compered the results of implementation with OLS method. Results showed that R2 for OLS method is 0.0654 and for the proposed method is 0.9196 that implies the proposed GWR is better method for regression in rural highway crashes.

  8. Field Measurement and Calibration of HDM-4 Fuel Consumption Model on Interstate Highway in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jiao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fuel consumptions are measured by operating passenger car and tractor-trailer on two interstate roadway sites in Florida. Each site contains flexible pavement and rigid pavement with similar pavement, traffic and environmental condition. Field test reveals that the average fuel consumption differences between vehicle operating on flexible pavement and rigid pavement at given test condition are 4.04% for tractor-trailer and 2.50% for passenger car, with a fuel saving on rigid pavement. The fuel consumption differences are found statistically significant at 95% confidence level for both vehicle types. Test data are then used to calibrate the Highway Development and Management IV (HDM-4 fuel consumption model and model coefficients are obtained for three sets of observations. Field measurement and prediction by calibrated model shows generally good agreement. Nevertheless, verification and adjustment with more experiment or data sources would be expected in future studies.

  9. Evaluation and Modelling of Traffic Noise on the Asian Highway in Golestan National Park, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharibi Shiva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of vehicles on Iran’s highways and major roads has led to an increase in noise levels. As a result, traffic is now considered a main source of noise pollution. This paper reports on the modelling of traffic noise levels in Golestan National Park, Golestan using vehicle data and other environmental features. For the evaluation of noise and the recording of independent environmental variables, Sampling stations were selected using a systematic-random method at 76 points at various distances and between 0-250 meters from the road. At each sampling point, traffic flow (number and speed of vehicles, number of horn beeps was measured for 15 minutes from 8 am to 8 pm. Simultaneously other environmental variables were assessed, including the geometry of the road surface and location conditions .The best multivariable regression based on the correlation coefficient (R and the coefficient of determination (R2 was achieved. The R-square (73% and the adjusted R-square (68% of the regression equation were 73% and 68% respectively. The results of modelling show that the most important variables affecting noise pollution are distance from the road, roughness coefficient, speed of medium-weight vehicles, relative humidity, and height and number of light vehicles. There is a negative correlation with distance from the road and noise pollution.The accuracy of the model was found to be about ±5 dB. Therefore, the model is suggested for the prediction of traffic noise on the Asian Highway in Golestan National Park.

  10. A Tire Model for Off-Highway Vehicle Simulation on Short Wave Irregular Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Kristensen, Lars B; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturers of construction machinery are challenged in several ways concerning dynamic loads. Considering off-highway dump trucks that travel through high amplitude short wave irregular terrain with considerable speed two aspects concerning dynamics are important. The first is the legal...... between simulated data and experimental data obtained from full vehicle testing. The experimental work is carried out by letting a dump truck pass a set of well defined obstacles. Based on the obtained agreement between simulated and measured results the tire model is considered suitable for describing...... joints, spring-damper elements and the welded structures it is crucial to have information on the time history of the loads. For trucks carrying payloads the most important load contribution is undoubtedly the reaction forces between terrain and tires. By use of virtual prototypes it is possible...

  11. A New Macro Model for Traffic Flow on a Highway with Ramps and Numerical Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Tieqiao; Huang Haijun; Zhang Ying; Wong, S.C.; Gao Ziyou

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new macro model for traffic flow on a highway with ramps based on the existing models. We use the new model to study the effects of on-off-ramp on the main road traffic during the morning rush period and the evening rush period. Numerical tests show that, during the two rush periods, these effects are often different and related to the status of the main road traffic. If the main road traffic flow is uniform, then ramps always produce stop-and-go traffic when the main road density is between two critical values, and ramps have little effect on the main road traffic when the main road density is less than the smaller critical value or greater than the larger critical value. If a small perturbation appears on the main road, ramp may lead to stop-and-go traffic, or relieve or even eliminate the stop-and-go traffic, under different circumstances. These results are consistent with real traffic, which shows that the new model is reasonable.

  12. Highway Passenger Transport Based Express Parcel Service Network Design: Model and Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Highway passenger transport based express parcel service (HPTB-EPS is an emerging business that uses unutilised room of coach trunk to ship parcels between major cities. While it is reaping more and more express market, the managers are facing difficult decisions to design the service network. This paper investigates the HPTB-EPS network design problem and analyses the time-space characteristics of such network. A mixed-integer programming model is formulated integrating the service decision, frequency, and network flow distribution. To solve the model, a decomposition-based heuristic algorithm is designed by decomposing the problem as three steps: construction of service network, service path selection, and distribution of network flow. Numerical experiment using real data from our partner company demonstrates the effectiveness of our model and algorithm. We found that our solution could reduce the total cost by up to 16.3% compared to the carrier’s solution. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates the robustness and flexibility of the solutions of the model.

  13. Cost estimate modeling of transportation management plans for highway projects : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Highway rehabilitation and reconstruction projects frequently cause road congestion and increase safety concerns while limiting access for road users. State Transportation Agencies (STAs) are challenged to find safer and more efficient ways to renew ...

  14. A Stochastic Geometry Model for Multi-hop Highway Vehicular Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid

    2015-11-19

    Carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) protocol is standardized for vehicular communication to ensure a distributed and efficient communication between vehicles. However, several vehicular applications require efficient multi-hop information dissemination. This paper exploits stochastic geometry to develop a tractable and accurate modeling framework to characterize the multi-hop transmissions for vehicular networks in a multi-lane highway setup. In particular, we study the tradeoffs between per-hop packet forward progress, per-hop transmission success probability, and spatial frequency reuse (SFR) efficiency imposed by different packet forwarding schemes, namely, most forward with fixed radius (MFR), the nearest with forward progress (NFP), and the random with forward progress (RFP). We also define a new performance metric, denoted as the aggregate packet progress (APP), which is a dimensionless quantity that captures the aforementioned tradeoffs. To this end, the developed model reveals the interplay between the spectrum sensing threshold (th) of the CSMA protocol and the packet forwarding scheme. Our results show that, in contrary to ALOHA networks which always favor NFP, MFR may achieve the highest APP in CSMA networks if th is properly chosen.

  15. Hydrology and modeling of flow conditions at Bridge 339 and Mile 38-43, Copper River Highway, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The Copper River basin, the sixth largest watershed in Alaska, drains an area of 24,200 square miles in south-central Alaska. This large, glacier-fed river flows across a wide alluvial fan before it enters the Gulf of Alaska. The Copper River Highway, which traverses the alluvial fan, has been affected by channel planform reconfiguration. Currently (2012), two areas of the Copper River Highway are at risk: at Mile 38-43, the road grade is too low and the highway could be flooded by high flows of the Copper River, and at Mile 36, the main channel of the Copper River has migrated directly toward Bridge 339. Because Bridge 339 was not designed and built to convey the main flow of the Copper River, as much as 50 feet of scour occurred at the piers in 2011. The piers can no longer absorb the lateral or vertical loads, resulting in closure of the bridge and the Copper River Highway. The U.S. Geological Survey Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphologic Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH) model was used to simulate the flow of the Copper River and produce simulations of depth, water-surface elevation, and velocity. At the Mile 38-43 area, FaSTMECH was used to analyze the effects of raising the road grade 5 feet, and at Mile 36, FaSTMECH was used to analyze the effects of constructing a channel to divert flow away from Bridge 339. Results from FaSTMECH indicate that if raising the road grade 5 feet in the Mile 38-43 area, a flood with an annual exceedance probability of 2 percent (400,000 cubic feet per second) would not overtop the highway. In the Bridge 339 area, results from FaSTMECH indicate that a design channel could divert flows as much as 100,000 cubic feet per second away from Bridge 339.

  16. Simulation of the hydraulic performance of highway filter drains through laboratory models and stormwater management tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Jato-Espino, Daniel; Lashford, Craig; Coupe, Stephen J

    2017-05-23

    Road drainage is one of the most relevant assets in transport infrastructure due to its inherent influence on traffic management and road safety. Highway filter drains (HFDs), also known as "French Drains", are the main drainage system currently in use in the UK, throughout 7000 km of its strategic road network. Despite being a widespread technique across the whole country, little research has been completed on their design considerations and their subsequent impact on their hydraulic performance, representing a gap in the field. Laboratory experiments have been proven to be a reliable indicator for the simulation of the hydraulic performance of stormwater best management practices (BMPs). In addition to this, stormwater management tools (SMT) have been preferentially chosen as a design tool for BMPs by practitioners from all over the world. In this context, this research aims to investigate the hydraulic performance of HFDs by comparing the results from laboratory simulation and two widely used SMT such as the US EPA's stormwater management model (SWMM) and MicroDrainage®. Statistical analyses were applied to a series of rainfall scenarios simulated, showing a high level of accuracy between the results obtained in laboratory and using SMT as indicated by the high and low values of the Nash-Sutcliffe and R 2 coefficients and root-mean-square error (RMSE) reached, which validated the usefulness of SMT to determine the hydraulic performance of HFDs.

  17. Modeling, analysis and feasibility study of new drivetrain architectures for off-highway vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, Omar; Barrero, Ricardo; Van den Bossche, Peter; El Baghdadi, Mohamed; Smekens, Jelle; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Vriens, Wouter; Bogaerts, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Electrified powertrains/propulsion systems have gained a significant interest in transport industry to develop energy-efficient vehicular systems. In these powertrains, rechargeable energy storage systems (such as High Energy Batteries, Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors or High Power Batteries), electric motors, energy management strategies and advanced power electronics converters play an important role in the development of new generations of clean vehicles. Therefore, this paper proposes new drivetrain architectures for Straddle Truck Carriers, as one of off-highway vehicles, which are used in harbors to move containers, in order to improve the Straddle Truck Carriers drivetrain efficiency and to reduce the greenhouse emissions as well as the energy bills. The proposed drivetrains are: (1) series hybrid Straddle Truck Carrier based on a small rechargeable energy storage system (option A), (2) series hybrid based on a reduced internal combustion engine (option B), (3) full electric drivetrain, and (4) new full electric drivetrain based on dynamic wireless-power transfer system. In this paper, an accurate quasi-static model of the conventional Straddle Truck Carrier drivetrain is developed and described in detail. Then, the proposed drivetrain architectures are designed and modeled using Matlab/Simulink. This article also presents the optimal design of rechargeable energy storage systems that can be utilized in those drivetrains. Based on the rechargeable energy storage system type, a thorough comparative study of new Straddle Truck Carrier drivetrains is described in detail. Finally, the developed model and simulation results have been validated with real measurements of the drivetrain. - Highlights: • Development and validation of an accurate electrical model for a Straddle Truck Carrier drivetrain. • New series hybrid and electric Straddle Truck Carrier drivetrains are proposed. • Optimal design and powertrain sizing are presented. • Thorough

  18. Distributed Model Predictive Control over Multiple Groups of Vehicles in Highway Intelligent Space for Large Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the three time warning distances for solving the large scale system of multiple groups of vehicles safety driving characteristics towards highway tunnel environment based on distributed model prediction control approach. Generally speaking, the system includes two parts. First, multiple vehicles are divided into multiple groups. Meanwhile, the distributed model predictive control approach is proposed to calculate the information framework of each group. Each group of optimization performance considers the local optimization and the neighboring subgroup of optimization characteristics, which could ensure the global optimization performance. Second, the three time warning distances are studied based on the basic principles used for highway intelligent space (HIS and the information framework concept is proposed according to the multiple groups of vehicles. The math model is built to avoid the chain avoidance of vehicles. The results demonstrate that the proposed highway intelligent space method could effectively ensure driving safety of multiple groups of vehicles under the environment of fog, rain, or snow.

  19. Optimize pollutant emissions through adaptive highway management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    In this project, we investigated the possibility to reduce green house emission : (mainly CO2) from urban highways by adaptive ramp meter control. QUADSTONE : PARAMICS software was used to build a microscopic traffic model for a 4-lane highway : sect...

  20. Conceptual Model for Smart Cities: Irrigation and Highway Lamps using IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Vijender Kumar Solanki; M. Venkaesan; Somesh Katiyar

    2017-01-01

    Keeping in mind the need to preserve energy as well as utilize the available at its best the need was felt to develop a module that would be able to sort out the problem where resources such as water and electricity were wasted, in urban as well as rural area. Resource (electricity) was wasted as beside the point operation of Highway and High Mast Lamp; while wastage of water followed by improper trends and methodologies imparted for watering of city park, road side plantation and highway pla...

  1. Cellular automata models for diffusion of information and highway traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Henryk

    In the first part of this work we study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parameterized by the speed limit m and another parameter k that represents degree of 'anticipatory driving'. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: 'conservative' driving with high speed limit and 'anticipatory' driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered. For rule 184, we present exact calculations of the order parameter in a transition from the moving phase to the jammed phase using the method of preimage counting, and use this result to construct a solution to the density classification problem. In the second part we propose a probabilistic cellular automaton model for the spread of innovations, rumors, news, etc., in a social system. We start from simple deterministic models, for which exact expressions for the density of adopters are derived. For a more realistic model, based on probabilistic cellular automata, we study the influence of a range of interaction R on the shape of the adoption curve. When the probability of adoption is proportional to the local density of adopters, and individuals can drop the innovation with some probability p, the system exhibits a second order phase transition. Critical line separating regions of parameter space in which asymptotic density of adopters is positive from the region where it is equal to zero converges toward the mean-field line when the range of the interaction increases. In a region between R=1 critical line and the mean-field line asymptotic density of adopters depends on R, becoming zero if R is too small (smaller than some critical value). This result demonstrates the importance of connectivity in

  2. Performance and Modelling of a Highway Wet Detention Pond Designed for Cold Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Åstebøl, Svein Ole; Coward, Jan Emil

    2009-01-01

    A wet detention pond in Norway has been monitored for 12 months. The pond receives runoff from a highway with a traffic load of 42,000 average daily traffic. Hydraulic conditions in terms of inflow, outflow, and pond water level were recorded every minute. Water quality was monitored by volume pr...

  3. Ecotoxicological impact of highway runoff using brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) as an indicator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meland, Sondre; Salbu, Brit; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav

    2010-03-01

    The ecotoxicological impact of highway runoff on brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) was studied in an in situ experiment consisting of four 24 h simulated runoff episodes. Fish were maintained in 5 tanks and exposed to highway runoff from a sedimentation pond close to E6 outside the city of Oslo, Norway. The tanks had the following contaminant loadings during the episodes: stream water (control), pond inlet, pond outlet, pond inlet + stream water and pond outlet + stream water. Opposite to road salt and compared to earlier findings, the first two episodes had rather low concentrations of trace metals, hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A heavy rainfall before episode 3 increased the concentrations of all the contaminants except road salt which was diluted. In addition, lowered oxygen levels led to hypoxic conditions. Overall the fish exposed to highway runoff had, compared to the control fish, higher concentrations of trace metals in gills and liver, increased activity of the antioxidant defense system represented by superoxide dismutase, catalase and metallothionein, problems with the regulation of plasma Cl and Na, as well as increased levels of blood glucose and pCO(2). Finally, this seemed to affect the metabolism of the fish through reduced condition factor. The observed effects were likely caused by multiple stressors and not by a single contaminant. The sedimentation pond clearly reduced the toxicity of the highway runoff. But even in the least polluted exposure tank (pond outlet + stream water) signs of physiological disturbances were evident.

  4. Single-vehicle crashes along rural mountainous highways in Malaysia: An application of random parameters negative binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Rusdi; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2017-05-01

    Mountainous highways generally associate with complex driving environment because of constrained road geometries, limited cross-section elements, inappropriate roadside features, and adverse weather conditions. As a result, single-vehicle (SV) crashes are overrepresented along mountainous roads, particularly in developing countries, but little attention is known about the roadway geometric, traffic and weather factors contributing to these SV crashes. As such, the main objective of the present study is to investigate SV crashes using detailed data obtained from a rigorous site survey and existing databases. The final dataset included a total of 56 variables representing road geometries including horizontal and vertical alignment, traffic characteristics, real-time weather condition, cross-sectional elements, roadside features, and spatial characteristics. To account for structured heterogeneities resulting from multiple observations within a site and other unobserved heterogeneities, the study applied a random parameters negative binomial model. Results suggest that rainfall during the crash is positively associated with SV crashes, but real-time visibility is negatively associated. The presence of a road shoulder, particularly a bitumen shoulder or wider shoulders, along mountainous highways is associated with less SV crashes. While speeding along downgrade slopes increases the likelihood of SV crashes, proper delineation decreases the likelihood. Findings of this study have significant implications for designing safer highways in mountainous areas, particularly in the context of a developing country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conceptual Model for Smart Cities: Irrigation and Highway Lamps using IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijender Kumar Solanki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Keeping in mind the need to preserve energy as well as utilize the available at its best the need was felt to develop a module that would be able to sort out the problem where resources such as water and electricity were wasted, in urban as well as rural area. Resource (electricity was wasted as beside the point operation of Highway and High Mast Lamp; while wastage of water followed by improper trends and methodologies imparted for watering of city park, road side plantation and highway plantation. Thus as per Energy survey statistics of a City (Lucknow, India it was found that major portion of resources (water and electricity were being wasted due to negligent activities of officials who were in charge of resource management. So to facilitate energy saving trends and to completely modernize it to autonomous system, module below is proposed which incorporates modern technological peripheral and has its base ingrained in IoT (Internet of Things which when put into consideration would result in large scale resource and energy saving.This developed module incorporates the peripherals such as Arduino, Texas Instruments ultra low power kits etc. in accordance with software technology including Lab View which help to monitor as well as control the various operation from the base station, located far away from the site. Lab View Interface interacts with all the module located at various city parks, subways and highway lighting modules. Later below in several section a detailed pattern and application frame has been put up.

  6. Data Model and Relational Database Design for Highway Runoff Water-Quality Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Tessler, Steven

    2001-01-01

    A National highway and urban runoff waterquality metadatabase was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration as part of the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The database was designed to catalog available literature and to document results of the synthesis in a format that would facilitate current and future research on highway and urban runoff. This report documents the design and implementation of the NDAMS relational database, which was designed to provide a catalog of available information and the results of an assessment of the available data. All the citations and the metadata collected during the review process are presented in a stratified metadatabase that contains citations for relevant publications, abstracts (or previa), and reportreview metadata for a sample of selected reports that document results of runoff quality investigations. The database is referred to as a metadatabase because it contains information about available data sets rather than a record of the original data. The database contains the metadata needed to evaluate and characterize how valid, current, complete, comparable, and technically defensible published and available information may be when evaluated for application to the different dataquality objectives as defined by decision makers. This database is a relational database, in that all information is ultimately linked to a given citation in the catalog of available reports. The main database file contains 86 tables consisting of 29 data tables, 11 association tables, and 46 domain tables. The data tables all link to a particular citation, and each data table is focused on one aspect of the information collected in the literature search and the evaluation of available information. This database is implemented in the Microsoft (MS) Access database software because it is widely used within and outside of government and is familiar to many

  7. Estimating risks for water-quality exceedances of total-copper from highway and urban runoff under predevelopment and current conditions with the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Jones, Susan C.; Dunn, Christopher N.; Van Weele, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The stochastic empirical loading and dilution model (SELDM) was used to demonstrate methods for estimating risks for water-quality exceedances of event-mean concentrations (EMCs) of total-copper. Monte Carlo methods were used to simulate stormflow, total-hardness, suspended-sediment, and total-copper EMCs as stochastic variables. These simulations were done for the Charles River Basin upstream of Interstate 495 in Bellingham, Massachusetts. The hydrology and water quality of this site were simulated with SELDM by using data from nearby, hydrologically similar sites. Three simulations were done to assess the potential effects of the highway on receiving-water quality with and without highway-runoff treatment by a structural best-management practice (BMP). In the low-development scenario, total copper in the receiving stream was simulated by using a sediment transport curve, sediment chemistry, and sediment-water partition coefficients. In this scenario, neither the highway runoff nor the BMP effluent caused concentration exceedances in the receiving stream that exceed the once in three-year threshold (about 0.54 percent). In the second scenario, without the highway, runoff from the large urban areas in the basin caused exceedances in the receiving stream in 2.24 percent of runoff events. In the third scenario, which included the effects of the urban runoff, neither the highway runoff nor the BMP effluent increased the percentage of exceedances in the receiving stream. Comparison of the simulated geometric mean EMCs with data collected at a downstream monitoring site indicates that these simulated values are within the 95-percent confidence interval of the geometric mean of the measured EMCs.

  8. Consideration of time-evolving capacity distributions and improved degradation models for seismic fragility assessment of aging highway bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Jayadipta; Sood, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to develop seismic fragility curves for deteriorating highway bridges by uniquely accounting for realistic pitting corrosion deterioration and time-dependent capacity distributions for reinforced concrete columns under chloride attacks. The proposed framework offers distinct improvements over state-of-the-art procedures for fragility assessment of degrading bridges which typically assume simplified uniform corrosion deterioration model and pristine limit state capacities. Depending on the time in service life and deterioration mechanism, this study finds that capacity limit states for deteriorating bridge columns follow either lognormal distribution or generalized extreme value distributions (particularly for pitting corrosion). Impact of column degradation mechanism on seismic response and fragility of bridge components and system is assessed using nonlinear time history analysis of three-dimensional finite element bridge models reflecting the uncertainties across structural modeling parameters, deterioration parameters and ground motion. Comparisons are drawn between the proposed methodology and traditional approaches to develop aging bridge fragility curves. Results indicate considerable underestimations of system level fragility across different damage states using the traditional approach compared to the proposed realistic pitting model for chloride induced corrosion. Time-dependent predictive functions are provided to interpolate logistic regression coefficients for continuous seismic reliability evaluation along the service life with reasonable accuracy. - Highlights: • Realistic modeling of chloride induced corrosion deterioration in the form of pitting. • Time-evolving capacity distribution for aging bridge columns under chloride attacks. • Time-dependent seismic fragility estimation of highway bridges at component and system level. • Mathematical functions for continuous tracking of seismic fragility along service

  9. Soft Budgets And Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    2004-01-01

    Latin American governments progressively substituted build–operate–and–transfer (BOT) contracts for government–provided highways during the nineties. Because under BOT a private franchise holder finances and operates the road in exchange for tolls, it is often claimed that BOT represents a privatization of highways. We argue that, as currently applied, the BOT model is an imperfect and incomplete privatization, because the franchise holders’ budget constraint has been soft, with losses being ...

  10. Landslide hazard assessment along a mountain highway in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) using remote sensing and computational models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Akhouri P.; Kumar, Santosh

    2013-10-01

    Landslide hazard assessments using computational models, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and frequency ratio (FR), were carried out covering one of the important mountain highways in the Central Himalaya of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). Landslide influencing factors were either calculated or extracted from spatial databases including recent remote sensing data of LANDSAT TM, CARTOSAT digital elevation model (DEM) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite for rainfall data. ANN was implemented using the multi-layered feed forward architecture with different input, output and hidden layers. This model based on back propagation algorithm derived weights for all possible parameters of landslides and causative factors considered. The training sites for landslide prone and non-prone areas were identified and verified through details gathered from remote sensing and other sources. Frequency Ratio (FR) models are based on observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide related factor. FR model implementation proved useful for assessing the spatial relationships between landslide locations and factors contributing to its occurrence. Above computational models generated respective susceptibility maps of landslide hazard for the study area. This further allowed the simulation of landslide hazard maps on a medium scale using GIS platform and remote sensing data. Upon validation and accuracy checks, it was observed that both models produced good results with FR having some edge over ANN based mapping. Such statistical and functional models led to better understanding of relationships between the landslides and preparatory factors as well as ensuring lesser levels of subjectivity compared to qualitative approaches.

  11. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Liang Qi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China. The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation.

  12. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hong-Liang; Tian, Wei-Ping; Li, Jia-Chun

    2015-10-29

    Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China). The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation.

  13. Accumulation of Pollutants in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    single rain event. From the hindcast results it is possible to calculate mean water and pollutant loads. This method is commonly used in urban drainage systems for capacity analysis or for prediction of CSO's. The challenge is to develop a simplified and still accurate description of flow and transport......This PhD study deals with issues related to water and pollutant transport from highway surfaces caused by rain. It is essential in the study to apply methods and models in which improvements in relation to removal of pollutants can be identified and to be able to predict the yearly discharges....... Measurements of water and pollutant transport are carried out in different highway systems. A geometrically well-defined test pond is established, wherein the deposition of particulate matter can be measured. The result from the test pond is transferred to real detention ponds in which the three...

  14. OML-Highway within the framework of SELMAGIS. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Becker, T.; Ketzel, M.; Loefstroem, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H. (Aarhus Univ., National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark)); Lorentz, H. (Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer (Germany))

    2010-06-15

    This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution concentration levels at receptor points along a highway road network, while SELMAGIS is a framework for calculating and representing air pollutant emissions and concentrations in a geographical information system (GIS). (author)

  15. Effect Analysis of Early Warning for Abandoned Object on Highway Based on Internet-of-Vehicles CA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An early warning on the highway will effectively reduce traffic accidents. Considering the influence of an abandoned object on driving behavior, a Visual-based Asymmetric Two-lane Cellular Automata model with Abandoned Object (V-ATCA-AO and an Internet-of-Vehicles-based Asymmetric Two-lane Cellular Automata model with Abandoned Object (IoV-ATCA-AO are proposed. Based on the two models, two types of traffic accidents caused by an abandoned object are analyzed: rear-end collision caused by the abandoned object ahead and collision of the vehicle with the abandoned object. Simulation results show the following: (1 the accidents occur when the road density is smaller, while the accidents will not occur when the density is larger. The results are different from the rear-end collision rate curve without abandoned object in a single lane. (2 Compared with the visual-based avoidance pattern in V-ATCA-AO, the Internet-of-Vehicles-based avoidance pattern in IoV-ATCA-AO can create an early warning for the abandoned object and tell the vehicle to make an earlier lane change and decelerate in advance, thereby significantly reducing the accident rate. (3 Spatiotemporal characteristics in front of the abandoned object directly affect the accident rate: the less the “stability” of a traffic jam in front of the abandoned object, the higher the accident rate.

  16. Application of the multi-dimensional surface water modeling system at Bridge 339, Copper River Highway, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    The Copper River Basin, the sixth largest watershed in Alaska, drains an area of 24,200 square miles. This large, glacier-fed river flows across a wide alluvial fan before it enters the Gulf of Alaska. Bridges along the Copper River Highway, which traverses the alluvial fan, have been impacted by channel migration. Due to a major channel change in 2001, Bridge 339 at Mile 36 of the highway has undergone excessive scour, resulting in damage to its abutments and approaches. During the snow- and ice-melt runoff season, which typically extends from mid-May to September, the design discharge for the bridge often is exceeded. The approach channel shifts continuously, and during our study it has shifted back and forth from the left bank to a course along the right bank nearly parallel to the road.Maintenance at Bridge 339 has been costly and will continue to be so if no action is taken. Possible solutions to the scour and erosion problem include (1) constructing a guide bank to redirect flow, (2) dredging approximately 1,000 feet of channel above the bridge to align flow perpendicular to the bridge, and (3) extending the bridge. The USGS Multi-Dimensional Surface Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS) was used to assess these possible solutions. The major limitation of modeling these scenarios was the inability to predict ongoing channel migration. We used a hybrid dataset of surveyed and synthetic bathymetry in the approach channel, which provided the best approximation of this dynamic system. Under existing conditions and at the highest measured discharge and stage of 32,500 ft3/s and 51.08 ft, respectively, the velocities and shear stresses simulated by MD_SWMS indicate scour and erosion will continue. Construction of a 250-foot-long guide bank would not improve conditions because it is not long enough. Dredging a channel upstream of Bridge 339 would help align the flow perpendicular to Bridge 339, but because of the mobility of the channel bed, the dredged channel would

  17. OML-Highway within the framework of SELMAGIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias

    This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbüro Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution concentr...... concentration levels at receptor points along a highway road network, while SELMAGIS is a framework for calculating and representing air pollutant emissions and concentrations in a geographical information system (GIS)......This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbüro Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution...

  18. Calibration of the rutting model in HDM 4 on the highway network in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjenovic Slobodan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Bank HDM 4 model is adopted in many countries worldwide. It is consisted of the developed models for almost all types of deformation on the pavement structures, but it can’t be used as it is developed everywhere in the world without proper adjustments to local conditions such as traffic load, climate, construction specificities, maintenance level etc. This paper presents the results of the researches carried out in Macedonia for determining calibration coefficient of the rutting model in HDM 4.

  19. Explaining residential moving intentions : the case of highway locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije; Heinen, Eva; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper Structural Equation Modeling is used to test a theoretical framework to explain the impact of highway externalities (i.e. accessibility and nuisance) on moving intentions of people living close to highways. We aimed to study whether highway externalities (alongside other contextual

  20. A Tire Model for Off-Highway Vehicle Simulation and Comfort Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Ebbesen, Morten Kjeld

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturers of construction machinery are challenged to accommodate legal requirements on the vibration exposure associated with their products. Hence, the ability to evaluate ride comfort by virtual prototyping is needed. One of the derived necessities is a modeling approach that can handle big...... off-road tires on irregular terrain and even the passing of sharp corner obstacles. In this paper a simple tire model combining the well known slip theory and a displaced volume approach is presented. A non-gradient optimization routine is applied for parameter identification by minimizing...

  1. 3D Modelling of Transport, Deposition and Resuspension of Highway Deposited Sediments in wet Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2010-01-01

    concrete channel with width of 0.8m and a water depth of approximately 0.8m and in circular flume experiments in order to reproduce near-bed specific processes such as resuspension and consolidation. With a fairly good agreement with measurements, modelling of hydrodynamics, transport of dissolved...... pollutants and particles in wet detention ponds is possible with application of a three dimensional RANS model and the advection/dispersion equation taken physical phenomena like wind, waves, deposition, erosion and consolidation of the bottom sediment into account....

  2. Assessing potential effects of highway runoff on receiving-water quality at selected sites in Oregon with the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John C.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oregon Department of Transportation began a cooperative study to demonstrate use of the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM) for runoff-quality analyses in Oregon. SELDM can be used to estimate stormflows, constituent concentrations, and loads from the area upstream of a stormflow discharge site, from the site of interest and in the receiving waters downstream of the discharge. SELDM also can be used to assess the potential effectiveness of best management practices (BMP) for mitigating potential effects of runoff in receiving waters. Nominally, SELDM is a highway-runoff model, but it is well suited for analysis of runoff from other land uses as well. This report provides case studies and examples to demonstrate stochastic-runoff modeling concepts and to demonstrate application of the model. Basin characteristics from six Oregon highway study sites were used to demonstrate various applications of the model. The highway catchment and upstream basin drainage areas of these study sites ranged from 3.85 to 11.83 acres and from 0.16 to 6.56 square miles, respectively. The upstream basins of two sites are urbanized, and the remaining four sites are less than 5 percent impervious. SELDM facilitates analysis by providing precipitation, pre-storm streamflow, and other variables by region or from hydrologically similar sites. In Oregon, there can be large variations in precipitation and streamflow among nearby sites. Therefore, spatially interpolated geographic information system data layers containing storm-event precipitation and pre-storm streamflow statistics specific to Oregon were created for the study using Kriging techniques. Concentrations and loads of cadmium, chloride, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc were simulated at the six Oregon highway study sites by using statistics from sites in other areas of the country. Water‑quality datasets measured at hydrologically similar

  3. Modeling the scenic beauty of the Highland Scenic Highway, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwar Dhami; Jinyang. Deng

    2010-01-01

    Finding sites with a pleasant view is important to maximize visitors' scenic satisfaction. A geographic information systems analysis of viewsheds is helpful for locating sites with maximum visibility. Viewshed analyses can also be combined with public perceptions of scenic beauty for selecting the most scenic sites. This research modeled the perceived beauty of...

  4. A Retro-Analysis of I-40 Bridge Collapse on Freight Movement in the U.S. Highway Network using GIS and Assignment Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saniye Gizem Aydin, Ph.D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bridges are critical but vulnerable elements of a highway transportation system. A bridge collapse not only affects the freight movement on the bridge but also the flow in the entire network, posing negative impacts on local, regional, and national economy. This study examines the spatial and economic impact of the 2002 I-40 Bridge collapse in Oklahoma on freight flow movement in the U.S. highway network. Freight Analysis Framework (FAF databases, TransCADTM software, and two assignment models (All-or-Nothing and User Equilibrium are used to analyze the freight flow changes before and after the bridge collapse along with two different freight assignment approaches. The first approach assigns the origin-destination freight flow to the network with the collapsed bridge removed. The second involves two successive assignments - first by excluding the pre-hazard freight flow on the bridge and assigning the rest of the flow to the post-disaster network, and second, by assigning the freight flow on the bridge in pre-disaster conditions to the post-disaster-network. The research showed that the bridge collapse did not only impact the freight flows on nearby highway network links, but also affected flows on links further away from the bridge. This finding casts doubts on the conventional models relying on gravity-based spatial distance decay effects, which often overestimate the nearby but underestimate the further-out freight flow changes in the network.

  5. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later...

  6. Ten-year variations in population structure of pink-shrimp in a southwestern Atlantic Bay affected by highway construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Freitas Jr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Population structures of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and F. paulensis, consisting mainly of juveniles, were evaluated during the construction of an expressway along a mangrove area. Estuarine regions in southern Brazil function as sites for reproduction, nursery and growth of a variety of organisms, including two of the most important species of shrimp for fisheries in the southwestern Atlantic. Shrimps were collected in Saco dos Limões creek, Baía-Sul, Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, four times a year, by day and night, between 1997 and 2006. Fluctuations in the abundances of shrimp appear to be related to their life cycles, with largest abundances in Summer and Spring, rather than to impacts promoted by dredging activities during the expressway construction.OBJETIVOS: A estrutura populacional de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis e F. paulensis, consistindo principalmente de juvenis, foi avaliada durante a construção de uma via expressa ao longo de uma área de manguezais. Regiões estuarinas do sul do Brasil funcionam como locais de reprodução, berçários e de crescimento de uma variedade de organismos, incluindo duas das mais importantes espécies de camarões comerciais do Atlântico Sul Ocidental. Camarões foram coletados no Saco dos Limões, Baía Sul, Florianópolis, Estado de Santa Catarina, trimestralmente, de dia e de noite, entre 1997 e 2006. Flutuações em abundâncias de camarões podem estar relacionados aos seus ciclos de vida, com as maiores abundâncias no verão e primavera, ao invés de impactos promovidos pelas atividades de dragagem durante a construção da via expressa.

  7. Highway Electrification And Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Shladover, Steven E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses how the California Department of Transportation and the California PATH Program have made efforts to evaluate the feasibility and applicability of highway electrification and automation technologies. In addition to describing how the work was conducted, the report also describes the findings on highway electrification and highway automation, with experimental results, design study results, and a region-wide application impacts study for Los Angeles.

  8. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2015. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  9. Preliminary engineering cost trends for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Preliminary engineering (PE) for a highway project encompasses two efforts: planning to minimize the physical, social, and human environmental impacts of projects and engineering design to deliver the best alternative. PE efforts begin years in advan...

  10. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  11. Air Flow Modeling in the Wind Tunnel of the FHWA Aerodynamics Laboratory at Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC) Energy Systems Division; Lottes, S. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC) Energy Systems Division; Bojanowski, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC) Energy Systems Division

    2017-09-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is widely used in industry for design and in the research community to support, compliment, and extend the scope of experimental studies. Analysis of transportation infrastructure using high performance cluster computing with CFD and structural mechanics software is done at the Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC) at Argonne National Laboratory. These resources, available at TRACC, were used to perform advanced three-dimensional computational simulations of the wind tunnel laboratory at the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC). The goals were to verify the CFD model of the laboratory wind tunnel and then to use versions of the model to provide the capability to (1) perform larger parametric series of tests than can be easily done in the laboratory with available budget and time, (2) to extend testing to wind speeds that cannot be achieved in the laboratory, and (3) to run types of tests that are very difficult or impossible to run in the laboratory. Modern CFD software has many physics models and domain meshing options. Models, including the choice of turbulence and other physics models and settings, the computational mesh, and the solver settings, need to be validated against measurements to verify that the results are sufficiently accurate for use in engineering applications. The wind tunnel model was built and tested, by comparing to experimental measurements, to provide a valuable tool to perform these types of studies in the future as a complement and extension to TFHRC’s experimental capabilities. Wind tunnel testing at TFHRC is conducted in a subsonic open-jet wind tunnel with a 1.83 m (6 foot) by 1.83 m (6 foot) cross section. A three component dual force-balance system is used to measure forces acting on tested models, and a three degree of freedom suspension system is used for dynamic response tests. Pictures of the room are shown in Figure 1-1 to Figure 1-4. A detailed CAD

  12. The study for installing noise barrier on highway route no.9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiradecha Chaddanai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Highway Route No. 9 is a Bangkok bypass motorway that aims to alleviate traffic congestion in greater Bangkok areas. Presently, it is found a rapid expansion of new communities residing along both side of Highway No. 9. To lessen the noise level, Department of Highways installed the noise barrier on the sensitive locations. However, people from communities living on both sides of highway still demand some additional noise pollution improvement. To improve the efficiency of using noise barriers and to promote environmental and social quality for the people on the sensitive communities along the highway route, the Department of Highways, therefore, designs a new technique for installing noise barrier on the sensitive areas, i.e. education institutions, temple, residential area. In addition, the mathematic model is applied to 12 selected locations of sensitive areas for monitoring the effectiveness of the new installation technique. The mathematic model is used for predict the future noise level after installation of noise barrier in year 2037. The results confirm that the appropriate height and width of noise barrier can improve the comfortable of the people on the sensitive area.

  13. Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. This report details compliance for model year 2015, fiscal year 2016.

  14. Maine highway safety plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Each September 1, the MeBHS must provide NHTSA a comprehensive plan to reduce : traffic crashes and resulting deaths, injuries and property damage. The Highway Safety : Plan (HSP) serves as Maines application for available federal funds for these ...

  15. Canada's gas taxes = highway robbery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    This report was prepared for the second annual 'gas honesty day' (May 18, 2000) in an effort to draw attention to the frustration of Canadian taxpayers with gasoline retailers and the petroleum industry for the inordinately and unjustifiably high prices for gasoline at the pump. The report points out that the public outcry is, in fact, misdirected since the largest profiteers at the pumps, the federal government, remains largely unscathed. It is alleged in the report that gas taxes are tantamount to highway robbery. Ostensibly collected for road construction and maintenance, of the almost $ 5 billion collected in 1999, only a paltry $ 194 million was returned to the provinces for roadway and highway spending. The 10-year average of federal returns to the the provinces from tax on gasoline is a meager 4.7 per cent, which fell even further to 4.1 per cent in 1998-1999. Gasoline tax revenues continue to climb, while government commitment to real roadway and highway spending continues to decline. This document attempts to shed some light on the pricing structure for gasoline. Without defending or explaining the non-tax portion of the pump price charged by Canada's oil companies, which is a task for the oil companies to undertake, the document makes a concerted effort to raise public awareness and focus public attention on government's involvement, namely that gas taxes represent on average about 50 per cent of the pump price and that the majority of the taxes collected are not put back into road and highway improvements. The Canadian Taxpayers Federation, authors of this report, expect that by focusing debate on the issue of gasoline taxes a broad support for a lowering of the overall tax burden on motorists will result. Among other things, the CTF advocates reduction of federal and provincial fuel taxes to levels commensurate with highway funding; dedication of fuel tax revenues to highway construction and maintenance; elimination of the sales and goods

  16. Mortality among California highway workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlish, N; Beaumont, J; Singleton, J

    1988-01-01

    Standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMR) were computed for a population of highway workers. Hazards of highway maintenance work include exposure to solvents, herbicides, asphalt and welding fumes, diesel and auto exhaust, asbestos, abrasive dusts, hazardous material spills, and moving motor vehicles. Underlying cause of death was obtained for 1,570 workers who separated from the California Department of Transportation between 1970 and 1983, and who died in California between 1970 and 1983 (inclusive). Among 1,260 white males, the major findings were statistically significant excesses of cancers of digestive organs (PMR = 128), skin (PMR = 218), lymphopoietic cancer (PMR = 157), benign neoplasms (PMR = 343), motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 141), and suicide (PMR = 154). Black males (N = 66) experienced nonsignificant excesses of cancer of the digestive organs (PMR = 191) and arteriosclerotic heart disease (PMR = 143). Among 168 white females, deaths from lung cancer (PMR = 189) and suicide (PMR = 215) were elevated. White male retirees, a subgroup with 5 or more years of service, experienced excess mortality due to cancers of the colon (PMR = 245), skin (PMR = 738), brain (PMR = 556), and lymphosarcomas and reticulosarcomas (PMR = 514). Deaths from external causes (PMR = 135) and cirrhosis of the liver (PMR = 229) were elevated among white males with a last job in landscape maintenance. White males whose last job was highway maintenance experienced a deficit in mortality from circulatory diseases (PMR = 83) and excess mortality from emphysema (PMR = 250) and motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 196). Further epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies are needed to confirm the apparent excess mortality and to quantify occupational and nonoccupational exposures. However, reduction of recognized hazards among highway maintenance workers is a prudent precautionary measure.

  17. The green highway forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  18. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... to Otto-cycle engines used in such MDPVs, except as specified in subpart S of this part. The term... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  19. 77 FR 4678 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...), optimized turbo-charging, optimized fuel injection, diesel particulate filters), plus liquid urea based...-Highway Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim... manufacturers of heavy heavy-duty diesel engines in model years 2012 and 2013 for emissions of oxides of...

  20. Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s)

    OpenAIRE

    Dobre, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH) is such a software control s...

  1. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway Projects as specified in the America's Marine Highway Program Final Rule, MARAD...

  2. Missouri Highway Safety Manual Recalibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) is a national manual for analyzing the highway safety of various facilities, including rural roads, urban arterials, freeways, and intersections. The HSM was first published in 2010, and a 2014 supplement addressed fre...

  3. DOT Official County Highway Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The County Highway Map theme is a scanned and rectified version of the original MnDOT County Highway Map Series. The cultural features on some of these maps may be...

  4. The Information Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Al

    1994-01-01

    The new information marketplace is based on a network of wide, two-way highways comprised of private owners and developers, makers of information appliances (televisions, telephones, computers, and combinations of all three), information providers (local broadcasters, digital libraries, information service providers, and entrepreneurs), and…

  5. The hydrogen highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigg, A.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Hydrogen Highway in British Columbia, Canada, is a coordinated, large-scale demonstration and deployment program aimed at accelerating the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products. It will be a showcase for fuel cell vehicles, refuelling stations and stationary power systems leading up to the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in Whistler, BC. The Hydrogen Highway is designed to help address many of the challenges to commercialization identified in the Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap. The project will create an early adopter network of hydrogen and fuel cell microenvironments where technology developers and users can learn about the technical, economic, environmental and social impacts of products. The Hydrogen Highway will give the public and potential purchasers an opportunity to feel, touch and see the new technology, as well as provide the industry with a venue in which to develop industry standards and supply chains of materials and components. While demonstration and deployment programs are a recognized and necessary component in the process to commercialize hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, there is no handbook describing how it should be done. This paper will describe the history, objectives, project details and some of the challenges associated with establishing Canada's Hydrogen Highway. (author)

  6. Highways: Interstate, US & State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains lines for all highways in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a USGS 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  7. The hydrogen highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, A. [Fuel Cells Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    'Full text:' The Hydrogen Highway in British Columbia, Canada, is a coordinated, large-scale demonstration and deployment program aimed at accelerating the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products. It will be a showcase for fuel cell vehicles, refuelling stations and stationary power systems leading up to the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in Whistler, BC. The Hydrogen Highway is designed to help address many of the challenges to commercialization identified in the Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap. The project will create an early adopter network of hydrogen and fuel cell microenvironments where technology developers and users can learn about the technical, economic, environmental and social impacts of products. The Hydrogen Highway will give the public and potential purchasers an opportunity to feel, touch and see the new technology, as well as provide the industry with a venue in which to develop industry standards and supply chains of materials and components. While demonstration and deployment programs are a recognized and necessary component in the process to commercialize hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, there is no handbook describing how it should be done. This paper will describe the history, objectives, project details and some of the challenges associated with establishing Canada's Hydrogen Highway. (author)

  8. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  9. Contractors perspective for critical factors of cost overrun in highway projects of Sindh, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohu, Samiullah; Abdullah, Abd Halid; Nagapan, Sasitharan; Fattah, Abdul; Ullah, Kaleem; Kumar, Kanesh

    2017-10-01

    Construction industry of Pakistan is creating a number of opportunities in employment as well as plays a role model for economy development of the country. This construction industry has a serious issue of cost overrun in all construction projects especially in construction of highway projects. Cost overrun is a serious and critical issue in construction of highway projects which gives negative impact to construction practitioners because it is not only cross the approved budget but also approved time of the project. The main objective of this study is to find out critical factors causing cost overrun in highway projects of Sindh according to contractors' perspectives. Deep literature review was carried out and a total of 64 factors of cost overrun were identified. To achieve the objective, a questionnaire was designed and distributed among 16 selected respondents who have more than 20 years of experience in construction of highway projects. The results from analysis found that most critical factors of cost overrun in the order of importance include financial and cash flow difficulties faced by contractor, frequent changes in design, changes in price of materials, poor planning by client, change in scope of project, change in specification of materials and delay in taking decisions. This study will assist contractors to narrow down some of the critical factors that would lead to cost overrun, and therefore be prepared with the ways to mitigate these problems in construction of highway projects of Sindh province.

  10. Bad Foundation and its Treatment of HeBei Coastal Highway | Ye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, with the accelerating urbanization process, the national road network continues to expand, a lot of highway construction projects are in the countryside. The geological properties of high level, long distance highway foundation are complicated. In order to guarantee the stability of highway embankment, we ...

  11. Development of a highway safety fundamental course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Although the need for road safety education was first recognized in the 1960s, it has become an increasingly urgent issue : in recent years. To fulfill the hefty goal set up by the AASHTO Highway Safety Strategy and by state DOTS, it is critical : to...

  12. Wireless monitoring of highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard; Hayes-Gill, Barrie; Crowe, John A.; Armitage, Robert; Rodgers, Dale; Hendroff, Adrian

    1999-05-01

    Electronic hardware has been developed to telemetrically transmit temperature and strain measurements from within a public highway in the UK. These measurements provide an important health check for monitoring fatigue damage in pavements. Previous attempts at measuring strain and temperature have required lengths of cable to be installed in the highway. The installation of these cables is both expensive and damaging to the pavement and provides potentially unreliable electrical connections. The new systems consist of a retrofitted instrumented asphalt core which is bonded into the pavement structure. The core contains all the electronics necessary to record two temperatures and two strains. An analogue front end provides signal conditioning which is digitized and passed to microcontroller for endcoding. From there the data is transmitted via a low power radio link to a receiver and data logger positioned by the side of the road. The system has an in-situ operating life of 6 months on AA alkaline batteries. Results are presented of power management and fault tolerant radio protocol techniques, long term temperature variations, dynamic strain measurements within the highway, and RF transmission capabilities through a layer of asphalt.

  13. Testimony on the Status of the Highway Trust Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Kim P. Cawley

    2013-01-01

    The current trajectory of the Highway Trust Fund is unsustainable. Starting in fiscal year 2015, the trust fund will have insufficient resources to meet all of its obligations—CBO projects—resulting in steadily accumulating shortfalls.

  14. What do Americans think about federal tax options to support public transit, highways, and local streets and roads? results from year 3 of a national survey [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This research brief summarizes the results of Year 3 of a national random-digit-dial survey that explored public support for raising federal transportation revenues through gas, mileage, and sales taxes. This years survey added a special focus on ...

  15. Federal-aid highways : FHWA has improved its risk management approach, but needs to improve its oversight of project costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The federal-aid highway program : provides about $33 billion a year to : states for highway projects. The : federal government provides : funding for and oversees this : program, while states largely : choose and manage the projects. : As requested, ...

  16. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Marine Highway Transportation. Authority: Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Sections 1121...] RIN 2133-AB70 America's Marine Highway Program AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of... interim final rule that established America's Marine Highway Program, under which the Secretary will...

  17. Comprehensive highway corridor planning with sustainability indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    "The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning efforts to improve transportation : efficiency, safety, and sustainability on critical highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor : (CHC) program. This pr...

  18. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration...., Acting Division Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield...

  19. 75 FR 18014 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability regarding a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI): U.S.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Federal Highway Administration, Kentucky Division: Mr. Greg Rawlings...

  20. Research notes : monitoring water quality along highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Runoff from highways typically picks up a variety of pollutants from the roadway. These pollutants include sediment, trash, residue from petroleum products, and heavy metals. Depending on the highway and its geographic setting, highway runoff can eva...

  1. Evolution of new reflective materials for overhead highway signage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Unlighted highway signs using newly developed retroreflective materials were installed along the Gowanus Expressway. Photometric measurements of the signs were used to assess the visibility of the signs using the relative visual performance model. Th...

  2. A visualization method for teaching the geometric design of highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-11

    In this project the authors employed state-of-the-art technology for developing visualization tools for teaching highway design. Specifically, the authors used photolog images as the basis for developing dynamic 3-D models of selected geometric eleme...

  3. Childhood cancer and residential exposure to highways: a nationwide cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spycher, Ben D.; Feller, Martin; Röösli, Martin; Ammann, Roland A.; Diezi, Manuel; Egger, Matthias; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2015-01-01

    Children living near highways are exposed to higher concentrations of traffic-related carcinogenic pollutants. Several studies reported an increased risk of childhood cancer associated with traffic exposure, but the published evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether cancer risk is associated with proximity of residence to highways in a nation-wide cohort study including all children aged <16 years from Swiss national censuses in 1990 and 2000. Cancer incidence was investigated in time to event analyses (1990–2008) using Cox proportional hazards models and incidence density analyses (1985–2008) using Poisson regression. Adjustments were made for socio-economic factors, ionising background radiation and electromagnetic fields. In time to event analysis based on 532 cases the adjusted hazard ratio for leukaemia comparing children living <100 m from a highway with unexposed children (≥500 m) was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.79, 2.61). Results were similar in incidence density analysis including 1367 leukaemia cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.57; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.25). Associations were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (IRR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.43) and stronger for leukaemia in children aged <5 years (IRR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.22, 3.04). Little evidence of association was found for other tumours. Our study suggests that young children living close to highways are at increased risk of developing leukaemia

  4. Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has the responsibility to assure that adequate highway transportation information is available to support its functions and...

  5. 3D Numerical Modelling of Transport, Deposition and Resuspension of Highway Deposited Sediments in Wet Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2009-01-01

    concrete channel with width of 0.8 m and a water depth of approximately 0.8 m and in circular flume experiments in order to reproduce near-bed specific processes such as resuspension and consolidation. With good agreement with measurements, modelling of hydrodynamics, transport of dissolved pollutants...... and particles in wet detention ponds is possible with application of a three dimensional RANS model and the advection/dispersion equation taken physical phenomena like wind, waves, deposition, erosion and consolidation of the bottom sediment into account....

  6. Renewables in the grid. Modeling the German power market of the year 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldt, Jenny; Hankel, Lisa; Laurisch, Lilian Charlotte; Lutterbeck, Felix; Oei, Pao-Yu; Sander, Aram; Schroeder, Andreas; Schweter, Helena; Sommer, Philipp; Sulerz, Jasmin

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy in Germany is on the rise. Recent changes in legislature, following the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, have accelerated the shift towards a renewable and sustainable energy supply. Offshore wind from the North and Baltic Sea is expected to reach nearly 30 GW by 2030, while the adequacy of the electricity grid to withstand this impact is already threatened today. Since the bulk of renewable energy comes from the North and East of Germany, while demand is far greater in the South and West, transmission infrastructure is poised to become the bottleneck of the German power market transformation. This study investigates where congestion is likely to occur along the grid, and proposes different approaches to meeting the requirements of an increasing share of renewable energy generation. A considerable amount of data for the year 2030, including, but not limited to, conventional generation, renewable generation, transmission and demand serves as the input for the welfare-maximizing DC load flow model. It consists of 40 nodes (18 within Germany, as well as 22 European countries, each modeled by a single node), 232 AC lines and 35 DC lines. The model is solved with the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) for four representative weeks in 2030, one for each season of the year. We investigate three different scenarios: the Reference Scenario, the Strategic South Scenario and the Direct Current (DC) Highway Scenario. - The Reference Scenario is based on the assumption that 63 percent of renewable energy power will be generated in Northern and Eastern Germany by 2030, while 62 percent of load will be located in Southern and Western Germany. This situation requires a substantial expansion of transmission infrastructure from north to south. - In the Strategic South Scenario, we explore the possibility of strategically placing renewable and conventional generation capacities to Southern and Western regions in order to make major transmission upgrades redundant

  7. Renewables in the grid. Modeling the German power market of the year 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldt, Jenny; Hankel, Lisa; Laurisch, Lilian Charlotte; Lutterbeck, Felix; Oei, Pao-Yu; Sander, Aram; Schroeder, Andreas; Schweter, Helena; Sommer, Philipp; Sulerz, Jasmin

    2012-02-15

    Renewable energy in Germany is on the rise. Recent changes in legislature, following the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, have accelerated the shift towards a renewable and sustainable energy supply. Offshore wind from the North and Baltic Sea is expected to reach nearly 30 GW by 2030, while the adequacy of the electricity grid to withstand this impact is already threatened today. Since the bulk of renewable energy comes from the North and East of Germany, while demand is far greater in the South and West, transmission infrastructure is poised to become the bottleneck of the German power market transformation. This study investigates where congestion is likely to occur along the grid, and proposes different approaches to meeting the requirements of an increasing share of renewable energy generation. A considerable amount of data for the year 2030, including, but not limited to, conventional generation, renewable generation, transmission and demand serves as the input for the welfare-maximizing DC load flow model. It consists of 40 nodes (18 within Germany, as well as 22 European countries, each modeled by a single node), 232 AC lines and 35 DC lines. The model is solved with the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) for four representative weeks in 2030, one for each season of the year. We investigate three different scenarios: the Reference Scenario, the Strategic South Scenario and the Direct Current (DC) Highway Scenario. - The Reference Scenario is based on the assumption that 63 percent of renewable energy power will be generated in Northern and Eastern Germany by 2030, while 62 percent of load will be located in Southern and Western Germany. This situation requires a substantial expansion of transmission infrastructure from north to south. - In the Strategic South Scenario, we explore the possibility of strategically placing renewable and conventional generation capacities to Southern and Western regions in order to make major transmission upgrades redundant

  8. LSTM, GRU, Highway and a Bit of Attention: An Empirical Overview for Language Modeling in Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    R. K. Srivastava, K. Greff, and J. Schmidhuber, “Training very deep networks,” in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS), Montreal...modeling,” in Deep Learning workshop at Conf. on Advances in Neural Infor- mation Processing Systems (NIPS), Montreal, Canada, Dec. 2014. [19] R...Language Processing (EMNLP), Lisbon, Portugal, Sep. 2015, pp. 1412–1421. [38] K. Tran, A. Bisazza, and C. Monz, “Recurrent memory network for language

  9. 49 CFR 537.7 - Pre-model year and mid-model year reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with subpart D of 40 CFR part 600, (2) Body style, (3) Beginning model year 2010, base tire as...) Passenger-carrying volume, (2) Cargo-carrying volume, (3) Beginning model year 2008, base tire as defined in...; (ii) Departure angle; (iii) Breakover angle; (iv) Axle clearance; (v) Minimum running clearance; and...

  10. Least-Present-Value-of-Revenue Auctions and Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo M.R.A. Engel; Ronald D. Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    1998-01-01

    In recent years several countries have started massive highway franchising programs auctioned to private firms. In these auctions, the regulator typically sets the franchise term and firms bid on tolls, or, alternatively, the regulator sets tolls and the winner is the firm that asks for the shortest franchise term. In this paper we argue that many of the problems that highway franchises have encountered are due to the fact that the franchise term cannot adjust to demand realizations. We propo...

  11. Impact Factors and Risk Analysis of Tropical Cyclones on a Highway Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Saini; Hu, Fuyu; Jaeger, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Coastal areas typically have high social and economic development and are likely to suffer huge losses due to tropical cyclones. These cyclones have a great impact on the transportation network, but there have been a limited number of studies about tropical-cyclone-induced transportation network functional damages, especially in Asia. This study develops an innovative measurement and analytical tool for highway network functional damage and risk in the context of a tropical cyclone, with which we explored the critical spatial characteristics of tropical cyclones with regard to functional damage to a highway network by developing linear regression models to quantify their relationship. Furthermore, we assessed the network's functional risk and calculated the return periods under different damage levels. In our analyses, we consider the real-world highway network of Hainan province, China. Our results illustrate that the most important spatial characteristics were location (in particular, the midlands), travel distance, landfalling status, and origin coordinates. However, the trajectory direction did not obviously affect the results. Our analyses indicate that the highway network of Hainan province may suffer from a 90% functional damage scenario every 4.28 years. These results have critical policy implications for the transport sector in reference to emergency planning and disaster reduction. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Dynamic Estimation on Output Elasticity of Highway Capital Stock in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. J.; Zuo, Q. L.; Bai, Y. F.

    2017-12-01

    By using the Perpetual Inventory Method to calculate the capital stock of highway in China from 1988 to 2016, the paper builds the State Space Model based on Translog Production Function, according to the Ridge Regression and Kalman Filter Method, the dynamic estimation results of output elasticity are measured continuously and analyzed. The conclusions show that: Firstly, China’s growth speed on highway industry capital stock are divided into three stages which are respectively from 1988 to 2000, from 2001 to 2009 and from 2010 to 2016, during which shows steady growth, between which reflect rapid growth; Secondly, the output elasticity of highway capital stock, being between 0.154 and 0.248, is slightly larger than the output elasticity of human input factor, lower than the output elasticity of the technical level, shows positive effect on transport economy and rises steadily, but the output efficiency is low on the whole; Thirdly, around the year of 2010, the scale pay on highway industry begins to highlight the characteristic of increase.

  13. VEHICLE DRIVING CYCLE OPTIMISATION ON THE HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviy STOTSKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the problem of reducing vehicle energy consumption. The authors consider the optimisation of highway driving cycle a way to use the kinetic energy of a car more effectively at various road conditions. The model of a vehicle driving control at the highway which consists of elementary cycles, such as accelerating, free rolling and deceleration under forces of external resistance, was designed. Braking, as an energy dissipation regime, was not included. The influence of the various longitudinal profiles of the road was taken into consideration and included in the model. Ways to use the results of monitoring road and traffic conditions are presented. The method of non-linear programming is used to design the optimal vehicle control function and phase trajectory. The results are presented by improved typical driving cycles that present energy saving as a subject of choice at a specified schedule.

  14. What do Americans think about federal tax options to support public transit, highways, and local streets and roads? Results from year six of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of year six of a national random-digit-dial public opinion poll asking 1,503 respondents if they : would support various tax options for raising federal transportation revenues, with a special focus on understanding...

  15. What do Americans think about federal tax options to support public transit, highways, and local streets and roads? Results from year four of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of year four of a national random-digit-dial public opinion poll asking 1,501 respondents : if they would support various tax options for raising federal transportation revenues, with a special focus on understandin...

  16. What do Americans think about federal tax options to support public transit, highways, and local streets and roads? Results from year five of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of year five of a national random-digit-dial public opinion poll asking 1,503 respondents if they : would support various tax options for raising federal transportation revenues, with a special focus on understandin...

  17. Remote Sensing-based Models of Soil Vulnerability to Compaction and Erosion from Off-highway Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, M. L.; Webb, R. H.; Norman, L.; Psillas, J.; Rosenberg, A.; Carmichael, S.; Petrakis, R.; Sparks, P.

    2014-12-01

    Intensive off-road vehicle use for immigration, smuggling, and security of the United States-Mexico border has prompted concerns about long-term human impacts on sensitive desert ecosystems. To help managers identify areas susceptible to soil erosion from vehicle disturbances, we developed a series of erosion potential models based on factors from the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), with particular focus on the management factor (P-factor) and vegetation cover (C-factor). To better express the vulnerability of soils to human disturbances, a soil compaction index (applied as the P-factor) was calculated as the difference in saturated hydrologic conductivity (Ks) between disturbed and undisturbed soils, which was then scaled up to remote sensing-based maps of vehicle tracks and digital soils maps. The C-factor was improved using a satellite-based vegetation index, which was better correlated with estimated ground cover (r2 = 0.77) than data derived from regional land cover maps (r2 = 0.06). RUSLE factors were normalized to give equal weight to all contributing factors, which provided more management-specific information on vulnerable areas where vehicle compaction of sensitive soils intersects with steep slopes and low vegetation cover. Resulting spatial data on vulnerability and erosion potential provide land managers with information to identify critically disturbed areas and potential restoration sites where off-road driving should be restricted to reduce further degradation.

  18. Energy harvesting on highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A concept for harvesting energy from the traffic-induced loadings on a highway bridge using piezoelectric : materials to generate electricity was explored through the prototype stage. A total of sixteen lead-zirconate : titanate (PZT) Type 5A piezoel...

  19. The development of an ecological approach to manage the pollution risk from highway runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, B; Dempsey, P; Johnson, I; Whitehead, M

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the Highways Agency is responsible for operating, maintaining and improving the strategic road network in England. One focus of the Highways Agency's ongoing research into the nature and impact of highway runoff is aimed at ensuring that the Highways Agency will meet the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive. A research programme, undertaken in partnership with the Environment Agency, is in progress to develop a better understanding of pollutants in highway runoff and their ecological impact. The paper presents the outcome of a study to: (1) monitor pollutants in highway runoff under different climate and traffic conditions; (2) develop standards to assess potential ecological risks from soluble pollutants in highway runoff; and (3) develop a model to predict pollutant concentrations in highway runoff. The model has been embedded in a design tool incorporating risk assessment procedures and receiving water standards for soluble and insoluble pollutants--the latter has been developed elsewhere in another project within the research programme. The design tool will be used to support improved guidance on where, and to what level, treatment of runoff is required for highway designers to manage the risk of ecological impact from highway runoff.

  20. Highways of the future : a strategic plan for highway infrastructure research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This Highways of the FutureA Strategic Plan for Highway Infrastructure Research and Development was developed in response to a need expressed by the staff of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Infrastructure Research and Developme...

  1. Hydraulic analysis, Mad River at State Highway 41, Springfield, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ronald I.

    1977-01-01

    A hydraulic analysis of the lad River in a reach at Springfield, Ohio was made to determine the effects of relocating State Highway 41 in 1S76. The main channel was cleaned by dredging in the vicinity cf the new highway bridge and at the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge upstream. The new highway was placed on a high fill with relief structures for flood plain drainage consisting of a 12-foot corrugated metal pipe culvert and a bridge opening to accommodate the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway and a property access road. The effect of the new highway embankment on drainage from the flood plain was requested. Also requested was the effect that might be expected on the elevation of flood waters above the new highway embankment if the access road through the new highway embankment were raised.The study indicates that the improvement in the capacity of the main channel to carry water was such that, up to a discharge equivalent to a 25-year frequency flood, the water-surface elevation in the reach upstream from the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge would be about 0.6 foot lower than under conditions prior to the construction on State Highway 41. Diversion through the Mad River left bank levee break above the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge to the flood Flain would be decreased about one-half in terms of rate of discharge in cubic feet per second. The maximum difference in elevation cf the flood water between the upstream and downstream side of the new State Highway 41 embankment would be about 0.2 foot, with an additional 0.4 foot to be expected if the access road were raised 1.5 feet.

  2. Modelo hipercubo integrado a um algoritmo genético para análise de sistemas médicos emergenciais em rodovias The hypercube queuing model integrated to a genetic algorithm to analyze emergency medical systems on highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Iannoni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O modelo hipercubo, conhecido na literatura de problemas de localização de sistemas servidor para cliente, é um modelo baseado em teoria de filas espacialmente distribuídas e aproximações Markovianas. O modelo pode ser modificado para analisar os sistemas de atendimentos emergenciais (SAEs em rodovias, considerando as particularidades da política de despacho destes sistemas. Neste estudo, combinou-se o modelo hipercubo com um algoritmo genético para otimizar a configuração e operação de SAEs em rodovias. A abordagem é efetiva para apoiar decisões relacionadas ao planejamento e operação destes sistemas, por exemplo, em determinar o tamanho ideal para as áreas de cobertura de cada ambulância, de forma a minimizar o tempo médio de resposta aos usuários e o desbalanceamento das cargas de trabalho das ambulâncias. Os resultados computacionais desta abordagem foram analisados utilizando dados reais do sistema Anjos do Asfalto (rodovia Presidente Dutra.The hypercube model, well-known in the literature on problems of server-to-customer localization systems, is based on the spatially distributed queuing theory and Markovian analysis approximations. The model can be modified to analyze Emergency Medical Systems (EMSs on highways, considering the particularities of these systems' dispatching policies. In this study, we combine the hypercube model with a genetic algorithm to optimize the configuration and operation of EMSs on highways. This approach is effective to support planning and operation decisions, such as determining the ideal size of the area each ambulance should cover to minimize not only the average time of response to the user but also ambulance workload imbalances, as well as generating a Pareto efficient boundary between these measures. The computational results of this approach were analyzed using real data Anjos do Asfalto EMS (which covers the Presidente Dutra highway.

  3. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  4. Response of benthic macroinvertebrate communities to highway construction in an Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.; Lin, L.-S.; Chen, Y.; Wei, X.

    2010-01-01

    Highway construction in mountainous areas can result in sedimentation of streams, negatively impacting stream habitat, water quality, and biotic communities. We assessed the impacts of construction of a segment of Corridor H, a four-lane highway, in the Lost River watershed, West Virginia, by monitoring benthic macroinvertebrate communities and water quality, before, during, and after highway construction and prior to highway use at upstream and downstream sites from 1997 through 2007. Data analysis of temporal impacts of highway construction followed a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) study design. Highway construction impacts included an increase in stream sedimentation during the construction phase. This was indicated by an increase in turbidity and total suspended solids. Benthic macroinvertebrate metrics indicated a community more tolerant during and after construction than in the period before construction. The percent of Chironomidae and the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) increased, while percent of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) decreased. Our 10-year study addressed short-term impacts of highway construction and found that impacts were relatively minimal. A recovery of the number of EPT taxa collected after construction indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate community may be recovering from impacts of highway construction. However, this study only addressed a period of 3 years before, 3 years during, and 4 years post construction. Inferences cannot be made concerning the long-term impacts of the highway, highway traffic, runoff, and other factors associated with highway use. Continual monitoring of the watershed is necessary to determine if the highway has a continual impact on stream habitat, water quality, and biotic integrity. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. The standard model 30 years of glory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefrancois, J.

    2001-03-01

    In these 3 lectures the author reviews the achievements of the past 30 years, which saw the birth and the detailed confirmation of the standard model. The first lecture is dedicated to quantum chromodynamics (QCD), deep inelastic scattering, neutrino scattering results, R(e + ,e - ), scaling violation, Drell-Yan reactions and the observation of jets. The second lecture deals with weak interactions and quark and lepton families, the discovery of W and Z bosons, of charm, of the tau lepton and B quarks are detailed. The third lecture focuses on the stunning progress that have been made in accuracy concerning detectors, the typical level of accuracy of previous e + e - experiments was about 5-10%, while the accuracy obtained at LEP/SLC is of order 0.1% to 0.5%. (A.C.)

  6. The standard model 30 years of glory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefrancois, J

    2001-03-01

    In these 3 lectures the author reviews the achievements of the past 30 years, which saw the birth and the detailed confirmation of the standard model. The first lecture is dedicated to quantum chromodynamics (QCD), deep inelastic scattering, neutrino scattering results, R(e{sup +},e{sup -}), scaling violation, Drell-Yan reactions and the observation of jets. The second lecture deals with weak interactions and quark and lepton families, the discovery of W and Z bosons, of charm, of the tau lepton and B quarks are detailed. The third lecture focuses on the stunning progress that have been made in accuracy concerning detectors, the typical level of accuracy of previous e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments was about 5-10%, while the accuracy obtained at LEP/SLC is of order 0.1% to 0.5%. (A.C.)

  7. Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2005-01-01

    , which has been designed according to standard design criteria for several decades. The study will focus on heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The long-term simulation of input of flow and pollution to the ponds will be a hind cast based on time series of historical......The paper presents some of the first results from a study of the removal of pollutants in highway detention ponds in Denmark. The objective of the study is to set up a procedure for long-term modelling of discharges of pollutants to the environment from the many Danish highway detention ponds...... rainfalls. The modelling will take place in a special version of the MIKE URBAN. The modelling is calibrated and validated on measurements from selected highway catchments. The removal of pollutants in the ponds is studied by local measurements in combination with CFD modelling using the MIKE 21 and MIKE 3...

  8. The ELETTRA field highway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulfone, D.; Michelini, P.; Mignacco, M.

    1992-01-01

    ELETTRA is a third generation Synchrotron Light Source under construction in Trieste (Italy); it consists of a full energy linac injector and a storage ring with beam energies between 1.5 and 2 GeV. The ELETTRA control system has a distributed architecture, hierarchically divided into three layers of computers; two network levels provide communication between the adjacent computer layers. The field highway adopted for the connection of the middle-layer local process computers with the bottom-layer equipment interface units is the MIL-1553B multidrop highway. This paper describes the hardware configuration and the main communication services developed on the MIL-1553B field highway for accelerator control. As an additional feature, typical LAN utilities have been added on top of the basic MIL-1553B communication software allowing remote logic and file transfer; these tools are currently used for software development in our laboratory. (author)

  9. Trends in federal and state highway investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-18

    In response to Congressional request the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed data from Federal Highway Administration 's Highway Statistics for the period from 1982 through 2001, adjusting expenditures to 2001 dollars to (1) identify overal...

  10. Major Highway Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Major Highways for the United States. The Major Highways layer contains Road Network features based on the Functional Class attribute value on each link...

  11. Secondary Highway Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Secondary Highways for the United States. The Secondary Highways layer contains Road Network features based on the Functional Class value on each link present...

  12. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  13. Quality of stormwater runoff discharged from Massachusetts highways, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration and the Massachusetts Department of Transportation, conducted a field study from September 2005 through September 2007 to characterize the quality of highway runoff for a wide range of constituents. The highways studied had annual average daily traffic (AADT) volumes from about 3,000 to more than 190,000 vehicles per day. Highway-monitoring stations were installed at 12 locations in Massachusetts on 8 highways. The 12 monitoring stations were subdivided into 4 primary, 4 secondary, and 4 test stations. Each site contained a 100-percent impervious drainage area that included two or more catch basins sharing a common outflow pipe. Paired primary and secondary stations were located within a few miles of each other on a limited-access section of the same highway. Most of the data were collected at the primary and secondary stations, which were located on four principal highways (Route 119, Route 2, Interstate 495, and Interstate 95). The secondary stations were operated simultaneously with the primary stations for at least a year. Data from the four test stations (Route 8, Interstate 195, Interstate 190, and Interstate 93) were used to determine the transferability of the data collected from the principal highways to other highways characterized by different construction techniques, land use, and geography. Automatic-monitoring techniques were used to collect composite samples of highway runoff and make continuous measurements of several physical characteristics. Flowweighted samples of highway runoff were collected automatically during approximately 140 rain and mixed rain, sleet, and snowstorms. These samples were analyzed for physical characteristics and concentrations of 6 dissolved major ions, total nutrients, 8 total-recoverable metals, suspended sediment, and 85 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), which include priority polyaromatic

  14. Highways, Alleys and By-lanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Christina; Hellström, Tomas

    2002-01-01

    The present paper introduces a view of how ideas develop in organizations that goes beyond the traditional focus on either individual or structural conditions for creativity and innovation. An interview study was conducted with key actors in a large Swedish telecom company. A model...... was then constructed where idea development is viewed as a process of combining and integrating various informal, yet powerful qualities of the organization. The paper argues that successful idea development depends on the capacity of actors and ideas to move on ‘organizational highways, alleys and by–lanes’. A number...

  15. [Effect of highway driving on the health of factory workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2008-06-01

    Commuting transportation is one of the important factors in the administration of safety management in industries. Most workers commute to work by car and are certain to make use of highways, mainly because of the special condition of factory locations. In this study, we investigated the effect of communicating by car on the health of factory workers. The proportion of males was significantly higher in the highway (HW) group than in the non-highway (NHW) group, and the former was younger than the latter. BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol deteriorated significantly in the NHW group after 5-year periodic medical checkups. However, in the HW group, those factors did not change except for systolic blood pressure and significant improvements in triglyceride. The percentage of those who follow a good lifestyle regarding excise and nutrition, and have a solution for stress, was lower in the HW group than in the NHW group. Nevertheless, the percentage of those who did not feel stress was significantly higher in the HW group than in the NHW group, suggesting a stress-relieving effect of highway driving. Highway driving might have an unexpectedly good impact on the health of factory workers.

  16. Cost of Capital Estimation for Highway Concessionaires in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vergara-Novoa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the cost of capital estimation for highway concessionaires in Chile. We estimated the cost of equity and the cost of debt and determined the capital structure for each one of twenty-four concessionaires that operate highways. We based our estimations on the developments of Sharpe (1964, Modigliani and Miller (1958, and Maquieira (2009, which were also compared with the Brusov et al. (2015 developments. We collected stock prices for different highway concessionaires around the world from Google Finance and Reuters’ websites in order to determine the Beta of equity using a representative company. After that, we estimated the cost of equity considering Hamada (1969 and a Capital Asset Pricing Model. Then, we estimated the cost of capital using the cost of debt and the capital structure of Chile’s highway concessionaires. With all above, we were able to determine the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC for highway concessions which ranges from 5.49 to 6.62%.

  17. The M77 Highway: saving lives and money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Evan O T; Augustine, Angelica; Tait, Gavin R

    2008-09-01

    Upgrading of a stretch of the A77, a major road in South West Scotland to Highway status has resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of serious and fatal road traffic accidents on a major international route. Notwithstanding the pain and suffering prevented, the annual economic savings amount to over pound 6.1 Million ($12.14 M/euro 7.96 M) The Highway, with an effective central reservation barrier, will pay for itself in 17 years and will continue to prevent serious injury and save lives.

  18. Product modelling: '20 years of stalemate'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1998-01-01

    In a recent special issue of Design Studies Michael Ramscar, John Lee, and Helen Pain level a severe criticism against a field of research known as product modeling; a criticism that would be rather damaging if it were based on cogent arguments. I shall argue in this paper that it is not....

  19. One Hundred Years of Bohr Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In this article I shall present a brief review of the .... By 1900, the amount of information available about .... resulting value was in quite good agreement with the .... It is fair to say that Bohr's model of the atom is simple, elegant, revolutionary but ...

  20. Highway traffic simulation on multi-processor computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanebutte, U.R.; Doss, E.; Tentner, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    A computer model has been developed to simulate highway traffic for various degrees of automation with a high level of fidelity in regard to driver control and vehicle characteristics. The model simulates vehicle maneuvering in a multi-lane highway traffic system and allows for the use of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technologies such as an Automated Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC). The structure of the computer model facilitates the use of parallel computers for the highway traffic simulation, since domain decomposition techniques can be applied in a straight forward fashion. In this model, the highway system (i.e. a network of road links) is divided into multiple regions; each region is controlled by a separate link manager residing on an individual processor. A graphical user interface augments the computer model kv allowing for real-time interactive simulation control and interaction with each individual vehicle and road side infrastructure element on each link. Average speed and traffic volume data is collected at user-specified loop detector locations. Further, as a measure of safety the so- called Time To Collision (TTC) parameter is being recorded.

  1. Highway Safety Manual applied in Missouri - freeway/software : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    AASHTOs Highway Safety Manual (HSM) : includes models for freeway segments, speedchange : lanes (transitional area between mainline : and ramps), ramps, and interchange terminals. : These predictive models for freeway : interchanges need to be cal...

  2. 46 CFR 393.4 - Marine Highway Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation system research, data, and analysis used to develop or support the business model. (vii) Proposed... Highway Projects. (9) Utilize current or future Federal funding mechanisms, as appropriate, to support the...) Organization. Provide the organizational structure of the proposed project, including business affiliations...

  3. Dollars for lives: the effect of highway capital investments on traffic fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong; Yeung, Ryan

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the effect of highway capital investments on highway fatalities. We used state-level data from the 48 contiguous states in the United States from 1968 through 2010 to estimate the effects on highway fatalities of capital expenditures and highway capital stock. We estimated these effects by controlling for a set of control variables together with state and year dummy variables and state-specific linear time trends. We found that capital expenditures and capital stock had significant and negative effects on highway fatalities. States faced with declines in gas tax revenues have already cut back drastically on spending on roads including on maintenance and capital outlay. If this trend continues, it may undermine traffic safety. While states and local governments are currently fiscally strained, it is important for them to continue investments in roadways to enhance traffic safety and, more significantly, to save lives. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance analysis of Brazilian highways under concession through the capacity and level of service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira Santos, T.; Martins Ribeiro, P.C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes the development of a methodology to analyze the performance of highways under concession through the capacity and level of service, with special attention to Brazilian highways. The trajectory of transport infrastructure provision in Brazil and its performance assessment framework are mentioned, as well as an approach of the level of service concept and the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM). An inventory of the highway with the necessary data to the model is proposed. This database should incorporate information from multiple data sources and its use will be important for the processing and compilation of raw data in order to structure a full informational basis. Then, it is developed a method for segmentation of homogeneous road sections, as conceptualized by HCM, and proposed a way of level of service measurement. Finally, there are analysis of the use of HCM in some highways concession programs in Brazil. (Author)

  5. Development of a highway incident management operational and training guide for incident responders in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Each year highway traffic incidents, such as crashes, place responders on and beside roadways with : dangerous high-speed traffic. The unexpected conditions of an incident scene have the potential to surprise : unsuspecting or inattentive drivers, po...

  6. Residential satisfaction close to highways : The impact of accessibility, nuisances and highway adjustment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije; Tillema, Taede; Sussman, Joseph; Arts, Jos

    In this paper we focus on gaining insight into the residential satisfaction of households near highways, based on survey data collected among 1225 respondents in the Netherlands living within 1000 m from a highway. Ordinal regression was used to study the impact of highway externalities on

  7. Vertebrate road kill survey on a highway in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Liberato Costa Corrêa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Highways are a major factor acting in the decline of several wildlife populations. Impact occurs due to the continuous flow of motor vehicles over tracks and collision with animals using the same area. This study aimed to list road killed wild vertebrates found in highways in the Pampa Biome, state of Rio Grande do Sul, over an entire year. The taxa found (amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals were identified to species level and their frequency of occurrence was seasonally registered. Along 2,160 km, we found 318 road killed individuals, totaling 65 species. This number represents an average of 0.147 road killed specimens by kilometer (that is, 1 individual each 7 km. Of these, seven species are under threat of extinction in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. We also found a seasonal pattern among road kills, in which the highest number of road killed animals was registered in the summer and spring months. These results contribute to increase knowledge about which species are most impacted by road kill on highways of the Pampa Biome. Such data can be used as an indicator for the implementation of measures by competent bodies to mitigate impacts of highways in the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

  8. “DOSSA”, highway to energy self-sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abejon Aparicio, Noe; Lai, Cynthia; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present a new model to achieve zero energy emissions. ► We compared with the strategic plan implemented by the University of Hawai’i at Manoa. ► Comparison scenarios are created using projections of the involved 13 variables. ► The most probable three projections are used for each variable. ► DOSSA reaches energy institutional self-sustainability an average of 23 years earlier. -- Abstract: Emphasis has been put forth in the field of applied energy towards reducing consumption, using renewable energy sources and mitigating pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Although these strategies are striving to achieve the same goal, there is no logical model that clearly establishes their pathway to success; therefore, DOSSA, a new and innovative model, has been developed to provide this necessary central bridge of multiple pathways through five easy and adaptable steps: (1) Data inventory; (2) Objectives; (3) Staff/Committee; (4) Strategy; and (5) Accountability (DOSSA). In this study, the DOSSA model was applied and compared to the University of Hawai’i at Manoa’s (UHM’s) current strategic energy plan: to achieve zero emissions in terms of energy by the year 2050. Under proper execution of each step from the model, this study shows the effectiveness of the application of DOSSA to any goal or objective by increasing efficiency and creative and innovative approaches to problems, specifically, environmental initiatives. Through the application of DOSSA in this case study at UHM, it was projected that UHM has the potential to be completely self-sustainable in terms of energy consumption approximately 23 years earlier to its expected “strategic plan” date of 2050. Thus, DOSSA cannot only be used as an instigator for achieving reduction goals but also as an accelerator for various green initiatives – a highway to energy self-sustainability.

  9. Business process modeling for the Virginia Department of Transportation : a demonstration with the integrated six-year improvement program and the statewide transportation improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This effort demonstrates business process modeling to describe the integration of particular planning and programming activities of a state highway agency. The motivations to document planning and programming activities are that: (i) resources for co...

  10. Business process modeling for the Virginia Department of Transportation : a demonstration with the integrated six-year improvement program and the statewide transportation improvement program : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This effort demonstrates business process modeling to describe the integration of particular planning and programming activities of a state highway agency. The motivations to document planning and programming activities are that: (i) resources for co...

  11. Comprehensive highway corridor planning with sustainability indicators : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning : efforts to improve transportation efficiency, safety and sustainability on critical : highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor (CHC) program. : It is i...

  12. Feasibility of shoulder use for highway work zone optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Du

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Highway maintenance, often requiring lane closure, is very expensive in terms of the costs associated with transportation agencies (i. e. work zone setups and road users (i. e. delay. Longer work zones tend to increase the user delay but will be efficient because of fewer repeated setups. To increase road capacity and mitigate congestion impact for a short-term work zone, temporary shoulder use may be applied. This study develops an analytical model to optimize work zone length on a multi-lane highway considering time-varying traffic volume and road capacity affected by light condition, heavy vehicle percentage, and lane width. The results can be used to evaluate the work zone impact (i. e. delay and cost and assist engineers/planners to prepare and develop a cost-effective highway maintenance plan. A case study for a highway work zone in New Jersey has been conducted, in which the optimized solution is found. A guideline of using road shoulder under various circumstances is developed.

  13. Reliable Freestanding Position-Based Routing in Highway Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz-Mosqueda, Gabriel A.; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Villarreal-Reyes, Salvador; Rivera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Villaseñor-González, Luis; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are considered by car manufacturers and the research community as the enabling technology to radically improve the safety, efficiency and comfort of everyday driving. However, before VANET technology can fulfill all its expected potential, several difficulties must be addressed. One key issue arising when working with VANETs is the complexity of the networking protocols compared to those used by traditional infrastructure networks. Therefore, proper design of the routing strategy becomes a main issue for the effective deployment of VANETs. In this paper, a reliable freestanding position-based routing algorithm (FPBR) for highway scenarios is proposed. For this scenario, several important issues such as the high mobility of vehicles and the propagation conditions may affect the performance of the routing strategy. These constraints have only been partially addressed in previous proposals. In contrast, the design approach used for developing FPBR considered the constraints imposed by a highway scenario and implements mechanisms to overcome them. FPBR performance is compared to one of the leading protocols for highway scenarios. Performance metrics show that FPBR yields similar results when considering freespace propagation conditions, and outperforms the leading protocol when considering a realistic highway path loss model. PMID:23202159

  14. Highway Expenditures and Associated Customer Satisfaction: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Paz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the satisfaction of the Nevadans with respect to their highway transportation system and the corresponding expenditures of Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT. A survey questionnaire was designed to capture the opinions of the Nevadans (customers about a number of characteristics of their transportation system. Data from the financial data warehouse of the NDOT was used to evaluate expenditures. Multinomial probit models were estimated to study the correlations between customers’ opinion and the government expenditures in transportation. The results indicate the customer satisfaction is decreasing with respect to traffic safety throughout Northwestern and Southern Nevada highways. In addition, users of Northwestern highways are more likely to be satisfied, compared to their counterparts, with increasing construction spending to reduce the time taken to complete construction projects. In Southern Nevada highways, customers’ satisfaction increases with the expenditures associated with reduction of congestion. These insights are examples of the conclusions that were obtained as a consequence of simultaneously considering customer satisfaction and the corresponding expenditures in transportation.

  15. Aplicação do modelo hipercubo para análise de um sistema médico-emergencial em rodovia An application of the hypercube model to analyze an emergency medical system on a highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Mendonça

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Em um sistema médico-emergencial, o nível de serviço é fundamental, pois a qualidade de atendimento poderá ser a diferença entre a vida e a morte do usuário. Além da qualidade do atendimento, um dos componentes mais importantes do nível de serviço é o tempo médio de resposta a uma chamada emergencial. Entretanto, adquirir equipamentos e/ou treinamentos para a equipe, para reduzir este tempo de resposta, incorre em custos e investimentos adicionais. Nesta situação, aparece um importante trade-off entre o nível de serviço e o investimento no sistema. Para auxiliar a análise deste trade-off, há um modelo conhecido da literatura chamado hipercubo, que é baseado em teoria de filas espacialmente distribuídas. Neste artigo, adaptamos e aplicamos o modelo hipercubo para analisar os Anjos do Asfalto, um sistema médico-emergencial localizado ao longo da Rodovia Presidente Dutra entre as cidades do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. Os resultados mostraram que o modelo hipercubo pode ser uma ferramenta efetiva de apoio às decisões estratégicas e operacionais em sistemas emergenciais em rodovias.In an emergency medical system, the quality of the service is fundamental since this might be the difference between life and death of the user. Beyond the attendance quality, one of the most important components of the service level is the mean response time to an emergency call. However, acquiring equipment and training for the team to reduce this time imply additional costs and investments. In this case, an important trade-off appears between the service level and the investment in the system. To analyze this trade-off, there is a well-known model named hypercube, which is based in spatially distributed queueing theory. In this paper, we adapt and apply the hypercube model to analyze the "Anjos do Asfalto", an emergency medical system on the highway Presidente Dutra between the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, in Brazil. The results

  16. Computational Intelligence in Highway Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Pribyl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Highway management systems are used to improve safety and driving comfort on highways by using control strategies and providing information and warnings to drivers. They use several strategies starting from speed and lane management, through incident detection and warning systems, ramp metering, weather information up to, for example, informing drivers about alternative roads. This paper provides a review of the existing approaches to highway management systems, particularly speed harmonization and ramp metering. It is focused only on modern and advanced approaches, such as soft computing, multi-agent methods and their interconnection. Its objective is to provide guidance in the wide field of highway management and to point out the most relevant recent activities which demonstrate that development in the field of highway management is still important and that the existing research exhibits potential for further enhancement.

  17. Simulation of physical development because affected by the construction of the highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Bačnar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The procedure for planning highways entails evaluation of possibilities the purpose being selection of the optimal one. In the procedure certain criteria are applied, amongst other evaluation of influences on regional and urban development. Despite the set criteria the chosen route is often contrary to development goals of cities and wider areas – regions, which it affects. The article presents possibilities of using models of effects of highways on settlement development for forecasting consequences of construction. The model is based on knowledge of effects of already built highways, examples of analysed highway exits are shown with settlement growth. Spatial models are useful tools for forecasting physical changes and simulating effects of projects on physical development or its particular elements.

  18. Use of High Resolution LiDAR imagery for landslide identification and hazard assessment, State Highway 6, Haast Pass, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Andrew; Zimmer, Valerie; Bell, David

    2015-04-01

    This study has assessed landslide hazards associated with steep and densely vegetated bedrock slopes adjacent to State Highway 6 through the Southern Alps of New Zealand. The Haast Pass serves as one of only three routes across the Southern Alps, and is a lifeline to the southern West Coast of the South Island with a 1,000km detour required through the nearest alternative pass. Over the last 50 years the highway has been subjected to numerous landslide events that have resulted in lengthy road closures, and the death of two tourists in September 2013. To date no study has been undertaken to identify and evaluate the landslide hazards for the entire Haast Pass, with previous work focusing on post-failure monitoring or investigation of individual landslides. This study identified the distribution and extent of regolith deposits on the schist slopes, and the location and sizes of dormant and active landslides potentially impacting the highway. Until the advent of LiDAR technology it had not been possible to achieve such an evaluation because dense vegetation and very steep topography prevented traditional methods of investigation (mapping; trenching; drilling; geophysics) from being used over a large part of the area. LiDAR technology has provided the tools with which to evaluate large areas of the slopes above the highway quickly and with great accuracy. A very high resolution LiDAR survey was undertaken with a flight line overlap of 70%, resulting in six points per square metre in the raw point cloud and a post-processing point spacing of half a metre. The point cloud was transformed into a digital terrain model, and the surface interpreted using texture and morphology to identify slope materials and landslides. Analysis of the LiDAR DTM revealed that the slopes above the highway consist of variable thicknesses of regolith sourced from landsliding events, as well as large areas of bare bedrock that have not been subjected to landslides and that pose minimal hazard

  19. State Maintained Highways in Louisiana, UTM Zone 15 NAD83, LDOTD (2007) [state_highways_ldotd_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset represents the state maintained road network of Louisiana. The dataset includes Interstates, US highways, and Louisiana State Highways. This dataset was...

  20. Impact of highway construction on water bodies: a geospatial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kushwaha, Vikash K; Mardikar, Trupti; Labhasetwar, P K

    2017-08-01

    India has witnessed a massive infrastructure boom in the past few years. One of such projects is National Highway-7 (NH-7), a North-South highway connecting Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, to Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, traversing many water bodies. The present study aims to assess the pre- and post-construction impact due to existing, new and widened NH-7 on the physical status of the water bodies, using remote sensing techniques. Satellite images spanning 22 years were procured and analysed for change detection in land use and land cover within the waterbodies. The study indicates that construction activities have led to transformation within the water bodies regarding reduction in area and inter-changing of land use and land cover classes, in turn leading to siltation and reduction of recharge.

  1. Threshold Research on Highway Length under Typical Landscape Patterns Based on Drivers’ Physiological Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriately landscaped highway scenes may not only help improve road safety and comfort but also help protect ecological environment. Yet there is very little research data on highway length threshold with consideration of distinctive landscape patterns. Against this backdrop, the paper aims to quantitatively analyze highway landscape’s effect on driving behavior based on drivers’ physiological performance and quantify highway length thresholds under three typical landscape patterns, namely, “open,” “semiopen,” and “vertical” ones. The statistical analysis was based on data collected in a driving simulator and electrocardiograph. Specifically, vehicle-related data, ECG data, and supplemental subjective stress perception were collected. The study extracted two characteristic indices, lane deviation and LF/HF, and extrapolated the drivers’ U-shaped physiological response to landscape patterns. Models on highway length were built based on LF/HF’s variation trend with highway length. The results revealed that the theoretical highway length threshold tended to increase when the landscape pattern was switched to open, semiopen, and vertical ones. And the reliability and accuracy of the results were validated by questionnaires and field operational tests. Findings from this research will assist practitioners in taking active environmental countermeasures pertaining to different roadside landscape patterns.

  2. Business and the information highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneghetti, M.F. [Western Management Consultants, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The potential role of the information highway in the energy business was reviewed. Economic challenges, technology trends, and the opportunities available to the energy industry to exploit information technology were outlined. The `virtual` economy was identified as one of the consequences resulting from information technology, which will most likely have an impact on all aspects of the economy, including the energy industry, especially marketing. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for detailed business transactions, on-line services for information sharing, news, and discussion, the Internet for e-mail research, publishing, and customer contact, specialty applications for specific business functions, industry restructuring, and Fax transmission were pinpointed as the applications most likely to have the greatest impact on the business aspects of the energy industry.

  3. Improving E-Bike Safety on Urban Highways in China

    OpenAIRE

    Linjun Lu; Chen Wang; Tao Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine characteristics of e-bike fatal crashes on urban highways in China. Crash data were retrieved from the three-year crash reports (2010–2012) of Taixing City. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine characteristics of e-bike riders, drivers, and crashes. The important findings include the following: (1) most fatal crashes were related to e-bike riders’ aberrant driving behaviors, including driving in motorized lanes, red-light running, driving against the direct...

  4. MANAGING RISKS AND LIABILITIES IN THE HIGHWAYS AND TRANSPORT SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    P.E. FORMAN, B.Eng.(Hons.), M.Sc., C.Eng.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, more people have been claiming financial recompense for personal injuries they sustain. Increasingly, the targets of such claims are highway authorities, transport operators and property owners. This paper outlines an area of risk commonly overlooked by practitioners, but which can be managed effectively and can afford both cost savings and public safety improvements. Inconsistencies between design standards, safety improvement policies and maintenance regimes for the more...

  5. Vermont travel model 2010-2011 (year 3) report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is being prepared under Task 1 of the Maintenance, Operation and Evaluation of the VTrans Statewide Transportation Model contract with the Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans) in the 2010-2011 year of the contract. The objectiv...

  6. Zoning of highway flood-triggering environment for highway in Fuling District, Chongqing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qing-mei; Tang, Hong-mei; Chen, Hong-kai

    2011-10-01

    Based on the geological environment about Fuling district in Chongqing city, eight evaluating indicators on road flooding subsequently environment along the highway: geological disasters developmental condition, rainstorm intensity, flood frequency, landform condition, litho-logical condition, average annual rainfall, vegetation coverage and geological structure, have been chosen. Adopting expert system to double evaluation and using the analysis hierarchy process to confirm the weight of index, accordingly, the mathematical model of evaluation on subsequently environment is put forward. On the support of GIS, grid subsequently environmental index and township administrative division subsequently environmental index, subsequently environment is divided into 4 degrees. They are dangerous zone, high susceptible zone, middle susceptible zone and low susceptible zone of the floods subsequently environment around highway. The results of the study indicate that in the total area, dangerous zone, high susceptible zone, middle susceptible zone and low susceptible zone of road flooding are 11.89%, 41.65%, 32.20% and 14.26% respectively. The results provide some significant scientific evidence for the further risk evaluation of road flooding.

  7. Policy Safeguards and the Legitimacy of Highway Interdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Adoption among Large Law Enforcement Agencies,” Crime & Delinquency 59, no. 1 (2013): 33, doi:10.1177/0011128708328863. 71 Drug Enforcement...correlation or validity could be established between the number of complaints and the impact of highway interdiction safeguards implemented by the...Engel, “The Impact of Drivers’ Race, Gender, and Age During Traffic Stops Assessing Interaction Terms and the Social Conditioning Model,” Crime

  8. Learning text representation using recurrent convolutional neural network with highway layers

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Ying; Zhang, Weinan; Luo, Rui; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the rapid development of word embedding and neural networks has brought new inspiration to various NLP and IR tasks. In this paper, we describe a staged hybrid model combining Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks (RCNN) with highway layers. The highway network module is incorporated in the middle takes the output of the bi-directional Recurrent Neural Network (Bi-RNN) module in the first stage and provides the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) module in the last stage with the i...

  9. Geospatial and machine learning techniques for wicked social science problems: analysis of crash severity on a regional highway corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effati, Meysam; Thill, Jean-Claude; Shabani, Shahin

    2015-04-01

    The contention of this paper is that many social science research problems are too "wicked" to be suitably studied using conventional statistical and regression-based methods of data analysis. This paper argues that an integrated geospatial approach based on methods of machine learning is well suited to this purpose. Recognizing the intrinsic wickedness of traffic safety issues, such approach is used to unravel the complexity of traffic crash severity on highway corridors as an example of such problems. The support vector machine (SVM) and coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) algorithms are tested as inferential engines to predict crash severity and uncover spatial and non-spatial factors that systematically relate to crash severity, while a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the relative influence of crash severity factors. Different specifications of the two methods are implemented, trained, and evaluated against crash events recorded over a 4-year period on a regional highway corridor in Northern Iran. Overall, the SVM model outperforms CANFIS by a notable margin. The combined use of spatial analysis and artificial intelligence is effective at identifying leading factors of crash severity, while explicitly accounting for spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity effects. Thanks to the demonstrated effectiveness of a sensitivity analysis, this approach produces comprehensive results that are consistent with existing traffic safety theories and supports the prioritization of effective safety measures that are geographically targeted and behaviorally sound on regional highway corridors.

  10. Prices, production, and inventories over the automotive model year

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Copeland; Wendy E. Dunn; George J. Hall

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the within-model-year pricing and production of new automobiles. Using new monthly data on U.S. transaction prices, we document that for the typical new vehicle, prices typically fall over the model year at a 9.2 percent annual rate. Concurrently, both sales and inventories are hump shaped. To explain these time series, we formulate a market equilibrium model for new automobiles in which inventory and pricing decisions are made simultaneously. On the demand side, we use mic...

  11. Empirical Behavioral Models to Support Alternative Tools for the Analysis of Mixed-Priority Pedestrian-Vehicle Interaction in a Highway Capacity Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouphail, Nagui M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents behavioral-based models for describing pedestrian gap acceptance at unsignalized crosswalks in a mixed-priority environment, where some drivers yield and some pedestrians cross in gaps. Logistic regression models are developed to predict the probability of pedestrian crossings as a function of vehicle dynamics, pedestrian assertiveness, and other factors. In combination with prior work on probabilistic yielding models, the results can be incorporated in a simulation environment, where they can more fully describe the interaction of these two modes. The approach is intended to supplement HCM analytical procedure for locations where significant interaction occurs between drivers and pedestrians, including modern roundabouts. PMID:21643488

  12. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Third year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, T.J.; North, G.R.; Smith, N.R. [Applied Research Corp., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared by the Applied Research Corporation (ARC), College Station, Texas, under subcontract to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate studies task. The task supports site characterization work required for the selection of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository and is part of the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL. The work is under the overall direction of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), US Department of Energy Headquarters, Washington, DC. The scope of the report is to present the results of the third year`s work on the atmospheric modeling part of the global climate studies task. The development testing of computer models and initial results are discussed. The appendices contain several studies that provide supporting information and guidance to the modeling work and further details on computer model development. Complete documentation of the models, including user information, will be prepared under separate reports and manuals.

  13. Kentucky's highway incident management strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Kentucky s Highway Incident Management Strategic Plan consists of a mission statement, 4 goals, 16 objectives, and 49 action strategies. The action strategies are arranged by priority and recommended time frame for implementation. When implemented...

  14. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  15. New highway accident location manual for Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Missouri HAL manual is used to identify, analyze, and correct high crash locations, and has not been updated since : 1999. This new edition brings the manual up to date, while incorporating the methodology of the national Highway Safety : Manual ...

  16. Highway-Rail Crossings Inventory Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The entire National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory is available in three separate downloadble files. There is a file of all current Public-at-Grade crossings. There...

  17. Highway renewable energy : photovoltaic noise barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Highway photovoltaic noise barriers (PVNBs) represent the combination of noise barrier systems and photovoltaic systems in order to mitigate traffic noise while simultaneously producing renewable energy. First deployed in Switzerland in 1989, PVNBs a...

  18. Highway runoff in areas of karst topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Karst terrain is characterized by sinkholes, depressions, caves, and underground drainage, generally underlain by soluble rocks such as limestone and dolomite. Because natural filtration through soil is limited in karst areas, pollutants in highway s...

  19. Geometric Design of Highways in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Baričević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the criteria, standards, and engineeringprocedures used to design principal elements of the highwayalignment, highway cross sections, and adjacent roadside environment.Development of a comprehensive highway design focuseson the establishment of travel lane configuration, alignmentlocation, and all dimensions related to the highway crosssection. A three-dimensional physical location is determinedthrough calculation of a horizontal and vertical alignment ofthe highway centerline, based on a variety of operational considerations.The results of these activities are refe"ed to as thegeometric design and represent all the visible features of a highwayor street. The first and major portion of the paper deals withthe design of motor-vehicle facilities. Specific design elementsare described and discussed with respect to design methodology.

  20. Highway travel time estimation with data fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Soriguera Martí, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a simple, innovative approach for the measurement and short-term prediction of highway travel times based on the fusion of inductive loop detector and toll ticket data. The methodology is generic and not technologically captive, allowing it to be easily generalized for other equivalent types of data. The book shows how Bayesian analysis can be used to obtain fused estimates that are more reliable than the original inputs, overcoming some of the drawbacks of travel-time estimations based on unique data sources. The developed methodology adds value and obtains the maximum (in terms of travel time estimation) from the available data, without recurrent and costly requirements for additional data. The application of the algorithms to empirical testing in the AP-7 toll highway in Barcelona proves that it is possible to develop an accurate real-time, travel-time information system on closed-toll highways with the existing surveillance equipment, suggesting that highway operators might provide...

  1. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  2. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  3. Canada's gas taxes = highway robbery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    This report was prepared for the second annual 'gas honesty day' (May 18, 2000) in an effort to draw attention to the frustration of Canadian taxpayers with gasoline retailers and the petroleum industry for the inordinately and unjustifiably high prices for gasoline at the pump. The report points out that the public outcry is, in fact, misdirected since the largest profiteers at the pumps, the federal government, remains largely unscathed. It is alleged in the report that gas taxes are tantamount to highway robbery. Ostensibly collected for road construction and maintenance, of the almost $ 5 billion collected in 1999, only a paltry $ 194 million was returned to the provinces for roadway and highway spending. The 10-year average of federal returns to the the provinces from tax on gasoline is a meager 4.7 per cent, which fell even further to 4.1 per cent in 1998-1999. Gasoline tax revenues continue to climb, while government commitment to real roadway and highway spending continues to decline. This document attempts to shed some light on the pricing structure for gasoline. Without defending or explaining the non-tax portion of the pump price charged by Canada's oil companies, which is a task for the oil companies to undertake, the document makes a concerted effort to raise public awareness and focus public attention on government's involvement, namely that gas taxes represent on average about 50 per cent of the pump price and that the majority of the taxes collected are not put back into road and highway improvements. The Canadian Taxpayers Federation, authors of this report, expect that by focusing debate on the issue of gasoline taxes a broad support for a lowering of the overall tax burden on motorists will result. Among other things, the CTF advocates reduction of federal and provincial fuel taxes to levels commensurate with highway funding; dedication of fuel tax revenues to highway construction and maintenance; elimination of the sales and

  4. Applicant guide for the demands of expedition and agreement approval of the parcel or radioactive matter models for civil use transported on the public highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This guide applies to the models of parcels or radioactive materials for which an approval of the competent authorities is required by the regulations of the dangerous goods transportations. It is about models used for: radioactive materials under special shape, lowly dispersible radioactive materials, packages containing 0.1 kg or more of uranium hexafluoride, any package containing fissile materials, the B(U) type packages, and the B(M) type packages; the C type packages. (N.C.)

  5. INSAR For Early Warning Of Possible Highway Instability Over Undermined Area Of Ostrava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazecky, Milan; Kacmarik, Michal; Rapant, Petr

    2012-01-01

    A part of czech highway D1 connecting Ostrava with Prague and Poland, is built over an undermined area of Ostrava-Svinov. Since the end of 2010, this part of the highway is fully operational. Because of undermining, a subsidence can be expected, however with a very slow rate since the mines are no more active in this area. Several TerraSAR-X images from 2011 are investigated interferometrically in order to estimate a precise deformation model. Subjects of interest are movements of newly built highway bridges, banks and close neighbourhood. Existing C-band multitemporal InSAR processing results of ERS and Envisat are available from an earlier period that reveil a slow trend of residual subsidence. In this project, InSAR will be investigated as a tool for an early warning for highway stability.

  6. Robust Vehicle and Traffic Information Extraction for Highway Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Chia-Hung

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust vision-based traffic monitoring system for vehicle and traffic information extraction is developed in this research. It is challenging to maintain detection robustness at all time for a highway surveillance system. There are three major problems in detecting and tracking a vehicle: (1 the moving cast shadow effect, (2 the occlusion effect, and (3 nighttime detection. For moving cast shadow elimination, a 2D joint vehicle-shadow model is employed. For occlusion detection, a multiple-camera system is used to detect occlusion so as to extract the exact location of each vehicle. For vehicle nighttime detection, a rear-view monitoring technique is proposed to maintain tracking and detection accuracy. Furthermore, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of background extraction, which usually serves as the first step in any vehicle detection processing. Experimental results are given to demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient for vision-based highway surveillance.

  7. Luttinger model the first 50 years and some new directions

    CERN Document Server

    Mattis, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    The Luttinger Model is the only model of many-fermion physics with legitimate claims to be both exactly and completely solvable. In several respects it plays the same role in many-body theory as does the 2D Ising model in statistical physics. Interest in the Luttinger model has increased steadily ever since its introduction half a century ago. The present volume starts with reprints of the seminal papers in which it was originally introduced and solved, and continues with several contributions setting out the landscape of the principal advances of the last fifty years and of prominent new dire

  8. The history of highway transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Almeida Santos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The mismanagement of the highway transportation resources cannot be seen as new, mainly when the presence of both public sector and the diffuse regional interests, which are far away from the region necessities, are taken into consideration. Besides, it is imperative that the problems currently faced into transportation field be treated more seriously. These problems range from generation and management of required resources for construction and maintenance of roads, traffic jams to traffic violence. Yet they have been caused by both a lack of sensibility and political desire to solve issues and have brought serious consequences to the transportation sector itself as well. Another problem is the existence of contracts of privatization, which have given to the private road management companies full power and autonomy to manage profits without any kind of supervision. As a result the process of privatization only renamed the previous issues such as toll, resources application and tax collecting. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to introduce the origin of the resources in superhighway transportation focusing not only on describing its events but also discussing the causes, which have led to the serious problems showed above.

  9. Sustainable Waste Management for Green Highway Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Nur Illiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green highway initiative is the transportation corridors based on sustainable concept of roadway. It incorporates both transportation functionality and ecological requirements. Green highway also provides more sustainable construction technique that maximizes the lifespan of highway. Waste management is one of the sustainable criterias in the elements of green highway. Construction of highway consumes enormous amounts of waste in term of materials and energy. These wastes need to be reduce to sustain the environment. This paper aims to identify the types of waste produced from highway construction. Additionally, this study also determine the waste minimization strategy and waste management practiced.. This study main focus are construction and demolition waste only. The methodology process begin with data collection by using questionnaire survey. 22 concession companies listed under Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia acted as a respondent. The questionnaires were distributed to all technical department staffs. The data received was analyzed using IBM SPSS. The results shows the most production of waste is wood, soil, tree root and concrete. The least production of waste is metal. For waste minimization, the best waste minimization is reuse for all type of waste except for tree root and stump. Whereas, the best waste management is providing strategic plan. The least practice for waste management is recording the quantity of waste.

  10. Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risch, C.; Santini, D.J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-12-15

    Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

  11. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMC) from rainfall runoff on an urban highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Hyoungjun; Kim, Youngjin; Han, Moo Young

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characterization of the event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff during heavy precipitation events on highways. Highway runoff quality data were collected from the 7th highway, in South Korea during 2007-2009. The samples were analyzed for runoff quantity and quality parameters such as COD cr , TSS, TPHs, TKN, NO 3 , TP, PO 4 and six heavy metals, e.g., As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Analysis of resulting hydrographs and pollutant graphs indicates that the peak of the pollutant concentrations in runoff occurs 20 min after the first rainfall runoff occurrence. The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and the rainfall intensity. The results of this study can be used as a reference for water quality management of urban highways. - Research highlights: → Field test on urban highway were performed to 50 of 100 storm events for 3 years. → The peak pollutant concentrations occurs 20 min after the first runoff. → The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and rainfall intensity. → Relationship between runoff and event mean concentration for SS and COD. → A crest of the EMC by 70-80 m 3 /event and decreasing EMC after 70-80 m 3 /event. - This study investigate the characterization of the EMC of runoff during rainfall event on highway.

  12. Estimating Highway Volumes Using Vehicle Probe Data - Proof of Concept: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Stanley E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sadabadi, Kaveh [University of Maryland; SekuBa, PrzemysBaw [University of Maryland; Markow, Denise [I95 Corridor Coalition

    2018-03-13

    This paper examines the feasibility of using sampled commercial probe data in combination with validated continuous counter data to accurately estimate vehicle volume across the entire roadway network, for any hour during the year. Currently either real time or archived volume data for roadways at specific times are extremely sparse. Most volume data are average annual daily traffic (AADT) measures derived from the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS). Although methods to factor the AADT to hourly averages for typical day of week exist, actual volume data is limited to a sparse collection of locations in which volumes are continuously recorded. This paper explores the use of commercial probe data to generate accurate volume measures that span the highway network providing ubiquitous coverage in space, and specific point-in-time measures for a specific date and time. The paper examines the need for the data, fundamental accuracy limitations based on a basic statistical model that take into account the sampling nature of probe data, and early results from a proof of concept exercise revealing the potential of probe type data calibrated with public continuous count data to meet end user expectations in terms of accuracy of volume estimates.

  13. Estimating total maximum daily loads with the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory; Jones, Susan Cheung

    2017-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Rhode Island DOT are assessing and addressing roadway contributions to total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Example analyses for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, suspended sediment, and total zinc in highway runoff were done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with FHWA to simulate long-term annual loads for TMDL analyses with the stochastic empirical loading and dilution model known as SELDM. Concentration statistics from 19 highway runoff monitoring sites in Massachusetts were used with precipitation statistics from 11 long-term monitoring sites to simulate long-term pavement yields (loads per unit area). Highway sites were stratified by traffic volume or surrounding land use to calculate concentration statistics for rural roads, low-volume highways, high-volume highways, and ultraurban highways. The median of the event mean concentration statistics in each traffic volume category was used to simulate annual yields from pavement for a 29- or 30-year period. Long-term average yields for total nitrogen, phosphorus, and zinc from rural roads are lower than yields from the other categories, but yields of sediment are higher than for the low-volume highways. The average yields of the selected water quality constituents from high-volume highways are 1.35 to 2.52 times the associated yields from low-volume highways. The average yields of the selected constituents from ultraurban highways are 1.52 to 3.46 times the associated yields from high-volume highways. Example simulations indicate that both concentration reduction and flow reduction by structural best management practices are crucial for reducing runoff yields.

  14. Off-highway vehicle technology roadmap.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    The off-highway sector is under increasing pressure to reduce operating costs (including fuel costs) and to reduce emissions. Recognizing this, the Society of Automotive Engineers and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) convened a workshop in April 2001 (ANL 2001) to (1) determine the interest of the off-highway sector (consisting of agriculture, construction, surface mining, inland marine) in crafting a shared vision of off-highway, heavy machines of the future and (2) identify critical research and development (R and D) needs for minimizing off-highway vehicle emissions while cost-effectively maintaining or enhancing system performance. The workshop also enabled government and industry participants to exchange information. During the workshop, it became clear that the challenges facing the heavy, surface-based off-highway sector can be addressed in three major machine categories: (1) engine/aftertreatment and fuels/lubes, (2) machine systems, and (3) thermal management. Working groups convened to address these topical areas. The status of off-highway technologies was determined, critical technical barriers to achieving future emission standards were identified, and strategies and technologies for reducing fuel consumption were discussed. Priority areas for R and D were identified. Given the apparent success of the discussions at the workshop, several participants from industry agreed to help in the formation of a joint industry/government ''roadmap'' team. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has an extensive role in researching ways to make heavy-duty trucks and trains more efficient, with respect to both fuel usage and air emissions. The workshop participants felt that a joint industry/government research program that addresses the unique needs of the off-highway sector would complement the current research program for highway vehicles. With industry expertise, in-kind contributions, and federal government funding (coupled with

  15. Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  16. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  17. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  18. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  19. Model Year 2018 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-12-07

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  20. 15 years of food-chain modeling in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, R.; Galeriu, D.; Apostoaie, I.; Gheorghe, D.

    2002-01-01

    In the very begin of Chernobyl accident, the high contamination of food, the large variability and the unexpected behavior posed many problems in order to assess the radiological consequences. A simple dynamic food-chain model was built in early May and used for our first assessment on future food contamination and overall impact of Chernobyl in Romania. This quite primitive model show remarkable performance when compared in late 86 and 87 with measurements and our projection of dose was close to a factor two with 10 years later post assessment. After the slowing down of radiological stress we developed a more advanced, process level model of food chain, using not only all literature available but also all local measurements with quality assurance. This model, named LINDOZ, was first internationally applied in the frame of A4 scenario in BIOMOVS 1. and presented in the 1990 Stockholm conference. It was the first time when fallout solubility and foliar absorption were introduced in such a model, explaining very well the dynamics of grass and milk contamination. Upgrades of the model were done concerning deposition and retention and LINDOZ91 was successfully applied in international comparisons VAMP and BIOMOVS 2., including blind tests. Using local expertise and certified data, correlation between probability distribution of deposition and food contamination were used and successfully applied to predict Cs body content distribution in VAMP scenario. Extension to lake-fish was done and tested with excellent results in BIOMOVS 2. In 1994, the model was applied in the first attempt to assess food contamination in Iput region and this old results have been compared recently with those obtained last year by other modelers using updated scenario information. The key points in LINDOZ and its performances in international comparison exercises are presented. In 90'years the German model ECOSYS was spread in Europe and a variant (FDMT) was developed as a food-chain model for

  1. Computable general equilibrium model fiscal year 2013 capability development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-17

    This report documents progress made on continued developments of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) Computable General Equilibrium Model (NCGEM), developed in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2013, NISAC the treatment of the labor market and tests performed with the model to examine the properties of the solutions computed by the model. To examine these, developers conducted a series of 20 simulations for 20 U.S. States. Each of these simulations compared an economic baseline simulation with an alternative simulation that assumed a 20-percent reduction in overall factor productivity in the manufacturing industries of each State. Differences in the simulation results between the baseline and alternative simulations capture the economic impact of the reduction in factor productivity. While not every State is affected in precisely the same way, the reduction in manufacturing industry productivity negatively affects the manufacturing industries in each State to an extent proportional to the reduction in overall factor productivity. Moreover, overall economic activity decreases when manufacturing sector productivity is reduced. Developers ran two additional simulations: (1) a version of the model for the State of Michigan, with manufacturing divided into two sub-industries (automobile and other vehicle manufacturing as one sub-industry and the rest of manufacturing as the other subindustry); and (2) a version of the model for the United States, divided into 30 industries. NISAC conducted these simulations to illustrate the flexibility of industry definitions in NCGEM and to examine the simulation properties of in more detail.

  2. Yearly, seasonal and monthly daily average diffuse sky radiation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.S.; Mujahid, A.M.; Turner, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    A daily average diffuse sky radiation regression model based on daily global radiation was developed utilizing two year data taken near Blytheville, Arkansas (Lat. =35.9 0 N, Long. = 89.9 0 W), U.S.A. The model has a determination coefficient of 0.91 and 0.092 standard error of estimate. The data were also analyzed for a seasonal dependence and four seasonal average daily models were developed for the spring, summer, fall and winter seasons. The coefficient of determination is 0.93, 0.81, 0.94 and 0.93, whereas the standard error of estimate is 0.08, 0.102, 0.042 and 0.075 for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. A monthly average daily diffuse sky radiation model was also developed. The coefficient of determination is 0.92 and the standard error of estimate is 0.083. A seasonal monthly average model was also developed which has 0.91 coefficient of determination and 0.085 standard error of estimate. The developed monthly daily average and daily models compare well with a selected number of previously developed models. (author). 11 ref., figs., tabs

  3. Weighted Complex Network Analysis of Pakistan Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Tariq Mohmand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and properties of public transportation networks have great implications in urban planning, public policies, and infectious disease control. This study contributes a weighted complex network analysis of travel routes on the national highway network of Pakistan. The network is responsible for handling 75 percent of the road traffic yet is largely inadequate, poor, and unreliable. The highway network displays small world properties and is assortative in nature. Based on the betweenness centrality of the nodes, the most important cities are identified as this could help in identifying the potential congestion points in the network. Keeping in view the strategic location of Pakistan, such a study is of practical importance and could provide opportunities for policy makers to improve the performance of the highway network.

  4. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets - Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. Covered fleets may meet their EPAct requirements through one of two compliance methods: Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. For model year (MY) 2015, the compliance rate with this program for the more than 3011 reporting fleets was 100%. More than 294 fleets used Standard Compliance and exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 acquisition requirements by 8% through acquisitions alone. The seven covered fleets that used Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 petroleum use reduction requirements by 46%.

  5. In-use NOx emissions from model year 2010 and 2011 heavy-duty diesel engines equipped with aftertreatment devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Chandan; Collins, John F; Herner, Jorn D; Sax, Todd; Krishnamurthy, Mohan; Sobieralski, Wayne; Burntizki, Mark; Chernich, Don

    2013-07-16

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) undertook this study to characterize the in-use emissions of model year (MY) 2010 or newer diesel engines. Emissions from four trucks: one equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and three equipped with EGR and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) device were measured on two different routes with three different payloads using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) in the Sacramento area. Results indicated that brake-specific NOx emissions for the truck equipped only with an EGR were independent of the driving conditions. Results also showed that for typical highway driving conditions, the SCR technology is proving to be effective in controlling NOx emissions. However, under operations where the SCR's do not reach minimum operating temperature, like cold starts and some low load/slow speed driving conditions, NOx emissions are still elevated. The study indicated that strategies used to maintain exhaust temperature above a certain threshold, which are used in some of the newer SCRs, have the potential to control NOx emissions during certain low-load/slow speed driving conditions.

  6. 76 FR 8400 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mitsubishi Motors AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Grant of petition for exemption. SUMMARY: This...

  7. Characteristics of heavy metal pollution on roadside soil along highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    Highway traffic is the main source of heavy metal pollution. Due to limited cropland, it is very common to plant crops along the highways. So, in view of agricultural products safety, heavy metal pollution by highway traffic to soils along highway is widely concerned. Therefore, to study distribution traits, accumulative laws and influence factors of heavy metals in agricultural soils could provide scientific evidence and theoretical basis for environmental protection along express way.

  8. Green Performance Contracting Strategy for Highway Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    With the growing awareness of sustainability and global climate change, state highway agencies are taking essential steps to reduce carbon emissions from highway infrastructure on a life cycle basis. While much is known regarding climate change mitigation and adaption strategies during highway operation, very little is understood about how climate change issues should be integrated into highway planning, delivery, and construction processes. This paper presents the current contracting pra...

  9. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  10. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  11. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  12. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  13. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  14. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  15. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  16. Trends in the highway market for wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Knutson

    1975-01-01

    Forty-eight million cubic feet of wood products, about 50 million dollars worth, were used in the Nation's highway construction program in 1972. Expenditures for highway construction increased 2½ times from 1954 to 1972. The volume of wood products used in highway construction changed little during this period because other materials were substituted for...

  17. Air quality and energy impacts of NYSDOT highway ROW management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Mowing the highway right-of-way is important for the safety of roadway users and maintaining the highway infrastructure. However, little quantitative data are available on the energy use and air quality impacts of highway mowing activities. In this r...

  18. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS... industrial centers, including important routes into, through, and around urban areas, serve the national... importance in Canada and Mexico. (2) The portion of the Interstate System designated under 23 U.S.C. 103 (e...

  19. Assessment of Pronghorn movements and strategies to promote highway permeability : US Highway 89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) movements were investigated with Global Position System (GPS) : telemetry from 2007 to 2008 along a 28-mile stretch of U.S. Highway 89 in northern Arizona to develop : strategies to enhance permeability with future h...

  20. Countermeasures that work : a highway safety countermeasure guide for state highway safety offices : eighth edition : 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The guide is a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices in selecting effective, evidence- based : countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. These areas include: : - Alcohol-and Drug-Impaired Driving; : - Seat Belts and Child Res...

  1. The research on data organization technology in the highway geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhihui; Wu, Fang; Zeng, Yuhuai

    2008-10-01

    Data are the basis of GIS. It has direct impact on the efficiency and function of a Highway Geographic Information System (HGIS), because of the characteristics of data model and data organization of the traffic geographic information system such as spatial property, multi-path network, linearity. This paper discussed the data property of HGIS, studied and presented the HGIS spatial data on multi-source and model. Also, it described and verified highway geographical feature of special subject data's linearity, dynamic and multiple-path network property in HGIS.

  2. Impact of nuclear waste traffic on highways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebaaly, P.E.; Siddharthan, R.; Epps, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A system was developed to evaluate the impact of nuclear waste traffic on the structural performance of highway pavements throughout the state of Nevada. The associated needs of maintenance and rehabilitations can also be evaluated along with their costs. This paper summarizes the system and provides two sample analyses

  3. Module 13: Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program provides participating United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites with a basic, yet comprehensive, hazardous materials transportation training program for use onsite. This program may be used to assist individual program entities to satisfy the general awareness, safety training, and function specific training requirements addressed in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 49, Part 172, Subpart H -- ''Training.'' Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway is a supplement to the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop. Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway focuses on bulk shipments of hazardous materials by highway mode, which have additional or unique requirements beyond those addressed in the ten module core program. Attendance in this course of instruction should be limited to those individuals with work experience in transporting hazardous materials utilizing bulk packagings and who have completed the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop or an equivalent. Participants will become familiar with the rules and regulations governing the transportation by highway of hazardous materials in bulk packagings and will demonstrate the application of these requirements through work projects and examination

  4. Geospatial techniques for allocating vulnerability zoning of geohazards along the Karakorum Highway, Gilgit-Baltistan-Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K. M.; Rashid, S.; Yaseen, M.; Ikram, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Karakoram Highway (KKH) 'eighth wonder of the world', constructed and completed by the consent of Pakistan and China in 1979 as a Friendship Highway. It connect Gilgit-Baltistan, a strategically prominent region of Pakistan, with Xinjiang region in China. Due to manifold geology/geomorphology, soil formation, steep slopes, climate change well as unsustainable anthropogenic activities, still, KKH is remarkably vulnerable to natural hazards i.e. land subsistence, landslides, erosion, rock fall, floods, debris flows, cyclical torrential rainfall and snowfall, lake outburst etc. Most of the time these geohazard's damaging effects jeopardized the life in the region. To ascertain the nature and frequency of the disaster and vulnerability zoning, a rating and management (logistic) analysis were made to investigate the spatiotemporal sharing of the natural hazard. The substantial dynamics of the physiograpy, geology, geomorphology, soils and climate were carefully understand while slope, aspect, elevation, profile curvature and rock hardness was calculated by different techniques. To assess the nature and intensity geospatial analysis were conducted and magnitude of every factor was gauged by using logistic regression. Moreover, ever relative variable was integrated in the evaluation process. Logistic regression and geospatial techniques were used to map the geohazard vulnerability zoning (GVZ). The GVZ model findings were endorsed by the reviews of documented hazards in the current years and the precision was realized more than 88.1 %. The study has proved the model authentication by highlighting the comfortable indenture among the vulnerability mapping and past documented hazards. By using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the logistic regression model made satisfactory results. The outcomes will be useful in sustainable land use and infrastructure planning, mainly in high risk zones for reduceing economic damages and community betterment.

  5. Assessment of highway pavements using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plati, Christina; Loizos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Highway infrastructure is a prerequisite for a functioning economy and social life. Highways, often prone to congestion and disruption, are one of the aspects of a modern transport network that require maximum efficiency if an integrated transport network, and sustainable mobility, is to be achieved. Assessing the condition of highway structures, to plan subsequent maintenance, is essential to allow the long-term functioning of a road network. Optimizing the methods used for such assessment will lead to better information being obtained about the road and underlying ground conditions. The condition of highway structures will be affected by a number of factors, including the properties of the highway pavement, the supporting sub-base and the subgrade (natural ground), and the ability to obtain good information about the entire road structure, from pavement to subgrade, allows appropriate maintenance programs to be planned. The maintenance of highway pavements causes considerable cost and in many cases obstruction to traffic flow. In this situation, methods that provide information on the present condition of pavement structure non-destructively and economically are of great interest. It has been shown that Ground-Penetrating-Radar (GPR), which is a Non Destructive Technique (NDT), can deliver information that is useful for the planning of pavement maintenance activities. More specifically GPR is used by pavement engineers in order to determine physical properties and characteristics of the pavement structure, information that is valuable for the assessment of pavement condition. This work gives an overview on the practical application of GPR using examples from highway asphalt pavements monitoring. The presented individual applications of GPR pavement diagnostics concern structure homogeneity, thickness of pavement layers, dielectric properties of asphalt materials etc. It is worthwhile mentioning that a number of applications are standard procedures, either

  6. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A.; Blanks, Matthew G.; Merritt, Patrick M.; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines’ regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially

  7. Current Situation of Highway Daily Maintenance Management in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Feng Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the industry property, characteristics and management needs of highway maintenance project in Beijing, through investigation and research of the highway daily maintenance management, the present situation of highway repair and maintenance is expounded from the aspects such as the determination of maintenance funds and plan, maintenance management mode, and so on. Then in order to explore the new mechanisms for market management of highway maintenance, the advantages and disadvantages of highway maintenance and minor repairment of Beijing are analyzed.

  8. One thousand years of fires: Integrating proxy and model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Marie Kehrwald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The current fires raging across Indonesia are emitting more carbon than the annual fossil fuel emissions of Germany or Japan, and the fires are still consuming vast tracts of rainforest and peatlands. The National Interagency Fire Center (www.nifc.gov notes that 2015 is one worst fire years on record in the U.S., where more than 9 million acres burned -- equivalent to the combined size of Massachusetts and New Jersey. The U.S. and Indonesian fires have already displaced tens of thousands of people, and their impacts on ecosystems are still unclear. In the case of Indonesia, the burning peat is destroying much of the existing soil, with unknown implications for the type of vegetation regrowth. Such large fires result from a combination of fire management practices, increasing anthropogenic land use, and a changing climate. The expected increase in fire activity in the upcoming decades has led to a surge in research trying to understand their causes, the factors that may have influenced similar times of fire activity in the past, and the implications of such fire activity in the future. Multiple types of complementary data provide information on the impacts of current fires and the extent of past fires. The wide array of data encompasses different spatial and temporal resolutions (Figure 1 and includes fire proxy information such as charcoal and tree ring fire scars, observational records, satellite products, modern emissions data, fire models within global land cover and vegetation models, and sociodemographic data for modeling past human land use and ignition frequency. Any single data type is more powerful when combined with another source of information. Merging model and proxy data enables analyses of how fire activity modifies vegetation distribution, air and water quality, and proximity to cities; these analyses in turn support land management decisions relating to conservation and development.

  9. Multi-year predictability in a coupled general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Scott; Colman, Rob [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2006-02-01

    Multi-year to decadal variability in a 100-year integration of a BMRC coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (CGCM) is examined. The fractional contribution made by the decadal component generally increases with depth and latitude away from surface waters in the equatorial Indo-Pacific Ocean. The relative importance of decadal variability is enhanced in off-equatorial ''wings'' in the subtropical eastern Pacific. The model and observations exhibit ''ENSO-like'' decadal patterns. Analytic results are derived, which show that the patterns can, in theory, occur in the absence of any predictability beyond ENSO time-scales. In practice, however, modification to this stochastic view is needed to account for robust differences between ENSO-like decadal patterns and their interannual counterparts. An analysis of variability in the CGCM, a wind-forced shallow water model, and a simple mixed layer model together with existing and new theoretical results are used to improve upon this stochastic paradigm and to provide a new theory for the origin of decadal ENSO-like patterns like the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation. In this theory, ENSO-driven wind-stress variability forces internal equatorially-trapped Kelvin waves that propagate towards the eastern boundary. Kelvin waves can excite reflected internal westward propagating equatorially-trapped Rossby waves (RWs) and coastally-trapped waves (CTWs). CTWs have no impact on the off-equatorial sub-surface ocean outside the coastal wave guide, whereas the RWs do. If the frequency of the incident wave is too high, then only CTWs are excited. At lower frequencies, both CTWs and RWs can be excited. The lower the frequency, the greater the fraction of energy transmitted to RWs. This lowers the characteristic frequency of variability off the equator relative to its equatorial counterpart. Both the eastern boundary interactions and the accumulation of

  10. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE HIGHWAY 25 EXPANSION PROJECT ON AIR QUALITY IN MONTREAL USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara CHIABURU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of the highway 25 expansion project on air quality in montreal using gis. The aim of the paper is to assess local air pollution implications of the Highway 25 expansion project from Montreal. The basic concept of the roadway air dispersion model consists in calculating air pollutant levels in the vicinity of a highway by considering it as a line source. To fulfill this assessment, GIS software was used in order to determine pollutant distribution around the study area based on data collected by existing air monitoring stations located in the City of Montreal. GIS interpolation methods, notably Kriging and Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW, was used to generate maps of pollutant concentrations across the study area. From the results, recommendations will be made in regards to the project and appropriate mitigatory alternatives suggested.

  11. Comparison of Ferry Boat and Highway Bridge Energy Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D. Cottrell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger ferries serve a variety of transport needs in the U.S., such as providing vital links across bodies of water, and supplementing highway bridges. In some cases in which there is a ferry connection but no bridge, a bridge would be impractical; in other cases, a bridge might be feasible. The paper compares the energy consumption of ferries and motor vehicles on bridges, to determine which link is more fuel efficient. One finding is that limited data are available on ferry boat fuel consumption: despite there being 208 ferry boat operators in the U.S. as of 2008, only eight were providing energy use data to the National Transit Database. Examinations of three of the systems found that the passenger-MPG of the ferries ranged from 2.61 to 14.00 (1.11 to 5.95 km/L, while that of the motor vehicles on adjacent highway bridge connections ranged from 25.34 to 32.45 (10.77 to 13.79 km/L. Data from the eight systems are used to develop a ferry MPG model. The model is used to show that the Ryer Island and Charles Hall Ferries are less fuel efficient than hypothetical bridges in those locations. The fuel efficiencies and consumptions of the ferries would equal those of motor vehicles on the bridges, however, if smaller vessels were used, and if the frequency of service was reduced.

  12. Optimal Retrofit Scheme for Highway Network under Seismic Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxi Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many older highway bridges in the United States (US are inadequate for seismic loads and could be severely damaged or collapsed in a relatively small earthquake. According to the most recent American Society of Civil Engineers’ infrastructure report card, one-third of the bridges in the US are rated as structurally deficient and many of these structurally deficient bridges are located in seismic zones. To improve this situation, at-risk bridges must be identified and evaluated and effective retrofitting programs should be in place to reduce their seismic vulnerabilities. In this study, a new retrofit strategy decision scheme for highway bridges under seismic hazards is developed and seamlessly integrate the scenario-based seismic analysis of bridges and the traffic network into the proposed optimization modeling framework. A full spectrum of bridge retrofit strategies is considered based on explicit structural assessment for each seismic damage state. As an empirical case study, the proposed retrofit strategy decision scheme is utilized to evaluate the bridge network in one of the active seismic zones in the US, Charleston, South Carolina. The developed modeling framework, on average, will help increase network throughput traffic capacity by 45% with a cost increase of only $15million for the Mw 5.5 event and increase the capacity fourfold with a cost of only $32m for the Mw 7.0 event.

  13. Integrated prioritization method for active and passive highway-rail crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This two-year research project developed a prioritization system for highway-rail at-grade crossings that addressed the following major concerns: (1) warrants to identify low-volume, passive crossings with risk factors; (2) a broader priority index t...

  14. Dynamical Downscaling of NASA/GISS ModelE: Continuous, Multi-Year WRF Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, T.; Bowden, J. H.; Nolte, C. G.; Otte, M. J.; Herwehe, J. A.; Faluvegi, G.; Shindell, D. T.

    2010-12-01

    The WRF Model is being used at the U.S. EPA for dynamical downscaling of the NASA/GISS ModelE fields to assess regional impacts of climate change in the United States. The WRF model has been successfully linked to the ModelE fields in their raw hybrid vertical coordinate, and continuous, multi-year WRF downscaling simulations have been performed. WRF will be used to downscale decadal time slices of ModelE for recent past, current, and future climate as the simulations being conducted for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report become available. This presentation will focus on the sensitivity to interior nudging within the RCM. The use of interior nudging for downscaled regional climate simulations has been somewhat controversial over the past several years but has been recently attracting attention. Several recent studies that have used reanalysis (i.e., verifiable) fields as a proxy for GCM input have shown that interior nudging can be beneficial toward achieving the desired downscaled fields. In this study, the value of nudging will be shown using fields from ModelE that are downscaled using WRF. Several different methods of nudging are explored, and it will be shown that the method of nudging and the choices made with respect to how nudging is used in WRF are critical to balance the constraint of ModelE against the freedom of WRF to develop its own fields.

  15. Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-04-08

    The www.fueleconomy.gov website offers information such as window label fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to the present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this conventional wisdom through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval. The models presented require a minimal number of vehicle attributes. The simplest model requires only the EPA window label highway mpg value (based on the EPA specified estimation method for 2008 and beyond). The most complex of these simple model uses vehicle coast-down test coefficients (from testing prescribed by SAE Standard J2263) known as the vehicle Target Coefficients, and the raw fuel economy result from the federal highway test. Statistical comparisons of these models and discussions of their expected usefulness and limitations are offered.

  16. 75 FR 68251 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ....regulations.gov or e-mail. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which... emissions inventory was calculated using EPA's MOBILE6.2 and the Highway Performance Monitoring System model... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; 2002 Base Year Emission Inventory, Reasonable...

  17. A STUDY OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ON-HIGHWAY FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-11

    Annual highway fuel taxes are collected by the Treasury Department and placed in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). There is, however, no direct connection between the taxes collected by the Treasury Department and the gallons of on-highway fuel use, which can lead to a discrepancy between these totals. This study was conducted to determine how much of a discrepancy exists between the total fuel usages estimated based on highway revenue funds as reported by the Treasury Department and the total fuel usages used in the apportionment of the HTF to the States. The analysis was conducted using data from Highway Statistics Tables MF-27 and FE-9 for the years 1991-2001. It was found that the overall discrepancy is relatively small, mostly within 5% difference. The amount of the discrepancy varies from year to year and varies among the three fuel types (gasoline, gasohol, special fuels). Several potential explanations for these discrepancies were identified, including issues on data, tax measurement, gallon measurement, HTF receipts, and timing. Data anomalies caused by outside forces, such as deferment of tax payments from one fiscal year to the next, can skew fuel tax data. Fuel tax evasion can lead to differences between actual fuel use and fuel taxes collected. Furthermore, differences in data collection and reporting among States can impact fuel use data. Refunds, credits, and transfers from the HTF can impact the total fuel tax receipt data. Timing issues, such as calendar year vs. fiscal year, can also cause some discrepancy between the two data sources.

  18. Alaska Highway bibliography, 3rd edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    Since the early 20th century various schemes were considered for the construction of roads, trails or railways 71 to link the Yukon, northern British Columbia and Alaska to the “outside.” These schemes were motivated by economic interests, including mining, lumber and tourism concerns. During...... the 1920s and 1930s a small but vocal group of “builders” began to campaign for a highway, either a coastal or inland route, to improve the northwest’s economic base. With the impending threat of war in the late 1930s, there was an increasing awareness by the American and Canadian governments...... increasing military needs. The unexpected bombing of Pearl Harbour in December 1941 stimulated interest in the construction of the Alaska Highway by the American government. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers selected a route based on the location of the NWSR airfields and the military needs for an alternative...

  19. Radioisotopes and their applications in highway testings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Applications of radioisotopes in highway testing are described. Radioisotopic methods have been used to determine : (1) moisture and density of soil and base materials for compaction control, (2) magnesium oxide content of cement, (3) permeability of bituminous coverings and (4) field density of freshly laid hot bituminous concrete surface. Possible uses of nuclear explosives for production of aggregates and of radioisotopes for determination of deflection in the design of flexible pavements are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  20. Highway Safety, Economic Behavior, and Driving Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Keeler, Theodore E.

    1991-01-01

    Economic analysis has enhanced our understanding of the efficacy of highway safety regulations. Specifically, a consumer-theoretic literature has developed on drivers' responses to regulations, based on ideas first set forth by Lester lave and W. E. Weber (1970) and more fully thought out by Sam Peltzman (1975). Meanwhile, an empirical literature has also developed, testing hypotheses relating to the effects on safety of speed limits, safety-device regulations, and alcohol policies, among oth...

  1. Autonomous Highway Systems Safety and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad, Imran

    2017-01-01

    Automated vehicles are getting closer each day to large-scale deployment. It is expected that self-driving cars will be able to alleviate traffic congestion by safely operating at distances closer than human drivers are capable of and will overall improve traffic throughput. In these conditions, passenger safety and security is of utmost importance. When multiple autonomous cars follow each other on a highway, they will form what is known as a cyber-physical system. In a general setting, t...

  2. 75 FR 11624 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... X PBA 3000[dash]P X X PBA 3000C X X Alcohol Data Sensor X X Phoenix X X Phoenix 6.0 X X EV 30 X X FC...-0016] Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement... 71480) for instruments that conform to the Model Specifications for Evidential Breath Alcohol...

  3. Evolution of aerosol downwind of a major highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggio, J.; Staebler, R. M.; Brook, J.; Li, S.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Gordon, M.; Makar, P.; Mihele, C.; Evans, G. J.; Jeong, C.; Wentzell, J. J.; Lu, G.; Lee, P.

    2010-12-01

    Primary aerosol from traffic emissions can have a considerable impact local and regional scale air quality. In order to assess the effect of these emissions and of future emissions scenarios, air quality models are required which utilize emissions representative of real world conditions. Often, the emissions processing systems which provide emissions input for the air quality models rely on laboratory testing of individual vehicles under non-ambient conditions. However, on the sub-grid scale particle evolution may lead to changes in the primary emitted size distribution and gas-particle partitioning that are not properly considered when the emissions are ‘instantly mixed’ within the grid volume. The affect of this modeling convention on model results is not well understood. In particular, changes in organic gas/particle partitioning may result in particle evaporation or condensation onto pre-existing aerosol. The result is a change in the particle distribution and/or an increase in the organic mass available for subsequent gas-phase oxidation. These effects may be missing from air-quality models, and a careful analysis of field data is necessary to quantify their impact. A study of the sub-grid evolution of aerosols (FEVER; Fast Evolution of Vehicle Emissions from Roadways) was conducted in the Toronto area in the summer of 2010. The study included mobile measurements of particle size distributions with a Fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS), aerosol composition with an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), black carbon (SP2, PA, LII), VOCs (PTR-MS) and other trace gases. The mobile laboratory was used to measure the concentration gradient of the emissions at perpendicular distances from the highway as well as the physical and chemical evolution of the aerosol. Stationary sites at perpendicular distances and upwind from the highway also monitored the particle size distribution. In addition, sonic anemometers mounted on the mobile lab provided measurements of

  4. Nationwide desert highway assessment: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang

    2011-07-01

    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert's comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection.

  5. Trend and concentrations of legacy lead (Pb) in highway runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayhanian, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of lead (Pb) concentrations from both highway runoff and contaminated soil along 32 and 23 highway sites, respectively. In general, the Pb concentration on topsoil (0–15 cm) along highways was much higher than the Pb concentration in subsurface soil (15–60 cm). The Pb deposited on soil appears to be anthropogenic and a strong correlation was found between the Pb concentration in surface soil and highway runoff in urban areas. The concentration of Pb measured during 1980s from highways runoff throughout the world was up to 11 times higher than the measured values in mid 1990s and 2000s. The current Pb deposited on soil near highways appears to be a mixture of paint, tire weight balance and old leaded gasoline combustion. Overall, the Pb phase-out regulation reduced the Pb deposits in the environment and consequently lowered Pb loading into receiving waters. - Highlights: ► Pb concentrations in highway runoff ranged from 0.5 to 752 mg/L. ► 78% of total lead concentration in highway runoff was in particulate form. ► Pb deposited on highway sites was mostly within 0 to 15 cm of soil column. ► Pb concentration in highway runoff and top soil was strongly correlated. ► Current Pb concentration in highway runoff is up to 11 times lower than late 1980s. - Most Pb deposited on soil near highways is within the top 15 cm. This Pb is the major sources of Pb concentration in highway runoff that has substantially been reduced since lead phase-out era.

  6. Eight Year Climatologies from Observational (AIRS) and Model (MERRA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Andrey; Won, Young-In; Theobalk, Mike; Vollmer, Bruce; Manning, Evan; Smith, Peter; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Greg

    2010-01-01

    We examine climatologies derived from eight years of temperature, water vapor, cloud, and trace gas observations made by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument flying on the Aqua satellite and compare them to similar climatologies constructed with data from a global assimilation model, the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). We use the AIRS climatologies to examine anomalies and trends in the AIRS data record. Since sampling can be an issue for infrared satellites in low earth orbit, we also use the MERRA data to examine the AIRS sampling biases. By sampling the MERRA data at the AIRS space-time locations both with and without the AIRS quality control we estimate the sampling bias of the AIRS climatology and the atmospheric conditions where AIRS has a lower sampling rate. While the AIRS temperature and water vapor sampling biases are small at low latitudes, they can be more than a few degrees in temperature or 10 percent in water vapor at higher latitudes. The largest sampling biases are over desert. The AIRS and MERRA data are available from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The AIRS climatologies we used are available for analysis with the GIOVANNI data exploration tool. (see, http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  7. Acoustic Vocal Tract Model of One-year-old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vojnović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract shape imaging (X-ray, magnetic resonance, etc. are not appropriate for children. One possibility is to start from the shape of the adult vocal tract and correct it based on anatomical, morphological and articulatory differences between children and adults. This paper presents a method for vocal tract shape estimation of the child aged one year. The initial shapes of the vocal tract refer to the Russian vowels spoken by an adult male. All the relevant anatomical and articulation parameters, that influence the formant frequencies, are analyzed. Finally, the hypothetical configurations of the children’s vocal tract, for the five vowels, are presented.

  8. Updating a Strategic Highway Safety Plan : Learning from the Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) - Proceedings from the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) Highway Safety Peer-to-Peer Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    On November 4, 2009, ITDs Office of Highway Operations and Safety partnered with the FHWA Office of Safety to host a one-day peer exchange. This event focused on the update of Idahos Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP), entitled Toward Zero...

  9. Reflection of a Year Long Model-Driven Business and UI Modeling Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukaviriya, Noi; Mani, Senthil; Sinha, Vibha

    Model-driven software development enables users to specify an application at a high level - a level that better matches problem domain. It also promises the users with better analysis and automation. Our work embarks on two collaborating domains - business process and human interactions - to build an application. Business modeling expresses business operations and flows then creates business flow implementation. Human interaction modeling expresses a UI design, its relationship with business data, logic, and flow, and can generate working UI. This double modeling approach automates the production of a working system with UI and business logic connected. This paper discusses the human aspects of this modeling approach after a year long of building a procurement outsourcing contract application using the approach - the result of which was deployed in December 2008. The paper discusses in multiple areas the happy endings and some heartache. We end with insights on how a model-driven approach could do better for humans in the process.

  10. A comprehensive methodology for the analysis of highway sight distance

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Malpica, María; Santos Berbel, César de; Iglesias Martínez, Luis

    2017-01-01

    As one of the main elements of geometric design, sight distance must be considered carefully for the safe and efficient operation of highways. An application developed on geographic information systems (GIS) was con-ceived for the three-dimensional estimation of sight distance on highways, as opposed to conventional two-dimensional techniques, which may underestimate or overestimate the actual visibility conditions. It is capable of computing the available sight distance of a highway section ...

  11. 76 FR 1664 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 99 (Segment G)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... on State Highway 99 (Segment G) AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of.... 139(l)(1). The actions relate to a proposed highway project, Grand Parkway (State Highway 99) Segment... (State Highway 99) Segment G from I- 45 to US 59 in Harris and Montgomery Counties; FHWA Project...

  12. Landslides along Highways: GIS-based Inventory and Planning Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Ann-Kathrin; Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    assess landslide impacts and the effectiveness of measures for their mitigation. The landslide inventory is part of an ongoing study concerned with the problems of damage financing at low-volume roads in mountain areas with shrinking populations and fiscal deficits. Using the example of the Harz Mountains, a key research question refers to a comparison of the costs necessary to spend for safe road operations with the benefits from providing traffic connections to landslide-prone rural communities. This study combines the damage and loss data stored in the inventory with different data sets on traffic density, local population, and road financing. The research results contribute to the development of planning strategies for cost-efficient maintenance of highway infrastructures exposed to landslide hazards. References Bhandary, N.P., Yatabe, R., Dahal, R.K., Hasegawa, S., Inagaki, H., 2013. Areal distribution of large-scale landslides along highway corridors in central Nepal. Georisk 7, 1-20. Hungr, O., Evans, S.G., Hazzard, J., 1999. Magnitude and frequency of rock falls and rockslides along the main transportation corridors of southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 36, 224-238 Klose, M., Damm, B., Terhorst, B., 2014b. Landslide cost modeling for transportation infrastructures: a methodological approach. Landslides, DOI 10.1007/s10346-014-0481-1. Saha, A.K., Arora, M.K., Gupta, R.P., Virdi, M.L., Csaplovics, E., 2005. GIS-based route planning in landslide-prone areas. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 19, 1149-1175.

  13. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    on the major roads (150 km) in the municipality of North Funen from the winter 2007/8. The result has been a dramatically reduction in the number of traffic accidents on slippery roads during the winter season. From 7 and 5 accidents in the previous 2 winters to 1 accident in the winter 2007/8. Neighbouring...... municipalities had an increasing number of traffic accidents on slippery roads in the same period.......During the years 1996-2006, the former county of Funen, Denmark, gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine spread with nozzles as anti-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor traffic flow...

  15. Determination of Optimum Cross-section for Oran Highway Revetment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu, Deniz; Sogut, Erdinc; Guler, Isikhan

    2017-04-01

    Revetments are shore parallel, sloping coastal structures which are built to provide protection from the negative effects of the sea. The revetment mentioned in this study is located in the City of Oran, Algeria and is currently under construction. This study investigates the determination of the optimum revetment cross section for Oran highway, considering both the hydraulic stability of the revetment and economy. The existence of cliffs in the region and the settlement of the City of Oran created a necessity to re-align Oran highway; therefore, it was shifted towards the Gulf of Oran. Approximately 1 km of the highway is to be constructed on the Mediterranean Sea due to the new alignment. In order to protect the sea side of the road from the adverse effects of the sea, a revetment was designed. The proposed cross section had an armour layer composed of 23 tons of antifer units and regular placement of armour units was recommended. In order to check the hydraulic stability of the proposed section, physical model tests were performed in the laboratory of LEM (Laboratoire d'Etudes Maritimes) in Algeria, using the pre-determined design wave conditions. The physical model tests revealed that the trunk of the revetment was totaly damaged. Accordingly, the proposed section was found insufficient and certain modifications were required. The first modification was made in the arrangement of armour units, changing them from regular to irregular. After testing the new cross section, it was observed that the revetment was vulnerable to breaking wave attack due to the toe geometry and thus the toe of the revetment had to be re-shaped. Therefore, the second option was to reduce the toe elevation. It was observed that even though the revetment trunk was safe, the damage in the toe was not in acceptable limits. The new cross section was found insufficient and as the final option, the weight of the antifer units used in the armour layer was increased, the toe length of the

  16. Short-term impacts of a 4-lane highway on black bears in eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manen, Frank T.; McCollister, Matthew F.; Nicholson, Jeremy M.; Thompson, Laura M.; Kindall, Jason L.; Jones, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Among numerous anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial landscapes, expanding transportation networks represent one of the primary challenges to wildlife conservation worldwide. Larger mammals may be particularly vulnerable because of typically low densities, low reproductive rates, and extensive movements. Although numerous studies have been conducted to document impacts of road networks on wildlife, inference has been limited because of experimental design limitations. During the last decade, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) rerouted and upgraded sections of United States Highway 64 between Raleigh and the Outer Banks to a 4-lane, divided highway. A new route was selected for a 24.1-km section in Washington County. The new section of highway included 3 wildlife underpasses with adjacent wildlife fencing to mitigate the effects of the highway on wildlife, particularly American black bears (Ursus americanus). We assessed the short-term impacts of the new highway on spatial ecology, population size, survival, occupancy, and gene flow of black bears. We tested our research hypotheses using a before-after control-impact (BACI) study design. We collected data during 2000–2001 (preconstruction phase) and 2006–2007 (postconstruction phase) in the highway project area and a nearby control area (each approx. 11,000 ha), resulting in 4 groups of data (i.e., pre- or postconstruction study phase, treatment or control area). We captured and radiocollared 57 bears and collected 5,775 hourly locations and 4,998 daily locations. Using mixed-model analysis of variance and logistic regression, we detected no differences in home ranges, movement characteristics, proximity to the highway alignment, or habitat use between the 2 study phases, although minimum detectable effect sizes were large for several tests. However, after completion of the new highway, bears on the treatment area became less inactive in morning, when highway traffic was low, compared with

  17. Polynomial friction pendulum isolators (PFPIs) for seismic performance control of benchmark highway bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arijit; Saha, Purnachandra; Patro, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-10-01

    The seismic response of a benchmark highway bridge isolated with passive polynomial friction pendulum isolators (PFPIs) is investigated and subjected to six bidirectional ground motion records. The benchmark study is based on a lumped mass finite-element model of the 91/5 highway overcrossing located in Southern California. The PFPI system possesses two important parameters; one is horizontal flexibility and the other is energy absorbing capacity through friction. The evaluation criteria of the benchmark bridge are analyzed considering two parameters, time period of the isolator and coefficient of friction of the isolation surface. The results of the numerical study are compared with those obtained from the traditional friction pendulum system (FPS). Dual design performance of the PFPI system suppressed the displacement and acceleration response of the benchmark highway bridge. The dual design hysteresis loop of the PFPI system is the main advantage over the linear hysteresis loop of the FPS. The numerical result indicates that the seismic performance of the PFPI system is better than that of the traditional FPS isolated system. Further, it is observed that variations of the isolation time period and coefficient of friction of the FPS and PFPI systems have a significant effect on the peak responses of the benchmark highway bridge.

  18. Engineering Solutions to Enhance Traffic Safety Performance on Two-Lane Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving two-lane highway traffic safety conditions is of practical importance to the traffic system, which has attracted significant research attention within the last decade. Many cost-effective and proactive solutions such as low-cost treatments and roadway safety monitoring programs have been developed to enhance traffic safety performance under prevailing conditions. This study presents research perspectives achieved from the Highway Safety Enhancement Project (HSEP that assessed safety performance on two-lane highways in Beijing, China. Potential causal factors are identified based on proposed evaluation criteria, and primary countermeasures are developed against inferior driving conditions such as sharp curves, heavy gradients, continuous downgrades, poor sight distance, and poor clear zones. Six cost-effective engineering solutions were specifically implemented to improve two-lane highway safety conditions, including (1 traffic sign replacement, (2 repainting pavement markings, (3 roadside barrier installation, (4 intersection channelization, (5 drainage optimization, and (6 sight distance improvement. The effectiveness of these solutions was examined and evaluated based on Empirical Bayes (EB models. The results indicate that the proposed engineering solutions effectively improved traffic safety performance by significantly reducing crash occurrence risks and crash severities.

  19. Computable general equilibrium model fiscal year 2014 capability development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-05-11

    This report provides an overview of the development of the NISAC CGE economic modeling capability since 2012. This capability enhances NISAC's economic modeling and analysis capabilities to answer a broader set of questions than possible with previous economic analysis capability. In particular, CGE modeling captures how the different sectors of the economy, for example, households, businesses, government, etc., interact to allocate resources in an economy and this approach captures these interactions when it is used to estimate the economic impacts of the kinds of events NISAC often analyzes.

  20. CNNH_PSS: protein 8-class secondary structure prediction by convolutional neural network with highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiyun; Wang, Hongpeng; Zhao, Zhishan; Xu, Ruifeng; Lu, Qin

    2018-05-08

    Protein secondary structure is the three dimensional form of local segments of proteins and its prediction is an important problem in protein tertiary structure prediction. Developing computational approaches for protein secondary structure prediction is becoming increasingly urgent. We present a novel deep learning based model, referred to as CNNH_PSS, by using multi-scale CNN with highway. In CNNH_PSS, any two neighbor convolutional layers have a highway to deliver information from current layer to the output of the next one to keep local contexts. As lower layers extract local context while higher layers extract long-range interdependencies, the highways between neighbor layers allow CNNH_PSS to have ability to extract both local contexts and long-range interdependencies. We evaluate CNNH_PSS on two commonly used datasets: CB6133 and CB513. CNNH_PSS outperforms the multi-scale CNN without highway by at least 0.010 Q8 accuracy and also performs better than CNF, DeepCNF and SSpro8, which cannot extract long-range interdependencies, by at least 0.020 Q8 accuracy, demonstrating that both local contexts and long-range interdependencies are indeed useful for prediction. Furthermore, CNNH_PSS also performs better than GSM and DCRNN which need extra complex model to extract long-range interdependencies. It demonstrates that CNNH_PSS not only cost less computer resource, but also achieves better predicting performance. CNNH_PSS have ability to extracts both local contexts and long-range interdependencies by combing multi-scale CNN and highway network. The evaluations on common datasets and comparisons with state-of-the-art methods indicate that CNNH_PSS is an useful and efficient tool for protein secondary structure prediction.

  1. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement: intervention model fiscal year 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), in cooperation with the researcher, has developed an analytic model to measure the effectiveness of roadside inspections and traffic enforcements in terms of crashes avoided, injuries avoided, ...

  2. Effect of Using Extreme Years in Hydrologic Model Calibration Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktas, R. K.; Tezel, U.; Kargi, P. G.; Ayvaz, T.; Tezyapar, I.; Mesta, B.; Kentel, E.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological models are useful in predicting and developing management strategies for controlling the system behaviour. Specifically they can be used for evaluating streamflow at ungaged catchments, effect of climate change, best management practices on water resources, or identification of pollution sources in a watershed. This study is a part of a TUBITAK project named "Development of a geographical information system based decision-making tool for water quality management of Ergene Watershed using pollutant fingerprints". Within the scope of this project, first water resources in Ergene Watershed is studied. Streamgages found in the basin are identified and daily streamflow measurements are obtained from State Hydraulic Works of Turkey. Streamflow data is analysed using box-whisker plots, hydrographs and flow-duration curves focusing on identification of extreme periods, dry or wet. Then a hydrological model is developed for Ergene Watershed using HEC-HMS in the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) environment. The model is calibrated for various time periods including dry and wet ones and the performance of calibration is evaluated using Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), correlation coefficient, percent bias (PBIAS) and root mean square error. It is observed that calibration period affects the model performance, and the main purpose of the development of the hydrological model should guide calibration period selection. Acknowledgement: This study is funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Project Number 115Y064.

  3. Geotechnical considerations of perennial failures of a highway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The causes of frequent failures of the Kumasi – Accra highway section at Wiwiso have been investigated to offer remedial measures on future reconstruction works. The study of the highway section at Wiwiso has revea-led that pavements can undergo considerable distress when seepage control considerations are partially ...

  4. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter highway... investment under section 46(c)(1) for a qualifying commuter highway vehicle is 100 percent. A qualifying... meets the following requirements: (1) The vehicle is section 38 property in the hands of the taxpayer...

  5. Peak discharge, flood frequency, and peak stage of floods on Big Cottonwood Creek at U.S. Highway 50 near Coaldale, Colorado, and Fountain Creek below U.S. Highway 24 in Colorado Springs, Colorado, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.; Stevens, Michael R.; Mommandi, Amanullah; Khan, Aziz R.

    2017-12-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Transportation, determined the peak discharge, annual exceedance probability (flood frequency), and peak stage of two floods that took place on Big Cottonwood Creek at U.S. Highway 50 near Coaldale, Colorado (hereafter referred to as “Big Cottonwood Creek site”), on August 23, 2016, and on Fountain Creek below U.S. Highway 24 in Colorado Springs, Colorado (hereafter referred to as “Fountain Creek site”), on August 29, 2016. A one-dimensional hydraulic model was used to estimate the peak discharge. To define the flood frequency of each flood, peak-streamflow regional-regression equations or statistical analyses of USGS streamgage records were used to estimate annual exceedance probability of the peak discharge. A survey of the high-water mark profile was used to determine the peak stage, and the limitations and accuracy of each component also are presented in this report. Collection and computation of flood data, such as peak discharge, annual exceedance probability, and peak stage at structures critical to Colorado’s infrastructure are an important addition to the flood data collected annually by the USGS.The peak discharge of the August 23, 2016, flood at the Big Cottonwood Creek site was 917 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) with a measurement quality of poor (uncertainty plus or minus 25 percent or greater). The peak discharge of the August 29, 2016, flood at the Fountain Creek site was 5,970 ft3/s with a measurement quality of poor (uncertainty plus or minus 25 percent or greater).The August 23, 2016, flood at the Big Cottonwood Creek site had an annual exceedance probability of less than 0.01 (return period greater than the 100-year flood) and had an annual exceedance probability of greater than 0.005 (return period less than the 200-year flood). The August 23, 2016, flood event was caused by a precipitation event having an annual exceedance probability of 1.0 (return

  6. Glaciers along proposed routes extending the Copper River Highway, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Three inland highway routes are being considered by the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities to connect the community of Cordova in southcentral Alaska to a statewide road system. The routes use part of a Copper River and Northwest Railway alignment along the Copper River through mountainous terrain having numerous glaciers. An advance of any of several glaciers could block and destroy the roadway, whereas retreating glaciers expose large quantities of unconsolidated, unvegetated, and commonly ice-rich sediments. The purpose of this study was to map historical locations of glacier termini near these routes and to describe hazards associated with glaciers and seasonal snow. Historical and recent locations of glacier termini along the proposed Copper River Highway routes were determined by reviewing reports and maps and by interpreting aerial photographs. The termini of Childs, Grinnell, Tasnuna, and Woodworth Glaciers were 1 mile or less from a proposed route in the most recently available aerial photography (1978-91); the termini of Allen, Heney, and Schwan Glaciers were 1.5 miles or less from a proposed route. In general, since 1911, most glaciers have slowly retreated, but many glaciers have had occasional advances. Deserted Glacier and one of its tributary glaciers have surge-type medial moraines, indicating potential rapid advances. The terminus of Deserted Glacier was about 2.1 miles from a proposed route in 1978, but showed no evidence of surging. Snow and rock avalanches and snowdrifts are common along the proposed routes and will periodically obstruct the roadway. Floods from ice-dammed lakes also pose a threat. For example, Van Cleve Lake, adjacent to Miles Glacier, is as large as 4.4 square miles and empties about every 6 years. Floods from drainages of Van Cleve Lake have caused the Copper River to rise on the order of 20 feet at Million Dollar Bridge.

  7. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  8. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  9. Study of different environmental matrices to access the extension of metal contamination along highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Sônia; Melo, Vander Freitas; Nagata, Noemi

    2018-02-01

    Metals are indicators of contamination by anthropic activities, such as road traffic. To assess the extent of the metal contamination, more comprehensive studies analyzing different environmental matrices, such as soils, dust, and plants, collected in different sites that are potential sources of these pollutants along the highways, must be prioritized. Samples of soils, dust, and plants were collected alongside the highways of Brazil at 20 sites selected in strategic locations of metal accumulation (Cr, Pb, Zn, As, and Sb) or different situations of the high ways during two rain conditions (wet and dry weeks of sampling): nearby gutters and water supplies, tolls, petrol stations, a federal road police station, and areas associated with agriculture (yearly culture planting upstream of the highway). The geoaccumulation index (metal concentration in the sample of interest/background) varied from 0 to 6, and the decreasing order of contamination by metals during the wet and dry periods were, respectively: Zn > As > Pb = Sb > Cr and Zn > As > Pb > Cr > Sb. In the soils near the highways, the highest concentrations of metals were as follows (mg kg -1 ): As = 15.6, Cr = 81.9, Pb = 39.7, Sb = 5.0, and Zn = 379.3. The highest amounts of these elements in the most superficial layer in soils indicated their addition through atmospheric emissions. The most prominent metal was Sb, whose concentration was greater than the quality limits for soils. The concentration of Sb in soils was higher in the wet week than in the dry week. The emissions from road traffic promoted the increase in metals in the dust on the track, especially Zn and Pb. The highest metal concentrations in grasses (Brachiaria) were found in the roots, except for Sb and Zn, which suggests leaf absorption of atmospheric deposition. Metal contamination was widespread in all studied matrices along the highways.

  10. Using tailings and waste products of mining and processing plants for the construction of highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Khazin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia is one of the richest regions of Russia. However, the hardness of the climate in this region amends its full development. The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia has a poorly developed network of highways and railroads. The active development of the fields of the region has been in progress since the middle of last century. However, more than 16 thousand potential deposits remain understudied. Thus, it is necessary to build highways with due regard for modern techniques and technologies of construction for the development of industry as well as socio-economic spheres in this region. This article deals with the issues of potential use of tailings of the diamond mining industry for the construction of highways. Moreover, the amounts of dumps available would be enough to construct more than 20 thousand km of double-track highways, for the industrial and civil purposes. The advantage of the use of the refuse heaps is their proximity to the potential route. First of all, it is necessary to build a transport road, which would connect the Trans-Siberian railway with the Northern sea route. Construction technology should be adapted to the climatic characteristics of the region, therefore providing a uniform resource usage all year round. For the accelerated construction of subgrade, the two lines of railway should be placed on the same roadbed. After the construction of the subgrade of the entire section one of the ways could be dismantled and the movement of vehicles could be organized in its stead, after the preparation of the pavement. This will result in the construction of the roads with combined traffic for road transport as well as railroad transport. The construction of highways in this region must be associated with the transport strategy of Russia until 2030 and 2050.

  11. The early years of string theory: The dual resonance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1987-10-01

    This paper reviews the past quantum mechanical history of the dual resonance model which is an early string theory. The content of this paper is listed as follows: historical review, the Veneziano amplitude, the operator formalism, the ghost story, and the string story

  12. Factors associated with self-reported inattentive driving at highway-rail grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal J

    2017-12-01

    This research identified factors associated with inattentive driving at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings (HRGCs) by investigating drivers' self-reported inattentive driving experiences and factors pertaining to their socioeconomic, personality, attitudinal, and other characteristics. A random selection of 2500 households in Nebraska received a survey questionnaire designed for licensed motor vehicle drivers; respondents returned 980 questionnaires. Factor analysis identified latent variables evaluating drivers' patience and inclination to wait for trains, attitudes toward new technology, law enforcement or education regarding HRGC safety, and the propensity to commit serious traffic violations at HRGCs. The investigation utilized a structural equation model for analysis. This model indicated that drivers with a higher risk of inattentive driving at HRGCs were: female, younger in age, from households with higher incomes, with shorter tenure (in years) in their current city of residence, more frequently used HRGCs, received less information on safety at HRGCs, had less patience to wait for trains to pass and had less interest in safety improvement technology, law enforcement or safety education at HRGCs. These research findings provide useful information for future research and to policy makers for improving public safety. Additionally, the results are useful for safety educational program providers for targeted program delivery to drivers that are more vulnerable to distracted driving at HRGCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Landslide susceptibility near highways is increased by 1 order of magnitude in the Andes of southern Ecuador, Loja province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, A.; Schwinn, M.; Ruiz-Páez, A. P.; Muenchow, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain roads in developing countries are known to increase landslide occurrence due to often inadequate drainage systems and mechanical destabilization of hillslopes by undercutting and overloading. This study empirically investigates landslide initiation frequency along two paved interurban highways in the tropical Andes of southern Ecuador across different climatic regimes. Generalized additive models (GAM) and generalized linear models (GLM) were used to analyze the relationship between mapped landslide initiation points and distance to highway while accounting for topographic, climatic, and geological predictors as possible confounders. A spatial block bootstrap was used to obtain nonparametric confidence intervals for the odds ratio of landslide occurrence near the highways (25 m distance) compared to a 200 m distance. The estimated odds ratio was 18-21, with lower 95% confidence bounds >13 in all analyses. Spatial bootstrap estimation using the GAM supports the higher odds ratio estimate of 21.2 (95% confidence interval: 15.5-25.3). The highway-related effects were observed to fade at about 150 m distance. Road effects appear to be enhanced in geological units characterized by Holocene gravels and Laramide andesite/basalt. Overall, landslide susceptibility was found to be more than 1 order of magnitude higher in close proximity to paved interurban highways in the Andes of southern Ecuador.

  14. Landslide susceptibility near highways is increased by one order of magnitude in the Andes of southern Ecuador, Loja province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, A.; Schwinn, M.; Ruiz-Páez, A. P.; Muenchow, J.

    2014-03-01

    Mountain roads in developing countries are known to increase landslide occurrence due to often inadequate drainage systems and mechanical destabilization of hillslopes by undercutting and overloading. This study empirically investigates landslide initiation frequency along two paved interurban highways in the tropical Andes of southern Ecuador across different climatic regimes. Generalized additive models (GAM) and generalized linear models (GLM) were used to analyze the relationship between mapped landslide initiation points and distance to highway while accounting for topographic, climatic and geological predictors as possible confounders. A spatial block bootstrap was used to obtain non-parametric confidence intervals for the odds ratio of landslide occurrence near the highways (25 m distance) compared to a 200 m distance. The estimated odds ratio was 18-21 with lower 95% confidence bounds > 13 in all analyses. Spatial bootstrap estimation using the GAM supports the higher odds ratio estimate of 21.2 (95% confidence interval: 15.5-25.3). The highway-related effects were observed to fade at about 150 m distance. Road effects appear to be enhanced in geological units characterized by Holocene gravels and Laramide andesite/basalt. Overall, landslide susceptibility was found to be more than one order of magnitude higher in close proximity to paved interurban highways in the Andes of southern Ecuador.

  15. The "Biopsychosocial Model": 40 years of application in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, G

    2017-01-01

    In 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "TheIn 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "Theneed for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine", introducing the term Biopsychosocial Model. This model basedon the results of Engel's studies in ulcerative colitis, depression and psychogenic pain, constituted a challenge for biomedicineand the biomedical model. The basic principles of the model included the biological, psychological and social dimensions of the person's life and theperception that the person suffers as a whole and not as isolated organs. The doctor should use a holistic approach regardingillness and should consider his/her relation with the patient socially equal. The personality and the emotional reserves of thepatient, as well as the particular environmental conditions in which the person lives in should be taken into account. There is no doubt that the biopsychosocial model has established a more empathetic and compassionate approach in medical practice. Already since 1936, the general adaptation syndrome had been proposed by the Austrian-Canadian endocrinologist HansSeley (1907-1982), who emphasized that psychological stressful factors may have injurious consequences on health, while theresponse systems to stress may be dysregulated not only by genetic factors, but also from experiences and stressful life events,as well as by harmful behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption and lack of physical exercise. Psychosocial factors may co-determine the patient's vulnerability and the illness's severity and course. The biopsychosocialmodel consider the interactions with genetic susceptibility, personality, stressful events and, generally, with the patient's socialcontext. Environmental factors increase the probability of the clinical expression of a mental disorder, play a role in the time

  16. Acoustic vocal tract model of one-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Vojnović, Milan; Bogavac, Ivana; Dobrijević, Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant) frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract...

  17. Modelling loans and deposits during electoral years i n Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae - Marius JULA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of electoral years on loans and deposits for population in Romania. Using monthly data regarding the total loans and deposits, we identify the significance of the electoral timing on population´s behavior regarding financial decisions. We estimate that there are small changes in population´s affinity for increase in the indebtedness or for savings. We use dummy variables for electoral periods, and when these are econometrically significant there is an evidence of the influence of the electoral timings in population´s financial decisions.

  18. Numerical modelling: where will we be in ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caseau, P.

    1993-01-01

    Computer hardware power is increasing following a regular curve since 30 years; the 2000-2005 horizon is easy to extrapolate. But interactions between machine capacity, processing speed, working memory and memory store, pre- and post-processing/stations capacity, process communications/stations capacity, etc. are more difficult to assess, such as the place of one-Teraflop machines in an architecture. The needs for an one Teraflop capacity for various applications are discussed: numerical simulation of diffusion and transport in neutronics, of poly-phasic and reactive flows, of large electric utility networks, of physico-chemistry at molecular levels; artificial intelligence may play a major role. 2 figs

  19. Analytical Framework for End-to-End Delay Based on Unidirectional Highway Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslinda Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a sparse vehicular ad hoc network, a vehicle normally employs a carry and forward approach, where it holds the message it wants to transmit until the vehicle meets other vehicles or roadside units. A number of analyses in the literature have been done to investigate the time delay when packets are being carried by vehicles on both unidirectional and bidirectional highways. However, these analyses are focusing on the delay between either two disconnected vehicles or two disconnected vehicle clusters. Furthermore, majority of the analyses only concentrate on the expected value of the end-to-end delay when the carry and forward approach is used. Using regression analysis, we establish the distribution model for the time delay between two disconnected vehicle clusters as an exponential distribution. Consequently, a distribution is newly derived to represent the number of clusters on a highway using a vehicular traffic model. From there, we are able to formulate end-to-end delay model which extends the time delay model for two disconnected vehicle clusters to multiple disconnected clusters on a unidirectional highway. The analytical results obtained from the analytical model are then validated through simulation results.

  20. Vehicle safety telemetry for automated highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    The emphasis in current, automatic vehicle testing and diagnosis is primarily centered on the proper operation of the engine. Lateral and longitudinal guidance technologies, including speed control and headway sensing for collision avoidance, are reviewed. The principal guidance technique remains the buried wire. Speed control and headway sensing, even though they show the same basic elements in braking and fuel systems, are proceeding independently. The applications of on-board electronic and microprocessor techniques were investigated; each application (emission control, spark advance, or anti-slip braking) is being treated as an independent problem is proposed. A unified bus system of distributed processors for accomplishing the various functions and testing required for vehicles equipped to use automated highways.

  1. Optimum Maintenance Strategies for Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frangopol, Dan M.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Das, Parag C.

    As bridges become older and maintenance costs become higher, transportation agencies are facing challenges related to implementation of optimal bridge management programs based on life cycle cost considerations. A reliability-based approach is necessary to find optimal solutions based on minimum...... expected life-cycle costs or maximum life-cycle benefits. This is because many maintenance activities can be associated with significant costs, but their effects on bridge safety can be minor. In this paper, the program of an investigation on optimum maintenance strategies for different bridge types...... is described. The end result of this investigation will be a general reliability-based framework to be used by the UK Highways Agency in order to plan optimal strategies for the maintenance of its bridge network so as to optimize whole-life costs....

  2. Evaluation of the New Jersey Digital Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Jeng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the usefulness of the New Jersey Digital Highway (NJDH, www.njdigitalhighway.org and its portal structure. The NJDH intends to provide an immersive and user-centered portal for New Jersey history and culture. The research recruited 145 participants and used a Web-based questionnaire that contained three sections: for everyone, for educators, and for curators. The feedback on the usefulness of the NJDH was positive and the portal structure was favorable. The research uncovered several reasons why some collections did not want to or could not participate. The findings also suggested priorities for further development. This study is one of the few on the evaluation of cultural heritage digital library.

  3. The CVSA pilot study of highway vehicle inspection procedures for the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, J.; Curtis, G.E.; Branch, K.M.; Coburn, N.L.; Hauth, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    To further the goal of enhancing the safe and efficient transportation of radioactive materials, the US DOE and the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance have entered into a cooperative agreement to conduct a pilot study to test draft procedures for state inspections of highway route controlled quantity radioactive shipments. To succeed, this five-year study requires close collaboration between federal and state agencies and non-government organizations. Significant institutional relationships have been established for this study

  4. GEM1: First-year modeling and IT activities for the Global Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Giardini, D.; Wiemer, S.

    2009-04-01

    GEM is a public-private partnership initiated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to build an independent standard for modeling and communicating earthquake risk worldwide. GEM is aimed at providing authoritative, open information about seismic risk and decision tools to support mitigation. GEM will also raise risk awareness and help post-disaster economic development, with the ultimate goal of reducing the toll of future earthquakes. GEM will provide a unified set of seismic hazard, risk, and loss modeling tools based on a common global IT infrastructure and consensus standards. These tools, systems, and standards will be developed in partnership with organizations around the world, with coordination by the GEM Secretariat and its Secretary General. GEM partners will develop a variety of global components, including a unified earthquake catalog, fault database, and ground motion prediction equations. To ensure broad representation and community acceptance, GEM will include local knowledge in all modeling activities, incorporate existing detailed models where possible, and independently test all resulting tools and models. When completed in five years, GEM will have a versatile, penly accessible modeling environment that can be updated as necessary, and will provide the global standard for seismic hazard, risk, and loss models to government ministers, scientists and engineers, financial institutions, and the public worldwide. GEM is now underway with key support provided by private sponsors (Munich Reinsurance Company, Zurich Financial Services, AIR Worldwide Corporation, and Willis Group Holdings); countries including Belgium, Germany, Italy, Singapore, Switzerland, and Turkey; and groups such as the European Commission. The GEM Secretariat has been selected by the OECD and will be hosted at the Eucentre at the University of Pavia in Italy; the Secretariat is now formalizing the creation of the GEM Foundation. Some of GEM's global

  5. Photonic Technologies for Ultra-High-Speed Information Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchoule, S; Lèfevre, R.; Legros, E.

    1999-01-01

    The ACTS project HIGHWAY (AC067) addresses promising ultra-high speed optoelectronic components and system technologies for 40 Gbit/s time-division-multiplexed (TDM) transport systems. Advanced 40 Gbit/s TDM system lab demonstrators are to be realized and tested over installed field fiber testbeds....... This paper reviews the current status of 40 Gbit/s TDM components and subsystem technologies achieved in HIGHWAY. The results of HIGHWAY 40 Gbit/s TDM systems and field tests will be reported in a subsequent paper. (C) 1999 Academic Press....

  6. On the rationality of network development : the case of the Belgian highway network

    OpenAIRE

    Vanoutrive, Thomas; Damme, Van, Ilja; De Block, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The development of transport networks has been explained, predicted and planned using a variety of methodological approaches. These range from narrative historical accounts to the application of models borrowed from the natural sciences, the latter being predominant in the field of transport economics. Probably the most remarkable example is the mimicking of highway networks by slime mould in Petri dishes. The aim of this paper is to examine and compare methods used to hypothesise o...

  7. Bifurcation of Lane Change and Control on Highway for Tractor-Semitrailer under Rainy Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed for analyzing the nonlinear dynamics and stability in lane changes on highways for tractor-semitrailer under rainy weather. Unlike most of the literature associated with a simulated linear dynamic model for tractor-semitrailers steady steering on dry road, a verified 5DOF mechanical model with nonlinear tire based on vehicle test was used in the lane change simulation on low adhesion coefficient road. According to Jacobian matrix eigenvalues of the vehicle model, bifurcations of steady steering and sinusoidal steering on highways under rainy weather were investigated using a numerical method. Furthermore, based on feedback linearization theory, taking the tractor yaw rate and joint angle as control objects, a feedback linearization controller combined with AFS and DYC was established. The numerical simulation results reveal that Hopf bifurcations are identified in steady and sinusoidal steering conditions, which translate into an oscillatory behavior leading to instability. And simulations of urgent step and single-lane change in high velocity show that the designed controller has good effects on eliminating bifurcations and improving lateral stability of tractor-semitrailer, during lane changing on highway under rainy weather. It is a valuable reference for safety design of tractor-semitrailers to improve the traffic safety with driver-vehicle-road closed-loop system.

  8. SafetyAnalyst : software tools for safety management of specific highway sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    SafetyAnalyst provides a set of software tools for use by state and local highway agencies for highway safety management. SafetyAnalyst can be used by highway agencies to improve their programming of site-specific highway safety improvements. SafetyA...

  9. Outflow of traffic from the national capital Kuala Lumpur to the north, south and east coast highways using flow, speed and density relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha; Nik Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim

    2016-01-01

    The functional relationships between flow (veh/km), density (veh/h) and speed (km/h) in traffic congestion have a long history of research. However, their findings and techniques persist to be relevant to this day. The analysis is pertinent, particularly in finding the best fit for the three major highways in Malaysia, namely the KL-Karak Highway, KL-Seremban Highway and KL-Ipoh Highway. The trans-logarithm function of density—speed model was compared to the classical models of Greenshields, Greenberg, Underwood and Drake et al. using data provided by the Transport Statistics Malaysia 2014. The results of regression analysis revealed that the Greenshields and Greenberg models were statistically signifi-cant. The trans-logarithm function was also tested and the results were nonetheless without exception. Its usefulness in addition to statistical significance related to the derived economic concepts of maximum speed and the related number of vehicles, flow and density and the limits of free speed were relevant in comparing the individual levels of traffic congestion between highways. For instance, KL-Karak Highway was least congested compared to KL-Seremban Highway and KL-Ipoh Highway. Their maximum speeds, based on three lanes carriage capacity of one direction, were 33.4 km/h for KL-Karak, 15.9 km/h for KL-Seremban, and 21.1 km/h for KL-Ipoh. Their corresponding flows were approxi-mated at 1080.9 veh/h, 1555.4 veh/h, and 1436.6 veh/h.

  10. Outflow of traffic from the national capital Kuala Lumpur to the north, south and east coast highways using flow, speed and density relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional relationships between flow (veh/km, density (veh/h and speed (km/h in traffic congestion have a long history of research. However, their findings and techniques persist to be relevant to this day. The analysis is pertinent, particularly in finding the best fit for the three major highways in Malaysia, namely the KL-Karak Highway, KL-Seremban Highway and KL-Ipoh Highway. The trans-logarithm function of density–speed model was compared to the classical models of Greenshields, Greenberg, Underwood and Drake et al. using data provided by the Transport Statistics Malaysia 2014. The results of regression analysis revealed that the Greenshields and Greenberg models were statistically significant. The trans-logarithm function was also tested and the results were nonetheless without exception. Its usefulness in addition to statistical significance related to the derived economic concepts of maximum speed and the related number of vehicles, flow and density and the limits of free speed were relevant in comparing the individual levels of traffic congestion between highways. For instance, KL-Karak Highway was least congested compared to KL-Seremban Highway and KL-Ipoh Highway. Their maximum speeds, based on three lanes carriage capacity of one direction, were 33.4 km/h for KL-Karak, 15.9 km/h for KL-Seremban, and 21.1 km/h for KL-Ipoh. Their corresponding flows were approximated at 1080.9 veh/h, 1555.4 veh/h, and 1436.6 veh/h.

  11. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement : Intervention Model in fiscal year 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report presents results from FMCSAs Roadside Intervention Model for fiscal year 2007. The model estimates the number of crashes avoided, as well as injuries avoided and lives saved, as a result of the Agencys roadside inspection program. T...

  12. assessment of traffic flow on enugu highways using speed density

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Corresponding author, tel: +234 – 806 – 435 – 0200 ... construction, maintenance and optimization of the highways using the ...... Research Part A: Policy and Practice 29(4), 273-281. 1995. ... relationships: Quality and Theory of Traffic Flow.

  13. On-the-spot damage detection methodology for highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Vibration-based damage identification (VBDI) techniques have been developed in part to address the problems associated with an aging civil infrastructure. To assess the potential of VBDI as it applies to highway bridges in Iowa, three applications of...

  14. NHDOT : process for municipally managed state aid highway program projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-23

    The design and construction of Municipally Managed State Aid Highway Program projects must comply with the requirements in this guideline in order to receive State Aid under the applicable provisions of RSA 235. Under this process, State Aid Construc...

  15. Highway vehicle systems contractors coordination meeting. Seventeenth summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Separate abstracts was prepared for each of the 62 papers presented at the Contractors' Coordination meeting on highway vehicle systems. One paper had previously appeared in DOE's data base.

  16. Using electronic document management systems to manage highway project files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    "WisDOTs Bureau of Technical Services is interested in learning about the practices of other state departments of : transportation in developing and implementing an electronic document management system to manage highway : project files"

  17. Economic development and workforce impacts of state DOT highway expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The research measured the impact of Georgia Department of Transportations highway : expenditures on economic activity in the State. The analysis covered awards made between January 2009 : and April 2013. The research is unique in that it not only ...

  18. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1995 customer satisfaction survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted a national Customer Satisfaction Survey in response to the requirements of the National Performance Review and Executive Order 12862. An independent research organization, Schulman,...

  19. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration : 1997 customer satisfaction survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-13

    In 1995, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted its first Customer Satisfaction Survey in response to the requirements of the National Performance Review and Executive Order 12862. An independent research organization, S...

  20. The impact of Arizona Highways Magazine's facebook page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This project examined the relationship between use of the Arizona Highways magazine (AHM) Facebook Page and the decision to : travel to or within Arizona. Key purposes were to: (1) provide a thorough understanding of AHM Facebook Page users, includin...

  1. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...... been compared to the long-term influx, estimated from short-term measurements of concentrations in highway runoff. The results show that a large proportion of the incoming heavy metals in short-term runoff events has accumulated in the ponds. This is not the case for the toxic organic compounds....... The results also show that the accumulation rates for the heavy metals depend significantly on the relative pond area (pond area divided by catchment area). The conclusion is that the mass balances of heavy metals and PAHs in highway ponds can be estimated with acceptable accuracy from a combination of short...

  2. Use of waste glass in highway construction (update--1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Increasing pressures to recycle more wastes and minimize the amount of materials placed in landfills are forcing reconsideration of potential uses of waste glass in highway construction and maintenance operations. The federal government and many stat...

  3. Environmental suitability of recycled concrete aggregate in highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The use of recycled concrete aggregate materials in highway constructions as compared to the use of virgin : materials reduces virgin natural resource demands on the environment. In order to evaluate their potential use of : recycle materials in high...

  4. Read your road : every highway user's guide to driving safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report is the sixth in a series produced for the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center). This formal comprehensive review of the plann...

  5. Risk-based asset management methodology for highway infrastructure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining the infrastructure of roads, highways, and bridges is paramount to ensuring that these assets will remain safe and reliable in the future. If maintenance costs remain the same or continue to escalate, and additional funding is not made av...

  6. Methods for excluding cliff swallows from nesting on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are colonially breeding migratory birds that frequently nest on highway : structures. Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, nesting control methods cannot harm swallows or active : nests. This c...

  7. Technical and economic viability of automated highway systems : preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Technical and economic investigations of automated highway systems (AHS) are addressed. It has generally been accepted that such systems show potential to alleviate urban traffic congestion, so most of the AHS research has been focused instead on tec...

  8. Incorporating travel time reliability into the Highway Capacity Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This final report documents the activities performed during SHRP 2 Reliability Project L08: Incorporating Travel Time Reliability into the Highway Capacity Manual. It serves as a supplement to the proposed chapters for incorporating travel time relia...

  9. CAMAC serial highway interface for the LSI-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    A CAMAC Serial Highway Interface has been designed for the Local Control and Instrumentation System of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility. There are over 50 distinguishable systems in the facility, each of which consists of the LSI-11 computer, fiber optic communication links, and the CAMAC system. The LSI-11 computer includes a 32k memory, serial modem interface and the CAMAC Serial Highway Interface

  10. Second-best Road Pricing Through Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the welfare impacts of a range of franchising regimes for congestible highways. For a single road in isolation, it is shown that a competitive auction with the level of road use as the decision criterion produces the socially optimal road (in terms of capacity and toll level) as the equilibrium outcome, provided constant returns to scale characterize highway operations. The auction outperforms various alternatives, in which the bidders are asked to minimize the toll level...

  11. Artificial potential functions for highway driving with collision avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf , Michael T.; Burdick, Joel W.

    2008-01-01

    We present a set of potential function components to assist an automated or semi-automated vehicle in navigating a multi-lane, populated highway. The resulting potential field is constructed as a superposition of disparate functions for lane- keeping, road-staying, speed preference, and vehicle avoidance and passing. The construction of the vehicle avoidance potential is of primary importance, incorporating the structure and protocol of laned highway driving. Particularly, the shape and dimen...

  12. Bariatric Outcomes and Obesity Modeling: Study Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA...developed a cost-effectiveness model and a payer-based budget and fiscal impact tool to compare bariatric surgical procedures to non- operative ...SURVIVAL MODELED FROM NHIS -NDI • Statistical analysis adapts the methods from Schauer 2010. • Logistic regression model is used to predict the 5-year

  13. Utilizing the energy from induced wind produce by highway vehicle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Abd Wahab; Tong, C.W.

    2000-01-01

    A research work has been conducted at the Faculty of mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to utilize energy from airflow induced by moving vehicles along the highway for advertising and signboard lighting. Series of data collections have been made at Km 20 Johor Bahru - Kuala Lumpur Plus Highway. Wind anemometer equipped with data recorder has been placed at the highway divider to measure the wind speed induced by the vehicles moving from Johor Bahru to Kuala Lumpur and vice versa. From the data analysis it has been found that the to and from Kuala Lumpur motion of the vehicles induced a stable and continuous source of airflow (wind) ranges from 2 to 4 m/s. The energy in this induced wind has been estimated and has the potential to be used for the above said purpose. Five design models have been tested in the Faculty of mechanical Engineering Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the twisted vertical blades with circular end covers has proven to be the most efficient and suitable. The optimum sizing of the vertical axis wind turbine has also been determined. The details of the collection of wind induced data and analysis, estimation of energy content, the vertical axis wind turbine models testing and results are presented in this paper. (Author)

  14. Sensor Systems for Vehicle Environment Perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

    2014-01-01

    A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

  15. Trend and concentrations of legacy lead (Pb) in highway runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhanian, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of lead (Pb) concentrations from both highway runoff and contaminated soil along 32 and 23 highway sites, respectively. In general, the Pb concentration on topsoil (0-15 cm) along highways was much higher than the Pb concentration in subsurface soil (15-60 cm). The Pb deposited on soil appears to be anthropogenic and a strong correlation was found between the Pb concentration in surface soil and highway runoff in urban areas. The concentration of Pb measured during 1980s from highways runoff throughout the world was up to 11 times higher than the measured values in mid 1990 s and 2000s. The current Pb deposited on soil near highways appears to be a mixture of paint, tire weight balance and old leaded gasoline combustion. Overall, the Pb phase-out regulation reduced the Pb deposits in the environment and consequently lowered Pb loading into receiving waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation of water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenbrock, C.; Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    Delineation of areas at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory that would be inundated by a 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek is needed by the US Department of Energy to fulfill flood-plain regulatory requirements. Birch Creek flows southward about 40 miles through an alluvium-filled valley onto the northern part of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory site on the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower 10-mile reach of Birch Creek that ends in Birch Creek Playa near several Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities is of particular concern. Twenty-six channel cross sections were surveyed to develop and apply a hydraulic model to simulate water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek. Model simulation of the 100-year peak flow (700 cubic feet per second) in reaches upstream from State Highway 22 indicated that flow was confined within channels even when all flow was routed to one channel. Where the highway crosses Birch Creek, about 315 cubic feet per second of water was estimated to move downstream--115 cubic feet per second through a culvert and 200 cubic feet per second over the highway. Simulated water-surface elevation at this crossing was 0.8 foot higher than the elevation of the highway. The remaining 385 cubic feet per second flowed southwestward in a trench along the north side of the highway. Flow also was simulated with the culvert removed. The exact location of flood boundaries on Birch Creek could not be determined because of the highly braided channel and the many anthropogenic features (such as the trench, highway, and diversion channels) in the study area that affect flood hydraulics and flow. Because flood boundaries could not be located exactly, only a generalized flood-prone map was developed

  17. Predicting Graduation Rates at 4-Year Broad Access Institutions Using a Bayesian Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Gloria; Doran, Erin; Salis Reyes, Nicole A.

    2018-01-01

    This study models graduation rates at 4-year broad access institutions (BAIs). We examine the student body, structural-demographic, and financial characteristics that best predict 6-year graduation rates across two time periods (2008-2009 and 2014-2015). A Bayesian model averaging approach is utilized to account for uncertainty in variable…

  18. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xiaochun; Shen, Yi; Shao, Shegang

    2015-01-01

    A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and...

  19. Understanding Weight Management Perceptions in First-Year College Students Using the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bhibha M.; Evans, Ellen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine weight management barriers, using the Health Belief Model, in first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students (n = 45), with data collected in April, May, and November 2013. Methods: Nominal group technique sessions (n = 8) were conducted. Results: First-year students recognize benefits to weight…

  20. Evaluation and Selection of Renewable Energy Technologies for Highway Maintenance Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Taylor

    The interest in renewable energy has been increasing in recent years as attempts to reduce energy costs as well the consumption of fossil fuels are becoming more common. Companies and organizations are recognizing the increasing reliance on limited fossil fuels' resources, and as competition and costs for these resources grow, alternative solutions are becoming more appealing. Many federally run buildings and associations also have the added pressure of meeting the mandates of federal energy policies that dictate specific savings or reductions. Federal highway maintenance facilities run by the Department of Transportation fall into this category. To help meet energy saving goals, an investigation into potential renewable energy technologies was completed for the Ohio Department of Transportation. This research examined several types of renewable energy technologies and the major factors that affect their performance and evaluated their potential for implementation at highway maintenance facilities. Facilities energy usage data were provided, and a facility survey and site visits were completed to enhance the evaluation of technologies and the suitability for specific projects. Findings and technology recommendations were presented in the form of selection matrices, which were designed to help make selections in future projects. The benefits of utilization of other tools such as analysis software and life cycle assessments were also highlighted. These selection tools were designed to be helpful guides when beginning the pursuit of a renewable energy technology for highway maintenance facilities, and can be applied to other similar building types and projects. This document further discusses the research strategies and findings as well as the recommendations that were made to the personnel overseeing Ohio's highway maintenance facilities.

  1. Forecast the Impact of Bucharest – Braşov Highway on the Economic and Functional Structure of Human Settlements in Ilfov County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRONELA NOVĂCESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most publicized issues concerning the infrastructure of Romania is the Bucharest-Braşov highway. The long-awaited project aims to streamline the traffic between the Capital and the central part of the country, representing the central area of the Pan - European Road Corridor IV. The length of the highway on the territory of Ilfov County is 31 km, representing 17% of the total length of Bucharest- Braşov highway. The start of the highway will have strong effects on economic structure and on the way the Bucharest Metropolitan Area will work. We can expect an increase in the disparities between the settlements of Ilfov County. This pattern is also observable on the Bucharest-Ploieşti corridor where, in recent years, much of the Ilfov county's economic activities have migrated to the north, especially along that corridor. Besides economic migration, intense residential migration followed the Bucharest – Ploieşti corridor, residents of the Bucharest itself moving out to the north of Ilfov County. Probably, the future Bucharest – Braşov highway will lead to an increased suburbanization and periurbanization, this in turn giving way to the crowding of the area by businesses eager to have access to the highway. This project will likely increase the gap between north and south of Ilfov County. In addition to changes that may occur at the county level, changes will also have an impact on the localities themselves since the areas located near the highway will have an economic and demographic growth rate superior to more remote areas. In this sense, we conducted a comparative analysis between eight settlements of Ilfov county crossed by the Bucharest-Braşov highway in order to assess the impact. This analysis was based on the information obtained from site and statistical indicators that were processed to obtain a clear picture of the situation in the examined territory.

  2. Depuration of highway runoff water into grass-covered embankments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, P; Saadé, M; Pfeiffer, H R; Hammecker, C; Degoumois, Y

    2008-06-01

    The management of polluted road runoff water is an important issue in environmental protection. A strategy could be to perform local depuration by infiltration into the soils of the embankment, but knowledge for designing such systems is lacking. This study aims at discussing the relevant soil properties, by estimating the long-term depuration of road runoff water infiltrating into the sandy soil embankment of the A9 highway in Wallis, Switzerland. This was done by estimating the heavy metals (HM) mass balance of two sites 23 and 12 years old, respectively. The accumulated HM were estimated by soil and GB analyses. The HM input was estimated by average water quality and traffic. The results were discussed using two-dimensional simulation of infiltration and a 14 months in situ monitoring of the runoff from the pavement to the embankment and at the bottom of the embankment. The soil properties were appropriate for both small particle adsorption and filtration. A good match between input and stored pollutant charges was found, and the HM profiles accorded well with infiltration simulation and monitoring results, which showed that 80-100% of the runoff water infiltrated into the embankment. Replacement of the cracked concrete gutters by an infiltration channel made of similar soil is recommended. These results oppose the Swiss guidelines for road-polluted water infiltration, as much more clayey soils are recommended. These later soils are difficult to find in Switzerland, and may allow for preferential flow through macro pores, in contrast to the studied site.

  3. Concession of Brazilian Federal Highways: Orphan Assets Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Rezende Salgado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the uses of public service concession contracts in Brazil is in the road infrastructure sector, existing at the federal level 21 roads’ concession contracts, totaling approximately 10 thousand kilometers, which is 12.6% of the federal road network. Whereas in this type of contract the government does not transfer ownership of the asset, but only access to the concessionaire for the operation of public services, this study aims to determine in which entity (public or private are registered the federal roads, object of the concession contracts. To address the research question, the financial statements of 21 utility companies or controlling group were analyzed, as well the balance sheet of the National Land Transportation Agency (ANTT, all for the year 2014. The study findings show that the Brazilian federal highways are not recorded in public statements or in the financial statements of utility companies, providing evidence that these infrastructure assets meet the definition of orphan assets. Thus, the net worth of the ANTT is not adequately represented in its balance sheet.

  4. Improving E-Bike Safety on Urban Highways in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine characteristics of e-bike fatal crashes on urban highways in China. Crash data were retrieved from the three-year crash reports (2010–2012 of Taixing City. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine characteristics of e-bike riders, drivers, and crashes. The important findings include the following: (1 most fatal crashes were related to e-bike riders’ aberrant driving behaviors, including driving in motorized lanes, red-light running, driving against the direction of traffic, inattentive driving, and drunk driving; (2 e-bike riders with lower educational background tended to perform illegal or inattentive driving behaviors in fatal crashes; (3 most drivers were not found to commit any faults and very few drivers were found to commit drunk driving offences; (4 most nighttime fatal crashes were related to absence of street lightings; (5 heavy good vehicles (HGVs and small passenger cars were the two vehicle types that were mostly involved in the e-bike fatal crashes. This study provides useful information that can help traffic engineers better understand e-bike safety in China and develop safety countermeasures.

  5. A multivariate tobit analysis of highway accident-injury-severity rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E; Mannering, Fred L

    2012-03-01

    Relatively recent research has illustrated the potential that tobit regression has in studying factors that affect vehicle accident rates (accidents per distance traveled) on specific roadway segments. Tobit regression has been used because accident rates on specific roadway segments are continuous data that are left-censored at zero (they are censored because accidents may not be observed on all roadway segments during the period over which data are collected). This censoring may arise from a number of sources, one of which being the possibility that less severe crashes may be under-reported and thus may be less likely to appear in crash databases. Traditional tobit-regression analyses have dealt with the overall accident rate (all crashes regardless of injury severity), so the issue of censoring by the severity of crashes has not been addressed. However, a tobit-regression approach that considers accident rates by injury-severity level, such as the rate of no-injury, possible injury and injury accidents per distance traveled (as opposed to all accidents regardless of injury-severity), can potentially provide new insights, and address the possibility that censoring may vary by crash-injury severity. Using five-year data from highways in Washington State, this paper estimates a multivariate tobit model of accident-injury-severity rates that addresses the possibility of differential censoring across injury-severity levels, while also accounting for the possible contemporaneous error correlation resulting from commonly shared unobserved characteristics across roadway segments. The empirical results show that the multivariate tobit model outperforms its univariate counterpart, is practically equivalent to the multivariate negative binomial model, and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident-injury-severity rates on specific roadway segments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Energy Beam Highways Through the Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrabo, Leik N.

    1996-01-01

    The emergence of Energy Beam Flight Transportation Systems could dramatically change the way we travel in the 21st Century. A framework for formulating 'Highways of Light' and the top level architectures that invoke radically new Space Power Grid infrastructure, are introduced. Basically, such flight systems, hereafter called Lightcraft, would employ off-board energy beam sources (either laser or microwave) to energize on-board dependent 'motors' -- instead of the traditional autonomous 'engines' with their on-board energy sources (e.g., chemical fuels). Extreme reductions in vehicle dry mass appear feasible with the use of off-board power and a high degree of on-board artificial intelligence. Such vehicles may no longer need airports for refueling (since they require no propellant), and could possibly pick up travelers at their homes -- before motoring over to one of many local boost stations, for the flight out. With off-board power, hyper-energetic acceleration performance and boost-glide trajectories become feasible. Hypersonic MS airbreathing propulsion can enable boosts up to twice escape velocity, which will cut trip times to the moon down to 5.5 hours. The predominant technological, environmental and social factors that will result from such transportation systems will be stressed. This presentation first introduces the remote source siting options for the space power system infrastructure, and then provides three representative laser/microwave Lightcraft options (derived from historical Case Studies): i.e., 'Acorn', 'Toy Top', and 'Disc.' Next the gamut of combined-cycle engine options developed for these Lightcraft are examined -- to illuminate the 'emerging technologies' that must be harnessed to produce flight hardware. Needed proof-of concept experiments are identified, along with the Macro-Level Issues that can springboard these revolutionary concepts into hardware reality.

  7. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes a study performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to evaluate the level of safety provided under severe accident conditions during the shipment of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors. The evaluation is performed using data from real accident histories and using representative truck and rail cask models that likely meet 10 CFR 71 regulations. The responses of the representative casks are calculated for structural and thermal loads generated by severe highway and railway accident conditions. The cask responses are compared with those responses calculated for the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. By comparing the responses it is determined that most highway and railway accident conditions fall within the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. For those accidents that have higher responses, the probabilities anf potential radiation exposures of the accidents are compared with those identified by the assessments made in the ''Final Environmental Statement on the Transportation of Radioactive Material by Air and other Modes,'' NUREG-0170. Based on this comparison, it is concluded that the radiological risks from spent fuel under severe highway and railway accident conditions as derived in this study are less than risks previously estimated in the NUREG-0170 document

  8. Fatigue analysis and life prediction of composite highway bridge decks under traffic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando N. Leitão

    Full Text Available Steel and composite (steel-concrete highway bridges are currently subjected to dynamic actions of variable magnitude due to convoy of vehicles crossing on the deck pavement. These dynamic actions can generate the nucleation of fractures or even their propagation on the bridge deck structure. Proper consideration of all of the aspects mentioned pointed our team to develop an analysis methodology with emphasis to evaluate the stresses through a dynamic analysis of highway bridge decks including the action of vehicles. The design codes recommend the application of the curves S-N associated to the Miner's damage rule to evaluate the fatigue and service life of steel and composite (steel-concrete bridges. In this work, the developed computational model adopted the usual mesh refinement techniques present in finite element method simulations implemented in the ANSYS program. The investigated highway bridge is constituted by four longitudinal composite girders and a concrete deck, spanning 40.0m by 13.5m. The analysis methodology and procedures presented in the design codes were applied to evaluate the fatigue of the bridge determining the service life of the structure. The main conclusions of this investigation focused on alerting structural engineers to the possible distortions, associated to the steel and composite bridge's service life when subjected to vehicle's dynamic actions.

  9. FLOW PATTERNS OF VEHICULAR TRAFFIC ALONG HIGHWAY TOLL PLAZA IN OGUN STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashiru A. Raji

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Congestion on our highways, freeways and arterials are increasing at an alarming rate. This occurs because there is an increase in vehicular growth without a corresponding increase in road size, and this has made free flow of traffic a preponderant problem in our highways. Toll plaza causes delay on our highways and results are formation of queue. This paper examined how simple queuing model can be used to determine traffic intensity and the flow pattern of car traffic at a toll plaza. The study was carried out with twelve field assistants at Ogere toll plaza in Ogun State. Findings show a significant variation in the degree of hourly traffic intensities at the four pay points for cars at the toll plaza. However, variation in the daily traffic intensities at the four pay points for cars showed no significant variation. The study also revealed that bumps constructed to check vehicles speed, hawker’s trading activities are among other factors that constitute hindrance to free flow of traffic other than service time and inter-arrival time of cars at the toll plaza. It is therefore recommended that appropriate authority should look into these factors and take necessary steps towards ensuring free flow of traffic at the plaza.

  10. Simulator Evaluation of Drivers’ Performance on Rural Highways in relation to Drivers’ Visual Attention Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to investigate, by means of a driving simulator experiment, drivers’ performance in terms of lateral position, speed, deceleration, steering angle, and breaking times on a divided two-lane rural highway in relation to drivers’ visual attention (VD. In the experiment, the virtual scene of twenty different geometric alignment sections without traffic and the VD testing were designed. Twenty-three experienced drivers with the calibration of attention capacity participated in a 30 km drive in an interactive fixed-base simulator. Each participant was required to drive with the controlled speed of 60 km/h along the central lane as repeating random number and was evaluated on VD and driving performances. Three different data analysis techniques were used: (a statistical tests and hypothesis test of curvature change rate (CCR of the geometric alignments, visual attention demands, and driving performance data, (b correlation analysis of VD, CCRs, and driving behaviors, and (c regression analysis of the VD and CCRs. Results have showed that the driving performance can be effectively influenced by the highway alignment and a prediction model built in this study can evaluate the drivers’ visual attention demands before the highway constructed. The interactions among VD, driving behavior, and CCRs were also found.

  11. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Federal-Aid Highway Contractors Annual EEO Report (Form PR-1391)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-Aid Highway Contractors Annual EEO Report (Form PR-1391) C Appendix C to Subpart A of Part 230 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Part 230—Federal-Aid Highway Contractors Annual EEO Report (Form PR-1391) EC14OC91.000 ...

  12. Guidelines for selecting preferred highway routes for highway-route-controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The document presents guidelines for use by State officials in selecting preferred routes for highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials. A methodology for analyzing and comparing safety factors of alternative routes is described. Technical information on the impacts of radioactive material transportation needed to apply the methodology is also presented. Application of the methodology will identify the route (or set of routes) that minimizes the radiological impacts from shipments of these radioactive materials within a given State. Emphasis in the document is on practical application of the methodology. Some details of the derivation of the methods and data are presented in the appendices. All references in the body of the report can be found listed in the Bibliography (Appendix F)

  13. Highway 61 Revisited: Bob Dilan i francuski poststrukturalizam / Highway 61 Revisited: Bob Dilan and French Poststructuralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Dedić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this text is to show parallels between rock music and poststructuralist philosophy. As a case study one of the most celebrated rock albums of all times – Bob Dylan’s Highway 61 Revisited from 1965 is taken. It is one of the crucial albums in the history of popular culture which influenced further development of rock music within American counter culture of the 60s. Dylan’s turn from the politics of American New Left and folk movement, his relation towards the notions of the author and intertextuality, and his connection with experimental usage of language in the manner of avant-garde and neoavant-garde poetry, are juxtaposed with the main philosophical standpoints of Jean-François Lyotard, Jean Baudrillard, Roland Barthes and Julia Kristeva which historically and chronologically coincide with the appearance of Dylan’s album.

  14. Fatal accidents in nighttime vs. daytime highway construction work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditi, David; Lee, Dong-Eun; Polat, Gul

    2007-01-01

    Awareness about worker safety in nighttime construction has been a major concern because it is believed that nighttime construction creates hazardous work conditions. However, only a few studies provide valuable comparative information about accident characteristics of nighttime and daytime highway construction activities. This study investigates fatal accidents that occurred in Illinois highway work zones in the period 1996-2001 in order to determine the safety differences between nighttime and daytime highway construction. The lighting and weather conditions were included into the study as control parameters to see their effects on the frequency of fatal accidents occurring in work zones. According to this study, there is evidence that nighttime construction is more hazardous than daytime construction. The inclusion of a weather parameter into the analysis has limited effect on this finding. The study justifies establishing an efficient work zone accident reporting system and taking all necessary measures to enhance safety in nighttime work zones.

  15. The highway capacity manual a conceptual and research history

    CERN Document Server

    Roess, Roger P

    2014-01-01

    Since 1950, the Highway Capacity Manual has been a standard used in the planning, design, analysis, and operation of virtually any highway traffic facility in the United States. It has also been widely used abroad, and has spurred the development of similar manuals in other countries. The twin concepts of capacity and level of service have been developed in the manual, and methodologies have been presented that allow highway traffic facilities to be designed on a common basis, and allow for the analysis of operational quality under various traffic demand scenarios. The manual also addresses related pedestrian, bicycle, and transit issues.   This book details the fundamental development of the concepts of capacity and level of service, and of the specific methodologies developed to describe them over a wide range of facility types. The book is comprised of two volumes. Volume 1 (this book) focuses on the development of basic principles, and their application to uninterrupted flow facilities: freeways, multila...

  16. Energy Star Concepts for Highway Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-06-24

    The authors of this report, under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program, have investigated the possible application of Energy Star ratings to passenger cars and light trucks. This study establishes a framework for formulating and evaluating Energy Star rating methods that is comprised of energy- and environmental-based metrics, potential vehicle classification systems, vehicle technology factors, and vehicle selection criteria. The study tests several concepts and Energy Star rating methods using model-year 2000 vehicle data--a spreadsheet model has been developed to facilitate these analyses. This study tests two primary types of rating systems: (1) an outcome-based system that rates vehicles based on fuel economy, GHG emissions, and oil use and (2) a technology-based system that rates vehicles based on the energy-saving technologies they use. Rating methods were evaluated based on their ability to select vehicles with high fuel economy, low GHG emissions, and low oil use while preserving a full range of service (size and acceleration) and body style choice. This study concludes that an Energy Star rating for passenger cars and light trucks is feasible and that several methods could be used to achieve reasonable tradeoffs between low energy use and emissions and diversity in size, performance, and body type. It also shows that methods that consider only fuel economy, GHG emissions, or oil use will not select a diverse mix of vehicles. Finally, analyses suggest that methods that encourage the use of technology only, may result in increases in acceleration power and weight rather than reductions in oil use and GHG emissions and improvements in fuel economy.

  17. Models for Information Assurance Education and Outreach: A Report on Year 1 Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    On September 22, 2012, NSF announced its decision to fund a three-year project, "Models for Information Assurance Education and Outreach" (MIAEO). In the first year of grant operation, MIAEO has invited 18 high school students, two K-12 teachers, and two CSUB student assistants to conduct research explorations in the fields of…

  18. Continuous Improvement of a Groundwater Model over a 20-Year Period: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Peter F; Ross, James L; Fenske, Jon P

    2018-04-17

    Groundwater models developed for specific sites generally become obsolete within a few years due to changes in: (1) modeling technology; (2) site/project personnel; (3) project funding; and (4) modeling objectives. Consequently, new models are sometimes developed for the same sites using the latest technology and data, but without potential knowledge gained from the prior models. When it occurs, this practice is particularly problematic because, although technology, data, and observed conditions change, development of the new numerical model may not consider the conceptual model's underpinnings. As a contrary situation, we present the unique case of a numerical flow and trichloroethylene (TCE) transport model that was first developed in 1993 and since revised and updated annually by the same personnel. The updates are prompted by an increase in the amount of data, exposure to a wider range of hydrologic conditions over increasingly longer timeframes, technological advances, evolving modeling objectives, and revised modeling methodologies. The history of updates shows smooth, incremental changes in the conceptual model and modeled aquifer parameters that result from both increase and decrease in complexity. Myriad modeling objectives have included demonstrating the ineffectiveness of a groundwater extraction/injection system, evaluating potential TCE degradation, locating new monitoring points, and predicting likelihood of exceedance of groundwater standards. The application emphasizes an original tenet of successful groundwater modeling: iterative adjustment of the conceptual model based on observations of actual vs. model response. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Adolescents Exiting Homelessness over Two Years: The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Batterham, Phillip; May, Susanne J.; Witkin, Andrea; Duan, Naihua

    2009-01-01

    The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model (RAAM) demonstrates that negative contact with socializing agents amplify risk, while positive contact abates risk for homeless adolescents. To test this model, the likelihood of exiting homelessness and returning to familial housing at 2 years and stably exiting over time are examined with longitudinal…

  20. Mathematical Modelling in the Junior Secondary Years: An Approach Incorporating Mathematical Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, James; Carter, Merilyn; Cooper, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Mathematical models are conceptual processes that use mathematics to describe, explain, and/or predict the behaviour of complex systems. This article is written for teachers of mathematics in the junior secondary years (including out-of-field teachers of mathematics) who may be unfamiliar with mathematical modelling, to explain the steps involved…

  1. An Integrated Visualization and Basic Molecular Modeling Laboratory for First-Year Undergraduate Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D model visualization and basic molecular modeling laboratory suitable for first-year undergraduates studying introductory medicinal chemistry is presented. The 2 h practical is embedded within a series of lectures on drug design, target-drug interactions, enzymes, receptors, nucleic acids, and basic pharmacokinetics. Serving as a teaching aid…

  2. Effects of highway-deicer application on ground-water quality in a part of the Calumet Aquifer, northwestern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lee R.; Bayless, E. Randall; Buszka, Paul M.; Wilson, John T.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of highway-deicer application on ground-water quality were studied at a site in northwestern Indiana using a variety of geochemical indicators. Site characteristics such as high snowfall rates; large quantities of applied deicers; presence of a high-traffic highway; a homogeneous, permeable, and unconfined aquifer; a shallow water table; a known ground-water-flow direction; and minimal potential for other sources of chloride and sodium to complicate source interpretation were used to select a study area where ground water was likely to be affected by deicer application. Forty-three monitoring wells were installed in an unconfined sand aquifer (the Calumet aquifer) near Beverly Shores in northwestern Indiana. Wells were installed along two transects that approximately paralleled groundwater flow in the Calumet aquifer and crossed US?12. US?12 is a highway that receives Indiana?s highest level of maintenance to maintain safe driving conditions. Ground-water quality and water-level data were collected from the monitoring wells, and precipitation and salt-application data were compiled from 1994 through 1997. The water-quality data indicated that chloride was the most easily traced indicator of highway deicers in ground water. Concentration ratios of chloride to iodide and chloride to bromide and Stiff diagrams of major element concentrations indicated that the principal source of chloride and sodium in ground water from the uppermost one-third to one-half of the Calumet relative electromagnetic conductivity defined a distinct plume of deicer-affected water in the uppermost 8 feet of aquifer at about 9 feet horizontally from the paved roadway edge and a zone of higher conductivity than background in the lower one-third of the aquifer. Chloride and sodium in the deep parts of the aquifer originated from natural sources. Chloride and sodium from highway deicers were present in the aquifer throughout the year. The highest concentrations of chloride and sodium

  3. Transportation Infrastructure: Managing the Costs of Large-Dollar Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) was requested to assess the effectiveness of the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) oversight of the costs of large-dollar highway and bridge projects (those with a total estimated cost of over $100 million)...

  4. Improved traffic control measures to prevent incorrect turns at highway-rail grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A number of injuries and fatal collisions have occurred at certain highway-rail grade crossings that are located immediately adjacent to highway intersections, driveways or interstate ramps. Some guide signage, pavement markings, and other traffic co...

  5. Real-time stress monitoring of highway bridges with a secured wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "This collaborative research aims to develop a real-time stress monitoring system for highway bridges with a secured wireless sensor network. The near term goal is to collect wireless sensor data under different traffic patterns from local highway br...

  6. West Virginia Peer Exchange : Streamlining Highway Safety Improvement Program Project Delivery - An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The West Virginia Division of Highways (WV DOH) hosted a Peer Exchange to share information and experiences for streamlining Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) project delivery. The event was held September 23 to 24, 2014 in Charleston, West V...

  7. Superhydrophobic engineered cementitious composites for highway bridge applications : technology transfer and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The strength and durability of highway bridges are two of the key components in maintaining a : high level of freight transportation capacity on the nations highways. Superhydrophobic : engineered cementitious composite (SECC) is a new advanced con...

  8. West Virginia peer exchange : streamlining highway safety improvement program project delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The West Virginia Division of Highways (WV DOH) hosted a Peer Exchange to share information and experiences : for streamlining Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) project delivery. The event was held September : 22 to 23, 2014 in Charleston, We...

  9. Nano-Continuum Modeling of a Nuclear Glass Specimen Altered for 25 Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl

    2014-01-06

    The purpose of this contribution is to report on preliminary nano-continuum scale modeling of nuclear waste glass corrosion. The focus of the modeling is an experiment involving a French glass SON68 specimen leached for 25 years in a granitic environment. In this report, we focus on capturing the nano-scale concentration profiles. We use a high resolution continuum model with a constant grid spacing of 1 nanometer to investigate the glass corrosion mechanisms.

  10. Evaluating the impacts of grades on vehicular speeds on interstate highways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqiang Chen

    Full Text Available Grade variation on interstate highways affects the roadway geometric design, vehicle performance and driver behavior, thus possibly exerting an unexpected effect on vehicular speed. Hence, determining the internal relationship between grade and speed is important and useful for drivers, traffic regulators and other traffic participants. However, the problem with performing this research is the lack of large-scale gradient and speed data. Google Earth (GE provides an application programming interface for extracting elevation data worldwide. The elevation dataset from GE can be easily converted to grade data. In addition, our team has collected and stored speed series data for different freeways over several years. Based on the above obtainable grade and speed datasets, we conducted research on the effect of grades on free flow speeds from two perspectives. First, the influence of grades on speed was analyzed from both quantitative and qualitative aspects. The analysis of the distributions of four typical types of speeds demonstrated a decreasing tendency as the speed increased. Steeper grades generated a more intense speed fluctuation in terms of the four types of speeds. Second, a model based on the Student's t-test was developed to evaluate the level of significant difference among speed series under neighboring grades. The Student's t-test demonstrated that adjacent grades do not significantly influence the speeds. In summary, speeds under different grades showed obviously different tendencies. The findings of this study can help transport authorities set more reasonable speed limits and improve the geometric design of interstates with grade variation constraints.

  11. 40 CFR 1068.360 - What restrictions apply to assigning a model year to imported engines and equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... new engine identified as a 2007 model-year product that is imported on January 31, 2010 will be... equipment? This section includes limitations on assigning a model year to engines and equipment that are imported in a year later than the model year in which they were manufactured, except as specified in...

  12. Frequency and distribution of highway crossings by Kenai Peninsula brown bears

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Tabitha A.; Farley, Sean; Servheen, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Highway construction and expansion through bear habitat can negatively affect brown bear populations. Highway structures can decrease habitat availability through habitat loss and restricted access, roads often displace animals and cause re-direction of natural movements, and highways can act as barriers to decrease gene flow. Lastly, highway traffic can cause direct bear and human mortality through car-animal collisions. We examined the spatial and temporal distribution of brown bear crossin...

  13. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions... management system; (g) Education and outreach highway safety programs, such as use of child safety seats... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are eligible highway safety projects? 170.144...

  14. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway... MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.3 Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments... State in all matters relating to, and to enter into, on behalf of the State, all contracts and...

  15. 26 CFR 48.6427-0 - Off-highway business use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Off-highway business use. 48.6427-0 Section 48... Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-0 Off-highway business use. For purposes of the regulations under section 6427, after March 31, 1983, the term “off-highway business use...

  16. 26 CFR 48.6421-0 - Off-highway business use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Off-highway business use. 48.6421-0 Section 48... Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6421-0 Off-highway business use. For purposes of the regulations under section 6421, after March 31, 1983, the term “off-highway business use...

  17. Implementation of GPS controlled highway construction equipment, phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Beginning in 2006, WisDOT and the Construction Material and Support Center (CMSC) at UW-Madison worked : together to develop the specifications and the QA/QC procedures for GPS machine guidance on highway grading : projects. These specifications and ...

  18. Measuring highway efficiency : A DEA approach and the Malquist index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarmento, Joaquim Miranda; Renneboog, Luc; Verga-Matos, Pedro

    A growing concern exists regarding the efficiency of public resources spent in transport infrastructures. In this paper, we measure the efficiency of seven highway projects in Portugal over the past decade by means of a data envelopment analysis and the Malmquist productivity and efficiency indices.

  19. Education Moves into High Gear on the Information Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Al-Deen, Hana S.

    The utilization of teleconferencing as part of the information highway, mainly among schools in North Carolina, is examined. The National Information Infrastructure, outlined by Vice President Gore in January 1994, is the official name of the information system. The U.S. Congress issued four pieces of legislation in support of high-tech…

  20. 76 FR 5120 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... suggested that FMCSA should provide pavement markings and signage at or near grade crossings to indicate the... eligible for funding under 23 U.S.C. 130; (2) improvement of highway signage and pavement markings; and (3... crossings might get pavement markings and signage and that not all grade-crossing improvements are likely to...

  1. GIS for Highway Engineering in Developing Countries | Mulaku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer based information system that enables the input, management, analysis, output and dissemination of geospatial data and information. It is therefore an invaluable management tool in all fields where geospatial data is applied, such as highway engineering. Unfortunately ...

  2. Highway Construction in the U.S.: Costs, Benefits, Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2013-01-01

    Few people truly recognize the influence of modern transportation on society. In the United States, that includes the influence of highways that allow the citizenry to travel freely, the strength of the economy, and the country's national security. In all cases, the geography of the United States influenced the evolution of transportation and…

  3. Developing a Highway Safety Fundamentals Course : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Although the need for road : safety education was fi rst : recognized in the 1960s, : recently it has become an : increasingly urgent issue. To : fulfi ll the hefty goal set up by : the AASHTO Highway : Safety Strategy (cutting : traffi c fatalities ...

  4. The impact of Arizona Highways Magazine on tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: 1) examine the effect of Arizona Highways Magazine (AHM) on tourism, 2) determine trip : characteristics of AHM subscribers traveling in Arizona, and 3) calculate a benefit/cost ratio for AHM based on the : magazine...

  5. Stabilization of Highway Expansive Soils with High Loss on Ignition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of high loss on ignition content cement kiln dust on the stabilization of highway expansive soils. Laboratory tests were performed on the natural and stabilized soil samples in accordance with BS 1377 (1990) and BS 1924 (1990), respectively. The preliminary investigation ...

  6. Montana Highway Safety Improvement Program : an RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This report provides a summary of a peer-to-peer (P2P) videoconference sponsored by the : Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) and the Federal Highway Administration : (FHWA) Office of Safety. The videoconference format provided a low-cost oppo...

  7. Environmental suitability of recycled concrete aggregate in highways : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Natural highway aggregate is a finite resource that with continued use in construction : activities but some good quality aggregates used in existing concrete structures may be : re-used to replace with the natural aggregate. Due to the repair or rep...

  8. Apparatus for obtaining electric energy in speed highways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatyan, P.R.; Khalatyan, R.P.; Khalatyan, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    The problems of obtaining electricity by means of moving motor-transport are examined. An apparatus installed in the distributive zone of intensive traffic speed highways is proposed. Part of air mass movement of kinetic energy is transformed from the movement of automobiles into electricity

  9. Efficient use of highway capacity summary : report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    This report was developed to summarize the implementation of safety shoulders as travel lanes as a method to increase the efficient use of highway capacity. Its purpose is to provide a succinct overview of efforts to use left or right shoulder lanes ...

  10. Education in Transportation Systems Planning: Highway Research Record No. 462.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    The papers contained in the issue of Highway Research Record focus on current and emerging patterns of education and training related to transportation systems planning. The five papers are: Transportation Centers and Other Mechanisms to Encourage Interdisciplinary Research and Training Efforts in Transportation (Frederick J. Wegmann and Edward A.…

  11. Infiltration of stormwater from highway operations to reduce coastal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The coastal waters of Hawaii are extremely important for recreation as well as for the health of : the marine environment. Runoff from the construction and operation of highways can be a : source of pollution to coastal waters. Individual states in t...

  12. Effect of chronic nonmalignant pain on highway driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, D S; van Wijck, A J M; Wille, F; Verster, J C; Kenemans, J L; Kalkman, C J; Olivier, B; Volkerts, E R

    2006-05-01

    Most pain patients are treated in an outpatient setting and are engaged in daily activities including driving. Since several studies showed that cognitive functioning may be impaired in chronic nonmalignant pain, the question arises whether or not chronic nonmalignant pain affects driving performance. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of chronic nonmalignant pain on actual highway driving performance during normal traffic. Fourteen patients with chronic nonmalignant pain and 14 healthy controls, matched on age, educational level, and driving experience, participated in the study. Participants performed a standardized on-the-road driving test during normal traffic, on a primary highway. The primary parameter of the driving test is the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP). In addition, driving-related skills (tracking, divided attention, and memory) were examined in the laboratory. Subjective assessments, such as pain intensity, and subjective driving quality, were rated on visual analogue scales. The results demonstrated that a subset of chronic nonmalignant pain patients had SDLPs that were higher than the matched healthy controls, indicating worse highway driving performance. Overall, there was a statistically significant difference in highway driving performance between the groups. Further, chronic nonmalignant pain patients rated their subjective driving quality to be normal, although their ratings were significantly lower than those of the healthy controls. No significant effects were found on the laboratory tests.

  13. A comparative study of wood highway sound barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan Grgurevich; Thomas Boothby; Harvey Manbeck; Courtney Burroughs; Stephen Cegelka; Craig Bernecker; Michael A. Ritter

    2002-01-01

    Prototype designs for wood highway sound barriers meeting the multiple criteria of structural integrity, acoustic effectiveness, durability, and potential for public acceptance have been developed. Existing installations of wood sound barriers were reviewed and measurements conducted in the field to estimate acoustic insertion losses. A complete matrix of design...

  14. Pendulum impact tests of wooden and steel highway guardrail posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Jarvis D. Michie

    1974-01-01

    Impact strength characteristics of southern pine, red oak, and steel highway guardrail posts were evaluated in destructive impact testing with a 4,000-pound pendulum at the Southwest Research Institute. Effects were recorded with high-speed motion-picture equipment. Comparisons were based on reactions to the point of major post failure. Major comparisons of 6x6-inch...

  15. Traffic control and intelligent vehicle highway systems: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskar, L.D.; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion in highway networks is one of the main issues to be addressed by today's traffic management schemes. Automation combined with the increasing market penetration of on-line communication, navigation and advanced driver assistance systems will ultimately result in intelligent vehicle

  16. Second-best Road Pricing through Highway Franchising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, E.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the welfare impacts of a range of franchising regimes for congestible highways. For a single road in isolation, it is shown that a competitive auction with the level of road use as the decision criterion produces the socially optimal road (in terms of capacity and toll level),

  17. Variability of Travel Times on New Jersey Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report presents the results of a link and path travel time study conducted on selected New Jersey (NJ) highways to produce estimates of the corresponding variability of travel time (VTT) by departure time of the day and days of the week. The tra...

  18. Highway pavement failure induced by poor soil geotechnical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of abundant kaolinite peaks and a subdued goethite peak without any trace of montmorrilonite. The presence of excess fines in the pavement construction materials (soils) contributed to the failure of the highway pavement at this locality. The low CBR value is also a noted cause ...

  19. Rapid prototyping modelling in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A two year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomalainen, Anni; Stoor, Patricia; Mesimäki, Karri; Kontio, Risto K

    2015-12-01

    The use of rapid prototyping (RP) models in medicine to construct bony models is increasing. The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospectively the indication for the use of RP models in oral and maxillofacial surgery at Helsinki University Central Hospital during 2009-2010. Also, the used computed tomography (CT) examination - multislice CT (MSCT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) - method was evaluated. In total 114 RP models were fabricated for 102 patients. The mean age of the patients at the time of the production of the model was 50.4 years. The indications for the modelling included malignant lesions (29%), secondary reconstruction (25%), prosthodontic treatment (22%), orthognathic surgery or asymmetry (13%), benign lesions (8%), and TMJ disorders (4%). MSCT examination was used in 92 and CBCT examination in 22 cases. Most of the models (75%) were conventional hard tissue models. Models with colored tumour or other structure(s) of interest were ordered in 24%. Two out of the 114 models were soft tissue models. The main benefit of the models was in treatment planning and in connection with the production of pre-bent plates or custom made implants. The RP models both facilitate and improve treatment planning and intraoperative efficiency. Rapid prototyping, radiology, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography.

  20. 25 Years of Model-Driven Web Engineering: What we achieved, What is missing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Model-Driven Web Engineering (MDWE approaches aim to improve the Web applications development process by focusing on modeling instead of coding, and deriving the running application by transformations from conceptual models to code. The emergence of the Interaction Flow Modeling Language (IFML has been an important milestone in the evolution of Web modeling languages, indicating not only the maturity of the field but also a final convergence of languages. In this paper we explain the evolution of modeling and design approaches since the early years (in the 90’s detailing the forces which drove that evolution and discussing the strengths and weaknesses of some of those approaches. A brief presentation of the IFML is accompanied with a thorough analysis of the most important achievements of the MDWE community as well as the problems and obstacles that hinder the dissemination of model-driven techniques in the Web engineering field.

  1. Study of a New Quick-Charging Strategy for Electric Vehicles in Highway Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem, because of which conventional quick-charging strategies (CQCS cannot meet the requirements of quick-charging for multiple types of electric vehicles (EV on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive, this paper proposed a new quick-charging strategy (NQCS for EVs: on the premise of not affecting those EVs being charged, the remaining power of the quick-charging pile with multiple power output interfaces is used to provide a synchronous charging service for EVs waiting in the queue. To verify the effectiveness of this strategy, a power distribution model of charging pile and a queuing model of charging station (CS were constructed. In addition, based on an actual highway service area where vehicle inflow is excessive during the simulation period (0:00–24:00, charging situations of CQCS and NQCS were respectively simulated in a charging station (CS, with different number of chargers, by basic queuing algorithm and an improved queuing algorithm. The simulation results showed that when the relative EV inflow is excessive, compared to CQCS, NQCS not only can reduce user waiting time, charging time, and stay time, but also can improve the utilisation rate of charging infrastructure and service capacity of CS and reduce the queue length of CS. At the same time, NQCS can reduce the impact on the power grid. In addition, in NQCS, the on-demand power distribution method is more efficient than the average power distribution method. Therefore, NQCS is more suitable for quick-charging for multiple types of EVs on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive.

  2. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P.; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km2. Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient conditions in individual near-highway neighborhoods for health

  3. Multidisciplinary approach to evaluate landslide susceptibility along highway in northern Calabria, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Francesco; Conforti, Massimo; Critelli, Salvatore; Fabbricatore, Davide; Filomena, Luciana; Rago, Valeria; Robustelli, Gaetano; Scarciglia, Fabio; Versace, Pasquale

    2014-05-01

    The interaction of landslides with linear infrastructures is often the cause of disasters. In Italy landslide impact on roads, railways and buildings cause millions of Euro per year in damage and restoration as well. The proposed study is aimed to the landslide susceptibility evaluation using a multidisciplinary approach: geological and geomorphological survey, statistical analysis and GIS technique, along a section of highway "A3 (Salerno-Reggio Calabria)" between Cosenza Sud and Altilia, northern Calabria. This study is included in a wider research project, named: PON01-01503, Landslides Early Warning-Sistemi integrati per il monitoraggio e la mitigazione del rischio idrogeologico lungo le grandi vie di comunicazione - aimed at the hydrogeological risk mitigation and at the early warning along the highways. The work was first based on air-photo interpretations and field investigations, in order to realize the geological map, geomorphological map and landslide inventory map. In the study area the geomorphology is strongly controlled by its bedrock geology and tectonics. The bedrock geology consists of Neogene sedimentary rocks that cover a thick stack of allochthonous nappes. These nappes consist of crystalline rocks mainly gneiss, phyllite and schist. A total of 835 landslides were mapped and the type of movement are represented mainly by slides and complex and subordinately flow. In order to estimate and validate landslide susceptibility the landslides were divided in two group. One group (training set) was used to prepare susceptibility map and the second group (validation set) to validate the map. Then, the selection of predisposing factors was performed, according with the geological and geomorphological settings of the study area: lithology, distance from tectonic elements, land use, slope, aspect, stream power index (SPI) and plan curvature. In order to evaluate landslide susceptibility Conditional Analysis was applied to Unique Conditions Units (UCUs

  4. Impact of the electric vehicles on the air pollution from a highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, Enrico; Alessandrini, Stefano; Balanzino, Alessia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical chemical-dispersion model is applied to compute air pollution generated by traffic. • A measurements campaign is carried out collecting meteorological and chemical variables. • Measurement of traffic flows and related pollution emissions make the work original. • New fleet scenarios based on electric vehicle introduction are considered. • The benefits on air quality and human health due to electric vehicles are evaluated. - Abstract: We have quantified the impact that an introduction of electric vehicles into the car fleet has on air quality (regarding NO and NO_2) using a numerical dispersion model. An experimental campaign is conducted close to a highway in Milan, Italy. Meteorological parameters and chemical concentrations are measured along with the traffic emissions. We use a Lagrangian Stochastic Dispersion Model to create numerical simulations of the chemical reactions and dispersion involving pollutants from the highway. To evaluate the air pollution reductions, emission scenarios with different rates of electric vehicles introduction are simulated. We have found that only a significant replacement (50%) of non-electric vehicles with electric ones yields a remarkable reduction of the pollutant concentrations. However, even with lower electric vehicles introduction rates, the air quality improvements may be relevant during intense pollution episodes. The results provide useful information to decision makers and public administrators for planning measures to modify the car fleet composition aiming to improve the urban air quality.

  5. The optimization of concrete mixtures for use in highway applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Mohamadreza

    Portland cement concrete is most used commodity in the world after water. Major part of civil and transportation infrastructure including bridges, roadway pavements, dams, and buildings is made of concrete. In addition to this, concrete durability is often of major concerns. In 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) estimated that an annual investment of 170 billion on roads and 20.5 billion for bridges is needed on an annual basis to substantially improve the condition of infrastructure. Same article reports that one-third of America's major roads are in poor or mediocre condition [1]. However, portland cement production is recognized with approximately one cubic meter of carbon dioxide emission. Indeed, the proper and systematic design of concrete mixtures for highway applications is essential as concrete pavements represent up to 60% of interstate highway systems with heavier traffic loads. Combined principles of material science and engineering can provide adequate methods and tools to facilitate the concrete design and improve the existing specifications. In the same manner, the durability must be addressed in the design and enhancement of long-term performance. Concrete used for highway pavement applications has low cement content and can be placed at low slump. However, further reduction of cement content (e.g., versus current specifications of Wisconsin Department of Transportation to 315-338 kg/m 3 (530-570 lb/yd3) for mainstream concrete pavements and 335 kg/m3 (565 lb/yd3) for bridge substructure and superstructures) requires delicate design of the mixture to maintain the expected workability, overall performance, and long-term durability in the field. The design includes, but not limited to optimization of aggregates, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), chemical and air-entraining admixtures. This research investigated various theoretical and experimental methods of aggregate optimization applicable for the reduction of cement content

  6. Evaluation of a radar-based proximity warning system for off-highway dump trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Todd

    2006-01-01

    A radar-based proximity warning system was evaluated by researchers at the Spokane Research Laboratory of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to determine if the system would be effective in detecting objects in the blind spots of an off-highway dump truck. An average of five fatalities occur each year in surface mines as a result of an equipment operator not being aware of a smaller vehicle, person or change in terrain near the equipment. Sensor technology that can detect such obstacles and that also is designed for surface mining applications is rare. Researchers worked closely with the radar system manufacturer to test and modify the system on large, off-highway dump trucks at a surface mine over a period of 2 years. The final system was thoroughly evaluated by recording video images from a camera on the rear of the truck and by recording all alarms from the rear-mounted radar. Data show that the system reliably detected small vehicles, berms, people and other equipment. However, alarms from objects that posed no immediate danger were common, supporting the assertion that sensor-based systems for proximity warning should be used in combination with other devices, such as cameras, that would allow the operator to check the source of any alarm.

  7. A comparison of emission calculations using different modeled indicators with 1-year online measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengers, Bernd; Schiefler, Inga; Büscher, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    The overall measurement of farm level greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in dairy production is not feasible, from either an engineering or administrative point of view. Instead, computational model systems are used to generate emission inventories, demanding a validation by measurement data. This paper tests the GHG calculation of the dairy farm-level optimization model DAIRYDYN, including methane (CH₄) from enteric fermentation and managed manure. The model involves four emission calculation procedures (indicators), differing in the aggregation level of relevant input variables. The corresponding emission factors used by the indicators range from default per cow (activity level) emissions up to emission factors based on feed intake, manure amount, and milk production intensity. For validation of the CH₄ accounting of the model, 1-year CH₄ measurements of an experimental free-stall dairy farm in Germany are compared to model simulation results. An advantage of this interdisciplinary study is given by the correspondence of the model parameterization and simulation horizon with the experimental farm's characteristics and measurement period. The results clarify that modeled emission inventories (2,898, 4,637, 4,247, and 3,600 kg CO₂-eq. cow(-1) year(-1)) lead to more or less good approximations of online measurements (average 3,845 kg CO₂-eq. cow(-1) year(-1) (±275 owing to manure management)) depending on the indicator utilized. The more farm-specific characteristics are used by the GHG indicator; the lower is the bias of the modeled emissions. Results underline that an accurate emission calculation procedure should capture differences in energy intake, owing to milk production intensity as well as manure storage time. Despite the differences between indicator estimates, the deviation of modeled GHGs using detailed indicators in DAIRYDYN from on-farm measurements is relatively low (between -6.4% and 10.5%), compared with findings from the literature.

  8. Relationship Between Vehicle Size and Fatality Risk in Model Year 1985-93 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Fatality rates per million exposure years are computed by make, model and model year, : based on the crash experience of model year 1985-93 passenger cars and light trucks (pickups) vans : and sport utility vehicles) in the United States during calen...

  9. A Multidimensional Model of School Dropout from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study in a General High School Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Diallo, Thierno; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide

    2013-01-01

    This study tests an empirical multidimensional model of school dropout, using data collected in the first year of an 8-year longitudinal study, with first year high school students aged 12-13 years. Structural equation modeling analyses show that five personal, family, and school latent factors together contribute to school dropout identified at…

  10. Validation of the transportation computer codes HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, RADTRAN 4, and RISKIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheras, S.J.; Pippen, H.K.

    1995-05-01

    The computer codes HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, RADTRAN 4, and RISKIND were used to estimate radiation doses from the transportation of radioactive material in the Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement. HIGHWAY and INTERLINE were used to estimate transportation routes for truck and rail shipments, respectively. RADTRAN 4 was used to estimate collective doses from incident-free transportation and the risk (probability x consequence) from transportation accidents. RISKIND was used to estimate incident-free radiation doses for maximally exposed individuals and the consequences from reasonably foreseeable transportation accidents. The purpose of this analysis is to validate the estimates made by these computer codes; critiques of the conceptual models used in RADTRAN 4 are also discussed. Validation is defined as ''the test and evaluation of the completed software to ensure compliance with software requirements.'' In this analysis, validation means that the differences between the estimates generated by these codes and independent observations are small (i.e., within the acceptance criterion established for the validation analysis). In some cases, the independent observations used in the validation were measurements; in other cases, the independent observations used in the validation analysis were generated using hand calculations. The results of the validation analyses performed for HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, RADTRAN 4, and RISKIND show that the differences between the estimates generated using the computer codes and independent observations were small. Based on the acceptance criterion established for the validation analyses, the codes yielded acceptable results; in all cases the estimates met the requirements for successful validation

  11. Educators' Year Long Reactions to the Implementation of a Response to Intervention (RTI) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Dixie; Friedli, Corey; Brunken, Cindy; Snow, Pamela; Ritzman, Mitzi

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods were used to explore the reactions of educators before and after implementing the Response to Intervention (RTI) model in secondary settings during a school year. Eighteen participants from six middle schools and four high schools collaborated on interdisciplinary teams that involved classroom teachers, speech-language pathologists…

  12. A cognitive-behavioral model of problematic online gaming in adolescents aged 12–22 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, M.C.; Caplan, S.E.; Peters, O.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the cognitive behavioral model of problematic Internet use to the context of online game use to obtain a better understanding of problematic use of online games and its negative consequences. In total, 597 online game playing adolescents aged 12–22 years

  13. Analysis of the Impacts of City Year's Whole School Whole Child Model on Partner Schools' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Julie; Anderson, Leslie M.

    2015-01-01

    City Year is a learning organization committed to the rigorous evaluation of its "Whole School Whole Child" model, which trains and deploys teams of AmeriCorps members to low-performing, urban schools to empower more students to reach their full potential. A third-party study by Policy Studies Associates (PSA) examined the impact of…

  14. Automotive Maintenance Data Base for Model Years 1976-1979. Part II : Appendix E and F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    An update of the existing data base was developed to include life cycle maintenance costs of representative vehicles for the model years 1976-1979. Repair costs as a function of time are also developed for a passenger car in each of the compact, subc...

  15. Implementing and Assessing a Flipped Classroom Model for First-Year Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saterbak, Ann; Volz, Tracy; Wettergreen, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Faculty at Rice University are creating instructional resources to support teaching first-year engineering design using a flipped classroom model. This implementation of flipped pedagogy is unusual because content-driven, lecture courses are usually targeted for flipping, not project-based design courses that already incorporate an abundance of…

  16. 3D Heart Model and 4D Flow MRI 20 Years after Spiral Arterial Switch Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Hans-Hinrich; Kheradvar, Arash; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Rickers, Carsten

    2016-12-01

    Case of a patient is presented here 20 years after spiral direct anastomosis of the great arteries in an arterial switch operation. Three-dimensional model of the heart combined with four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging presents a novel comprehensive way to assess surgical results.

  17. Automotive Maintenance Data Base for Model Years 1976-1979. Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    An update of the existing data base was developed to include life cycle maintenance costs of representative vehicles for the model years 1976-1979. Repair costs as a function of time are also developed for a passenger car in each of the compact, subc...

  18. Developing a Model for Identifying Students at Risk of Failure in a First Year Accounting Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm; Therry, Len; Whale, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the process involved in attempting to build a predictive model capable of identifying students at risk of failure in a first year accounting unit in an Australian university. Identifying attributes that contribute to students being at risk can lead to the development of appropriate intervention strategies and support…

  19. A cognitive-behavioral model of problematic online gaming in adolescents aged 12-22 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, M.C.; Caplan, S.E.; Peters, O.; Pieterse, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the cognitive behavioral model of problematic Internet use to the context of online game use to obtain a better understanding of problematic use of online games and its negative consequences. In total, 597 online game playing adolescents aged 12-22 years

  20. Final-year diagnostic radiography students' perception of role models within the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Alinya; Lewis, Sarah; Robinson, John

    2008-01-01

    Within a clinical education setting, the value of role models and prescribed mentors can be seen as an important influence in shaping the student's future as a diagnostic radiographer. A study was undertaken to create a new understanding of how diagnostic radiography students perceive role models and professional behavior in the workforce. The study aimed to determine the impact of clinical education in determining modeling expectations, role model identification and attributes, and the integration of academic education and "hands-on" clinical practice in preparing diagnostic radiography students to enter the workplace. Thirteen final-year (third-year) diagnostic radiography students completed an hour-long interview regarding their experiences and perceptions of role models while on clinical placement. The key concepts that emerged illustrated that students gravitate toward radiographers who enjoy sharing practical experiences with students and are good communicators. Unique to diagnostic radiography, students made distinctions about the presence of role models in private versus public service delivery. This study gives insight to clinical educators in diagnostic radiography and wider allied health into how students perceive role models, interact with preceptors, and combine real-life experiences with formal learning.

  1. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Models of quality-adjusted life years when health varies over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2006-01-01

    Qualityadjusted life year (QALY) models are widely used for economic evaluation in the health care sector. In the first part of the paper, we establish an overview of QALY models where health varies over time and provide a theoretical analysis of model identification and parameter estimation from...... time tradeoff (TTO) and standard gamble (SG) scores. We investigate deterministic and probabilistic models and consider five different families of discounting functions in all. The second part of the paper discusses four issues recurrently debated in the literature. This discussion includes questioning...... of these two can be used to disentangle risk aversion from discounting. We find that caution must be taken when drawing conclusions from models with chronic health states to situations where health varies over time. One notable difference is that in the former case, risk aversion may be indistinguishable from...

  3. Development, Validation and Parametric study of a 3-Year-Old Child Head Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shihai; Chen, Yue; Li, Haiyan; Ruan, ShiJie

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by drop and traffic accidents is an important reason for children's death and disability. Recently, the computer finite element (FE) head model has been developed to investigate brain injury mechanism and biomechanical responses. Based on CT data of a healthy 3-year-old child head, the FE head model with detailed anatomical structure was developed. The deep brain structures such as white matter, gray matter, cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, were firstly created in this FE model. The FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with that of cadaver experiments based on reconstructing the child and adult cadaver experiments. In addition, the effects of skull stiffness on the child head dynamic responses were further investigated. All the simulation results confirmed the good biofidelity of the FE model.

  4. A computational growth model for measuring dynamic cortical development in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jingxin; Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2012-10-01

    Human cerebral cortex develops extremely fast in the first year of life. Quantitative measurement of cortical development during this early stage plays an important role in revealing the relationship between cortical structural and high-level functional development. This paper presents a computational growth model to simulate the dynamic development of the cerebral cortex from birth to 1 year old by modeling the cerebral cortex as a deformable elastoplasticity surface driven via a growth model. To achieve a high accuracy, a guidance model is also incorporated to estimate the growth parameters and cortical shapes at later developmental stages. The proposed growth model has been applied to 10 healthy subjects with longitudinal brain MR images acquired at every 3 months from birth to 1 year old. The experimental results show that our proposed method can capture the dynamic developmental process of the cortex, with the average surface distance error smaller than 0.6 mm compared with the ground truth surfaces, and the results also show that 1) the curvedness and sharpness decrease from 2 weeks to 12 months and 2) the frontal lobe shows rapidly increasing cortical folding during this period, with relatively slower increase of the cortical folding in the occipital and parietal lobes.

  5. Incorporating Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical model for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This model was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of incorporating yearly wheat masks into the forecasting model. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.

  6. Association between reported sleep need and sleepiness at the wheel: comparative study on French highways between 1996 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quera-Salva, M A; Hartley, S; Sauvagnac-Quera, R; Sagaspe, P; Taillard, J; Contrand, B; Micoulaud, J A; Lagarde, E; Barbot, F; Philip, P

    2016-12-21

    To investigate the evolution over 15 years of sleep schedules, sleepiness at the wheel and driving risk among highway drivers. Comparative survey including questions on usual sleep schedules and before the trip, sleepiness at the wheel, the Epworth sleepiness scale, Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire (BNSQ) and a travel questionnaire. 80% of drivers stopped by the highway patrol agreed to participate in both studies with a total of 3545 drivers in 2011 and 2196 drivers in 1996 interviewed. After standardisation based on sex, age and mean annual driving distance, drivers in 2011 reported shorter sleep time on week days (psleep time (p15 indicating severe sleepiness. Even if drivers in 2011 reported good sleep hygiene prior to a highway journey, drivers have reduced their mean weekly sleep duration over 15 years and have a higher risk of sleepiness at the wheel. Sleep hygiene for automobile drivers remains an important concept to address. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. The Damage Effects in Steel Bridges under Highway Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel bridges under highway random loading is studied. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load histo...... indicate that the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results, which are unconservative.......In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel bridges under highway random loading is studied. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load...

  8. Ground-water problems in highway construction and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, W.C.; Haigler, L.B.

    1953-01-01

    This report discusses the occurrence of ground water in relation to certain problems in highway construction and maintenance. These problems are: the subdrainage of roads; quicksand; the arrest of soil creep in road cuts; the construction of lower and larger culverts necessitated by the farm-drainage program; the prevention of failure of bridge abutments and retaining walls; and the water-cement ratio of sub-water-table concrete. Although the highway problems and suggested solutions are of general interest, they are considered with special reference to the State of Delaware, in relation to the geology of that State. The new technique of soil stabilization by electroosmosis is reviewed in the hope that it might find application here in road work and pile setting, field application by the Germans and Russians is reviewed.

  9. Measurements of air pollution from a Danish highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M.; Loefstroem, P. Massling, A.

    2009-07-15

    This report presents the results from a measurement campaign carried out at the Holbaek Highway during 2008. The objective of the campaign was to determine the emission factors for PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} due to highway traffic. The campaign included measurements of NO{sub x}, NO, NO{sub 2}, TEOM PM{sub 2.5}, TEOM PM{sub 10}, O{sub 3}, particle size distribution and local meteorology. The emission factors for PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} were determined to 45 and 155 mg/(vehicle km), respectively. This is comparable to the emission factors previously determined for H. C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen and somewhat higher than found at Jagtvej, Copenhagen. (author)

  10. Fracture Mechanics Prediction of Fatigue Life of Aluminum Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Søren; Agerskov, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Fracture mechanics prediction of the fatigue life of aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined from fracture mechanics analyses and the results obtained have been compared with results from experimental investigations. The fati......Fracture mechanics prediction of the fatigue life of aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined from fracture mechanics analyses and the results obtained have been compared with results from experimental investigations...... against fatigue in aluminum bridges, may give results which are unconservative. Furthermore, it was in both investigations found that the validity of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend on the distribution of the load history in tension and compression....

  11. Marginal overweight operating scenario for DOE's initiative I highway casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.V.; Loud, G.C.; Heitzman, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential transport of high-capacity Initiative I highway casks under development by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) as permitted marginal overweight shipments that: exceed a gross vehicle weight (gvw) limit of 80,000, but weight less than 96,000 pounds; follow axle and axle group weight limits adopted by the Surface Transportation Assistance Act (STAA) of 1982; conform to dimensional restrictions to operate on most major highways; and comply with the Federal Bridge Formula. The marginal overweight tractor-trailer would operate in normal open-quotes over-the-roadclose quotes mode and comply with all laws and regulations. The vehicle would have a sleeper berth and two drivers - one to drive while the other provides escort and communications services and accumulates required off-duty time

  12. A participative evaluation model to refine academic support for first year Indigenous higher education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Rossingh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluative approach designed to provide a cycle of continuous improvement to retain Indigenous students during their first year of higher education.   The evaluation model operates in conjunction with a student academic enrichment program that is premised on valuing and respecting each student's background and life experience whilst building capability for learning success.  Data collected will be used for continual improvement of a newly developed innovative academic enrichment program that caters to the needs of Indigenous students.  The defining mechanisms of the model for measuring the first year experience are particularly meaningful for the Australian Centre For Indigenous Knowledges and Education as it moves into its inaugural year of operation in 2012. This preeminent time requires a flexible model to receive timely feedback in a reflexive environment where students guide the process as they continue their journey of accumulating knowledge and leave behind their contribution in shaping the landscape for future first year Indigenous students.  

  13. Development and validation of a 10-year-old child ligamentous cervical spine finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liqiang; Li, Guangyao; Mao, Haojie; Marek, Stanley; Yang, King H

    2013-12-01

    Although a number of finite element (FE) adult cervical spine models have been developed to understand the injury mechanisms of the neck in automotive related crash scenarios, there have been fewer efforts to develop a child neck model. In this study, a 10-year-old ligamentous cervical spine FE model was developed for application in the improvement of pediatric safety related to motor vehicle crashes. The model geometry was obtained from medical scans and meshed using a multi-block approach. Appropriate properties based on review of literature in conjunction with scaling were assigned to different parts of the model. Child tensile force-deformation data in three segments, Occipital-C2 (C0-C2), C4-C5 and C6-C7, were used to validate the cervical spine model and predict failure forces and displacements. Design of computer experiments was performed to determine failure properties for intervertebral discs and ligaments needed to set up the FE model. The model-predicted ultimate displacements and forces were within the experimental range. The cervical spine FE model was validated in flexion and extension against the child experimental data in three segments, C0-C2, C4-C5 and C6-C7. Other model predictions were found to be consistent with the experimental responses scaled from adult data. The whole cervical spine model was also validated in tension, flexion and extension against the child experimental data. This study provided methods for developing a child ligamentous cervical spine FE model and to predict soft tissue failures in tension.

  14. Ecotoxicological effects of highway and tunnel wash water runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Meland, Sondre

    2010-01-01

    In Norway, the traffic loadings have shown a substantial increase during the last decades. From 1948 to 2008 the transportation load has increased from 2.5 to 60.6 million passenger km. Hence, the ever increasing traffic has without doubt a significant negative effect on the environment. For example, highway runoffs typically contain a cocktail of both organic and inorganic contaminants being able to cause detrimental effects on the aquatic ecosystem. The present thesis, which is part of t...

  15. Present lead content of the vegetation near Swiss highways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, T

    1970-01-01

    This study examined the lead content of the vegetation near Swiss highways. The factors influencing the total lead content of the trees, shrubs and grasses were found to be the direction of the traffic, the age of the plants, the season, the surface peculiarities of the plant, and the lateral and vertical distance between the plants and the road. 15 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Comparison of Daytime and Nighttime Populations Adjacent to Interstate Highways in Metropolitan Areas Using LandScan USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    An article of similar title was published in the International Journal of Radioactive Materials Transport in 1999. The study concluded that the daytime and nighttime populations are not substantially different for the metropolitan areas examined. This study revisits the issue, but using the LandScan USA high resolution population distribution data, which includes daytime and night-time population. Segments of Interstate highway beltways, along with the direct route through the city, for Atlanta, St. Louis, and Kansas City are examined with an 800m buffer from either side of the highways. The day/night ratio of population is higher using the LandScan USA data. LandScan USA daytime and night-time data will be incorporated into the TRAGIS routing model in future

  17. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  18. A year 2003 conceptual model for the U.S. telecommunications infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Roger Gary; Reinert, Rhonda K.

    2003-12-01

    To model the telecommunications infrastructure and its role and robustness to shocks, we must characterize the business and engineering of telecommunications systems in the year 2003 and beyond. By analogy to environmental systems modeling, we seek to develop a 'conceptual model' for telecommunications. Here, the conceptual model is a list of high-level assumptions consistent with the economic and engineering architectures of telecommunications suppliers and customers, both today and in the near future. We describe the present engineering architectures of the most popular service offerings, and describe the supplier markets in some detail. We also develop a characterization of the customer base for telecommunications services and project its likely response to disruptions in service, base-lining such conjectures against observed behaviors during 9/11.

  19. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through strategic management of highway pavement roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ting; Harvey, John; Kendall, Alissa

    2014-01-01

    On-road vehicle use is responsible for about a quarter of US annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Changes in vehicles, travel behavior and fuel are likely required to meet long-term climate change mitigation goals, but may require a long time horizon to deploy. This research examines a near-term opportunity: management of pavement network roughness. Maintenance and rehabilitation treatments can make pavements smoother and reduce vehicle rolling resistance. However, these treatments require material production and equipment operation, thus requiring a life cycle perspective for benefits analysis. They must also be considered in terms of their cost-effectiveness in comparison with other alternatives for affecting climate change. This letter describes a life cycle approach to assess changes in total GHG (measured in CO 2 -e) emissions from strategic management of highway pavement roughness. Roughness values for triggering treatments are developed to minimize GHG considering both treatment and use phase vehicle emission. With optimal triggering for GHG minimization, annualized reductions on the California state highway network over a 10-year analysis period are calculated to be 0.82, 0.57 and 1.38 million metric tons compared with historical trigger values, recently implemented values and no strategic intervention (reactive maintenance), respectively. Abatement costs calculated using $/metric-ton CO 2 -e are higher than those reported for other transportation sector abatement measures, however, without considering all benefits associated with pavement smoothness, such as vehicle life and maintenance, or the time needed for deployment. (paper)

  20. Assessment of the neighborhood environmental effects of highway improvements through micronetwork simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimpeler, C.C. (Schimpeler--Corradino Associates, Louisville, KY); Corradino, J.C.; Siria, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    New Cut Road is a major arterial highway serving South Louisville. Until recently, it was a narrow two-lane highway of rural-type design carrying up to 14,000 vehicles per day under forced flow conditions. Then construction began to widen the road from Southside Drive to Old Third Street Road, as a result of Urban Corridor Demonstration Program funding. The impacts (traffic, noise, and air pollution) on the neighborhoods surrounding this widening have been measured through micronetwork simulation techniques. Traffic will be diverted from surrounding roads (up to 20 percent) to the widened New Cut facility, thereby eliminating ''over-capacity'' conditions in these facilities, adding several years' life. Further, expeditious movement of vehicles through the New Cut Road ''area of influence'' will have a beneficial, albeit small, effect on the local air and noise environment. New Cut Road will be a highly cost-effective, low-capital-intensive improvement.

  1. Lead concentrations and reproduction in highway-nesting barn swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Swallows (Hirundo rustica) collected within the right-of-way of a major Maryland highway were greater than those found in Barn Swallows nesting within a rural area. Lead concentrations in the feathers of adults from the highway colony were also greater than Lead concentrations in the carcasses and stomach contents of adult and nestling Barn those of rural adults, but concentrations in the feathers of nestlings from the two locations were similar. Activity of u-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in red blood cells was lower in highway-nesting adults and their young than in their rural counterparts, although hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits did not differ. The number of eggs, nestlings, and body weights of the latter at 16-18 days of age were similar in the two colonies, as were body weights of adults from the two areas. These results suggest that contamination of roadside habitats by lead from automotive emissions does not pose a serious hazard to birds that are aerial feeders.

  2. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  3. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  4. Highway traffic noise prediction based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianghua; Qin, Qiming

    2014-05-01

    Before building a new road, we need to predict the traffic noise generated by vehicles. Traditional traffic noise prediction methods are based on certain locations and they are not only time-consuming, high cost, but also cannot be visualized. Geographical Information System (GIS) can not only solve the problem of manual data processing, but also can get noise values at any point. The paper selected a road segment from Wenxi to Heyang. According to the geographical overview of the study area and the comparison between several models, we combine the JTG B03-2006 model and the HJ2.4-2009 model to predict the traffic noise depending on the circumstances. Finally, we interpolate the noise values at each prediction point and then generate contours of noise. By overlaying the village data on the noise contour layer, we can get the thematic maps. The use of GIS for road traffic noise prediction greatly facilitates the decision-makers because of GIS spatial analysis function and visualization capabilities. We can clearly see the districts where noise are excessive, and thus it becomes convenient to optimize the road line and take noise reduction measures such as installing sound barriers and relocating villages and so on.

  5. Forty years of 9Sr in situ migration: importance of soil characterization in modeling transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.M.; Piault, E.; Macouillard, D.; Juncos, C.

    2006-01-01

    In 1960 experiments were carried out on the transfer of 9 Sr between soil, grapes and wine. The experiments were conducted in situ on a piece of land limited by two control strips. The 9 Sr migration over the last 40 years was studied by performing radiological and physico-chemical characterizations of the soil on eight 70 cm deep cores. The vertical migration modeling of 9 Sr required the definition of a triple layer conceptual model integrating the rainwater infiltration at constant flux as the only external factor of influence. Afterwards the importance of a detailed soil characterization for modeling was discussed and satisfactory simulation of the 9 Sr vertical transport was obtained and showed a calculated migration rate of about 1.0 cm year -1 in full agreement with the in situ measured values. The discussion was regarding some of the key parameters such as granulometry, organic matter content (in the Van Genuchten parameter determination), Kd and the efficient rainwater infiltration. Besides the experimental data, simplifying assumptions in modeling such as water-soil redistribution calculation and factual discontinuities in conceptual model were examined

  6. Computable General Equilibrium Model Fiscal Year 2013 Capability Development Report - April 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC); Rivera, Michael K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC)

    2014-04-01

    This report documents progress made on continued developments of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) Computable General Equilibrium Model (NCGEM), developed in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2013, NISAC the treatment of the labor market and tests performed with the model to examine the properties of the solutions computed by the model. To examine these, developers conducted a series of 20 simulations for 20 U.S. States. Each of these simulations compared an economic baseline simulation with an alternative simulation that assumed a 20-percent reduction in overall factor productivity in the manufacturing industries of each State. Differences in the simulation results between the baseline and alternative simulations capture the economic impact of the reduction in factor productivity. While not every State is affected in precisely the same way, the reduction in manufacturing industry productivity negatively affects the manufacturing industries in each State to an extent proportional to the reduction in overall factor productivity. Moreover, overall economic activity decreases when manufacturing sector productivity is reduced. Developers ran two additional simulations: (1) a version of the model for the State of Michigan, with manufacturing divided into two sub-industries (automobile and other vehicle manufacturing as one sub-industry and the rest of manufacturing as the other subindustry); and (2) a version of the model for the United States, divided into 30 industries. NISAC conducted these simulations to illustrate the flexibility of industry definitions in NCGEM and to examine the simulation properties of in more detail.

  7. Multi-year Estimates of Methane Fluxes in Alaska from an Atmospheric Inverse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. M.; Commane, R.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Miller, C. E.; Michalak, A. M.; Dinardo, S. J.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Hartery, S.; Karion, A.; Lindaas, J.; Sweeney, C.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    We estimate methane fluxes across Alaska over a multi-year period using observations from a three-year aircraft campaign, the Carbon Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Existing estimates of methane from Alaska and other Arctic regions disagree in both magnitude and distribution, and before the CARVE campaign, atmospheric observations in the region were sparse. We combine these observations with an atmospheric particle trajectory model and a geostatistical inversion to estimate surface fluxes at the model grid scale. We first use this framework to estimate the spatial distribution of methane fluxes across the state. We find the largest fluxes in the south-east and North Slope regions of Alaska. This distribution is consistent with several estimates of wetland extent but contrasts with the distribution in most existing flux models. These flux models concentrate methane in warmer or more southerly regions of Alaska compared to the estimate presented here. This result suggests a discrepancy in how existing bottom-up models translate wetland area into methane fluxes across the state. We next use the inversion framework to explore inter-annual variability in regional-scale methane fluxes for 2012-2014. We examine the extent to which this variability correlates with weather or other environmental conditions. These results indicate the possible sensitivity of wetland fluxes to near-term variability in climate.

  8. A Model of the Earth's Magnetic Field From Two Year of Swarm Satellite Constellation Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    More than two year of data from ESA's Swarm constellation mission are used to derive a model of the Earth’s magnetic field and its time variation (secular variation). The model describes contributions from the core and lithosphere as well as large-scale contributions from the magnetosphere (and its...... Earth-induced counterpart). We use data from geomagnetic quiet times and co-estimate the Euler angles describing the rotation between the vector magnetometer instrument frame and the North-East-Center (NEC) frame. In addition to the magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm...

  9. Cross-Scale Modelling of Subduction from Minute to Million of Years Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, S. V.; Muldashev, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction is an essentially multi-scale process with time-scales spanning from geological to earthquake scale with the seismic cycle in-between. Modelling of such process constitutes one of the largest challenges in geodynamic modelling today.Here we present a cross-scale thermomechanical model capable of simulating the entire subduction process from rupture (1 min) to geological time (millions of years) that employs elasticity, mineral-physics-constrained non-linear transient viscous rheology and rate-and-state friction plasticity. The model generates spontaneous earthquake sequences. The adaptive time-step algorithm recognizes moment of instability and drops the integration time step to its minimum value of 40 sec during the earthquake. The time step is then gradually increased to its maximal value of 5 yr, following decreasing displacement rates during the postseismic relaxation. Efficient implementation of numerical techniques allows long-term simulations with total time of millions of years. This technique allows to follow in details deformation process during the entire seismic cycle and multiple seismic cycles. We observe various deformation patterns during modelled seismic cycle that are consistent with surface GPS observations and demonstrate that, contrary to the conventional ideas, the postseismic deformation may be controlled by viscoelastic relaxation in the mantle wedge, starting within only a few hours after the great (M>9) earthquakes. Interestingly, in our model an average slip velocity at the fault closely follows hyperbolic decay law. In natural observations, such deformation is interpreted as an afterslip, while in our model it is caused by the viscoelastic relaxation of mantle wedge with viscosity strongly varying with time. We demonstrate that our results are consistent with the postseismic surface displacement after the Great Tohoku Earthquake for the day-to-year time range. We will also present results of the modeling of deformation of the

  10. 3-D Highway in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    If it were 50 years ago, NASA's contribution to rock and roll could have been more than just the all-astronaut rock band, Max Q, composed of six NASA astronauts, all of whom have flown aboard the Space Shuttle. If it were 50 years ago, a new NASA spinoff technology, Synthetic Vision, would likely have been able to prevent the fateful, small plane crash that killed rock and roll legends Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and The Big Bopper on that stormy night in 1959. Synthetic Vision is a new cockpit display system that helps pilots fly through bad weather, and it has incredible life-saving potential. In 1997, the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security created NASA s Aviation Safety and Security Program (AvSSP) with the aim of sounding the depths of NASA s cutting-edge aviation advances and history of successes. The AvSSP decided to use NASA technology to cut the rate of fatal aviation accidents that occur because of lowered visibility and spatial disorientation, common problems that arise in poor weather conditions, in the dark, or with inexperienced pilots.

  11. Development of NIR calibration models to assess year-to-year variation in total non-structural carbohydrates in grasses using PLSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Gislum, René; Jensen, Anne Mette Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used in combination with chemometrics to quantify total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) in grass samples in order to overcome year-to-year variation. A total of 1103 above-ground plant and root samples were collected from different field and pot experiments...... and with various experimental designs in the period from 2001 to 2005. A calibration model was developed using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The calibration model on a large data set spanning five years demonstrated that quantification of TNC using NIR spectroscopy was possible with an acceptable low...

  12. The SIR model of Zika virus disease outbreak in Brazil at year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aik, Lim Eng; Kiang, Lam Chee; Hong, Tan Wei; Abu, Mohd Syafarudy

    2017-05-01

    This research study demonstrates a numerical model intended for comprehension the spread of the year 2015 Zika virus disease utilizing the standard SIR framework. In modeling virulent disease dynamics, it is important to explore whether the illness spread could accomplish a pandemic level or it could be eradicated. Information from the year 2015 Zika virus disease event is utilized and Brazil where the event began is considered in this research study. A three dimensional nonlinear differential equation is formulated and solved numerically utilizing the Euler's method in MS excel. It is appeared from the research study that, with health intercessions of public, the viable regenerative number can be decreased making it feasible for the event to cease to exist. It is additionally indicated numerically that the pandemic can just cease to exist when there are no new infected people in the populace.

  13. Modeling 100,000-year climate fluctuations in pre-Pleistocene time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Kim, Kwang-Yul; Mengel, John G.; Short, David A.

    1992-01-01

    A number of pre-Pleistocene climate records exhibit significant fluctuations at the 100,000-year (100-ky) eccentricity period, before the time of such fluctuations in global ice volume. The origin of these fluctuations has been obscure. Results reported here from a modeling study suggest that such a response can occur over low-altitude land areas involved in monsoon fluctuations. The twice yearly passage of the sun across the equator and the seasonal timing of perihelion interact to increase both 100-ky and 400-ky power in the modeled temperature field. The magnitude of the temperature response is sufficiently large to leave an imprint on the geologic record, and simulated fluctuations resemble those found in records of Triassic lake levels.

  14. Ten-year operational dust forecasting - Recent model development and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallos, G; Spyrou, C; Astitha, M; Mitsakou, C; Solomos, S; Kushta, J; Pytharoulis, I; Katsafados, P; Mavromatidis, E; Papantoniou, N; Vlastou, G

    2009-01-01

    The Sahara desert is one of the major sources of mineral dust on Earth, producing up to 2x10 8 t yr- 1 . A combined effort has been devoted during the last ten years at the University of Athens (UOA) from the Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group (AM and WFG) to the development of an analysis and forecasting tool that will provide early warning of Saharan dust outbreaks. The developed tool is the SKIRON limited-area forecasting system, based on the Eta limited area modeling system with embedded algorithms describing the dust cycle. A new version of the model is currently available, with extra features like eight-size particle bins, radiative transfer corrections, new dust source identification and utilization of rocky soil characterization and incorporation of more accurate deposition schemes. The new version of SKIRON modeling system is coupled with the photochemical model CAMx in order to study processes like the shading effect of dust particles on photochemical processes and the production of second and third generation of aerosols. Moreover, another new development in the AM and WFG is based on the RAMS model, with the incorporation of processes like dust and sea-salt production, gas and aqueous phase chemistry and particle formation. In this study, the major characteristics of the developed (and under development) modeling systems are presented, as well as the spatiotemporal distribution of the transported dust amounts, the interaction with anthropogenically-produced particles and the potential implications on radiative transfer.

  15. Ten-year operational dust forecasting - Recent model development and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallos, G; Spyrou, C; Astitha, M; Mitsakou, C; Solomos, S; Kushta, J; Pytharoulis, I; Katsafados, P; Mavromatidis, E; Papantoniou, N; Vlastou, G [University of Athens, School of Physics, Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group - UOA/AM and WFG, University Campus, Bldg. PHYS-V, Athens 15784 (Greece)], E-mail: kallos@mg.uoa.gr

    2009-03-01

    The Sahara desert is one of the major sources of mineral dust on Earth, producing up to 2x10{sup 8} t yr-{sup 1}. A combined effort has been devoted during the last ten years at the University of Athens (UOA) from the Atmospheric Modeling and Weather Forecasting Group (AM and WFG) to the development of an analysis and forecasting tool that will provide early warning of Saharan dust outbreaks. The developed tool is the SKIRON limited-area forecasting system, based on the Eta limited area modeling system with embedded algorithms describing the dust cycle. A new version of the model is currently available, with extra features like eight-size particle bins, radiative transfer corrections, new dust source identification and utilization of rocky soil characterization and incorporation of more accurate deposition schemes. The new version of SKIRON modeling system is coupled with the photochemical model CAMx in order to study processes like the shading effect of dust particles on photochemical processes and the production of second and third generation of aerosols. Moreover, another new development in the AM and WFG is based on the RAMS model, with the incorporation of processes like dust and sea-salt production, gas and aqueous phase chemistry and particle formation. In this study, the major characteristics of the developed (and under development) modeling systems are presented, as well as the spatiotemporal distribution of the transported dust amounts, the interaction with anthropogenically-produced particles and the potential implications on radiative transfer.

  16. Using mobile monitoring to visualise diurnal variation of traffic pollutants across two near-highway neighbourhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattinson, Woodrow; Longley, Ian; Kingham, Simon

    2014-09-01

    It is widely accepted that concentrations of primary traffic pollutants can vary substantially across relatively small urban areas. Fixed-site monitors have been shown to be largely inadequate for representing concentrations at nearby locations, resulting in the increasing use of spatial modelling or mobile sampling methods to achieve spatial saturation. In this study, we employ the use of a simple bicycle to sample concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM10) at two small areas (arterials and quieter streets, at periods of contrasting meteorological and traffic conditions. A total of 20 sampling runs in each area (five at each of the four timings) were conducted. Meteorological data were logged continuously at background sites within each study area. Results show that the influence of highway traffic (UFPs, CO) was strongest during the mornings and late evenings when wind speeds were low, while for the midday and afternoon timings, concentrations were highest at the arterial and shopping zones. Concentrations of PM10 appeared to be strongest in the residential areas during mornings and late evenings, suggesting an influence of wood burning for home heating. For all timings combined, for all three pollutants, it appears the arterial roads featuring shops and numerous intersections with traffic lights, had a stronger influence on concentrations than the busier but more free-flowing highways. This study provides not only an insight into microspatial hotspot variation across suburbs, but also how this variation shifts diurnally.

  17. Terry Turbopump Analytical Modeling Efforts in Fiscal Year 2016 ? Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas; Ross, Kyle; Cardoni, Jeffrey N

    2018-04-01

    This document details the Fiscal Year 2016 modeling efforts to define the true operating limitations (margins) of the Terry turbopump systems used in the nuclear industry for Milestone 3 (full-scale component experiments) and Milestone 4 (Terry turbopump basic science experiments) experiments. The overall multinational-sponsored program creates the technical basis to: (1) reduce and defer additional utility costs, (2) simplify plant operations, and (3) provide a better understanding of the true margin which could reduce overall risk of operations.

  18. Evaluation of 6 and 10 Year-Old Child Human Body Models in Emergency Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Laure-Lise; Stockman, Isabelle; Brolin, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Emergency events can influence a child's kinematics prior to a car-crash, and thus its interaction with the restraint system. Numerical Human Body Models (HBMs) can help understand the behaviour of children in emergency events. The kinematic responses of two child HBMs-MADYMO 6 and 10 year-old models-were evaluated and compared with child volunteers' data during emergency events-braking and steering-with a focus on the forehead and sternum displacements. The response of the 6 year-old HBM was similar to the response of the 10 year-old HBM, however both models had a different response compared with the volunteers. The forward and lateral displacements were within the range of volunteer data up to approximately 0.3 s; but then, the HBMs head and sternum moved significantly downwards, while the volunteers experienced smaller displacement and tended to come back to their initial posture. Therefore, these HBMs, originally intended for crash simulations, are not too stiff and could be able to reproduce properly emergency events thanks, for instance, to postural control.

  19. Mercury Studies around the Mediterranean Sea Basin: Ten years of Measurements and Modeling results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Only a few years ago the presence of Reactive Gaseous Mercury (RGM was believed to be almost exclusively the result of anthropogenic emissions and that sustained high RGM concentrations in the MBL were not considered likely. During the past ten years, an in-depth investigation was carried out in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL of the Mediterranean Sea to quantify and possibly explain spatial and temporal patterns of Hg-species concentrations. This paper provides an overview of modeling results and atmospheric measurements performed during several cruise campaigns performed aboard the Research Vessel (RV URANIA of the CNR over the Mediterranean sea basin. RGM concentrations have been modelled using a photochemical box model of the MBL and compared to measured data obtained during the research cruises. The comparison results supports the hypothesis that there are daytime mercury oxidation reactions occurring which have not yet been identified. Major findings of key studies carried out during ten years of ship-borne activities have been highlighted.

  20. Snow model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a new snow model and a database which warehouses geometric, weather and traffic : data on New Jersey highways. The complexity of the model development lies in considering variable road : width, different spreading/plowing pattern...

  1. Safety early warning research for highway construction based on case-based reasoning and variable fuzzy sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yi, Ting-Hua; Xu, Zhen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR), this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The present study provides solutions to three key issues, index selection, accident cause association analysis, and warning degree forecasting implementation, through the use of association rule mining, support vector machine classifiers, and variable fuzzy qualitative and quantitative change criterion modes, which fully cover the needs of safe early warning systems. Using a detailed description of the principles and advantages of each method and by proving the methods' effectiveness and ability to act together in safe early warning applications, effective means and intelligent technology for a safe highway construction early warning system are established.

  2. Safety Early Warning Research for Highway Construction Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Variable Fuzzy Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR, this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The present study provides solutions to three key issues, index selection, accident cause association analysis, and warning degree forecasting implementation, through the use of association rule mining, support vector machine classifiers, and variable fuzzy qualitative and quantitative change criterion modes, which fully cover the needs of safe early warning systems. Using a detailed description of the principles and advantages of each method and by proving the methods’ effectiveness and ability to act together in safe early warning applications, effective means and intelligent technology for a safe highway construction early warning system are established.

  3. Influences of high-flow events on a stream channel altered by construction of a highway bridge: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of highway construction on streams in the central Appalachians are a growing concern as new roads are created to promote tourism and economic development in the area. Alterations to the streambed of a first-order stream, Sauerkraut Run, Hardy County, WV, during construction of a highway overpass included placement and removal of a temporary culvert, straightening and regrading of a section of stream channel, and armourment of a bank with a reinforced gravel berm. We surveyed longitudinal profiles and cross sections in a reference reach and the altered reach of Sauerkraut Run from 2003 through 2007 to measure physical changes in the streambed. During the four-year period, three high-flow events changed the streambed downstream of construction including channel widening and aggradation and then degradation of the streambed. Upstream of construction, at a reinforced gravel berm, bank erosion was documented. The reference section remained relatively unchanged. Knowledge gained by documenting channel changes in response to natural and anthropogenic variables can be useful for managers and engineers involved in highway construction projects.

  4. Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Shanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131 were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5% patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4% achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context

  5. Imitation of live and televised models by children one to three years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, R B; Parke, R D; Kavanaugh, R D

    1977-01-01

    The results of these studies indicated that children younger than 1 year possess the cognitive capability of translating a perception of a novel action into their own behavior. However, the likelihood of imitation varied as a function of the nature of the target behavior. For example, actions requiring direct social commerce with the examiner were imitated less frequently than simple motor behaviors with objects, and reproducing gestures was more common than vocalizations. Moreover, imitation seemed to depend upon the child's level of mental development--the imitation of coordinated sequences, which requires the child to associate two external events, lagged behind the imitation of single-unit behaviors. There was no evidence for individual traits of general imitativeness, at least not until symbolic relations were involved. Live models were imitated more than TV models but only prior to age 3. While children under 2 years of age were not facile at imitating sequences of behaviors or delaying performance at short time after modeling, older toddlers readily and accurately imitated televised sequences even after a 24-hour delay. Whereas socially extroverted and fearless children imitated live models more than shy children, TV imitation was not related to temperament, home TV viewing habits, or parental education. Finally, the experience of being imitated may facilitate the social cognition of influencing another person.

  6. Landslide detection using LiDAR data and data mining technology: Ali Mountain Highway case study (Taiwan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Youg-Sin; Yu, Teng-To; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan mountains are severely affected each year by landslides, rock falls, and debris flows where the roads system suffer the most critical consequences. Among all mountain highways, Ali Highway, located into the main entrance of Alishan Mountain region, is one of the most landslide-prone areas in southern Taiwan. During the typhoon season, between May and August, the probability of occurrence of mass movements is at higher level than usual seeing great erosion rates. In fact, during Typhoon Morakot, in 2009, the intense rainfall caused abrupt interruption of the circulation for three months triggering several landslides (Liu et al. 2012). The topographic features such as slope, roughness and curvature among others have been extracted from 1 m DTM derived by a LiDAR dataset (collected in 2015) to investigate the slope failures along the Ali Mountain Highway. The high-resolution DTM highlighted that the hydrogeomorphological (e.g. density of stream, the distance from the ridge and terrain) features are one of the most influencing factors affecting the change and the instability of the slopes. To detect the landslide area, the decision tree classifier and the random forest algorithm (RF) have been adopted. The results provided a suitable analysis of the area involved in the failure. This will be a useful step in the understanding (and management) landslide processes of study area. References Liu CN, Dong JJ, Chen CJ, Lee WF (2012) Typical landslides and related mechanisms in Ali Mountain highway induced by typhoon Morakot: Perspectives from engineering geology. Landslides 9:239-254.

  7. A Five-Year CMAQ PM2.5 Model Performance for Wildfires and Prescribed Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J. L.; Pouliot, G.; Foley, K.; Rappold, A.; Pierce, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    Biomass burning has been identified as an important contributor to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. Two components of the biomass burning inventory, wildfires and prescribed fires are routinely estimated in the national emissions inventory. However, there is a large amount of uncertainty in the development of these emission inventory sectors. We have completed a 5 year set of CMAQ model simulations (2008-2012) in which we have simulated regional air quality with and without the wildfire and prescribed fire inventory. We will examine CMAQ model performance over regions with significant PM2.5 and Ozone contribution from prescribed fires and wildfires. We will also review plume rise to see how it affects model bias and compare CMAQ current fire emissions input to an hourly dataset from FLAMBE.

  8. Semivariogram models for estimating fig fly population density throughout the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Paulo Batistella Pasini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select semivariogram models to estimate the population density of fig fly (Zaprionus indianus; Diptera: Drosophilidae throughout the year, using ordinary kriging. Nineteen monitoring sites were demarcated in an area of 8,200 m2, cropped with six fruit tree species: persimmon, citrus, fig, guava, apple, and peach. During a 24 month period, 106 weekly evaluations were done in these sites. The average number of adult fig flies captured weekly per trap, during each month, was subjected to the circular, spherical, pentaspherical, exponential, Gaussian, rational quadratic, hole effect, K-Bessel, J-Bessel, and stable semivariogram models, using ordinary kriging interpolation. The models with the best fit were selected by cross-validation. Each data set (months has a particular spatial dependence structure, which makes it necessary to define specific models of semivariograms in order to enhance the adjustment to the experimental semivariogram. Therefore, it was not possible to determine a standard semivariogram model; instead, six theoretical models were selected: circular, Gaussian, hole effect, K-Bessel, J-Bessel, and stable.

  9. Modeling the Office of Science ten year facilities plan: The PERI Architecture Tiger Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supinski, Bronis R de; Gamblin, Todd; Schulz, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The Performance Engineering Institute (PERI) originally proposed a tiger team activity as a mechanism to target significant effort optimizing key Office of Science applications, a model that was successfully realized with the assistance of two JOULE metric teams. However, the Office of Science requested a new focus beginning in 2008: assistance in forming its ten year facilities plan. To meet this request, PERI formed the Architecture Tiger Team, which is modeling the performance of key science applications on future architectures, with S3D, FLASH and GTC chosen as the first application targets. In this activity, we have measured the performance of these applications on current systems in order to understand their baseline performance and to ensure that our modeling activity focuses on the right versions and inputs of the applications. We have applied a variety of modeling techniques to anticipate the performance of these applications on a range of anticipated systems. While our initial findings predict that Office of Science applications will continue to perform well on future machines from major hardware vendors, we have also encountered several areas in which we must extend our modeling techniques in order to fulfill our mission accurately and completely. In addition, we anticipate that models of a wider range of applications will reveal critical differences between expected future systems, thus providing guidance for future Office of Science procurement decisions, and will enable DOE applications to exploit machines in future facilities fully.

  10. Crash-related mortality and model year: are newer vehicles safer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryb, Gabriel E; Dischinger, Patricia C; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether occupants of newer vehicles experience a lower risk of crash-related mortality. The occurrence of death was studied in relation to vehicle model year (MY) among front seat vehicular occupants, age ≥ 16 captured in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) between 2000 and 2008. The associations between death and other occupant, vehicular and crash characteristics were also explored. Multiple logistic regression models for the prediction of death were built with model year as the independent variable and other characteristics linked to death as covariates. Imputation was used for missing data; weighted data was used. A total of 70,314 cases representing 30,514,372 weighted cases were available for analysis. Death occurred in 0.6% of the weighted population. Death was linked to age>60, male gender, higher BMI, near lateral direction of impact, high delta v, rollover, ejection and vehicle mismatch, and negatively associated with seatbelt use and rear and far lateral direction of impact. Mortality decreased with later model year groups (MY<94 0.78%, MY 94-97 0.53%, MY 98-04 0.51% and MY 05-08 0.38%, p=<0.0001). After adjustment for confounders, MY 94-97, MY 98-04 and MY 05-08 showed decreased odds of death [OR 0.80 (0.69-0.94), 0.82 (0.70-0.97), and 0.67 (0.47-0.96), respectively] when compared to MY <94. Newer vehicles are associated with lower crash-related mortality. Their introduction into the vehicle fleet may explain, at least in part, the decrease in mortality rates in the past two decades.

  11. Numerical analysis and comparison of three types of herringbone frame structure for highway subgrade slopes protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yihua; Tang, Saiqian; Xu, Yang; Mao, Kunli

    2018-04-01

    In order to obtain mechanical response distribution of herringbone frame structure for highway subgrade slopes protection and select the best structure type, 3D numerical models of three types herringbone frame structure were established and analyzed in finite element software ANSYS. Indoor physical model of soil slope protected by herringbone frame structure was built and mechanical response of the frame structure was measured by loading tests. Numerical results indicate slope foot is the stress most disadvantageous location. Comparative analysis shows that structure composed of mortar rubble base layer and precast concrete blocks paving layer is the best one for resisting deformation and structure with cement mortar base layer and precast concrete blocks paving layer is the best one for being of low stress.

  12. Evaluating Engagement Models for a Citizen Science Project: Lessons Learned From Four Years of Nature's Notebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, T. M.; Rosemartin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The success of citizen science programs hinges on their abilities to recruit and maintain active participants. The USA National Phenology Network's plant and animal phenology observation program, Nature's Notebook, has been active since 2009. This program engages thousands of citizen scientists in tracking plant and animal life cycle activity over the course of the year. We embarked on an evaluation of the various observer recruitment and retention tactics that we have employed over the ~4-year life of this program to better inform future outreach efforts specific to Nature's Notebook and for the broader citizen science community. Participants in Nature's Notebook may become engaged via one of three pathways: individuals may join Nature's Notebook directly, they may be invited to join through a USA-NPN partner organization, or they may engage through a group with local, site-based leadership. The level and type of recruitment tactics, training, and retention efforts that are employed varies markedly among these three models. In this evaluation, we compared the efficacy of these three engagement models using several metrics: number of individuals recruited, number of individuals that go on to submit at least one data point, retention rates over time, duration of activity, and quantity of data points submitted. We also qualitatively considered the differences in costs the three models require to support. In terms of recruitment, direct engagement yielded 20-100 times more registrants than other two models. In contrast, rates of participation were highest for site-based leadership (>35%, versus 20-30% for direct engagement; rates for partner organizations were highly variable due to small sample sizes). Individuals participating through partners with site-based leadership showed a much higher rate of retention (41% of participants remained active for two+ years) than those participating directly in Nature's Notebook (27% of participants remained active for two+ years

  13. A simple conceptual model to interpret the 100 000 years dynamics of paleo-climate records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Quiroga Lombard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectral analyses performed on records of cosmogenic nuclides reveal a group of dominant spectral components during the Holocene period. Only a few of them are related to known solar cycles, i.e., the De Vries/Suess, Gleissberg and Hallstatt cycles. The origin of the others remains uncertain. On the other hand, time series of North Atlantic atmospheric/sea surface temperatures during the last ice age display the existence of repeated large-scale warming events, called Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO events, spaced around multiples of 1470 years. The De Vries/Suess and Gleissberg cycles with periods close to 1470/7 (~210 and 1470/17 (~86.5 years have been proposed to explain these observations. In this work we found that a conceptual bistable model forced with the De Vries/Suess and Gleissberg cycles plus noise displays a group of dominant frequencies similar to those obtained in the Fourier spectra from paleo-climate during the Holocene. Moreover, we show that simply changing the noise amplitude in the model we obtain similar power spectra to those corresponding to GISP2 δ18O (Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 during the last ice age. These results give a general dynamical framework which allows us to interpret the main characteristic of paleoclimate records from the last 100 000 years.

  14. "No-fault" compensation for victims of medical injuries. Ten years of implementing the French model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Janine; Parizot, Isabelle; Winance, Myriam

    2014-02-01

    For decades and in many countries, the issue of compensation for victims of medical injuries has led to lively debates. In 2002, a law set up a new model for compensation in France - based on the creation of a "no fault" compensation scheme and of an out-of-court settlement mechanism. This is one of the most recent models to have been adopted in European countries. This article analyses the choices made by the law and discusses the key figures of its ten years of implementation. We conducted (1) a study of debates regarding compensation for victims of medical injuries in France; (2) a comparative analysis of the different models of compensation which had already been adopted in different countries; (3) a study of primary sources provided by the bodies in charge of the French new out-of-court settlement mechanism; and (4) a statistical analysis of the exhaustive list of 18,258 claims filed between 2003 and 2009. The article highlights the context which led to the adoption of the 2002 law on the quality of care and patients' rights. It analyses, from a comparative standpoint, the specificities of the new compensation model set up by the law. It shows how the opportunities for victims of medical injuries to be compensated had improved in France. Finally, we discuss the limits of the new model and what the next step might be to improve access to compensation for victims of medical injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Skill of Predicting Heavy Rainfall Over India: Improvement in Recent Years Using UKMO Global Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kuldeep; Ashrit, Raghavendra; Bhatla, R.; Mitra, A. K.; Iyengar, G. R.; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2017-11-01

    The quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) performance for heavy rains is still a challenge, even for the most advanced state-of-art high-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) modeling systems. This study aims to evaluate the performance of UK Met Office Unified Model (UKMO) over India for prediction of high rainfall amounts (>2 and >5 cm/day) during the monsoon period (JJAS) from 2007 to 2015 in short range forecast up to Day 3. Among the various modeling upgrades and improvements in the parameterizations during this period, the model horizontal resolution has seen an improvement from 40 km in 2007 to 17 km in 2015. Skill of short range rainfall forecast has improved in UKMO model in recent years mainly due to increased horizontal and vertical resolution along with improved physics schemes. Categorical verification carried out using the four verification metrics, namely, probability of detection (POD), false alarm ratio (FAR), frequency bias (Bias) and Critical Success Index, indicates that QPF has improved by >29 and >24% in case of POD and FAR. Additionally, verification scores like EDS (Extreme Dependency Score), EDI (Extremal Dependence Index) and SEDI (Symmetric EDI) are used with special emphasis on verification of extreme and rare rainfall events. These scores also show an improvement by 60% (EDS) and >34% (EDI and SEDI) during the period of study, suggesting an improved skill of predicting heavy rains.

  16. Modeling and risk assessment of a 30-Year-old subsurface radioactive-liquid drain field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Lon A.; Pohl, Phillip I.

    1997-11-01

    The contamination from a 30-year-old radioactive liquid drain field was assessed for movement in the subsurface and potential risks to humans. This assessment included determining field concentrations of cesium 137 (137Cs) and other inorganic contaminants and modeling of the flow and transport of the liquid waste that was sent to the drain field. The field investigation detected no contamination deeper than 15 feet (4.6 m) from the bottom of the drain field. Prediction of the water content of the vadose zone showed no saturated conditions for times greater than 10 years after the known infiltration. Sensitivity analysis of the modeling parameters showed the equilibrium sorption coefficient to be the most important factor in predicting the contaminant plumes. Calibration of modeling results with field data gave a 137Cs sorption coefficient that is within the range of values found in the literature. The risk assessment for the site showed that the contamination poses no significant risk to human health.

  17. On the Cutting Edge Professional Development Program - An effective model built from years of experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, M. Z.; Macdonald, H.; Beane, R. J.; Manduca, C. A.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wiese, K.; Wysession, M. E.; Iverson, E. A. R.; Fox, S.

    2015-12-01

    The On the Cutting Edge (CE) program offers a successful model for designing and convening professional development events. Information about the model is now available on the CE website. The program model has evolved from more than 12 years of experience, building with input from strong leaders and participants. CE offers face-to-face, virtual, and hybrid events, and features a rich website that supports these professional development events as well as a growing community with a shared interest in effective geoscience teaching. Data from national surveys, participant feedback, and self-report data indicate the program's success in improving undergraduate geoscience education. Successes are also demonstrated in classroom observations using RTOP, indicating a significant difference in teaching style among participants and non-participants. A suite of web pages, with a planning timeline, provides guidance to those interested in designing and convening face-to-face or virtual events based on the CE model. The pages suggest ways to develop robust event goals and evaluation tools, how to choose strong leaders and recruit diverse participants, advice for designing effective event programs that utilize participant expertise, websites, and web tools, and suggestions for effectively disseminating event results and producing useful products. The CE model has been successfully transferred to projects that vary in scale and discipline. Best practices from the CE model include (1) thinking of the workshop as shared enterprise among conveners and participants; (2) incorporating conveners and participants who bring diverse viewpoints and approaches; (3) promoting structured discussions that utilize participants' expertise; (4) emphasizing practical strategies to effect change; and (5) using the website as a platform to prepare for the workshop, share ideas, and problem-solve challenges. Learn more about how to utilize this model for your project at:serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/workshops/convene

  18. Stochastic modeling of economic injury levels with respect to yearly trends in price commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros

    2014-05-01

    The economic injury level (EIL) concept integrates economics and biology and uses chemical applications in crop protection only when economic loss by pests is anticipated. The EIL is defined by five primary variables: the cost of management tactic per production unit, the price of commodity, the injury units per pest, the damage per unit injury, and the proportionate reduction of injury averted by the application of a tactic. The above variables are related according to the formula EIL = C/VIDK. The observable dynamic alteration of the EIL due to its different parameters is a major characteristic of its concept. In this study, the yearly effect of the economic variables is assessed, and in particular the influence of the parameter commodity value on the shape of the EIL function. In addition, to predict the effects of the economic variables on the EIL level, yearly commodity values were incorporated in the EIL formula and the generated outcomes were further modelled with stochastic linear autoregressive models having different orders. According to the AR(1) model, forecasts for the five-year period of 2010-2015 ranged from 2.33 to 2.41 specimens per sampling unit. These values represent a threshold that is in reasonable limits to justify future control actions. Management actions as related to productivity and price commodity significantly affect costs of crop production and thus define the adoption of IPM and sustainable crop production systems at local and international levels. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (NEWFTH00010008) on Town Highway 1, crossing Wardsboro Brook, Newfane, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James

    1998-01-01

    . A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the right abutment during the Level I assessment. Scour protection measures at the site included type-1 stone fill (less than 12 inches diameter) along the upstream right bank, and type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) along the upstream left bank and the upstream ends of the upstream left and right wingwalls. A stone wall extends along the downstream right bank from the end of the downstream right wingwall. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and appendices D and E. Scour depths and recommended rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and Davis, 1995) for the 100- and 500-year discharges. In addition, the incipient roadway-overtopping discharge was determined and analyzed as another potential worst-case scour scenario. Total scour at a highway crossing is comprised of three components: 1) long-term streambed degradation; 2) contraction scour (due to accelerated flow caused by a reduction in flow area at a bridge) and; 3) local scour (caused by accelerated flow around piers and abutments). Total scour is the sum of the three components. Equations are available to compute depths for contraction and local scour and a summary of the results of these computations follows. Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 0.1 to 3.9 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Left abutment scour ranged from 11.1 to 12.9 ft. Right abutment scour ranged from 4.3 to 4.8 ft. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure

  20. Fear Extinction as a Model for Translational Neuroscience: Ten Years of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milad, Mohammed R.; Quirk, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    The psychology of extinction has been studied for decades. Approximately 10 years ago, however, there began a concerted effort to understand the neural circuits of extinction of fear conditioning, in both animals and humans. Progress during this period has been facilitated by an unusual degree of coordination between rodent and human researchers examining fear extinction. This successful research program could serve as a model for translational research in other areas of behavioral neuroscience. Here we review the major advances and highlight new approaches to understanding and exploiting fear extinction. PMID:22129456

  1. Sexually transmitted infections among male highway coach drivers in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Wah Wah; Thant, Myo; Wai, Khin Thet; Aye, Mya Mya; Ei, Phyu Win; Myint, Thuzar; Thidar, Moe

    2013-05-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from February 2008 to December 2009 at the largest Highway Terminal, Yangon, Myanmar to determine the prevalence of curable STIs (syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infections, and trichomoniasis), to find out the associated factors for STIs, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of gonococcal infection among highway drivers. Urine and blood specimens were collected from 601 male highway coach drivers after an interview about their behavior. Standard laboratory tests were carried out to detect STIs. Multivariate analysis was used to ascertain potential risk factors for STIs. The prevalence rates of syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infections, and trichomoniasis were 4.8, 4.3, 5.7, and 9.8%, respectively. One hundred and two (17.0%) were infected with at least one of the tested four STIs, and 34 (5.7%) had STI co-infections (2STIs). Those who had multiple sexual contacts were likely to be infected with at least one STI, and those who had a history of inconsistent condom use within past two weeks and multiple sexual contacts were more likely to have STI co-infections (p < 0.05). Antimicrobial susceptibility of 21 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates showed that 85.7% were susceptible to azithromycin, 80.9% to spectinomycin, 66.7% to cefixime, 61.9% to ceftriaxone, and 38.1% to ciprofloxacin. The high prevalence of STIs in this study and the decreased susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone highlighted the role of periodic screening in early diagnosis and effective treatment of STIs among high-risk populations.

  2. Determining the drivers' acceptance of EFTCD in highway work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yong; Li, Yingfeng

    2011-05-01

    Traffic safety is a major concern in the temporary one-lane, two-way highway work zones due to the increasing of construction and maintenance operations. To prevent rear-end crashes and to mitigate the severity of these crashes caused by the inattentive driving, the utilization of the Emergency Flasher Traffic Control Device (EFTCD) was under consideration by government agencies, in addition to existing temporary traffic control devices installed in the one-lane, two-way highway work zones. The EFTCD was a newly proposed traffic warning device implemented through the use of vehicles' hazard warning flashers. The primary objective of the research project was to investigate the drivers' acceptance of the proposed EFTCD by measuring the mean speed changes of vehicles with and without EFTCD and by evaluating the drivers' opinions of the EFTCD using the survey method. Field experimental results revealed that the EFTCD effectively reduced the mean vehicle speeds in the upstream of two work zones. A slow speed is more likely to reduce the severity of a crash in work zones. In addition, survey results indicated that 60% of the drivers thought the EFTCD signified a need for speed reduction and 82% of drivers recommended the implementation of the EFTCD in one-lane, two-way work zones. These results provide the necessary scientific justifications for the government agencies to decide if the EFTCD should be implemented in the one-lane, two-way highway work zones to prevent rear-end crashes and to mitigate the severity of these crashes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Induced Polarization Surveying for Acid Rock Screening in Highway Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, K. E.; Al, T.; Bishop, T.

    2004-05-01

    Highway and pipeline construction agencies have become increasingly vigilant in their efforts to avoid cutting through sulphide-bearing bedrock that has potential to produce acid rock drainage. Blasting and fragmentation of such rock increases the surface area available for sulphide oxidation and hence increases the risk of acid rock drainage unless the rock contains enough natural buffering capacity to neutralize the pH. In December, 2001, the New Brunswick Department of Transportation (NBOT) sponsored a field trial of geophysical surveying in order to assess its suitability as a screening tool for locating near-surface sulphides along proposed highway alignments. The goal was to develop a protocol that would allow existing programs of drilling and geochemical testing to be targeted more effectively, and provide design engineers with the information needed to reduce rock cuts where necessary and dispose of blasted material in a responsible fashion. Induced polarization (IP) was chosen as the primary geophysical method given its ability to detect low-grade disseminated mineralization. The survey was conducted in dipole-dipole mode using an exploration-style time domain IP system, dipoles 8 to 25 m in length, and six potential dipoles for each current dipole location (i.e. n = 1 - 6). Supplementary information was provided by resistivity and VLF-EM surveys sensitive to lateral changes in electrical conductivity, and by magnetic field surveying chosen for its sensitivity to the magnetic susceptibility of pyrrhotite. Geological and geochemical analyses of samples taken from several IP anomalies located along 4.3 line-km of proposed highway confirmed the effectiveness of the screening technique. IP pseudosections from a region of metamorphosed shales and volcaniclastic rocks identified discrete, well-defined mineralized zones. Stronger, overlapping, and more laterally extensive IP anomalies were observed over a section of graphitic and sulphide-bearing metasedimentary

  4. Multi-fractal analysis of highway traffic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Peng-Jian; Shen Jin-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the presence of multi-fractal behaviours in the traffic time series not only by statistical approaches but also by geometrical approaches. The pointwise H(o)lder exponent of a function is calculated by developing an algorithm for the numerical evaluation of H(o)lder exponent of time series. The traffic time series observed on the Beijing Yuquanying highway are analysed. The results from all these methods indicate that the traffic data exhibit the multi-fractal behaviour.

  5. Hempcrete Noise Barrier Wall for Highway Noise Insulation : Research & Construction

    OpenAIRE

    KC, Prabesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the possibility of Hempcrete or hemp-lime composite noise barrier walls in the highways and to construct the walls for the acoustic test according to the European Union Standards EN ISO 717-1 and ISO 10140-2 for air-borne sound insulation. The thesis was commissioned by the company Hemprefine Oy, and all the standard tests were performed in the HAMK-Ruukki Sheet Metal Centre in Hämeenlinna and the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd in Espoo. ...

  6. Fatigue in Aluminum Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Søren; Agerskov, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test...... is normally used in the design against fatigue in aluminum bridges, may give results which are unconservative. The validity of the results obtained from Miner’s rule will depend on the distribution of the load history in tension and compression....

  7. Highway of dreams a critical view along the information superhighway

    CERN Document Server

    Noll, A Michael

    2013-01-01

    This important volume reviews the history of the telecommunication superhighway pointing out its beginnings in the interactive TV and broadband highway of the wired cities more than two decades ago. It explains the technological uncertainties of the superhighway and many of its futuristic services, and also gives an understandable review of the technological principles behind today's modern telecommunication networks and systems. Recognizing that technology is only one factor in shaping the future, the author, a well-recognized telecommunications expert, analyzes the financial, policy

  8. RESOURCE SAVING IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY WITH HIGHWAY BRANCH AS EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Roudensky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of energy is an objective (independent on cost fluctuations technical efficiency criterion of any construction or repair work. Highway/road (particularly bituminous pavement sector is an important construction industry part. Bituminous road pavement construction consists of such components as excavation and preparation of basic materials, manufacture of mixes, ready mix laying/compacting and transportation of all materials. Average energy consumption for every bituminous pavement construction component is assessed. Approach to resource and energy saving presented in the article may be used in construction industry to develop and implement innovativetechnical and organizational solutions both of general application and for individual projects.

  9. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    is to evaluate the quality of long term simulations based on historical rain series of the pollutant discharges from roads and highways. The idea of this paper is to evaluate the effects of wind on the retention time and compare the retention time for the situation of a spatial uniform wind shear stress...... with the situation of a "real" spatial non-uniform shear stress distribution on the surface of the pond. The result of this paper shows that wind plays a dominant role for the retention time and flow pattern. Furthermore, the results shows that the differences in retention time between the use of uniform and non...

  10. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    is to evaluate the quality of long term simulations based on historical rain series of the pollutant discharges from roads and highways. The idea of this paper is to evaluate the effects of wind on the retention time and compare the retention time for the situation of a spatial uniform wind shear stress...... with the situation of a "real" spatial non-uniform shear stress distribution on the surface of the pond. The result of this paper shows that wind plays a dominant role for the retention time and flow pattern. Furthermore, the results shows that the differences in retention time between the use of uniform and non...

  11. Highway vehicle electric drive in the United States : 2009 status and issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-16

    The status of electric drive technology in the United States as of early 2010 is documented. Rapidly evolving electric drive technologies discussed include hybrid electric vehicles, multiple types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Recent trends for hybrids are quantified. Various plug-in vehicles entering the market in the near term are examined. The technical and economic requirements for electric drive to more broadly succeed in a wider range of highway vehicle applications are described, and implications for the most promising new markets are provided. Federal and selected state government policy measures promoting and preparing for electric drive are discussed. Taking these into account, judgment on areas where increased Clean Cities funds might be most productively focused over the next five years are provided. In closing, the request by Clean Cities for opinion on the broad range of research needs providing near-term support to electric drive is fulfilled.

  12. Resuscitation outcomes comparing year 2000 with year 2005 ALS guidelines in a pig model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Theodoros; Tsirikos-Karapanos, Nikolas; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Tsiftsi, Katerina; Ekmektzoglou, Konstantinos A; Papadimitriou, Lila

    2007-06-01

    Ventricular fibrillation remains the leading cause of death in western societies. International organizations publish guidelines to follow in case of cardiac arrest. The aim of the present study is to assess whether the newly published guidelines record similar resuscitation success with the 2000 Advanced Life Support Guidelines on Resuscitation in a swine model of cardiac arrest. Nineteen landrace/large white pigs were used. Ventricular fibrillation was induced with the use of a transvenous pacing wire inserted into the right ventricle. The animals were randomized into two groups. In Group A, 10 animals were resuscitated using the 2000 guidelines, whereas in Group B, 9 animals were resuscitated using the 2005 guidelines. Both algorithms recorded similar successful resuscitation rates, as 60% of the animals in Group A and 44.5% in Group B were successfully resuscitated. However, animals in Group A restored a rhythm, compatible with a pulse, quicker than those in Group B (p=0.002). Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was not adversely affected by three defibrillation attempts in Group A. Both algorithms' resulted in comparable resuscitation success, however, guidelines 2000 resulted in faster resuscitation times. These preliminary results merit further investigation.

  13. Estrogen receptor testing and 10-year mortality from breast cancer: A model for determining testing strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Naugler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy in the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER expressing breast carcinomas represents a major advance in personalized cancer treatment. Because there is no benefit (and indeed there is increased morbidity and mortality associated with the use of tamoxifen therapy in ER-negative breast cancer, its use is restricted to women with ER expressing cancers. However, correctly classifying cancers as ER positive or negative has been challenging given the high reported false negative test rates for ER expression in surgical specimens. In this paper I model practice recommendations using published information from clinical trials to address the question of whether there is a false negative test rate above which it is more efficacious to forgo ER testing and instead treat all patients with tamoxifen regardless of ER test results. Methods: I used data from randomized clinical trials to model two different hypothetical treatment strategies: (1 the current strategy of treating only ER positive women with tamoxifen and (2 an alternative strategy where all women are treated with tamoxifen regardless of ER test results. The variables used in the model are literature-derived survival rates of the different combinations of ER positivity and treatment with tamoxifen, varying true ER positivity rates and varying false negative ER testing rates. The outcome variable was hypothetical 10-year survival. Results: The model predicted that there will be a range of true ER rates and false negative test rates above which it would be more efficacious to treat all women with breast cancer with tamoxifen and forgo ER testing. This situation occurred with high true positive ER rates and false negative ER test rates in the range of 20-30%. Conclusions: It is hoped that this model will provide an example of the potential importance of diagnostic error on clinical outcomes and furthermore will give an example of how the effect of that

  14. [A new working shift model for anesthesiologists: an analysis 3 years after implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmann, J; Holderried, M; Blumenstock, G; Rieger, M A; Bamberg, M; Rosenberger, P; Wagner, T

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, appropriateness and cost-effectiveness of a new working shift model for anesthesiologists complying with the European working time directive (EWTD) at the University Hospital of Tübingen (UKT), Germany 3 years after implementation Applying the standards of the EWTD is challenging for university hospitals as doctors must comply with the challenge of combining patient care, research and teaching. So far there have been no data available for German university hospitals on how these requirements can be met. As the department of anesthesiology is also a service-providing department it is essential not to increase staffing costs with a new shift model. In 2007 a new working shift model for the department of anesthesiology was designed and introduced in 2008. Shift planning and documentation of working hours were implemented electronically. The calculated number of doctors to run this model was 87.6 full time equivalents (FTE). For 2009 and 2010 the compliance with the EWTD parameters was checked for 1) average weekly working time limit (AWWTL) and 2) compliance to the maximum daily working time limit of 10 h (10 h DWTL). Furthermore, staffing costs for doctors in 2010 were compared to 2007. To check for the time spent in patient care the period of anesthetic attendance (PAA) was chosen, i.e. the total time of patient contact by anesthesiology staff. Data were analyzed descriptively for AWWTL and for 10 h DWTL. FTE, staff costs and PAA were evaluated by one-way ANOVA. The new shift model allowed 84.4 % of all doctors to comply with the individual AWWT limits of 54 h and 48 h in 2009 (81/96) and 76.0 % in 2010 (79/104). In 2009 61.5 % of anesthesiologists voted for opt-out (59/96) and 53.8 % did so in 2010 (56/104). The 10 h DWTL was respected by 84.0 % in 2009 and by 85.9 % in 2010. The mean number of anesthesiologists rose significantly from 78.4 FTE in 2007 to 82.5 FTE in 2009 and 84.6 FTE in 2010 (p

  15. Advanced Test Reactor Core Modeling Update Project Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg; Devin A. Steuhm

    2011-09-01

    Legacy computational reactor physics software tools and protocols currently used for support of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core fuel management and safety assurance and, to some extent, experiment management are obsolete, inconsistent with the state of modern nuclear engineering practice, and are becoming increasingly difficult to properly verify and validate (V&V). Furthermore, the legacy staff knowledge required for application of these tools and protocols from the 1960s and 1970s is rapidly being lost due to staff turnover and retirements. In 2009 the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) initiated a focused effort to address this situation through the introduction of modern high-fidelity computational software and protocols, with appropriate V&V, within the next 3-4 years via the ATR Core Modeling and Simulation and V&V Update (or 'Core Modeling Update') Project. This aggressive computational and experimental campaign will have a broad strategic impact on the operation of the ATR, both in terms of improved computational efficiency and accuracy for support of ongoing DOE programs as well as in terms of national and international recognition of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). The ATR Core Modeling Update Project, targeted for full implementation in phase with the anticipated ATR Core Internals Changeout (CIC) in the 2014 time frame, began during the last quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, and has just completed its first full year. Key accomplishments so far have encompassed both computational as well as experimental work. A new suite of stochastic and deterministic transport theory based reactor physics codes and their supporting nuclear data libraries (SCALE, KENO-6, HELIOS, NEWT, and ATTILA) have been installed at the INL under various permanent sitewide license agreements and corresponding baseline models of the ATR and ATRC are now operational, demonstrating the basic feasibility of these code packages for their intended purpose. Furthermore

  16. Advanced Test Reactor Core Modeling Update Project Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, David W.; Steuhm, Devin A.

    2011-01-01

    Legacy computational reactor physics software tools and protocols currently used for support of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core fuel management and safety assurance and, to some extent, experiment management are obsolete, inconsistent with the state of modern nuclear engineering practice, and are becoming increasingly difficult to properly verify and validate (V and V). Furthermore, the legacy staff knowledge required for application of these tools and protocols from the 1960s and 1970s is rapidly being lost due to staff turnover and retirements. In 2009 the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) initiated a focused effort to address this situation through the introduction of modern high-fidelity computational software and protocols, with appropriate V and V, within the next 3-4 years via the ATR Core Modeling and Simulation and V and V Update (or 'Core Modeling Update') Project. This aggressive computational and experimental campaign will have a broad strategic impact on the operation of the ATR, both in terms of improved computational efficiency and accuracy for support of ongoing DOE programs as well as in terms of national and international recognition of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). The ATR Core Modeling Update Project, targeted for full implementation in phase with the anticipated ATR Core Internals Changeout (CIC) in the 2014 time frame, began during the last quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, and has just completed its first full year. Key accomplishments so far have encompassed both computational as well as experimental work. A new suite of stochastic and deterministic transport theory based reactor physics codes and their supporting nuclear data libraries (SCALE, KENO-6, HELIOS, NEWT, and ATTILA) have been installed at the INL under various permanent sitewide license agreements and corresponding baseline models of the ATR and ATRC are now operational, demonstrating the basic feasibility of these code packages for their intended purpose

  17. Modelling radiative transfer through ponded first-year Arctic sea ice with a plane-parallel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Hudson, Stephen R.; Granskog, Mats A.; Hamre, Børge

    2017-09-01

    Under-ice irradiance measurements were done on ponded first-year pack ice along three transects during the ICE12 expedition north of Svalbard. Bulk transmittances (400-900 nm) were found to be on average 0.15-0.20 under bare ice, and 0.39-0.46 under ponded ice. Radiative transfer modelling was done with a plane-parallel model. While simulated transmittances deviate significantly from measured transmittances close to the edge of ponds, spatially averaged bulk transmittances agree well. That is, transect-average bulk transmittances, calculated using typical simulated transmittances for ponded and bare ice weighted by the fractional coverage of the two surface types, are in good agreement with the measured values. Radiative heating rates calculated from model output indicates that about 20 % of the incident solar energy is absorbed in bare ice, and 50 % in ponded ice (35 % in pond itself, 15 % in the underlying ice). This large difference is due to the highly scattering surface scattering layer (SSL) increasing the albedo of the bare ice.

  18. Modelling radiative transfer through ponded first-year Arctic sea ice with a plane-parallel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Taskjelle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Under-ice irradiance measurements were done on ponded first-year pack ice along three transects during the ICE12 expedition north of Svalbard. Bulk transmittances (400–900 nm were found to be on average 0.15–0.20 under bare ice, and 0.39–0.46 under ponded ice. Radiative transfer modelling was done with a plane-parallel model. While simulated transmittances deviate significantly from measured transmittances close to the edge of ponds, spatially averaged bulk transmittances agree well. That is, transect-average bulk transmittances, calculated using typical simulated transmittances for ponded and bare ice weighted by the fractional coverage of the two surface types, are in good agreement with the measured values. Radiative heating rates calculated from model output indicates that about 20 % of the incident solar energy is absorbed in bare ice, and 50 % in ponded ice (35 % in pond itself, 15 % in the underlying ice. This large difference is due to the highly scattering surface scattering layer (SSL increasing the albedo of the bare ice.

  19. Effect of a major highway on the spatial and temporal variation in the structure and diversity of the avifauna of a tropical premontane rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Gerardo; Bermúdez, Esteban

    2016-12-01

    Roads immersed in conservation areas will increase in number, size, and traffic over the next decade, and thus, understanding their effects on forest-dependent wildlife is crucial for improving current management practices and reducing the negative impacts of roads on sensitive species. We examined the influence of route 32 (a.k.a. Guápiles Highway) on temporal and spatial changes in the structure of the avifauna of Braulio Carrillo National Park, Costa Rica, a site crossed by this road along 25 km. The highway connects the capital city of San José with the Harbor of Limón in the Caribbean Sea (142 km). Although the road is narrow (12 m in width and comprised by two lanes along most of the route) it services over 1.5 million motor vehicles per year, 12 % are heavy trucks and trailers. We expected the highway to divide the avifauna, and thus to observe significant differences in species structure on opposite sides of the road. We described changes in bird diversity between wet and dry seasons at Las Palmas and Ceibo trails located on opposite sides of the highway (14 point counts per trail), and evaluated how abundance and diversity varied with road distance. Censuses took place during wet and dry seasons from 2002 to 2005. We listed 245 species and 6 035 observations during the 4-yr survey. Rare species dominated the avifauna (65 % of species forests near the road. This highway will expand outside the National Park (from 2 to 4 lanes along 107 km from Río Frío to Limón) in the next years, which will increase traffic volume and road impacts within the Park. Roads are increasing across highly diverse tropical areas justifying the need for management practices based on the identification of sensitive groups.

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 51 (JERITH00590051) on Town Highway 59, crossing The Creek, Jericho, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    -skew-toroadway is 5 degrees.A scour hole 3 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the right abutment during the Level I assessment. Scour countermeasures at the site included type-1 stone fill (less than 12 inches diameter) at the left and right upstream road embankments. Type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) was along the upstream right bank and along the upstream right wingwall. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and appendices D and E. Scour depths and recommended rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and Davis, 1995) for the 100- and 500-year discharges. In addition, the incipient roadway-overtopping discharge was determined and analyzed as another potential worst-case scour scenario. Total scour at a highway crossing is comprised of three components: 1) long-term streambed degradation; 2) contraction scour (due to accelerated flow caused by a reduction in flow area at a bridge) and; 3) local scour (caused by accelerated flow around piers and abutments). Total scour is the sum of the three components. Equations are available to compute depths for contraction and local scour and a summary of the results of these computations follows. Contraction scour for all modelled flows was zero ft. Left abutment scour ranged from 2.4 to 3.2 ft. Right abutment scour ranged from 4.1 to 4.5 ft.The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation