WorldWideScience

Sample records for model vertical resolution

  1. Is Convection Sensitive to Model Vertical Resolution and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, S.; Lin, W.; Zhang, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Model sensitivity to horizontal resolutions has been studied extensively, whereas model sensitivity to vertical resolution is much less explored. In this study, we use the US Department of Energy (DOE)'s Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) atmosphere model to examine the sensitivity of clouds and precipitation to the increase of vertical resolution of the model. We attempt to understand what results in the behavior change (if any) of convective processes represented by the unified shallow and turbulent scheme named CLUBB (Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals) and the Zhang-McFarlane deep convection scheme in ACME. A short-term hindcast approach is used to isolate parameterization issues from the large-scale circulation. The analysis emphasizes on how the change of vertical resolution could affect precipitation partitioning between convective- and grid-scale as well as the vertical profiles of convection-related quantities such as temperature, humidity, clouds, convective heating and drying, and entrainment and detrainment. The goal is to provide physical insight into potential issues with model convective processes associated with the increase of model vertical resolution. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. High Resolution Modeling of the Orographically Forced Vertical Motion on the Island of Oahu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. E., Jr.; Businger, S.

    2014-12-01

    The weather on Oahu is dictated in large part by the orographic forcing by the Ko'olau Mountain range. Using a high-resolution vertical motion diagnostic model with 0.0005° grid spacing, vertical wind speeds are calculated over the island. The model initialization is done with uniform 10 m s-1 winds, with the wind direction gradually varied. The results show that increased vertical motion occurs for winds from 145° in the valleys along the south shore of Oahu and the Waianae Mountains. For northeast trade winds, the Ko'oalu Range ridgeline produces a maximum vertical motion enhancement. As the winds become more northerly, easterly, or southerly, the geometry of the orography increases in importance and preferential locations of upward motion are observed. Comparing the winds from 145° and 25°, the concave headwall structures of the Ko'olaus are shown to play a critical role in the vertical motion. The southerly wind causes enhanced vertical motion along the southern facing arms of the headwalls, and the northerly winds have an identical effect on the northern facing arms. These results are not limited to when the wind is perpendicular to the ridgeline. By forcing the model with sounding winds taken during the Hawaiian Educational Radar Opportunity, the results are consistent with rain showers occurring over the mountains down shear from locations of strongest updrafts.

  3. Improving MJO Prediction and Simulation Using AGCM Coupled Ocean Model with Refined Vertical Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chia-Ying; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kuo, Pei-Hsuan; Lan, Yung-Yao; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation in Taiwan area is significantly influenced by MJO (Madden-Julian Oscillation) in the boreal winter. This study is therefore conducted by toggling the MJO prediction and simulation with a unique model structure. The one-dimensional TKE (Turbulence Kinetic Energy) type ocean model SIT (Snow, Ice, Thermocline) with refined vertical resolution near surface is able to resolve cool skin, as well as diurnal warm layer. SIT can simulate accurate SST and hence give precise air-sea interaction. By coupling SIT with ECHAM5 (MPI-Meteorology), CAM5 (NCAR) and HiRAM (GFDL), the MJO simulations in 20-yrs climate integrations conducted by three SIT-coupled AGCMs are significant improved comparing to those driven by prescribed SST. The horizontal resolutions in ECHAM5, CAM5 and HiRAM are 2-deg., 1-deg and 0.5-deg., respectively. This suggests that the improvement of MJO simulation by coupling SIT is AGCM-resolution independent. This study further utilizes HiRAM coupled SIT to evaluate its MJO forecast skill. HiRAM has been recognized as one of the best model for seasonal forecasts of hurricane/typhoon activity (Zhao et al., 2009; Chen & Lin, 2011; 2013), but was not as successful in MJO forecast. The preliminary result of the HiRAM-SIT experiment during DYNAMO period shows improved success in MJO forecast. These improvements of MJO prediction and simulation in both hindcast experiments and climate integrations are mainly from better-simulated SST diurnal cycle and diurnal amplitude, which is contributed by the refined vertical resolution near ocean surface in SIT. Keywords: MJO Predictability, DYNAMO

  4. Analysis and high resolution modelling of black carbon vertical profiles measured over three Italian valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Ilaria; Curci, Gabriele; Falasca, Serena; Ferrero, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Analysis and high resolution modelling of black carbon vertical profiles measured over three Italian valleys Ilaria Gandolfi1,2, Gabriele Curci1,2, Serena Falasca1,2, Luca Ferrero3 1 Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy 2 Center of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy 3 POLARIS Research Centre, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milan, Italy Last decades were characterized by a growing interest in aerosols: mainly for their effect on human health and on the energy balance of solar and planetary radiation, thus their role in climate change. In this study, we analyze the evolution of vertical profile of black carbon (BC) through tethered balloon observations and chemistry-transport modelling. Black carbon is regarded as the second most important anthropogenic climate forcing agent and its concentration varies significantly depending on the altitude and the sources on the territory. In winter of 2010 University Of Milan Bicocca conducted three intensive measurements campaigns over three Italian basin valleys (Terni, Po Valley, Passiria Valley). The choice of the valleys was made taking into consideration the orography and the river basin structure. The measurement campaign was based on a helium-filled tethered balloon, on which the instrumentation for the analysis has been mounted; the instrumentation consisted on a meteorological station, an OPC, a cascade impactor and a micro-Aethalometer. Subsequently, at University of L'Aquila simulations were produced to help interpretation of these vertical aerosol profiles (mass, composition and distribution) and related optical properties (scattering, absorption) using a chemistry-transport model (WRF-CHIMERE) at high horizontal resolution (1 km). The analysis focused primarily on the calculation of the heating rate and of the Direct Radiative Effect (DRE), and on the analysis of the

  5. Vertical Rise Velocity of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles Estimated from Equatorial Atmosphere Radar Observations and High-Resolution Bubble Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T.; Ajith, K. K.; Yamamoto, M.; Niranjan, K.

    2017-12-01

    Equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) is a well-known phenomenon in the equatorial ionospheric F region. As it causes severe scintillation in the amplitude and phase of radio signals, it is important to understand and forecast the occurrence of EPBs from a space weather point of view. The development of EPBs is presently believed as an evolution of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have already developed a 3D high-resolution bubble (HIRB) model with a grid spacing of as small as 1 km and presented nonlinear growth of EPBs which shows very turbulent internal structures such as bifurcation and pinching. As EPBs have field-aligned structures, the latitude range that is affected by EPBs depends on the apex altitude of EPBs over the dip equator. However, it was not easy to observe the apex altitude and vertical rise velocity of EPBs. Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) in Indonesia is capable of steering radar beams quickly so that the growth phase of EPBs can be captured clearly. The vertical rise velocities of the EPBs observed around the midnight hours are significantly smaller compared to those observed in postsunset hours. Further, the vertical growth of the EPBs around midnight hours ceases at relatively lower altitudes, whereas the majority of EPBs at postsunset hours found to have grown beyond the maximum detectable altitude of the EAR. The HIRB model with varying background conditions are employed to investigate the possible factors that control the vertical rise velocity and maximum attainable altitudes of EPBs. The estimated rise velocities from EAR observations at both postsunset and midnight hours are, in general, consistent with the nonlinear evolution of EPBs from the HIRB model.

  6. Confocal profilometer with nanometric vertical resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, D.J.; Horsfall, A.; Hrynevych, M.; Kearney, P.D.; Nugent, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    An optical system is described which is based on the method of Kobayashi et al. The instrument is capable of simultaneous confocal imaging and profilometry with nanometric (nm) vertical resolution. The profile is independent of the reflectivity of the sample and is obtained by raster-scanning the sample without active feedback. It is shown that the vertical resolution of this technique may be extended down to 1 nm and have recorded images with a resolution of better than 3 nm. The concept and design is considerably simpler than most optical profilometers and may represent the most affordable method of profilometry with nanometric resolution available. 15 refs., 6 figs

  7. Alleviating tropical Atlantic sector biases in the Kiel climate model by enhancing horizontal and vertical atmosphere model resolution: climatology and interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaß, Jan; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the quality of simulating tropical Atlantic (TA) sector climatology and interannual variability in integrations of the Kiel climate model (KCM) with varying atmosphere model resolution. The ocean model resolution is kept fixed. A reasonable simulation of TA sector annual-mean climate, seasonal cycle and interannual variability can only be achieved at sufficiently high horizontal and vertical atmospheric resolution. Two major reasons for the improvements are identified. First, the western equatorial Atlantic westerly surface wind bias in spring can be largely eliminated, which is explained by a better representation of meridional and especially vertical zonal momentum transport. The enhanced atmospheric circulation along the equator in turn greatly improves the thermal structure of the upper equatorial Atlantic with much reduced warm sea surface temperature (SST) biases. Second, the coastline in the southeastern TA and steep orography are better resolved at high resolution, which improves wind structure and in turn reduces warm SST biases in the Benguela upwelling region. The strongly diminished wind and SST biases at high atmosphere model resolution allow for a more realistic latitudinal position of the intertropical convergence zone. Resulting stronger cross-equatorial winds, in conjunction with a shallower thermocline, enable a rapid cold tongue development in the eastern TA in boreal spring. This enables simulation of realistic interannual SST variability and its seasonal phase locking in the KCM, which primarily is the result of a stronger thermocline feedback. Our findings suggest that enhanced atmospheric resolution, both vertical and horizontal, could be a key to achieving more realistic simulation of TA climatology and interannual variability in climate models.

  8. Vertical and horizontal resolution dependency in the model representation of tracer dispersion along the continental slope in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, Annalisa; Choi, Jun; Kurian, Jaison; Chang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    A set of nine regional ocean model simulations at various horizontal (from 1 to 9 km) and vertical (from 25 to 150 layers) resolutions with different vertical mixing parameterizations is carried out to examine the transport and mixing of a passive tracer released near the ocean bottom over the continental slope in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The release location is in proximity to the Deepwater Horizon oil well that ruptured in April 2010. Horizontal and diapycnal diffusivities are calculated and their dependence on the model set-up and on the representation of mesoscale and submesoscale circulations is discussed. Horizontal and vertical resolutions play a comparable role in determining the modeled horizontal diffusivities. Vertical resolution is key to a proper representation of passive tracer propagation and - in the case of the Gulf of Mexico - contributes to both confining the tracer along the continental slope and limiting its vertical spreading. The choice of the tracer advection scheme is also important, with positive definiteness in the tracer concentration being achieved at the price of spurious mixing across density surfaces. In all cases, however, the diapycnal mixing coefficient derived from the model simulations overestimates the observed value, indicating an area where model improvement is needed.

  9. Impact of a simple parameterization of convective gravity-wave drag in a stratosphere-troposphere general circulation model and its sensitivity to vertical resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bossuet

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Systematic westerly biases in the southern hemisphere wintertime flow and easterly equatorial biases are experienced in the Météo-France climate model. These biases are found to be much reduced when a simple parameterization is introduced to take into account the vertical momentum transfer through the gravity waves excited by deep convection. These waves are quasi-stationary in the frame of reference moving with convection and they propagate vertically to higher levels in the atmosphere, where they may exert a significant deceleration of the mean flow at levels where dissipation occurs. Sixty-day experiments have been performed from a multiyear simulation with the standard 31 levels for a summer and a winter month, and with a T42 horizontal resolution. The impact of this parameterization on the integration of the model is found to be generally positive, with a significant deceleration in the westerly stratospheric jet and with a reduction of the easterly equatorial bias. The sensitivity of the Météo-France climate model to vertical resolution is also investigated by increasing the number of vertical levels, without moving the top of the model. The vertical resolution is increased up to 41 levels, using two kinds of level distribution. For the first, the increase in vertical resolution concerns especially the troposphere (with 22 levels in the troposphere, and the second treats the whole atmosphere in a homogeneous way (with 15 levels in the troposphere; the standard version of 31 levels has 10 levels in the troposphere. A comparison is made between the dynamical aspects of the simulations. The zonal wind and precipitation are presented and compared for each resolution. A positive impact is found with the finer tropospheric resolution on the precipitation in the mid-latitudes and on the westerly stratospheric jet, but the general impact on the model climate is weak, the physical parameterizations used appear to be mostly independent to the

  10. Impact of a simple parameterization of convective gravity-wave drag in a stratosphere-troposphere general circulation model and its sensitivity to vertical resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bossuet

    Full Text Available Systematic westerly biases in the southern hemisphere wintertime flow and easterly equatorial biases are experienced in the Météo-France climate model. These biases are found to be much reduced when a simple parameterization is introduced to take into account the vertical momentum transfer through the gravity waves excited by deep convection. These waves are quasi-stationary in the frame of reference moving with convection and they propagate vertically to higher levels in the atmosphere, where they may exert a significant deceleration of the mean flow at levels where dissipation occurs. Sixty-day experiments have been performed from a multiyear simulation with the standard 31 levels for a summer and a winter month, and with a T42 horizontal resolution. The impact of this parameterization on the integration of the model is found to be generally positive, with a significant deceleration in the westerly stratospheric jet and with a reduction of the easterly equatorial bias. The sensitivity of the Météo-France climate model to vertical resolution is also investigated by increasing the number of vertical levels, without moving the top of the model. The vertical resolution is increased up to 41 levels, using two kinds of level distribution. For the first, the increase in vertical resolution concerns especially the troposphere (with 22 levels in the troposphere, and the second treats the whole atmosphere in a homogeneous way (with 15 levels in the troposphere; the standard version of 31 levels has 10 levels in the troposphere. A comparison is made between the dynamical aspects of the simulations. The zonal wind and precipitation are presented and compared for each resolution. A positive impact is found with the finer tropospheric resolution on the precipitation in the mid-latitudes and on the westerly stratospheric jet, but the general impact on the model climate is weak, the physical parameterizations used appear to be mostly independent to the

  11. Simulations of the transport and deposition of {sup 137}Cs over Europe after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. Influence of varying emission-altitude and model horizontal and vertical resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangeliou, N.; Balkanski, Y.; Cozic, A. [Institut Pierre et Simon Laplace, Gif sur Yvette (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Moeller, A.P. [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Lab. d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution

    2013-07-01

    The coupled model LMDZORINCA has been used to simulate the transport, wet and dry deposition of the radioactive tracer {sup 137}Cs after accidental releases. For that reason, two horizontal resolutions were deployed and used in the model, a regular grid of 2.5 x 1.27 , and the same grid stretched over Europe to reach a resolution of 0.66 x 0.51 . The vertical dimension is represented with two different resolutions, 19 and 39 levels respectively, extending up to the mesopause. Four different simulations are presented in this work; the first uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels assuming that the emissions took place at the surface (RG19L(S)), the second also uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels but realistic source injection heights (RG19L); in the third resolution the grid is regular and the vertical resolution 39 levels (RG39L) and finally, it is extended to the stretched grid with 19 vertical levels (Z19L). The model is validated with the Chernobyl accident which occurred in Ukraine (ex-USSR) on 26 May 1986 using the emission inventory from Brandt et al. (2002). This accident has been widely studied since 1986, and a large database has been created containing measurements of atmospheric activity concentration and total cumulative deposition for {sup 137}Cs from most of the European countries. According to the results, the performance of the model to predict the transport and deposition of the radioactive tracer was efficient and accurate presenting low biases in activity concentrations and deposition inventories, despite the large uncertainties on the intensity of the source released. The best agreement with observations was obtained using the highest horizontal resolution of the model (Z19L run). The model managed to predict the radioactive contamination in most of the European regions (similar to De Cort et al., 1998), and also the arrival times of the radioactive fallout. As regards to the vertical resolution, the largest biases were obtained

  12. Simulations of the transport and deposition of 137Cs over Europe after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: influence of varying emission-altitude and model horizontal and vertical resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, N.; Balkanski, Y.; Cozic, A.; Møller, A. P.

    2013-07-01

    The coupled model LMDZORINCA has been used to simulate the transport, wet and dry deposition of the radioactive tracer 137Cs after accidental releases. For that reason, two horizontal resolutions were deployed and used in the model, a regular grid of 2.5° × 1.27°, and the same grid stretched over Europe to reach a resolution of 0.66° × 0.51°. The vertical dimension is represented with two different resolutions, 19 and 39 levels respectively, extending up to the mesopause. Four different simulations are presented in this work; the first uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels assuming that the emissions took place at the surface (RG19L(S)), the second also uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels but realistic source injection heights (RG19L); in the third resolution the grid is regular and the vertical resolution 39 levels (RG39L) and finally, it is extended to the stretched grid with 19 vertical levels (Z19L). The model is validated with the Chernobyl accident which occurred in Ukraine (ex-USSR) on 26 May 1986 using the emission inventory from Brandt et al. (2002). This accident has been widely studied since 1986, and a large database has been created containing measurements of atmospheric activity concentration and total cumulative deposition for 137Cs from most of the European countries. According to the results, the performance of the model to predict the transport and deposition of the radioactive tracer was efficient and accurate presenting low biases in activity concentrations and deposition inventories, despite the large uncertainties on the intensity of the source released. The best agreement with observations was obtained using the highest horizontal resolution of the model (Z19L run). The model managed to predict the radioactive contamination in most of the European regions (similar to De Cort et al., 1998), and also the arrival times of the radioactive fallout. As regards to the vertical resolution, the largest biases were obtained for

  13. Vertical Resolution Effects on CIRS Spectroscopy of Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Calcutt, S. B.; Taylor, F. W.

    1996-09-01

    The Cassini/Huygens mission to the Saturnian system, which is scheduled for launch late next year, will study the moon Titan in unprecedented detail. Onboard the orbiter will be CIRS - the Composite Infrared Spectrometer - which will, amongst many tasks, provide a wealth of information on Titan's atmosphere. This enigmatic world is known to have a massive, mainly nitrogen atmosphere, but important questions remain; in particular the abundance of argon, and the state of methane in the troposphere, where patchy clouds may form and some sort of rainfall is likely. The infrared data from CIRS will help to resolve these and other issues. When CIRS makes measurements of the limb, the field of view must be taken into account. Not only is the width important, but there is also an unusual weighting function due to the slight asymmetry in response of some of the detector elements, which must be taken into account when the spectral data is analysed. We have developed a radiative transfer code to model the infrared signature of the atmosphere from 10 to 1400 cm(-1) , for nadir and limb sightlines, at the CIRS resolution of 0.5 cm(-1) . We also present measurements made at Oxford of the responses of individual detectors. Finally, we show limb spectra calculated for different heights in the atmosphere convolved with the detector responses, to demonstrate the importance of the field-of-view effect on the scientific objectives.

  14. Atmospheric QBO and ENSO indices with high vertical resolution from GNSS radio occultation temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Hallgeir; Ladstädter, Florian; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Steiner, Andrea K.

    2018-03-01

    We provide atmospheric temperature variability indices for the tropical troposphere and stratosphere based on global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) temperature measurements. By exploiting the high vertical resolution and the uniform distribution of the GNSS RO temperature soundings we introduce two approaches, both based on an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first method utilizes the whole vertical and horizontal RO temperature field from 30° S to 30° N and from 2 to 35 km altitude. The resulting indices, the leading principal components, resemble the well-known patterns of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropics. They provide some information on the vertical structure; however, they are not vertically resolved. The second method applies the EOF analysis on each altitude level separately and the resulting indices contain information on the horizontal variability at each densely available altitude level. They capture more variability than the indices from the first method and present a mixture of all variability modes contributing at the respective altitude level, including the QBO and ENSO. Compared to commonly used variability indices from QBO winds or ENSO sea surface temperature, these new indices cover the vertical details of the atmospheric variability. Using them as proxies for temperature variability is also of advantage because there is no further need to account for response time lags. Atmospheric variability indices as novel products from RO are expected to be of great benefit for studies on atmospheric dynamics and variability, for climate trend analysis, as well as for climate model evaluation.

  15. Characteristics of two gravity wave sources in the US high vertical-resolution radiosonde data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie

    Understanding gravity wave sources is essential to gravity wave research, and has profound effect on improving general circulation models (GCMs). My Ph.D. work is to analyze, diagnose and simulate the source behaviors of gravity waves that are observed in the US high vertical-resolution radiosonde data. Two sources---convection and jet imbalance---are of the major interest. I used a ray-tracing gravity wave model GROGRAT to characterize the "mean" source spectrum of gravity waves in the lower stratosphere that are observed from US high vertical-resolution radiosonde profiles on a monthly scale. With a fixed source spectral function, one can get "best-fits" for most of the stations. A universal source function is found to be most powerful in capturing the major features of the variations, while another, which represents the convection source, works better for tropical stations. "Fits" are generally better for winter than for summer, indicating possible jet-related sources. I furthermore examined the perturbation field of the ascent rate that is likely to be representative of higher-frequency gravity waves that are generated from the convection sources. The newly defined variable, VE, as well as the apparent dominant vertical wavelength analyzed from the ascent rate fluctuations turned out to be collocated very well with moist convection in the troposphere, especially during warm seasons. The waves tend to have higher frequencies, and this seems consistent with theory. Forcing terms associated with the jet imbalance source are analyzed on a climatological basis. The derived forcings reveal some characteristics of the jet imbalance source, which we can sometimes see in the radiosonde profiles. GROGRAT and a linear forcing-response model are used to study a specific case, which sheds some light on parameterizations of gravity wave drag associated with the jet imbalance.

  16. A vertically resolved model for phytoplankton aggregation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work presents models of the vertical distribution and flux of phytoplankton aggregates, including changes with time in the ... in the Arabian Sea; it demonstrates that aggregation can be important for deep sedimentation even when its effect on surface ... western parts, deep flux is strongly coupled to the increase in wind ...

  17. Techniques for studying gravity waves and turbulence: Horizontal, vertical and temporal resolution needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, S. K.; Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    One of the most important atmospheric measurements that is needed is a measure of the gravity-wave spectrum. The MST radar has been investigated as means to measure the temporal resolution required to determine gravity-wave oscillations. The required vertical and horizontal resolution is dependent on the particular part of the gravity wave spectrum that is analyzed. Horizontal spacing is also discussed.

  18. Temporal Variability in Vertical Groundwater Fluxes and the Effect of Solar Radiation on Streambed Temperatures Based on Vertical High Resolution Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, E.; Karan, S.; Engesgaard, P. K.; Duque, C.

    2013-12-01

    and heat transport model (HydroGeoSphere). Subsequently, time series of vertical groundwater fluxes were computed based on the high-resolution vertical streambed sediment temperature profiles by coupling the model with PEST. The calculated vertical flux time series show spatial differences in discharge between the two HR-DTS sites. A similar temporal variability in vertical fluxes at the two test sites can also be observed, most likely linked to rainfall-runoff processes. The effect of solar radiation as streambed conduction is visible both at the exposed and shaded test site in form of increased diel temperature oscillations up to 14 cm depth from the streambed surface, with the test site exposed to solar radiation showing larger diel temperature oscillations.

  19. Ocean bottom pressure modeling for detection of seafloor vertical deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inazu, D.; Hino, R.; Fujimoto, H.

    2009-12-01

    Detection of seafloor crustal deformation is a difficult problem in marine geodesy. Horizontal displacement of the ocean bottom has been detected with accuracy of several centimeters per year by the GPS/Acoustic positioning of seafloor reference points (Spiess et al. 1998). Meanwhile, bottom pressure observations can record the vertical deformation of seafloor and there have been many challenges to detect vertical seafloor displacement. However, ocean bottom pressure variations are highly dominated by oceanic signals such as tidal and subinertial motions. The tidal and other oceanic variations in bottom pressure records are mostly equivalent to several tens and several centimeters water height anomalies, respectively. Generally, the ocean tide is efficiently corrected. Non-tidal components are required to be accurately removed from the bottom pressure records so that the vertical displacement of less than ten centimeters, the expected amount of displacement caused by slow slip events often observed in several subduction zones, is detected by continuous bottom pressure monitoring. We examine the bottom pressure estimations derived from the Kalman filter and smoother runs of the ECCO (Estimating the Circulation & Climate of the Ocean) product to compare in-situ bottom pressure records. The assimilated bottom pressure moderately represents the seasonal variation, and hardly represents the variation with periods less than a few months. This high frequency variation is mainly explained by the barotropic phenomena induced by meteorological disturbances. Hirose et al. (2001) and Carrère and Lyard (2003) modeled the barotropic ocean motion with the forcing of atmospheric pressure loading and wind over global oceans for the sake of the correction of satellite observations. This study addresses the accurate bottom pressure modeling, which enables us to detect vertical displacement of several centimeters from the in-situ bottom pressure observations. We develop accurate

  20. A Vertical Grid Module for Baroclinic Models of the Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, John B [ORNL

    2008-04-01

    The vertical grid of an atmospheric model assigns dynamic and thermo- dynamic variables to grid locations. The vertical coordinate is typically not height but one of a class of meteorological variables that vary with atmo- spheric conditions. The grid system is chosen to further numerical approx- imations of the boundary conditions so that the system is terrain following at the surface. Lagrangian vertical coordinates are useful in reducing the numerical errors from advection processes. That the choices will effect the numercial properties and accuracy is explored in this report. A MATLAB class for Lorentz vertical grids is described and applied to the vertical struc- ture equation and baroclinic atmospheric circulation. A generalized meteo- rolgoical coordinate system is developed which can support σ, isentropic θ vertical coordinate, or Lagrangian vertical coordinates. The vertical atmo- spheric column is a MATLAB class that includes the kinematic and ther- modynamic variables along with methods for computing geopoentials and terms relevant to a 3D baroclinc atmospheric model.

  1. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  2. High resolution beamforming on large aperture vertical line arrays: Processing synthetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jean-Marie Q.; Hodgkiss, William S.

    1990-09-01

    This technical memorandum studies the beamforming of large aperture line arrays deployed vertically in the water column. The work concentrates on the use of high resolution techniques. Two processing strategies are envisioned: (1) full aperture coherent processing which offers in theory the best processing gain; and (2) subaperture processing which consists in extracting subapertures from the array and recombining the angular spectra estimated from these subarrays. The conventional beamformer, the minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) processor, the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm and the minimum norm method are used in this study. To validate the various processing techniques, the ATLAS normal mode program is used to generate synthetic data which constitute a realistic signals environment. A deep-water, range-independent sound velocity profile environment, characteristic of the North-East Pacific, is being studied for two different 128 sensor arrays: a very long one cut for 30 Hz and operating at 20 Hz; and a shorter one cut for 107 Hz and operating at 100 Hz. The simulated sound source is 5 m deep. The full aperture and subaperture processing are being implemented with curved and plane wavefront replica vectors. The beamforming results are examined and compared to the ray-theory results produced by the generic sonar model.

  3. A Method for Modeling of Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir

    2013-01-01

    It is of interest to investigate the potential advantages of floating vertical axis wind turbine (FVAWT) due to its economical installation and maintenance. A novel 5MW vertical axis wind turbine concept with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure is proposed in this paper....... In order to assess the technical and economic feasibility of this novel concept, a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling of the floating vertical axis wind turbine is needed. This work presents the development of a coupled method for modeling of the dynamics of a floating vertical axis wind turbine...

  4. Global tropospheric ozone modeling: Quantifying errors due to grid resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Oliver; Prather, Michael J.

    2006-06-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quantifying the errors in regional and global budgets. The sensitivity to vertical mixing through the parameterization of boundary layer turbulence is also examined. We find less ozone production in the boundary layer at higher resolution, consistent with slower chemical production in polluted emission regions and greater export of precursors. Agreement with ozonesonde and aircraft measurements made during the NASA TRACE-P campaign over the western Pacific in spring 2001 is consistently better at higher resolution. We demonstrate that the numerical errors in transport processes on a given resolution converge geometrically for a tracer at successively higher resolutions. The convergence in ozone production on progressing from T21 to T42, T63, and T106 resolution is likewise monotonic but indicates that there are still large errors at 120 km scales, suggesting that T106 resolution is too coarse to resolve regional ozone production. Diagnosing the ozone production and precursor transport that follow a short pulse of emissions over east Asia in springtime allows us to quantify the impacts of resolution on both regional and global ozone. Production close to continental emission regions is overestimated by 27% at T21 resolution, by 13% at T42 resolution, and by 5% at T106 resolution. However, subsequent ozone production in the free troposphere is not greatly affected. We find that the export of short-lived precursors such as NOx by convection is overestimated at coarse resolution.

  5. CREATING EFFECTIVE MODELS OF VERTICAL INTEGRATED STRUCTURES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Koliesnikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of scientific research aimed at development of methodology-theoretical mechanisms of building the effective models of vertically-integrated structures are presented. A presence of vertically-integrated structures on natural-monopolistic markets at private and governmental sectors of economy and priority directions of integration are given.

  6. Global distribution of vertical wavenumber spectra in the lower stratosphere observed using high-vertical-resolution temperature profiles from COSMIC GPS radio occultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noersomadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We retrieved temperature (T profiles with a high vertical resolution using the full spectrum inversion (FSI method from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC GPS radio occultation (GPS-RO data from January 2007 to December 2009. We studied the characteristics of temperature perturbations in the stratosphere at 20–27 km altitude. This height range does not include a sharp jump in the background Brunt–Väisälä frequency squared (N2 near the tropopause, and it was reasonably stable regardless of season and latitude. We analyzed the vertical wavenumber spectra of gravity waves (GWs with vertical wavelengths ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 km, and we integrated the (total potential energy EpT. Another integration of the spectra from 0.5 to 1.75 km was defined as EpS for short vertical wavelength GWs, which was not studied with the conventional geometrical optics (GO retrievals. We also estimated the logarithmic spectral slope (p for the saturated portion of spectra with a linear regression fitting from 0.5 to 1.75 km.Latitude and time variations in the spectral parameters were investigated in two longitudinal regions: (a 90–150° E, where the topography was more complicated, and (b 170–230° E, which is dominated by oceans. We compared EpT, EpS, and p, with the mean zonal winds (U and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR. We also show a ratio of EpS to EpT and discuss the generation source of EpS. EpT and p clearly showed an annual cycle, with their maximum values in winter at 30–50° N in region (a, and 50–70° N in region (b, which was related to the topography. At 30–50° N in region (b, EpT and p exhibited some irregular variations in addition to an annual cycle. In the Southern Hemisphere, we also found an annual oscillation in EpT and p, but it showed a time lag of about 2 months relative to U. Characteristics of EpTand p in the tropical region seem to be related to

  7. Global distribution of vertical wavenumber spectra in the lower stratosphere observed using high-vertical-resolution temperature profiles from COSMIC GPS radio occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noersomadi; Tsuda, T.

    2016-02-01

    We retrieved temperature (T) profiles with a high vertical resolution using the full spectrum inversion (FSI) method from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS radio occultation (GPS-RO) data from January 2007 to December 2009. We studied the characteristics of temperature perturbations in the stratosphere at 20-27 km altitude. This height range does not include a sharp jump in the background Brunt-Väisälä frequency squared (N2) near the tropopause, and it was reasonably stable regardless of season and latitude. We analyzed the vertical wavenumber spectra of gravity waves (GWs) with vertical wavelengths ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 km, and we integrated the (total) potential energy EpT. Another integration of the spectra from 0.5 to 1.75 km was defined as EpS for short vertical wavelength GWs, which was not studied with the conventional geometrical optics (GO) retrievals. We also estimated the logarithmic spectral slope (p) for the saturated portion of spectra with a linear regression fitting from 0.5 to 1.75 km.Latitude and time variations in the spectral parameters were investigated in two longitudinal regions: (a) 90-150° E, where the topography was more complicated, and (b) 170-230° E, which is dominated by oceans. We compared EpT, EpS, and p, with the mean zonal winds (U) and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). We also show a ratio of EpS to EpT and discuss the generation source of EpS. EpT and p clearly showed an annual cycle, with their maximum values in winter at 30-50° N in region (a), and 50-70° N in region (b), which was related to the topography. At 30-50° N in region (b), EpT and p exhibited some irregular variations in addition to an annual cycle. In the Southern Hemisphere, we also found an annual oscillation in EpT and p, but it showed a time lag of about 2 months relative to U. Characteristics of EpTand p in the tropical region seem to be related to convective activity. The ratio of EpT to the

  8. A Vertically Flow-Following, Icosahedral Grid Model for Medium-Range and Seasonal Prediction. Part 1: Model Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleck, Rainer; Bao, Jian-Wen; Benjamin, Stanley G.; Brown, John M.; Fiorino, Michael; Henderson, Thomas B.; Lee, Jin-Luen; MacDonald, Alexander E.; Madden, Paul; Middlecoff, Jacques; hide

    2015-01-01

    A hydrostatic global weather prediction model based on an icosahedral horizontal grid and a hybrid terrain following/ isentropic vertical coordinate is described. The model is an extension to three spatial dimensions of a previously developed, icosahedral, shallow-water model featuring user-selectable horizontal resolution and employing indirect addressing techniques. The vertical grid is adaptive to maximize the portion of the atmosphere mapped into the isentropic coordinate subdomain. The model, best described as a stacked shallow-water model, is being tested extensively on real-time medium-range forecasts to ready it for possible inclusion in operational multimodel ensembles for medium-range to seasonal prediction.

  9. A novel super-resolution camera model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yi; Xu, Jie; Wang, Lin; Liu, Fei; Luo, Qiuhua; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Xiangli

    2015-05-01

    Aiming to realize super resolution(SR) to single image and video reconstruction, a super resolution camera model is proposed for the problem that the resolution of the images obtained by traditional cameras behave comparatively low. To achieve this function we put a certain driving device such as piezoelectric ceramics in the camera. By controlling the driving device, a set of continuous low resolution(LR) images can be obtained and stored instantaneity, which reflect the randomness of the displacements and the real-time performance of the storage very well. The low resolution image sequences have different redundant information and some particular priori information, thus it is possible to restore super resolution image factually and effectively. The sample method is used to derive the reconstruction principle of super resolution, which analyzes the possible improvement degree of the resolution in theory. The super resolution algorithm based on learning is used to reconstruct single image and the variational Bayesian algorithm is simulated to reconstruct the low resolution images with random displacements, which models the unknown high resolution image, motion parameters and unknown model parameters in one hierarchical Bayesian framework. Utilizing sub-pixel registration method, a super resolution image of the scene can be reconstructed. The results of 16 images reconstruction show that this camera model can increase the image resolution to 2 times, obtaining images with higher resolution in currently available hardware levels.

  10. IMPROVING VERTICAL AND LATERAL RESOLUTION BY STRETCH-FREE, HORIZON-ORIENTED IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Gabriel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The pre-stack Kirchhoff migration is implemented for delivering wavelet stretch-free imaged data, if the migration is (ideally limited to the wavelet corresponding to a target horizon. Avoiding wavelet stretch provides long-offset imaged data, far beyond what is reached in conventional migration and results in images from the target with improved vertical and lateral resolution and angular illumination. Increasing the range of imaged offsets also increases the sensitivity to event-crossing, velocity errors and anisotropy. These issues must be addressed to fully achieve the greatest potential of this technique. These ideas are further illustrated with a land survey seismic data application in Texas, U.S.

  11. New approaches to high-resolution mapping of marine vertical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Katleen; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Georgiopoulou, Aggeliki; Jones, Daniel O B; Marsh, Leigh; D O Carter, Gareth; Chaumillon, Leo

    2017-08-21

    Vertical walls in marine environments can harbour high biodiversity and provide natural protection from bottom-trawling activities. However, traditional mapping techniques are usually restricted to down-looking approaches which cannot adequately replicate their 3D structure. We combined sideways-looking multibeam echosounder (MBES) data from an AUV, forward-looking MBES data from ROVs and ROV-acquired videos to examine walls from Rockall Bank and Whittard Canyon, Northeast Atlantic. High-resolution 3D point clouds were extracted from each sonar dataset and structure from motion photogrammetry (SfM) was applied to recreate 3D representations of video transects along the walls. With these reconstructions, it was possible to interact with extensive sections of video footage and precisely position individuals. Terrain variables were derived on scales comparable to those experienced by megabenthic individuals. These were used to show differences in environmental conditions between observed and background locations as well as explain spatial patterns in ecological characteristics. In addition, since the SfM 3D reconstructions retained colours, they were employed to separate and quantify live coral colonies versus dead framework. The combination of these new technologies allows us, for the first time, to map the physical 3D structure of previously inaccessible habitats and demonstrates the complexity and importance of vertical structures.

  12. Mt. Graham: optical turbulence vertical distribution with standard and high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciadri, Elena; Stoesz, Jeff; Hagelin, Susanna; Lascaux, Franck

    2010-07-01

    A characterization of the optical turbulence vertical distribution and all the main integrated astroclimatic parameters derived from the C2N and the wind speed profiles above Mt. Graham is presented. The statistic includes measurements related to 43 nights done with a Generalized Scidar (GS) used in standard configuration with a vertical resolution of ~1 km on the whole 20-22 km and with the new technique (HVR-GS) in the first kilometer. The latter achieves a resolution of ~ 20-30 m in this region of the atmosphere. Measurements done in different periods of the year permit us to provide a seasonal variation analysis of the C2N. A discretized distribution of the typical C2N profiles useful for the Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) simulations is provided and a specific analysis for the LBT Laser Guide Star system ARGOS case is done including the calculation of the 'gray zones' for J, H and K bands. Mt. Graham confirms to be an excellent site with median values of the seeing without dome contribution equal to 0.72", the isoplanatic angle equal to 2.5" and the wavefront coherence time equal to 4.8 msec. We provide a cumulative distribution of the percentage of turbulence developed below H* where H* is included in the (0,1 km) range. We find that 50% of the whole turbulence develops in the first 80 m from the ground. The turbulence decreasing rate is very similar to what has been observed above Mauna Kea.

  13. Influence of Regional Climate Model spatial resolution on wind climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, S. C.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Nikulin, G.; Jones, C.

    2010-12-01

    Global and regional climate models are being run at increasingly fine horizontal and vertical resolution with the goal of increased skill. However, relatively few studies have quantified the change in modeled wind climates that derives from applying a Regional Climate Model (RCM) at varying resolutions, and the response to varying resolution may be highly non-linear since most models run in climate mode are hydrostatic. Thus, herein we examine the influence of grid-resolution on modelled wind speeds and gusts and derived extremes thereof over southern Scandinavia using output from the Rossby Centre (RCA3) RCM run at four different resolutions from 50 x 50 km to 6 x 6 km, and with two different vertical grid-spacings. Domain averaged fifty-year return period wind speeds and wind gusts derived using the method of moments approach to compute the Gumbel parameters, increase with resolution (Table 1), though the change is strongly mediated by the model grid-cell surface characteristics. Power spectra of the 3-hourly model time-step ‘instantaneous’ wind speeds and daily wind gusts at all four resolutions show clear peaks in the variance associated with bi-annual, annual, seasonal and synoptic frequencies. The variance associated with these peaks is enhanced with increased resolution, though not in a monotonic fashion, and is more marked in wind gusts than wind speeds. Relative to in situ observations, the model generally underestimates the variance, particularly associated with the synoptic time scale, even for the highest resolution simulations. There is some evidence to suggest that the change in the power spectra with horizontal resolution is less marked in the transition from 12.5 km to 6.25 km, than from 50 to 25 km, or 25 km to 12.5 km.Table 1. Domain averaged mean annual wind speed (U), 50-year return period extreme wind speed (U50yr) and wind gust (Gust50yr) (m/s) from the four RCA3 simulations at different resolution based on output from 1987-2008. The

  14. The WZNW model on PSU(1, 1 vertical stroke 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique; Quella, T. [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). KdV Institute for Mathematics; Schomerus, V. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    According to the work of Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the non-linear sigma model on the supergroup PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2) is the essential building block for string theory on AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}xT{sup 4}. Models associated with a non-vanishing value of the RR flux can be obtained through a psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) invariant marginal deformation of the WZNW model on PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2). We take this as a motivation to present a manifestly psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) covariant construction of the model at the Wess-Zumino point, corresponding to a purely NSNS background 3-form flux. At this point the model possesses an enhanced psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) current algebra symmetry whose representation theory, including explicit character formulas, is developed systematically in the first part of the paper. The space of vertex operators and a free fermion representation for their correlation functions is our main subject in the second part. Contrary to a widespread claim, bosonic and fermionic fields are necessarily coupled to each other. The interaction changes the supersymmetry transformations, with drastic consequences for the multiplets of localized normalizable states in the model. It is only this fact which allows us to decompose the full state space into multiplets of the global supersymmetry. We analyze these decompositions systematically as a preparation for a forthcoming study of the RR deformation. (orig.)

  15. The WZNW model on PSU(1, 1 vertical stroke 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, G.

    2006-10-01

    According to the work of Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the non-linear sigma model on the supergroup PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2) is the essential building block for string theory on AdS 3 xS 3 xT 4 . Models associated with a non-vanishing value of the RR flux can be obtained through a psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) invariant marginal deformation of the WZNW model on PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2). We take this as a motivation to present a manifestly psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) covariant construction of the model at the Wess-Zumino point, corresponding to a purely NSNS background 3-form flux. At this point the model possesses an enhanced psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) current algebra symmetry whose representation theory, including explicit character formulas, is developed systematically in the first part of the paper. The space of vertex operators and a free fermion representation for their correlation functions is our main subject in the second part. Contrary to a widespread claim, bosonic and fermionic fields are necessarily coupled to each other. The interaction changes the supersymmetry transformations, with drastic consequences for the multiplets of localized normalizable states in the model. It is only this fact which allows us to decompose the full state space into multiplets of the global supersymmetry. We analyze these decompositions systematically as a preparation for a forthcoming study of the RR deformation. (orig.)

  16. Anatomy teaching: Flexnerian model to contextualized vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abraham Flexner in 1910 established the fundamental model where the subjects of anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathology and bacteriology are mastered before the clinical phase of medical training (1). He was clear that this mastery was best achieved by active student learning in the laboratory guided by clinical.

  17. A vertically resolved model for phytoplankton aggregation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simple experiments demonstrate the effects of aggregation on the timing and depth distribution of primary production and export. A more detailed ecological model is applied to sites in the Arabian Sea; it demonstrates that aggregation can be important for deep sedimentation even when its effect on surface concentrations ...

  18. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Barone, M.; Roscher, B.; Deglaire, P.; Arduin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multiple

  19. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, C. Simão; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barone, M.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multipl...

  20. Modification of a variational objective analysis model for new equations for pressure gradient and vertical velocity in the lower troposphere and for spatial resolution and accuracy of satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtemeier, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Since late 1982 NASA has supported research to develop a numerical variational model for the diagnostic assimilation of conventional and space-based meteorological data. In order to analyze the model components, four variational models are defined dividing the problem naturally according to increasing complexity. The first of these variational models (MODEL I), the subject of this report, contains the two nonlinear horizontal momentum equations, the integrated continuity equation, and the hydrostatic equation. This report summarizes the results of research (1) to improve the way the large nonmeteorological parts of the pressure gradient force are partitioned between the two terms of the pressure gradient force terms of the horizontal momentum equations, (2) to generalize the integrated continuity equation to account for variable pressure thickness over elevated terrain, and (3) to introduce horizontal variation in the precision modulus weights for the observations.

  1. Modeling of Aerosol Vertical Profiles Using GIS and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Ho Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS by climatologists, environmentalists and urban planners for three dimensional modeling and visualization of the landscape is well established. However no previous study has implemented these techniques for 3D modeling of atmospheric aerosols because air quality data is traditionally measured at ground points, or from satellite images, with no vertical dimension. This study presents a prototype for modeling and visualizing aerosol vertical profiles over a 3D urban landscape in Hong Kong. The method uses a newly developed technique for the derivation of aerosol vertical profiles from AERONET sunphotometer measurements and surface visibility data, and links these to a 3D urban model. This permits automated modeling and visualization of aerosol concentrations at different atmospheric levels over the urban landscape in near-real time. Since the GIS platform permits presentation of the aerosol vertical distribution in 3D, it can be related to the built environment of the city. Examples are given of the applications of the model, including diagnosis of the relative contribution of vehicle emissions to pollution levels in the city, based on increased near-surface concentrations around weekday rush-hour times. The ability to model changes in air quality and visibility from ground level to the top of tall buildings is also demonstrated, and this has implications for energy use and environmental policies for the tall mega-cities of the future.

  2. Vertically-integrated Approaches for Carbon Sequestration Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Guo, B.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is being considered as an approach to mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as coal fired power plants and natural gas processing plants. Computer modeling is an essential tool for site design and operational planning as it allows prediction of the pressure response as well as the migration of both CO2 and brine in the subsurface. Many processes, such as buoyancy, hysteresis, geomechanics and geochemistry, can have important impacts on the system. While all of the processes can be taken into account simultaneously, the resulting models are computationally very expensive and require large numbers of parameters which are often uncertain or unknown. In many cases of practical interest, the computational and data requirements can be reduced by choosing a smaller domain and/or by neglecting or simplifying certain processes. This leads to a series of models with different complexity, ranging from coupled multi-physics, multi-phase three-dimensional models to semi-analytical single-phase models. Under certain conditions the three-dimensional equations can be integrated in the vertical direction, leading to a suite of two-dimensional multi-phase models, termed vertically-integrated models. These models are either solved numerically or simplified further (e.g., assumption of vertical equilibrium) to allow analytical or semi-analytical solutions. This presentation focuses on how different vertically-integrated models have been applied to the simulation of CO2 and brine migration during CCS projects. Several example sites, such as the Illinois Basin and the Wabamun Lake region of the Alberta Basin, are discussed to show how vertically-integrated models can be used to gain understanding of CCS operations.

  3. High-resolution mass spectrometer with correction of horizontal and vertical aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachenko, V.D.; Fridlyanskij, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Principles of calculation of the ion-optical system of a high-precision two-cascade sector type mass-spectrometer with total correction of spherical aberrations as well as the group of second order vertical aberrations are considered. A mass-spectrometer construction is described and some test results of the spectrometer are given. Configuration of boundaries of a spectrometer magnetic field has been formed by means of convex magnetic screens adjoining concave edqes of pole pieces. An energy diaphragm has been installed in the intermediate focus of the system. Precision slits of a source and receiver were made according to a spring parallelogram resolution of spectrometer constituted 80-100 thousands at a level of 10% of peak height. At a residual pressure of 5x10 -7 torr and 3-5x10 -5 torr inlet pressure in the source for Ar ''tail'' intensity in a neighbouring line amounted to 0.6x10 -6 of a main line. A measurement error for relative mass difference using the method of peak matching didnot exceed 1-2x10 -6

  4. Control and modelling of vertical temperature distribution in greenhouse crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Bakker, J.C.; Braak, van de N.J.

    1998-01-01

    Based on physical transport processes (radiation, convection and latent heat transfer) a model has been developed to describe the vertical temperature distribution of a greenhouse crop. The radiation exchange factors between heating pipes, crop layers, soil and roof were determined as a function of

  5. Vertical-aware click model-based effectiveness metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markov, I.; Kharitonov, E.; Nikulin, V.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.; Crestani, F.; Li, J.; Wang, X.S.

    2014-01-01

    Today's web search systems present users with heterogeneous information coming from sources of different types, also known as verticals. Evaluating such systems is an important but complex task, which is still far from being solved. In this paper we examine the hypothesis that the use of models that

  6. Investigating riparian groundwater flow close to a losing river using diurnal temperature oscillations at high vertical resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vogt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available River-water infiltration is of high relevance for hyporheic and riparian groundwater ecology as well as for drinking water supply by river-bank filtration. Heat has become a popular natural tracer to estimate exchange rates between rivers and groundwater. However, quantifying flow patterns and velocities is impeded by spatial and temporal variations of exchange fluxes, insufficient sensors spacing during field investigations, or simplifying assumptions for analysis or modeling such as uniform flow. The objective of this study is to investigate lateral shallow groundwater flow upon river-water infiltration at the shoreline of the riverbed and in the adjacent riparian zone of the River Thur in northeast Switzerland. Here we have applied distributed temperature sensing (DTS along optical fibers wrapped around tubes to measure high-resolution vertical temperature profiles of the unsaturated zone and shallow riparian groundwater. Diurnal temperature oscillations were tracked in the subsurface and analyzed by means of dynamic harmonic regression to extract amplitudes and phase angles. Subsequent calculations of amplitude attenuation and time shift relative to the river signal show in detail vertical and temporal variations of heat transport in shallow riparian groundwater. In addition, we apply a numerical two-dimensional heat transport model for the unsaturated zone and shallow groundwater to obtain a better understanding of the observed heat transport processes in shallow riparian groundwater and to estimate the groundwater flow velocity. Our results show that the observed riparian groundwater temperature distribution cannot be described by uniform flow, but rather by horizontal groundwater flow velocities varying over depth. In addition, heat transfer of diurnal temperature oscillations from the losing river through shallow groundwater is influenced by thermal exchange with the unsaturated zone. Neglecting the influence of the unsaturated zone

  7. Free fermion resolution of supergroup WZNW models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quella, T.; Schomerus, V.

    2007-06-15

    Extending our earlier work on PSL(2 vertical stroke 2), we explain how to reduce the solution of WZNW models on general type I supergroups to those defined on the bosonic subgroup. The new analysis covers in particular the supergroups GL(M vertical stroke N) along with several close relatives such as PSL(N vertical stroke N), certain Poincar'e supergroups and the series OSP(2 vertical stroke 2N). This remarkable progress relies on the use of a special Feigin-Fuchs type representation. In preparation for the field theory analysis, we shall exploit a minisuperspace analogue of a free fermion construction to deduce the spectrum of the Laplacian on type I supergroups. The latter is shown to be non-diagonalizable. After lifting these results to the full WZNW model, we address various issues of the field theory, including its modular invariance and the computation of correlation functions. In agreement with previous findings, supergroup WZNW models allow to study chiral and non-chiral aspects of logarithmic conformal field theory within a geometric framework. We shall briefly indicate how insights from WZNW models carry over to non-geometric examples, such as e.g. the W(p) triplet models.

  8. Vertical motion and chlorophyll patterns from a high-resolution glider experiment in the Balearic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Simon; Pascual, Ananda; Tintore, Joaquin

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of a multi-platform experiment carried out in May 2009 along the northwest coast of Mallorca Island. The strategy allowed to investigate the mesoscale and sub-mesoscale processes associated with the Balearic Current, the main oceanographic feature of the area. A mission using 2 Slocum gliders was performed simultaneously in combination with other type of measurements (drifters, CTDs from ship and remote sensing data). In this experiment the coastal glider operated between surface and 200 m while the deep (1000 m maximum depth), was set-up to reach only 600 m. The autonomous platforms covered an area of 50x40 km2 collecting 811 hydrographic (temperature and salinity) and bio-geochemical (turbidity, oxygen and chlorophyll) profiles. The horizontal resolution in the along track direction was around 0.3 km for the coastal glider and around 1.1 km for the deep glider and about 4 km between gliders tracks. The preliminary analysis of in-situ and remote sensing data reveals the presence of an anomalous anticyclonic eddy near the northwest coast of Mallorca island of about 60 km diameter. This structure blocked the usual path of the Balearic Current along the coast, deflecting the main north-eastward flow to the north. The relative fresh waters from Atlantic origin (37.4 PSU) found in previous studies near the coast were not detected in this experiment. Instead, the signature of the Mediterranean Water (salinity of 38 PSU and higher), typical from open ocean water, was dominant in the study area. The influence of this anomalous anticyclonic eddy on the chlorophyll distribution is investigated diagnosing the quasi-geostrophic vertical motion.

  9. Ray Tracing Modelling of Reflector for Vertical Bifacial Panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    Bifacial solar panels have recently become a new attractive building block for PV systems. In this work we propose a reflector system for a vertical bifacial panel, and use ray tracing modelling to model the performance. Particularly, we investigate the impact of the reflector volume being filled...... with a refractive medium, and shows the refractive medium improves the reflector performance since it directs almost all the light incident on the incoming plane into the PV panel....

  10. Ray Tracing modelling of reflector for vertical bifacial panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    Bifacial solar panels have recently become a new attractive building block for PV systems. In this work we propose a reflector system for a vertical bifacial panel, and use ray tracing modelling to model the performance. Particularly, we investigate the impact of the reflector volume being filled...... with a refractive medium, and shows the refractive medium improves the reflector performance since it directs almost all the light incident on the incoming plane into the PV panel....

  11. Nonlinear Modeling and Analysis of a Vertical Springless Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Rahman Eihab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting energy from ambient sources has attracted the attention of researchers and scientists over the last few decades. While solar, thermal and wind energies have been exploited over the years, a new type of energy that has emerged in recent years, and is the subject of many research projects, is vibration energy harvesting. In this paper we will describe and analyze a recently proposed vibration energy harvester, namely the “Springless” vibration energy harvester. In this study, we will model and analyze the “Springless” vibration energy harvester in the vertical configuration. The vertically-aligned configuration is used when vibrations are predominantly in the vertical direction. Test results of a prototype model as well as results form a mathematical model describing the behavior of the harvester are presented. Test results show that the “Springless” energy vibration harvester behaves as a softening nonlinear oscillator for excitations above 0:2g with its center frequency shifting to the right. Similar results were obtained using a mathematical model of the underlying impact oscillator.

  12. A skeleton model for the MJO with refined vertical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thual, Sulian; Majda, Andrew J.

    2016-05-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of variability in the tropical atmosphere on intraseasonal timescales and planetary spatial scales. The skeleton model is a minimal dynamical model that recovers robustly the most fundamental MJO features of (I) a slow eastward speed of roughly 5 {ms}^{-1}, (II) a peculiar dispersion relation with dω /dk ≈ 0, and (III) a horizontal quadrupole vortex structure. This model depicts the MJO as a neutrally-stable atmospheric wave that involves a simple multiscale interaction between planetary dry dynamics, planetary lower-tropospheric moisture and the planetary envelope of synoptic-scale activity. Here we propose and analyse an extended version of the skeleton model with additional variables accounting for the refined vertical structure of the MJO in nature. The present model reproduces qualitatively the front-to-rear vertical structure of the MJO found in nature, with MJO events marked by a planetary envelope of convective activity transitioning from the congestus to the deep to the stratiform type, in addition to a front-to-rear structure of moisture, winds and temperature. Despite its increased complexity the present model retains several interesting features of the original skeleton model such as a conserved energy and similar linear solutions. We further analyze a model version with a simple stochastic parametrization for the unresolved details of synoptic-scale activity. The stochastic model solutions show intermittent initiation, propagation and shut down of MJO wave trains, as in previous studies, in addition to MJO events with a front-to-rear vertical structure of varying intensity and characteristics from one event to another.

  13. Integrating autonomous Problem Resolution Models with Remedy

    OpenAIRE

    Marquina, M A; Padilla, J; Ramos, R

    2000-01-01

    This paper briefly defines the concept of Problem Resolution Model and shows possible approaches to the issues which may arise when integrating various PRMs to present a consistent view to the end user, despite of the peculiarities of each physical implementation. Integration refers to various autonomous PRMs having to interact as problems pass from one to another in the resolution flow. This process should be transparent to the user and internally there must be a way to track in which stage ...

  14. Development of high resolution simulations of the atmospheric environment using the MASS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Zack, John W.; Karyampudi, V. Mohan

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations were performed with a very high resolution (7.25 km) version of the MASS model (Version 4.0) in an effort to diagnose the vertical wind shear and static stability structure during the Shuttle Challenger disaster which occurred on 28 January 1986. These meso-beta scale simulations reveal that the strongest vertical wind shears were concentrated in the 200 to 150 mb layer at 1630 GMT, i.e., at about the time of the disaster. These simulated vertical shears were the result of two primary dynamical processes. The juxtaposition of both of these processes produced a shallow (30 mb deep) region of strong vertical wind shear, and hence, low Richardson number values during the launch time period. Comparisons with the Cape Canaveral (XMR) rawinsonde indicates that the high resolution MASS 4.0 simulation more closely emulated nature than did previous simulations of the same event with the GMASS model.

  15. A novel experimental design model for increasing occlusal vertical dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Zhiguang; Wu, Shuyi; Qiao, Yonggang

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed to establish a rat model of increasing occlusal vertical dimension (iOVD) using a prosthodontic approach. The OVD was increased by bonding a maxillary, bilateral, posterior dental splint with a bearing ball while the occlusal stops that were made on the stone casts adjusted the occlusion and bonded in the mouths of adult Wistar rats (iOVD group); the controls did not receive a splint. Both groups were subdivided after splint insertion: 3 days and 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks (n = 6/subgroup). The effects of iOVD were evaluated by radiographs, body weight, and histologic diagnosis of tooth and temporomandibular joints. There were no differences in body weights between the 2 groups; occlusal asymmetric dentition abrasions did not occur in the iOVD rats. The occlusal splints caused the remodeling of the periodontal tissue and condylar cartilage. Overall, an iOVD rat model can be constructed using prosthodontic techniques ensuring a balance of bilateral occlusal height. OVD, occlusal vertical dimension; iOVD, increasing occlusal vertical dimension; TMJ, temporomandibular joint; TMD, temporomandibular disorders.

  16. Rule-based Modelling and Tunable Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Harmer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of an extension of rule-based modelling for cellular signalling to create a structured space of model variants. This enables the incremental development of rule sets that start from simple mechanisms and which, by a gradual increase in agent and rule resolution, evolve into more detailed descriptions.

  17. Modeling vertical loads in pools resulting from fluid injection. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-06-15

    Table-top model experiments were performed to investigate pressure suppression pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peachbottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system. The results guided subsequent conduct of experiments in the /sup 1///sub 5/-scale facility and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Model experiments show an oscillatory VLF with the download typically double-spiked followed by a more gradual sinusoidal upload. The load function contains a high frequency oscillation superimposed on a low frequency one; evidence from measurements indicates that the oscillations are initiated by fluid dynamics phenomena.

  18. Modeling vertical loads in pools resulting from fluid injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    Table-top model experiments were performed to investigate pressure suppression pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peachbottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system. The results guided subsequent conduct of experiments in the 1 / 5 -scale facility and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Model experiments show an oscillatory VLF with the download typically double-spiked followed by a more gradual sinusoidal upload. The load function contains a high frequency oscillation superimposed on a low frequency one; evidence from measurements indicates that the oscillations are initiated by fluid dynamics phenomena

  19. Construction and Evaluation of a High Resolution Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detector, and, Utilization to Determine Interaction Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Prakash Parayil [Carnegie Mellon U.

    1997-01-01

    A 20 plane, 47K channel silicon microstrip vertex detector was built for the charm baryon experiment 781 (SELEX) at Fermilab. The detector is taking data with an average vertex transverse resolution of 6 microns. The measurement and multiple scattering errors are well understood and have been parametrized. The mass resolution of reconstructed $\\Sigma^+$ and $\\Sigma^-$ hyperons produced at 540-640 GeV /c is consistent with silicon detector resolutions. The vertex detector has been used to resolve primary and secondary vertices and this high precision information is being used in the experiment's realtime online trigger. Flawless operation over 14 months and the long-term stability of the efficiency, alignment and accuracy demonstrates successful integration of hardware and software.

  20. Regional modelling of tracer transport by tropical convection – Part 2: Sensitivity to model resolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arteta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this series of two papers is to evaluate long duration limited-area simulations with idealised tracers as a possible tool to assess the tracer transport in chemistry-transport models (CTMs. In this second paper we analyse the results of three simulations using different horizontal and vertical resolutions. The goal is to study the impact of the model spatial resolution on convective transport of idealized tracer in the tropics. The reference simulation (REF uses a 60 km horizontal resolution and 300 m vertically in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS. A 20 km horizontal resolution simulation (HR is run as well as a simulation with 850 m vertical resolution in the UTLS (CVR. The simulations are run for one month during the SCOUT-O3 field campaign. Aircraft data, TRMM rainrate estimates and radiosoundings have been used to evaluate the simulations. They show that the HR configuration gives generally a better agreement with the measurements than the REF simulation. The CVR simulation gives generally the worst results. The vertical distribution of the tropospheric tracers for the simulations has a similar shape with a ~15 km altitude maximum for the 6h-lifetime tracer of 0.4 ppbv for REF, 1.2 for HR and 0.04 for CVR. These differences are related to the dynamics produced by the three simulations that leads to larger values of the upward velocities on average for HR and lower for CVR compared to REF. HR simulates more frequent and stronger convection leading to enhanced fluxes compared to REF and higher detrainment levels compared to CVR. HR provides also occasional overshoots over the cold point dynamical barrier. For the stratospheric tracers the differences between the three simulations are small. The diurnal cycle of the fluxes of all tracers in the Tropical Tropopause Layer exhibits a maximum linked to the maximum of convective activity.

  1. Numerical and physical model study of a vertical slot fishway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombač Martin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical study of a vertical slot fishway (VSF. A 2-D depth-averaged shallow water numerical model PCFLOW2D coupled with three different turbulent models (constant eddy viscosity, Smagorinsky and k - ε was used. A detailed analysis of numerical parameters needed for a correct simulation of the phenomenon was carried out. Besides the velocity field, attention was paid to important hydraulic parameters such as maximum velocity in the slot region and energy dissipation rate ε in order to evaluate the performance of VSF. A scaled physical hydraulic model was built to ensure reliable experimental data for the validation of the numerical model. Simulations of variant configurations of VSF showed that even small changes in geometry can produce more fishfriendly flow characteristics in pools. The present study indicates that the PCFLOW2D program is an appropriate tool to meet the main demands of the VSF design.

  2. Moving towards Hyper-Resolution Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouf, T.; Maggioni, V.; Houser, P.; Mei, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Developing a predictive capability for terrestrial hydrology across landscapes, with water, energy and nutrients as the drivers of these dynamic systems, faces the challenge of scaling meter-scale process understanding to practical modeling scales. Hyper-resolution land surface modeling can provide a framework for addressing science questions that we are not able to answer with coarse modeling scales. In this study, we develop a hyper-resolution forcing dataset from coarser resolution products using a physically based downscaling approach. These downscaling techniques rely on correlations with landscape variables, such as topography, roughness, and land cover. A proof-of-concept has been implemented over the Oklahoma domain, where high-resolution observations are available for validation purposes. Hourly NLDAS (North America Land Data Assimilation System) forcing data (i.e., near-surface air temperature, pressure, and humidity) have been downscaled to 500m resolution over the study area for 2015-present. Results show that correlation coefficients between the downscaled temperature dataset and ground observations are consistently higher than the ones between the NLDAS temperature data at their native resolution and ground observations. Not only correlation coefficients are higher, but also the deviation around the 1:1 line in the density scatterplots is smaller for the downscaled dataset than the original one with respect to the ground observations. Results are therefore encouraging as they demonstrate that the 500m temperature dataset has a good agreement with the ground information and can be adopted to force the land surface model for soil moisture estimation. The study has been expanded to wind speed and direction, incident longwave and shortwave radiation, pressure, and precipitation. Precipitation is well known to vary dramatically with elevation and orography. Therefore, we are pursuing a downscaling technique based on both topographical and vegetation

  3. Wake Development of a Model Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadum, Hawwa; Friedman, Sasha; Camp, Elizabeth; Cal, Rau'l.

    2015-11-01

    At the Portland State University wind tunnel facility, an experiment is conducted to observe the downstream development of the wake past a model vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). The flow domain is composed of streamwise-spanwise planes at mid-height of the VAWT rotor and data is obtained via particle image velocimetry (PIV). The flow field is assessed by analyzing contours of mean velocities and the full Reynolds stress tensor. Furthermore, profiles of the aforementioned quantities and flow parameters are discussed in the context of downstream evolution/flow development.

  4. Modelling the long-term vertical dynamics of salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccarato, Claudia; Teatini, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    Salt marshes are vulnerable environments hosting complex interactions between physical and biological processes with a strong influence on the dynamics of the marsh evolution. The estimation and prediction of the elevation of a salt-marsh platform is crucial to forecast the marsh growth or regression under different scenarios considering, for example, the potential climate changes. The long-term vertical dynamics of a salt marsh is predicted with the aid of an original finite-element (FE) numerical model accounting for the marsh accretion and compaction and for the variation rates of the relative sea level rise, i.e., land subsidence of the marsh basement and eustatic rise of the sea level. The accretion term considers the vertical sedimentation of organic and inorganic material over the marsh surface, whereas the compaction reflects the progressive consolidation of the porous medium under the increasing load of the overlying younger deposits. The modelling approach is based on a 2D groundwater flow simulator, which provides the pressure evolution within a compacting/accreting vertical cross-section of the marsh assuming that the groundwater flow obeys the relative Darcy's law, coupled to a 1D vertical geomechanical module following Terzaghi's principle of effective intergranular stress. Soil porosity, permeability, and compressibility may vary with the effective intergranular stress according to empirically based relationships. The model also takes into account the geometric non-linearity arising from the consideration of large solid grain movements by using a Lagrangian approach with an adaptive FE mesh. The element geometry changes in time to follow the deposit consolidation and the element number increases in time to follow the sedimentation of new material. The numerical model is tested on different realistic configurations considering the influence of (i) the spatial distribution of the sedimentation rate in relation to the distance from the marsh margin, (ii

  5. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão Ferreira, C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Barone, M.; Roscher, B.; Deglaire, P.; Arduin, I.

    2014-06-01

    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multiple streamtube model, a double-multiple streamtube model, the actuator cylinder model, a 2D potential flow panel model, a 3D unsteady lifting line model, and a 2D conformal mapping unsteady vortex model. The comparison covers rotor configurations with two NACA0015 blades, for several tip speed ratios, rotor solidity and fixed pitch angle, included heavily loaded rotors, in inviscid flow. The results show that the streamtube models are inaccurate, and that correct predictions of rotor power and rotor thrust are an effect of error cancellation which only occurs at specific configurations. The other four models, which explicitly model the wake as a system of vorticity, show mostly differences due to the instantaneous or time averaged formulation of the loading and flow, for which further research is needed.

  6. Technical Note: A new global database of trace gases and aerosols from multiple sources of high vertical resolution measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Bodeker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new database of trace gases and aerosols with global coverage, derived from high vertical resolution profile measurements, has been assembled as a collection of binary data files; hereafter referred to as the "Binary DataBase of Profiles" (BDBP. Version 1.0 of the BDBP, described here, includes measurements from different satellite- (HALOE, POAM II and III, SAGE I and II and ground-based measurement systems (ozonesondes. In addition to the primary product of ozone, secondary measurements of other trace gases, aerosol extinction, and temperature are included. All data are subjected to very strict quality control and for every measurement a percentage error on the measurement is included. To facilitate analyses, each measurement is added to 3 different instances (3 different grids of the database where measurements are indexed by: (1 geographic latitude, longitude, altitude (in 1 km steps and time, (2 geographic latitude, longitude, pressure (at levels ~1 km apart and time, (3 equivalent latitude, potential temperature (8 levels from 300 K to 650 K and time.

    In contrast to existing zonal mean databases, by including a wider range of measurement sources (both satellite and ozonesondes, the BDBP is sufficiently dense to permit calculation of changes in ozone by latitude, longitude and altitude. In addition, by including other trace gases such as water vapour, this database can be used for comprehensive radiative transfer calculations. By providing the original measurements rather than derived monthly means, the BDBP is applicable to a wider range of applications than databases containing only monthly mean data. Monthly mean zonal mean ozone concentrations calculated from the BDBP are compared with the database of Randel and Wu, which has been used in many earlier analyses. As opposed to that database which is generated from regression model fits, the BDBP uses the original (quality controlled measurements with no smoothing applied in any

  7. Bifurcation analysis of vertical transmission model with preventive strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosalamang Ricardo Kelatlhegile

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We formulate and analyze a deterministic mathematical model for the prevention of a disease transmitted horizontally and vertically in a population of varying size. The model incorporates prevention of disease on individuals at birth and adulthood and allows for natural recovery from infection. The main aim of the study is to investigate the impact of a preventive strategy applied at birth and at adulthood in reducing the disease burden. Bifurcation analysis is explored to determine existence conditions for establishment of the epidemic states. The results of the study showed that in addition to the disease-free equilibrium there exist multiple endemic equilibria for the model reproduction number below unity. These results may have serious implications on the design of intervention programs and public health policies. Numerical simulations were carried out to illustrate analytical results.

  8. Solving vertical transport and chemistry in air pollution models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Botchev, M.A.; Verwer, J.G.; Krol, M.C.; Peters, W.

    2000-01-01

    For the time integration of stiff transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due to the large number of species and the 3D nature. The popular alternative, standard operator splitting, introduces artificial transients for short-lived species. This complicates the chemistry solution, easily causing large errors for such species. In the framework of an operational global air pollution model, we focus on the problem formed by chemistry and vertical transport, which is based on diffusion, cloud-related vertical winds, and wet deposition. Its specific nature leads to full Jacobian matrices, ruling out standard implicit integration. We compare Strang operator splitting with two alternatives: source splitting and an (unsplit) Rosenbrock method with approximate matrix factorization, all having equal computational cost. The comparison is performed with real data. All methods are applied with half-hour time steps, and give good accuracies. Rosenbrock is the most accurate, and source splitting is more accurate than Strang splitting. Splitting errors concentrate in short-lived species sensitive to solar radiation and species with strong emissions and depositions. 30 refs

  9. Mathematical model of Zika virus with vertical transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.B. Agusto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika is a flavivirus transmitted to humans through either the bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes or sexual transmission. Zika has been linked to congenital anomalies such as microcephaly. In this paper, we analyze a new system of ordinary differential equations which incorporates human vertical transmission of Zika virus, the birth of babies with microcephaly and asymptomatically infected individuals. The Zika model is locally and globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number is less than unity. Our model shows that asymptomatic individuals amplify the disease burden in the community, and the most important parameters for ZIKV spread are the death rate of mosquitoes, the mosquito biting rate, the mosquito recruitment rate, and the transmission per contact to mosquitoes and to adult humans. Scenario exploration indicates that personal-protection is a more effective control strategy than mosquito-reduction strategy. It also shows that delaying conception reduces the number of microcephaly cases, although this does little to prevent Zika transmission in the broader community. However, by coupling aggressive vector control and personal protection use, it is possible to reduce both microcephaly and Zika transmission. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classifications: 92B05, 93A30, 93C15. Keywords: Zika virus, Vertical transmission, Microcephaly, Stability, Control

  10. Implementation of Dynamic Smart Decision Model for Vertical Handoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Nidhi

    2010-11-01

    International Mobile Telecommunications-Advanced (IMT Advanced), better known as 4G is the next level of evolution in the field of wireless communications. 4G Wireless networks enable users to access information anywhere, anytime, with a seamless connection to a wide range of information and services, and receiving a large volume of information, data, pictures, video and thus increasing the demand for High Bandwidth and Signal Strength. The mobility among various networks is achieved through Vertical Handoff. Vertical handoffs refer to the automatic failover from one technology to another in order to maintain communication. The heterogeneous co-existence of access technologies with largely different characteristics creates a decision problem of determining the "best" available network at "best" time for handoff. In this paper, we implemented the proposed Dynamic and Smart Decision model to decide the "best" network interface and "best" time moment to handoff. The proposed model implementation not only demonstrates the individual user needs but also improve the whole system performance i.e. Quality of Service by reducing the unnecessary handoffs and maintain mobility.

  11. A model of strategic marketing alliances for hospices: vertical, internal, osmotic alliances and the complete model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, B J; Self, D R

    1999-01-01

    This article develops two previous research efforts. William J. Winston (1994, 1995) has proposed a set of strategies by which health care organizations can benefit from forging strategic alliances. Raadt and Self (1997) have proposed a classification model of alliances including horizontal, vertical, internal, and osmotic. In the second of two articles, this paper presents a model of vertical, internal, and osmotic alliances. Advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Finally, the complete alliance system model is presented.

  12. Distributed Modeling with Parflow using High Resolution LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Urban landscapes provide a challenging domain for the application of distributed surface-subsurface hydrologic models. Engineered water infrastructure and altered topography influence surface and subsurface flow paths, yet these effects are difficult to quantify. In this work, a parallel, distributed watershed model (ParFlow) is used to simulate urban watersheds using spatial data at the meter and sub-meter scale. An approach using GRASS GIS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) is presented that incorporates these data to construct inputs for the ParFlow simulation. LIDAR topography provides the basis for the fully coupled overland flow simulation. Methods to address real discontinuities in the urban land-surface for use with the grid-based kinematic wave approximation used in ParFlow are presented. The spatial distribution of impervious surface is delineated accurately from high-resolution land cover data; hydrogeological properties are specified from literature values. An application is presented for part of the Dead Run subwatershed of the Gwynns Falls in Baltimore County, MD. The domain is approximately 3 square kilometers, and includes a highly impacted urban stream, a major freeway, and heterogeneous urban development represented at a 10-m horizontal resolution and 1-m vertical resolution. This resolution captures urban features such as building footprints and highways at an appropriate scale. The Dead Run domain provides an effective test case for ParFlow application at the fine scale in an urban environment. Preliminary model runs employ a homogeneous subsurface domain with no-flow boundaries. Initial results reflect the highly articulated topography of the road network and the combined influence of surface runoff from impervious surfaces and subsurface flux toward the channel network. Subsequent model runs will include comparisons of the coupled surface-subsurface response of alternative versions of the Dead Run domain with and without impervious

  13. Comparison of Aerosol Classification From Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and the CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Sharon P.; Ferrare, Rich A.; Omar, Ali H.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Hostetler, Chris a.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Obland, Michael D.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Cook, Anthony L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of aerosol composition and vertical distribution is crucial for assessing the impact of aerosols on climate. In addition, aerosol classification is a key input to CALIOP aerosol retrievals, since CALIOP requires an inference of the lidar ratio in order to estimate the effects of aerosol extinction and backscattering. In contrast, the NASA airborne HSRL-1 directly measures both aerosol extinction and backscatter, and therefore the lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio). Four aerosol intensive properties from HSRL-1 are combined to infer aerosol type. Aerosol classification results from HSRL-1 are used here to validate the CALIOP aerosol type inferences.

  14. Slag transport models for vertical and horizontal surfaces. [SLGTR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, L S.H.; Johnson, T R

    1978-01-01

    In a coal-fired MHD system, all downstream component surfaces that are exposed to combustion gases will be covered by a solid, liquid, or solid-liquid film of slag, seed, or a mixture of the two, the specific nature of the film depending on the physical properties of the slag and seed and on local conditions. An analysis was made of a partly-liquid slag film flowing on a cooled vertical or horizontal wall of a large duct, through which passed slag-laden combustion gases. The model is applicable to the high-temperature steam generators in the downstream system of an MHD power plant and was used in calculations for a radiant-boiler concept similar to that in the 1000-MWe Gilbert-STD Baseline Plant study and also for units large enough for 230 and 8 lb/s (104.3 and 3.5 kg/s) of combustion gas. The qualitative trends of the results are similar for both vertical and horizontal surfaces. The results show the effects of the slag film, slag properties, and gas emissivity on the heat flux to the steam tubes. The slag film does not reduce the rate of heat transfer in proportion to its surface temperature, because most of the heat is radiated from the gas and particles suspended in it to the slag surface.

  15. The effect of high-resolution orography on numerical modelling of atmospheric flow: a preliminary experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarani, C.; Tampieri, F.; Tibaldi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of increasing the resolution of the topography in models of numerical weather prediction is assessed. Different numerical experiments have been performed, referring to a case of cyclogenesis in the lee of the Alps. From the comparison, it appears that the lower atmospheric levels are better described by the model with higherresolution topography; comparable horizontal resolution runs with smoother topography appear to be less satisfactory in this respect. It turns out also that the vertical propagation of the signal due to the front-mountain interaction is faster in the high-resolution experiment

  16. a Variable Resolution Global Spectral Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiker, Vivek Manohar

    A conformal transformation suggested by F. Schimdt is followed to implement a global spectral model with variable horizontal resolution. A conformal mapping is defined between the real physical sphere (Earth) to a transformed (Computational) sphere. The model equations are discretized on the computational sphere and the conventional spectral technique is applied to solve the model equations. There are two types of transformations used in the present study, namely, the Stretching transformation and the Rotation of the horizontal grid points. Application of the stretching transformation results in finer resolution along the meridional direction. The stretching is controlled by a parameter C. The rotation transformation can be used to relocate the North Pole of the model to any point on the geographic sphere. The idea is now to rotate the pole to the area of interest and refine the resolution around the new pole by applying the stretching transformation. The stretching transformation can be applied alone without the rotation. A T-42 Spectral Shallow-Water model is transformed by applying the stretching transformation alone as well as the two transformations together. A T-42 conventional Spectral Shallow-Water model is run as the control experiment and a conventional T-85 Spectral Shallow-Water model run is treated as the benchmark (Truth) solution. RMS error analysis for the geopotential field as well as the wind field is performed to evaluate the forecast made by the transformed model. It is observed that the RMS error of the transformed model is lower than that of the control run in a latitude band, for the case of stretching transformation alone, while for the total transformation (rotation followed by stretching), similar results are obtained for a rectangular domain. A multi-level global spectral model is designed from the current FSU global spectral model in order to implement the conformal transformation. The transformed T-85 model is used to study Hurricane

  17. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling

  18. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  19. Error characterization of CO2 vertical mixing in the atmospheric transport model WRF-VPRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Karstens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the dominant uncertainties in inverse estimates of regional CO2 surface-atmosphere fluxes is related to model errors in vertical transport within the planetary boundary layer (PBL. In this study we present the results from a synthetic experiment using the atmospheric model WRF-VPRM to realistically simulate transport of CO2 for large parts of the European continent at 10 km spatial resolution. To elucidate the impact of vertical mixing error on modeled CO2 mixing ratios we simulated a month during the growing season (August 2006 with different commonly used parameterizations of the PBL (Mellor-Yamada-Janjić (MYJ and Yonsei-University (YSU scheme. To isolate the effect of transport errors we prescribed the same CO2 surface fluxes for both simulations. Differences in simulated CO2 mixing ratios (model bias were on the order of 3 ppm during daytime with larger values at night. We present a simple method to reduce this bias by 70–80% when the true height of the mixed layer is known.

  20. A multi-model analysis of vertical ozone profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson, J. E.; Stohl, A.; Fiore, A. M.; Hess, P.; Szopa, S.; Wild, O.; Zeng, G.; Dentener, F. J.; Lupu, A.; Schultz, M. G.; Duncan, B. N.; Sudo, K.; Wind, P.; Schulz, M.; Marmer, E.; Cuvelier, C.; Keating, T.; Zuber, A.; Valdebenito, A.; Dorokhov, V.; de Backer, H.; Davies, J.; Chen, G. H.; Johnson, B.; Tarasick, D. W.; Stübi, R.; Newchurch, M. J.; von der Gathen, P.; Steinbrecht, W.; Claude, H.

    2010-06-01

    A multi-model study of the long-range transport of ozone and its precursors from major anthropogenic source regions was coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). Vertical profiles of ozone at 12-h intervals from 2001 are available from twelve of the models contributing to this study and are compared here with observed profiles from ozonesondes. The contributions from each major source region are analysed for selected sondes, and this analysis is supplemented by retroplume calculations using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model to provide insight into the origin of ozone transport events and the cause of differences between the models and observations. In the boundary layer ozone levels are in general strongly affected by regional sources and sinks. With a considerably longer lifetime in the free troposphere, ozone here is to a much larger extent affected by processes on a larger scale such as intercontinental transport and exchange with the stratosphere. Such individual events are difficult to trace over several days or weeks of transport. This may explain why statistical relationships between models and ozonesonde measurements are far less satisfactory than shown in previous studies for surface measurements at all seasons. The lowest bias between model-calculated ozone profiles and the ozonesonde measurements is seen in the winter and autumn months. Following the increase in photochemical activity in the spring and summer months, the spread in model results increases, and the agreement between ozonesonde measurements and the individual models deteriorates further. At selected sites calculated contributions to ozone levels in the free troposphere from intercontinental transport are shown. Intercontinental transport is identified based on differences in model calculations with unperturbed emissions and emissions reduced by 20% by region

  1. A multi-model analysis of vertical ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Jonson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-model study of the long-range transport of ozone and its precursors from major anthropogenic source regions was coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP. Vertical profiles of ozone at 12-h intervals from 2001 are available from twelve of the models contributing to this study and are compared here with observed profiles from ozonesondes. The contributions from each major source region are analysed for selected sondes, and this analysis is supplemented by retroplume calculations using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model to provide insight into the origin of ozone transport events and the cause of differences between the models and observations.

    In the boundary layer ozone levels are in general strongly affected by regional sources and sinks. With a considerably longer lifetime in the free troposphere, ozone here is to a much larger extent affected by processes on a larger scale such as intercontinental transport and exchange with the stratosphere. Such individual events are difficult to trace over several days or weeks of transport. This may explain why statistical relationships between models and ozonesonde measurements are far less satisfactory than shown in previous studies for surface measurements at all seasons. The lowest bias between model-calculated ozone profiles and the ozonesonde measurements is seen in the winter and autumn months. Following the increase in photochemical activity in the spring and summer months, the spread in model results increases, and the agreement between ozonesonde measurements and the individual models deteriorates further.

    At selected sites calculated contributions to ozone levels in the free troposphere from intercontinental transport are shown. Intercontinental transport is identified based on differences in model calculations with unperturbed emissions and

  2. Mathematical modelling of the viable epidermis: impact of cell shape and vertical arrangement

    KAUST Repository

    Wittum, Rebecca

    2017-12-07

    In-silico methods are valuable tools for understanding the barrier function of the skin. The key benefit is that mathematical modelling allows the interplay between cell shape and function to be elucidated. This study focuses on the viable (living) epidermis. For this region, previous works suggested a diffusion model and an approximation of the cells by hexagonal prisms. The work at hand extends this in three ways. First, the extracellular space is treated with full spatial resolution. This induces a decrease of permeability by about 10%. Second, cells of tetrakaidecahedral shape are considered, in addition to the original hexagonal prisms. For both cell types, the resulting membrane permeabilities are compared. Third, for the first time, the influence of cell stacking in the vertical direction is considered. This is particularly important for the stratum granulosum, where tight junctions are present.

  3. Integrating autonomous Problem Resolution Models with Remedy

    CERN Document Server

    Marquina, M A; Ramos, R

    2000-01-01

    This paper briefly defines the concept of Problem Resolution Model and shows possible approaches to the issues which may arise when integrating various PRMs to present a consistent view to the end user, despite of the peculiarities of each physical implementation. Integration refers to various autonomous PRMs having to interact as problems pass from one to another in the resolution flow. This process should be transparent to the user and internally there must be a way to track in which stage of the resolution process any problem is. This means addressing two different issues. On one side PRMs which are to be integrated need to comply with certain interface standards. These standards must ensure that problems exchanged between them can always be traced. On the other side problems owned by different PRMs should be presented to the end user under a homogeneous view. This means having an uniform criteria for automatic notification messages, a single reference point (www) where users can query the status of proble...

  4. High-resolution vertical velocities and their power spectrum observed with the MAARSY radar - Part 1: frequency spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Rapp, Markus; Stober, Gunter; Latteck, Ralph

    2018-04-01

    The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) installed at the island of Andøya has been run for continuous probing of atmospheric winds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. In the current study, we present high-resolution wind measurements during the period between 2010 and 2013 with MAARSY. The spectral analysis applying the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method has been carried out to determine the frequency spectra of vertical wind velocity. From a total of 522 days of observations, the statistics of the spectral slope have been derived and show a dependence on the background wind conditions. It is a general feature that the observed spectra of vertical velocity during active periods (with wind velocity > 10 m s-1) are much steeper than during quiet periods (with wind velocity active periods, whereas a very asymmetric distribution with a maximum at around -1 is observed during quiet periods. The slope profiles along altitudes reveal a significant height dependence for both conditions, i.e., the spectra become shallower with increasing altitudes in the upper troposphere and maintain roughly a constant slope in the lower stratosphere. With both wind conditions considered together the general spectra are obtained and their slopes are compared with the background horizontal winds. The comparisons show that the observed spectra become steeper with increasing wind velocities under quiet conditions, approach a spectral slope of -5/3 at a wind velocity of 10 m s-1 and then roughly maintain this slope (-5/3) for even stronger winds. Our findings show an overall agreement with previous studies; furthermore, they provide a more complete climatology of frequency spectra of vertical wind velocities under different wind conditions.

  5. Laser-induced local activation of Mg-doped GaN with a high lateral resolution for high power vertical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Kurose

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for laser-induced local p-type activation of an as-grown Mg-doped GaN sample with a high lateral resolution is developed for realizing high power vertical devices for the first time. As-grown Mg-doped GaN is converted to p-type GaN in a confined local area. The transition from an insulating to a p-type area is realized to take place within about 1–2 μm fine resolution. The results show that the technique can be applied in fabricating the devices such as vertical field effect transistors, vertical bipolar transistors and vertical Schottkey diode so on with a current confinement region using a p-type carrier-blocking layer formed by this technique.

  6. Laser-induced local activation of Mg-doped GaN with a high lateral resolution for high power vertical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurose, Noriko; Matsumoto, Kota; Yamada, Fumihiko; Roffi, Teuku Muhammad; Kamiya, Itaru; Iwata, Naotaka; Aoyagi, Yoshinobu

    2018-01-01

    A method for laser-induced local p-type activation of an as-grown Mg-doped GaN sample with a high lateral resolution is developed for realizing high power vertical devices for the first time. As-grown Mg-doped GaN is converted to p-type GaN in a confined local area. The transition from an insulating to a p-type area is realized to take place within about 1-2 μm fine resolution. The results show that the technique can be applied in fabricating the devices such as vertical field effect transistors, vertical bipolar transistors and vertical Schottkey diode so on with a current confinement region using a p-type carrier-blocking layer formed by this technique.

  7. A high resolution WRF model for wind energy forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Liu, Yubao

    2010-05-01

    The increasing penetration of wind energy into national electricity markets has increased the demand for accurate surface layer wind forecasts. There has recently been a focus on forecasting the wind at wind farm sites using both statistical models and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Recent advances in computing capacity and non-hydrostatic NWP models means that it is possible to nest mesoscale models down to Large Eddy Simulation (LES) scales over the spatial area of a typical wind farm. For example, the WRF model (Skamarock 2008) has been run at a resolution of 123 m over a wind farm site in complex terrain in Colorado (Liu et al. 2009). Although these modelling attempts indicate a great hope for applying such models for detailed wind forecasts over wind farms, one of the obvious challenges of running the model at this resolution is that while some boundary layer structures are expected to be modelled explicitly, boundary layer eddies into the inertial sub-range can only be partly captured. Therefore, the amount and nature of sub-grid-scale mixing that is required is uncertain. Analysis of Liu et al. (2009) modelling results in comparison to wind farm observations indicates that unrealistic wind speed fluctuations with a period of around 1 hour occasionally occurred during the two day modelling period. The problem was addressed by re-running the same modelling system with a) a modified diffusion constant and b) two-way nesting between the high resolution model and its parent domain. The model, which was run with horizontal grid spacing of 370 m, had dimensions of 505 grid points in the east-west direction and 490 points in the north-south direction. It received boundary conditions from a mesoscale model of resolution 1111 m. Both models had 37 levels in the vertical. The mesoscale model was run with a non-local-mixing planetary boundary layer scheme, while the 370 m model was run with no planetary boundary layer scheme. It was found that increasing the

  8. Exact solutions in a model of vertical gas migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, Dmitriy B.; Patzek, Tad W.; Benson, Sally M.

    2006-06-27

    This work is motivated by the growing interest in injectingcarbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoidingatmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide and consequent global warming.One of the key questions regarding the feasibility of this technology isthe potential rate of leakage out of the primary storage formation. Weseek exact solutions in a model of gas flow driven by a combination ofbuoyancy, viscous and capillary forces. Different combinations of theseforces and characteristic length scales of the processes lead todifferent time scaling and different types of solutions. In the case of athin, tight seal, where the impact of gravity is negligible relative tocapillary and viscous forces, a Ryzhik-type solution implies square-rootof time scaling of plume propagation velocity. In the general case, a gasplume has two stable zones, which can be described by travelling-wavesolutions. The theoretical maximum of the velocity of plume migrationprovides a conservative estimate for the time of vertical migration.Although the top of the plume has low gas saturation, it propagates witha velocity close to the theoretical maximum. The bottom of the plumeflows significantly more slowly at a higher gas saturation. Due to localheterogeneities, the plume can break into parts. Individual plumes alsocan coalesce and from larger plumes. The analytical results are appliedto studying carbon dioxide flow caused by leaks from deep geologicalformations used for CO2 storage. The results are also applicable formodeling flow of natural gas leaking from seasonal gas storage, or formodeling of secondary hydrocarbon migration.

  9. DUBAI 3D TEXTUERD MESH USING HIGH QUALITY RESOLUTION VERTICAL/OBLIQUE AERIAL IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Madani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Providing high quality 3D data with reasonable quality and cost were always essential, affording the core data and foundation for developing an information-based decision-making tool of urban environments with the capability of providing decision makers, stakeholders, professionals, and public users with 3D views and 3D analysis tools of spatial information that enables real-world views. Helps and assist in improving users’ orientation and also increase their efficiency in performing their tasks related to city planning, Inspection, infrastructures, roads, and cadastre management. In this paper, the capability of multi-view Vexcel UltraCam Osprey camera images is examined to provide a 3D model of building façades using an efficient image-based modeling workflow adopted by commercial software’s. The main steps of this work include: Specification, point cloud generation, and 3D modeling. After improving the initial values of interior and exterior parameters at first step, an efficient image matching technique such as Semi Global Matching (SGM is applied on the images to generate point cloud. Then, a mesh model of points is calculated using and refined to obtain an accurate model of buildings. Finally, a texture is assigned to mesh in order to create a realistic 3D model. The resulting model has provided enough LoD2 details of the building based on visual assessment. The objective of this paper is neither comparing nor promoting a specific technique over the other and does not mean to promote a sensor-based system over another systems or mechanism presented in existing or previous paper. The idea is to share experience.

  10. Multi-resolution voxel phantom modeling: a high-resolution eye model for computational dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracappa, Peter F; Rhodes, Ashley; Fiedler, Derek

    2014-09-21

    Voxel models of the human body are commonly used for simulating radiation dose with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Due to memory limitations, the voxel resolution of these computational phantoms is typically too large to accurately represent the dimensions of small features such as the eye. Recently reduced recommended dose limits to the lens of the eye, which is a radiosensitive tissue with a significant concern for cataract formation, has lent increased importance to understanding the dose to this tissue. A high-resolution eye model is constructed using physiological data for the dimensions of radiosensitive tissues, and combined with an existing set of whole-body models to form a multi-resolution voxel phantom, which is used with the MCNPX code to calculate radiation dose from various exposure types. This phantom provides an accurate representation of the radiation transport through the structures of the eye. Two alternate methods of including a high-resolution eye model within an existing whole-body model are developed. The accuracy and performance of each method is compared against existing computational phantoms.

  11. Ozone Production in Global Tropospheric Models: Quantifying Errors due to Grid Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, O.; Prather, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quantifying the errors in regional and global budgets. The sensitivity to vertical mixing through the parameterization of boundary layer turbulence is also examined. We find less ozone production in the boundary layer at higher resolution, consistent with slower chemical production in polluted emission regions and greater export of precursors. Agreement with ozonesonde and aircraft measurements made during the NASA TRACE-P campaign over the Western Pacific in spring 2001 is consistently better at higher resolution. We demonstrate that the numerical errors in transport processes at a given resolution converge geometrically for a tracer at successively higher resolutions. The convergence in ozone production on progressing from T21 to T42, T63 and T106 resolution is likewise monotonic but still indicates large errors at 120~km scales, suggesting that T106 resolution is still too coarse to resolve regional ozone production. Diagnosing the ozone production and precursor transport that follow a short pulse of emissions over East Asia in springtime allows us to quantify the impacts of resolution on both regional and global ozone. Production close to continental emission regions is overestimated by 27% at T21 resolution, by 13% at T42 resolution, and by 5% at T106 resolution, but subsequent ozone production in the free troposphere is less significantly affected.

  12. On the SU(2 vertical stroke 1) WZNW model and its statistical mechanics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleur, H. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schomerus, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Motivated by a careful analysis of the Laplacian on the supergroup SU(2 vertical stroke 1) we formulate a proposal for the state space of the SU(2 vertical stroke 1) WZNW model. We then use properties of sl(2 vertical stroke 1) characters to compute the partition function of the theory. In the special case of level k=1 the latter is found to agree with the properly regularized partition function for the continuum limit of the integrable sl(2 vertical stroke 1)3- anti 3 super-spin chain. Some general conclusions applicable to other WZNW models (in particular the case k=-1/2) are also drawn. (orig.)

  13. Minnesota Digital Elevation Model - Tiled 93 Meter Resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at a resolution of 93 meters. Original data resolution was 3 arc seconds which corresponds (approximately) to a matrix of points at a...

  14. Fog prediction using the modified asymptotic liquid water content vertical distribution formulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.; Chae, D.

    2017-12-01

    Fog forecasts have difficulty in forecasting due to temporal and spatial resolution problems, high numerical computations, complicated mechanisms related to turbulence in order to analyze the fog in the model, and a lack of appropriate fog physical processes. Conventional fog prediction is based on the surface visibility threshold "water content (LWC) in a model post processer. The following multi-rule fog diagnosis method is based on the fog related variables near the surface, such as visibility, low stratus, relative humidity and wind speed but this method only predicts fog occurrence not fog intensity. To improve this, a new fog diagnostic scheme, based on an asymptotic analytical study of radiation fog (Zhou and Ferrier 2008, ZF08) is to increase the accuracy of fog prediction by calculating the vertical LWC considering cooling, turbulence and droplet settling, visibility, surface relative humidity and low stratus. In this study, we intend to improve fog prediction through the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using high-resolution data. Although the prediction accuracy can be improved by combining the WRF Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) scheme and 1 dimension (1D) model, it is necessary to increase the vertical resolution in the boundary layer to implement the fog formation and persistence mechanism in the internal boundary layer in the PBL more accurately, we'll modify the algorithm to enhance the effects of turbulence and then compare the newly predicted fog and observations to determine the accuracy of the forecast of the fog occurring on the Korean peninsula.

  15. A study of the effects of vertical resolution and measurement errors on an iteratively inverted temperature profile. [satellite observation of atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, M.-D.

    1975-01-01

    A direct inversion method for inverting the temperature profile from satellite-measured radiation is discussed. The nth power of the weighting function in the integral radiative-transfer equation is used as the weight in the averaging process. The vertical resolution of the inverted temperature profile and the response of the inverted temperature profile to the measurement errors are examined in terms of n. It is found that for smaller values of n, the vertical resolution and the effect of measurement errors are reduced. When n = 0, both the vertical resolution and error effect are minimum. The temperature profile is adjusted by a constant; any structure different from the initial shape cannot be resolved. This is equivalent to the case where the entire atmosphere is treated as one layer with a fixed shape of temperature profile. When n approaches infinity, both the vertical resolution and error effect are maximum. This is equivalent to the case where the entire atmosphere is divided into m (the number of spectral channels) layers. Within each layer, the temperatures are adjusted by a constant, and any structure different from the initial shape cannot be resolved. Also, the shape of the final solution is closer to the initial profile if the value of n is smaller.

  16. Implementing Problem Resolution Models in Remedy

    CERN Document Server

    Marquina, M A; Ramos, R

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of Problem Resolution Model (PRM) and describes the current implementation made by the User Support unit at CERN. One of the main challenges of User Support services in any High Energy Physics institute/organization is to address solving of the computing-relatedproblems faced by their researchers. The User Support group at CERN is the IT unit in charge of modeling the operations of the Help Desk and acts as asecond level support to some of the support lines whose problems are receptioned at the Help Desk. The motivation behind the use of a PRM is to provide well defined procedures and methods to react in an efficient way to a request for solving a problem,providing advice, information etc. A PRM is materialized on a workflow which has a set of defined states in which a problem can be. Problems move from onestate to another according to actions as decided by the person who is handling them. A PRM can be implemented by a computer application, generallyreferred to as Problem Report...

  17. Optimal foraging and diel vertical migration in a life history model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Andersen, Ken Haste; Visser, Andre

    Zooplankton such as copepods are known to perform diel vertical migration, avoiding the food rich surface during bright hours to avoid visual predator when they are most dangerous, and returning to the surface to feed at night. The resolution of this foraging behaviour requires fine time scale...

  18. Evidence of horizontal and vertical transport of water in the Southern Hemisphere tropical tropopause layer (TTL from high-resolution balloon observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Khaykin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution in situ balloon measurements of water vapour, aerosol, methane and temperature in the upper tropical tropopause layer (TTL and lower stratosphere are used to evaluate the processes affecting the stratospheric water budget: horizontal transport (in-mixing and hydration by cross-tropopause overshooting updrafts. The obtained in situ evidence of these phenomena are analysed using satellite observations by Aura MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation together with trajectory and transport modelling performed using CLaMS (Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere and HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model. Balloon soundings were conducted during March 2012 in Bauru, Brazil (22.3° S in the frame of the TRO-Pico campaign for studying the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget. The balloon payloads included two stratospheric hygrometers: FLASH-B (Fluorescence Lyman-Alpha Stratospheric Hygrometer for Balloon and Pico-SDLA instrument as well as COBALD (Compact Optical Backscatter Aerosol Detector sondes, complemented by Vaisala RS92 radiosondes. Water vapour vertical profiles obtained independently by the two stratospheric hygrometers are in excellent agreement, ensuring credibility of the vertical structures observed. A signature of in-mixing is inferred from a series of vertical profiles, showing coincident enhancements in water vapour (of up to 0.5 ppmv and aerosol at the 425 K (18.5 km level. Trajectory analysis unambiguously links these features to intrusions from the Southern Hemisphere extratropical stratosphere, containing more water and aerosol, as demonstrated by MLS and CALIPSO global observations. The in-mixing is successfully reproduced by CLaMS simulations, showing a relatively moist filament extending to 20° S. A signature of local cross-tropopause transport of water is observed in

  19. Evidence of horizontal and vertical transport of water in the Southern Hemisphere tropical tropopause layer (TTL) from high-resolution balloon observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaykin, Sergey M.; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Riviere, Emmanuel D.; Held, Gerhard; Ploeger, Felix; Ghysels, Melanie; Amarouche, Nadir; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Wienhold, Frank G.; Ionov, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    High-resolution in situ balloon measurements of water vapour, aerosol, methane and temperature in the upper tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and lower stratosphere are used to evaluate the processes affecting the stratospheric water budget: horizontal transport (in-mixing) and hydration by cross-tropopause overshooting updrafts. The obtained in situ evidence of these phenomena are analysed using satellite observations by Aura MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) together with trajectory and transport modelling performed using CLaMS (Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere) and HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model. Balloon soundings were conducted during March 2012 in Bauru, Brazil (22.3° S) in the frame of the TRO-Pico campaign for studying the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget. The balloon payloads included two stratospheric hygrometers: FLASH-B (Fluorescence Lyman-Alpha Stratospheric Hygrometer for Balloon) and Pico-SDLA instrument as well as COBALD (Compact Optical Backscatter Aerosol Detector) sondes, complemented by Vaisala RS92 radiosondes. Water vapour vertical profiles obtained independently by the two stratospheric hygrometers are in excellent agreement, ensuring credibility of the vertical structures observed. A signature of in-mixing is inferred from a series of vertical profiles, showing coincident enhancements in water vapour (of up to 0.5 ppmv) and aerosol at the 425 K (18.5 km) level. Trajectory analysis unambiguously links these features to intrusions from the Southern Hemisphere extratropical stratosphere, containing more water and aerosol, as demonstrated by MLS and CALIPSO global observations. The in-mixing is successfully reproduced by CLaMS simulations, showing a relatively moist filament extending to 20° S. A signature of local cross-tropopause transport of water is observed in a particular

  20. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy improves indices of metabolic disease in rodent model of surgical menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, William J.; Shirey, Kristin; Spann, Redin A.; Zamarripa, C. Austin; Hosler, Jonathan P.; Grayson, Bernadette E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Though females are the most common recipients of weight loss surgeries for the amelioration of the comorbidities of obesity, few studies have addressed the efficacy of these procedures with specific attention to reproductive stage. Here we ask in a rodent model of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) whether improvements to metabolic health are realized in females having received surgical menopause. Specifically we were interested in knowing whether rats made menopausal through surgical means would exhibit persistent hepatic steatosis as reported in previously pregnant, freely-cycling female VSG rats or if it is resolved as reported in male VSG rats. Methods All the rats first received ovariectomy (OVX) and then were placed on high fat diet (HFD) prior to either sham or VSG surgery (N = 12, 9) and then were monitored for resolution of obesity-related comorbidities. Results VSG was sufficient to reduce weight and adiposity in OVX females in comparison to Obese rats (P change in insulin sensitivity. Both circulating (P < 0.01) and hepatic triglyceride (P < 0.01) levels were also reduced after VSG. Liver integrity was improved in OVX-VSG in comparison to OVX-Obese as reflected by reduced aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels (P < 0.05). The ability of mitochondria to generate ATP was maintained and an increase in complex IV may decrease the production of mitochondrial ROS. Conclusions Taken together, VSG in ovariectomized animals experience many positive benefits including the resolution of hepatic steatosis that persists in reproductively-intact female rats after VSG. PMID:27801704

  1. A Pseudo-Vertical Equilibrium Model for Slow Gravity Drainage Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Beatrix; Guo, Bo; Bandilla, Karl; Celia, Michael A.; Flemisch, Bernd; Helmig, Rainer

    2017-12-01

    Vertical equilibrium (VE) models are computationally efficient and have been widely used for modeling fluid migration in the subsurface. However, they rely on the assumption of instant gravity segregation of the two fluid phases which may not be valid especially for systems that have very slow drainage at low wetting phase saturations. In these cases, the time scale for the wetting phase to reach vertical equilibrium can be several orders of magnitude larger than the time scale of interest, rendering conventional VE models unsuitable. Here we present a pseudo-VE model that relaxes the assumption of instant segregation of the two fluid phases by applying a pseudo-residual saturation inside the plume of the injected fluid that declines over time due to slow vertical drainage. This pseudo-VE model is cast in a multiscale framework for vertically integrated models with the vertical drainage solved as a fine-scale problem. Two types of fine-scale models are developed for the vertical drainage, which lead to two pseudo-VE models. Comparisons with a conventional VE model and a full multidimensional model show that the pseudo-VE models have much wider applicability than the conventional VE model while maintaining the computational benefit of the conventional VE model.

  2. Vertical discretization with finite elements for a global hydrostatic model on the cubed sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tae-Hyeong; Park, Ja-Rin

    2017-06-01

    A formulation of Galerkin finite element with basis-spline functions on a hybrid sigma-pressure coordinate is presented to discretize the vertical terms of global Eulerian hydrostatic equations employed in a numerical weather prediction system, which is horizontally discretized with high-order spectral elements on a cubed sphere grid. This replaces the vertical discretization of conventional central finite difference that is first-order accurate in non-uniform grids and causes numerical instability in advection-dominant flows. Therefore, a model remains in the framework of Galerkin finite elements for both the horizontal and vertical spatial terms. The basis-spline functions, obtained from the de-Boor algorithm, are employed to derive both the vertical derivative and integral operators, since Eulerian advection terms are involved. These operators are used to discretize the vertical terms of the prognostic and diagnostic equations. To verify the vertical discretization schemes and compare their performance, various two- and three-dimensional idealized cases and a hindcast case with full physics are performed in terms of accuracy and stability. It was shown that the vertical finite element with the cubic basis-spline function is more accurate and stable than that of the vertical finite difference, as indicated by faster residual convergence, fewer statistical errors, and reduction in computational mode. This leads to the general conclusion that the overall performance of a global hydrostatic model might be significantly improved with the vertical finite element.

  3. Vertical Integration of Biochemistry and Clinical Medicine Using a Near-Peer Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallan, Alexander J.; Offner, Gwynneth D.; Symes, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Vertical integration has been extensively implemented across medical school curricula but has not been widely attempted in the field of biochemistry. We describe a novel curricular innovation in which a near-peer learning model was used to implement vertical integration in our medical school biochemistry course. Senior medical students developed…

  4. The Sensitivity of Value-Added Modeling to the Creation of a Vertical Score Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek C.; Weeks, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of growth and value-added modeling to the way an underlying vertical score scale has been created. Longitudinal item-level data were analyzed with both student- and school-level identifiers for the entire state of Colorado between 2003 and 2006. Eight different vertical scales were…

  5. High-resolution DEM Effects on Geophysical Flow Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. R.; Bursik, M. I.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical mass flow models are numerical models that approximate pyroclastic flow events and can be used to assess the volcanic hazards certain areas may face. One such model, TITAN2D, approximates granular-flow physics based on a depth-averaged analytical model using inputs of basal and internal friction, material volume at a coordinate point, and a GIS in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). The volume of modeled material propagates over the DEM in a way that is governed by the slope and curvature of the DEM surface and the basal and internal friction angles. Results from TITAN2D are highly dependent upon the inputs to the model. Here we focus on a single input: the DEM, which can vary in resolution. High resolution DEMs are advantageous in that they contain more surface details than lower-resolution models, presumably allowing modeled flows to propagate in a way more true to the real surface. However, very high resolution DEMs can create undesirable artifacts in the slope and curvature that corrupt flow calculations. With high-resolution DEMs becoming more widely available and preferable for use, determining the point at which high resolution data is less advantageous compared to lower resolution data becomes important. We find that in cases of high resolution, integer-valued DEMs, very high-resolution is detrimental to good model outputs when moderate-to-low (solutions for rectification of the problem.

  6. Using terrestrial laser scanning data to drive decimetric resolution urban inundation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Timothy; Duncan, Alastair; Horritt, Matthew; Bates, Paul

    2010-05-01

    The availability of LiDAR data has led to the proliferation a wide variety of research streams from DEM segmentation (Mason et al., 2007) to mapping the vertical profile of vegetation (Blair et al., 1999) and floodplain inundation modelling (Bates et al., 2003). As the specifications of LiDAR systems have improved, the vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of airborne systems have increased to ~5-10 cm and ~25 cm respectively (Baltsavias, 1999), giving highly resolved digital surface models (DSMs) of the urban environment (Mason et al., 2007). More recently, terrestrial laser scanners have started to be employed to capture even higher accuracy (i.e. ~1-3cm horizontal resolution) 3D point cloud data for applications in engineering, transportation, urban planning, among others (Lichti et al., 2008). Such very high resolution terrestrial laser scanning data have, however, yet to be used in urban hydraulic models, despite the fact that anecdotal and modelling evidence of the hydraulic process at work during urban floods suggests that features with very small horizontal and vertical length scales (i.e. walls, kerbs, steps, road cambers and storm drains) can have a significant impact on the flow development. In this paper we therefore investigate the potential utility of terrestrial laser scanning data for improving flood risk assessments in urban areas. To do this two key problems have to be dealt with. First, we require methods to process terrestrial laser scanning data in order to extract hydraulically relevant information. As such a number of processing steps are presented and a variety of resolution DEMs are derived. Second, we need to employ highly computationally efficient hydraulic algorithms in order to build models at the scale of the terrestrial laser scanner data and still simulate flows over spatial domains that are not trivially small. In this study, two state-of-the-art numerical models are used to demonstrate complex urban flood flows for pluvial and

  7. RESEARCH AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF DRILLING AND BLASTING TECHNOLOGY PENETRATIONS OF VERTICAL SHAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Rubleva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The model of destruction of rocks by explosion in vertical shafts is presented. On its basis the most important parameters of technical-and-economical indices of the drilling-and-blasting technology are calculated.

  8. Three-dimensional models of conventional and vertical junction laser-photovoltaic energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Walker, Gilbert H.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional models of both conventional planar junction and vertical junction photovoltaic energy converters have been constructed. The models are a set of linear partial differential equations and take into account many photoconverter design parameters. The model is applied to Si photoconverters; however, the model may be used with other semiconductors. When used with a Nd laser, the conversion efficiency of the Si vertical junction photoconverter is 47 percent, whereas the efficiency for the conventional planar Si photoconverter is only 17 percent. A parametric study of the Si vertical junction photoconverter is then done in order to describe the optimum converter for use with the 1.06-micron Nd laser. The efficiency of this optimized vertical junction converter is 44 percent at 1 kW/sq cm.

  9. Formulation, Implementation and Examination of Vertical Coordinate Choices in the Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barron, Charlie N; Kara, A. B; Martin, Paul J; Rhodes, Robert C; Smedstad, Lucy F

    2006-01-01

    .... NCOM is a baroclinic, hydrostatic, Boussinesq, free-surface ocean model that allows its vertical coordinate to consist of sigma coordinates for the upper layers and z-levels below a user-specified depth...

  10. Structure constants of the OSP(1 vertical stroke 2) WZNW model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikida, Y.; Schomerus, V.

    2007-11-15

    We propose exact formulas for the 2- and 3-point functions of the WZNW model on the non-compact supergroup OSP(1 vertical stroke 2). Using the path integral approach that was recently developed in arXiv:0706.1030 we show how local correlation functions in the OSP(p vertical stroke 2) WZNW models can be obtained from those of N=p supersymmetric Liouville field theory for p=1,2. We then employ known results on correlators in N=1 Liouville theory to determine the structure constants of the OSP(1 vertical stroke 2) theory. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of wind and wind shear climatologies derived from high-resolution radiosondes and the ECMWF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchi, K.; Stoffelen, A.; Marseille, G. J.; de Kloe, J.

    2010-11-01

    The climatology of atmospheric horizontal wind and its vertical gradient, i.e., wind shear, is characterized as a function of climate region. For a better representation of the average atmospheric wind and shear and their variabilities, high-resolution radiosonde wind profiles up to about 30 km altitude are compared with the collocated operational ECMWF model for short-range forecast winds. Statistics of zonal and meridional winds are established from both data sets. The results show mainly similarity in the probability distributions of the modeled and observed horizontal winds, practically at all levels of the atmosphere, while at the same time the vertical shear of the wind is substantially underestimated in the model. The comparison of shear statistics of radiosonde and ECMWF model winds shows that the model wind shear mean and variability are on average a factor of 2.5 (zonal) and 3 (meridional) smaller than of radiosondes in the free troposphere, while in the stratosphere, the planetary boundary layer results are more variable. By applying vertical averaging to the radiosonde data, it is found that the effective vertical resolution of the ECMWF model is typically 1.7 km. Moreover, it is found for individually collocated radiosonde model wind and shear profiles that the model wind may lack in some cases variability larger than 5 m s-1 and 0.015 s-1, respectively, due mainly to the effect of lacking vertical resolution, in particular near the jets. Besides the general importance of this study in highlighting the difference in the representation of the atmospheric wind shear by model and observations, it is more specifically relevant for the future Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus) of the European Space Agency due for launch in 2012. The results presented here are used to generate a realistic global atmospheric database, which is necessary to conduct simulations of the Aeolus Doppler wind lidar in order optimize its vertical sampling and processing.

  12. Hyper-Resolution Groundwater Modeling using MODFLOW 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.; Langevin, C.

    2017-12-01

    MODFLOW 6 is the latest version of the U.S. Geological Survey's modular hydrologic model. MODFLOW 6 was developed to synthesize many of the recent versions of MODFLOW into a single program, improve the way different process models are coupled, and to provide an object-oriented framework for adding new types of models and packages. The object-oriented framework and underlying numerical solver make it possible to tightly couple any number of hyper-resolution models within coarser regional models. The hyper-resolution models can be used to evaluate local-scale groundwater issues that may be affected by regional-scale forcings. In MODFLOW 6, hyper-resolution meshes can be maintained as separate model datasets, similar to MODFLOW-LGR, which simplifies the development of a coarse regional model with imbedded hyper-resolution models from a coarse regional model. For example, the South Atlantic Coastal Plain regional water availability model was converted from a MODFLOW-2000 model to a MODFLOW 6 model. The horizontal discretization of the original model is approximately 3,218 m x 3,218 m. Hyper-resolution models of the Aiken and Sumter County water budget areas in South Carolina with a horizontal discretization of approximately 322 m x 322 m were developed and were tightly coupled to a modified version of the original coarse regional model that excluded these areas. Hydraulic property and aquifer geometry data from the coarse model were mapped to the hyper-resolution models. The discretization of the hyper-resolution models is fine enough to make detailed analyses of the effect that changes in groundwater withdrawals in the production aquifers have on the water table and surface-water/groundwater interactions. The approach used in this analysis could be applied to other regional water availability models that have been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate local scale groundwater issues.

  13. High-resolution Vertical Profiling of Ocean Velocity and Water Properties Under Hurricane Frances in September 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. B.; D'Asarp, E. A.; Girton, J. B.; Price, J. F.; Webb, D. C.

    2006-12-01

    In ONR's CBLAST Hurricane research program observations were made of the upper ocean's response to Hurricane Frances. Three EM-APEX floats (velocity sensing versions of Webb Research APEX floats) and two Lagrangian floats were deployed north of Hispaniola from a C-130 aircraft ahead of Hurricane Frances in September 2004. The EM-APEX floats measured T, S and V over the upper 500 m starting about a day before the storm's arrival. The Lagrangian floats measured temperature and salinity while following the three- dimensional boundary layer turbulence in the upper 40 m. One EM-APEX float was directly under the track of the storm's eye, another EM-APEX and two Lagrangian floats went in about 50 km to the right of the track (where the surface winds are strongest) and the third float was about 100 km to the right. The EM-APEX floats profiled for 10 hours from the surface to 200 m, then continued profiling between 35 and 200 m with excursions to 500 m every half inertial period. After 5 days, the EM-APEX floats surfaced and transmitted the accumulated processed observations, then the floats profiled to 500 m every half inertial period until recovered early in October aided by GPS and Iridium. The float array sampled in unprecedented detail the upper-ocean turbulence, momentum, and salt and heat changes in response to the hurricane. The buildup of surface gravity waves in advance of the storm was also observed in the velocity profiles, with significant wave heights of up to 11 m. Rapid acceleration of inertial currents in the surface mixing layer (SML) to over 1 m/s stimulated vertical mixing by shear instability at the SML base, as indicated by low Richardson numbers and SML deepening from about 40 m to 120 m under the strongest wind forcing. Surface cooling of about 2.5 C was primarily due to the SML deepening and entrainment of colder water, with a small contribution from surface heat flux. Intense inertial pumping was observed under the eye, with vertical excursions of

  14. Global-mean BC lifetime as an indicator of model skill? Constraining the vertical aerosol distribution using aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, M. T.; Samset, B. H.; Skeie, R. B.; Berntsen, T.

    2017-12-01

    Several recent studies have used observations from the HIPPO flight campaigns to constrain the modeled vertical distribution of black carbon (BC) over the Pacific. Results indicate a relatively linear relationship between global-mean atmospheric BC residence time, or lifetime, and bias in current models. A lifetime of less than 5 days is necessary for models to reasonably reproduce these observations. This is shorter than what many global models predict, which will in turn affect their estimates of BC climate impacts. Here we use the chemistry-transport model OsloCTM to examine whether this relationship between global BC lifetime and model skill also holds for a broader a set of flight campaigns from 2009-2013 covering both remote marine and continental regions at a range of latitudes. We perform four sets of simulations with varying scavenging efficiency to obtain a spread in the modeled global BC lifetime and calculate the model error and bias for each campaign and region. Vertical BC profiles are constructed using an online flight simulator, as well by averaging and interpolating monthly mean model output, allowing us to quantify sampling errors arising when measurements are compared with model output at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Using the OsloCTM coupled with a microphysical aerosol parameterization, we investigate the sensitivity of modeled BC vertical distribution to uncertainties in the aerosol aging and scavenging processes in more detail. From this, we can quantify how model uncertainties in the BC life cycle propagate into uncertainties in its climate impacts. For most campaigns and regions, a short global-mean BC lifetime corresponds with the lowest model error and bias. On an aggregated level, sampling errors appear to be small, but larger differences are seen in individual regions. However, we also find that model-measurement discrepancies in BC vertical profiles cannot be uniquely attributed to uncertainties in a single process or

  15. Global tropospheric ozone modeling: Quantifying errors due to grid resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, Oliver; Prather, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quant...

  16. Vertical Vibration Model for Unsteady Lubrication in Rolls-Strip Interface of Cold Rolling Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the vertical vibration phenomena existing in cold rolling mills, the unsteady lubrication mechanism in roll gap and its influence to rolling stability was chosen as the case for analysis. On the basis of rolling theory, lubrication and friction theory, and mechanic vibration theory, the vertical vibration model for unsteady lubrication in rolls-strip interface was presented. The Geometry model of roll gap, the unsteady lubrication model of roller-strip working interface, the distribution model of normal rolling stress and friction stress, and the rolling vertical structure model were taken into account. Based on the rolling equipment and process parameters of aluminium mill, the rolling force curve and dynamic response of working roll displacement variation was simulated on Matlab/Simulink platform. A comparison with actual production data shows the validity of this vibration model.

  17. Vertical Accuracy Assessment of ZY-3 Digital Surface Model Using Icesat/glas Laser Altimeter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G.; Tang, X.; Yuan, X.; Zhou, P.; Hu, F.

    2017-05-01

    The Ziyuan-3 (ZY-3) satellite, as the first civilian high resolution surveying and mapping satellite in China, has a very important role in national 1 : 50,000 stereo mapping project. High accuracy digital surface Model (DSMs) can be generated from the three line-array images of ZY-3, and ZY-3 DSMs of China can be produced without using any ground control points (GCPs) by selecting SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) and ICESat/GLAS (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite, Geo-science Laser Altimeter System) as the datum reference in the Satellite Surveying and Mapping Application Center, which is the key institute that manages and distributes ZY-3 products. To conduct the vertical accuracy evaluation of ZY-3 DSMs of China, three representative regions were chosen and the results were compared to ICESat/GLAS data. The experimental results demonstrated that the root mean square error (RMSE) elevation accuracy of the ZY-3 DSMs was better than 5.0 m, and it even reached to less than 2.5 m in the second region of eastern China. While this work presents preliminary results, it is an important reference for expanding the application of ZY-3 satellite imagery to widespread regions. And the satellite laser altimetry data can be used as referenced data for wide-area DSM evaluation.

  18. VERTICAL ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF ZY-3 DIGITAL SURFACE MODEL USING ICESAT/GLAS LASER ALTIMETER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Ziyuan-3 (ZY-3 satellite, as the first civilian high resolution surveying and mapping satellite in China, has a very important role in national 1 : 50,000 stereo mapping project. High accuracy digital surface Model (DSMs can be generated from the three line-array images of ZY-3, and ZY-3 DSMs of China can be produced without using any ground control points (GCPs by selecting SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and ICESat/GLAS (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite, Geo-science Laser Altimeter System as the datum reference in the Satellite Surveying and Mapping Application Center, which is the key institute that manages and distributes ZY-3 products. To conduct the vertical accuracy evaluation of ZY-3 DSMs of China, three representative regions were chosen and the results were compared to ICESat/GLAS data. The experimental results demonstrated that the root mean square error (RMSE elevation accuracy of the ZY-3 DSMs was better than 5.0 m, and it even reached to less than 2.5 m in the second region of eastern China. While this work presents preliminary results, it is an important reference for expanding the application of ZY-3 satellite imagery to widespread regions. And the satellite laser altimetry data can be used as referenced data for wide-area DSM evaluation.

  19. Modeling study on axial wetting length of meniscus in vertical rectangular microgrooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Xuelei; Hu, Xuegong; Tang, Dawei

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the traditional model for predicting axial wetting length of meniscus in vertical microgrooves is introduced firstly. The traditional model may cause inaccurate results in predicting wetting length in vertical microgrooves because of the assumption of round meniscus in cross sections of microgrooves and the way of calculating curvature. In order to develop this model and make it more accurate, a revised micro-PIV system is built to test the meniscus shapes in cross sections of vertical and horizontal microgrooves, and the experimental results prove that the real shapes of meniscus are parabolic other than round. The fitting formulas of meniscus shapes are obtained with software Origin 7.5. Based on experimental results and fitting formulas, the traditional model is revised by changing the way to calculate curvature. In the modified model, the curvature for calculating axial wetting length of meniscus equals average curvature of meniscus in cross section of vertical microgrooves minus the average curvature of meniscus in cross section of horizontal microgrooves. It is proved that the modified model can predict the wetting length in vertical microgrooves better than the original model. The average difference between experiment and modified model is 2.5% while that between experiment and traditional model is 174.2%. The disadvantage of the modified model is that using the new model to predict wetting length needs to know the real shapes of meniscus in vertical and horizontal microgrooves. -- Highlights: ► An experimental system is designed to test the shapes of meniscus in microgrooves. ► The real shapes of meniscus in microgrooves are obtained for first time. ► The shapes of meniscus in microgrooves is compared and analyzed. ► The model for predicting wetting length of meniscus in microgrooves is developed

  20. Study on vertical seismic response model of BWR-type reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, T.; Motohashi, S.; Izumi, M.; Iizuka, S.

    1993-01-01

    A study on advanced seismic design for LWR has been carried out by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC), under the sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan. As a part of the study, it has been investigated to construct an accurate analytical model of reactor buildings for a seismic response analysis, which can reasonably represent dynamic characteristics of the building. In Japan, vibration models of reactor buildings for horizontal ground motion have been studied and examined through many simulation analyses for forced vibration tests and earthquake observations of actual buildings. And now it is possible to establish a reliable horizontal vibration model on the basis of multi-lumped mass and spring model. However, vertical vibration models have not been so much studied as horizontal models, due to less observed data for vertical motions. In this paper, the vertical seismic response models of a BWR-type reactor building including soil-structure interaction effect are numerically studied, by comparing the dynamic characteristics of (1) three dimensional finite element model, (2) multi-stick lumped mass model with a flexible base-mat, (3) multi-stick lumped mass model with a rigid base-mat and (4) single-stick lumped mass model. In particular, the BWR-type reactor building has the long span truss roof which is considered to be one of the critical members to vertical excitation. The modelings of the roof trusses are also studied

  1. Global vertical mass transport by clouds - A two-dimensional model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, Mats

    1988-05-01

    A two-dimensional global dispersion model, where vertical transport in the troposphere carried out by convective as well as by frontal cloud systems is explicitly treated, is developed from an existing diffusion model. A parameterization scheme for the cloud transport, based on global cloud statistics, is presented. The model has been tested by using Kr-85, Rn-222 and SO 2 as tracers. Comparisons have been made with observed distributions of these tracers, but also with model results without the cloud transport, using eddy diffusion as the primary means of vertical transport. The model results indicate that for trace species with a turnover time of days to weeks, the introduction of cloud-transport gives much more realistic simulations of their vertical distribution. Layers of increased mixing ratio with height, which can be found in real atmosphere, are reproduced in our cloud-transport model profiles, but can never be simulated with a pure eddy diffusion model. The horizontal transport in the model, by advection and eddy diffusion, gives a realistic distribution between the hemispheres of the more long-lived tracers (Kr-85). A combination of vertical transport by convective and frontal cloud systems is shown to improve the model simulations, compared to limiting it to convective transport only. The importance of including cumulus clouds in the convective transport scheme, in addition to the efficient transport by cumulonimbus clouds, is discussed. The model results are shown to be more sensitive to the vertical detrainment distribution profile than to the absolute magnitude of the vertical mass transport. The scavenging processes for SO 2 are parameterized without the introduction of detailed chemistry. An enhanced removal, due to the increased contact with droplets in the in-cloud lifting process, is introduced in the model. (author)

  2. Model for radial gas fraction profiles in vertical pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    A one-dimensional model is presented, which predicts the radial volume fraction profiles from a given bubble size distribution. It bases on the assumption of an equilibrium of the forces acting on a bubble perpendicularly to the flow path (non drag forces). For the prediction of the flow pattern this model could be used within an procedure together with appropriate models for local bubble coalescence and break-up. (orig.)

  3. Influence of horizontal resolution and ensemble size on model performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dalton, A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Computing costs increase with an increase in global model resolution and ensemble size. This paper strives to determine the extent to which resolution and ensemble size affect seasonal forecast skill when simulating mid-summer rainfall totals over...

  4. Investigating the northern Adriatic Sea ecosystem state with a very high resolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia, Gelsomina; Zavatarelli, Marco; Lovato, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea ecosystem dynamics is simulated using the coupling of the BFM (Biogeochemical Flux Model) with the NEMO (Nucleus for European Models of the Ocean) model. The modeling system is implemented at very high horizontal (~800 m) and vertical (95 z-level) resolution and is nested with a coarser scale Adriatic/Mediterranean model. Simulation in hindcast and projection mode are being executed and are aimed to evaluate the ecosystem attributes (vigor, organization, resilience), in order to understand the ecosystem state of the basin with respect to the so-called "Good Ecosystem State" (GES) as defined by the EU-MSF9 Directive. Skill of the model in replicating integrated environmental indices such as the EU-EEACS1023+ is also investigated. Finally the model is also open to an off-line coupling with an higher trophic level (HTL) model.

  5. An enhanced fire hazard assessment model and validation experiments for vertical cable trays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lu [Sate Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Huang, Xianjia, E-mail: huangxianjia@gziit.ac.cn [Joint Laboratory of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants, Institute of Industry Technology Guangzhou & Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 511458 (China); Bi, Kun; Liu, Xiaoshuang [China Nuclear Power Design Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518045 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • An enhanced model was developed for vertical cable fire hazard assessment in NPP. • The validated experiments on vertical cable tray fires were conducted. • The capability of the model for cable tray with different cable spacing were tested. - Abstract: The model, referred to as FLASH-CAT (Flame Spread over Horizontal Cable Trays), was developed to estimate the heat release rate for vertical cable tray fire. The focus of this work is to investigate the application of an enhanced model to the single vertical cable tray fires with different cable spacing. The experiments on vertical cable tray fires with three typical cable spacing were conducted. The histories of mass loss rate and flame length were recorded during the cable fire. From the experimental results, it is found that the space between cable lines intensifies the cable combustion and accelerates the flame spread. The predictions by the enhanced model show good agreements with the experimental data. At the same time, it is shown that the enhanced model is capable of predicting the different behaviors of cable fires with different cable spacing by adjusting the flame spread speed only.

  6. Constraining Early Cenozoic exhumation of the British Isles with vertical profile modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Daniel; Cogné, Nathan; Chew, David

    2016-04-01

    Despite decades of research is the Early Cenozoic exhumation history of Ireland and Britain still poorly understood and subject to contentious debate (e.g., Davis et al., 2012 and subsequent comments). One reason for this debate is the difficultly of constraining the evolution of onshore parts of the British Isles in both time and space. The paucity of Mesozoic and Cenozoic onshore outcrops makes direct analysis of this time span difficult. Furthermore, Ireland and Britain are situated at a passive margin, where the amount of post-rift exhumation is generally very low. Classical thermochronological tools are therefore near the edge of their resolution and make precise dating of post-rift cooling events challenging. In this study we used the established apatite fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He techniques, but took advantage of the vertical profile approach of Gallagher et al. (2005) implemented in the QTQt modelling package (Gallagher, 2012), to better constrain the thermal histories. This method allowed us to define the geographical extent of a Late Cretaceous - Early Tertiary cooling event and to show that it was centered around the Irish Sea. Thus, we argue that this cooling event is linked to the underplating of hot material below the crust centered on the Irish Sea (Jones et al., 2002; Al-Kindi et al., 2003), and demonstrate that such conclusion would have been harder, if not impossible, to draw by modelling the samples individually without the use of the vertical profile approach. References Al-Kindi, S., White, N., Sinha, M., England, R., and Tiley, R., 2003, Crustal trace of a hot convective sheet: Geology, v. 31, no. 3, p. 207-210. Davis, M.W., White, N.J., Priestley, K.F., Baptie, B.J., and Tilmann, F.J., 2012, Crustal structure of the British Isles and its epeirogenic consequences: Geophysical Journal International, v. 190, no. 2, p. 705-725. Jones, S.M., White, N., Clarke, B.J., Rowley, E., and Gallagher, K., 2002, Present and past influence of the Iceland

  7. MODELLING PARTICIPATORY GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR CUSTOMARY LAND CONFLICT RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Gyamera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since land contributes to about 73 % of most countries Gross Domestic Product (GDP, attention on land rights have tremendously increased globally. Conflicts over land have therefore become part of the major problems associated with land administration. However, the conventional mechanisms for land conflict resolution do not provide satisfactory result to disputants due to various factors. This study sought to develop a Framework of using Participatory Geographic Information System (PGIS for customary land conflict resolution. The framework was modelled using Unified Modelling Language (UML. The PGIS framework, called butterfly model, consists of three units namely, Social Unit (SU, Technical Unit (TU and Decision Making Unit (DMU. The name butterfly model for land conflict resolution was adopted for the framework based on its features and properties. The framework has therefore been recommended to be adopted for land conflict resolution in customary areas.

  8. Uncertainty of soil erosion modelling using open source high resolution and aggregated DEMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Mondal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Model (DEM is one of the important parameters for soil erosion assessment. Notable uncertainties are observed in this study while using three high resolution open source DEMs. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model has been applied to analysis the assessment of soil erosion uncertainty using open source DEMs (SRTM, ASTER and CARTOSAT and their increasing grid space (pixel size from the actual. The study area is a part of the Narmada river basin in Madhya Pradesh state, which is located in the central part of India and the area covered 20,558 km2. The actual resolution of DEMs is 30 m and their increasing grid spaces are taken as 90, 150, 210, 270 and 330 m for this study. Vertical accuracy of DEMs has been assessed using actual heights of the sample points that have been taken considering planimetric survey based map (toposheet. Elevations of DEMs are converted to the same vertical datum from WGS 84 to MSL (Mean Sea Level, before the accuracy assessment and modelling. Results indicate that the accuracy of the SRTM DEM with the RMSE of 13.31, 14.51, and 18.19 m in 30, 150 and 330 m resolution respectively, is better than the ASTER and the CARTOSAT DEMs. When the grid space of the DEMs increases, the accuracy of the elevation and calculated soil erosion decreases. This study presents a potential uncertainty introduced by open source high resolution DEMs in the accuracy of the soil erosion assessment models. The research provides an analysis of errors in selecting DEMs using the original and increased grid space for soil erosion modelling.

  9. Modeling Vertical Plasma Flows in Solar Filament Barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Speeds of observed flows in quiescent solar filaments are typically much less than the local Alfvén speed. This is why the flows in filament barbs can be modeled by perturbing a local magnetostatic solution describing the balance between the Lorentz force, gravity, and gas pressure in a barb. Similarly, large-scale filament flows can be treated as adiabatically slow deformations of a force-free magnetic equilibrium that describes the global structure of a filament. This approach reconciles current theoretical models with the puzzling observational result that some of the flows appear to be neither aligned with the magnetic field nor controlled by gravity.

  10. Modelling vertical uniform contact stress of heavy vehicle tyres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, Anton J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of tyre dynamics is a relatively new, but highly complex field of engineering. The testing and modelling of various tyres in order to determine stress distributions of tyres on the road surface, under varying conditions, remains a relevant...

  11. Modelling the tides and their impacts on the vertical stratification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sofala Bank, a wide shelf located along the central coast of Mozambique, hosts tides with high amplitudes. The Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) was used to analyse the tidal currents on the bank and to investigate their effects on the stratification and generation of tidal fronts. During spring tides, barotropic ...

  12. Solving vertical transport and chemistry in air pollution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F. Berkvens (Patrick); M.A. Botchev; J.G. Verwer (Jan); M.C. Krol; W. Peters

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFor the time integration of stiff transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due to the large number of species and the 3D nature. The popular alternative, standard operator splitting, introduces artificial transients for short-lived

  13. Solving Vertical Transport and Chemistry in Air Pollution Models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Bochev, Mikhail A.; Verwer, J.G.; Krol, M.C.; Peters, W.

    For the time integration of stiff transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due to the large number of species and the 3D nature. The popular alternative, standard operator splitting, introduces artificial transients for short-lived species.

  14. Solving vertical transport and chemistry in air pollution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Bochev, M.A.; Krol, M.C.; Peters, W.; Verwer, J.G.; Chock, David P.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Brick, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    For the time integration of stiff transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due to the large number of species and the 3D nature. The popular alternative, standard operator splitting, introduces artificial transients for short-lived species.

  15. TransCom model simulations of methane: Comparison of vertical profiles with aircraft measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saito, R.; Patra, P.K.; Sweeney, C.; Machida, T.; Krol, M.C.; Houweling, S.; Bousquet, P.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; Belikov, D.; Bergmann, D.; Bian, H.S.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Chipperfield, M.P.; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Fraser, A.; Gatti, L.V.; Gloor, E.; Hess, P.; Kawa, S.R.; Law, R.M.; Locatelli, R.; Loh, Z.; Maksyutov, S.; Meng, L.; Miller, J.B.; Palmer, P.I.; Prinn, R.G.; Rigby, M.; Wilson, C.

    2013-01-01

    To assess horizontal and vertical transports of methane (CH4) concentrations at different heights within the troposphere, we analyzed simulations by 12 chemistry transport models (CTMs) that participated in the TransCom-CH4 intercomparison experiment. Model results are compared with aircraft

  16. Gravitational attraction of a vertical pyramid model of flat top-and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bottom and sloping sides with a depth-wise linear density variation. However, he was unable to derive a complete analytical expression for its gravity effect. Keywords. Gravity effect; vertical pyramid model with flat top-and-bottom; parabolic density variation; gravity forward modelling. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124, No. 8, December ...

  17. Performance of HSPA Vertical Sectorization System under Semi-Deterministic Propagation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Makinen, Jarmo; Stoermer, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the Vertical Sectorization (VS) system has been evaluated previously using an empirical propagation model and a regular network layout. In this paper, our aim is to investigate the gain of the VS system under a more realistic scenario. A semi-deterministic path loss model run o...

  18. Multi-scale climate modelling over Southern Africa using a variable-resolution global model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, FA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available -resolution global simulations, to ultra-high resolution simulations at the micro-scale. The model used for these experiments is a variable-resolution global atmospheric model, the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM). It is shown that CCAM may be used to obtain...

  19. Modeling ionospheric disturbance features in quasi-vertically incident ionograms using 3-D magnetoionic ray tracing and atmospheric gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M. A.; Harris, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) has initiated an experimental program, Spatial Ionospheric Correlation Experiment, utilizing state-of-the-art DSTO-designed high frequency digital receivers. This program seeks to understand ionospheric disturbances at scales < 150 km and temporal resolutions under 1 min through the simultaneous observation and recording of multiple quasi-vertical ionograms (QVI) with closely spaced ionospheric control points. A detailed description of and results from the first campaign conducted in February 2008 were presented by Harris et al. (2012). In this paper we employ a 3-D magnetoionic Hamiltonian ray tracing engine, developed by DSTO, to (1) model the various disturbance features observed on both the O and X polarization modes in our QVI data and (2) understand how they are produced. The ionospheric disturbances which produce the observed features were modeled by perturbing the ionosphere with atmospheric gravity waves.

  20. LiDAR The Generation of Automatic Mapping for Buildings, Using High Spatial Resolution Digital Vertical Aerial Photography and LiDAR Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Barragán Zaque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to generate photogrammetrie products and to automatically map buildings in the area of interest in vector format. The research was conducted Bogotá using high resolution digital vertical aerial photographs and point clouds obtained using LIDAR technology. Image segmentation was also used, alongside radiometric and geometric digital processes. The process took into account aspects including building height, segmentation algorithms, and spectral band combination. The results had an effectiveness of 97.2 % validated through ground-truthing.

  1. High Resolution Millimeter Wave Detection of Vertical Cracks in the Space Shuttle External Tank Spray-on-Foam Insulation (SOFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Hepburn, F.

    2007-03-01

    Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic failure, the separation of a piece of spray-on-foam insulation (SOFI) from the external tank (ET) in the Space Shuttle Discovery's flight in 2005 and crack detected in its ET foam prior to its successful launch in 2006 emphasize the need for effective nondestructive methods for inspecting the shuttle ET SOFI. Millimeter wave nondestructive testing methods have been considered as potential and effective inspection tools for evaluating the integrity of the SOFI. This paper presents recent results of an investigation for the purpose of detecting vertical cracks in SOFI panels using a focused millimeter wave (150 GHz) reflectometer. The presented images of the SOFI panels show the capability of this reflectometer for detecting tight vertical cracks (also as a function of crack opening dimension) in exposed SOFI panels and while covered by a piece of SOFI ramp simulating a more realistic and challenging situation.

  2. Comparison of Aerosol Classification Results from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Measurements and the Calipso Vertical Feature Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Obland, M. D.; Butler, C. F.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Froyd, K. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the vertical profile, composition, concentration, and size of aerosols is required for assessing the direct impact of aerosols on radiation, the indirect effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation, and attributing these effects to natural and anthropogenic aerosols. Because anthropogenic aerosols are predominantly submicrometer, fine mode fraction (FMF) retrievals from satellite have been used as a tool for deriving anthropogenic aerosols. Although column and profile satellite retrievals of FMF have been performed over the ocean, such retrievals have not yet been been done over land. Consequently, uncertainty in satellite estimates of the anthropogenic component of the aerosol direct radiative forcing is greatest over land, due in large part to uncertainties in the FMF. Satellite measurements have been used to detect and evaluate aerosol impacts on clouds; however, such efforts have been hampered by the difficulty in retrieving vertically-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration, which is the most direct parameter linking aerosol and clouds. Recent studies have shown correlations between average satellite derived column aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and in situ measured CCN. However, these same studies, as well as others that use detailed airborne in situ measurements have noted that vertical variability of the aerosol distribution, impacts of relative humidity, and the presence of coarse mode aerosols such as dust introduce large uncertainties in such relations.

  3. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  4. High Resolution Lidar Digital Elevation Models and Low Resolution Shaded Relief Maps of Antarctica from USGS, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lidar high-resolution elevation digital elevation model data and low-resolution shaded relief maps of Antarctica are available for download from the U.S. Antarctic...

  5. Study on particle deposition in vertical square ventilation duct flows by different models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinping; Li Angui

    2008-01-01

    A proper representation of the air flow in a ventilation duct is crucial for adequate prediction of the deposition velocity of particles. In this paper, the mean turbulent air flow fields are predicted by two different numerical models (the Reynolds stress transport model (RSM) and the realizable k-εmodel). Contours of mean streamwise velocity deduced from the k-ε model are compared with those obtained from the Reynolds stress transport model. Dimensionless deposition velocities of particles in downward and upward ventilation duct flows are also compared based on the flow fields presented by the two different numerical models. Trajectories of the particles are tracked using a one way coupling Lagrangian eddy-particle interaction model. Thousands of individual particles are released in the represented flow, and dimensionless deposition velocities are evaluated for the vertical walls in fully developed smooth vertical downward and upward square duct flows generated by the RSM and realizable k-ε model. The effects of particle diameter, dimensionless relaxation time, flow direction and air speed in vertical upward and downward square duct flows on the particle deposition velocities are discussed. The effects of lift and gravity on the particle deposition velocities are evaluated in vertical flows presented by the RSM. It is shown that the particle deposition velocities based on the RSM and realizable k-εmodel have subtle differences. The flow direction and the lift force significantly affect the particle deposition velocities in vertical duct flows. The simulation results are compared with earlier experimental data and the numerical results for fully developed duct flows. It is shown that the deposition velocities predicted are in agreement with the experimental data and the numerical results

  6. Implementation of higher-order vertical finite elements in ISSM v4.13 for improved ice sheet flow modeling over paleoclimate timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Cuzzone

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Paleoclimate proxies are being used in conjunction with ice sheet modeling experiments to determine how the Greenland ice sheet responded to past changes, particularly during the last deglaciation. Although these comparisons have been a critical component in our understanding of the Greenland ice sheet sensitivity to past warming, they often rely on modeling experiments that favor minimizing computational expense over increased model physics. Over Paleoclimate timescales, simulating the thermal structure of the ice sheet has large implications on the modeled ice viscosity, which can feedback onto the basal sliding and ice flow. To accurately capture the thermal field, models often require a high number of vertical layers. This is not the case for the stress balance computation, however, where a high vertical resolution is not necessary. Consequently, since stress balance and thermal equations are generally performed on the same mesh, more time is spent on the stress balance computation than is otherwise necessary. For these reasons, running a higher-order ice sheet model (e.g., Blatter-Pattyn over timescales equivalent to the paleoclimate record has not been possible without incurring a large computational expense. To mitigate this issue, we propose a method that can be implemented within ice sheet models, whereby the vertical interpolation along the z axis relies on higher-order polynomials, rather than the traditional linear interpolation. This method is tested within the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM using quadratic and cubic finite elements for the vertical interpolation on an idealized case and a realistic Greenland configuration. A transient experiment for the ice thickness evolution of a single-dome ice sheet demonstrates improved accuracy using the higher-order vertical interpolation compared to models using the linear vertical interpolation, despite having fewer degrees of freedom. This method is also shown to improve a model's ability

  7. Analytical models of lateral power devices with arbitrary vertical doping profiles in the drift region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Ting-Ting; Guo Yu-Feng; Yu Ying; Jian Tong; Yao Jia-Fei; Sheu Gene

    2013-01-01

    By solving the 2D Poisson's equation, analytical models are proposed to calculate the surface potential and electric field distributions of lateral power devices with arbitrary vertical doping profiles. The vertical and the lateral breakdown voltages are formulized to quantify the breakdown characteristic in completely-depleted and partially-depleted cases. A new reduced surface field (RESURF) criterion which can be used in various drift doping profiles is further derived for obtaining the optimal trade-off between the breakdown voltage and the on-resistance. Based on these models and the numerical simulation, the electric field modulation mechanism and the breakdown characteristics of lateral power devices are investigated in detail for the uniform, linear, Gaussian, and some discrete doping profiles along the vertical direction in the drift region. Then, the mentioned vertical doping profiles of these devices with the same geometric parameters are optimized, and the results show that the optimal breakdown voltages and the effective drift doping concentrations of these devices are identical, which are equal to those of the uniform-doped device, respectively. The analytical results of these proposed models are in good agreement with the numerical results and the previous experimental results, confirming the validity of the models presented here. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  8. Creating a benchmark of vertical axis wind turbines in dynamic stall for validating numerical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelein, D.; Ragni, D.; Tescione, G.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental campaign using Particle Image Velocimetry (2C-PIV) technique has been conducted on a H-type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) to create a benchmark for validating and comparing numerical models. The turbine is operated at tip speed ratios (TSR) of 4.5 and 2, at an average chord-ba...

  9. Reliability Based Optimal Design of Vertical Breakwaters Modelled as a Series System Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiani, E.; Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1996-01-01

    Reliability based design of monolithic vertical breakwaters is considered. Probabilistic models of important failure modes such as sliding and rupture failure in the rubble mound and the subsoil are described. Characterisation of the relevant stochastic parameters are presented, and relevant design...... variables are identified and an optimal system reliability formulation is presented. An illustrative example is given....

  10. Vertical Integration of Geographic Information Sciences: A Recruitment Model for GIS Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jaehyung; Huynh, Niem Tu; McGehee, Thomas Lee

    2011-01-01

    An innovative vertical integration model for recruiting to GIS education was introduced and tested following four driving forces: curriculum development, GIS presentations, institutional collaboration, and faculty training. Curriculum development was a useful approach to recruitment, student credit hour generation, and retention-rate improvement.…

  11. Stability analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model of a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-07-01

    An SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination of a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the population is in steady state and the fertility, mortality and removal rates depends on age. We determine the steady states and examine their stabilities. (author). 24 refs

  12. Gravitational attraction of a vertical pyramid model of flat top-and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 8. Gravitational attraction of a vertical pyramid model of flat top-and-bottom with depth-wise parabolic density variation. Anand P Gokula Rambhatla G Sastry. Volume 124 Issue 8 December 2015 pp 1735-1744 ...

  13. Vertically-Integrated Dual-Continuum Models for CO2 Injection in Fractured Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Guo, B.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Injection of CO2 into a saline aquifer leads to a two-phase flow system, with supercritical CO2 and brine being the two fluid phases. Various modeling approaches, including fully three-dimensional (3D) models and vertical-equilibrium (VE) models, have been used to study the system. Almost all of that work has focused on unfractured formations. 3D models solve the governing equations in three dimensions and are applicable to generic geological formations. VE models assume rapid and complete buoyant segregation of the two fluid phases, resulting in vertical pressure equilibrium and allowing integration of the governing equations in the vertical dimension. This reduction in dimensionality makes VE models computationally more efficient, but the associated assumptions restrict the applicability of VE model to formations with moderate to high permeability. In this presentation, we extend the VE and 3D models for CO2 injection in fractured aquifers. This is done in the context of dual-continuum modeling, where the fractured formation is modeled as an overlap of two continuous domains, one representing the fractures and the other representing the rock matrix. Both domains are treated as porous media continua and can be modeled by either a VE or a 3D formulation. The transfer of fluid mass between rock matrix and fractures is represented by a mass transfer function connecting the two domains. We have developed a computational model that combines the VE and 3D models, where we use the VE model in the fractures, which typically have high permeability, and the 3D model in the less permeable rock matrix. A new mass transfer function is derived, which couples the VE and 3D models. The coupled VE-3D model can simulate CO2 injection and migration in fractured aquifers. Results from this model compare well with a full-3D model in which both the fractures and rock matrix are modeled with 3D models, with the hybrid VE-3D model having significantly reduced computational cost. In

  14. Vertical Instability in EAST: Comparison of Model Predictions with Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jinping; Wan Baonian; Shen Biao; Xiao Bingjia; Sun Youwen; Shi Yuejiang; Lin Shiyao; Li Jiangang; Gong Xianzu

    2008-01-01

    Growth rates of the axisymmetric mode in elongated plasmas in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) are measured with zero feedback gains and then compared with numerically calculated growth rates for the reconstructed shapes. The comparison is made after loss of vertical position control. The open-loop growth rates were scanned with the number of vessel eigenmodes, which up to 20 is enough to make the growth rates settled. The agreement between the growth rates measured experimentally and the growth rates determined numerically is good. The results show that a linear RZIP model is essentially good enough for the vertical position feedback control.

  15. Assessment of Land Surface Models in a High-Resolution Atmospheric Model during Indian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attada, Raju; Kumar, Prashant; Dasari, Hari Prasad

    2018-04-01

    Assessment of the land surface models (LSMs) on monsoon studies over the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) region is essential. In this study, we evaluate the skill of LSMs at 10 km spatial resolution in simulating the 2010 monsoon season. The thermal diffusion scheme (TDS), rapid update cycle (RUC), and Noah and Noah with multi-parameterization (Noah-MP) LSMs are chosen based on nature of complexity, that is, from simple slab model to multi-parameterization options coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Model results are compared with the available in situ observations and reanalysis fields. The sensitivity of monsoon elements, surface characteristics, and vertical structures to different LSMs is discussed. Our results reveal that the monsoon features are reproduced by WRF model with all LSMs, but with some regional discrepancies. The model simulations with selected LSMs are able to reproduce the broad rainfall patterns, orography-induced rainfall over the Himalayan region, and dry zone over the southern tip of India. The unrealistic precipitation pattern over the equatorial western Indian Ocean is simulated by WRF-LSM-based experiments. The spatial and temporal distributions of top 2-m soil characteristics (soil temperature and soil moisture) are well represented in RUC and Noah-MP LSM-based experiments during the ISM. Results show that the WRF simulations with RUC, Noah, and Noah-MP LSM-based experiments significantly improved the skill of 2-m temperature and moisture compared to TDS (chosen as a base) LSM-based experiments. Furthermore, the simulations with Noah, RUC, and Noah-MP LSMs exhibit minimum error in thermodynamics fields. In case of surface wind speed, TDS LSM performed better compared to other LSM experiments. A significant improvement is noticeable in simulating rainfall by WRF model with Noah, RUC, and Noah-MP LSMs over TDS LSM. Thus, this study emphasis the importance of choosing/improving LSMs for simulating the ISM phenomena in

  16. Assessment of Land Surface Models in a High-Resolution Atmospheric Model during Indian Summer Monsoon

    KAUST Repository

    Attada, Raju

    2018-04-17

    Assessment of the land surface models (LSMs) on monsoon studies over the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) region is essential. In this study, we evaluate the skill of LSMs at 10 km spatial resolution in simulating the 2010 monsoon season. The thermal diffusion scheme (TDS), rapid update cycle (RUC), and Noah and Noah with multi-parameterization (Noah-MP) LSMs are chosen based on nature of complexity, that is, from simple slab model to multi-parameterization options coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Model results are compared with the available in situ observations and reanalysis fields. The sensitivity of monsoon elements, surface characteristics, and vertical structures to different LSMs is discussed. Our results reveal that the monsoon features are reproduced by WRF model with all LSMs, but with some regional discrepancies. The model simulations with selected LSMs are able to reproduce the broad rainfall patterns, orography-induced rainfall over the Himalayan region, and dry zone over the southern tip of India. The unrealistic precipitation pattern over the equatorial western Indian Ocean is simulated by WRF–LSM-based experiments. The spatial and temporal distributions of top 2-m soil characteristics (soil temperature and soil moisture) are well represented in RUC and Noah-MP LSM-based experiments during the ISM. Results show that the WRF simulations with RUC, Noah, and Noah-MP LSM-based experiments significantly improved the skill of 2-m temperature and moisture compared to TDS (chosen as a base) LSM-based experiments. Furthermore, the simulations with Noah, RUC, and Noah-MP LSMs exhibit minimum error in thermodynamics fields. In case of surface wind speed, TDS LSM performed better compared to other LSM experiments. A significant improvement is noticeable in simulating rainfall by WRF model with Noah, RUC, and Noah-MP LSMs over TDS LSM. Thus, this study emphasis the importance of choosing/improving LSMs for simulating the ISM phenomena

  17. Constraining Stochastic Parametrisation Schemes Using High-Resolution Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H. M.; Dawson, A.; Palmer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic parametrisations are used in weather and climate models as a physically motivated way to represent model error due to unresolved processes. Designing new stochastic schemes has been the target of much innovative research over the last decade. While a focus has been on developing physically motivated approaches, many successful stochastic parametrisation schemes are very simple, such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) multiplicative scheme `Stochastically Perturbed Parametrisation Tendencies' (SPPT). The SPPT scheme improves the skill of probabilistic weather and seasonal forecasts, and so is widely used. However, little work has focused on assessing the physical basis of the SPPT scheme. We address this matter by using high-resolution model simulations to explicitly measure the `error' in the parametrised tendency that SPPT seeks to represent. The high resolution simulations are first coarse-grained to the desired forecast model resolution before they are used to produce initial conditions and forcing data needed to drive the ECMWF Single Column Model (SCM). By comparing SCM forecast tendencies with the evolution of the high resolution model, we can measure the `error' in the forecast tendencies. In this way, we provide justification for the multiplicative nature of SPPT, and for the temporal and spatial scales of the stochastic perturbations. However, we also identify issues with the SPPT scheme. It is therefore hoped these measurements will improve both holistic and process based approaches to stochastic parametrisation. Figure caption: Instantaneous snapshot of the optimal SPPT stochastic perturbation, derived by comparing high-resolution simulations with a low resolution forecast model.

  18. Vértigo con nistagmo vertical por administración de morfina intratecal y reversión con naloxona Vertigo and vertical nystagmus associated with intrathecal morphine administration and resolution by naloxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge De All

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La anestesia regional combinada es utilizada frecuentemente como herramienta para el tratamiento del dolor postoperatorio. Los efectos secundarios de los opioides utilizados por esta vía son similares a los que se presentan luego de la administración sistémica. La aparición de vértigo con nistagmo vertical es un efecto adverso muy pocas veces descripto con el uso de morfina por vía intratecal, epidural o endovenosa. Comunicamos el caso de un paciente que presentó esta complicación en el postoperatorio de una nefrectomía parcial, luego de la administración de morfina intratecal, con resolución completa mediante el uso de naloxona endovenosa.Combined regional anesthesia is frequently used as a tool for management of postoperative pain. The profile of side effects of the opioids used via this route is similar to those occurring after systemic administration. The onset of vertigo with vertical nystagmus is an adverse effect rarely described after the use of intrathecal, epidural or intravenous morphine. We report the case of a patient who presented this complication in the postoperative period of a partial nephrectomy, after the administration of intrathecal morphine, with complete resolution by intravenous naloxone.

  19. Vertical Distribution of Suspended Sediment under Steady Flow: Existing Theories and Fractional Derivative Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqian Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractional advection-diffusion equation (fADE model is a new approach to describe the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration in steady turbulent flow. However, the advantages and parameter definition of the fADE model in describing the sediment suspension distribution are still unclear. To address this knowledge gap, this study first reviews seven models, including the fADE model, for the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration in steady turbulent flow. The fADE model, among others, describes both Fickian and non-Fickian diffusive characteristics of suspended sediment, while the other six models assume that the vertical diffusion of suspended sediment follows Fick’s first law. Second, this study explores the sensitivity of the fractional index of the fADE model to the variation of particle sizes and sediment settling velocities, based on experimental data collected from the literatures. Finally, empirical formulas are developed to relate the fractional derivative order to particle size and sediment settling velocity. These formulas offer river engineers a substitutive way to estimate the fractional derivative order in the fADE model.

  20. Two profitless delays for an SEIRS epidemic disease model with vertical transmission and pulse vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xinzhu; Jiao Jianjun; Chen Lansun

    2009-01-01

    Since the investigation of impulsive delay differential equations is beginning, the literature on delay epidemic models with pulse vaccination is not extensive. In this paper, we propose a new SEIRS epidemic disease model with two profitless delays and vertical transmission, and analyze the dynamics behaviors of the model under pulse vaccination. Using the discrete dynamical system determined by the stroboscopic map, we obtain a 'infection-free' periodic solution, further, show that the 'infection-free' periodic solution is globally attractive when some parameters of the model are under appropriate conditions. Using a new modeling method, we obtain sufficient condition for the permanence of the epidemic model with pulse vaccination. We show that time delays, pulse vaccination and vertical transmission can bring different effects on the dynamics behaviors of the model by numerical analysis. Our results also show the delays are 'profitless'. In this paper, the main feature is to introduce two discrete time delays, vertical transmission and impulse into SEIRS epidemic model and to give pulse vaccination strategies.

  1. Vertical mixing in the marginal ice zone of the northern Barents Sea—Results from numerical model experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundfjord, Arild; Ellingsen, Ingrid; Slagstad, Dag; Svendsen, Harald

    2008-10-01

    Numerical ocean model simulations of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) of the Barents Sea have been made for the years 2003-2005. As part of a project studying carbon cycling in the northern Barents Sea MIZ, the model simulations provide a pre-history and context for interpretation of physical, biological and chemical field data collected during the annual project cruises in this period. Large-scale features as well as the temporal evolution of stratification and vertical mixing, from well-mixed winter conditions to the end of the ice-free season, are described. Modelled ice concentration at the times of the annual project cruises is in agreement with that inferred from satellite data. The simulated seasonal development of mixing and stratification in the MIZ, from winter via the melting period and through the productive summer season, is described. Turbulent mixing forced by tidal currents and wind episodes is examined, and resulting hydrographical conditions and diffusivities are compared with previously published measurements from the project cruises. The vertical and temporal extent to which such variable mixing influences the water column is realistically modelled, but the strength of mixing appears to be inaccurately distributed. Most importantly, differences in modelled and observed water-column stratification are identified. Enhanced near-surface mixing appears to protrude too deeply in the model, and the water column is excessively homogenized below the pycnocline. Experiments with the Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 turbulence scheme are compared with those from the Richardson number scheme routinely used in the model. Some important differences between the schemes are identified, but both have similar problems with respect to resulting hydrography. Simulations with horizontal grid resolution increased from 4×4 km to 800×800 m allows for processes inducing significantly more energetic frontal mixing at the MIZ edge to be resolved.

  2. Using High Resolution Model Data to Improve Lightning Forecasts across Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, S. B.; Rolinski, T.

    2014-12-01

    Dry lightning often results in a significant amount of fire starts in areas where the vegetation is dry and continuous. Meteorologists from the USDA Forest Service Predictive Services' program in Riverside, California are tasked to provide southern and central California's fire agencies with fire potential outlooks. Logistic regression equations were developed by these meteorologists several years ago, which forecast probabilities of lightning as well as lightning amounts, out to seven days across southern California. These regression equations were developed using ten years of historical gridded data from the Global Forecast System (GFS) model on a coarse scale (0.5 degree resolution), correlated with historical lightning strike data. These equations do a reasonably good job of capturing a lightning episode (3-5 consecutive days or greater of lightning), but perform poorly regarding more detailed information such as exact location and amounts. It is postulated that the inadequacies in resolving the finer details of episodic lightning events is due to the coarse resolution of the GFS data, along with limited predictors. Stability parameters, such as the Lifted Index (LI), the Total Totals index (TT), Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), along with Precipitable Water (PW) are the only parameters being considered as predictors. It is hypothesized that the statistical forecasts will benefit from higher resolution data both in training and implementing the statistical model. We have dynamically downscaled NCEP FNL (Final) reanalysis data using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to 3km spatial and hourly temporal resolution across a decade. This dataset will be used to evaluate the contribution to the success of the statistical model of additional predictors in higher vertical, spatial and temporal resolution. If successful, we will implement an operational dynamically downscaled GFS forecast product to generate predictors for the resulting

  3. Investigation of a model vertical motion liquid damper: comparing numerical simulation and experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Chris; Tabatabai, Habib; Buechel, Craig

    2005-05-01

    Tuned Liquid Dampers (TLD) are used to limit horizontal vibrations in structures, and offer practical alternatives to Tuned Mass Dampers (TMD). However, to our knowledge, liquid damping systems have not been developed to reduce vertical vibrations. In this work, we develop a model for a Vertical Motion Liquid Damper (VMLD), idealized as a discrete, two degree of freedom system. One degree of freedom represents the 'target' structure that is to be damped, and the other represents the approximate, one-dimensional motion of a liquid in a U-shaped tube. Internal losses due to the fluid oscillation serve to limit and control motions of the target structure. The U-shaped tube has a flexible joint such that one vertical portion and the horizontal portion of the tube remain fixed, and the remaining vertical portion of the tube is affixed to the vibrating structure, allowing the liquid to become excited. The equations of motion are derived using Lagrange's Equations, and are integrated using Runge-Kutta algorithms that are available in Matlab. An experimental model was built in the laboratory, consisting of a mass attached to the end of a cantilevered beam (corresponding to the target structure), and a U-tube made from PVC pipe. The various damping and stiffness parameters of the system were calibrated independently based on experimental data. Measured data from the experimental model show reasonable agreement with numerical simulations.

  4. \\HIGH RESOLUTION 3D MODELING OF THE BEHAIM GLOBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Menna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the 3D surveying and modeling of the Behaim globe, the oldest still existing and intact globe of the earth, preserved at the German National Museum of Nuremberg, Germany. The work is primarily performed using high-resolution digital images and automatic photogrammetric techniques. Triangulation-based laser scanning is also employed to fill some gaps in the derived image-based 3D geometry and perform geometric comparisons. Major problems are encountered in texture mapping. The 3D modeling project and the creation of high-resolution map-projections is performed for scientific, conservation, visualization and education purposes.

  5. Sensing Property Modeling for the Novel Horizontal-vertical Composite Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to invisibility and complexity of the underground displacement monitoring, there exit few practical monitoring sensors capable of monitoring the underground horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously. A novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor able to monitor both the horizontal and the vertical displacements was proposed in our previous studies and abbreviated as the H-V type sensor. Through comprehensive application of Hall sensing mechanism analysis, 3D magnetic field distribution solution to the permanent magnet, and multidimensional numerical integration method, a model called the Equivalent Magnetic Charge-Numerical Integration Model (EMC-NI is presented in this paper and serves as the H-V type sensor’s Hall voltage measurement model. This model can quantitatively evaluate the complicated relationship among the sensor’s Hall voltage output, its measuring parameters (underground horizontal displacement, vertical displacement and tilt angle at different depth within the monitored soil rock mass and morphological parameters (geometry, shape and property parameters for the sensor units. Comprehensive studies and comparisons have conducted between the experimentally measured and EMC-NI modeled Hall voltage under counterpart conditions, through which not only the model’s modeling effectiveness and calculation accuracy are objectively evaluated, but also some valuable theoretical support is provided for the sensor’ sensing properties evaluation, design optimization, and subsequent study of displacement parameter inversion approach.

  6. Three-dimensional modelling of leachate recirculation using vertical wells in bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Chen, Zheng-Wei; Cao, Ben-Yi

    2016-12-01

    Bioreactor landfills use leachate recirculation to enhance the biodegradation of municipal solid waste and accelerate landfill stabilisation, which can provide significant environmental and economic benefits. Vertical wells are operated as a major method for leachate recirculation systems. The objectives of this article are to analyse the leachate migration in bioreactor landfills using vertical wells and to offer theoretical basis for the design of leachate recirculation systems. A three-dimensional numerical model was built using FLAC-3D, and this model can consider the saturated and unsaturated flow of leachate within anisotropic waste to reflect the actual conditions. First, main influence factors of leachate migration were analysed, including the vertical well height, hydraulic conductivity, and anisotropic coefficient, in a single-well recirculation system. Then, the effects of different configurations of a group-well system were studied and the optimal well spacing was obtained. Some key design parameters (e.g. the recirculation flow rate, volume of impact zone, radius of impact zone and time to reach steady state) were also evaluated. The results show that the hydraulic conductivity has a great impact on the optimal height of vertical wells and uniform configuration is the best option in terms of both volume of impact zone and time to reach steady state. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Numerical modeling and preliminary validation of drag-based vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysiński Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to verify and validate the mathematical description of the airflow around a wind turbine with vertical axis of rotation, which could be considered as representative for this type of devices. Mathematical modeling of the airflow around wind turbines in particular those with the vertical axis is a problematic matter due to the complex nature of this highly swirled flow. Moreover, it is turbulent flow accompanied by a rotation of the rotor and the dynamic boundary layer separation. In such conditions, the key aspects of the mathematical model are accurate turbulence description, definition of circular motion as well as accompanying effects like centrifugal force or the Coriolis force and parameters of spatial and temporal discretization. The paper presents the impact of the different simulation parameters on the obtained results of the wind turbine simulation. Analysed models have been validated against experimental data published in the literature.

  8. Development and Evaluation of an Aerodynamic Model for a Novel Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Shires

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a resurgence of interest in the development of vertical axis wind turbines which have several inherent attributes that offer some advantages for offshore operations, particularly their scalability and low over-turning moments with better accessibility to drivetrain components. This paper describes an aerodynamic performance model for vertical axis wind turbines specifically developed for the design of a novel offshore V-shaped rotor with multiple aerodynamic surfaces. The model is based on the Double-Multiple Streamtube method and includes a number of developments for alternative complex rotor shapes. The paper compares predicted results with measured field data for five different turbines with both curved and straight blades and rated powers in the range 100–500 kW. Based on these comparisons, the paper proposes modifications to the Gormont dynamic stall model that gives improved predictions of rotor power for the turbines considered.

  9. Validation of a global hydrodynamic flood inundation model against high resolution observation data of urban flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Paul; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy; Neal, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    compare predictions from the global model to high resolution observations for two major urban flood events that occurred in the UK over the last decade: Carlisle in 2005 and Tewkesbury in 2007. In the case of Carlisle the validation data consist of ~150 post-flood observations of maximum water level with a vertical accuracy of ~10-15cm. For Tewkesbury we have available a series of remotely sensed images of the flood development and recession obtained from a variety of airborne and satellite platforms. For each site we estimate use official estimates of the return period of each event to select the appropriate global flood hazard map and compare this to the high resolution observations using appropriate performance metrics. We then benchmark the performance of the global model against simulations of these floods obtained using bespoke local models driven by ground gauged boundary conditions and with terrain derived from ~1m resolution airborne LiDAR data. Sampson, C.C., Smith, A.M., Bates, P.D., Neal, J.C., Alfieri, L. and Freer, J.E. (submitted). A High Resolution Global Flood Hazard Model. Water Resources Research.

  10. A high resolution hydrodynamic 3-D model simulation of the malta shelf area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Drago

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variability of the water masses and transport in the Malta Channel and proximity of the Maltese Islands have been simulated by a high resolution (1.6 km horizontal grid on average, 15 vertical sigma layers eddy resolving primitive equation shelf model (ROSARIO-I. The numerical simulation was run with climatological forcing and includes thermohaline dynamics with a turbulence scheme for the vertical mixing coefficients on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. The model has been coupled by one-way nesting along three lateral boundaries (east, south and west to an intermediate coarser resolution model (5 km implemented over the Sicilian Channel area. The fields at the open boundaries and the atmospheric forcing at the air-sea interface were applied on a repeating "perpetual" year climatological cycle. The ability of the model to reproduce a realistic circulation of the Sicilian-Maltese shelf area has been demonstrated. The skill of the nesting procedure was tested by model-modelc omparisons showing that the major features of the coarse model flow field can be reproduced by the fine model with additional eddy space scale components. The numerical results included upwelling, mainly in summer and early autumn, along the southern coasts of Sicily and Malta; a strong eastward shelf surface flow along shore to Sicily, forming part of the Atlantic Ionian Stream, with a presence throughout the year and with significant seasonal modulation, and a westward winter intensified flow of LIW centered at a depth of around 280 m under the shelf break to the south of Malta. The seasonal variability in the thermohaline structure of the domain and the associated large-scale flow structures can be related to the current knowledge on the observed hydrography of the area. The level of mesoscale resolution achieved by the model allowed the spatial and temporal evolution of the changing flow patterns, triggered by internal dynamics, to be followed in

  11. A high resolution hydrodynamic 3-D model simulation of the malta shelf area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Drago

    Full Text Available The seasonal variability of the water masses and transport in the Malta Channel and proximity of the Maltese Islands have been simulated by a high resolution (1.6 km horizontal grid on average, 15 vertical sigma layers eddy resolving primitive equation shelf model (ROSARIO-I. The numerical simulation was run with climatological forcing and includes thermohaline dynamics with a turbulence scheme for the vertical mixing coefficients on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. The model has been coupled by one-way nesting along three lateral boundaries (east, south and west to an intermediate coarser resolution model (5 km implemented over the Sicilian Channel area. The fields at the open boundaries and the atmospheric forcing at the air-sea interface were applied on a repeating "perpetual" year climatological cycle.

    The ability of the model to reproduce a realistic circulation of the Sicilian-Maltese shelf area has been demonstrated. The skill of the nesting procedure was tested by model-modelc omparisons showing that the major features of the coarse model flow field can be reproduced by the fine model with additional eddy space scale components. The numerical results included upwelling, mainly in summer and early autumn, along the southern coasts of Sicily and Malta; a strong eastward shelf surface flow along shore to Sicily, forming part of the Atlantic Ionian Stream, with a presence throughout the year and with significant seasonal modulation, and a westward winter intensified flow of LIW centered at a depth of around 280 m under the shelf break to the south of Malta. The seasonal variability in the thermohaline structure of the domain and the associated large-scale flow structures can be related to the current knowledge on the observed hydrography of the area. The level of mesoscale resolution achieved by the model allowed the spatial and temporal evolution of the changing flow patterns, triggered by

  12. Problem Resolution through Electronic Mail: A Five-Step Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandgenett, Neal; Grandgenett, Don

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of electronic mail within the general resolution and management of administrative problems and emphasizes the need for careful attention to problem definition and clarity of language. Presents a research-based five-step model for the effective use of electronic mail based on experiences at the University of Nebraska at Omaha.…

  13. High-resolution modeling of local air-sea interaction within the Marine Continent using COAMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T. G.; Chen, S.; Flatau, M. K.; Smith, T.; Rydbeck, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Maritime Continent (MC) is a region of intense deep atmospheric convection that serves as an important source of forcing for the Hadley and Walker circulations. The convective activity in the MC region spans multiple scales from local mesoscales to regional scales, and impacts equatorial wave propagation, coupled air-sea interaction and intra seasonal oscillations. The complex distribution of islands, shallow seas with fairly small heat storage and deep seas with large heat capacity is challenging to model. Diurnal convection over land-sea is part of a land-sea breeze system on a small scale, and is highly influenced by large variations in orography over land and marginal seas. Daytime solar insolation, run-off from the Archipelago and nighttime rainfall tends to stabilize the water column, while mixing by tidal currents and locally forced winds promote vertical mixing. The runoff from land and rivers and high net precipitation result in fresh water lenses that enhance vertical stability in the water column and help maintain high SST. We use the fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave version of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) developed at NRL with resolution of a few kilometers to investigate the air-sea interaction associated with the land-sea breeze system in the MC under active and inactive phases of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The high resolution enables simulation of strong SST gradients associated with local upwelling in deeper waters and strong salinity gradients near rivers and from heavy precipitation.

  14. Modeling Protein Structure at Near Atomic Resolutions With Gorgon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew L.; Abeysinghe, Sasakthi S.; Schuh, Stephen; Coleman, Ross A.; Abrams, Austin; Marsh, Michael P.; Hryc, Corey F.; Ruths, Troy; Chiu, Wah; Ju, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) has played an increasingly important role in elucidating the structure and function of macromolecular assemblies in near native solution conditions. Typically, however, only non-atomic resolution reconstructions have been obtained for these large complexes, necessitating computational tools for integrating and extracting structural details. With recent advances in cryo-EM, maps at near-atomic resolutions have been achieved for several macromolecular assemblies from which models have been manually constructed. In this work, we describe a new interactive modeling toolkit called Gorgon targeted at intermediate to near-atomic resolution density maps (10-3.5 Å), particularly from cryo-EM. Gorgon's de novo modeling procedure couples sequence-based secondary structure prediction with feature detection and geometric modeling techniques to generate initial protein backbone models. Beyond model building, Gorgon is an extensible interactive visualization platform with a variety of computational tools for annotating a wide variety of 3D volumes. Examples from cryo-EM maps of Rotavirus and Rice Dwarf Virus are used to demonstrate its applicability to modeling protein structure. PMID:21296162

  15. Modelling the observed vertical transport of {sup 7}Be in specific soils with advection dispersion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Astorga, Romina; Velasco, Hugo; Valladares, Diego L.; Lohaiza, Flavia; Ayub, Jimena Juri; Rizzotto, Marcos [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales. Instituto de Matematica Aplicada San Luis - Universidad Nacional de San Luis - CONICET, San Luis (Argentina)

    2014-07-01

    {sup 7}Be is a short-lived environmental radionuclide, produced in the upper atmosphere by spallation of nitrogen and oxygen by cosmic rays. After of the production by the nuclear reaction, {sup 7}Be diffuses through the atmosphere until it attaches to atmospheric aerosols. Subsequently, it is deposited on the earth surface mainly as wet fallout. The main physical processes which transport {sup 7}Be in soil are diffusion and advection by water. Migration parameters and measurements confirm that sorption is the main physical process, which confines {sup 7}Be concentration to soil surface. The literature data show that in soils, {sup 7}Be is concentrated near the surface (0-2 cm) as it is adsorbed onto clay minerals after its deposition on the soil surface and does not penetrate deeper into soils due to its short half-life. The maximum mass activity density of {sup 7}Be is found at the point of input of the radionuclide, i.e. at the surface of the soil column, showing a exponential distribution profile typical of a purely diffusive transport. Many studies applying the advection dispersion models have been reported in the literature in order to modelling the transport of {sup 137}Cs in soils. On them, the models are used to achieve information of the mechanisms that govern the transport, i. e. the model is used to explain the soil profile of radionuclide. The effective dispersion coefficient and the apparent advection velocity of radionuclide in soil are also obtained by fitting the analytical solution of the model equation to measured depth distributions of the radionuclide. In this work, the advective dispersive transport model with linear sorption is used to analyze the vertical migration process of {sup 7}Be in soils of undisturbed or reference sites. The deposition history is approximated by pulse-like input functions and time dependent analytical solution of equation model is obtained. The values of dispersion coefficient and apparent advection velocity obtained

  16. Influence of running velocity on vertical, leg and joint stiffness : modelling and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brughelli, Matt; Cronin, John

    2008-01-01

    Human running can be modelled as either a spring-mass model or multiple springs in series. A force is required to stretch or compress the spring, and thus stiffness, the variable of interest in this paper, can be calculated from the ratio of this force to the change in spring length. Given the link between force and length change, muscle stiffness and mechanical stiffness have been areas of interest to researchers, clinicians, and strength and conditioning practitioners for many years. This review focuses on mechanical stiffness, and in particular, vertical, leg and joint stiffness, since these are the only stiffness types that have been directly calculated during human running. It has been established that as running velocity increases from slow-to-moderate values, leg stiffness remains constant while both vertical stiffness and joint stiffness increase. However, no studies have calculated vertical, leg or joint stiffness over a range of slow-to-moderate values to maximum values in an athletic population. Therefore, the effects of faster running velocities on stiffness are relatively unexplored. Furthermore, no experimental research has examined the effects of training on vertical, leg or joint stiffness and the subsequent effects on running performance. Various methods of training (Olympic style weightlifting, heavy resistance training, plyometrics, eccentric strength training) have shown to be effective at improving running performance. However, the effects of these training methods on vertical, leg and joint stiffness are unknown. As a result, the true importance of stiffness to running performance remains unexplored, and the best practice for changing stiffness to optimize running performance is speculative at best. It is our hope that a better understanding of stiffness, and the influence of running speed on stiffness, will lead to greater interest and an increase in experimental research in this area.

  17. Evaluating hydrography, circulation and transport in a coastal archipelago using a high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Laura; Miettunen, Elina; Alenius, Pekka; Myrberg, Kai

    2018-04-01

    We used a 3D hydrodynamic model, COHERENS, to simulate the temperature, salinity and currents in an extremely complicated area, the Archipelago Sea in the Baltic Sea. The high-resolution model domain with approximately 460 m resolution was nested inside a coarser resolution ( 3.7 km) grid covering the entire Baltic Sea. The verification of the model results against temperature and salinity measurements showed that the model well captured the seasonal temperature cycle in the surface layer, both in the inner and outer archipelago. In the inner archipelago, the model tended to reproduce higher temperatures in the bottom layer than were measured. The modelled vertical temperature and salinity stratifications were not as pronounced as the measured ones but did describe the overall vertical structure. There was large year-to-year variability in the annual mean surface circulation, both in direction and magnitude. In the deeper channels crossing the Archipelago Sea, there were some year-to-year differences in the magnitudes of the bottom layer currents, but there was very little difference in the directions. These differences were studied by introducing passive tracers into the model through river discharge and as point sources. The results showed that the prevailing wind conditions resulted in southward net transport from the Bothnian Sea towards the Baltic Proper. However, due to the variability in the wind conditions in some years, a significant proportion of transport can also be towards north, from the Baltic Proper to the Bothnian Sea.

  18. Comprehensive gravitational modeling of the vertical cylindrical prism by Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh, M. F.; Hashemi, H.; von Frese, R. RB

    2018-01-01

    Forward modeling is the basis of gravitational anomaly inversion that is widely applied to map subsurface mass variations. This study uses numerical least-squares Gauss-Legendre quadrature (GLQ) integration to evaluate the gravitational potential, anomaly and gradient components of the vertical cylindrical prism element. These results, in turn, may be integrated to accurately model the complete gravitational effects of fluid bearing rock formations and other vertical cylinder-like geological bodies with arbitrary variations in shape and density. Comparing the GLQ gravitational effects of uniform density, vertical circular cylinders against the effects calculated by a number of other methods illustrates the veracity of the GLQ modeling method and the accuracy limitations of the other methods. Geological examples include modeling the gravitational effects of a formation washout to help map azimuthal variations of the formation's bulk densities around the borehole wall. As another application, the gravitational effects of a seismically and gravimetrically imaged salt dome within the Laurentian Basin are evaluated for the velocity, density and geometric properties of the Basin's sedimentary formations.

  19. Standardization of the Definitions of Vertical Resolution and Uncertainty in the NDACC-archived Ozone and Temperature Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, T.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Payen, Godin-Beekmann; Gabarrot, Franck; vanGijsel, Anne; Bandoro, J.; Sica, R.; Trickl, T.

    2012-01-01

    The international Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) is a global network of high-quality, remote-sensing research stations for observing and understanding the physical and chemical state of the Earth atmosphere. As part of NDACC, over 20 ground-based lidar instruments are dedicated to the long-term monitoring of atmospheric composition and to the validation of space-borne measurements of the atmosphere from environmental satellites such as Aura and ENVISAT. One caveat of large networks such as NDACC is the difficulty to archive measurement and analysis information consistently from one research group (or instrument) to another [1][2][3]. Yet the need for consistent definitions has strengthened as datasets of various origin (e.g., satellite and ground-based) are increasingly used for intercomparisons, validation, and ingested together in global assimilation systems.In the framework of the 2010 Call for Proposals by the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) located in Bern, Switzerland, a Team of lidar experts was created to address existing issues in three critical aspects of the NDACC lidar ozone and temperature data retrievals: signal filtering and the vertical filtering of the retrieved profiles, the quantification and propagation of the uncertainties, and the consistent definition and reporting of filtering and uncertainties in the NDACC- archived products. Additional experts from the satellite and global data standards communities complement the team to help address issues specific to the latter aspect.

  20. High-resolution global CO2 modeling: a comparison to GOSAT column CO2 retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. F.

    2010-12-01

    Over a year’s worth of column CO2 concentrations retrieved by the Japanese Greenhouse-gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) are now available: with a global distribution and good sensitivity down to the surface, these data could provide an important new view of the functioning of the global carbon cycle. The retrievals seem to be corrupted by systematic errors with a magnitude of several ppm, however; to be truly useful, these biases must be greatly reduced before being used in atmospheric transport inversions. Here GOSAT column CO2 retrievals are compared to values from a high-resolution global atmospheric transport model; the residuals are correlated with a variety of factors (including aerosol optical depth, cloud coverage, surface type, and viewing geometry) globally, across a full year of data, to help identify systematic errors in the retrievals and attribute them to possible causes. This broad comparison to model data is meant to complement the comparison to in situ CO2 measurements and upward-looking Fourier spectrometer data currently being used to validate the retrievals at a relatively few times and locations. NASA’s GEOS5 analyzed meteorology products at 0.5° x 0.67° resolution (lat/lon) are used both to compute diurnally-varying land biospheric fluxes (with the SiB model) and to transport these fluxes through the atmosphere with the off-line PCTM model (40 vertical layers, also at 0.5° x 0.67°). Global fossil fuel fluxes with similarly-high spatial resolution, but low temporal resolution, plus monthly varying air-sea fluxes from an ocean model, are also transported. The net fluxes and CO2 fields are optimized at coarse scales in a Transcom-like time-dependent inversion to agree with data from the in situ CO2 measurement network before the GOSAT comparison is made.

  1. Mathematically modelling the power requirement for a vertical shaft mowing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Simón Pérez de Corcho Fuentes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a mathematical model for determining the power demand for a vertical shaft mowing machine, particularly taking into account the influence of speed on cutting power, which is different from that of other models of mowers. The influence of the apparatus’ rotation and translation speeds was simulated in determining power demand. The results showed that no chan-ges in cutting power were produced by varying the knives’ angular speed (if translation speed was constant, while cutting power became increased if translation speed was increased. Variations in angular speed, however, influenced other parameters deter-mining total power demand. Determining this vertical shaft mower’s cutting pattern led to obtaining good crop stubble quality at the mower’s lower rotation speed, hence reducing total energy requirements.

  2. Analytical modeling of coupled flow and geomechanics for vertical fractured well in tight gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ruifei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of coupled flow and geomechanics for a vertical fractured well in tight gas reservoirs was established. The analytical modeling of unidirectional flow and radial flow was achieved by Laplace transforms and integral transforms. The results show that uncoupled flow would lead to an overestimate in performance of a vertical fractured well, especially in the later stage. The production rate decreases with elastic modulus because porosity and permeability decrease accordingly. Drawdown pressure should be optimized to lower the impact of coupled flow and geomechanics as a result of permeability decreasing. Production rate increases with fracture half-length significantly in the initial stage and becomes stable gradually. This study could provide a theoretical basis for effective development of tight gas reservoirs.

  3. Analytical modeling of coupled flow and geomechanics for vertical fractured well in tight gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruifei; Gao, Xuhua; Song, Hongqing; Shang, Xinchun

    2017-12-01

    The mathematical model of coupled flow and geomechanics for a vertical fractured well in tight gas reservoirs was established. The analytical modeling of unidirectional flow and radial flow was achieved by Laplace transforms and integral transforms. The results show that uncoupled flow would lead to an overestimate in performance of a vertical fractured well, especially in the later stage. The production rate decreases with elastic modulus because porosity and permeability decrease accordingly. Drawdown pressure should be optimized to lower the impact of coupled flow and geomechanics as a result of permeability decreasing. Production rate increases with fracture half-length significantly in the initial stage and becomes stable gradually. This study could provide a theoretical basis for effective development of tight gas reservoirs.

  4. Economic Integration and Quality Standards in a Duopoly Model with Horizontal and Vertical Product Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    This paper examines the effects of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries with one producer in each country. The products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In absence of quality regulation, the two producers determine prices and quality levels...... product. On the unregulated markets, integration increases welfare in both countries if they are almost of similar size. However, if the countries are very asymmetrical with respect to size, market integration may harm welfare in the large country. Welfare effects by introduction of minimum quality...... standards are also ambiguous depending on the parameters of the model. Keywords: Vertical product differentiation; horizontal product differentiation; market integration; duopoly; minimum quality standard. JEL: F12, F13, F14....

  5. Mathematical modelling of thermal and flow processes in vertical ground heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pater Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main task of mathematical modelling of thermal and flow processes in vertical ground heat exchanger (BHE-Borehole Heat Exchanger is to determine the unit of borehole depth heat flux obtainable or transferred during the operation of the installation. This assignment is indirectly associated with finding the circulating fluid temperature flowing out from the U-tube at a given inlet temperature of fluid in respect to other operational parameters of the installation.

  6. Analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model for a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-05-01

    A SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination for a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the total population is time dependent, and fertility, mortality and removal rates depend on age. We establish the existence and the uniqueness of the solution and obtain the asymptotic behaviour for the solution. For the steady state solution a critical vaccination coverage which will eventually eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 18 refs

  7. Experimental investigation on the evaporation of a wet porous layer inside a vertical channel with resolution of the heat equation by inverse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzi, A.; Foudhil, W.; Harmand, S.; Ben Jabrallah, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental study of the evaporation of a wet porous layer inside a vertical channel. • Resolution of the heat equation by inverse method. • The use of the porous layer is more efficient for high heating flux and low liquid inlet flow. • To improve the evaporation, the system must operate at low water inlet flow. - Abstract: In this paper, we realize an Experimental study of the evaporation of a wet porous layer inside a vertical channel. To develop this study, an experimental dispositive was realised. We measure the temperature along the plate and the evaporated flow rate using the test bed. From these measurements we note that the profiles of the temperature are divided into two areas: the heating and the evaporation zone. We also note that the use of the porous layer is more efficient for high heating flux and low liquid inlet flow. In addition, we studied different dimensionless numbers by solving the energy equation by inverse method. We note that the latent Nusselt number is more important than the sensible Nusselt Number, which proves that the flow dissipated by evaporation is greater than the one used by the film to increase its temperature.

  8. Experimental Study of a Reference Model Vertical-Axis Cross-Flow Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Bachant, Peter; Wosnik, Martin; Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical power, total rotor drag, and near-wake velocity of a 1:6 scale model (1.075 m diameter) of the US Department of Energy?s Reference Model vertical-axis cross-flow turbine were measured experimentally in a towing tank, to provide a comprehensive open dataset for validating numerical models. Performance was measured for a range of tip speed ratios and at multiple Reynolds numbers by varying the rotor?s angular velocity and tow carriage speed, respectively. A peak power coefficient...

  9. A Co-Opetitive Automated Negotiation Model for Vertical Allied Enterprises Teams and Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiguang Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Upstream and downstream of supply chain enterprises often form a tactic vertical alliance to enhance their operational efficiency and maintain their competitive edges in the market. Hence, it is critical for an alliance to collaborate over their internal resources and resolve the profit conflicts among members, so that the functionality required by stakeholders can be fulfilled. As an effective solution, automated negotiation for the vertical allied enterprises team and stakeholder will sufficiently make use of emerging team advantages and significantly reduce the profit conflicts in teams with grouping decisions rather than unilateral decisions by some leader. In this paper, an automated negotiation model is designed to describe both the collaborative game process among the team members and the competitive negotiation process between the allied team and the stakeholder. Considering the co-competitiveness of the vertical allied team, the designed model helps the team members making decision for their own sake, and the team counter-offers for the ongoing negotiation are generated with non-cooperative game process, where the profit derived from negotiation result is distributed with Shapley value method according to contribution or importance contributed by each team member. Finally, a case study is given to testify the effectiveness of the designed model.

  10. Modelling the relationship between water level and vertical displacements on the Yamula Dam, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bayrak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring deformation pattern of dams is often one of the most effective ways to understand their safety status. The main objective of the study is to find the extent to which rising reservoir level affects the mechanism of deformation of The Yamula Dam under certain change in the reservoir level conditions during to the first filling period. Three different deformation analysis techniques, namely static, kinematic and dynamic, were used to analyze four geodetic monitoring records consisting of vertical displacements of nine object points established on the Dam and six reference points surrounding of it, to see whether the rising reservoir level have a role in the vertical deformations during the first filling period. The largest vertical displacements were in the middle of the dam. There is an apparent linear relationship between the dam subsidence and the reservoir level. A dynamic deformation model was developed to model this situation. The model infers a causative relationship between the reservoir level and the dam deformations. The analysis of the results determines the degree of the correlation between the change in the reservoir level and the observed structural deformation of the dam.

  11. The Functional Model Approach to the Consulting for Vertically - Integrated Construction Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenova Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managerial decision making in the framework of functional modeling of the consulting process have a direct effect on other business - processes of vertically - integrated group of construction companies. As a result, the experience of consulting companies tends to be used for the making managerial solutions. Consultancy is known as one of the most complicated types of buisiness process. It requires a huge and deep examines and researches of targeting area, therefore need to be provided with special methodology, included internal standards of the consulting companies. Correct methodological support, planning process and implementation of managerial solutions should be based on the survey of the direct and inverse connections and interdependence of all group’s business – processes. Functional - process modeling of the vertically - integrated construction group could be considered as an instrument of examination and analysis of the issue how the managerial solution impact on the business-process for the construction group functioning. The main result of the research is the formalized process-oriented model – prototype of the business - processes of vertically - integrated group of construction companies.

  12. Integration of DAS (distributed acoustic sensing) vertical seismic profile and geostatistically modeled lithology data to characterize an enhanced geothermal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, S. P.; Trainor Guitton, W.; Team, P.; Pare, A.; Jreij, S.; Powers, H.

    2017-12-01

    In March 2016, a 4-week field data acquisition took place at Brady's Natural Lab (BNL), an enhanced geothermal system (EGS) in Fallan, NV. During these 4 weeks, a vibe truck executed 6,633 sweeps, recorded by nodal seismometers, horizontal distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) cable, and 400 meters of vertical DAS cable. DAS provides lower signal to noise ratio than traditional geophones but better spatial resolution. The analysis of DAS VSP included Fourier transform, and filtering to remove all up-going energy. Thus, allowing for accurate first arrival picking. We present an example of the Gradual Deformation Method (GDM) using DAS VSP and lithological data to produce a distribution of valid velocity models of BNL. GDM generates continuous perturbations of prior model realizations seeking the best match to the data (i.e. minimize the misfit). Prior model realizations honoring the lithological data were created using sequential Gaussian simulation, a commonly used noniterative geostatistical method. Unlike least-squares-based methods of inversion, GDM readily incorporates a priori information, such as a variogram calculated from well-based lithology information. Additionally, by producing a distribution of models, as opposed to one optimal model, GDM allows for uncertainty quantification. This project aims at assessing the integrated technologies ability to monitor changes in the water table (possibly to one meter resolution) by exploiting the dependence of seismic wave velocities on water saturation of the subsurface. This project, which was funded in part by the National Science Foundation, is a part of the PoroTomo project, funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. A generative model for resolution enhancement of diffusion MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Pew-Thian; An, Hongyu; Chen, Yasheng; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    The advent of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI) presents unique opportunities for the exploration of white matter connectivity in vivo and non-invasively. However, DMRI suffers from insufficient spatial resolution, often limiting its utility to the studying of only major white matter structures. Many image enhancement techniques rely on expensive scanner upgrades and complex time-consuming sequences. We will instead take a post-processing approach in this paper for resolution enhancement of DMRI data. This will allow the enhancement of existing data without re-acquisition. Our method uses a generative model that reflects the image generation process and, after the parameters of the model have been estimated, we can effectively sample high-resolution images from this model. More specifically, we assume that the diffusion-weighted signal at each voxel is an agglomeration of signals from an ensemble of fiber segments that can be oriented and located freely within the voxel. Our model for each voxel therefore consists of an arbitrary number of signal generating fiber segments, and the model parameters that need to be determined are the locations and orientations of these fiber segments. Solving for these parameters is an ill-posed problem. However, by borrowing information from neighboring voxels, we show that this can be solved by using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods such as the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Preliminary results indicate that out method substantially increases structural visibility in both subcortical and cortical regions.

  14. Using a stand-level model to predict light absorption in stands with vertically and horizontally heterogeneous canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Forrester

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest ecosystem functioning is strongly influenced by the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (APAR, and therefore, accurate predictions of APAR are critical for many process-based forest growth models. The Lambert-Beer law can be applied to estimate APAR for simple homogeneous canopies composed of one layer, one species, and no canopy gaps. However, the vertical and horizontal structure of forest canopies is rarely homogeneous. Detailed tree-level models can account for this heterogeneity but these often have high input and computational demands and work on finer temporal and spatial resolutions than required by stand-level growth models. The aim of this study was to test a stand-level light absorption model that can estimate APAR by individual species in mixed-species and multi-layered stands with any degree of canopy openness including open-grown trees to closed canopies. Methods The stand-level model was compared with a detailed tree-level model that has already been tested in mixed-species stands using empirical data. Both models were parameterised for five different forests, including a wide range of species compositions, species proportions, stand densities, crown architectures and canopy structures. Results The stand-level model performed well in all stands except in the stand where extinction coefficients were unusually variable and it appears unlikely that APAR could be predicted in such stands using (tree- or stand-level models that do not allow individuals of a given species to have different extinction coefficients, leaf-area density or analogous parameters. Conclusion This model is parameterised with species-specific information about extinction coefficients and mean crown length, diameter, height and leaf area. It could be used to examine light dynamics in complex canopies and in stand-level growth models.

  15. Importance of resolution and model configuration when downscaling extreme precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J. Champion

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical downscaling is frequently used to investigate the dynamical variables of extra-tropical cyclones, for example, precipitation, using very high-resolution models nested within coarser resolution models to understand the processes that lead to intense precipitation. It is also used in climate change studies, using long timeseries to investigate trends in precipitation, or to look at the small-scale dynamical processes for specific case studies. This study investigates some of the problems associated with dynamical downscaling and looks at the optimum configuration to obtain the distribution and intensity of a precipitation field to match observations. This study uses the Met Office Unified Model run in limited area mode with grid spacings of 12, 4 and 1.5 km, driven by boundary conditions provided by the ECMWF Operational Analysis to produce high-resolution simulations for the Summer of 2007 UK flooding events. The numerical weather prediction model is initiated at varying times before the peak precipitation is observed to test the importance of the initialisation and boundary conditions, and how long the simulation can be run for. The results are compared to raingauge data as verification and show that the model intensities are most similar to observations when the model is initialised 12 hours before the peak precipitation is observed. It was also shown that using non-gridded datasets makes verification more difficult, with the density of observations also affecting the intensities observed. It is concluded that the simulations are able to produce realistic precipitation intensities when driven by the coarser resolution data.

  16. A Polytime Algorithm Based on a Primal LP Model for the Scheduling Problem 1 vertical bar pmtn;p(j)=2;r(j)vertical bar Sigma w(j)C(j)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Harmen W.; Goldengorin, Boris; Lagakos, S; Perlovsky, L; Jha, M; Covaci, B; Zaharim, A; Mastorakis, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a Boolean Linear Programming (BLP) model is presented for the single machine scheduling problem 1 vertical bar pmtn; p(j) = 2;r(j)vertical bar Sigma w(j)C(j). The problem is a special case of the open problem 1 vertical bar pmtn; p(j) = p; r(j)vertical bar Sigma wj(g)C(j). We show that

  17. Low-Resolution Modeling of Dense Drainage Networks in Confining Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauw, P S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Leijnse, A; Delsman, J R; De Louw, P G B; De Lange, W J; Oude Essink, G H P

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interaction in numerical groundwater flow models is generally simulated using a Cauchy boundary condition, which relates the flow between the surface water and the groundwater to the product of the head difference between the node and the surface water level, and a coefficient, often referred to as the "conductance." Previous studies have shown that in models with a low grid resolution, the resistance to GW-SW interaction below the surface water bed should often be accounted for in the parameterization of the conductance, in addition to the resistance across the surface water bed. Three conductance expressions that take this resistance into account were investigated: two that were presented by Mehl and Hill (2010) and the one that was presented by De Lange (1999). Their accuracy in low-resolution models regarding salt and water fluxes to a dense drainage network in a confined aquifer system was determined. For a wide range of hydrogeological conditions, the influence of (1) variable groundwater density; (2) vertical grid discretization; and (3) simulation of both ditches and tile drains in a single model cell was investigated. The results indicate that the conductance expression of De Lange (1999) should be used in similar hydrogeological conditions as considered in this paper, as it is better taking into account the resistance to flow below the surface water bed. For the cases that were considered, the influence of variable groundwater density and vertical grid discretization on the accuracy of the conductance expression of De Lange (1999) is small. © 2014, National GroundWater Association.

  18. High Resolution Vertical Seismic Profile from the Chicxulub IODP/ICDP Expedition 364 Borehole: Wave Speeds and Seismic Reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C.; Kofman, R.; Schmitt, D. R.; Lofi, J.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Christeson, G. L.; Saustrup, S., Sr.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    We acquired a closely-spaced vertical seismic profile (VSP) in the Chicxulub K-Pg Impact Crater drilling program borehole to calibrate the existing surface seismic profiles and provide complementary measurements of in situ seismic wave speeds. Downhole seismic records were obtained at spacings ranging from 1.25 m to 5 m along the borehole from 47.5 m to 1325 mwsf (meters wireline below sea floor) (Fig 1a) using a Sercel SlimwaveTM geophone chain (University of Alberta). The seismic source was a 30/30ci Sercel Mini GI airgun (University of Texas), fired a minimum of 5 times per station. Seismic data processing used a combination of a commercial processing package (Schlumberger's VISTA) and MatlabTM codes. The VSP displays detailed reflectivity (Fig. 1a) with the strongest reflection seen at 600 mwsf (280 ms one-way time), geologically corresponding to the sharp contact between the post-impact sediments and the target peak ring rock, thus confirming the pre-drilling interpretations of the seismic profiles. A two-way time trace extracted from the separated up-going wavefield matches the major reflection both in travel time and character. In the granitic rocks that form the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater, we observe P-wave velocities of 4000-4500 m/s which are significantly less than the expected values of granitoids ( 6000 m/s) (Fig. 1b). The VSP measured wave speeds are confirmed against downhole sonic logging and in laboratory velocimetry measurements; these data provide additional evidence that the crustal material displaced by the impact experienced a significant amount of damage. Samples and data provided by IODP. Samples can be requested at http://web.iodp.tamu.edu/sdrm after 19 October 2017. Expedition 364 was jointly funded by ECORD, ICDP, and IODP with contributions and logistical support from the Yucatan State Government and UNAM. The downhole seismic chain and wireline system is funded by grants to DRS from the Canada Foundation for Innovation and

  19. Presal36: a high resolution ocean current model for Brazilian pre-salt area: implementation and validation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoellkopf, Jacques P. [Advanced Subsea do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The PRESAL 36 JIP is a project for the development of a powerful Ocean Current Model of 1/36 of a degree resolution, nested in an existing Global Ocean global Model, Mercator PSY4 (1/12-a-degree resolution ), with tide corrections, improved bathymetry accuracy and high frequency atmospheric forcing (every 3 hours). The simulation outputs will be the 3 dimensional structure of the velocity fields (u,v,w) at 50 vertical levels over the water column, including geostrophic, Ekman and tidal currents, together with Temperature, Salinity and sea surface height at a sub-mesoscale spatial resolution. Simulations will run in hindcast, nowcast and forecast modes, with a temporal resolution of 3 hours . This Ocean current model will allow to perform detailed statistical studies on various areas using conditions analysed using hindcast mode, short term operational condition prediction for various surface and sub sea operations using realtime and Forecast modes. The paper presents a publication of significant results of the project, in term of pre-sal zoomed model implementation, and high resolution model validation. It demonstrate the capability to properly describe ocean current phenomenon at beyond mesoscale frontier. This project demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining accurate information for engineering studies and operational conditions, based on a 'zoom technique' starting from global ocean models. (author)

  20. A model for the performance of a vertical tube condenser in the presence of noncondensable gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guentay, A.D.S.

    1995-09-01

    Some proposed vertical tube condensers are designed to operate at high noncondensable fractions, which warrants a simple model to predict their performance. Models developed thus far are usually non self-contained as they require the specification of the wall temperature to predict the local condensation rate. The present model attempts to fill this gap by addressing the secondary side heat transfer as well. Starting with momentum balance which includes the effect of interfacial shear stress, a Nusselt-type algebraic equation is derived for the film thickness as a function of flow and geometry parameters. The heat and mass transfer analogy relations are then invoked to deduce the condensation rate of steam onto the tube wall. Lastly, the heat transfer to the secondary side is modelled to include cooling by forced, free or mixed convection flows. The model is used for parametric simulations to determine the impact on the condenser performance of important factors such as the inlet gas fraction, the mixture inlet flowrate, the total pressure, and the molecular weight of the noncondensable gas. The model performed simulations of some experiments with pure steam and air-steam mixtures flowing down a vertical tube. The model predicts the data quite well.

  1. Equatorial ionospheric zonal drift model and vertical drift statistics from UHF scintillation measurements in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Sheehan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available UHF scintillation measurements of zonal ionospheric drifts have been conducted at Ancon, Peru since 1994 using antennas spaced in the magnetic east-west direction to cross-correlate geo-synchronous satellite signals. An empirical model of average drift over a wide range of Kp and solar flux conditions was constructed from successive two-dimensional fits of drift vs. the parameters and day of year. The model exhibits the typical local time trend of maximum eastward velocity in the early evening with a gradual decrease and reversal in the early morning hours. As expected, velocities at all hours increase with the solar flux and decrease with Kp activity. It was also found that vertical drifts could contribute to the variability of drift measurements to the east of Ancon at a low elevation angle. The vertical drift at the ionospheric intersection to the east can be estimated when combined with nearly overhead observations at Ancon or a similar spaced-antenna site at Antofagasta, Chile. Comparisons on five days with nearly simultaneous measurements of vertical drift by the Julia radar at Jicamarca, Peru show varying agreement with the spaced-antenna estimates. Statistical results from 1997 to 2001 generally agree with radar and satellite studies.

  2. An analytical model for the vertical electric field distribution and optimization of high voltage REBULF LDMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xia-Rong; Lü Rui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an analytical model for the vertical electric field distribution and optimization of a high voltage-reduced bulk field (REBULF) lateral double-diffused metal—oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) transistor is presented. The dependences of the breakdown voltage on the buried n-layer depth, thickness, and doping concentration are discussed in detail. The REBULF criterion and the optimal vertical electric field distribution condition are derived on the basis of the optimization of the electric field distribution. The breakdown voltage of the REBULF LDMOS transistor is always higher than that of a single reduced surface field (RESURF) LDMOS transistor, and both analytical and numerical results show that it is better to make a thick n-layer buried deep into the p-substrate. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  3. Tests of 40 mm SSC dipole model magnets with vertically split yokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koska, W.; Bossert, R.; Coulter, K.J.; Delchamps, S.; Gourlay, S.; Kinney, W.; Jaffery, T.S.; Lamm, M.J.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.

    1991-05-01

    Several 1 meter long, 40 mm aperture model SSC dipole magnets with vertically split yokes have been built and tested at Fermilab. In addition to the yoke design, these magnets were used to evaluate several variants of the collet clamps which apply prestress to the magnet ends. The magnets were instrumented with voltage taps for quench localization and strain gage based devices for measuring stresses, forces and deflections resulting from cooldown and excitation. Test were carried out in a vertical dewar at temperatures from 3.8 degree K to 4.4 degree K. The quench and mechanical behavior of these magnets will be presented and magnetic field measurements will be shown. A comparison with an earlier series of magnets with horizontally split yokes will be made. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. A Comparison of Vertical Deformations Derived from Space-based Gravimetry, Ground-based Sensors, and Model-based Hydrologic Loading over the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, G.; Forman, B. A.; Loomis, B. D.; Luthcke, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Vertical deformation of the Earth's crust due to the movement and redistribution of terrestrial freshwater can be studied using satellite measurements, ground-based sensors, hydrologic models, or a combination thereof. This current study explores the relationship between vertical deformation estimates derived from mass concentrations (mascons) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), vertical deformation from ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) observations collected from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), and hydrologic loading estimates based on model output from the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model (Catchment). A particular focus is made to snow-dominated basins where mass accumulates during the snow season and subsequently runs off during the ablation season. The mean seasonal cycle and the effects of atmospheric loading, non-tidal ocean loading, and glacier isostatic adjustment (GIA) are removed from the GPS observations in order to derive the vertical displacement caused predominately by hydrological processes. A low-pass filter is applied to GPS observations to remove high frequency noise. Correlation coefficients between GRACE- and GPS-based estimates at all PBO sites are calculated. GRACE-derived and Catchment-derived displacements are subtracted from the GPS height variations, respectively, in order to compute the root mean square (RMS) reduction as a means of studying the consistency between the three different methods. Results show that in most sites, the three methods exhibit good agreement. Exceptions to this generalization include the Central Valley of California where extensive groundwater pumping is witnessed in the GRACE- and GPS-based estimates, but not in the Catchment-based estimates because anthropogenic groundwater pumping activities are not included in the Catchment model. The relatively good agreement between GPS- and GRACE-derived vertical crustal displacements suggests that ground-based GPS has tremendous

  5. A two-fluid model for vertical flow applied to CO2 injection wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linga, Gaute; Lund, Halvor

    2016-01-01

    to thermal stresses and subsequent loss of well integrity, and it is therefore crucial to employ models that can predict this accurately. In this work, we present a model for vertical well flow that includes both two-phase flow and heat conduction. The flow is described by a two-fluid model, where mass...... robust transition from two-phase to single-phase flow than the previous formulation. The model predicts which flow regimes are present downhole, and calculates friction and heat transfer depending on this. Moreover, the flow model is coupled with a heat conduction model for the layers that comprise......Flow of CO2 in wells is associated with substantial variations in thermophysical properties downhole, due to the coupled transient processes involved: complex flow patterns, density changes, phase transitions, and heat transfer to and from surroundings. Large temperature variations can lead...

  6. Soil-Pile Interaction in the Pile Vertical Vibration Based on Fictitious Soil-Pile Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By introducing the fictitious soil-pile model, the soil-pile interaction in the pile vertical vibration is investigated. Firstly, assuming the surrounding soil of pile to be viscoelastic material and considering its vertical wave effect, the governing equations of soil-pile system subjected to arbitrary harmonic dynamic force are founded based on the Euler-Bernoulli rod theory. Secondly, the analytical solution of velocity response in frequency domain and its corresponding semianalytical solution of velocity response in time domain are derived by means of Laplace transform technique and separation of variables technique. Based on the obtained solutions, the influence of parameters of pile end soil on the dynamic response is studied in detail for different designing parameters of pile. Lastly, the fictitious soil-pile model and other pile end soil supporting models are compared. It is shown that the dynamic response obtained by the fictitious soil-pile model is among the dynamic responses obtained by other existing models if there are appropriate material parameters and thickness of pile end soil for the fictitious soil-pile model.

  7. Superstring sigma models from spin chains: the SU(1,1 vertical bar 1) case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S.; Casteill, P.-Y.; Morales, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    We derive the coherent state representation of the integrable spin chain Hamiltonian with non-compact supersymmetry group G=SU(1,1 vertical bar 1). By passing to the continuous limit, we find a spin chain sigma model describing a string moving on the supercoset G/H, H being the stabilizer group. The action is written in a manifestly G-invariant form in terms of the Cartan forms and the string coordinates in the supercoset. The spin chain sigma model is shown to agree with that following from the Green-Schwarz action describing two-charged string spinning on AdS 5 xS 5

  8. Numerical Modeling of Scour at the Head of a Vertical-Wall Breakwater in Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, C.; Balcı, H. B.; Sumer, B. M.; Fuhrman, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a 3D numerical modeling study on the flow and scour at the head of a vertical-wall breakwater in regular waves. The numerical model utilized in the study is based on that given by Jacobsen (2011). The present model has been applied successfully to the scour and backfilling beneath submarine pipelines by Fuhrman et al. (2014), and around a vertical cylindrical pile mounted on a horizontal plane sediment bed by Baykal et al. (2015, 2017). The model is composed of two main modules. The first module is the hydrodynamic model where Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations are solved with a k-ω turbulence closure. The second module is the morphologic model which comprises five sub-modules, namely; bed load, suspended load, sand slide, bed evolution and 3D mesh motion. The model is constructed in open-source CFD toolbox OpenFOAM. In this study, the model is applied to experimental data sets of Sumer and Fredsoe (1997) on the scour around a vertical-wall breakwater with a circular round head. Here, it is given the preliminary results of bed evolution of Test-8 of Sumer and Fredsoe (1997) in which a vertical-wall breakwater head with a width of B=140 mm is subjected to oscillatory flow with Tw=2.0 s and maximum orbital velocity at the bed Um=22cm/s, resulting in a Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC=3.14, close to KC experienced in real-life situations (KC = O(1)). The grain size is d=0.17 mm. The Shields parameter in the test case is given as θc=0.11, larger than the critical value for the initiation of motion implying that the scour is in the live-bed regime. The computational domain used in the simulations has the following dimensions: Length, l=40B, Width, w=20B, and Height, h=2B. The total number of cells is O(105) in the simulations. The scoured bed profile computed at the end of 3 periods of oscillatory flow of Test-8 is given in the figure below. The color scale in the figure is given for the ratio of bed elevation to the width of breakwater

  9. Mixed convective low flow pressure drop in vertical rod assemblies - I. Predictive model and design correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.Y.; Todreas, N.E.; Robsenow, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to confirm and validate the predictive models and correlations for low flow frictional pressure loss in vertical rod bundle geometries under natural circulation conditions. An experimental procedure has been developed to measure low magnitude differential pressures under mixed convection conditions in 19 heated rod bare and wire-wrapped assemblies. The proposed model has been found to successfully predict the effects of wire wrapping, power skew, transition from laminar regime, developing and interacting global and local flow redistributions, and rod number on the mixed convection friction loss characteristics of rod bundles

  10. Estuarine modeling: Does a higher grid resolution improve model performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological models are useful tools to explore cause effect relationships, test hypothesis and perform management scenarios. A mathematical model, the Gulf of Mexico Dissolved Oxygen Model (GoMDOM), has been developed and applied to the Louisiana continental shelf of the northern ...

  11. Towards a 1km resolution global flood risk model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeff; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in computationally efficient numerical algorithms and new High Performance Computing architectures now make high (1-2km) resolution global hydrodynamic models a realistic proposition. However in many areas of the world the data sets and tools necessary to undertake such modelling do not currently exist. In particular, five major problems need to be resolved: (1) the best globally available terrain data (SRTM) was generated from X-band interferometric radar data which does not penetrate vegetation canopies and which has significant problems in determining ground elevations in urban areas; (2) a global river bathymetry data set does not currently exist; (3) most river channels globally are less than the smallest currently resolvable grid scale (1km) and therefore require a sub-grid treatment; (4) a means to estimate the magnitude of the T year flood at any point along the global river network does not currently exist; and (5) a large proportion of flood losses are generated by off-floodplain surface water flows which are not well represented in current hydrodynamic modelling systems. In this paper we propose solutions to each of these five issues as part of a concerted effort to develop a 1km (or better) resolution global flood hazard model. We describe the new numerical algorithms, computer architectures and computational resources used, and demonstrate solutions to the five previously intractable problems identified above. We conduct a validation study of the modelling against satellite imagery of major flooding on the Mississippi-Missouri confluence plain in the central USA before outlining a proof-of-concept regional study for SE Asia as a step towards a global scale model. For SE Asia we simulate flood hazard for ten different flood return periods over the entire Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Laos region at 1km resolution and show that the modelling produces coherent, consistent and sensible simulations of extent and water depth.

  12. Vertical repositioning accuracy of magnetic mounting systems on 4 articulator models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonsup; Kwon, Ho-Beom

    2018-03-01

    magnetic mounting plate after repositioning did not maintain an identical position in the vertical dimension on any of the 4 articulator models tested. The repositioning accuracy of the mounting plates showed significant differences among the articulators tested in this study. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. OPTIMAL MODEL OF FUNCTIONING OF OLERICULTURE: VERTICAL INTEGRATION, AGRICULTURAL FILIERES, CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Mindlin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present paper is to identify the optimal strategy of development of the Russian olericulture in order to substitute imported products and to build up logistic and transport infrastructure. Existing problems of the Russian olericulture are described. It is demonstrated that these problems can be solved on the basis of big integrated structures. Formation of these structures can be based on hierarchical (vertical  integration or networking (agricultural filieres or clusters models. A comparative analysis of these models of development of olericulture is made. Advantages and inconveniences of each model are described. It is demonstrated that sustainable development of the Russian olericulture can be insured only by a combination of hierarchical and networking tools. Vertical integration will help to reach quick increase of production, while networking models are necessary for inclusion of small producers into production chains, development of product range and development of supporting industries. Networking models are also necessary for social tasks. It means that the optimal strategy of development of the  Russian olericulture should be based on a combination of networking and hierarchical tools. This combination is necessary for agricultural corporation as well as for the Russian olericulture in general.

  14. Numerical Modeling of the Vertical Heat Transport Through the Diffusive Layer of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    transport through thermohaline staircases in the Arctic region. Results revealed that vertical fluxes exceeded those of extant “four-thirds flux...vertical heat flux, thermohaline staircase 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 73 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18...DNS) were conducted to assess the vertical heat transport through thermohaline staircases in the Arctic region. Results revealed that vertical

  15. Modeling the ascent of sounding balloons: derivation of the vertical air motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gallice

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new model to describe the ascent of sounding balloons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (up to ∼30–35 km altitude is presented. Contrary to previous models, detailed account is taken of both the variation of the drag coefficient with altitude and the heat imbalance between the balloon and the atmosphere. To compensate for the lack of data on the drag coefficient of sounding balloons, a reference curve for the relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number is derived from a dataset of flights launched during the Lindenberg Upper Air Methods Intercomparisons (LUAMI campaign. The transfer of heat from the surrounding air into the balloon is accounted for by solving the radial heat diffusion equation inside the balloon. In its present state, the model does not account for solar radiation, i.e. it is only able to describe the ascent of balloons during the night. It could however be adapted to also represent daytime soundings, with solar radiation modeled as a diffusive process. The potential applications of the model include the forecast of the trajectory of sounding balloons, which can be used to increase the accuracy of the match technique, and the derivation of the air vertical velocity. The latter is obtained by subtracting the ascent rate of the balloon in still air calculated by the model from the actual ascent rate. This technique is shown to provide an approximation for the vertical air motion with an uncertainty error of 0.5 m s−1 in the troposphere and 0.2 m s−1 in the stratosphere. An example of extraction of the air vertical velocity is provided in this paper. We show that the air vertical velocities derived from the balloon soundings in this paper are in general agreement with small-scale atmospheric velocity fluctuations related to gravity waves, mechanical turbulence, or other small-scale air motions measured during the SUCCESS campaign (Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects

  16. The M-2 ocean tide loading wave in Alaska: vertical and horizontal displacements, modelled and observed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Scherneck, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    Crustal deformations caused by surface load due to ocean tides are strongly dependent on the surface load closest to the observing site. In order to correctly model this ocean loading effect near irregular coastal areas, a high-resolution coastline is required. A test is carried out using two GPS...

  17. Modelling turbulent vertical mixing sensitivity using a 1-D version of NEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reffray, G.; Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Calone, C.

    2015-01-01

    Through two numerical experiments, a 1-D vertical model called NEMO1D was used to investigate physical and numerical turbulent-mixing behaviour. The results show that all the turbulent closures tested (k+l from Blanke and Delecluse, 1993, and two equation models: generic length scale closures from Umlauf and Burchard, 2003) are able to correctly reproduce the classical test of Kato and Phillips (1969) under favourable numerical conditions while some solutions may diverge depending on the degradation of the spatial and time discretization. The performances of turbulence models were then compared with data measured over a 1-year period (mid-2010 to mid-2011) at the PAPA station, located in the North Pacific Ocean. The modelled temperature and salinity were in good agreement with the observations, with a maximum temperature error between -2 and 2 °C during the stratified period (June to October). However, the results also depend on the numerical conditions. The vertical RMSE varied, for different turbulent closures, from 0.1 to 0.3 °C during the stratified period and from 0.03 to 0.15 °C during the homogeneous period. This 1-D configuration at the PAPA station (called PAPA1D) is now available in NEMO as a reference configuration including the input files and atmospheric forcing set described in this paper. Thus, all the results described can be recovered by downloading and launching PAPA1D. The configuration is described on the NEMO site (PAPA">http://www.nemo-ocean.eu/Using-NEMO/Configurations/C1D_PAPA). This package is a good starting point for further investigation of vertical processes.

  18. Modelling of NSTX hot vertical displacement events using M 3 D -C 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferlé, D.; Ferraro, N.; Jardin, S. C.; Krebs, I.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2018-05-01

    The main results of an intense vertical displacement event (VDE) modelling activity using the implicit 3D extended MHD code M3D-C1 are presented. A pair of nonlinear 3D simulations are performed using realistic transport coefficients based on the reconstruction of a so-called NSTX frozen VDE where the feedback control was purposely switched off to trigger a vertical instability. The vertical drift phase is solved assuming axisymmetry until the plasma contacts the first wall, at which point the intricate evolution of the plasma, decaying to large extent in force-balance with induced halo/wall currents, is carefully resolved via 3D nonlinear simulations. The faster 2D nonlinear runs allow to assess the sensitivity of the simulations to parameter changes. In the limit of perfectly conducting wall, the expected linear relation between vertical growth rate and wall resistivity is recovered. For intermediate wall resistivities, the halo region contributes to slowing the plasma down, and the characteristic VDE time depends on the choice of halo temperature. The evolution of the current quench and the onset of 3D halo/eddy currents are diagnosed in detail. The 3D simulations highlight a rich structure of toroidal modes, penetrating inwards from edge to core and cascading from high-n to low-n mode numbers. The break-up of flux-surfaces results in a progressive stochastisation of field-lines precipitating the thermalisation of the plasma with the wall. The plasma current then decays rapidly, inducing large currents in the halo region and the wall. Analysis of normal currents flowing in and out of the divertor plate reveals rich time-varying patterns.

  19. Modeled Full-Flight Aircraft Emissions Impacts on Air Quality and Their Sensitivity to Grid Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennam, L. P.; Vizuete, W.; Talgo, K.; Omary, M.; Binkowski, F. S.; Xing, J.; Mathur, R.; Arunachalam, S.

    2017-12-01

    Aviation is a unique anthropogenic source with four-dimensional varying emissions, peaking at cruise altitudes (9-12 km). Aircraft emission budgets in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere region and their potential impacts on upper troposphere and surface air quality are not well understood. Our key objective is to use chemical transport models (with prescribed meteorology) to predict aircraft emissions impacts on the troposphere and surface air quality. We quantified the importance of including full-flight intercontinental emissions and increased horizontal grid resolution. The full-flight aviation emissions in the Northern Hemisphere contributed 1.3% (mean, min-max: 0.46, 0.3-0.5 ppbv) and 0.2% (0.013, 0.004-0.02 μg/m3) of total O3 and PM2.5 concentrations at the surface, with Europe showing slightly higher impacts (1.9% (O3 0.69, 0.5-0.85 ppbv) and 0.5% (PM2.5 0.03, 0.01-0.05 μg/m3)) than North America (NA) and East Asia. We computed seasonal aviation-attributable mass flux vertical profiles and aviation perturbations along isentropic surfaces to quantify the transport of cruise altitude emissions at the hemispheric scale. The comparison of coarse (108 × 108 km2) and fine (36 × 36 km2) grid resolutions in NA showed 70 times and 13 times higher aviation impacts for O3 and PM2.5 in coarser domain. These differences are mainly due to the inability of the coarse resolution simulation to capture nonlinearities in chemical processes near airport locations and other urban areas. Future global studies quantifying aircraft contributions should consider model resolution and perhaps use finer scales near major aviation source regions.

  20. A mechanistic model of heat transfer for gas-liquid flow in vertical wellbore annuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bang-Tang; Li, Xiang-Fang; Liu, Gang

    2018-01-01

    The most prominent aspect of multiphase flow is the variation in the physical distribution of the phases in the flow conduit known as the flow pattern. Several different flow patterns can exist under different flow conditions which have significant effects on liquid holdup, pressure gradient and heat transfer. Gas-liquid two-phase flow in an annulus can be found in a variety of practical situations. In high rate oil and gas production, it may be beneficial to flow fluids vertically through the annulus configuration between well tubing and casing. The flow patterns in annuli are different from pipe flow. There are both casing and tubing liquid films in slug flow and annular flow in the annulus. Multiphase heat transfer depends on the hydrodynamic behavior of the flow. There are very limited research results that can be found in the open literature for multiphase heat transfer in wellbore annuli. A mechanistic model of multiphase heat transfer is developed for different flow patterns of upward gas-liquid flow in vertical annuli. The required local flow parameters are predicted by use of the hydraulic model of steady-state multiphase flow in wellbore annuli recently developed by Yin et al. The modified heat-transfer model for single gas or liquid flow is verified by comparison with Manabe's experimental results. For different flow patterns, it is compared with modified unified Zhang et al. model based on representative diameters.

  1. A high-resolution global flood hazard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Christopher C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bates, Paul B.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Freer, Jim E.

    2015-09-01

    Floods are a natural hazard that affect communities worldwide, but to date the vast majority of flood hazard research and mapping has been undertaken by wealthy developed nations. As populations and economies have grown across the developing world, so too has demand from governments, businesses, and NGOs for modeled flood hazard data in these data-scarce regions. We identify six key challenges faced when developing a flood hazard model that can be applied globally and present a framework methodology that leverages recent cross-disciplinary advances to tackle each challenge. The model produces return period flood hazard maps at ˜90 m resolution for the whole terrestrial land surface between 56°S and 60°N, and results are validated against high-resolution government flood hazard data sets from the UK and Canada. The global model is shown to capture between two thirds and three quarters of the area determined to be at risk in the benchmark data without generating excessive false positive predictions. When aggregated to ˜1 km, mean absolute error in flooded fraction falls to ˜5%. The full complexity global model contains an automatically parameterized subgrid channel network, and comparison to both a simplified 2-D only variant and an independently developed pan-European model shows the explicit inclusion of channels to be a critical contributor to improved model performance. While careful processing of existing global terrain data sets enables reasonable model performance in urban areas, adoption of forthcoming next-generation global terrain data sets will offer the best prospect for a step-change improvement in model performance.

  2. A 4.5 km resolution Arctic Ocean simulation with the global multi-resolution model FESOM 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Wekerle, Claudia; Danilov, Sergey; Wang, Xuezhu; Jung, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    In the framework of developing a global modeling system which can facilitate modeling studies on Arctic Ocean and high- to midlatitude linkage, we evaluate the Arctic Ocean simulated by the multi-resolution Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM). To explore the value of using high horizontal resolution for Arctic Ocean modeling, we use two global meshes differing in the horizontal resolution only in the Arctic Ocean (24 km vs. 4.5 km). The high resolution significantly improves the model's representation of the Arctic Ocean. The most pronounced improvement is in the Arctic intermediate layer, in terms of both Atlantic Water (AW) mean state and variability. The deepening and thickening bias of the AW layer, a common issue found in coarse-resolution simulations, is significantly alleviated by using higher resolution. The topographic steering of the AW is stronger and the seasonal and interannual temperature variability along the ocean bottom topography is enhanced in the high-resolution simulation. The high resolution also improves the ocean surface circulation, mainly through a better representation of the narrow straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). The representation of CAA throughflow not only influences the release of water masses through the other gateways but also the circulation pathways inside the Arctic Ocean. However, the mean state and variability of Arctic freshwater content and the variability of freshwater transport through the Arctic gateways appear not to be very sensitive to the increase in resolution employed here. By highlighting the issues that are independent of model resolution, we address that other efforts including the improvement of parameterizations are still required.

  3. A Computation Fluid Dynamic Model for Gas Lift Process Simulation in a Vertical Oil Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadivar Arash

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous gas-lift in a typical oil well was simulated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD technique. A multi fluid model based on the momentum transfer between liquid and gas bubbles was employed to simulate two-phase flow in a vertical pipe. The accuracy of the model was investigated through comparison of numerical predictions with experimental data. The model then was used to study the dynamic behaviour of the two-phase flow around injection point in details. The predictions by the model were compared with other empirical correlations, as well. To obtain an optimum condition of gas-lift, the influence of the effective parameters including the quantity of injected gas, tubing diameter and bubble size distribution were investigated. The results revealed that increasing tubing diameter, the injected gas rate and decreasing bubble diameter improve gas-lift performance.

  4. A Computation Fluid Dynamic Model for Gas Lift Process Simulation in a Vertical Oil Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Arash; Lay, Ebrahim Nemati

    2017-03-01

    Continuous gas-lift in a typical oil well was simulated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technique. A multi fluid model based on the momentum transfer between liquid and gas bubbles was employed to simulate two-phase flow in a vertical pipe. The accuracy of the model was investigated through comparison of numerical predictions with experimental data. The model then was used to study the dynamic behaviour of the two-phase flow around injection point in details. The predictions by the model were compared with other empirical correlations, as well. To obtain an optimum condition of gas-lift, the influence of the effective parameters including the quantity of injected gas, tubing diameter and bubble size distribution were investigated. The results revealed that increasing tubing diameter, the injected gas rate and decreasing bubble diameter improve gas-lift performance.

  5. Integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered Trademark) Models with the Vertical Motion Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Emily K.; Vuong, Nghia D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered TradeMark) models into the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center. The VMS is a high-fidelity, large motion flight simulator that is capable of simulating a variety of aerospace vehicles. Integrating MATLAB Simulink models into the VMS needed to retain the development flexibility of the MATLAB environment and allow rapid deployment of model changes. The process developed at the VMS was used successfully in a number of recent simulation experiments. This accomplishment demonstrated that the model integrity was preserved, while working within the hard real-time run environment of the VMS architecture, and maintaining the unique flexibility of the VMS to meet diverse research requirements.

  6. High-resolution modeling approaches to understanding changes in extreme precipitation projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, K. M.; Alexander, M. A.; Thompson, G.; Scott, J. D.; Barsugli, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    One of the challenges inherent to understanding the effect of global climate change on precipitation extremes is the mismatch of scale. Climate models simulate large-scale patterns of long-term change, while weather models generally diagnose small-scale weather phenomena such as extreme rainfall. Therefore, understanding the potential effects of global-scale changes on local-scale weather requires new research approaches to connect questions and processes across weather and climate scales. This study represents one such integrated approach by investigating projected changes in warm-season extreme precipitation events using a dynamical downscaling framework that sequentially interfaces climate- and weather-scale data. Focusing on the Colorado Front Range, global simulations are first downscaled to a medium/regional-scale resolution; the resulting simulations are then further downscaled using a high-resolution weather model. The high-resolution model is able to explicitly simulate intense thunderstorms using 1.3-km grid spacing, thus resolving the small-scale physical processes that generate extreme precipitation. Physical process explanations are sought for projected changes in rainfall amount, hail occurrence, and flood risk. Past and future extreme event simulations are compared with respect to environmental drivers such as low-level instability (e.g., CAPE), large-scale forcing, and vertical temperature and moisture profiles. The events are also examined for systematic differences in storm-scale processes such as updraft strength, hail production and hail melting, dry air entrainment, and downdraft formation. Qualitative and quantitative consistency (or the lack thereof) across global, regional, and local-scale simulations is also explored.

  7. Los Angeles megacity: a high-resolution land–atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Feng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Megacities are major sources of anthropogenic fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2 emissions. The spatial extents of these large urban systems cover areas of 10 000 km2 or more with complex topography and changing landscapes. We present a high-resolution land–atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions over the Los Angeles (LA megacity area. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem model was coupled to a very high-resolution FFCO2 emission product, Hestia-LA, to simulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations across the LA megacity at spatial resolutions as fine as  ∼  1 km. We evaluated multiple WRF configurations, selecting one that minimized errors in wind speed, wind direction, and boundary layer height as evaluated by its performance against meteorological data collected during the CalNex-LA campaign (May–June 2010. Our results show no significant difference between moderate-resolution (4 km and high-resolution (1.3 km simulations when evaluated against surface meteorological data, but the high-resolution configurations better resolved planetary boundary layer heights and vertical gradients in the horizontal mean winds. We coupled our WRF configuration with the Vulcan 2.2 (10 km resolution and Hestia-LA (1.3 km resolution fossil fuel CO2 emission products to evaluate the impact of the spatial resolution of the CO2 emission products and the meteorological transport model on the representation of spatiotemporal variability in simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We find that high spatial resolution in the fossil fuel CO2 emissions is more important than in the atmospheric model to capture CO2 concentration variability across the LA megacity. Finally, we present a novel approach that employs simultaneous correlations of the simulated atmospheric CO2 fields to qualitatively evaluate the greenhouse gas measurement network over the LA megacity. Spatial correlations in the atmospheric CO2 fields reflect the coverage of

  8. Modeling and measurement of the motion of the DIII-D vacuum vessel during vertical instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.; Blevins, R.D.; Jensen, T.H.; Luxon, J.L.; Petersen, P.I.; Strait, E.J.

    1991-11-01

    The motions of the D3-D vacuum vessel during vertical instabilities of elongated plasmas have been measured and studied over the past five years. The currents flowing in the vessel wall and the plasma scrapeoff layer were also measured and correlated to a physics model. These results provide a time history load distribution on the vessel which were input to a dynamic analysis for correlation to the measured motions. The structural model of the vessel using the loads developed from the measured vessel currents showed that the calculated displacement history correlated well with the measured values. The dynamic analysis provides a good estimate of the stresses and the maximum allowable deflection of the vessel. In addition, the vessel motions produce acoustic emissions at 21 Hertz that are sufficiently loud to be felt as well as heard by the D3-D operators. Time history measurements of the sounds were correlated to the vessel displacements. An analytical model of an oscillating sphere provided a reasonable correlation to the amplitude of the measured sounds. The correlation of the theoretical and measured vessel currents, the dynamic measurements and analysis, and the acoustic measurements and analysis show that: (1) The physics model can predict vessel forces for selected values of plasma resistivity. The model also predicts poloidal and toroidal wall currents which agree with measured values; (2) The force-time history from the above model, used in conjunction with an axisymmetric structural model of the vessel, predicts vessel motions which agree well with measured values; (3) The above results, input to a simple acoustic model predicts the magnitude of sounds emitted from the vessel during disruptions which agree with acoustic measurements; (4) Correlation of measured vessel motions with structural analysis shows that a maximum vertical motion of the vessel up to 0.24 in will not overstress the vessel or its supports. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  9. Disease control of delay SEIR model with nonlinear incidence rate and vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Pan, Qiuhui; He, Mingfeng

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop two delayed SEIR epidemic models with nonlinear incidence rate, continuous treatment, and impulsive vaccination for a class of epidemic with latent period and vertical transition. For continuous treatment, we obtain a basic reproductive number ℜ0 and prove the global stability by using the Lyapunov functional method. We obtain two thresholds ℜ* and ℜ∗ for impulsive vaccination and prove that if ℜ* 1, then the disease is permanent by using the comparison theorem of impulsive differential equation. Numerical simulations indicate that pulse vaccination strategy or a longer latent period will make the population size infected by a disease decrease.

  10. Two-phase flow dynamics in a model steam generator under vertical acceleration oscillation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.; Teshima, N.; Sakurai, S.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of periodically varying acceleration on hydrodynamic response has been studied experimentally using an experimental rig which models a marine reactor subject to vertical motion. The effect on the primary loop is small, but the effect on the secondary loop is large. The variables of the secondary loop, such as circulation flow rate and water level, oscillate with acceleration. The variation of gains in frequency response is analysed. The variations of flow in the secondary loop and in the downcome water level, increase in proportion to the acceleration. The effect of the flow resistance in the secondary loop on the two-phase flow dynamics is clarified. (7 figures) (Author)

  11. Productivity Analysis of Volume Fractured Vertical Well Model in Tight Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a semianalytical model to simulate the productivity of a volume fractured vertical well in tight oil reservoirs. In the proposed model, the reservoir is a composite system which contains two regions. The inner region is described as formation with finite conductivity hydraulic fracture network and the flow in fracture is assumed to be linear, while the outer region is simulated by the classical Warren-Root model where radial flow is applied. The transient rate is calculated, and flow patterns and characteristic flowing periods caused by volume fractured vertical well are analyzed. Combining the calculated results with actual production data at the decline stage shows a good fitting performance. Finally, the effects of some sensitive parameters on the type curves are also analyzed extensively. The results demonstrate that the effect of fracture length is more obvious than that of fracture conductivity on improving production in tight oil reservoirs. When the length and conductivity of main fracture are constant, the contribution of stimulated reservoir volume (SRV to the cumulative oil production is not obvious. When the SRV is constant, the length of fracture should also be increased so as to improve the fracture penetration and well production.

  12. Diabetes improvement and resolution following laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (LVSG) versus laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) procedures: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Emma; Yunus, Rossita Mohamad; Khan, Shahjahan; Memon, Breda; Memon, Muhammed Ashraf

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is growing in both developed and developing countries and is strongly linked with the prevalence of obesity. Bariatric surgical procedures such as laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (LVSG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) are increasingly being utilized to manage related comorbid chronic conditions, including type 2 diabetes. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines to investigate the postoperative impact on diabetes resolution following LVSG versus LRYGB. Seven RCTs involving a total of 732 patients (LVSG n = 365, LRYGB n = 367) met inclusion criteria. Significant diabetes resolution or improvement was reported with both procedures across all time points. Similarly, measures of glycemic control (HbA1C and fasting blood glucose levels) improved with both procedures, with earlier improvements noted in LRYGB that stabilized and did not differ from LVSG at 12 months postoperatively. Early improvements in measures of insulin resistance in both procedures were also noted in the studies that investigated this. This systematic review of RCTs suggests that both LVSG and LRYGB are effective in resolving or improving preoperative type 2 diabetes in obese patients during the reported 3- to 5-year follow-up periods. However, further studies are required before longer-term outcomes can be elucidated. Areas identified that need to be addressed for future studies on this topic include longer follow-up periods, standardized definitions and time point for reporting, and financial analysis of outcomes obtained between surgical procedures to better inform procedure selection.

  13. Direct numerical simulation and modeling of turbulent natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudjemadi, R.

    1996-03-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are the direct numerical simulation of natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot and the improvements of second-order turbulence modelling. A three-dimensional direct numerical simulation code has been developed in order to gain a better understanding of turbulence properties in natural convection flows. This code has been validated in several physical configurations: non-stratified natural convection flows (conduction solution), stratified natural convection flows (double boundary layer solution), transitional and turbulent Poiseuille flows. For the conduction solution, the turbulent regime was reached at a Rayleigh number of 1*10 5 and 5.4*10 5 . A detailed analysis of these results has revealed the principal qualities of the available models but has also pointed our their shortcomings. This data base has been used in order to improve the triple correlations transport models and to select the turbulent time scales suitable for such flows. (author). 122 refs., figs., tabs., 4 appends

  14. Model tests of wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation type Lenz 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzchowski, Jaroslaw; Laski, Pawel Andrzej; Blasiak, Slawomir; Takosoglu, Jakub Emanuel; Pietrala, Dawid Sebastian; Bracha, Gabriel Filip; Nowakowski, Lukasz

    A building design of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) was presented in the article. The construction and operating principle of a wind turbine were described therein. Two VAWT turbine models were compared, i.a. Darrieus and Lenz2, taking their strengths and weaknesses into consideration. 3D solid models of turbine components were presented with the use of SolidWorks software. Using CFD methods, the air flow on two aerodynamic fins, symmetrical and asymmetrical, at different angles of attack were tested. On the basis of flow simulation conducted in FlowSimulation, an asymmetrical fin was chosen as the one showing greater load bearing capacities. Due to the uncertainty of trouble-free operation of Darrieus turbine on construction elements creating the basis thereof, a 3D model of Lenz2 turbine was constructed, which is more reliable and makes turbine self-start possible. On the basis of the research, components were designed and technical docu mentation was compiled.

  15. Dust vertical profile impact on global radiative forcing estimation using a coupled chemical-transport–radiative-transfer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mineral dust particles exert significant direct radiative forcings and are important drivers of climate and climate change. We used the GEOS-Chem global three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM coupled with the Fu-Liou-Gu (FLG radiative transfer model (RTM to investigate the dust radiative forcing and heating rate based on different vertical profiles for April 2006. We attempt to actually quantify the sensitivities of radiative forcing to dust vertical profiles, especially the discrepancies between using realistic and climatological vertical profiles. In these calculations, dust emissions were constrained by observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD. The coupled calculations utilizing a more realistic dust vertical profile simulated by GEOS-Chem minimize the physical inconsistencies between 3-D CTM aerosol fields and the RTM. The use of GEOS-Chem simulated vertical profile of dust extinction, as opposed to the FLG prescribed vertical profile, leads to greater and more spatially heterogeneous changes in the estimated radiative forcing and heating rate produced by dust. Both changes can be attributed to a different vertical structure between dust and non-dust source regions. Values of the dust vertically resolved AOD per grid level (VRAOD are much larger in the middle troposphere, though smaller at the surface when the GEOS-Chem simulated vertical profile is used, which leads to a much stronger heating rate in the middle troposphere. Compared to the FLG vertical profile, the use of GEOS-Chem vertical profile reduces the solar radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere (TOA by approximately 0.2–0.25 W m−2 over the African and Asian dust source regions. While the Infrared (IR radiative forcing decreases 0.2 W m−2 over African dust belt, it increases 0.06 W m−2 over the Asian dust belt when the GEOS-Chem vertical profile is used. Differences in the solar radiative forcing at the surface between the use of the GEOS-Chem and

  16. Parameterizing Subgrid-Scale Orographic Drag in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, M. D.; Olson, J.; Kenyon, J.; Smirnova, T. G.; Brown, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The accuracy of wind forecasts in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is improved when the drag forces imparted on atmospheric flow by subgrid-scale orography are included. Without such parameterizations, only the terrain resolved by the model grid, along with the small-scale obstacles parameterized by the roughness lengths can have an effect on the flow. This neglects the impacts of subgrid-scale terrain variations, which typically leads to wind speeds that are too strong. Using statistical information about the subgrid-scale orography, such as the mean and variance of the topographic height within a grid cell, the drag forces due to flow blocking, gravity wave drag, and turbulent form drag are estimated and distributed vertically throughout the grid cell column. We recently implemented the small-scale gravity wave drag paramterization of Steeneveld et al. (2008) and Tsiringakis et al. (2017) for stable planetary boundary layers, and the turbulent form drag parameterization of Beljaars et al. (2004) in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) NWP model developed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a result, a high surface wind speed bias in the model has been reduced and small improvement to the maintenance of stable layers has also been found. We present the results of experiments with the subgrid-scale orographic drag parameterization for the regional HRRR model, as well as for a global model in development at NOAA, showing the direct and indirect impacts.

  17. Neuromorphic model of magnocellular and parvocellular visual paths: spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Rolando C; Felice, Carmelo J; Colombo, Elisa M

    2007-01-01

    Physiological studies of the human retina show the existence of at least two visual information processing channels, the magnocellular and the parvocellular ones. Both have different spatial, temporal and chromatic features. This paper focuses on the different spatial resolution of these two channels. We propose a neuromorphic model, so that they match the retina's physiology. Considering the Deutsch and Deutsch model (1992), we propose two configurations (one for each visual channel) of the connection between the retina's different cell layers. The responses of the proposed model have similar behaviour to those of the visual cells: each channel has an optimum response corresponding to a given stimulus size which decreases for larger or smaller stimuli. This size is bigger for the magno path than for the parvo path and, in the end, both channels produce a magnifying of the borders of a stimulus

  18. Modeling noncontact atomic force microscopy resolution on corrugated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Burson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Key developments in NC-AFM have generally involved atomically flat crystalline surfaces. However, many surfaces of technological interest are not atomically flat. We discuss the experimental difficulties in obtaining high-resolution images of rough surfaces, with amorphous SiO2 as a specific case. We develop a quasi-1-D minimal model for noncontact atomic force microscopy, based on van der Waals interactions between a spherical tip and the surface, explicitly accounting for the corrugated substrate (modeled as a sinusoid. The model results show an attenuation of the topographic contours by ~30% for tip distances within 5 Å of the surface. Results also indicate a deviation from the Hamaker force law for a sphere interacting with a flat surface.

  19. High Resolution 3-D Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Modeling in Lower Campbell River and Discovery Passage, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The 3-D unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM was used to simulate the flows in Discovery Passage including the adjoining Lower Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Challenges in the studies include the strong tidal currents (e.g., up to 7.8 m/s in Seymour Narrows and tailrace discharges, small-scale topographic features and steep bottom slopes, and stratification affected by the Campbell River freshwater discharges. Two applications of high resolution 3-D FVCOM modeling were conducted. One is for the Lower Campbell River extending upstream as far as the John Hart Hydroelectric dam. The horizontal resolution varies from 0.27 m to 32 m in the unstructured triangular mesh to resolve the tailrace flow. The bottom elevation decreases ~14 m within the distance of ~1.4 km along the river. This pioneering FVCOM river modeling demonstrated a very good performance in simulating the river flow structures. The second application is to compute ocean currents immediately above the seabed along the present underwater electrical cable crossing routes across Discovery Passage. Higher resolution was used near the bottom with inter-layer spacing ranging from 0.125 to 0.0005 of total water depth. The model behaves very well in simulating the strong tidal currents in the area at high resolution in both the horizontal and vertical. One year maximum near bottom tidal current along the routes was then analyzed using the model results.

  20. ACTRIS aerosol vertical profile data and observations: potentiality and first examples of integrated studies with models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Benedetti, Angela; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Schulz, Michael; Wandinger, Ulla; Laj, Paolo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    The ACTRIS-2 project, funded by Horizon 2020, addresses the scope of integrating state-of-the-art European ground-based stations for long term observations of aerosols, clouds and short lived gases, capitalizing on the work of FP7-ACTRIS. It aims at achieving the construction of a user-oriented RI, unique in the EU-RI landscape for providing 4-D integrated high-quality data from near-surface to high altitude (vertical profiles and total-column) which are relevant to climate and air-quality research. ACTRIS-2 develops and implements, in a large network of stations in Europe and beyond, observational protocols that permit the harmonization of collected data and their dissemination. ACTRIS secures provision and dissemination of a unique set of data and data-products that would not otherwise be available with the same level of quality and standardization. This results from a 10-year plus effort in constructing a research infrastructure capable of responding to community needs and requirements, and has been engaged since the start of the FP5 EU commission program. ACTRIS ensures compliance with reporting requirements (timing, format, traceability) defined by the major global observing networks. EARLINET (European Aerosol research Lidar NETwork), the aerosol vertical profiling component of ACTRIS, is providing since May 2000 vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and backscatter over Europe. A new structure of the EARLINET database has been designed in a more user oriented approach reporting new data products which are more effective for specific uses of different communities. In particular, a new era is starting with the Copernicus program during which the aerosol vertical profiling capability will be fundamental for assimilation and validation purposes. The new data products have been designed thanks to a strong link with EARLINET data users, first of all modeling and satellite communities, established since the beginning of EARLINET and re-enforced within ACTRIS2

  1. Modeling Extreme Precipitation over East China with a Global Variable-Resolution Modeling Framework (MPAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Xu, M.; Wang, Y.; Guo, J.; Hu, Z.; Ruby, L.; Duda, M.; Skamarock, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling extreme precipitation requires high-resolution scales. Traditional regional downscaling modeling framework has some issues such as ill-posed boundary conditions, mismatches between the driving global and regional dynamics and physics, and the lack of regional feedback to global scales. The non-hydrostatic Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS), a global variable-resolution modeling framework, offers an opportunity to obtain regional features at high-resolution scales using regional mesh refinement without boundary limiting. In this study, the MPAS model is first time applied with the refined meshes over East China at various high-resolutions (16 km and 4 km) to simulate an extreme precipitation event during 26-27 June 2012. The simulations are evaluated with the ground observations from the Chinese Meteorological Administration (CMA) network and the reanalysis data. Sensitivity experiments with different physics and forecast lead time are conducted to understand the uncertainties in simulating spatial and temporal variation of precipitation. The variable-resolution simulations are also compared with the traditional global uniform-resolution simulations at a relatively low scale ( 30 km) and a relatively high scale ( 16 km). The analysis shows that the variable-resolution simulation can capture the high-scale feature of precipitation over East China as the uniform-resolution simulation at a relatively high scale. It also indicates that high-resolution significantly improves the capability of simulating extreme precipitation. The MPAS simulations are also compared with the traditional limited-area simulations at similar scales using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). The difference between the simulations using these two different modeling framework is also discussed.

  2. eWaterCycle: A high resolution global hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick; Bierkens, Marc; Drost, Niels; Hut, Rolf; Sutanudjaja, Edwin

    2014-05-01

    In 2013, the eWaterCycle project was started, which has the ambitious goal to run a high resolution global hydrological model. Starting point was the PCR-GLOBWB built by Utrecht University. The software behind this model will partially be re-engineered in order to enable to run it in a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment. The aim is to have a spatial resolution of 1km x 1km. The idea is also to run the model in real-time and forecasting mode, using data assimilation. An on-demand hydraulic model will be available for detailed flow and flood forecasting in support of navigation and disaster management. The project faces a set of scientific challenges. First, to enable the model to run in a HPC environment, model runs were analyzed to examine on which parts of the program most CPU time was spent. These parts were re-coded in Open MPI to allow for parallel processing. Different parallelization strategies are thinkable. In our case, it was decided to use watershed logic as a first step to distribute the analysis. There is rather limited recent experience with HPC in hydrology and there is much to be learned and adjusted, both on the hydrological modeling side and the computer science side. For example, an interesting early observation was that hydrological models are, due to their localized parameterization, much more memory intensive than models of sister-disciplines such as meteorology and oceanography. Because it would be deadly to have to swap information between CPU and hard drive, memory management becomes crucial. A standard Ensemble Kalman Filter (enKF) would, for example, have excessive memory demands. To circumvent these problems, an alternative to the enKF was developed that produces equivalent results. This presentation shows the most recent results from the model, including a 5km x 5km simulation and a proof of concept for the new data assimilation approach. Finally, some early ideas about financial sustainability of an operational global

  3. High Resolution Hurricane Storm Surge and Inundation Modeling (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luettich, R.; Westerink, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal counties are home to nearly 60% of the U.S. population and industry that accounts for over 16 million jobs and 10% of the U.S. annual gross domestic product. However, these areas are susceptible to some of the most destructive forces in nature, including tsunamis, floods, and severe storm-related hazards. Since 1900, tropical cyclones making landfall on the US Gulf of Mexico Coast have caused more than 9,000 deaths; nearly 2,000 deaths have occurred during the past half century. Tropical cyclone-related adjusted, annualized losses in the US have risen from 1.3 billion from 1949-1989, to 10.1 billion from 1990-1995, and $35.8 billion per year for the period 2001-2005. The risk associated with living and doing business in the coastal areas that are most susceptible to tropical cyclones is exacerbated by rising sea level and changes in the characteristics of severe storms associated with global climate change. In the five years since hurricane Katrina devastated the northern Gulf of Mexico Coast, considerable progress has been made in the development and utilization of high resolution coupled storm surge and wave models. Recent progress will be presented with the ADCIRC + SWAN storm surge and wave models. These tightly coupled models use a common unstructured grid in the horizontal that is capable of covering large areas while also providing high resolution (i.e., base resolution down to 20m plus smaller subgrid scale features such as sea walls and levees) in areas that are subject to surge and inundation. Hydrodynamic friction and overland winds are adjusted to account for local land cover. The models scale extremely well on modern high performance computers allowing rapid turnaround on large numbers of compute cores. The models have been adopted for FEMA National Flood Insurance Program studies, hurricane protection system design and risk analysis, and quasi-operational forecast systems for several regions of the country. They are also being evaluated as

  4. Numerical modeling and experimental analysis of volatile contaminant removal from vertical flow filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical flow filters (unplanted) and vertical flow constructed wetlands (planted), simple and inexpensive technologies to treat effectively volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contaminated water, consist of containers filled with granular material which is intermittently fed with contaminated water.

  5. Nested high resolution models for the coastal areas of the North Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, Fred; Shapiro, Georgy

    2017-04-01

    . Due to the lack of effective detiding methods and the prevailing view that harmonics-derived SSH provide a cleaner tidal signal over the SSH taken from a tidal parent model it has traditionally only been the last model in a nesting chain that is tidal. But to our knowledge these assumptions haven't been sufficiently tested and need to be re-visited. Furthermore, the lack of tides in the larger-scale regional models limits their capability and we would like to push for a nesting chain where all regional models (including the intermediate ones) are tidal. In this study we have conducted a number of numerical experiments where we have tested whether a tidal regional model can effectively force a tidal nested model without resorting to detiding techniques and the use of a dedicated tidal model such as TPXO. We have tested whether it's possible to use a tidal parent model and use the total SSH (combined geostrophic SSH and tidal component) to force the child model at the boundary. We call this strategy "tidal nesting" as opposed to TPXO tidal forcing which is used in "traditional nesting". For our experiments we have developed 2 models based on the same NEMO 3.6 codebase. The medium resolution AS20 model covers the Arabian Sea at 1/20 ̊ with 50 layers using a hybrid s-on-top-of-z vertical discretisation scheme (Shapiro et al., 2013); and the high resolution AG60 model covers the Arabian/Persian Gulf at 1/60 ̊ with 50 layers. The AS20 model is "traditionally" nested within the UK Met Office non-tidal large-scale Indian Ocean model at 1/12 ̊ resolution and tidal constituents at the boundary are taken from the TPXO7.2 Global Tidal Solution. Our "tidal nesting" experiments use different forcing frequencies at which the tidal SSH is fed from the larger-scale AS20 into the smaller-scale AG60 model. These strategies are compared with "traditional nesting" where the inner AG60 uses boundary conditions from a non-tidal AS20 parent model and tides are computed from TPXO harmonics

  6. Assessing Australian Rainfall Projections in Two Model Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschetto, A.; Haarsma, R. D.; Sen Gupta, A.

    2016-02-01

    Australian climate is projected to change with increases in greenhouse gases. The IPCC reports an increase in extreme daily rainfall across the country. At the same time, mean rainfall over southeast Australia is projected to reduce during austral winter, but to increase during austral summer, mainly associated with changes in the surrounding oceans. Climate models agree better on the future reduction of average rainfall over the southern regions of Australia compared to the increase in extreme rainfall events. One of the reasons for this disagreement may be related to climate model limitations in simulating the observed mechanisms associated with the mid-latitude weather systems, in particular due to coarse model resolutions. In this study we investigate how changes in sea surface temperature (SST) affect Australian mean and extreme rainfall under global warming, using a suite of numerical experiments at two model resolutions: about 126km (T159) and 25km (T799). The numerical experiments are performed with the earth system model EC-EARTH. Two 6-member ensembles are produced for the present day conditions and a future scenario. The present day ensemble is forced with the observed daily SST from the NOAA National Climatic Data Center from 2002 to 2006. The future scenario simulation is integrated from 2094 to 2098 using the present day SST field added onto the future SST change created from a 17-member ensemble based on the RCP4.5 scenario. Preliminary results show an increase in extreme rainfall events over Tasmania associated with enhanced convection driven by the Tasman Sea warming. We will further discuss how the projected changes in SST will impact the southern mid-latitude weather systems that ultimately affect Australian rainfall.

  7. Decadal prediction skill using a high-resolution climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monerie, Paul-Arthur; Coquart, Laure; Maisonnave, Éric; Moine, Marie-Pierre; Terray, Laurent; Valcke, Sophie

    2017-11-01

    The ability of a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (with a horizontal resolution of a quarter of a degree in the ocean and of about 0.5° in the atmosphere) to predict the annual means of temperature, precipitation, sea-ice volume and extent is assessed based on initialized hindcasts over the 1993-2009 period. Significant skill in predicting sea surface temperatures is obtained, especially over the North Atlantic, the tropical Atlantic and the Indian Ocean. The Sea Ice Extent and volume are also reasonably predicted in winter (March) and summer (September). The model skill is mainly due to the external forcing associated with well-mixed greenhouse gases. A decrease in the global warming rate associated with a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is simulated by the model over a suite of 10-year periods when initialized from starting dates between 1999 and 2003. The model ability to predict regional change is investigated by focusing on the mid-90's Atlantic Ocean subpolar gyre warming. The model simulates the North Atlantic warming associated with a meridional heat transport increase, a strengthening of the North Atlantic current and a deepening of the mixed layer over the Labrador Sea. The atmosphere plays a role in the warming through a modulation of the North Atlantic Oscillation: a negative sea level pressure anomaly, located south of the subpolar gyre is associated with a wind speed decrease over the subpolar gyre. This leads to a reduced oceanic heat-loss and favors a northward displacement of anomalously warm and salty subtropical water that both concur to the subpolar gyre warming. We finally conclude that the subpolar gyre warming is mainly triggered by ocean dynamics with a possible contribution of atmospheric circulation favoring its persistence.

  8. Numerical modelling of isothermal gas-liquid two-phase bubbly flow in vertical pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamoah, S.

    2014-07-01

    In order to qualify CFD codes for accurate numerical predictions of transient evolution of flow regimes in a vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow, suitable closure models are needed. The current study focuses on detailed numerical investigation of the interfacial driving force models and assessment of two population balance model approaches viz. the MUltiple-Size-Group (MUSIG) and one-group Interfacial Area Transport Equation (lATE) using the two-fluid modelling approach. Numerical predictions of five primitive variables: gas volume fraction, interfacial area concentration, Sauter mean bubble diameter, gas velocity and liquid velocity; have been validated against experimental data of Monros et al., (2013). Three specific objectives have been completed in this study. Firstly, under the assumption of mono-disperse bubbles, a consistent set of interfacial force models have been investigated. The effect of drag, lift, wall lubrication and turbulent dispersion forces has been assessed. New parameters have been introduced in the wall lubrication force models of Antal et al., (1991) and Frank et al., (2004, 2008) as well as implementing additional drag coefficient models using CFX Expression Language (CEl). The Tomiyama, (1998) lift coefficient model has been modified in this study. In general, the predictions from the sets of interfacial force models yielded satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. A set of Grace drag coefficient model, Tomiyama lift coefficient model, Antal wall force model, and Favre averaged turbulent dispersion force were found to provide the best agreement with the experimental data. Secondly, a model validation study to assess the performance of existing coalescence and breakup models of the MUSIG model in simulating bubbly flow in vertical configuration has been conducted. The breakup model of Luo and Svendsen, (1996) and coalescence model of Prince and Blanch, (1990) have been implemented. Detailed analysis has been performed for the wall

  9. Modelling of Heat Transfer Phenomena for Vertical and Horizontal Configurations of In-Pool Condensers and Comparison with Experimental Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Papini

    2010-01-01

    Different condenser tube arrangements have been developed for applications to the next generation NPPs. The two most used configurations, namely, horizontal and vertical tube condensers, are thoroughly investigated in this paper. Several thermal-hydraulic features were explored, being the analysis mainly devoted to the description of the best-estimate correlations and models for heat transfer coefficient prediction. In spite of a more critical behaviour concerning thermal expansion issues, vertical tube condensers offer remarkably better thermal-hydraulic performances. An experimental validation of the vertical tube correlations is provided by PERSEO facility (SIET labs, Piacenza, showing a fairly good agreement.

  10. Impact of capillary hysteresis and trapping on vertically integrated models for CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doster, F.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Celia, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Vertically integrated models are frequently applied to study subsurface flow related to CO2 storage scenarios in saline aquifers. In this paper, we study the impact of capillary-pressure hysteresis and CO2 trapping on the integrated constitutive parameter functions. Our results show that for the initial drainage and a subsequent imbibition, trapping is the dominant contributor to hysteresis in integrated models. We also find that for advective processes like injection and plume migration in a sloped aquifer the correct treatment of the hysteretic nature of the capillary fringe is likely of secondary importance. However, for diffusive/dispersive processes such as a redistribution of the CO2 plume due to buoyancy and capillary forces, the hysteretic nature of the capillary fringe may significantly impact the final distribution of the fluids and the timescale of the redistribution.

  11. Modeling of steady motion and vertical-plane dynamics of a tunnel hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaney Christopher S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High-speed marine vehicles can take advantage of aerodynamically supported platforms or air wings to increase maximum speed or transportation efficiency. However, this also results in increased complexity of boat dynamics, especially in the presence of waves and wind gusts. In this study, a mathematical model based on the fully unsteady aerodynamic extreme-ground-effect theory and the hydrodynamic added-mass strip theory is applied for simulating vertical-plane motions of a tunnel hull in a disturbed environment, as well as determining its steady states in calm conditions. Calculated responses of the boat to wind gusts and surface waves are demonstrated. The present model can be used as a supplementary method for preliminary estimations of performance of aerodynamically assisted marine craft.

  12. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  13. A two-dimensional analytical model of vapor intrusion involving vertical heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Verginelli, Iason; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we present an analytical chlorinated vapor intrusion (CVI) model that can estimate source-to-indoor air concentration attenuation by simulating two-dimensional (2-D) vapor concentration profile in vertically heterogeneous soils overlying a homogenous vapor source. The analytical solution describing the 2-D soil gas transport was obtained by applying a modified Schwarz-Christoffel mapping method. A partial field validation showed that the developed model provides results (especially in terms of indoor emission rates) in line with the measured data from a case involving a building overlying a layered soil. In further testing, it was found that the new analytical model can very closely replicate the results of three-dimensional (3-D) numerical models at steady state in scenarios involving layered soils overlying homogenous groundwater sources. By contrast, by adopting a two-layer approach (capillary fringe and vadose zone) as employed in the EPA implementation of the Johnson and Ettinger model, the spatially and temporally averaged indoor concentrations in the case of groundwater sources can be higher than the ones estimated by the numerical model up to two orders of magnitude. In short, the model proposed in this work can represent an easy-to-use tool that can simulate the subsurface soil gas concentration in layered soils overlying a homogenous vapor source while keeping the simplicity of an analytical approach that requires much less computational effort.

  14. Modelling and critical analysis of bubbly flows of dilute nanofluids in a vertical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiangdong; Yuan, Yang [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Tu, Jiyuan, E-mail: jiyuan.tu@rmit.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, PO Box 1021, Beijing 100086 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The classic two-fluid model needs improvement for nanofluid bubbly flows. • The nanoparticle self-assembly changes the interfacial behaviours of bubbles. • Key job is to reformulate the interfacial transfer terms. - Abstract: The bubbly flows of air–nanofluid and air–water in a vertical tube were numerically simulated using the two-fluid model. Comparison of the numerical results against the experimental data of Park and Chang (2011) demonstrated that the classic two-fluid model, although agreed well with the air–water data, was not applicable to the air–nanofluid bubbly flow. It was suggested that in a bubbly flow system, the existence of interfaces allows the spontaneous formation of a thin layer of nanoparticle assembly at the interfaces, which significantly changes the interfacial behaviours of the air bubbles and the roles of the interfacial forces. As the conservation equations of the classic two-fluid model are still applicable to nanofluids, the mechanisms underlying the modified interfacial behaviours need to be carefully taken into account when modelling air–nanofluid bubbly flows. Thus, one of the key tasks when modelling bubbly flows of air–nanofluid using the two-fluid model is to reformulate the interfacial transfer terms according to the interfacial behaviour modifications induced by nanoparticles.

  15. A two-dimensional analytical model of vapor intrusion involving vertical heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Verginelli, Iason; Suuberg, Eric M

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we present an analytical chlorinated vapor intrusion (CVI) model that can estimate source-to-indoor air concentration attenuation by simulating two-dimensional (2-D) vapor concentration profile in vertically heterogeneous soils overlying a homogenous vapor source. The analytical solution describing the 2-D soil gas transport was obtained by applying a modified Schwarz-Christoffel mapping method. A partial field validation showed that the developed model provides results (especially in terms of indoor emission rates) in line with the measured data from a case involving a building overlying a layered soil. In further testing, it was found that the new analytical model can very closely replicate the results of three-dimensional (3-D) numerical models at steady state in scenarios involving layered soils overlying homogenous groundwater sources. By contrast, by adopting a two-layer approach (capillary fringe and vadose zone) as employed in the EPA implementation of the Johnson and Ettinger model, the spatially and temporally averaged indoor concentrations in the case of groundwater sources can be higher than the ones estimated by the numerical model up to two orders of magnitude. In short, the model proposed in this work can represent an easy-to-use tool that can simulate the subsurface soil gas concentration in layered soils overlying a homogenous vapor source while keeping the simplicity of an analytical approach that requires much less computational effort.

  16. On the One-Dimensional Modeling of Vertical Upward Bubbly Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Peña-Monferrer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional two-fluid model approach has been traditionally used in thermal-hydraulics codes for the analysis of transients and accidents in water–cooled nuclear power plants. This paper investigates the performance of RELAP5/MOD3 predicting vertical upward bubbly flow at low velocity conditions. For bubbly flow and vertical pipes, this code applies the drift-velocity approach, showing important discrepancies with the experiments compared. Then, we use a classical formulation of the drag coefficient approach to evaluate the performance of both approaches. This is based on the critical Weber criteria and includes several assumptions for the calculation of the interfacial area and bubble size that are evaluated in this work. A more accurate drag coefficient approach is proposed and implemented in RELAP5/MOD3. Instead of using the Weber criteria, the bubble size distribution is directly considered. This allows the calculation of the interfacial area directly from the definition of Sauter mean diameter of a distribution. The results show that only the proposed approach was able to predict all the flow characteristics, in particular the bubble size and interfacial area concentration. Finally, the computational results are analyzed and validated with cross-section area average measurements of void fraction, dispersed phase velocity, bubble size, and interfacial area concentration.

  17. Effect of model resolution on a regional climate model simulation over southeast Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Evans, J. P.

    2013-03-26

    Dynamically downscaling climate projections from global climate models (GCMs) for use in impacts and adaptation research has become a common practice in recent years. In this study, the CSIRO Mk3.5 GCM is downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model (RCM) to medium (50 km) and high (10 km) resolution over southeast Australia. The influence of model resolution on the present-day (1985 to 2009) modelled regional climate and projected future (2075 to 2099) changes are examined for both mean climate and extreme precipitation characteristics. Increasing model resolution tended to improve the simulation of present day climate, with larger improvements in areas affected by mountains and coastlines. Examination of circumstances under which increasing the resolution decreased performance revealed an error in the GCM circulation, the effects of which had been masked by the coarse GCM topography. Resolution modifications to projected changes were largest in regions with strong topographic and coastline influences, and can be large enough to change the sign of the climate change projected by the GCM. Known physical mechanisms for these changes included orographic uplift and low-level blocking of air-masses caused by mountains. In terms of precipitation extremes, the GCM projects increases in extremes even when the projected change in the mean was a decrease: but this was not always true for the higher resolution models. Thus, while the higher resolution RCM climate projections often concur with the GCM projections, there are times and places where they differ significantly due to their better representation of physical processes. It should also be noted that the model resolution can modify precipitation characteristics beyond just its mean value.

  18. Semi-idealized modeling of lightning initiation related to vertical air motion and cloud microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Yijun; Zheng, Dong; Xu, Liangtao; Zhang, Wenjuan; Meng, Qing

    2017-10-01

    A three-dimensional charge-discharge numerical model is used, in a semi-idealized mode, to simulate a thunder-storm cell. Characteristics of the graupel microphysics and vertical air motion associated with the lightning initiation are revealed, which could be useful in retrieving charge strength during lightning when no charge-discharge model is available. The results show that the vertical air motion at the lightning initiation sites ( W ini) has a cubic polynomial correlation with the maximum updraft of the storm cell ( W cell-max), with the adjusted regression coefficient R 2 of approximately 0.97. Meanwhile, the graupel mixing ratio at the lightning initiation sites ( q g-ini) has a linear correlation with the maximum graupel mixing ratio of the storm cell ( q g-cell-max) and the initiation height ( z ini), with the coefficients being 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These linear correlations are more significant during the middle and late stages of lightning activity. A zero-charge zone, namely, the area with very low net charge density between the main positive and negative charge layers, appears above the area of q g-cell-max and below the upper edge of the graupel region, and is found to be an important area for lightning initiation. Inside the zero-charge zone, large electric intensity forms, and the ratio of q ice (ice crystal mixing ratio) to q g (graupel mixing ratio) illustrates an exponential relationship to q g-ini. These relationships provide valuable clues to more accurately locating the high-risk area of lightning initiation in thunderstorms when only dual-polarization radar data or outputs from numerical models without charging/discharging schemes are available. The results can also help understand the environmental conditions at lightning initiation sites.

  19. Evaluation of the Actuator Line Model with coarse resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, M.; Usera, G.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the Actuator Line Model (ALM) in spatial resolutions coarser than what is generally recommended, also using larger time steps. To accomplish this, the ALM has been implemented in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi and validated against experimental measurements of two wind tunnel campaigns (stand alone wind turbine and two wind turbines in line, case A and B respectively), taking into account two spatial resolutions: R/8 and R/15 (R is the rotor radius). A sensitivity analysis in case A was performed in order to get some insight into the influence of the smearing factor (3D Gaussian distribution) and time step size in power and thrust, as well as in the wake, without applying a tip loss correction factor (TLCF), for one tip speed ratio (TSR). It is concluded that as the smearing factor is larger or time step size is smaller the power is increased, but the velocity deficit is not as much affected. From this analysis, a smearing factor was obtained in order to calculate precisely the power coefficient for that TSR without applying TLCF. Results with this approach were compared with another simulation choosing a larger smearing factor and applying Prandtl's TLCF, for three values of TSR. It is found that applying the TLCF improves the power estimation and weakens the influence of the smearing factor. Finally, these 2 alternatives were tested in case B, confirming that conclusion.

  20. Large-watershed flood simulation and forecasting based on different-resolution distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    Large-watershed flood simulation and forecasting is very important for a distributed hydrological model in the application. There are some challenges including the model's spatial resolution effect, model performance and accuracy and so on. To cope with the challenge of the model's spatial resolution effect, different model resolution including 1000m*1000m, 600m*600m, 500m*500m, 400m*400m, 200m*200m were used to build the distributed hydrological model—Liuxihe model respectively. The purpose is to find which one is the best resolution for Liuxihe model in Large-watershed flood simulation and forecasting. This study sets up a physically based distributed hydrological model for flood forecasting of the Liujiang River basin in south China. Terrain data digital elevation model (DEM), soil type and land use type are downloaded from the website freely. The model parameters are optimized by using an improved Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO) algorithm; And parameter optimization could reduce the parameter uncertainty that exists for physically deriving model parameters. The different model resolution (200m*200m—1000m*1000m ) are proposed for modeling the Liujiang River basin flood with the Liuxihe model in this study. The best model's spatial resolution effect for flood simulation and forecasting is 200m*200m.And with the model's spatial resolution reduction, the model performance and accuracy also become worse and worse. When the model resolution is 1000m*1000m, the flood simulation and forecasting result is the worst, also the river channel divided based on this resolution is differs from the actual one. To keep the model with an acceptable performance, minimum model spatial resolution is needed. The suggested threshold model spatial resolution for modeling the Liujiang River basin flood is a 500m*500m grid cell, but the model spatial resolution with a 200m*200m grid cell is recommended in this study to keep the model at a best performance.

  1. Local Stability of AIDS Epidemic Model Through Treatment and Vertical Transmission with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novi W, Cascarilla; Lestari, Dwi

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to explain stability of the spread of AIDS through treatment and vertical transmission model. Human with HIV need a time to positively suffer AIDS. The existence of a time, human with HIV until positively suffer AIDS can be delayed for a time so that the model acquired is the model with time delay. The model form is a nonlinear differential equation with time delay, SIPTA (susceptible-infected-pre AIDS-treatment-AIDS). Based on SIPTA model analysis results the disease free equilibrium point and the endemic equilibrium point. The disease free equilibrium point with and without time delay are local asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number is less than one. The endemic equilibrium point will be local asymptotically stable if the time delay is less than the critical value of delay, unstable if the time delay is more than the critical value of delay, and bifurcation occurs if the time delay is equal to the critical value of delay.

  2. High-resolution Doppler model of the human gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisheimer, Jonathan L.; Greneker, Eugene F., III; Marshall, William S.

    2002-07-01

    A high resolution Doppler model of the walking human was developed for analyzing the continuous wave (CW) radar gait signature. Data for twenty subjects were collected simultaneously using an infrared motion capture system along with a two channel 10.525 GHz CW radar. The motion capture system recorded three-dimensional coordinates of infrared markers placed on the body. These body marker coordinates were used as inputs to create the theoretical Doppler output using a model constructed in MATLAB. The outputs of the model are the simulated Doppler signals due to each of the major limbs and the thorax. An estimated radar cross section for each part of the body was assigned using the Lund & Browder chart of estimated body surface area. The resultant Doppler model was then compared with the actual recorded Doppler gait signature in the frequency domain using the spectrogram. Comparison of the two sets of data has revealed several identifiable biomechanical features in the radar gait signature due to leg and body motion. The result of the research shows that a wealth of information can be unlocked from the radar gait signature, which may be useful in security and biometric applications.

  3. Low Resolution Refinement of Atomic Models Against Crystallographic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert A; Kovalevskiy, Oleg; Murshudov, Garib N

    2017-01-01

    This review describes some of the problems encountered during low-resolution refinement and map calculation. Refinement is considered as an application of Bayes' theorem, allowing combination of information from various sources including crystallographic experimental data and prior chemical and structural knowledge. The sources of prior knowledge relevant to macromolecules include basic chemical information such as bonds and angles, structural information from reference models of known homologs, knowledge about secondary structures, hydrogen bonding patterns, and similarity of non-crystallographically related copies of a molecule. Additionally, prior information encapsulating local conformational conservation is exploited, keeping local interatomic distances similar to those in the starting atomic model. The importance of designing an accurate likelihood function-the only link between model parameters and observed data-is emphasized. The review also reemphasizes the importance of phases, and describes how the use of raw observed amplitudes could give a better correlation between the calculated and "true" maps. It is shown that very noisy or absent observations can be replaced by calculated structure factors, weighted according to the accuracy of the atomic model. This approach helps to smoothen the map. However, such replacement should be used sparingly, as the bias toward errors in the model could be too much to avoid. It is in general recommended that, whenever a new map is calculated, map quality should be judged by inspection of the parts of the map where there is no atomic model. It is also noted that it is advisable to work with multiple blurred and sharpened maps, as different parts of a crystal may exhibit different degrees of mobility. Doing so can allow accurate building of atomic models, accounting for overall shape as well as finer structural details. Some of the results described in this review have been implemented in the programs REFMAC5, Pro

  4. Proposed model for biomineralization of novel nanohydroxyapatite/vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazil, Tayra Rodrigues; Neves, Marcele Florencio das; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira, E-mail: aolobo@univap.br [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nanotecnologia Biomedica; Regiani, Inacio [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    For the first time, the growth mechanism of biominerals formed on plate-like nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) electrodeposited on superhydrophilic vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} ) is presented and a model for the specific growth preference is discussed. VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} films were obtained by microwave-assisted chemical vapor deposition method and functionalized by oxygen plasma. nHAp/VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites were fabricated with a direct electrodeposition of the thin nHAp films onto the VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} films. The biomineralized 'scaffolds' were obtained by soaking nHAp/VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} in simulated body fluid for 7, 14 and 21 days. Results show that the carboxyl functional groups directly attached onto VAMWCNT tips after oxygen plasma treatment were essential for the acceleration of the OH- formation and the deposition of plate-like nHAp crystals (author)

  5. Modelling natural convection in a heated vertical channel for room ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, A.M.; Canha da Piedade, A.; Lahellec, A.; Grandpeix, J.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Solar-air collectors installed on the south-facing walls of school buildings have been tried out in Portugal as a passive means of improving indoor air quality without prejudice to thermal comfort requirements. A numerical investigation of the behaviour of these systems, typified as vertical channels opened at both ends, is presented for typical geometries and outdoor conditions. The study is carried out with natural convection and assumes that the induced flow is turbulent and two-dimensional. The fully averaged equations of motion and energy, added to a two-equation turbulence model, are discretized and solved following the concepts of TEF (Transfer Evolution Formalism) using a finite volume method. Flow and temperature fields are produced and results presented in terms of temperature and velocity distributions at the exit section of the duct. These enable a better understanding of the developing flow and can be helpful in the design phase of this type of system. (author)

  6. Economic Integration and Quality Standards in a Duopoly Model with Horizontal and Vertical Product Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries with one producer in each country. The products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In absence of quality regulation, the two producers determine prices and quality levels...... product. On the unregulated markets, integration increases welfare in both countries if they are almost of similar size. However, if the countries are very asymmetrical with respect to size, market integration may harm welfare in the large country. Welfare effects by introduction of minimum quality...... in a two stage game. The firms choose the quality level in the first game, and their prices in the second game. The Nash equilibrium illustrates that the producer in the large country produces a higher quality than the producer in the small country. However, a reduction of the trade barrier twists...

  7. HIGH-RESOLUTION ATMOSPHERIC ENSEMBLE MODELING AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.; Werth, D.; Chiswell, S.; Etherton, B.

    2011-05-10

    The High-Resolution Mid-Atlantic Forecasting Ensemble (HME) is a federated effort to improve operational forecasts related to precipitation, convection and boundary layer evolution, and fire weather utilizing data and computing resources from a diverse group of cooperating institutions in order to create a mesoscale ensemble from independent members. Collaborating organizations involved in the project include universities, National Weather Service offices, and national laboratories, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The ensemble system is produced from an overlapping numerical weather prediction model domain and parameter subsets provided by each contributing member. The coordination, synthesis, and dissemination of the ensemble information are performed by the Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI) at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. This paper discusses background related to the HME effort, SRNL participation, and example results available from the RENCI website.

  8. Effects of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Vertical Bone Augmentation in a Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Ting; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; O'Valle, Francisco; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2017-09-01

    Vertical bone augmentation (VBA) remains unpredictable and challenging for most clinicians. This study aims to compare hard tissue outcomes of VBA, with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2, under space-making titanium mesh in a canine model. Eleven male beagle dogs were used in the study. Experimental ridge defects were created to form atrophic ridges. VBA was performed via guided bone regeneration using titanium mesh and allografts. In experimental hemimandibles, rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge was well mixed with allografts prior to procedures, whereas a control buffer was applied within controls. Dogs were euthanized after a 4-month healing period. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed to assess ridge dimensional changes. In addition, specimens were used for microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) assessment and histologic analysis. Membrane exposure was found on five of 11 (45.5%) rhBMP-2-treated sites, whereas it was found on nine of 11 (81.8%) non-rhBMP-2-treated sites. Within 4 months of healing, rhBMP-2-treated sites showed better radiographic bone density, greater defect fill, and significantly more bone gain in ridge height (P 0.05). Under light microscope, predominant lamellar patterns were found in the specimen obtained from rhBMP-2 sites. With inherent limitations of the canine model and the concern of such a demanding surgical technique, current findings suggest that the presence of rhBMP-2 in a composite graft allows an increase of vertical gain, with formation of ectopic bone over the titanium mesh in comparison with non-rhBMP-2 sites.

  9. A gas flow model for layered landfills with vertical extraction wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Zheng, Qi-Teng; Xie, Hai-Jian

    2017-08-01

    This paper developed a two-dimensional axisymmetric analytical model for layered landfills with vertical wells. The model uses a horizontal layered structure to describe the waste non-homogeneity with depth in gas generation, permeability and temperature. The governing equations in the cylindrical coordinate system were transformed to dimensionless forms and solved using a method of eigenfunction expansion. After verification, the effects of different well boundary conditions and gas extraction systems on recovery efficiency were investigated. A dimensionless double-layer system, consisting of a cover and a waste layer, was also explored. The results show that a constant vacuum pressure boundary condition can be enough to describe a perforated pipe surrounded by drainage gravel with a reasonable value of well radius, such as half the radius of gravel fill. Also, the 7 independent variables (one marked with an asterisk is dimensionless) of a double-layer system can be integrated into 3 dimensionless ones: Cover permeability K v1 ∗ /(Vertical gas permeability of waste K v2 ∗ ×Cover thickness h 1 ∗ ),-Vacuum pressure p w ×P atm K v2 ∗ /(μR g T 2 ×Gas generation rate of waste s 2 ) and ln(Well radius r w ∗ )/(Anisotropy degree of waste k 2 ∗ ). The integration is based on the inherent mechanism of this flow system with certain simplification. The effects of these variables are then quantitatively characterized for a better understanding of gas recovery efficiency. Same recovery efficiency can be achieved with different variable combinations. For example, increasing h 1 ∗ (such as doubling it) has the same effect with decreasing K v1 ∗ (such as halving it). Along with the reduction of variables by half, the integration can facilitate the preliminary design, and is a small but important advance in the consideration of MSW non-homogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High-resolution urban flood modelling - a joint probability approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Michael; Olbert, Agnieszka; Nash, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    The hydrodynamic modelling of rapid flood events due to extreme climatic events in urban environment is both a complex and challenging task. The horizontal resolution necessary to resolve complexity of urban flood dynamics is a critical issue; the presence of obstacles of varying shapes and length scales, gaps between buildings and the complex geometry of the city such as slopes affect flow paths and flood levels magnitudes. These small scale processes require a high resolution grid to be modelled accurately (2m or less, Olbert et al., 2015; Hunter et al., 2008; Brown et al., 2007) and, therefore, altimetry data of at least the same resolution. Along with availability of high-resolution LiDAR data and computational capabilities, as well as state of the art nested modelling approaches, these problems can now be overcome. Flooding and drying, domain definition, frictional resistance and boundary descriptions are all important issues to be addressed when modelling urban flooding. In recent years, the number of urban flood models dramatically increased giving a good insight into various modelling problems and solutions (Mark et al., 2004; Mason et al., 2007; Fewtrell et al., 2008; Shubert et al., 2008). Despite extensive modelling work conducted for fluvial (e.g. Mignot et al., 2006; Hunter et al., 2008; Yu and Lane, 2006) and coastal mechanisms of flooding (e.g. Gallien et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2012), the amount of investigations into combined coastal-fluvial flooding is still very limited (e.g. Orton et al., 2012; Lian et al., 2013). This is surprising giving the extent of flood consequences when both mechanisms occur simultaneously, which usually happens when they are driven by one process such as a storm. The reason for that could be the fact that the likelihood of joint event is much smaller than those of any of the two contributors occurring individually, because for fast moving storms the rainfall-driven fluvial flood arrives usually later than the storm surge

  11. Modeling, Fabrication, and Analysis of Vertical Conduction Gallium Nitride Fin MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahhan, Maher Bishara

    Gallium Nitride has seen much interest in the field of electronics due to its large bandgap and high mobility. In the field of power electronics, this combination leads to a low on-resistance for a given breakdown voltage. To take full advantage of this, vertical conduction transistors in GaN can give high breakdown voltages independent of chip area, leading to transistors with nominally low on resistance with high breakdown at a low cost. Acknowledging this, a vertical transistor design is presented with a small footprint area. This design utilizes a fin structure as a double gated insulated MESFET with electrons flowing from the top of the fin downward. The transistor's characteristics and design is initially explored via simulation and modelling. In this modelling, it is found that the narrow dimension of the fin must be sub-micron to allow for the device to be turned off with no leakage current and have a positive threshold voltage. Several process modules are developed and integrated to fabricate the device. A smooth vertical etch leaving low damage to the surfaces is demonstrated and characterized, preventing micromasking during the GaN dry etch. Methods of removing damage from the dry etch are tested, including regrowth and wet etching. Several hard masks were developed to be used in conjunction with this GaN etch for various requirements of the process, such as material constraints and self-aligning a metal contact. Multiple techniques are tested to deposit and pattern the gate oxide and metal to ensure good contact with the channel without causing unwanted shorts. To achieve small fin dimensions, a self-aligned transistor process flow is presented allowing for smaller critical dimensions at increased fabrication tolerances by avoiding the use of lithographic steps that require alignments to very high accuracy. In the case of the device design presented, the fins are lithographically defined at the limit of i-line stepper system. From this single

  12. Waterspout Forecasting Method Over the Eastern Adriatic Using a High-Resolution Numerical Weather Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renko, Tanja; Ivušić, Sarah; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Šoljan, Vinko; Horvat, Igor

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a synoptic and mesoscale analysis was performed and Szilagyi's waterspout forecasting method was tested on ten waterspout events in the period of 2013-2016. Data regarding waterspout occurrences were collected from weather stations, an online survey at the official website of the National Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia and eyewitness reports from newspapers and the internet. Synoptic weather conditions were analyzed using surface pressure fields, 500 hPa level synoptic charts, SYNOP reports and atmospheric soundings. For all observed waterspout events, a synoptic type was determined using the 500 hPa geopotential height chart. The occurrence of lightning activity was determined from the LINET lightning database, and waterspouts were divided into thunderstorm-related and "fair weather" ones. Mesoscale characteristics (with a focus on thermodynamic instability indices) were determined using the high-resolution (500 m grid length) mesoscale numerical weather model and model results were compared with the available observations. Because thermodynamic instability indices are usually insufficient for forecasting waterspout activity, the performance of the Szilagyi Waterspout Index (SWI) was tested using vertical atmospheric profiles provided by the mesoscale numerical model. The SWI successfully forecasted all waterspout events, even the winter events. This indicates that the Szilagyi's waterspout prognostic method could be used as a valid prognostic tool for the eastern Adriatic.

  13. Topogrid Derived 10 Meter Resolution Digital Elevation Model of the Shenandoah National Park and Surrounding Region, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Tanner, Seth D.

    2004-01-01

    Explanation The purpose of developing a new 10m resolution DEM of the Shenandoah National Park Region was to more accurately depict geologic structure, surfical geology, and landforms of the Shenandoah National Park Region in preparation for automated landform classification. Previously, only a 30m resolution DEM was available through the National Elevation Dataset (NED). During production of the Shenandoah10m DEM of the Park the Geography Discipline of the USGS completed a revised 10m DEM to be included into the NED. However, different methodologies were used to produce the two similar DEMs. The ANUDEM algorithm was used to develop the Shenadoah DEM data. This algorithm allows for the inclusion of contours, streams, rivers, lake and water body polygons as well as spot height data to control the elevation model. A statistical analysis using over 800 National Geodetic Survey (NGS) first and second order vertical control points reveals that the Shenandoah10m DEM, produced as a part of the Appalachian Blue Ridge Landscape project, has a vertical accuracy of ?4.87 meters. The metadata for the 10m NED data reports a vertical accuracy of ?7m. A table listing the NGS control points, the elevation comparison, and the RMSE for the Shenandoah10m DEM is provided. The process of automated terrain classification involves developing statistical signatures from the DEM for each type of surficial deposit and landform type. The signature will be a measure of several characteristics derived from the elevation data including slope, aspect, planform curvature, and profile curvature. The quality of the DEM is of critical importance when extracting terrain signatures. The highest possible horizontal and vertical accuracy is required. The more accurate Shenandoah 10m DEM can now be analyzed and integrated with the geologic observations to yield statistical correlations between the two in the development of landform and surface geology mapping projects.

  14. A high-resolution European dataset for hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntegeka, Victor; Salamon, Peter; Gomes, Goncalo; Sint, Hadewij; Lorini, Valerio; Thielen, Jutta

    2013-04-01

    There is an increasing demand for large scale hydrological models not only in the field of modeling the impact of climate change on water resources but also for disaster risk assessments and flood or drought early warning systems. These large scale models need to be calibrated and verified against large amounts of observations in order to judge their capabilities to predict the future. However, the creation of large scale datasets is challenging for it requires collection, harmonization, and quality checking of large amounts of observations. For this reason, only a limited number of such datasets exist. In this work, we present a pan European, high-resolution gridded dataset of meteorological observations (EFAS-Meteo) which was designed with the aim to drive a large scale hydrological model. Similar European and global gridded datasets already exist, such as the HadGHCND (Caesar et al., 2006), the JRC MARS-STAT database (van der Goot and Orlandi, 2003) and the E-OBS gridded dataset (Haylock et al., 2008). However, none of those provide similarly high spatial resolution and/or a complete set of variables to force a hydrologic model. EFAS-Meteo contains daily maps of precipitation, surface temperature (mean, minimum and maximum), wind speed and vapour pressure at a spatial grid resolution of 5 x 5 km for the time period 1 January 1990 - 31 December 2011. It furthermore contains calculated radiation, which is calculated by using a staggered approach depending on the availability of sunshine duration, cloud cover and minimum and maximum temperature, and evapotranspiration (potential evapotranspiration, bare soil and open water evapotranspiration). The potential evapotranspiration was calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation with the above-mentioned meteorological variables. The dataset was created as part of the development of the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) and has been continuously updated throughout the last years. The dataset variables are used as

  15. Expanding the role of community mobilization to accelerate progress towards ending vertical transmission of HIV in Uganda: the Networks model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Gitau; Iorpenda, Kate; Muwanga, Fred

    2012-07-11

    Efforts to prevent vertical transmission of HIV have gained momentum globally since the launch of the "Global plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive", reflecting the growing consensus that we now have low-cost, efficacious interventions that promise to end vertical transmission of HIV. Uganda is one of the 22 focus countries in the global plan and one of the 10 countries with the highest need for prevention of vertical transmission globally. In the context of current shortfalls in the prevention of vertical HIV transmission, this paper presents the results of the Networks project, a community mobilisation model implemented by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in Uganda, and draws out the theoretical foundations and promising community mobilization practices relevant to prevention of vertical transmission. A retrospective review of the Network project's activities, documentation and evaluation was performed. The Networks project, through community mobilisation and greater involvement of people living with HIV, reached an estimated 1.3 million people with at least one health service. By clustering 750 groups of people living with HIV into larger coalitions, the project supported existing groups to amalgamate their collective strengths and skills in outreach, referral and literacy activities; and improved reach and coverage of HIV services through strengthened linkages with healthcare facilities. Our analysis of the Networks model shows that it could contribute to the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV as a replicable and sustainable community mobilisation approach. In particular, the Networks model increased the uptake of decentralized interventions for preventing vertical transmission through community referrals; promoted male involvement through peer sensitisation; and linked communities to advocacy channels for advancing maternal health and prevention of vertical HIV transmission. BY

  16. Effects of Model Resolution and Ocean Mixing on Forced Ice-Ocean Physical and Biogeochemical Simulations Using Global and Regional System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Meibing; Deal, Clara; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Matrai, Patricia; Roberts, Andrew; Osinski, Robert; Lee, Younjoo J.; Frants, Marina; Elliott, Scott; Jeffery, Nicole; Hunke, Elizabeth; Wang, Shanlin

    2018-01-01

    The current coarse-resolution global Community Earth System Model (CESM) can reproduce major and large-scale patterns but is still missing some key biogeochemical features in the Arctic Ocean, e.g., low surface nutrients in the Canada Basin. We incorporated the CESM Version 1 ocean biogeochemical code into the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) and coupled it with a sea-ice algal module to investigate model limitations. Four ice-ocean hindcast cases are compared with various observations: two in a global 1° (40˜60 km in the Arctic) grid: G1deg and G1deg-OLD with/without new sea-ice processes incorporated; two on RASM's 1/12° (˜9 km) grid R9km and R9km-NB with/without a subgrid scale brine rejection parameterization which improves ocean vertical mixing under sea ice. Higher-resolution and new sea-ice processes contributed to lower model errors in sea-ice extent, ice thickness, and ice algae. In the Bering Sea shelf, only higher resolution contributed to lower model errors in salinity, nitrate (NO3), and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). In the Arctic Basin, model errors in mixed layer depth (MLD) were reduced 36% by brine rejection parameterization, 20% by new sea-ice processes, and 6% by higher resolution. The NO3 concentration biases were caused by both MLD bias and coarse resolution, because of excessive horizontal mixing of high NO3 from the Chukchi Sea into the Canada Basin in coarse resolution models. R9km showed improvements over G1deg on NO3, but not on Chl-a, likely due to light limitation under snow and ice cover in the Arctic Basin.

  17. Three-dimensional flow field around and downstream of a subscale model rotating vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kevin J.; Coletti, Filippo; Elkins, Christopher J.; Dabiri, John O.; Eaton, John K.

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional, three-component mean velocity fields have been measured around and downstream of a scale model vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) operated at tip speed ratios (TSRs) of 1.25 and 2.5, in addition to a non-rotating case. The five-bladed turbine model has an aspect ratio (height/diameter) of 1 and is operated in a water tunnel at a Reynolds number based on turbine diameter of 11,600. Velocity fields are acquired using magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) at an isotropic resolution of 1/50 of the turbine diameter. Mean flow reversal is observed immediately behind the turbine for cases with rotation. The turbine wake is highly three-dimensional and asymmetric throughout the investigated region, which extends up to 7 diameters downstream. A vortex pair, generated at the upwind-turning side of the turbine, plays a dominant role in wake dynamics by entraining faster fluid from the freestream and aiding in wake recovery. The higher TSR case shows a larger region of reverse flow and greater asymmetry in the near wake of the turbine, but faster wake recovery due to the increase in vortex pair strength with increasing TSR. The present measurement technique also provides detailed information about flow in the vicinity of the turbine blades and within the turbine rotor. The details of the flow field around VAWTs and in their wakes can inform the design of high-density VAWT wind farms, where wake interaction between turbines is a principal consideration.

  18. Lexical ambiguity resolution for Turkish in direct transfer machine translation models

    OpenAIRE

    Tantuğ, A. Cüneyd; Tantug, A. Cuneyd; Oflazer, Kemal; Adalı, Eşref; Adali, Esref

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical lexical ambiguity resolution method in direct transfer machine translation models in which the target language is Turkish. Since direct transfer MT models do not have full syntactic information, most of the lexical ambiguity resolution methods are not very helpful. Our disambiguation model is based on statistical language models. We have investigated the performances of some statistical language model types and parameters in lexical ambiguity resolution for o...

  19. Modeling the vertical soil organic matter profile using Bayesian parameter estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Braakhekke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical distribution of soil organic matter (SOM in the profile may constitute an important factor for soil carbon cycling. However, the formation of the SOM profile is currently poorly understood due to equifinality, caused by the entanglement of several processes: input from roots, mixing due to bioturbation, and organic matter leaching. In this study we quantified the contribution of these three processes using Bayesian parameter estimation for the mechanistic SOM profile model SOMPROF. Based on organic carbon measurements, 13 parameters related to decomposition and transport of organic matter were estimated for two temperate forest soils: an Arenosol with a mor humus form (Loobos, the Netherlands, and a Cambisol with mull-type humus (Hainich, Germany. Furthermore, the use of the radioisotope 210Pbex as tracer for vertical SOM transport was studied. For Loobos, the calibration results demonstrate the importance of organic matter transport with the liquid phase for shaping the vertical SOM profile, while the effects of bioturbation are generally negligible. These results are in good agreement with expectations given in situ conditions. For Hainich, the calibration offered three distinct explanations for the observations (three modes in the posterior distribution. With the addition of 210Pbex data and prior knowledge, as well as additional information about in situ conditions, we were able to identify the most likely explanation, which indicated that root litter input is a dominant process for the SOM profile. For both sites the organic matter appears to comprise mainly adsorbed but potentially leachable material, pointing to the importance of organo-mineral interactions. Furthermore, organic matter in the mineral soil appears to be mainly derived from root litter, supporting previous studies that highlighted the importance of root input for soil carbon sequestration. The 210

  20. Modeling the North American vertical datum of 1988 errors in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.

    2018-02-01

    A large systematic difference (ranging from -20 cm to +130 cm) was found between NAVD 88 (North AmericanVertical Datum of 1988) and the pure gravimetric geoid models. This difference not only makes it very difficult to augment the local geoid model by directly using the vast NAVD 88 network with state-of-the-art technologies recently developed in geodesy, but also limits the ability of researchers to effectively demonstrate the geoid model improvements on the NAVD 88 network. Here, both conventional regression analyses based on various predefined basis functions such as polynomials, B-splines, and Legendre functions and the Latent Variable Analysis (LVA) such as the Factor Analysis (FA) are used to analyze the systematic difference. Besides giving a mathematical model, the regression results do not reveal a great deal about the physical reasons that caused the large differences in NAVD 88, which may be of interest to various researchers. Furthermore, there is still a significant amount of no-Gaussian signals left in the residuals of the conventional regression models. On the other side, the FA method not only provides a better not of the data, but also offers possible explanations of the error sources. Without requiring extra hypothesis tests on the model coefficients, the results from FA are more efficient in terms of capturing the systematic difference. Furthermore, without using a covariance model, a novel interpolating method based on the relationship between the loading matrix and the factor scores is developed for predictive purposes. The prediction error analysis shows that about 3-7 cm precision is expected in NAVD 88 after removing the systematic difference.

  1. Modeling the North American vertical datum of 1988 errors in the conterminous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A large systematic difference (ranging from −20 cm to +130 cm was found between NAVD 88 (North AmericanVertical Datum of 1988 and the pure gravimetric geoid models. This difference not only makes it very difficult to augment the local geoid model by directly using the vast NAVD 88 network with state-of-the-art technologies recently developed in geodesy, but also limits the ability of researchers to effectively demonstrate the geoid model improvements on the NAVD 88 network. Here, both conventional regression analyses based on various predefined basis functions such as polynomials, B-splines, and Legendre functions and the Latent Variable Analysis (LVA such as the Factor Analysis (FA are used to analyze the systematic difference. Besides giving a mathematical model, the regression results do not reveal a great deal about the physical reasons that caused the large differences in NAVD 88, which may be of interest to various researchers. Furthermore, there is still a significant amount of no-Gaussian signals left in the residuals of the conventional regression models. On the other side, the FA method not only provides a better not of the data, but also offers possible explanations of the error sources. Without requiring extra hypothesis tests on the model coefficients, the results from FA are more efficient in terms of capturing the systematic difference. Furthermore, without using a covariance model, a novel interpolating method based on the relationship between the loading matrix and the factor scores is developed for predictive purposes. The prediction error analysis shows that about 3-7 cm precision is expected in NAVD 88 after removing the systematic difference.

  2. Numerical modeling of the productivity of vertical to shallowly dipping fractured zones in crystalline rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, S.; de Dreuzy, J.-R.; Bour, O.; Bresciani, E.

    2013-02-01

    SummaryGroundwater resources in crystalline rock are typically associated with the weathered zone and regional sub-vertical faults that are well connected to the surface. However, some sub-horizontal and shallowly dipping fractured zones can also be highly-productive aquifers. In this paper, numerical simulations of a conceptual hydrogeological model show that the flow to such strongly transmissive fractured zones is controlled by their transmissivity or by their deepening structure. While leakage through the overlying rock units is generally the limiting factor, recharge always occurs at least close to the outcrop of the fractured zone where the overlying rock is thinner and guarantees the availability of some groundwater. At small dip angles, recharge extends spatially and the flow within the fractured zone may even become the limiting factor when the hydraulic conductivity of the overlying rock is not less than two orders of magnitude smaller than the fractured zone transmissivity. This is precisely the case of the Plœmeur aquifer (Brittany, France) located in a crystalline rock geologic setting, where groundwater in a shallowly dipping fractured zone is used as the source of water supply for a nearby city of 20,000 people. Simulation results show that the fractured zones may represent potential aquifers under a large variety of hydrogeological conditions. Aquifers in shallowly dipping structures differ strongly from those located in regional sub-vertical fault zones in terms of flow patterns, and thus supposedly in terms of management of the groundwater resource. They are more local than regional in scale, and consequently do not require regional fracture connectivity. The leakage through the overlying rock unit enhances water quality. Finally, we argue that the potential widespread occurrence of these alternative and possibly less accessible resources should promote the development of appropriate identification methods.

  3. Modeling of Arctic Storms with a Variable High-Resolution General Circulation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roesler, Erika Louise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bosler, Peter Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Biological and Environmental Research project, “Water Cycle and Climate Extremes Modeling” is improving our understanding and modeling of regional details of the Earth’s water cycle. Sandia is using high resolution model behavior to investigate storms in the Arctic.

  4. Methodology and consistency of slant and vertical assessments for ionospheric electron content models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; Roma-Dollase, David; Krankowski, Andrzej; García-Rigo, Alberto; Orús-Pérez, Raül

    2017-12-01

    A summary of the main concepts on global ionospheric map(s) [hereinafter GIM(s)] of vertical total electron content (VTEC), with special emphasis on their assessment, is presented in this paper. It is based on the experience accumulated during almost two decades of collaborative work in the context of the international global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) service (IGS) ionosphere working group. A representative comparison of the two main assessments of ionospheric electron content models (VTEC-altimeter and difference of Slant TEC, based on independent global positioning system data GPS, dSTEC-GPS) is performed. It is based on 26 GPS receivers worldwide distributed and mostly placed on islands, from the last quarter of 2010 to the end of 2016. The consistency between dSTEC-GPS and VTEC-altimeter assessments for one of the most accurate IGS GIMs (the tomographic-kriging GIM `UQRG' computed by UPC) is shown. Typical error RMS values of 2 TECU for VTEC-altimeter and 0.5 TECU for dSTEC-GPS assessments are found. And, as expected by following a simple random model, there is a significant correlation between both RMS and specially relative errors, mainly evident when large enough number of observations per pass is considered. The authors expect that this manuscript will be useful for new analysis contributor centres and in general for the scientific and technical community interested in simple and truly external ways of validating electron content models of the ionosphere.

  5. Land use and topography influence in a complex terrain area: A high resolution mesoscale modelling study over the Eastern Pyrenees using the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Esteve, B.; Udina, M.; Soler, M. R.; Pepin, N.; Miró, J. R.

    2018-04-01

    Different types of land use (LU) have different physical properties which can change local energy balance and hence vertical fluxes of moisture, heat and momentum. This in turn leads to changes in near-surface temperature and moisture fields. Simulating atmospheric flow over complex terrain requires accurate local-scale energy balance and therefore model grid spacing must be sufficient to represent both topography and land-use. In this study we use both the Corine Land Cover (CLC) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) land use databases for use with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and evaluate the importance of both land-use classification and horizontal resolution in contributing to successful modelling of surface temperatures and humidities observed from a network of 39 sensors over a 9 day period in summer 2013. We examine case studies of the effects of thermal inertia and soil moisture availability at individual locations. The scale at which the LU classification is observed influences the success of the model in reproducing observed patterns of temperature and moisture. Statistical validation of model output demonstrates model sensitivity to both the choice of LU database used and the horizontal resolution. In general, results show that on average, by a) using CLC instead of USGS and/or b) increasing horizontal resolution, model performance is improved. We also show that the sensitivity to these changes in the model performance shows a daily cycle.

  6. Enhancement of a Turbulence Sub-Model for More Accurate Predictions of Vertical Stratifications in 3D Coastal and Estuarine Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenrui Huang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improvement of the Mellor and Yamada's 2nd order turbulence model in the Princeton Ocean Model (POM for better predictions of vertical stratifications of salinity in estuaries. The model was evaluated in the strongly stratified estuary, Apalachicola River, Florida, USA. The three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to study the stratified flow and salinity intrusion in the estuary in response to tide, wind, and buoyancy forces. Model tests indicate that model predictions over estimate the stratification when using the default turbulent parameters. Analytic studies of density-induced and wind-induced flows indicate that accurate estimation of vertical eddy viscosity plays an important role in describing vertical profiles. Initial model revision experiments show that the traditional approach of modifying empirical constants in the turbulence model leads to numerical instability. In order to improve the performance of the turbulence model while maintaining numerical stability, a stratification factor was introduced to allow adjustment of the vertical turbulent eddy viscosity and diffusivity. Sensitivity studies indicate that the stratification factor, ranging from 1.0 to 1.2, does not cause numerical instability in Apalachicola River. Model simulations show that increasing the turbulent eddy viscosity by a stratification factor of 1.12 results in an optimal agreement between model predictions and observations in the case study presented in this study. Using the proposed stratification factor provides a useful way for coastal modelers to improve the turbulence model performance in predicting vertical turbulent mixing in stratified estuaries and coastal waters.

  7. Introduction of a Horizontal and Vertical Split Flow Model of Emergency Department Patients as a Response to Overcrowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Gregory; Joshi, Nikita; Callagy, Patrice; Stone, Jamie; Brown, Ian; Shen, Sam

    2017-11-20

    ED overcrowding is an issue that is affecting every emergency department and every hospital. The inability to maintain patient flow into and out of the emergency department paralyzes the ability to provide effective and timely patient care. Many solutions have been proposed on how to mitigate the effects of ED overcrowding. Solutions involve either hospital-wide initiatives or ED-based solutions. In this article, the authors seek to describe and provide metrics for a patient flow methodology that targets ESI 3 patients in a vertical flow model. In the Stanford Emergency Department, a vertical flow model was created from existing ED space by removing fold-down horizontal stretchers and replacing them with multiple chairs that allowed for assessment and medical management in an upright sitting position. The model was launched and sustained through frequent interdisciplinary huddles, detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria, scripted text on how to promote the flow model to patients, and close analytics of metrics. Metrics for success included patient length of stay (LOS) for those triaged to the vertical flow area compared with ESI 3 patients triaged to the traditional emergency department as a comparison group. The secondary outcome is the total number of patients seen in the vertical flow area. This was a 6-month-September 2014, to February 2015-retrospective pre- and postintervention study that examined LOS as a marker for effective launch and implementation of a vertical patient workflow model. The patients triaged to the vertical flow area in the study period tended to be younger than in the control period (43 years versus 52 years, P = 0.00). There was a significant decrease in our primary end point: the total LOS for ESI 3 patients triaged to the vertical flow area (270 minutes versus 384 minutes, P = 0.00). Implementation of a vertical patient flow strategy can decrease LOS for the vertical ESI 3 patients based upon the inclusion and exclusion criteria

  8. High Resolution Modelling of Crop Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmasoudi, S. S.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Crop production is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climatic variability and change. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and other greenhouse gases are causing increases in global temperature. In western North America, water supply is largely derived from mountain snowmelt. Climate change will have a significant impact on mountain snowpack and subsequently, the snow-derived water supply. This will strain water supplies and increase water demand in areas with substantial irrigation agriculture. Increasing temperatures may create heat stress for some crops regardless of soil water supply, and increasing surface O3 and other pollutants may damage crops and ecosystems. CO2 fertilization may or may not be an advantage in future. This work is part of a larger study that will address a series of questions based on a range of future climate scenarios for several watersheds in western North America. The key questions are: (1) how will snowmelt and rainfall runoff vary in future; (2) how will seasonal and inter-annual soil water supply vary, and how might that impacts food supplies; (3) how might heat stress impact (some) crops even with adequate soil water; (4) will CO2 fertilization alter crop yields; and (5) will pollution loads, particularly O3, cause meaningful changes to crop yields? The Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) Spatial Hydrometeorological Model is an innovative, efficient, high-resolution model designed to assess climate driven changes in mountain snowpack derived water supplies. We will link GENESYS to the CROPWAT crop model system to assess climate driven changes in water requirement and associated crop productivity for a range of future climate scenarios. Literature bases studies will be utilised to develop approximate crop response functions for heat stress, CO2 fertilization and for O3 damages. The overall objective is to create modeling systems that allows meaningful assessment of agricultural productivity at a watershed scale under a

  9. Optimal waste load allocation using graph model for conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Leila; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for waste load allocation in river systems using the decision support system (DSS) for the graph model for conflict resolution II (GMCRII), multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) analysis and the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) algorithm. Minimization of total treatment and penalty costs and minimization of biological oxygen demand violation of standards at the check point are considered as the main objectives of this study. At first, the water quality along the river was simulated using the Streeter-Phelps (S-P) equation coupled with the MOPSO model. Thereby a trade-off curve between the objectives is obtained and a set of non-dominated solutions is selected. In the next step, the best alternative is chosen using MCDM techniques and the GMCRII DSS package and non-cooperative stability definitions. The applicability and efficiency of the methodology are examined in a real-world case study of the Sefidrud River in the northern part of Iran.

  10. Hyper-resolution urban flood modeling using high-resolution radar precipitation and LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, S. J.; Lee, S.; Lee, J.; Seo, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Floods occur most frequently among all natural hazards, often causing widespread economic damage and loss of human lives. In particular, urban flooding is becoming increasingly costly and difficult to manage with a greater concentration of population and assets in urban centers. Despite of known benefits for accurate representation of small scale features and flow interaction among different flow domains, which have significant impact on flood propagation, high-resolution modeling has not been fully utilized due to expensive computation and various uncertainties from model structure, input and parameters. In this study, we assess the potential of hyper-resolution hydrologic-hydraulic modeling using high-resolution radar precipitation and LiDAR data for improved urban flood prediction and hazard mapping. We describe a hyper-resolution 1D-2D coupled urban flood model for pipe and surface flows and evaluate the accuracy of the street-level inundation information produced. For detailed geometric representation of urban areas and for computational efficiency, we use 1 m-resolution topographical data, processed from LiDAR measurements, in conjunction with adaptive mesh refinement. For street-level simulation in large urban areas at grid sizes of 1 to 10 m, a hybrid parallel computing scheme using MPI and openMP is also implemented in a high-performance computing system. The modeling approach developed is applied for the Johnson Creek Catchment ( 40 km2), which makes up the Arlington Urban Hydroinformatics Testbed. In addition, discussion will be given on availability of hyper-resolution simulation archive for improved real-time flood mapping.

  11. Soliton wave model for simulating the slug formation in vertical-to-horizontal partially blocked pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihan Onder; Alberto Teyssedou; Danila Roubtsov

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In CANDU reactors the fuel channels are connected to inlet and outlet headers by feeder-pipes that consist of vertical and horizontal legs. In some feeders, orifices are installed for flow adjustment. During a postulated Loss of Coolant Accidents, the emergency cooling water injected into the inlet and outlet headers enters the fuel channels through the feeder pipes. Steam produced in the feeders and in the fuel channels may flow in the direction opposite to that of the water, thereby creating vertical to horizontal Counter-Current Flow (CCF). The rate at which the cooling water enters the fuel channel may be substantially limited by the flooding phenomena that entrains the water in the same direction as the steam flow. Steam flowing in the direction opposite to the cooling water can bring about the formation of slug flow. Long slugs of liquid moving at relatively high speed are transported back towards the headers by the steam. This phenomenon substantially reduces the amount of cooling water that can reach the reactor core. We conducted CCF experiments using a vertical-to-horizontal test section connected by 90 deg. elbows, with an orifice installed in the horizontal leg. Four different orifices were used to carry out the experiments. We have observed that soliton-type waves generated close to the elbow propagate in the horizontal leg towards the orifice, where a partial reflection takes place. Without an orifice, the soliton waves are reflected from the second elbow. The reflected waves move in the opposite direction to that of the incident wave. Since soliton-type waves are periodically generated, the incident and reflected waves interfere at some place in the horizontal leg. If the amplitude of the interference wave is high enough, the bridging of the tubes occur, which generates the slugs. During the experiments the water and air flow rates, pressures and void fraction distributions were measured. The slug propagation

  12. Impact of atmospheric model resolution on simulation of ENSO feedback processes: a coupled model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lijuan; Chen, Lin; Rong, Xinyao; Su, Jingzhi; Wang, Lu; Li, Tim; Yu, Yongqiang

    2018-03-01

    This study examines El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related air-sea feedback processes in a coupled general circulation model (CGCM) to gauge model errors and pin down their sources in ENSO simulation. Three horizontal resolutions of the atmospheric component (T42, T63 and T106) of the CGCM are used to investigate how the simulated ENSO behaviors are affected by the resolution. We find that air-sea feedback processes in the three experiments mainly differ in terms of both thermodynamic and dynamic feedbacks. We also find that these processes are simulated more reasonably in the highest resolution version than in the other two lower resolution versions. The difference in the thermodynamic feedback arises from the difference in the shortwave-radiation (SW) feedback. Due to the severely (mildly) excessive cold tongue in the lower (higher) resolution version, the SW feedback is severely (mildly) underestimated. The main difference in the dynamic feedback processes lies in the thermocline feedback and the zonal-advection feedback, both of which are caused by the difference in the anomalous thermocline response to anomalous zonal wind stress. The difference in representing the anomalous thermocline response is attributed to the difference in meridional structure of zonal wind stress anomaly in the three simulations, which is linked to meridional resolution.

  13. MM 99.58 Physical modelling of Hammerhead forging, Vertical and Lateral load history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Eriksen, Morten; Wanheim, Tarras

    1999-01-01

    The present report presents a laboratory setup with hammerhead forging, where the vertical and lateral force history is obtained under different process conditions......The present report presents a laboratory setup with hammerhead forging, where the vertical and lateral force history is obtained under different process conditions...

  14. A high-resolution ambient seismic noise model for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Toni

    2014-05-01

    measurement precision (i.e. earthquake location), while considering this extremely complex boundary condition. To solve this problem I have developed a high-resolution ambient seismic noise model for Europe. The model is based on land-use data derived from satellite imagery by the EU-project CORINE in a resolution of 100x100m. The the CORINE data consists of several land-use classes, which, besides others, contain: industrial areas, mines, urban fabric, agricultural areas, permanent corps, forests and open spaces. Additionally, open GIS data for highways, and major and minor roads and railway lines were included from the OpenStreetMap project (www.openstreetmap.org). This data was divided into three classes that represent good, intermediate and bad ambient conditions of the corresponding land-use class based on expert judgment. To account for noise propagation away from its source a smoothing operator was applied to individual land-use noise-fields. Finally, the noise-fields were stacked to obtain an European map of ambient noise conditions. A calibration of this map with data of existing seismic stations Europe allowed me to estimate the expected noise level in actual ground motion units for the three ambient noise condition classes of the map. The result is a high-resolution ambient seismic noise map, that allows the network designer to make educated predictions on the expected noise level for arbitrary location in Europe. The ambient noise model was successfully tested in several network optimization projects in Switzerland and surrounding countries and will hopefully be a valuable contribution to improving the data quality of microseismic monitoring networks in Europe.

  15. An efficient Lagrangian stochastic model of vertical dispersion in the convective boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzese, Pasquale; Luhar, Ashok K.; Borgas, Michael S.

    We consider the one-dimensional case of vertical dispersion in the convective boundary layer (CBL) assuming that the turbulence field is stationary and horizontally homogeneous. The dispersion process is simulated by following Lagrangian trajectories of many independent tracer particles in the turbulent flow field, leading to a prediction of the mean concentration. The particle acceleration is determined using a stochastic differential equation, assuming that the joint evolution of the particle velocity and position is a Markov process. The equation consists of a deterministic term and a random term. While the formulation is standard, attention has been focused in recent years on various ways of calculating the deterministic term using the well-mixed condition incorporating the Fokker-Planck equation. Here we propose a simple parameterisation for the deterministic acceleration term by approximating it as a quadratic function of velocity. Such a function is shown to represent well the acceleration under moderate velocity skewness conditions observed in the CBL. The coefficients in the quadratic form are determined in terms of given turbulence statistics by directly integrating the Fokker-Planck equation. An advantage of this approach is that, unlike in existing Lagrangian stochastic models for the CBL, the use of the turbulence statistics up to the fourth order can be made without assuming any predefined form for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the velocity. The main strength of the model, however, lies in its simplicity and computational efficiency. The dispersion results obtained from the new model are compared with existing laboratory data as well as with those obtained from a more complex Lagrangian model in which the deterministic acceleration term is based on a bi-Gaussian velocity PDF. The comparison shows that the new model performs well.

  16. A Non-hydrostatic Atmospheric Model for Global High-resolution Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    A three-dimensional non-hydrostatic atmosphere model, GRAPES_YY, is developed on the spherical Yin-Yang grid system in order to enforce global high-resolution weather simulation or forecasting at the CAMS/CMA. The quasi-uniform grid makes the computation be of high efficiency and free of pole problem. Full representation of the three-dimensional Coriolis force is considered in the governing equations. Under the constraint of third-order boundary interpolation, the model is integrated with the semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian method using the same code on both zones. A static halo region is set to ensure computation of cross-boundary transport and updating Dirichlet-type boundary conditions in the solution process of elliptical equations with the Schwarz method. A series of dynamical test cases, including the solid-body advection, the balanced geostrophic flow, zonal flow over an isolated mountain, development of the Rossby-Haurwitz wave and a baroclinic wave, are carried out, and excellent computational stability and accuracy of the dynamic core has been confirmed. After implementation of the physical processes of long and short-wave radiation, cumulus convection, micro-physical transformation of water substances and the turbulent processes in the planetary boundary layer include surface layer vertical fluxes parameterization, a long-term run of the model is then put forward under an idealized aqua-planet configuration to test the model physics and model ability in both short-term and long-term integrations. In the aqua-planet experiment, the model shows an Earth-like structure of circulation. The time-zonal mean temperature, wind components and humidity illustrate reasonable subtropical zonal westerly jet, meridional three-cell circulation, tropical convection and thermodynamic structures. The specific SST and solar insolation being symmetric about the equator enhance the ITCZ and tropical precipitation, which concentrated in tropical region. Additional analysis and

  17. A Simplified Infiltration Model for Predicting Cumulative Infiltration during Vertical Line Source Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical line source irrigation is a water-saving irrigation method for enhancing direct water and nutrient delivery to the root zone, reducing soil evaporation and improving water and nutrient use efficiency. To identify its influencing factors, we performed computer simulations using the HYDRUS-2D software. The results indicate that for a given soil, the line source seepage area, but not the initial soil water content and buried depth, has a significant effect on the cumulative infiltration. We thus proposed a simplified method, taking into account the seepage area for predicting the cumulative infiltration based on the Philip model. Finally, we evaluated the accuracy of the simplified method using experimental data and found the cumulative infiltrations predicted by the simplified method were in very good agreement with the observed values, showing a low mean average error of 0.028–0.480 L, a root mean square error of 0.043–0.908 L, a percentage bias of 0.321–0.900 and a large Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient close to 1.0 (NSE ≥ 0.995. The results indicate that this simplified infiltration model, for which the only emitter parameter required is the seepage area, could provide a valuable and practical tool for irrigation design.

  18. Sands subjected to repetitive vertical loading under zero lateral strain: accumulation models, terminal densities, and settlement

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Song Hun

    2016-08-09

    Geosystems often experience numerous loading cycles. Plastic strain accumulation during repetitive mechanical loads can lead to shear shakedown or continued shear ratcheting; in all cases, volumetric strains diminish as the specimen evolves towards terminal density. Previously suggested models and new functions are identified to fit plastic strain accumulation data. All accumulation models are formulated to capture terminal density (volumetric strain) and either shakedown or ratcheting (shear strain). Repetitive vertical loading tests under zero lateral strain conditions are conducted using three different sands packed at initially low and high densities. Test results show that plastic strain accumulation for all sands and density conditions can be captured in the same dimensionless plot defined in terms of the initial relative density, terminal density, and ratio between the amplitude of the repetitive load and the initial static load. This observation allows us to advance a simple but robust procedure to estimate the maximum one-dimensional settlement that a foundation could experience if subjected to repetitive loads. © 2016, Canadian Science Publishing. All rights reserved.

  19. Blending process modeling and control by multivariate curve resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumot, J; Igne, B; Anderson, C A; Drennen, J K; de Juan, A

    2013-12-15

    The application of the Multivariate Curve Resolution by Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) method to model and control blend processes of pharmaceutical formulations is assessed. Within the MCR-ALS framework, different data analysis approaches have been tested depending on the objective of the study, i.e., knowing the effect of different factors in the evolution of the blending process (modeling) or detecting the blend end-point and monitoring the concentration of the different species during and at the end of the process (control). Data analysis has been carried out studying multiple blending runs simultaneously taking advantage of the multiset mode of the MCR-ALS method. During the ALS optimization, natural constraints, such as non-negativity (spectral and concentration directions) have been applied for blend modeling. When blending control is the main purpose, a variant of the MCR-ALS algorithm with correlation constraint in the concentration direction has been additionally used. This constraint incorporates an internal calibration procedure, which relates resolved concentration values (in arbitrary units) with the real reference concentration values in the calibration samples (known references) providing values in real concentration scale in the final MCR-ALS results. Two systems consisting of pharmaceutical mixtures of an active principle (acetaminophen) with two or four excipients have been investigated. In the first case, MCR results allowed the description of the evolution of the individual compounds and the assessment of some physical effects in the blending process. In the second case, MCR analysis allowed the detection of the end-point of the process and the assessment of the effects linked to variations in the concentration level of the compounds. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assembling three-dimensional nanostructures on metal surfaces with a reversible vertical single-atom manipulation: A theoretical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianxing; Ye Xiang; Huang Lei; Xie Yiqun; Ke Sanhuang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We simulate the reversible vertical single-atom manipulations on several metal surfaces. ► We propose a method to predict whether a reversible vertical single-atom manipulation can be successful on several metal surfaces. ► A 3-dimensional Ni nanocluster is assembled on the Ni(1 1 1) surface using a Ni trimer-apex tip. - Abstract: We propose a theoretical model to show that pulling up an adatom from an atomic step requires a weaker force than from the flat surfaces of Al(0 0 1), Ni(1 1 1), Pt(1 1 0) and Au(1 1 0). Single adatom in the atomic step can be extracted vertically by a trimer-apex tip while can be released to the flat surface. This reversible vertical manipulation can then be used to fabricate a supported three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure on the Ni(1 1 1) surface. The present modeling can be used to predict whether the reversible vertical single-atom manipulation and thus the assembling of 3D nanostructures can be achieved on a metal surface.

  1. Towards developing a general framework for modelling vertical migration in zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Andrew Yu; Kuzenkov, Oleg A

    2016-09-21

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton is a widespread phenomenon in both oceans and lakes, and is generally considered to be the largest synchronized movement of biomass on Earth. Most existing mathematical models of DVM are based on the assumption that animals maximize a certain criterion such as the expected reproductive value, the venturous revenue, the ratio of energy gain/mortality or some predator avoidance function when choosing their instantaneous depth. The major shortcoming of this general point of view is that the predicted DVM may be strongly affected by a subjective choice of a particular optimization criterion. Here we argue that the optimal strategy of DVM can be unambiguously obtained as an outcome of selection in the underlying equations of genotype/traits frequency dynamics. Using this general paradigm, we explore the optimal strategy for the migration across different depths by zooplankton grazers throughout the day. To illustrate our ideas we consider four generic DVM models, each making different assumptions on the population dynamics of zooplankton, and demonstrate that in each model we need to maximize a particular functional to find the optimal strategy. Surprisingly, patterns of DVM obtained for different models greatly differ in terms of their parameters dependence. We then show that the infinite dimensional trait space of different zooplankton trajectories can be projected onto a low dimensional space of generalized parameters and the genotype evolution dynamics can be easily followed using this low-dimensional space. Using this space of generalized parameters we explore the influence of mutagenesis on evolution of DVM, and we show that strong mutagenesis allows the coexistence of an infinitely large number of strategies whereas for weak mutagenesis the selection results in the extinction of most strategies, with the surviving strategies all staying close to the optimal strategy in the corresponding mutagenesis-free system

  2. Analysis of Circulation Patterns in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, Simulated with a High-Resolution Hydrodynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea is a long, estuary-like sea area that is a direct continuation of the Baltic Proper. Short-term surface circulation in the gulf is mainly wind driven. The stability of currents varies from season to season. The relatively large freshwater input from the eastern end and the more saline deep water flow from the main basin at the western end maintain horizontal density gradients. We studied circulation patterns in the gulf with a high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic model setup. The configuration was based on the NEMO model and had 0.25 NM horizontal resolution and vertical resolution of 1 m. Our multi-year simulation revealed high year to year variability in the circulation. The persistency of currents in the Gulf of Finland is known to be low, with high variability in time and space. This was clearly demonstrated by our results. Processes affecting circulation patterns were analysed. These included upwelling-related alongshore currents. Several strong upwelling related coastal currents were present in the results on both northern and southern coast of the Gulf. The effect of wind forcing on the circulation in the gulf was also considered. We analysed wind forcing and found that annual differences contributed to the modelled circulation patterns.

  3. Modelling of the vertical migration process of phosphogypsum components in the soil profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernysh Ye. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the study of the process of vertical migration of phosphogypsum components according to the soil profile. The qualitative and quantitative identification of main biogenic elements (phosphorus, sulphur, calcium etc and heavy metals in lysimetric solutions from various horizons while getting on the surface of soil solutions containing phosphogypsum components is carried out by means of designed laboratory and experimental complex. The mineral hard soil fraction is also analysed. According to the results of the X-ray diffractometrical researches, the carbonates with heavy metals in their structure, caused by the ion-exchange with Са2+, were found in the mineral structure of the illuvial horizon soil samples. The results of experimental modeling indicate significant changes in the chemical parameters of groundwater, which are obtained by passing water with phosphogypsum particles on a model soil profile, which makes it easy to track the input data. In the upper part of the profile after 1 000 hours and for the first speed of the infiltration process, the constant moisture level was 25,6%, after the second speed of infiltration, it rose to 29.1 %. Noted that the highest concentration of biogenic elements (calcium, sulfur, potassium was found in lysimetric solutions obtained from the humus and eluvial horizons. In addition, it is determined that iron is present up to 5 %, nickel – within the range of 1–3 %, and copper – up to 1 %. It should be noted that the biochemical transformations of silicon influence the fractional distribution of heavy metals, which can be fixed by sorption-sedimentation mechanisms in silica, oligo and polysilicon compounds, as well as in crystalline lattice structures of clay minerals, quartz, etc. The model of soil and geochemical situation was formed according to the soil profile under the influence of the phosphogypsum within the three-dimensional surface, developed with the help of the

  4. Stability and disease persistence in an age-structured SIS epidemic model with vertical transmission and proportionate mixing assumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Doma, M.

    2001-02-01

    The stability of the endemic equilibrium of an SIS age-structured epidemic model of a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the force of infection is of proportionate mixing assumption type. We also investigate the uniform weak disease persistence. (author)

  5. Application of vertical advection-diffusion model for studying CO2 and O2 profiles in central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    The vertical advection-diffusion model proposed by Craig has been applied to the study of CO sub(2) and O sub(2) profiles in Central Arabian Sea. Distributions of total CO Sub(2) and O sub(2) are explained better by expressions involving exponential...

  6. First test model of the optical microscope which images the whole vertical particle tracks without any depth scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The first test model of the optical microscope which produces the in focus image of the whole vertical particle track without depth scanning is described. The in focus image of the object consisting of the linear array of the point-like elements was obtained. A comparison with primary out of focus image of such an object has been made

  7. Investigating Effect of Ignoring Hierarchical Data Structures on Accuracy of Vertical Scaling Using Mixed-Effects Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; Jin, Ying; Thum, Yeow Meng

    2010-01-01

    The vertical scales of large-scale achievement tests created by using item response theory (IRT) models are mostly based on cluster (or correlated) educational data in which students usually are clustered in certain groups or settings (classrooms or schools). While such application directly violated assumption of independent sample of person in…

  8. Stratigraphy of two conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia): modeling of vertical movements and sediment budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Aslanian, Daniel; Rabineau, Marina; Blanpied, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup; Robin, Cécile; Granjeon, Didier; Taillepierre, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The post-rift (~20-0 Ma) vertical movements of the Provence Basin (West Mediterranean) are quantified on its both conjugate (the Gulf of Lion and the West Sardinia) margins. This work is based on the stratigraphic study of sedimentary markers using a large 3D grid of seismic data, correlations with existing drillings and refraction data. The post-rift subsidence is measured by the direct use of sedimentary geometries analysed in 3D [Gorini et al., 2015; Rabineau et al., 2014] and validated by numerical stratigraphic modelling. Three domains were found: on the platform (1) and slope (2), the subsidence takes the form of a seaward tilting with different amplitudes, whereas the deep basin (3) subsides purely vertically [Leroux et al., 2015a]. These domains correspond to the deeper crustal domains respectively highlighted by wide angle seismic data. The continental crust (1) and the thinned continental crust (2) are tilted, whereas the intermediate crust, identified as lower continental exhumed crust [Moulin et al., 2015, Afhilado et al., 2015] (3) sagged. The post-break-up subsidence re-uses the initial hinge lines of the rifting phase. This striking correlation between surface geologic processes and deep earth dynamic processes emphasizes that the sedimentary record and sedimentary markers is a window into deep geodynamic processes and dynamic topography. Pliocene-Pleistocene seismic markers enabled high resolution quantification of sediment budgets over the past 6 Myr [Leroux et al., in press]. Sediment budget history is here completed on the Miocene interval. Thus, the controlling factors (climate, tectonics and eustasy) are discussed. Afilhado, A., Moulin, M., Aslanian, D., Schnürle, P., Klingelhoefer, F., Nouzé, H., Rabineau, M., Leroux, E. & Beslier, M.-O. (2015). Deep crustal structure across a young 1 passive margin from wide-angle and reflection seismic data (The SARDINIA Experiment) - II. Sardinia's margin. Bull. Soc. géol. France, 186, ILP Spec. issue, 4

  9. Analytical Model of Waterflood Sweep Efficiency in Vertical Heterogeneous Reservoirs under Constant Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model has been developed for quantitative evaluation of vertical sweep efficiency based on heterogeneous multilayer reservoirs. By applying the Buckley-Leverett displacement mechanism, a theoretical relationship is deduced to describe dynamic changes of the front of water injection, water saturation of producing well, and swept volume during waterflooding under the condition of constant pressure, which substitutes for the condition of constant rate in the traditional way. Then, this method of calculating sweep efficiency is applied from single layer to multilayers, which can be used to accurately calculate the sweep efficiency of heterogeneous reservoirs and evaluate the degree of waterflooding in multilayer reservoirs. In the case study, the water frontal position, water cut, volumetric sweep efficiency, and oil recovery are compared between commingled injection and zonal injection by applying the derived equations. The results are verified by numerical simulators, respectively. It is shown that zonal injection works better than commingled injection in respect of sweep efficiency and oil recovery and has a longer period of water free production.

  10. Modeling Microalgae Productivity in Industrial-Scale Vertical Flat Panel Photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Christian Hermann; Roth, Arne; Brück, Thomas Bartholomaeus

    2018-03-29

    Potentially achievable biomass yields are a decisive performance indicator for the economic viability of mass cultivation of microalgae. In this study, a computer model has been developed and applied to estimate the productivity of microalgae for large-scale outdoor cultivation in vertical flat panel photobioreactors. Algae growth is determined based on simulations of the reactor temperature and light distribution. Site-specific weather and irradiation data are used for annual yield estimations in six climate zones. Shading and reflections between opposing panels and between panels and the ground are dynamically computed based on the reactor geometry and the position of the sun. The results indicate that thin panels (≤ 0.05 m) are best suited for the assumed cell density of 2 g L -1 and that reactor panels should face in north-south direction. Panel spacings of 0.4 - 0.75 m appear most suitable for commercial applications. Under these preconditions, yields of around 10 kg m -2 a -1 are possible for most locations in the U.S. Only in hot climates significantly lower yields have to be expected, as extreme reactor temperatures limit overall productivity.

  11. High-resolution modeling of protein structures based on flexible fitting of low-resolution structural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjun; Tekpinar, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    To circumvent the difficulty of directly solving high-resolution biomolecular structures, low-resolution structural data from Cryo-electron microscopy (EM) and small angle solution X-ray scattering (SAXS) are increasingly used to explore multiple conformational states of biomolecular assemblies. One promising venue to obtain high-resolution structural models from low-resolution data is via data-constrained flexible fitting. To this end, we have developed a new method based on a coarse-grained Cα-only protein representation, and a modified form of the elastic network model (ENM) that allows large-scale conformational changes while maintaining the integrity of local structures including pseudo-bonds and secondary structures. Our method minimizes a pseudo-energy which linearly combines various terms of the modified ENM energy with an EM/SAXS-fitting score and a collision energy that penalizes steric collisions. Unlike some previous flexible fitting efforts using the lowest few normal modes, our method effectively utilizes all normal modes so that both global and local structural changes can be fully modeled with accuracy. This method is also highly efficient in computing time. We have demonstrated our method using adenylate kinase as a test case which undergoes a large open-to-close conformational change. The EM-fitting method is available at a web server (http://enm.lobos.nih.gov), and the SAXS-fitting method is available as a pre-compiled executable upon request. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vertical Bisimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Gorrieri, Roberto

    We investigate criteria to relate specifications and implementations belonging to conceptually different abstraction levels, and propose vertical bisimulation as a candidate relation for this purpose. Vertical bisimulation is indexed by a function mapping abstract actions onto concrete processes,

  13. Vertical integration and market power: A model-based analysis of restructuring in the Korean electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, Derek W.; Martoccia, Maria; Ochoa, Patricia; Kim, Haein; Ahn, Nam-Sung; Yoon, Yong-Beom

    2010-01-01

    An agent-based simulation model is developed using computational learning to investigate the impact of vertical integration between electricity generators and retailers on market power in a competitive wholesale market setting. It is observed that if partial vertical integration creates some market foreclosure, whether this leads to an increase or decrease in market power is situation specific. A detailed application to the Korean market structure reveals this to be the case. We find that in various cases, whilst vertical integration generally reduces spot prices, it can increase or decrease the market power of other market generators, depending upon the market share and the technology segment of the market, which is integrated, as well as the market concentrations before and after the integration.

  14. The M-2 ocean tide loading wave in Alaska: vertical and horizontal displacements, modelled and observed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Scherneck, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    Crustal deformations caused by surface load due to ocean tides are strongly dependent on the surface load closest to the observing site. In order to correctly model this ocean loading effect near irregular coastal areas, a high-resolution coastline is required. A test is carried out using two GPS...... sites located in Alaska, where the ocean tide loading effect is large and consequently observed easily by relative positioning with GPS. The selected sites are Fair (Fairbanks) and Chi3 (located on an island that separates Prince William Sound from the Gulf of Alaska). Processing hourly baseline...... solutions between Fair and Chi3 during a period of 49 days yields a significant ocean tide loading effect. The data is processed using different strategies for the tropospheric delay correction. However, the best results are obtained when we use 1-h ZTD (Zenith Tropospheric Delay) parameters for hourly...

  15. Regional Quasi-Three-Dimensional Unsaturated-Saturated Water Flow Model Based on a Vertical-Horizontal Splitting Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high nonlinearity of the three-dimensional (3-D unsaturated-saturated water flow equation, using a fully 3-D numerical model is computationally expensive for large scale applications. A new unsaturated-saturated water flow model is developed in this paper based on the vertical/horizontal splitting (VHS concept to split the 3-D unsaturated-saturated Richards’ equation into a two-dimensional (2-D horizontal equation and a one-dimensional (1-D vertical equation. The horizontal plane of average head gradient in the triangular prism element is derived to split the 3-D equation into the 2-D equation. The lateral flow in the horizontal plane of average head gradient represented by the 2-D equation is then calculated by the water balance method. The 1-D vertical equation is discretized by the finite difference method. The two equations are solved simultaneously by coupling them into a unified nonlinear system with a single matrix. Three synthetic cases are used to evaluate the developed model code by comparing the modeling results with those of Hydrus1D, SWMS2D and FEFLOW. We further apply the model to regional-scale modeling to simulate groundwater table fluctuations for assessing the model applicability in complex conditions. The proposed modeling method is found to be accurate with respect to measurements.

  16. Sensing Property Modeling for the Novel Horizontal-vertical Composite Underground Displacement Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Nanying Shentu; Guohua Qiu; Xiong Li; Renyuan Tong; Qing Li

    2014-01-01

    Due to invisibility and complexity of the underground displacement monitoring, there exit few practical monitoring sensors capable of monitoring the underground horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously. A novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor able to monitor both the horizontal and the vertical displacements was proposed in our previous studies and abbreviated as the H-V type sensor. Through comprehensive application of Hall sensing mechanism analysis, 3D magnetic ...

  17. Development and testing of a high-resolution model for tropospheric sulfate driven by observation-derived meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovitz, C.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Chemistry Div.

    1994-05-01

    A high-resolution three-dimensional Eulerian transport and transformation model has been developed to simulate concentrations of tropospheric sulfate for specific times and locations; it was applied over the North Atlantic and adjacent continental regions during October and November, 1986. The model represents emissions of anthropogenic SO{sub 2} and sulfate and of biogenic sulfur species, horizontal and vertical transport, gas-phase oxidation of SO{sub 2} and dimethylsulfide, aqueous-phase oxidation of SO{sub 2}, and wet and dry deposition of SO{sub 2}, sulfate, and methanesulfonic acid (MSA). The meteorological driver is the 6-hour output from the forecast model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Calculated sulfate concentrations and column burdens, examined in detail for October 15 and October 22 at 6Z, are related to existing weather patterns. These results exhibit rich temporal and spatial structure; the characteristic (1/e) temporal autocorrelation time for the sulfate column burdens over the central North Atlantic averages 20 hours; 95% of the values were 25 hours or less. The characteristic distance of spatial autocorrelation over this region depends on direction and averages 1,600 km; with 10{sup th} percentile value of 400 km and 90{sup th} percentile value of 1,700 km. Daily average model sulfate concentrations at the lowest vertical accurately represent the spatial variability, temporal episodicity, and absolute magnitudes of surface concentrations measured by monitoring stations in Europe, Canada and Barbados.

  18. Modeling segregated in- situ combustion processes through a vertical displacement model applied to a Colombian field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Aristizabal, Jose Julian; Grosso Vargas, Jorge Luis

    2005-01-01

    Recently it has been proposed the incorporation of horizontal well technologies in thermal EOR processes like the in situ combustion process (ISC). This has taken to the conception of new recovery mechanisms named here as segregated in-situ combustion processes, which are conventional in-situ combustion process with a segregated flow component. Top/Down combustion, Combustion Override Split-production Horizontal-well and Toe-to-Heel Air Injection are three of these processes, which incorporate horizontal producers and gravity drainage phenomena. When applied to thick reservoirs a process of this nature could be reasonably modeled under concepts of conventional in-situ combustion and Crestal Gas injection, especially for heavy oils mobile at reservoir conditions. A process of this nature has been studied through an analytic model conceived for the particular conditions of the Castilla field, a homogeneous thick anticline structure containing high mobility heavy oil, which seems to be an excellent candidate for the application of these technologies

  19. Arctic storms simulated in atmospheric general circulation models under uniform high, uniform low, and variable resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, E. L.; Bosler, P. A.; Taylor, M.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of strong extratropical storms on coastal communities is large, and the extent to which storms will change with a warming Arctic is unknown. Understanding storms in reanalysis and in climate models is important for future predictions. We know that the number of detected Arctic storms in reanalysis is sensitive to grid resolution. To understand Arctic storm sensitivity to resolution in climate models, we describe simulations designed to identify and compare Arctic storms at uniform low resolution (1 degree), at uniform high resolution (1/8 degree), and at variable resolution (1 degree to 1/8 degree). High-resolution simulations resolve more fine-scale structure and extremes, such as storms, in the atmosphere than a uniform low-resolution simulation. However, the computational cost of running a globally uniform high-resolution simulation is often prohibitive. The variable resolution tool in atmospheric general circulation models permits regional high-resolution solutions at a fraction of the computational cost. The storms are identified using the open-source search algorithm, Stride Search. The uniform high-resolution simulation has over 50% more storms than the uniform low-resolution and over 25% more storms than the variable resolution simulations. Storm statistics from each of the simulations is presented and compared with reanalysis. We propose variable resolution as a cost-effective means of investigating physics/dynamics coupling in the Arctic environment. Future work will include comparisons with observed storms to investigate tuning parameters for high resolution models. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2016-7402 A

  20. Modernization of vertical Pelton turbines with the help of CFD and model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Reiner; Gola, Bartlomiej; Smertnig, Martin; Wittwer, Bernhard; Meusburger, Peter

    2014-03-01

    The modernization of water turbines bears a high potential of increasing the already installed hydropower capacity. In many projects the existing waterways allow a substantial increase of the available flow capacity and with it the energy output. But also the upgrading onto a state of the art hydraulic, mechanical and electrical design will increase the available power considerably after the rehabilitation. The two phase nature of the flow in Pelton turbines requires for the hydraulic refurbishment special care in the application of the available design methods. Where the flow in the high pressure section of the turbine is mainly of one phase nature, CFD has been used as a standard tool for many years. Also the jet quality, and with it the exploration of the source of flow disturbances that cause poor free surface quality can be investigated with CFD. The interaction of the jet with the buckets of the runner is also examined by means of CFD. However, its accuracy with respect to hydraulic efficiency is, because of the two phase flow and the transient flow process, in very few cases good enough for a reliable and accurate prediction of absolute numbers. The optimization of hydraulic bucket profiles is therefore always checked with measurements in homologous scaled model turbines. A similar situation exists for the housing flow after the water is discharged from the runner. Here also CFD techniques are available to explore the general mechanisms. However, due to the two phase flow nature, where only a very small space is filled with moving water, the experimental setup in a model turbine is always the final proof for optimizations of housing inserts and modifications. The hydraulic design of a modernization project for a power station equipped with vertical Pelton turbines of two different designs is described in the proposed paper. It will be shown, how CFD is applied to determine the losses in the high pressure section and how these results are combined with the

  1. Modernization of vertical Pelton turbines with the help of CFD and model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, Reiner; Gola, Bartlomiej; Smertnig, Martin; Wittwer, Bernhard; Meusburger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The modernization of water turbines bears a high potential of increasing the already installed hydropower capacity. In many projects the existing waterways allow a substantial increase of the available flow capacity and with it the energy output. But also the upgrading onto a state of the art hydraulic, mechanical and electrical design will increase the available power considerably after the rehabilitation. The two phase nature of the flow in Pelton turbines requires for the hydraulic refurbishment special care in the application of the available design methods. Where the flow in the high pressure section of the turbine is mainly of one phase nature, CFD has been used as a standard tool for many years. Also the jet quality, and with it the exploration of the source of flow disturbances that cause poor free surface quality can be investigated with CFD. The interaction of the jet with the buckets of the runner is also examined by means of CFD. However, its accuracy with respect to hydraulic efficiency is, because of the two phase flow and the transient flow process, in very few cases good enough for a reliable and accurate prediction of absolute numbers. The optimization of hydraulic bucket profiles is therefore always checked with measurements in homologous scaled model turbines. A similar situation exists for the housing flow after the water is discharged from the runner. Here also CFD techniques are available to explore the general mechanisms. However, due to the two phase flow nature, where only a very small space is filled with moving water, the experimental setup in a model turbine is always the final proof for optimizations of housing inserts and modifications. The hydraulic design of a modernization project for a power station equipped with vertical Pelton turbines of two different designs is described in the proposed paper. It will be shown, how CFD is applied to determine the losses in the high pressure section and how these results are combined with the

  2. The internal gravity wave spectrum in two high-resolution global ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbic, B. K.; Ansong, J. K.; Buijsman, M. C.; Kunze, E. L.; Menemenlis, D.; Müller, M.; Richman, J. G.; Savage, A.; Shriver, J. F.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Zamudio, L.

    2016-02-01

    We examine the internal gravity wave (IGW) spectrum in two sets of high-resolution global ocean simulations that are forced concurrently by atmospheric fields and the astronomical tidal potential. We analyze global 1/12th and 1/25th degree HYCOM simulations, and global 1/12th, 1/24th, and 1/48th degree simulations of the MITgcm. We are motivated by the central role that IGWs play in ocean mixing, by operational considerations of the US Navy, which runs HYCOM as an ocean forecast model, and by the impact of the IGW continuum on the sea surface height (SSH) measurements that will be taken by the planned NASA/CNES SWOT wide-swath altimeter mission. We (1) compute the IGW horizontal wavenumber-frequency spectrum of kinetic energy, and interpret the results with linear dispersion relations computed from the IGW Sturm-Liouville problem, (2) compute and similarly interpret nonlinear spectral kinetic energy transfers in the IGW band, (3) compute and similarly interpret IGW contributions to SSH variance, (4) perform comparisons of modeled IGW kinetic energy frequency spectra with moored current meter observations, and (5) perform comparisons of modeled IGW kinetic energy vertical wavenumber-frequency spectra with moored observations. This presentation builds upon our work in Muller et al. (2015, GRL), who performed tasks (1), (2), and (4) in 1/12th and 1/25th degree HYCOM simulations, for one region of the North Pacific. New for this presentation are tasks (3) and (5), the inclusion of MITgcm solutions, and the analysis of additional ocean regions.

  3. An experimental assessment of resistance reduction and wake modification of a kvlcc model by using outer-layer vertical blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Nam Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an experimental investigation has been made of the applicability of outer-layer vertical blades to real ship model. After first devised by Hutchins and Choi (2003, the outer-layer vertical blades demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing total drag of flat plate (Park et al., 2011 with maximum drag reduction of 9.6%. With a view to assessing the effect in the flow around a ship, the arrays of outer-layer vertical blades have been installed onto the side bottom and flat bottom of a 300k KVLCC model. A series of towing tank test has been carried out to investigate resistance (CTM reduction efficiency and improvement of stern wake distribution with varying geometric parameters of the blades array. The installation of vertical blades led to the CTM reduction of 2.15~2.76% near the service speed. The nominal wake fraction was affected marginally by the blades array and the axial velocity distribution tended to be more uniform by the blades array.

  4. An experimental assessment of resistance reduction and wake modification of a KVLCC model by using outer-layer vertical blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Hyun An

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an experimental investigation has been made of the applicability of outer-layer vertical blades to real ship model. After first devised by Hutchins and Choi (2003, the outer-layer vertical blades demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing total drag of flat plate (Park et al., 2011 with maximum drag reduction of 9.6%. With a view to assessing the effect in the flow around a ship, the arrays of outer-layer vertical blades have been installed onto the side bottom and flat bottom of a 300k KVLCC model. A series of towing tank test has been carried out to investigate resistance (CTM reduction efficiency and improvement of stern wake distribution with varying geometric parameters of the blades array. The installation of vertical blades led to the CTM reduction of 2.15∼2.76% near the service speed. The nominal wake fraction was affected marginally by the blades array and the axial velocity distribution tended to be more uniform by the blades array.

  5. Modelling the vertical distribution of canopy fuel load using national forest inventory and low-density airbone laser scanning data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González-Ferreiro

    Full Text Available The fuel complex variables canopy bulk density and canopy base height are often used to predict crown fire initiation and spread. Direct measurement of these variables is impractical, and they are usually estimated indirectly by modelling. Recent advances in predicting crown fire behaviour require accurate estimates of the complete vertical distribution of canopy fuels. The objectives of the present study were to model the vertical profile of available canopy fuel in pine stands by using data from the Spanish national forest inventory plus low-density airborne laser scanning (ALS metrics. In a first step, the vertical distribution of the canopy fuel load was modelled using the Weibull probability density function. In a second step, two different systems of models were fitted to estimate the canopy variables defining the vertical distributions; the first system related these variables to stand variables obtained in a field inventory, and the second system related the canopy variables to airborne laser scanning metrics. The models of each system were fitted simultaneously to compensate the effects of the inherent cross-model correlation between the canopy variables. Heteroscedasticity was also analyzed, but no correction in the fitting process was necessary. The estimated canopy fuel load profiles from field variables explained 84% and 86% of the variation in canopy fuel load for maritime pine and radiata pine respectively; whereas the estimated canopy fuel load profiles from ALS metrics explained 52% and 49% of the variation for the same species. The proposed models can be used to assess the effectiveness of different forest management alternatives for reducing crown fire hazard.

  6. Differential diagnosis of vertical root fractures using reconstructed three-dimensional models of bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, K; Abe, Y; Yoshioka, T; Ishimura, H; Ebihara, A; Suda, H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of diagnosing vertical root fractures (VRFs) by comparing the volume of bone defects in VRFs with those in non-VRFs on reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) models (TDMs) using CBCT. 32 maxillary pre-molars and anterior teeth with radiolucent areas were evaluated on pre-operative CBCT images. Of the 32 teeth, 16 had a fractured root (VRF group) and 16 had a non-fractured root (non-VRF group). The radiolucent area of each tooth was traced in each dimension [mesiodistal, buccolingual and horizontal (the apicoincisal aspect)] by two observers, and 3D images were reconstructed with the Amira(®) software (Visage Imaging Inc., Richmond, Australia). The volume, V, of the TDM was divided into the coronal side and the periapical side at the horizontal slice through the apical foramen, and v was defined as the volume of the coronal side. The values of v/V were calculated for all cases. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare values between the VRF group and the non-VRF group (p < 0.05). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to select the optimal cut-point. There was a statistically significant difference in the value of v/V between the two groups (p < 0.05). With a cut-point derived from the ROC curve, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of predicting the VRFs were 1.00, 0.75 and 0.88, respectively. Lesions resulting from VRFs can be distinguished from those of non-VRFs on 3D CBCT images with a high degree of accuracy, based on their different 3D shapes.

  7. Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Thompson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We use regional air quality modeling to evaluate the impact of model resolution on uncertainty associated with the human health benefits resulting from proposed air quality regulations. Using a regional photochemical model (CAMx, we ran a modeling episode with meteorological inputs simulating conditions as they occurred during August through September 2006 (a period representative of conditions leading to high ozone, and two emissions inventories (a 2006 base case and a 2018 proposed control scenario, both for Houston, Texas at 36, 12, 4 and 2 km resolution. The base case model performance was evaluated for each resolution against daily maximum 8-h averaged ozone measured at monitoring stations. Results from each resolution were more similar to each other than they were to measured values. Population-weighted ozone concentrations were calculated for each resolution and applied to concentration response functions (with 95% confidence intervals to estimate the health impacts of modeled ozone reduction from the base case to the control scenario. We found that estimated avoided mortalities were not significantly different between the 2, 4 and 12 km resolution runs, but the 36 km resolution may over-predict some potential health impacts. Given the cost/benefit analysis requirements motivated by Executive Order 12866 as it applies to the Clean Air Act, the uncertainty associated with human health impacts and therefore the results reported in this study, we conclude that health impacts calculated from population weighted ozone concentrations obtained using regional photochemical models at 36 km resolution fall within the range of values obtained using fine (12 km or finer resolution modeling. However, in some cases, 36 km resolution may not be fine enough to statistically replicate the results achieved using 2, 4 or 12 km resolution. On average, when modeling at 36 km resolution, an estimated 5 deaths per week during the May through September ozone

  8. Modelling the Diel Vertical Movement of Swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 Based on Temperature and Depth Recorder Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Setyadji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the vertical distribution of large pelagic fish, swordfish in particular, could improve our knowledge on its fisheries strategy, management and resource conservation. However the methods often require expensive tools and resources, which probably most scientists from the development countries couldn’t afford. Thus developing model on the diel vertical movement behavior of swordfish using number of hook between float (HBF and complete-set temperature and depth recorder (TDR data could be an alternative. In general context, capture depth distributions are a good indicator of the natural depth distribution of the fish if the entire depth range of the species is targeted by longline gear. The proposed sinusoidal model suggested that swordfish showed a diel pattern in depth distribution, marked by remained in the surface and mixed layer waters at night and dived into deeper waters during the day. Keywords: swordfish, behavior, HBF, TDR, sinusoidal model

  9. PCR-GLOBWB version 2.0: A High Resolution Integrated Global Hydrology and Water Resources Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, E.; Van Beek, L. P.; Drost, N.; de Graaf, I. E. M.; de Jong, K.; Straatsma, M. W.; Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    PCRaster GLOBal Water Balance is a grid-based global hydrological model developed at Utrecht University. It simulates soil moisture in vertically stacked soil layers, as well as exchange to the atmosphere and underlying groundwater reservoir. Fluxes are simulated under different land cover types by considering sub-grid variations in topography, vegetation phenology and soil properties. The model includes physically-based schemes for runoff generation and infiltration, resulting in direct runoff, interflow, groundwater recharge and baseflow, as well as channel routing.We present the latest version of the model, PCR-GLOBWB 2.0, consolidating all new developments introduced since PCR-GLOWB 1.0 was first published (van Beek et al, 2011). The main new components are: An inclusion of water demand module and the progressive introduction of reservoirs and expansion of irrigation areas (Wada et al, 2014) An attribution of water use to ground- and surface water resources and the fate of return flow (de Graaf et al, 2014) A routing scheme accounting for variable extent of floodplains (Winsemius et al, 2013) PCR-GLOBWB 2.0 now runs at a spatial resolution of 5 arc min (± 10 km) in comparison to the 30 arc min (50 km) resolution used in PCR-GLOWB 1.0. At the finer resolution and with the added components, PCR-GLOBWB 2.0 shows improvements over the previous version: observed discharges from 5142 GRDC stations can be approximated more closely and model efficiency improves, particularly for smaller catchment areas (ρ = 0.87); human impacts, altering the seasonal and inter-annual variation of terrestrial water storage, are well simulated and evident in the validation to GRACE data (ρ = 0.81). These improvements open up new possibilities to assess the state of global water resources.Also, we show an outlook of model results at higher resolutions: 3 arc min (5 km) and 30 arc sec (1 km) for specific test-bed areas: California, Illinois and Rhine-Meuse. We discuss fundamental

  10. Glyoxal Vertical Column Retrievals from the GOME-2/METOP-A European Spaceborne Sensor and Comparisons with the IMAGESv2 CT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerot, C.; Stavrakou, T.; de Smedt, I.; Muller, J. J.; van Roozendael, M.

    2010-12-01

    Glyoxal is mostly formed in our atmosphere as an intermediate product in the oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). To a lesser extent, it is also directly emitted from biomass burning events and from fossil- and bio-fuel combustion processes. Several studies have estimated its atmospheric lifetime to 2-3 hours, which makes of glyoxal a good indicator for short-lived NMVOC emissions. Glyoxal is also known to be a precursor for secondary organic aerosols and could help to reduce the gap between observations and models for organic aerosol abundances. The three absorption bands of glyoxal in the visible region allow applying the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique to retrieve its vertical column densities from the nadir backscattered light measurements performed by the GOME-2 satellite sensor. This instrument has been launched in October 2006 on board of the METOP-A platform and is characterized by a spatial resolution of 80 km x 40 km and by a large scan-width (1920 km) leading to a global coverage reached in 1.5 day. The GOME-2 glyoxal retrieval algorithm developed at BIRA-IASB accounts for the liquid water absorption and provides geophysically sound column measurements not only over lands but also over oceanic regions where spectral interferences between glyoxal and liquid water have been shown to be significant. The a-priori glyoxal vertical distribution required for the slant to vertical column conversion is provided by the global chemical transport model IMAGESv2. The highest glyoxal vertical column densities are mainly observed in continental tropical regions, while the mid-latitude columns strongly depend on the season with maximum values during warm months. An anthropogenic signature is also observed in highly populated regions of Asia. Comparisons with glyoxal columns simulated with IMAGESv2 in different regions of the world generally point to a missing glyoxal source in current models. As already reported from

  11. Classroom Demonstration and Interactive Model of Sea-Level Control on Lateral and Vertical Facies Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.; Pound, K. S.; Jones, M. H.; Schmitt, L.; Campbell, K.

    2005-12-01

    Students often have difficulty understanding and visualizing the role that relative sea-level change plays in controlling vertical and lateral facies changes; they also struggle with explanations of regional facies patterns and changes as sea-level dependant. This interactive, dynamic, in-class model has been developed to build their understanding both of this topic, and of the nature of predictive scientific models. The model can be used as a follow-up to field observations, or to pre-teach concepts. The model assumes a land-ocean transect that is divided into 5 sedimentary settings. Each setting in the land-ocean transect is associated with sediment grain size that decreases basinward; the most basinward component is carbonate. In the model, seven 10-cm diameter see-through tubes are set up to represent `cores' spread along the land-ocean transect. Brightly-colored plastic beads are used to represent sediment deposited in each of the sedimentary settings. At the start, the position of the shoreline (sea level) is fixed between the fluvial (tube 2) and beach (tube 3) sediments. Students then deposit beads that represent their sediment type in the each tube. Other students control the sea-level marker, which can be raised or lowered, and students with the sediment (beads) move shoreward or basinward accordingly, and deposit their sediments (beads) in the appropriate tube. This produces a simple visual record (tubes with layers of distinctly colored beads) that show the idealized sedimentary consequences of relative sea-level change. After large-scale patterns in facies changes have been demonstrated and discussed, students can manipulate variables such as supply and rate. Students can fill a basin using a sequence of events they determine, and other student groups can interpret their cores. The learning and approach of this model can be extended to include real sediment (gravel, sand, silt, mud) deposited in cardboard tubes that are then opened and treated as cores

  12. A Comprehensive School-based Conflict-Resolution Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Debra

    2001-01-01

    Describes a comprehensive school-based conflict-resolution approach designed by two school-based social workers and implemented in an "alternative" urban high school over a two-year period. Results indicate that a more cooperative atmosphere developed in the school as a result of the program and that the program was effective in reducing both…

  13. Forward-looking infrared imaging predicts ultimate burn depth in a porcine vertical injury progression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccio, Joseph; Parikh, Shruti; Marinaro, Xavier; Prasad, Atulya; McClain, Steven; Singer, Adam J; Clark, Richard A F

    2016-03-01

    relevant criterion standard, temperature minima at 2 days after burn was found to be the most sensitive and specific test. FLIR imaging is a fast and simple tool that has been shown to predict burn wound outcome in a porcine vertical injury progression model. Data showed that more severe burn wounds get cooler between 1 and 2 days after burn. We found four analytic methods of FLIR images that were predictive of burn progression at 1 and 2 days after burn; however, temperature minima 2 days after burn appeared to be the best predictive test for injury progression to a full-thickness burn. Although these results must be validated in clinical studies, FLIR imaging has the potential to aid clinicians in assessing burn severity and thereby assisting in burn wound management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. High-resolution modelling of health impacts from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Silver, Jeremy D.

    2014-05-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system has been further developed by implementing an air quality model with a 1 km x 1 km resolution covering the whole of Denmark. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over several decades. Furthermore, the sensitivity of health impacts to model resolution will be studied. We have developed an integrated model system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. In Brandt et al. (2013a; 2013b), the EVA system was used to assess the impacts in Europe and Denmark from the past, present and future total air pollution levels as well as the contribution from the major anthropogenic emission sectors. The EVA system was applied using the hemispheric chemistry-transport model, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM), with nesting capability for higher resolution over Europe (50 km x 50 km) and Northern Europe (16.7 km x 16.7 km). In this study an Urban Background Model (UBM) has been further developed to cover the whole of Denmark with a 1 km x 1 km resolution and the model has been implemented as a part of the integrated model system, EVA. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology. The site-specific emissions will result (via atmospheric transport and chemistry) in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, are used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study

  15. Horizontal and vertical velocities derived from the IDS contribution to ITRF2014, and comparisons with geophysical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F. G.; Argus, D. F.; Santamaría-Gómez, A.; Willis, P.; Soudarin, L.; Gravelle, M.; Ferrage, P.

    2016-10-01

    In the context of the 2014 realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, the International DORIS (Doppler Orbitography Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) Service (IDS) has delivered to the IERS a set of 1140 weekly SINEX files including station coordinates and Earth orientation parameters, covering the time period from 1993.0 to 2015.0. From this set of weekly SINEX files, the IDS combination centre estimated a cumulative DORIS position and velocity solution to obtain mean horizontal and vertical motion of 160 stations at 71 DORIS sites. The main objective of this study is to validate the velocities of the DORIS sites by comparison with external models or time-series. Horizontal velocities are compared with two recent global plate models (GEODVEL 2010 and NNR-MORVEL56). Prior to the comparisons, DORIS horizontal velocities were corrected for Global Isostatic Adjustment from the ICE-6G (VM5a) model. For more than half of the sites, the DORIS horizontal velocities differ from the global plate models by less than 2-3 mm yr-1. For five of the sites (Arequipa, Dionysos/Gavdos, Manila and Santiago) with horizontal velocity differences with respect to these models larger than 10 mm yr-1, comparisons with GNSS estimates show the veracity of the DORIS motions. Vertical motions from the DORIS cumulative solution are compared with the vertical velocities derived from the latest GPS cumulative solution over the time span 1995.0-2014.0 from the University of La Rochelle solution at 31 co-located DORIS-GPS sites. These two sets of vertical velocities show a correlation coefficient of 0.83. Vertical differences are larger than 2 mm yr-1 at 23 percent of the sites. At Thule, the disagreement is explained by fine-tuned DORIS discontinuities in line with the mass variations of outlet glaciers. Furthermore, the time evolution of the vertical time-series from the DORIS station in Thule show similar trends to the GRACE equivalent water height.

  16. Objective Tuning of Model Parameters in CAM5 Across Different Spatial Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaevskaya, V.; Lucas, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Parameterizations of physical processes in climate models are highly dependent on the spatial and temporal resolution and must be tuned for each resolution under consideration. At high spatial resolutions, objective methods for parameter tuning are computationally prohibitive. Our work has focused on calibrating parameters in the Community Atmosphere Model 5 (CAM5) for three spatial resolutions: 1, 2, and 4 degrees. Using perturbed-parameter ensembles and uncertainty quantification methodology, we have identified input parameters that minimize discrepancies of energy fluxes simulated by CAM5 across the three resolutions and with respect to satellite observations. We are also beginning to exploit the parameter-resolution relationships to objectively tune parameters in a high-resolution version of CAM5 by leveraging cheaper, low-resolution simulations and statistical models. We will present our approach to multi-resolution climate model parameter tuning, as well as the key findings. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and was supported from the DOE Office of Science through the Scientific Discovery Through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) project on Multiscale Methods for Accurate, Efficient, and Scale-Aware Models of the Earth System.

  17. Assessment of prediction skill in equatorial Pacific Ocean in high resolution model of CFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Anika; Rao, Suryachandra A.; Pillai, Prasanth; Dhakate, Ashish; Salunke, Kiran; Srivastava, Ankur

    2018-01-01

    The effect of increasing atmospheric resolution on prediction skill of El Niño southern oscillation phenomenon in climate forecast system model is explored in this paper. Improvement in prediction skill for sea surface temperature (SST) and winds at all leads compared to low resolution model in the tropical Indo-Pacific basin is observed. High resolution model is able to capture extreme events reasonably well. As a result, the signal to noise ratio is improved in the high resolution model. However, spring predictability barrier (SPB) for summer months in Nino 3 and Nino 3.4 region is stronger in high resolution model, in spite of improvement in overall prediction skill and dynamics everywhere else. Anomaly correlation coefficient of SST in high resolution model with observations in Nino 3.4 region targeting boreal summer months when predicted at lead times of 3-8 months in advance decreased compared its lower resolution counterpart. It is noted that higher variance of winds predicted in spring season over central equatorial Pacific compared to observed variance of winds results in stronger than normal response on subsurface ocean, hence increases SPB for boreal summer months in high resolution model.

  18. A theoretical model to predict both horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for electromagnetic induction-based deep displacement sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shentu, Nanying; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Qing; Zhou, Hongliang; Tong, Renyuan; Li, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Deep displacement observation is one basic means of landslide dynamic study and early warning monitoring and a key part of engineering geological investigation. In our previous work, we proposed a novel electromagnetic induction-based deep displacement sensor (I-type) to predict deep horizontal displacement and a theoretical model called equation-based equivalent loop approach (EELA) to describe its sensing characters. However in many landslide and related geological engineering cases, both horizontal displacement and vertical displacement vary apparently and dynamically so both may require monitoring. In this study, a II-type deep displacement sensor is designed by revising our I-type sensor to simultaneously monitor the deep horizontal displacement and vertical displacement variations at different depths within a sliding mass. Meanwhile, a new theoretical modeling called the numerical integration-based equivalent loop approach (NIELA) has been proposed to quantitatively depict II-type sensors' mutual inductance properties with respect to predicted horizontal displacements and vertical displacements. After detailed examinations and comparative studies between measured mutual inductance voltage, NIELA-based mutual inductance and EELA-based mutual inductance, NIELA has verified to be an effective and quite accurate analytic model for characterization of II-type sensors. The NIELA model is widely applicable for II-type sensors' monitoring on all kinds of landslides and other related geohazards with satisfactory estimation accuracy and calculation efficiency.

  19. A Theoretical Model to Predict Both Horizontal Displacement and Vertical Displacement for Electromagnetic Induction-Based Deep Displacement Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep displacement observation is one basic means of landslide dynamic study and early warning monitoring and a key part of engineering geological investigation. In our previous work, we proposed a novel electromagnetic induction-based deep displacement sensor (I-type to predict deep horizontal displacement and a theoretical model called equation-based equivalent loop approach (EELA to describe its sensing characters. However in many landslide and related geological engineering cases, both horizontal displacement and vertical displacement vary apparently and dynamically so both may require monitoring. In this study, a II-type deep displacement sensor is designed by revising our I-type sensor to simultaneously monitor the deep horizontal displacement and vertical displacement variations at different depths within a sliding mass. Meanwhile, a new theoretical modeling called the numerical integration-based equivalent loop approach (NIELA has been proposed to quantitatively depict II-type sensors’ mutual inductance properties with respect to predicted horizontal displacements and vertical displacements. After detailed examinations and comparative studies between measured mutual inductance voltage, NIELA-based mutual inductance and EELA-based mutual inductance, NIELA has verified to be an effective and quite accurate analytic model for characterization of II-type sensors. The NIELA model is widely applicable for II-type sensors’ monitoring on all kinds of landslides and other related geohazards with satisfactory estimation accuracy and calculation efficiency.

  20. Implementation of a flaw model to the fracturing around a vertical shaft

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van de Steen, B

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available -scale excavations. The simulated fracture pattern around a vertical shaft is compared to the fracturing around a shaft at a depth of 3400 m. The simulations suggest that wedge-shaped zones, called dog-ears, a reformed by a progressive splitting-like failure...

  1. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile

  2. The photobehaviour of Daphnia spp. as a model to explain diel vertical migration in zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.

    1999-01-01

    Many pelagic animal species in the marine environment and in lakes migrate to deeper water layers before sunrise and return around sunset. The amplitude of these diel vertical migrations (DVM) varies from several hundreds of metres in the oceans to approx. 5-20 m in lakes. DVM can be studied from a

  3. Uncertainty of global summer precipitation in the CMIP5 models: a comparison between high-resolution and low-resolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danqing; Yan, Peiwen; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yaocun; Kuang, Xueyuan; Cheng, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The uncertainty of global summer precipitation simulated by the 23 CMIP5 CGCMs and the possible impacts of model resolutions are investigated in this study. Large uncertainties exist over the tropical and subtropical regions, which can be mainly attributed to convective precipitation simulation. High-resolution models (HRMs) and low-resolution models (LRMs) are further investigated to demonstrate their different contributions to the uncertainties of the ensemble mean. It shows that the high-resolution model ensemble means (HMME) and low-resolution model ensemble mean (LMME) mitigate the biases between the MME and observation over most continents and oceans, respectively. The HMME simulates more precipitation than the LMME over most oceans, but less precipitation over some continents. The dominant precipitation category in the HRMs (LRMs) is the heavy precipitation (moderate precipitation) over the tropic regions. The combinations of convective and stratiform precipitation are also quite different: the HMME has much higher ratio of stratiform precipitation while the LMME has more convective precipitation. Finally, differences in precipitation between the HMME and LMME can be traced to their differences in the SST simulations via the local and remote air-sea interaction.

  4. SUNYA Regional Climate Model Simulations of East Asia Summer Monsoon: Effects of Cloud Vertical Structure on the Surface Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong Wei-Chyung Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the State University of New York at Albany (SUNYA regional climate model to study the effect of cloud vertical distribution in affecting the surface energy balance of the East Asia summer monsoon (EASM. Simulations were conducted for the summers of 1988 and 1989, during which large contrast in the intra-seasonal cloud radiative forcing (CRF was observed at the top of the atmosphere.

  5. Three-dimensional modelling of an embankment built on a soft soil improved with prefabricated vertical drains

    OpenAIRE

    Venda Oliveira, P.J.; Cruz, R.F.P.M.L.; Lemos, L.J.L.; Almeida e Sousa, J.N.V.

    2015-01-01

    This work compares the field measurements of a non-symmetric embankment built on a Portuguese soft soil improved with prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs), with the numerical predictions of a 3D modelling where the PVDs are simulated according to the field flow conditions. The change in the permeability with the void ratio and the effect of the smear zone are also included in the numerical analysis. The numerical predictions are compared with the field data in terms of settlement, horizontal ...

  6. Models of vertical coordination consistent with the development of bio-energetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Nardone

    Full Text Available To foster the development of the biomasses for solid fuel it is fundamental to build up a strategy at a local level in which co-exists farms as well as industrial farms. To such aim, it is necessary to implement an effective vertical coordination between the stakeholders with the definition of a contract that prevents opportunistic behaviors and guarantees the industrial investments of constant supplies over the time. Starting from a project that foresees a biomasses power plant in the south of Italy, this study reflects on the payments to fix in an eventual contract in such a way to maintain the fidelity of the farmers. These one have a greater flexibility since they can choose the most convenient crop. Therefore, their fidelity can be obtained tying the contractual payments to the price of the main alternative crop to the energetic one. The results of the study seem to indicate the opportunity to fix a purchase price of the raw materials linked to the one of durum wheat that is the most widespread crop in the territory and the one that depends more on a volatile market. Using the data of the District 12 of the province of Foggia Water Consortium with an area of 11.300 hectares (instead of the 20.000 demanded in the proposal, it has been possible to organize approximately 600 enterprises in five cluster, each of them identified by a representative farm. With a model of linear programming, we have run different simulations taking into account the possibility to grow sorghum in different ways. Through an aggregation process, it has been calculated that farmers may find it convenient to supply the energetic crop at a price of 50 €/t when the price of durum wheat is 150 €/t. Anyway, this price is lower than the one offered by firm that is planning to build the power plant. Moreover, it has been identified a strong correlation between the price of the durum wheat and the price that makes convenient for the farmers to grow the sorghum. When the

  7. Models of vertical coordination consistent with the development of bio-energetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Viscecchia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To foster the development of the biomasses for solid fuel it is fundamental to build up a strategy at a local level in which co-exists farms as well as industrial farms. To such aim, it is necessary to implement an effective vertical coordination between the stakeholders with the definition of a contract that prevents opportunistic behaviors and guarantees the industrial investments of constant supplies over the time. Starting from a project that foresees a biomasses power plant in the south of Italy, this study reflects on the payments to fix in an eventual contract in such a way to maintain the fidelity of the farmers. These one have a greater flexibility since they can choose the most convenient crop. Therefore, their fidelity can be obtained tying the contractual payments to the price of the main alternative crop to the energetic one. The results of the study seem to indicate the opportunity to fix a purchase price of the raw materials linked to the one of durum wheat that is the most widespread crop in the territory and the one that depends more on a volatile market. Using the data of the District 12 of the province of Foggia Water Consortium with an area of 11.300 hectares (instead of the 20.000 demanded in the proposal, it has been possible to organize approximately 600 enterprises in five cluster, each of them identified by a representative farm. With a model of linear programming, we have run different simulations taking into account the possibility to grow sorghum in different ways. Through an aggregation process, it has been calculated that farmers may find it convenient to supply the energetic crop at a price of 50 €/t when the price of durum wheat is 150 €/t. Anyway, this price is lower than the one offered by firm that is planning to build the power plant. Moreover, it has been identified a strong correlation between the price of the durum wheat and the price that makes convenient for the farmers to grow the sorghum. When the

  8. Air quality over Europe and Iberian Peninsula for 2004 at high horizontal resolution: evaluation of the CALIOPE modelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorba, O.; Piot, M.; Pay, M. T.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; López, E.; Pérez, C.; Gassó, S.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-09-01

    In the frame of the CALIOPE project (Baldasano et al., 2008a), a high-resolution air quality forecasting system, WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ/DREAM, is under development and applied to the European domain (12km x 12km, 1hr) as well as to the Iberian Peninsula domain (4km x 4km, 1hr) to provide air quality forecasts for Spain (http://www.bsc.es/caliope/). The simulation of such high-resolution model system is possible by its implementation on the MareNostrum supercomputer. To reassure potential users and reduce uncertainties, the model system must be evaluated to assess its performances in terms of air quality levels and dynamics reproducibility. The present contribution describes a thorough quantitative evaluation study performed for a reference year (2004). CALIOPE is a complex system that integrates a variety of environmental models. WRF-ARW provides high-resolution meteorological fields to the system. It is configured with 38 vertical layers reaching up to 50 hPa. Meteorological initial and boundary conditions are obtained from the NCEP final analysis data. The HERMES emission model (Baldasano et al., 2008b) computes the emissions for the Iberian Peninsula simulation at 4 km horizontal resolution every hour using a bottom-up approach. For the European domain, HERMES disaggregates the EMEP expert emission inventory for 2004. The CMAQ chemical transport model solves the physico-chemical processes in the system. The vertical resolution of CMAQ for gas-phase and aerosols has been increased from 8 to 15 layers in order to simulate vertical exchanges more accurately. Chemical boundary conditions are provided by the LMDz-INCA2 global climate-chemistry model (see Hauglustaine et al., 2004). Finally, the DREAM model simulates long-range transport of mineral dust over the domains under study. In order to evaluate the performances of the CALIOPE system, model simulations were compared with ground-based measurements from the EMEP and Spanish air quality networks. For the European

  9. Model of Vertical Resistivity Distribution of Rock Layers in Jeneberang Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Altin Massinai, Muhammad; Syamsuddin, Syamsuddin; Makhrani, Makhrani

    2010-01-01

    Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS) or Watershed is the accumulation of material from Jeneberang debris avalanche of Mount Bawakaraeng. The Resistivity material from several types of rock settling needs to be identified by using the geoelectric geophysical studies. Geoelectrical resistivity method used in this study aims to map the vertical layers of rock in the upstream and downstream of Jeneberang watershed. The results shows that resistivity values in the upstream of Jeneberang water...

  10. Demonstration of Effects on Tropical Cyclone Forecasts with a High Resolution Global Model from Variation in Cumulus Convection Parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Cohen, Charles; Mackaro, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) is a system of models that have been developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to support NASA's earth science research in data analysis, observing system modeling and design, climate and weather prediction, and basic research. The work presented used GEOS-5 with 0.25o horizontal resolution and 72 vertical levels (up to 0.01 hP) resolving both the troposphere and stratosphere, with closer packing of the levels close to the surface. The model includes explicit (grid-scale) moist physics, as well as convective parameterization schemes. Results will be presented that will demonstrate strong dependence in the results of modeling of a strong hurricane on the type of convective parameterization scheme used. The previous standard (default) option in the model was the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) scheme, which uses a quasi-equilibrium closure. In the cases shown, this scheme does not permit the efficient development of a strong storm in comparison with observations. When this scheme is replaced by a modified version of the Kain-Fritsch scheme, which was originally developed for use on grids with intervals of order 25 km such as the present one, the storm is able to develop to a much greater extent, closer to that of reality. Details of the two cases will be shown in order to elucidate the differences in the two modeled storms.

  11. Resolution and Probabilistic Models of Components in CryoEM Maps of Mature P22 Bacteriophage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintilie, Grigore; Chen, Dong-Hua; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron A.; King, Jonathan A.; Chiu, Wah

    2016-01-01

    CryoEM continues to produce density maps of larger and more complex assemblies with multiple protein components of mixed symmetries. Resolution is not always uniform throughout a cryoEM map, and it can be useful to estimate the resolution in specific molecular components of a large assembly. In this study, we present procedures to 1) estimate the resolution in subcomponents by gold-standard Fourier shell correlation (FSC); 2) validate modeling procedures, particularly at medium resolutions, which can include loop modeling and flexible fitting; and 3) build probabilistic models that combine high-accuracy priors (such as crystallographic structures) with medium-resolution cryoEM densities. As an example, we apply these methods to new cryoEM maps of the mature bacteriophage P22, reconstructed without imposing icosahedral symmetry. Resolution estimates based on gold-standard FSC show the highest resolution in the coat region (7.6 Å), whereas other components are at slightly lower resolutions: portal (9.2 Å), hub (8.5 Å), tailspike (10.9 Å), and needle (10.5 Å). These differences are indicative of inherent structural heterogeneity and/or reconstruction accuracy in different subcomponents of the map. Probabilistic models for these subcomponents provide new insights, to our knowledge, and structural information when taking into account uncertainty given the limitations of the observed density. PMID:26743049

  12. Investigating the Vertical Structure of Volcanic Clouds Using NPP/OMPS Limb Aerosol Observations and the GEOS-5/GOCART Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; daSilva, A.; Gorkavyi, N.

    2015-12-01

    The explosive eruption of Chile's Calbuco volcano on April 22nd-23rd produced large volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide clouds that were observed by satellites for over a week. The volcanic clouds were reported to have spanned a large range of altitudes, from 12 km to greater than 20 km. This is confirmed by the vertical profiles of aerosols observed by the NPP/OMPS Limb Profiler, which have a frequency and sensitivity allowing for a thorough look into the evolving vertical structure of the volcanic clouds. The volcanic cloud aerosol signature in the OMPS Limb profiles can be better understood by comparing them to simulations of the volcanic sulfate aerosols, and volcanic ash of various particle sizes. UV and IR satellite observations from the first few days of the eruption are used to constrain the initial source parameters that describe the volcanic eruption (eruption time, duration, mass emitted, injection altitude). The GEOS-5/GOCART model uses these initial source parameters to simulate the transport, deposition, and chemical conversion processes within the volcanic clouds. OMPS limb observations taken during the first days after the eruption provide numerous detailed vertical profiles of the volcanic clouds. The OMPS Limb Aerosol Scattering Index profiles are compared to the GEOS-5/GOCART simulations of sulfate aerosols and volcanic ash to show: the complex vertical structure of the volcanic plumes, the extended presence of aerosols in the volcanic clouds well after the eruption, and how OMPS Limb profiles can be used to constrain different volcanic aerosols in the GEOS-5/GOCART model simulations.

  13. Benchmarking flood models from space in near real-time: accommodating SRTM height measurement errors with low resolution flood imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; di Baldassarre, G.; Alsdorf, D.; Bates, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    In February 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) measured the elevation of most of the Earth's surface with spatially continuous sampling and an absolute vertical accuracy greater than 9 m. The vertical error has been shown to change with topographic complexity, being less important over flat terrain. This allows water surface slopes to be measured and associated discharge volumes to be estimated for open channels in large basins, such as the Amazon. Building on these capabilities, this paper demonstrates that near real-time coarse resolution radar imagery of a recent flood event on a 98 km reach of the River Po (Northern Italy) combined with SRTM terrain height data leads to a water slope remarkably similar to that derived by combining the radar image with highly accurate airborne laser altimetry. Moreover, it is shown that this space-borne flood wave approximation compares well to a hydraulic model and thus allows the performance of the latter, calibrated on a previous event, to be assessed when applied to an event of different magnitude in near real-time. These results are not only of great importance to real-time flood management and flood forecasting but also support the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission that will routinely provide water levels and slopes with higher precision around the globe.

  14. Evaluating winds and vertical wind shear from Weather Research and Forecasting model forecasts using seven planetary boundary layer schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    with different PBL parameterizations at one coastal site over western Denmark. The evaluation focuses on determining which PBL parameterization performs best for wind energy forecasting, and presenting a validation methodology that takes into account wind speed at different heights. Winds speeds at heights...... regarding wind energy at these levels partly depends on the formulation and implementation of planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations in these models. This study evaluates wind speeds and vertical wind shears simulated by theWeather Research and Forecasting model using seven sets of simulations...

  15. A Hamiltonian Approach to Fault Isolation in a Planar Vertical Take–Off and Landing Aircraft Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Alfaro Luis H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of fault detection and isolation in a class of nonlinear systems having a Hamiltonian representation is considered. In particular, a model of a planar vertical take-off and landing aircraft with sensor and actuator faults is studied. A Hamiltonian representation is derived from an Euler-Lagrange representation of the system model considered. In this form, nonlinear decoupling is applied in order to obtain subsystems with (as much as possible specific fault sensitivity properties. The resulting decoupled subsystem is represented as a Hamiltonian system and observer-based residual generators are designed. The results are presented through simulations to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Progressive refining of spatial and temporal resolutions in a hydrological model: how far should we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lavenne, Alban; Ficchi, Andrea; Goullet, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Choosing a modelling resolution for an hydrological model is an important preliminary question. However, it is quite often arbitrary determined by the modeller experience according to the objective, the model capacity or the available measurements. The hydrological literature provides numerous studies which focus on the effect of refining either spatial resolution or (sometimes) temporal resolution in order to better catch hydrological response. In this study, we investigate the impact of changing simultaneously both resolutions on hydrological model performance. The idea is that these resolutions are linked and should be considered together. Thus, we look for the combination of spatial and temporal resolutions fitting at best each catchment behaviour and type of rainfall events. A large data set of 240 catchments scattered all around France is used, and in particular, we benefit from a high-resolution precipitation database (ANTILOPE, Météo-France) that describes hourly precipitation at 1 km2 resolution. Data were aggregated at different time steps (1h, 3h, 6h, 12h and 24h). Streamflow simulations are performed at these different time steps using the GR5 model in its lumped and semi-distributed version (GRSD, de Lavenne et al. (2016)), with a mesh grid of 500, 250, 100 and 50 km2. Ten different indices are used to describe spatio-temporal characteristics of rainfall events, in order to analyse in which contexts refined resolutions are needed to improve the performance of the model. These indices characterise the spatial variability, localisation, movement, intensity and temporal variability of rainfall events. In addition to some indices already reported in the hydrological literature, we propose some new indices like an indice usually applied in economics. This analysis at different time steps, events and catchments demonstrates the limits for some of them and allows to propose some corrections (Goullet J., 2016). Model performances are shown to be

  17. Hydrologic Derivatives for Modeling and Analysis—A new global high-resolution database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, Kristine L.

    2017-07-17

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a new global high-resolution hydrologic derivative database. Loosely modeled on the HYDRO1k database, this new database, entitled Hydrologic Derivatives for Modeling and Analysis, provides comprehensive and consistent global coverage of topographically derived raster layers (digital elevation model data, flow direction, flow accumulation, slope, and compound topographic index) and vector layers (streams and catchment boundaries). The coverage of the data is global, and the underlying digital elevation model is a hybrid of three datasets: HydroSHEDS (Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales), GMTED2010 (Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010), and the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission). For most of the globe south of 60°N., the raster resolution of the data is 3 arc-seconds, corresponding to the resolution of the SRTM. For the areas north of 60°N., the resolution is 7.5 arc-seconds (the highest resolution of the GMTED2010 dataset) except for Greenland, where the resolution is 30 arc-seconds. The streams and catchments are attributed with Pfafstetter codes, based on a hierarchical numbering system, that carry important topological information. This database is appropriate for use in continental-scale modeling efforts. The work described in this report was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center.

  18. Nonlinear Adjustment Model with Integral and Its Application to Super Resolution Image Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Jianjun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of super resolution image reconstruction is such a process that multiple observations are taken on the same target to obtain low resolution images, then the low resolution images are used to reconstruct the real image of the target, namely high resolution image. This process is similar to that in the field of surveying and mapping, in which the same target is observed repeatedly and the optimal values is calculated with surveying adjustment methods. In this paper, the method of surveying adjustment is applied into super resolution image reconstruction. A integral nonlinear adjustment model for super resolution image reconstruction is proposed at first. And then the model is parameterized with a quadratic function. Finally the model is solved with the least squares adjustment method. Based on the proposed adjustment method, the specific strategy of image reconstruction is presented. This method for super resolution image reconstruction can make quantitative analysis of the results, and avoid successfully ill-condition problem, etc. The results show that, compared to the traditional method of super resolution image reconstruction, this method has greatly improved the visual effects, and the PSNR and SSIM has also greatly improved, so the method is reliable and feasible.

  19. Electric Circuit Model for the Aerodynamic Performance Analysis of a Three-Blade Darrieus-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine: The Tchakoua Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Tchakoua

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The complex and unsteady aerodynamics of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs pose significant challenges for simulation tools. Recently, significant research efforts have focused on the development of new methods for analysing and optimising the aerodynamic performance of VAWTs. This paper presents an electric circuit model for Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine (DT-VAWT rotors. The novel Tchakoua model is based on the mechanical description given by the Paraschivoiu double-multiple streamtube model using a mechanical‑electrical analogy. Model simulations were conducted using MATLAB for a three-bladed rotor architecture, characterized by a NACA0012 profile, an average Reynolds number of 40,000 for the blade and a tip speed ratio of 5. The results obtained show strong agreement with findings from both aerodynamic and computational fluid dynamics (CFD models in the literature.

  20. Semi-analytical model of the axial movements of an oil-well drillstring in vertical wellbores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovda, Sigve

    2018-03-01

    A lumped element model for the axial movement of an oil-well drillstring is presented. In this paper, the model is restricted to vertical holes, where damping is due to skin friction from time dependent Newtonian annular Couette-Poiseuille flow. The drillstring is constructed of pipes with different diameters and the diameter of the hole varies as a function of depth. Under these assumptions, the axial movement anywhere in the drillstring is basically a convolution between the axial movement on the top and a semi-analytical function that is derived in this paper. Expressions are given for transfer functions for downhole movements and pressures (surge and swab). In a vertical drilling situation, the motion is clearly underdamped, even when the hole is tight. The semi-analytical model illuminates various factors that are shown to be important for describing downhole pressure and motion. In particular the effect of added mass, the steady state viscous forces, the Basset viscous forces and the distribution of pipe sizes in the hole. The latter have non-neglectable impacts on where the resonant frequencies are located, how much they are amplified and what happens to the downhole pressure. Together with statistical power spectra of ocean wave patterns and the response amplitude operators for a floating structure, this model illustrates design concerns related to heave motion and how fast one can run the drillstring into the hole. Moreover, because of the computational simplicity of computing the convolution, the model is well suited for a real-time implementation.

  1. A three-dimensional finite element model of human atrial anatomy: new methods for cubic Hermite meshes with extraordinary vertices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Matthew J; Sturgeon, Gregory; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Hake, Johan; Jonas, René; Stark, Paul; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M; Zhang, Yongjie; Segars, W Paul; McCulloch, Andrew D

    2013-07-01

    High-order cubic Hermite finite elements have been valuable in modeling cardiac geometry, fiber orientations, biomechanics, and electrophysiology, but their use in solving three-dimensional problems has been limited to ventricular models with simple topologies. Here, we utilized a subdivision surface scheme and derived a generalization of the "local-to-global" derivative mapping scheme of cubic Hermite finite elements to construct bicubic and tricubic Hermite models of the human atria with extraordinary vertices from computed tomography images of a patient with atrial fibrillation. To an accuracy of 0.6 mm, we were able to capture the left atrial geometry with only 142 bicubic Hermite finite elements, and the right atrial geometry with only 90. The left and right atrial bicubic Hermite meshes were G1 continuous everywhere except in the one-neighborhood of extraordinary vertices, where the mean dot products of normals at adjacent elements were 0.928 and 0.925. We also constructed two biatrial tricubic Hermite models and defined fiber orientation fields in agreement with diagrammatic data from the literature using only 42 angle parameters. The meshes all have good quality metrics, uniform element sizes, and elements with aspect ratios near unity, and are shared with the public. These new methods will allow for more compact and efficient patient-specific models of human atrial and whole heart physiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The ICE-6G_C (VM5a) Global Model of the GIA Process: Antarctica at High Spatial Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, W. R.; Drummond, R.; Argus, D. F.

    2016-12-01

    The ICE-6G_C (VM5a) global model of the glacial isostatic adjustment process (Argus et al., 2014 GJI 198, 537-563; Peltier et al. , 2015, JGR 119, doi:10.1002/2014JB011176) is the latest model in the ICE-nG (VMx) sequence. The model continues to be unique in that it is the only model whose properties are made freely available at each iterative step in its development. This latest version, which embodies detailed descriptions of the Laurentide , Fennoscandian/Barents Sea, Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets through the most recent glacial cycle, is a refinement based primarily upon the incorporation of the constraints being provided by GPS measurements of the vertical and horizontal motion of the crust as well as GRACE observations of the time dependent gravity field. The model has been shown to provide exceptionally accurate predictions of these space geodetic observations of the response to the most recent Late Quaternary glacial cycle. Particular attention has been paid to the Antarctic component as it is well known on the basis of analyses of the sedimentary stratigraphy off-shore and geomorphological characteristics of the continental shelf, that the Last Glacial Maximum state of the southern continent was one in which grounded ice extended out to the shelf break in most locations, including significant fractions of the Ross Sea and Weddell Sea embayments. In the latter regions especially, it is expected that grounded ice would have existed below sea level. In ICE-6G_C (VM5a) a grounding line tracking algorithm was employed (Stuhne and Peltier, 2015 JGR 120, 1841-1865) in order to describe the unloading of the solid surface by ice that was initially grounded below sea level, an apparently unique characteristic of this model. In the initially published version, in which the Sea Level Equation (SLE) was inverted on a basis of spherical harmonics truncated at degree and order 256, this led to "ringing" in the embayments when the Stokes coefficients of the model

  3. A statistical prediction model based on sparse representations for single image super-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Tomer; Elad, Michael

    2014-06-01

    We address single image super-resolution using a statistical prediction model based on sparse representations of low- and high-resolution image patches. The suggested model allows us to avoid any invariance assumption, which is a common practice in sparsity-based approaches treating this task. Prediction of high resolution patches is obtained via MMSE estimation and the resulting scheme has the useful interpretation of a feedforward neural network. To further enhance performance, we suggest data clustering and cascading several levels of the basic algorithm. We suggest a training scheme for the resulting network and demonstrate the capabilities of our algorithm, showing its advantages over existing methods based on a low- and high-resolution dictionary pair, in terms of computational complexity, numerical criteria, and visual appearance. The suggested approach offers a desirable compromise between low computational complexity and reconstruction quality, when comparing it with state-of-the-art methods for single image super-resolution.

  4. Numerical Validation of a Vortex Model against ExperimentalData on a Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dyachuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic blade motion during operation of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs imposes challenges on the simulations models of the aerodynamics of VAWTs. A two-dimensional vortex model is validated against the new experimental data on a 12-kW straight-bladed VAWT, which is operated at an open site. The results on the normal force on one blade are analyzed. The model is assessed against the measured data in the wide range of tip speed ratios: from 1.8 to 4.6. The predicted results within one revolution have a similar shape and magnitude as the measured data, though the model does not reproduce every detail of the experimental data. The present model can be used when dimensioning the turbine for maximum loads.

  5. Strategic drivers for oil business model: vertical integration versus spin-off; Direcionadores estrategicos para o modelo de negocios petroliferos: integracao vertical versus spin-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Gregorio da Cruz; Szpigel, Pedro [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The recent spin-offs of Marathon (2011) and ConocoPhillips (2012), as well as other breakups between the upstream and downstream segments announced by the smaller oil companies during the past year, raised questions about one of the main and oldest paradigms of oil industry: the vertical integration. Corporate spin-off is not a new phenomenon in the industry in general, but only very recently has got prominence in the oil industry. The objective of this paper is to analyze the factors that motivate corporate restructuring in the oil industry, leading to strategic decisions that strengthen the vertical integration or that lead to break the value chain. The key point is whether there will be contagion among majors due to the movement of CononoPhillips, starting a new trend in the industry, or whether the restructuring already done will be only restricted to the specific needs of certain oil companies. (author)

  6. Data Driven Approach for High Resolution Population Distribution and Dynamics Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Rose, Amy N [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Urban, Marie L [ORNL; Stewart, Robert N [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    High resolution population distribution data are vital for successfully addressing critical issues ranging from energy and socio-environmental research to public health to human security. Commonly available population data from Census is constrained both in space and time and does not capture population dynamics as functions of space and time. This imposes a significant limitation on the fidelity of event-based simulation models with sensitive space-time resolution. This paper describes ongoing development of high-resolution population distribution and dynamics models, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, through spatial data integration and modeling with behavioral or activity-based mobility datasets for representing temporal dynamics of population. The model is resolved at 1 km resolution globally and describes the U.S. population for nighttime and daytime at 90m. Integration of such population data provides the opportunity to develop simulations and applications in critical infrastructure management from local to global scales.

  7. Relative Dispersion from a High-Resolution Coastal Model of the Adriatic Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haza, Angelique C; Poje, Andrew C; Ozgokmen, Tamay M; Martin, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic drifter trajectories computed from velocity data produced by a high-resolution NCOM model are used to investigate the scaling of relative dispersion and the distribution of finite-scale Lyapunov exponent (FSLE...

  8. Impact of precipitation spatial resolution on the hydrological response of an integrated distributed water resources model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Suhua; Sonnenborg, Torben; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2011-01-01

    Precipitation is a key input variable to hydrological models, and the spatial variability of the input is expected to impact the hydrological response predicted by a distributed model. In this study, the effect of spatial resolution of precipitation on runoff , recharge and groundwater head...... was analyzed in the Alergaarde catchment in Denmark. Six different precipitation spatial resolutions were used as inputs to a physically based, distributed hydrological model, the MIKE SHE model. The results showed that the resolution of precipitation input had no apparent effect on annual water balance...... of the total catchment and runoff discharge hydrograph at watershed outlet. On the other hand, groundwater recharge and groundwater head were both aff ected. The impact of the spatial resolution of precipitation input is reduced with increasing catchment size. The effect on stream discharge is relatively low...

  9. Bathymetry predicted from vertical gravity gradient anomalies and ship soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Minzhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the admittance function between seafloor undulations and vertical gravity gradient anomalies was derived. Based on this admittance function, the bathymetry model of 1 minute resolution was predicted from vertical gravity gradient anomalies and ship soundings in the experimental area from the northwest Pacific. The accuracy of the model is evaluated using ship soundings and existing models, including ETOPOl, GEBCO, DTU10 and V15. 1 from SIO. The model's STD is 69.481m, comparable with V15. 1 which is generally believed to have the highest accuracy.

  10. A Toolkit for Building Hybrid, Multi-Resolution PMESII Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bachman, John A; Harper, Karen A

    2007-01-01

    ...) models in support of a Commander's Predictive Environment (CPE) was developed. This development environment is based upon Charles River Analytic's Graphical Agent Development Environment (GRADE...

  11. Monte Carlo Bayesian Inference on a Statistical Model of Sub-Gridcolumn Moisture Variability using High-Resolution Cloud Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, P. M.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Norris and da Silva recently published a method to constrain a statistical model of sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution satellite cloud data. The method can be used for large-scale model parameter estimation or cloud data assimilation (CDA). The gridcolumn model includes assumed-PDF intra-layer horizontal variability and a copula-based inter-layer correlation model. The observables used are MODIS cloud-top pressure, brightness temperature and cloud optical thickness, but the method should be extensible to direct cloudy radiance assimilation for a small number of channels. The algorithm is a form of Bayesian inference with a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to characterizing the posterior distribution. This approach is especially useful in cases where the background state is clear but cloudy observations exist. In traditional linearized data assimilation methods, a subsaturated background cannot produce clouds via any infinitesimal equilibrium perturbation, but the Monte Carlo approach is not gradient-based and allows jumps into regions of non-zero cloud probability. In the example provided, the method is able to restore marine stratocumulus near the Californian coast where the background state has a clear swath. The new approach not only significantly reduces mean and standard deviation biases with respect to the assimilated observables, but also improves the simulated rotational-Ramman scattering cloud optical centroid pressure against independent (non-assimilated) retrievals from the OMI instrument. One obvious difficulty for the method, and other CDA methods, is the lack of information content in passive cloud observables on cloud vertical structure, beyond cloud-top and thickness, thus necessitating strong dependence on the background vertical moisture structure. It is found that a simple flow-dependent correlation modification due to Riishojgaard is helpful, better honoring inversion structures in the background state.

  12. A comparative verification of high resolution precipitation forecasts using model output statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Emiel; Schmeits, Maurice; Hooijman, Nicolien; Kok, Kees

    2017-04-01

    Verification of localized events such as precipitation has become even more challenging with the advent of high-resolution meso-scale numerical weather prediction (NWP). The realism of a forecast suggests that it should compare well against precipitation radar imagery with similar resolution, both spatially and temporally. Spatial verification methods solve some of the representativity issues that point verification gives rise to. In this study a verification strategy based on model output statistics is applied that aims to address both double penalty and resolution effects that are inherent to comparisons of NWP models with different resolutions. Using predictors based on spatial precipitation patterns around a set of stations, an extended logistic regression (ELR) equation is deduced, leading to a probability forecast distribution of precipitation for each NWP model, analysis and lead time. The ELR equations are derived for predictands based on areal calibrated radar precipitation and SYNOP observations. The aim is to extract maximum information from a series of precipitation forecasts, like a trained forecaster would. The method is applied to the non-hydrostatic model Harmonie (2.5 km resolution), Hirlam (11 km resolution) and the ECMWF model (16 km resolution), overall yielding similar Brier skill scores for the 3 post-processed models, but larger differences for individual lead times. Besides, the Fractions Skill Score is computed using the 3 deterministic forecasts, showing somewhat better skill for the Harmonie model. In other words, despite the realism of Harmonie precipitation forecasts, they only perform similarly or somewhat better than precipitation forecasts from the 2 lower resolution models, at least in the Netherlands.

  13. Automatic Detection and Resolution of Lexical Ambiguity in Process Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittke, F.; Leopold, H.; Mendling, J.

    2015-01-01

    System-related engineering tasks are often conducted using process models. In this context, it is essential that these models do not contain structural or terminological inconsistencies. To this end, several automatic analysis techniques have been proposed to support quality assurance. While formal

  14. A Toolkit for Building Hybrid, Multi-Resolution PMESII Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Ptolemy Integration 23 4. Support for Interoperable PMESII Modeling 31 5. Support for PMESII Model Verification and Validation 34 5.1 Verification 34...terrorist leader behavior .............................................. 20 Figure 3-2: Editors for Two Ptolemy Components in the GRADE Edit Workspace...27 Figure 3-3: Selecting the Customize→Ports Context Menu Item in the Ptolemy Component Editor

  15. A new timing model for calculating the intrinsic timing resolution of a scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Yiping

    2007-01-01

    The coincidence timing resolution is a critical parameter which to a large extent determines the system performance of positron emission tomography (PET). This is particularly true for time-of-flight (TOF) PET that requires an excellent coincidence timing resolution (<<1 ns) in order to significantly improve the image quality. The intrinsic timing resolution is conventionally calculated with a single-exponential timing model that includes two parameters of a scintillator detector: scintillation decay time and total photoelectron yield from the photon-electron conversion. However, this calculation has led to significant errors when the coincidence timing resolution reaches 1 ns or less. In this paper, a bi-exponential timing model is derived and evaluated. The new timing model includes an additional parameter of a scintillator detector: scintillation rise time. The effect of rise time on the timing resolution has been investigated analytically, and the results reveal that the rise time can significantly change the timing resolution of fast scintillators that have short decay time constants. Compared with measured data, the calculations have shown that the new timing model significantly improves the accuracy in the calculation of timing resolutions

  16. Vertical Integration or Disintegration? A Bargaining Model of the Maquiladora's Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuho Kochi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analytical framework to study the demands of foreign and domestic factors of production of the maquiladora industry. We derive the net profitability of demanding high in72 9 Vol. 21 ¿ número 41 ¿ 2012 stead of low quality inputs. We argue that differences in the quality of inputs between foreign and domestic factors can explain the low vertical integration of the maquiladora with the Mexican industry. We show that if the difference in quality and its positive effect in marginal production compensates the difference in prices, then the maquiladora can be induced to integrate vertically with foreign suppliers of inputs, even if the unitary cost to demand foreign inputs is strictly higher than that of domestic inputs. We also show that a depreciation of the Mexican exchange rate does not necessarily increase the maquiladora's demand of Mexican inputs. This explains recent empirical evidence showing this phenomenon. Conversely, a depreciation of the exchange rate might increase the maquiladora's demand of imported inputs if foreign and domestic factors are complementary. The above holds even if the domestic supplier participates in a bargaining game offering an efficient contract.

  17. Heat transfer modelling in the vertical tubes of a natural circulation passive containment loop with noncondensable gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Tachenko, I.; Sancho, J.; Escriva, A.; Verdu, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the key safety systems of the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) of General Electric is the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). This system is designed to behave as a heat sink without need of operator actions in case of a reactor accident. Such a function relies on setting up a natural circulation loop between drywell and wetwell. Along this loop heat is removed by condensing the steam coming from the drywell onto the inner surface of externally cooled vertical tubes. Therefore, a successful design of the condenser requires a good knowledge of the local heat transmission coefficients. In this paper a model of steam condensation into vertical tubes is presented. Based on a modified diffusion boundary layer approach for noncondensables, this model accounts for the effect of shear stress caused by the cocurrent steam-gas mixture on the liquid film thickness. An approximate method to calculate film thickness, avoiding iterative algorithms, has been proposed. At present, this model has been implemented in HTCPIPE code and its results are being checked in terms of local heat transfer coefficients against the experimental data available. A good agreement between measurements and predictions is being observed for tests at atmospheric pressure. Further development and validation of the model is needed to consider aspects such as mist formation, wavy flow and high pressure. (author)

  18. Toward an ultra-high resolution community climate system model for the BlueGene platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, John M; Jacob, Robert; Vertenstein, Mariana; Craig, Tony; Loy, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Global climate models need to simulate several small, regional-scale processes which affect the global circulation in order to accurately simulate the climate. This is particularly important in the ocean where small scale features such as oceanic eddies are currently represented with adhoc parameterizations. There is also a need for higher resolution to provide climate predictions at small, regional scales. New high-performance computing platforms such as the IBM BlueGene can provide the necessary computational power to perform ultra-high resolution climate model integrations. We have begun to investigate the scaling of the individual components of the Community Climate System Model to prepare it for integrations on BlueGene and similar platforms. Our investigations show that it is possible to successfully utilize O(32K) processors. We describe the scalability of five models: the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the Community Ice CodE (CICE), the Community Land Model (CLM), and the new CCSM sequential coupler (CPL7) which are components of the next generation Community Climate System Model (CCSM); as well as the High-Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME) which is a dynamical core currently being evaluated within the Community Atmospheric Model. For our studies we concentrate on 1/10 0 resolution for CICE, POP, and CLM models and 1/4 0 resolution for HOMME. The ability to simulate high resolutions on the massively parallel petascale systems that will dominate high-performance computing for the foreseeable future is essential to the advancement of climate science

  19. A regional high resolution model of the marine mercury cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieser, J.; Daewel, U.; Schrum, C.

    2017-12-01

    One of the main sources for mercury intoxication is the uptake of methylmercury from sea food. However, only little is known about the dynamics of methylmercury in the marine environment and its accumulation along the food chain. To further our understanding of the pathways from anthropogenic emissions of elemental mercury to the bio-accumulation of methylmercury in fish we developed the first regional Eulerian three dimensional multi-media chemistry transport model (MECOSMO) that includes atmosphere, ocean, and ecosystem. The marine part of the model includes a complete representation of the marine ecosystem ranging from phytoplankton up to higher trophic levels, including fish. We used the MECOSMO model to reconstruct mercury concentrations in water and biota in the North- and Baltic Sea for the past 60 years. Based on our model we examined the natural short and longterm variability of the system as well as long term trends in the distribution and amount of methylmercury in water and fish. Based on our findings we show how models can be utilized to develop future measurement strategies for marine mercury. Finally, the presented modelling system can be used to project the impact of future perturbations in the system (i.e.: emission reductions, climate change, nutrient control) on the mercury accumulation in sea food. Thereby, supporting the implementation of the Minamata Convention on Mercury on a regional scale by enabling us to estimate the impact of emission reductions on the marine mercury cycle.

  20. Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2013-07-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

  1. Validation of mixing height determined from vertical profiles of wind and temperature from the DMI-HIRLAM NWP model in comparison with readiosoundings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, A.; Soerensen, J.H.; Nielsen, N.W. [Danish Meteorological Inst., DMI, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    A sensitivity study is performed of vertical profiles from the numerical weather prediction model DMI-HIRLAM (DMI-HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model). The study involves profiles of horizontal wind, temperature and humidity in the lower troposphere up to 2500 meter. Detailed comparisons of analysed as well as forecast profiles are made with measured data from several radio-sonde stations throughout Europe. Methods for estimating the Mixing Height (MH) based on a bulk Richardson number method, the Vogelezang and Holtslag method and parcel methods are also studied. The methods are inter-compared, and MH based on data from DMI-HIRLAM are compared with the corresponding MH based on radiosonde data. For convective conditions the MH estimates are also compared with subjective estimates of the MH. In this paper preliminary results mainly based on data from Jaegersborg (Copenhagen) are presented. Results based on data from 1994-95 show that the resemblance between measured profiles and the DMI-HIRLAM profiles is fairly good in general. Also the estimates of the MH based on DMI-HIRLAM data is in general of nearly the same quality as estimations based on observed data. However, especially in convective conditions there is a tendency by DMI-HIRLAM to underestimate the strength of the mixing and thereby relatively large errors in the estimates of the MH can occur. (au)

  2. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  3. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  4. Impact of rainfall temporal resolution on urban water quality modelling performance and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Bastian Johann; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Maksimović, Cedo; McIntyre, Neil

    2013-01-01

    A key control on the response of an urban drainage model is how well the observed rainfall records represent the real rainfall variability. Particularly in urban catchments with fast response flow regimes, the selection of temporal resolution in rainfall data collection is critical. Furthermore, the impact of the rainfall variability on the model response is amplified for water quality estimates, as uncertainty in rainfall intensity affects both the rainfall-runoff and pollutant wash-off sub-models, thus compounding uncertainties. A modelling study was designed to investigate the impact of altering rainfall temporal resolution on the magnitude and behaviour of uncertainties associated with the hydrological modelling compared with water quality modelling. The case study was an 85-ha combined sewer sub-catchment in Bogotá (Colombia). Water quality estimates showed greater sensitivity to the inter-event variability in rainfall hyetograph characteristics than to changes in the rainfall input temporal resolution. Overall, uncertainties from the water quality model were two- to five-fold those of the hydrological model. However, owing to the intrinsic scarcity of observations in urban water quality modelling, total model output uncertainties, especially from the water quality model, were too large to make recommendations for particular model structures or parameter values with respect to rainfall temporal resolution.

  5. A meteorological distribution system for high-resolution terrestrial modeling (MicroMet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen E. Liston; Kelly Elder

    2006-01-01

    An intermediate-complexity, quasi-physically based, meteorological model (MicroMet) has been developed to produce high-resolution (e.g., 30-m to 1-km horizontal grid increment) atmospheric forcings required to run spatially distributed terrestrial models over a wide variety of landscapes. The following eight variables, required to run most terrestrial models, are...

  6. The application of high temporal resolution data in river catchment modelling and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockford, L; O'Riordain, S; Taylor, D; Melland, A R; Shortle, G; Jordan, P

    2017-08-21

    Modelling changes in river water quality, and by extension developing river management strategies, has historically been reliant on empirical data collected at relatively low temporal resolutions. With access to data collected at higher temporal resolutions, this study investigated how these new dataset types could be employed to assess the precision and accuracy of two phosphorus (P) load apportionment models (LAMs) developed on lower resolution empirical data. Predictions were made of point and diffuse sources of P across ten different sampling scenarios. Sampling resolution ranged from hourly to monthly through the use of 2000 newly created datasets from high frequency P and discharge data collected from a eutrophic river draining a 9.48 km 2 catchment. Outputs from the two LAMs were found to differ significantly in the P load apportionment (51.4% versus 4.6% from point sources) with reducing precision and increasing bias as sampling frequency decreased. Residual analysis identified a large deviation from observed data at high flows. This deviation affected the apportionment of P from diffuse sources in particular. The study demonstrated the potential problems in developing empirical models such as LAMs based on temporally relatively poorly-resolved data (the level of resolution that is available for the majority of catchments). When these models are applied ad hoc and outside an expert modelling framework using extant datasets of lower resolution, interpretations of their outputs could potentially reduce the effectiveness of management decisions aimed at improving water quality.

  7. Repurposing of antiparasitic drugs: the hydroxy-naphthoquinone buparvaquone inhibits vertical transmission in the pregnant neosporosis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Wong, Ho Ning; Haynes, Richard K; Hemphill, Andrew

    2016-02-17

    The three anti-malarial drugs artemiside, artemisone, and mefloquine, and the naphthoquinone buparvaquone known to be active against theileriosis in cattle and Leishmania infections in rodents, were assessed for activity against Neospora caninum infection. All four compounds inhibited the proliferation of N. caninum tachyzoites in vitro with IC50 in the sub-micromolar range, but artemisone and buparvaquone were most effective (IC50 = 3 and 4.9 nM, respectively). However, in a neosporosis mouse model for cerebral infection comprising Balb/c mice experimentally infected with the virulent isolate Nc-Spain7, the three anti-malarial compounds failed to exhibit any activity, since treatment did not reduce the parasite burden in brains and lungs compared to untreated controls. Thus, these compounds were not further evaluated in pregnant mice. On the other hand, buparvaquone, shown earlier to be effective in reducing the parasite load in the lungs in an acute neosporosis disease model, was further assessed in the pregnant mouse model. Buparvaquone efficiently inhibited vertical transmission in Balb/c mice experimentally infected at day 7 of pregnancy, reduced clinical signs in the pups, but had no effect on cerebral infection in the dams. This demonstrates proof-of-concept that drug repurposing may lead to the discovery of an effective compound against neosporosis that can protect offspring from vertical transmission and disease.

  8. The influence of model resolution on ozone in industrial volatile organic compound plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Barron H; Jeffries, Harvey E; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Vizuete, William G

    2010-09-01

    Regions with concentrated petrochemical industrial activity (e.g., Houston or Baton Rouge) frequently experience large, localized releases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Aircraft measurements suggest these released VOCs create plumes with ozone (O3) production rates 2-5 times higher than typical urban conditions. Modeling studies found that simulating high O3 productions requires superfine (1-km) horizontal grid cell size. Compared with fine modeling (4-kmin), the superfine resolution increases the peak O3 concentration by as much as 46%. To understand this drastic O3 change, this study quantifies model processes for O3 and "odd oxygen" (Ox) in both resolutions. For the entire plume, the superfine resolution increases the maximum O3 concentration 3% but only decreases the maximum Ox concentration 0.2%. The two grid sizes produce approximately equal Ox mass but by different reaction pathways. Derived sensitivity to oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and VOC emissions suggests resolution-specific sensitivity to NOx and VOC emissions. Different sensitivity to emissions will result in different O3 responses to subsequently encountered emissions (within the city or downwind). Sensitivity of O3 to emission changes also results in different simulated O3 responses to the same control strategies. Sensitivity of O3 to NOx and VOC emission changes is attributed to finer resolved Eulerian grid and finer resolved NOx emissions. Urban NOx concentration gradients are often caused by roadway mobile sources that would not typically be addressed with Plume-in-Grid models. This study shows that grid cell size (an artifact of modeling) influences simulated control strategies and could bias regulatory decisions. Understanding the dynamics of VOC plume dependence on grid size is the first step toward providing more detailed guidance for resolution. These results underscore VOC and NOx resolution interdependencies best addressed by finer resolution. On the basis of these results, the

  9. A new high resolution tidal model in the arctic ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancet, M.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Lyard, F.

    The Arctic Ocean is a challenging region for tidal modeling, because of its complex and not well-documented bathymetry, together combined with the intermittent presence of sea ice and the fact that the in situ tidal observations are rather scarce at such high latitudes. As a consequence......, the accuracy of the global tidal models decreases by several centimeters in the Polar Regions. In particular, it has a large impact on the quality of the satellite altimeter sea surface heights in these regions (ERS1/2, Envisat, CryoSat-2, SARAL/AltiKa and the future Sentinel-3 mission). Better knowledge...... of the tides improves the quality of the high latitudes altimeter sea surface heights and of all derived products, such as the altimetry-derived geostrophic currents, the mean sea surface and the mean dynamic topography. In addition, accurate tidal models are highly strategic information for ever...

  10. Analysis of a severe weather event over Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, using observations and high-resolution modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Dasari, Hari Prasad

    2017-08-10

    The dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of a severe weather event that caused heavy wind and rainfall over Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, on 11 September 2015 were investigated using available observations and the Weather Research and Forecasting model configured at 1 km resolution. Analysis of surface, upper air observations and model outputs reveals that the event was initiated by synoptic scale conditions that intensified by interaction with the local topography, triggering strong winds and high convective rainfall. The model predicted the observed characteristics of both rainfall and winds well, accurately predicting the maximum wind speed of 20–25 m s−1 that was sustained for about 2 h. A time series analysis of various atmospheric variables suggests a sudden fall in pressure, temperature and outgoing long wave radiation before the development of the storm, followed by a significant increase in wind speed, latent and moisture fluxes and change in wind direction during the mature stage of the storm. The model outputs suggest that the heavy rainfall was induced by a low-level moisture supply from the Red Sea combined with orographic lifting. Latent heat release from microphysical processes increased the vertical velocities in the mid-troposphere, further increasing the low-level convergence that strengthened the event.

  11. Defining optimal DEM resolutions and point densities for modelling hydrologically sensitive areas in agricultural catchments dominated by microtopography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, I. A.; Jordan, P.; Shine, O.; Fenton, O.; Mellander, P.-E.; Dunlop, P.; Murphy, P. N. C.

    2017-02-01

    Defining critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments depends upon the accurate delineation of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest risk of generating surface runoff pathways. In topographically complex landscapes, this delineation is constrained by digital elevation model (DEM) resolution and the influence of microtopographic features. To address this, optimal DEM resolutions and point densities for spatially modelling HSAs were investigated, for onward use in delineating CSAs. The surface runoff framework was modelled using the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and maps were derived from 0.25 m LiDAR DEMs (40 bare-earth points m-2), resampled 1 m and 2 m LiDAR DEMs, and a radar generated 5 m DEM. Furthermore, the resampled 1 m and 2 m LiDAR DEMs were regenerated with reduced bare-earth point densities (5, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 points m-2) to analyse effects on elevation accuracy and important microtopographic features. Results were compared to surface runoff field observations in two 10 km2 agricultural catchments for evaluation. Analysis showed that the accuracy of modelled HSAs using different thresholds (5%, 10% and 15% of the catchment area with the highest TWI values) was much higher using LiDAR data compared to the 5 m DEM (70-100% and 10-84%, respectively). This was attributed to the DEM capturing microtopographic features such as hedgerow banks, roads, tramlines and open agricultural drains, which acted as topographic barriers or channels that diverted runoff away from the hillslope scale flow direction. Furthermore, the identification of 'breakthrough' and 'delivery' points along runoff pathways where runoff and mobilised pollutants could be potentially transported between fields or delivered to the drainage channel network was much higher using LiDAR data compared to the 5 m DEM (75-100% and 0-100%, respectively). Optimal DEM resolutions of 1-2 m were identified for modelling HSAs, which balanced the need

  12. ORCHIDEE-SOM: modeling soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics along vertical soil profiles in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Guenet, Bertrand; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Ciais, Philippe; Bastrikov, Vladislav; De Vos, Bruno; Gielen, Bert; Gleixner, Gerd; Jornet-Puig, Albert; Kaiser, Klaus; Kothawala, Dolly; Lauerwald, Ronny; Peñuelas, Josep; Schrumpf, Marion; Vicca, Sara; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walmsley, David; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2018-03-01

    Current land surface models (LSMs) typically represent soils in a very simplistic way, assuming soil organic carbon (SOC) as a bulk, and thus impeding a correct representation of deep soil carbon dynamics. Moreover, LSMs generally neglect the production and export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from soils to rivers, leading to overestimations of the potential carbon sequestration on land. This common oversimplified processing of SOC in LSMs is partly responsible for the large uncertainty in the predictions of the soil carbon response to climate change. In this study, we present a new soil carbon module called ORCHIDEE-SOM, embedded within the land surface model ORCHIDEE, which is able to reproduce the DOC and SOC dynamics in a vertically discretized soil to 2 m. The model includes processes of biological production and consumption of SOC and DOC, DOC adsorption on and desorption from soil minerals, diffusion of SOC and DOC, and DOC transport with water through and out of the soils to rivers. We evaluated ORCHIDEE-SOM against observations of DOC concentrations and SOC stocks from four European sites with different vegetation covers: a coniferous forest, a deciduous forest, a grassland, and a cropland. The model was able to reproduce the SOC stocks along their vertical profiles at the four sites and the DOC concentrations within the range of measurements, with the exception of the DOC concentrations in the upper soil horizon at the coniferous forest. However, the model was not able to fully capture the temporal dynamics of DOC concentrations. Further model improvements should focus on a plant- and depth-dependent parameterization of the new input model parameters, such as the turnover times of DOC and the microbial carbon use efficiency. We suggest that this new soil module, when parameterized for global simulations, will improve the representation of the global carbon cycle in LSMs, thus helping to constrain the predictions of the future SOC response to global

  13. Quantitative Research: A Dispute Resolution Model for FTC Advertising Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jef I.; Preston, Ivan L.

    Noting the lack of a dispute mechanism for determining whether an advertising practice is truly deceptive without generating the costs and negative publicity produced by traditional Federal Trade Commission (FTC) procedures, this paper proposes a model based upon early termination of the issues through jointly commissioned behavioral research. The…

  14. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  15. Numerical resolution of a model of tumour growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ana I

    2016-03-01

    We consider and solve numerically a mathematical model of tumour growth based on cancer stem cells (CSC) hypothesis with the aim of gaining some insight into the relation of different processes leading to exponential growth in solid tumours and into the evolution of different subpopulations of cells. The model consists of four hyperbolic equations of first order to describe the evolution of four subpopulations of cells. A fifth equation is introduced to model the evolution of the moving boundary. The coefficients of the model represent the rates at which reactions occur. In order to integrate numerically the four hyperbolic equations, a formulation in terms of the total derivatives is posed. A finite element discretization is applied to integrate the model equations in space. Our numerical results suggest the existence of a pseudo-equilibrium state reached at the early stage of the tumour, for which the fraction of CSC remains small. We include the study of the behaviour of the solutions for longer times and we obtain that the solutions to the system of partial differential equations stabilize to homogeneous steady states whose values depend only on the values of the parameters. We show that CSC may comprise different proportions of the tumour, becoming, in some cases, the predominant type of cells within the tumour. We also obtain that possible effective measure to detain tumour progression should combine the targeting of CSC with the targeting of progenitor cells. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  16. Utilization of Short-Simulations for Tuning High-Resolution Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W.; Xie, S.; Ma, P. L.; Rasch, P. J.; Qian, Y.; Wan, H.; Ma, H. Y.; Klein, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Many physical parameterizations in atmospheric models are sensitive to resolution. Tuning the models that involve a multitude of parameters at high resolution is computationally expensive, particularly when relying primarily on multi-year simulations. This work describes a complementary set of strategies for tuning high-resolution atmospheric models, using ensembles of short simulations to reduce the computational cost and elapsed time. Specifically, we utilize the hindcast approach developed through the DOE Cloud Associated Parameterization Testbed (CAPT) project for high-resolution model tuning, which is guided by a combination of short (global mean statistics and many spatial features are consistent between Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP)-type simulations and CAPT-type hindcasts, with just a small number of short-term simulations for the latter over the corresponding season. The use of CAPT hindcasts to find parameter choice for the reduction of large model biases dramatically improves the turnaround time for the tuning at high resolution. Improvement seen in CAPT hindcasts generally translates to improved AMIP-type simulations. An iterative CAPT-AMIP tuning approach is therefore adopted during each major tuning cycle, with the former to survey the likely responses and narrow the parameter space, and the latter to verify the results in climate context along with assessment in greater detail once an educated set of parameter choice is selected. Limitations on using short-term simulations for tuning climate model are also discussed.

  17. The implementation of sea ice model on a regional high-resolution scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Siva; Zakharov, Igor; Bobby, Pradeep; McGuire, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The availability of high-resolution atmospheric/ocean forecast models, satellite data and access to high-performance computing clusters have provided capability to build high-resolution models for regional ice condition simulation. The paper describes the implementation of the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) on a regional scale at high resolution. The advantage of the model is its ability to include oceanographic parameters (e.g., currents) to provide accurate results. The sea ice simulation was performed over Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea to retrieve important parameters such as ice concentration, thickness, ridging, and drift. Two different forcing models, one with low resolution and another with a high resolution, were used for the estimation of sensitivity of model results. Sea ice behavior over 7 years was simulated to analyze ice formation, melting, and conditions in the region. Validation was based on comparing model results with remote sensing data. The simulated ice concentration correlated well with Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF) data. Visual comparison of ice thickness trends estimated from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) agreed with the simulation for year 2010-2011.

  18. Lagrangian Timescales of Southern Ocean Upwelling in a Hierarchy of Model Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Henri F.; Morrison, Adele K.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Weijer, Wilbert; Gray, Alison R.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we study upwelling pathways and timescales of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) in a hierarchy of models using a Lagrangian particle tracking method. Lagrangian timescales of CDW upwelling decrease from 87 years to 31 years to 17 years as the ocean resolution is refined from 1° to 0.25° to 0.1°. We attribute some of the differences in timescale to the strength of the eddy fields, as demonstrated by temporally degrading high-resolution model velocity fields. Consistent with the timescale dependence, we find that an average Lagrangian particle completes 3.2 circumpolar loops in the 1° model in comparison to 0.9 loops in the 0.1° model. These differences suggest that advective timescales and thus interbasin merging of upwelling CDW may be overestimated by coarse-resolution models, potentially affecting the skill of centennial scale climate change projections.

  19. Core surface flow modelling from high-resolution secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, R.; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    -flux hypothesis, but the spectrum of the SV implies that a conclusive test of frozen-flux is not possible. We parametrize the effects of diffusion as an expected misfit in the flow prediction due to departure from the frozen-flux hypothesis; at low spherical harmonic degrees, this contribution dominates...... the expected departure of the SV predictions from flow to the observed SV, while at high degrees the SV model uncertainty is dominant. We construct fine-scale core surface flows to model the SV. Flow non-uniqueness is a serious problem because the flows are sufficiently small scale to allow flow around non......-series of magnetic data and better parametrization of the external magnetic field....

  20. Data Integration for the Generation of High Resolution Reservoir Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Reynolds; Dean Oliver; Gaoming Li; Yong Zhao; Chaohui Che; Kai Zhang; Yannong Dong; Chinedu Abgalaka; Mei Han

    2009-01-07

    The goal of this three-year project was to develop a theoretical basis and practical technology for the integration of geologic, production and time-lapse seismic data in a way that makes best use of the information for reservoir description and reservoir performance predictions. The methodology and practical tools for data integration that were developed in this research project have been incorporated into computational algorithms that are feasible for large scale reservoir simulation models. As the integration of production and seismic data require calibrating geological/geostatistical models to these data sets, the main computational tool is an automatic history matching algorithm. The following specific goals were accomplished during this research. (1) We developed algorithms for calibrating the location of the boundaries of geologic facies and the distribution of rock properties so that production and time-lapse seismic data are honored. (2) We developed and implemented specific procedures for conditioning reservoir models to time-lapse seismic data. (3) We developed and implemented algorithms for the characterization of measurement errors which are needed to determine the relative weights of data when conditioning reservoir models to production and time-lapse seismic data by automatic history matching. (4) We developed and implemented algorithms for the adjustment of relative permeability curves during the history matching process. (5) We developed algorithms for production optimization which accounts for geological uncertainty within the context of closed-loop reservoir management. (6) To ensure the research results will lead to practical public tools for independent oil companies, as part of the project we built a graphical user interface for the reservoir simulator and history matching software using Visual Basic.

  1. Uncertainty of SWAT model at different DEM resolutions in a large mountainous watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peipei; Liu, Ruimin; Bao, Yimeng; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen; Shen, Zhenyao

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this study was to enhance understanding of the sensitivity of the SWAT model to the resolutions of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based on the analysis of multiple evaluation indicators. The Xiangxi River, a large tributary of Three Gorges Reservoir in China, was selected as the study area. A range of 17 DEM spatial resolutions, from 30 to 1000 m, was examined, and the annual and monthly model outputs based on each resolution were compared. The following results were obtained: (i) sediment yield was greatly affected by DEM resolution; (ii) the prediction of dissolved oxygen load was significantly affected by DEM resolutions coarser than 500 m; (iii) Total Nitrogen (TN) load was not greatly affected by the DEM resolution; (iv) Nitrate Nitrogen (NO₃-N) and Total Phosphorus (TP) loads were slightly affected by the DEM resolution; and (v) flow and Ammonia Nitrogen (NH₄-N) load were essentially unaffected by the DEM resolution. The flow and dissolved oxygen load decreased more significantly in the dry season than in the wet and normal seasons. Excluding flow and dissolved oxygen, the uncertainties of the other Hydrology/Non-point Source (H/NPS) pollution indicators were greater in the wet season than in the dry and normal seasons. Considering the temporal distribution uncertainties, the optimal DEM resolutions for flow was 30-200 m, for sediment and TP was 30-100 m, for dissolved oxygen and NO₃-N was 30-300 m, for NH₄-N was 30 to 70 m and for TN was 30-150 m. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High resolution modelling of soil moisture patterns with TerrSysMP: A comparison with sensor network data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebler, S.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Kollet, S. J.; Qu, W.; Vereecken, H.

    2017-04-01

    The prediction of the spatial and temporal variability of land surface states and fluxes with land surface models at high spatial resolution is still a challenge. This study compares simulation results using TerrSysMP including a 3D variably saturated groundwater flow model (ParFlow) coupled to the Community Land Model (CLM) of a 38 ha managed grassland head-water catchment in the Eifel (Germany), with soil water content (SWC) measurements from a wireless sensor network, actual evapotranspiration recorded by lysimeters and eddy covariance stations and discharge observations. TerrSysMP was discretized with a 10 × 10 m lateral resolution, variable vertical resolution (0.025-0.575 m), and the following parameterization strategies of the subsurface soil hydraulic parameters: (i) completely homogeneous, (ii) homogeneous parameters for different soil horizons, (iii) different parameters for each soil unit and soil horizon and (iv) heterogeneous stochastic realizations. Hydraulic conductivity and Mualem-Van Genuchten parameters in these simulations were sampled from probability density functions, constructed from either (i) soil texture measurements and Rosetta pedotransfer functions (ROS), or (ii) estimated soil hydraulic parameters by 1D inverse modelling using shuffle complex evolution (SCE). The results indicate that the spatial variability of SWC at the scale of a small headwater catchment is dominated by topography and spatially heterogeneous soil hydraulic parameters. The spatial variability of the soil water content thereby increases as a function of heterogeneity of soil hydraulic parameters. For lower levels of complexity, spatial variability of the SWC was underrepresented in particular for the ROS-simulations. Whereas all model simulations were able to reproduce the seasonal evapotranspiration variability, the poor discharge simulations with high model bias are likely related to short-term ET dynamics and the lack of information about bedrock characteristics

  3. A New Model for Real-Time Regional Vertical Total Electron Content and Differential Code Bias Estimation Using IGS Real-Time Service (IGS-RTS) Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazeem, Mohamed; Çelik, Rahmi N.; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    The international global navigation satellite system (GNSS) real-time service (IGS-RTS) products have been used extensively for real-time precise point positioning and ionosphere modeling applications. In this study, we develop a regional model for real-time vertical total electron content (RT-VTEC) and differential code bias (RT-DCB) estimation over Europe using the IGS-RTS satellite orbit and clock products. The developed model has a spatial and temporal resolution of 1°×1° and 15 minutes, respectively. GPS observations from a regional network consisting of 60 IGS and EUREF reference stations are processed in the zero-difference mode using the Bernese-5.2 software package in order to extract the geometry-free linear combination of the smoothed code observations. The spherical harmonic expansion function is used to model the VTEC, the receiver and the satellite DCBs. To validate the proposed model, the RT-VTEC values are computed and compared with the final IGS-global ionospheric map (IGS-GIM) counterparts in three successive days under high solar activity including one of an extreme geomagnetic activity. The real-time satellite DCBs are also estimated and compared with the IGS-GIM counterparts. Moreover, the real-time receiver DCB for six IGS stations are obtained and compared with the IGS-GIM counterparts. The examined stations are located in different latitudes with different receiver types. The findings reveal that the estimated RT-VTEC values show agreement with the IGS-GIM counterparts with root mean-square-errors (RMSEs) values less than 2 TEC units. In addition, RMSEs of both the satellites and receivers DCBs are less than 0.85 ns and 0.65 ns, respectively in comparison with the IGS-GIM.

  4. A Novel Model on Curve Fitting and Particle Swarm Optimization for Vertical Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidrokh Goudarzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical handover mechanism is an essential issue in the heterogeneous wireless environments where selection of an efficient network that provides seamless connectivity involves complex scenarios. This study uses two modules that utilize the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to predict and make an intelligent vertical handover decision. In this paper, we predict the received signal strength indicator parameter using the curve fitting based particle swarm optimization (CF-PSO and the RBF neural networks. The results of the proposed methodology compare the predictive capabilities in terms of coefficient determination (R2 and mean square error (MSE based on the validation dataset. The results show that the effect of the model based on the CF-PSO is better than that of the model based on the RBF neural network in predicting the received signal strength indicator situation. In addition, we present a novel network selection algorithm to select the best candidate access point among the various access technologies based on the PSO. Simulation results indicate that using CF-PSO algorithm can decrease the number of unnecessary handovers and prevent the “Ping-Pong” effect. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the multiobjective particle swarm optimization based method finds an optimal network selection in a heterogeneous wireless environment.

  5. A model for the vertical sound speed and absorption profiles in Titan's atmosphere based on Cassini-Huygens data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petculescu, Andi; Achi, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of thermodynamic quantities in Titan's atmosphere during the descent of Huygens in 2005 are used to predict the vertical profiles for the speed and intrinsic attenuation (or absorption) of sound. The calculations are done using one author's previous model modified to accommodate non-ideal equations of state. The vertical temperature profile places the tropopause about 40 km above the surface. In the model, a binary nitrogen-methane composition is assumed for Titan's atmosphere, quantified by the methane fraction measured by the gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GCMS) onboard Huygens. To more accurately constrain the acoustic wave number, the variation of thermophysical properties (specific heats, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) with altitude is included via data extracted from the NIST Chemistry WebBook [URL webbook.nist.gov, National Institute of Standards and Technology Chemistry WebBook (Last accessed 10/20/2011)]. The predicted speed of sound profile fits well inside the spread of the data recorded by Huygens' active acoustic sensor. In the N(2)-dominated atmosphere, the sound waves have negligible relaxational dispersion and mostly classical (thermo-viscous) absorption. The cold and dense environment of Titan can sustain acoustic waves over large distances with relatively small transmission losses, as evidenced by the small absorption. A ray-tracing program is used to assess the bounds imposed by the zonal wind-measured by the Doppler Wind Experiment on Huygens-on long-range propagation.

  6. SUNYA Regional Climate Model Simulations of East Asia Summer Monsoon: Effects of Cloud Vertical Structure on the Surface Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong and Wei-Chyung Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the State University of New York at Albany (SUNYA regional climate model to study the effect of cloud vertical distribution in affecting the surface energy balance of the East Asia summer monsoon (EASM. Simulations were conducted for the summers of 1988 and 1989, during which large contrast in the intra-seasonal cloud radiative forcing (CRF was observed at the top of the atmosphere. The model results indicate that both the high and low clouds are persistent throughout the summer months in both years. Because of large cloud water, low clouds significantly reduce the solar radiation flux reaching the surface, which nevertheless still dominate the surface energy balance, accounting for more than 50% of the surface heating. The low clouds also contribute significantly the downward longwave radiation to the surface with values strongly dependent on the cloud base temperature. The presence of low clouds effectively decreases the temperature and moisture gradients near surface, resulting in a substantial decrease in the sensible and latent heat fluxes from surface, which partially compensate the decrease of the net radiative cooling of the surface. For example, in the two days, May 8 and July 11 of 1988, the total cloud cover of 80% is simulated, but the respective low cloud cover (water was 63% (114 gm-2 and 22% (21 gm-2. As a result, the downward solar radiation is smaller by 161 Wm-2 in May 8. On the other hand, the cloud temperature was _ lower, yielding 56 Wm-2 smaller downward longwave radiation. The near surface temperature and gradient is more than _ smaller (and moisture gradient, leading to 21 and 81 Wm-2 smaller sensible heat and latent heat fluxes. It is also demonstrated that the model is capable to reproduce the intraseasonal variation of shortwave CRF, and catches the relationship between total cloud cover and SW CRF. The model results show the dominance of high cloud on the regional mean longwave CRF and low cloud on the intra

  7. Using Molecular Simulation to Model High-Resolution Cryo-EM Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Loerke, Justus; Behrmann, Elmar; Spahn, Christian M T; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of new data from high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) studies has produced a large number of data sets for many species of ribosomes in various functional states over the past few years. While many methods exist to produce structural models for lower resolution cryo-EM reconstructions, high-resolution reconstructions are often modeled using crystallographic techniques and extensive manual intervention. Here, we present an automated fitting technique for high-resolution cryo-EM data sets that produces all-atom models highly consistent with the EM density. Using a molecular dynamics approach, atomic positions are optimized with a potential that includes the cross-correlation coefficient between the structural model and the cryo-EM electron density, as well as a biasing potential preserving the stereochemistry and secondary structure of the biomolecule. Specifically, we use a hybrid structure-based/ab initio molecular dynamics potential to extend molecular dynamics fitting. In addition, we find that simulated annealing integration, as opposed to straightforward molecular dynamics integration, significantly improves performance. We obtain atomistic models of the human ribosome consistent with high-resolution cryo-EM reconstructions of the human ribosome. Automated methods such as these have the potential to produce atomistic models for a large number of ribosome complexes simultaneously that can be subsequently refined manually. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Systematic vertical and lateral changes in quality and time resolution of the macrofossil record: insights from Holocene transgressive deposits, Po coastal plain, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarone, Michele; Scarponi, Daniele; Kusnerik, Kristopher; Amorosi, Alessandro; Bohacs, Kevin M.; Drexler, Tina M.; Kowalewski, Michał

    2017-04-01

    In siliciclastic marine settings, skeletal concentrations are a characteristic feature of transgressive intervals that provide insights into paleobiology and sequence stratigraphy. To investigate taphonomic signatures of transgressive intervals, we analyzed three cores from a Holocene depositional profile of the Po coastal plain, in northern Italy. Coupled multivariate taphonomic and bathymetric trends delineate spatial and temporal gradients in sediment starvation/bypassing, suggesting that quality and resolution of the fossil record vary predictably along the studied depositional profile. Moreover, joint consideration of taphonomic, bathymetric, and fossil density trends across the study area reveals distinctive signatures that are useful in characterizing facies associations and recognizing surfaces and intervals of sequence stratigraphic significance. Within the southern Po plain succession, taphonomic degradation of macroskeletal remains increases from proximal—nearshore to distal—offshore locations. This trend is discernible for both biologically-driven (bioerosion) and chemically/physically-driven (e.g., dissolution, abrasion) shell alterations. Compared to the up-dip (most proximal) core, the down-dip core is distinguished by shell-rich lithosomes affected by ecological condensation (co-occurrence of environmentally non-overlapping taxa) and by higher taphonomic alteration. The onshore-offshore taphonomic trend likely reflects variation in sediment-supply along the depositional profile of the Holocene Northern Adriatic shelf, with surface/near-surface residence-time of macroskeletal remains increasing down dip due to lower accumulation rates. These results indicate that, during transgressive phases, changes in sea-level (base level) are likely to produce down-dip taphonomic gradients across shelves, where the quality and resolution of the fossil record both deteriorate distally. The amino acid radiometrically calibrated dates on bivalves and the

  9. Applying GIS and fine-resolution digital terrain models to assess three-dimensional population distribution under traffic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2012-01-01

    Pollution exhibits significant variations horizontally and vertically within cities; therefore, the size and three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of population are significant determinants of urban health. This paper presents a novel methodology, 3D digital geography (3DIG) methodology, for investigating 3D spatial distributions of population in close proximity to traffic, thus the potential highly exposed population under traffic impacts. 3DIG applies geographic information system and fine-resolution (5 m) digital terrain models to obtain the number of building floors in residential zones of the Taipei metropolis; the vertical distribution of population at different floors was estimated based on demographic data in each census tract. In addition, population within 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 m from the roadways was estimated. Field validation indicated that model results were reliable and accurate; the final population estimation differs only by 0.88% from the demographic database. The results showed that among the total 6.5 million Taipei residents, 0.8 (12.3%), 1.5 (22.9%), 2.3 (34.9), and 2.7 (41.1%) million residents live on the first or second floor within 5, 10, 20, and 50 m, respectively, of municipal roads. There are 22 census tracts with more than half of their residents living on the first or second floor within 5 m of municipal roads. In addition, half of the towns in Taipei city and county with >13.9% and 12.1% of residents live on the first and second floors within 5 m of municipal roads, respectively. These findings highlight the huge number of Taipei residents in close proximity to traffic and have significant implications for exposure assessment and environmental epidemiological studies. This study demonstrates that 3DIG is a versatile methodology for various research and policy planning in which 3D spatial population distribution is the central focus.

  10. Production of lightning NOx and its vertical distribution calculated from three-dimensional cloud-scale chemical transport model simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Ott, Lesley E.

    2010-02-18

    A three-dimensional (3-D) cloud-scale chemical transport model that includes a parameterized source of lightning NOx on the basis of observed flash rates has been used to simulate six midlatitude and subtropical thunderstorms observed during four field projects. Production per intracloud (PIC) and cloud-to-ground (PCG) flash is estimated by assuming various values of PIC and PCG for each storm and determining which production scenario yields NOx mixing ratios that compare most favorably with in-cloud aircraft observations. We obtain a mean PCG value of 500 moles NO (7 kg N) per flash. The results of this analysis also suggest that on average, PIC may be nearly equal to PCG, which is contrary to the common assumption that intracloud flashes are significantly less productive of NO than are cloud-to-ground flashes. This study also presents vertical profiles of the mass of lightning NOx after convection based on 3-D cloud-scale model simulations. The results suggest that following convection, a large percentage of lightning NOx remains in the middle and upper troposphere where it originated, while only a small percentage is found near the surface. The results of this work differ from profiles calculated from 2-D cloud-scale model simulations with a simpler lightning parameterization that were peaked near the surface and in the upper troposphere (referred to as a “C-shaped” profile). The new model results (a backward C-shaped profile) suggest that chemical transport models that assume a C-shaped vertical profile of lightning NOx mass may place too much mass near the surface and too little in the middle troposphere.

  11. The potential of LIRIC to validate the vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration estimated by an air quality model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomos, Nikolaos; Filoglou, Maria; Poupkou, Anastasia; Liora, Natalia; Dimopoulos, Spyros; Melas, Dimitris; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Balis, Dimitris

    2015-04-01

    Vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived by a retrieval algorithm that uses combined sunphotometer and LIDAR data (LIRIC) were used in order to validate the mass concentration profiles estimated by the air quality model CAMx. LIDAR and CIMEL measurements of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki were used for this validation.The aerosol mass concentration profiles of the fine and coarse mode derived by CAMx were compared with the respective profiles derived by the retrieval algorithm. For the coarse mode particles, forecasts of the Saharan dust transportation model BSC-DREAM8bV2 were also taken into account. Each of the retrieval algorithm's profiles were matched to the models' profile with the best agreement within a time window of four hours before and after the central measurement. OPAC, a software than can provide optical properties of aerosol mixtures, was also employed in order to calculate the angstrom exponent and the lidar ratio values for 355nm and 532nm for each of the model's profiles aiming in a comparison with the angstrom exponent and the lidar ratio values derived by the retrieval algorithm for each measurement. The comparisons between the fine mode aerosol concentration profiles resulted in a good agreement between CAMx and the retrieval algorithm, with the vertical mean bias error never exceeding 7 μgr/m3. Concerning the aerosol coarse mode concentration profiles both CAMx and BSC-DREAM8bV2 values are severely underestimated, although, in cases of Saharan dust transportation events there is an agreement between the profiles of BSC-DREAM8bV2 model and the retrieval algorithm.

  12. Exploring the Vertical Distribution of Structural Parameters and Light Radiation in Rice Canopies by the Coupling Model and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjiu Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Canopy structural parameters and light radiation are important for evaluating the light use efficiency and grain yield of crops. Their spatial variation within canopies and temporal variation over growth stages could be simulated using dynamic models with strong application and predictability. Based on an optimized canopy structure vertical distribution model and the Beer-Lambert law combined with hyperspectral remote sensing (RS technology, we established a new dynamic model for simulating leaf area index (LAI, leaf angle (LA distribution and light radiation at different vertical heights and growth stages. The model was validated by measuring LAI, LA and light radiation in different leaf layers at different growth stages of two different types of rice (Oryza sativa L., i.e., japonica (Wuxiangjing14 and indica (Shanyou63. The results show that the simulated values were in good agreement with the observed values, with an average RRMSE (relative root mean squared error between simulated and observed LAI and LA values of 14.75% and 21.78%, respectively. The RRMSE values for simulated photosynthetic active radiation (PAR transmittance and interception rates were 14.25% and 9.22% for Wuxiangjing14 and 15.71% and 4.40% for Shanyou63, respectively. In addition, the corresponding RRMSE values for red (R, green (G and blue (B radiation transmittance and interception rates were 16.34%, 15.96% and 15.36% for Wuxiangjing14 and 5.75%, 8.23% and 5.03% for Shanyou63, respectively. The results indicate that the model performed well for different rice cultivars and under different cultivation conditions.

  13. Modeling Spatio-vertical Distribution of Sulfate and Total Sulfide along the Mangrove Intertidal Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasicha Chaikaew,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the complexity and heterogeneity of mangrove conservation landscape, research gaps still exists to quantify sulfate and total sulfide and their relationships with sediment properties and environmental covariates. Thirty-two sediment samples in the top layers (0-10 cm were analyzed to assess biochemical properties, sulfate and total sulfide contents. With an average±SD value of 0.62±0.36 mg/g, the total sulfide content from the study site was high compared to the southern part of Thailand. The distribution of sulfate content exhibited high values in nearby land area which gradually reduced in seaward discharges/runoff, whereas high concentrations of total sulfide were highlighted around the center of the study site and vertically accumulated in the top few centimeters of soil and decreased with depth. The most pronounced factor affecting the amount of sulfate and total sulfide content was organic matter, while pH, organic carbon, potassium, salinity, and sediment-mangrove conditions correlated with sulfate and sulfide at different levels. Total sulfides concentration can be considered as indicator of over nutrient-rich sediments for assessing environmental quality perhaps the die-back of mangroves. Concerns about high total sulfide concentrations across mangrove conservation areas should receive more attention, in particular the reduction of OM from the anthropogenic source.

  14. The effects of digital elevation model resolution on the calculation and predictions of topographic wetness indices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drover, Damion, Ryan

    2011-12-01

    One of the largest exports in the Southeast U.S. is forest products. Interest in biofuels using forest biomass has increased recently, leading to more research into better forest management BMPs. The USDA Forest Service, along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Georgia and Oregon State University are researching the impacts of intensive forest management for biofuels on water quality and quantity at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Surface runoff of saturated areas, transporting excess nutrients and contaminants, is a potential water quality issue under investigation. Detailed maps of variable source areas and soil characteristics would therefore be helpful prior to treatment. The availability of remotely sensed and computed digital elevation models (DEMs) and spatial analysis tools make it easy to calculate terrain attributes. These terrain attributes can be used in models to predict saturated areas or other attributes in the landscape. With laser altimetry, an area can be flown to produce very high resolution data, and the resulting data can be resampled into any resolution of DEM desired. Additionally, there exist many maps that are in various resolutions of DEM, such as those acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. Problems arise when using maps derived from different resolution DEMs. For example, saturated areas can be under or overestimated depending on the resolution used. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DEM resolution on the calculation of topographic wetness indices used to predict variable source areas of saturation, and to find the best resolutions to produce prediction maps of soil attributes like nitrogen, carbon, bulk density and soil texture for low-relief, humid-temperate forested hillslopes. Topographic wetness indices were calculated based on the derived terrain attributes, slope and specific catchment area, from five different DEM resolutions. The DEMs were resampled from LiDAR, which is a

  15. Modeling acquisition geometries with improved super-resolution in digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Wileyto, E. Paul; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2016-03-01

    In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a reconstruction is created from multiple x-ray projection images. Our previous work demonstrated that the reconstruction is capable of super-resolution (i.e., subpixel resolution) relative to the detector. In order for super-resolution to yield a reliable improvement in image quality, it should be achievable at all positions in the reconstruction. This paper demonstrates that super-resolution is not achievable at all depths, or at all heights above the breast support. For this purpose, a bar pattern phantom was imaged using a commercial DBT system. A goniometry stand was used to orient the long axis of the parallel bars along an oblique plane relative to the breast support. This setup allowed a single test frequency to be visualized over a continuous range of depths. The orientation of the test frequency was parallel to the direction of x-ray tube motion. An oblique reconstruction in the plane of the bar pattern phantom showed that the existence of super-resolution is depth-dependent. To identify design strategies for optimizing super-resolution, a theoretical model was then developed in which a test frequency higher than the alias frequency of the detector was simulated. Two design modifications that improve super-resolution are identified. In particular, it is shown that reducing the spacing between the x-ray source positions minimizes the number of depths lacking super-resolution. Additionally, introducing detector motion along the direction perpendicular to the breast support allows for more uniform super-resolution throughout the image volume. In conclusion, this work presents strategies for optimizing super-resolution in DBT.

  16. Sensorless Modeling of Varying Pulse Width Modulator Resolutions in Three-Phase Induction Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Matthew David; Shevach, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    A sensorless algorithm was developed to predict rotor speeds in an electric three-phase induction motor. This sensorless model requires a measurement of the stator currents and voltages, and the rotor speed is predicted accurately without any mechanical measurement of the rotor speed. A model of an electric vehicle undergoing acceleration was built, and the sensorless prediction of the simulation rotor speed was determined to be robust even in the presence of fluctuating motor parameters and significant sensor errors. Studies were conducted for varying pulse width modulator resolutions, and the sensorless model was accurate for all resolutions of sinusoidal voltage functions.

  17. Vertical Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Gorrieri, Roberto

    2001-01-01

    We investigate criteria to relate specifications and implementations belonging to conceptually different levels of abstraction. For this purpose, we introduce the generic concept of a vertical implementation relation, which is a family of binary relations indexed by a refinement function that maps

  18. Robust Hydrological Forecasting for High-resolution Distributed Models Using a Unified Data Assimilation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, F.; Liang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Reliable real-time hydrological forecasting, to predict important phenomena such as floods, is invaluable to the society. However, modern high-resolution distributed models have faced challenges when dealing with uncertainties that are caused by the large number of parameters and initial state estimations involved. Therefore, to rely on these high-resolution models for critical real-time forecast applications, considerable improvements on the parameter and initial state estimation techniques must be made. In this work we present a unified data assimilation algorithm called Optimized PareTo Inverse Modeling through Inverse STochastic Search (OPTIMISTS) to deal with the challenge of having robust flood forecasting for high-resolution distributed models. This new algorithm combines the advantages of particle filters and variational methods in a unique way to overcome their individual weaknesses. The analysis of candidate particles compares model results with observations in a flexible time frame, and a multi-objective approach is proposed which attempts to simultaneously minimize differences with the observations and departures from the background states by using both Bayesian sampling and non-convex evolutionary optimization. Moreover, the resulting Pareto front is given a probabilistic interpretation through kernel density estimation to create a non-Gaussian distribution of the states. OPTIMISTS was tested on a low-resolution distributed land surface model using VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) and on a high-resolution distributed hydrological model using the DHSVM (Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model). In the tests streamflow observations are assimilated. OPTIMISTS was also compared with a traditional particle filter and a variational method. Results show that our method can reliably produce adequate forecasts and that it is able to outperform those resulting from assimilating the observations using a particle filter or an evolutionary 4D variational

  19. A one-dimensional model of vertical stratification of Lake Shira focussed on winter conditions and ice cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genova, S.N.; Belolipetsky, V.M.; Rogozin, D.Y.; Degermendzhy, A.G.; Mooij, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    In meromictic lakes such as Lake Shira, horizontal inhomogeneity is small in comparison with vertical gradients. To determine the vertical distribution of temperature, salinity, and density of water in a deep zone of a Lake Shira, or other saline lakes, a one-dimensional (in vertical direction)

  20. Peristaltic biofluids flow through vertical porous human vessels using third-grade non-Newtonian fluids model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Pooria

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the heat and flow characteristic of third-grade non-Newtonian biofluids flow through a vertical porous human vessel due to peristaltic wall motion are studied. The third-grade model can describe shear thinning (or shear thickening) and normal stress differences, which is acceptable for biofluids modeling. In order to solve the governing equations, the assumption of long-wavelength approximation is utilized. This hypothesis emphasizes that the wavelength of the peristaltic wall motion is large in comparison with the radius of the human vessel, which is widely acceptable in biological investigations. The analytical perturbation method is employed to solve the governing equations. Consequently, analytical expressions for the velocity profile, shear stress, temperature field, and biofluid flow rate are obtained. In addition, the effects of the governing parameters such as the third-grade non-Newtonian parameter, Grashof Number, Eckert number, and porosity, on the results are examined.

  1. Requirements analysis and data model design for the development of vertical ERP solutions for the ceramic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltra-Badenes, R. F.; Gil-Gomez, H.; Bellver-Lopez, R.; Asensio-Cuenta, S.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the existing information systems, and specifically the ERP, can not give adequate support to the management of manufacturing companies of ceramic tile, because, among other reasons, not to contemplate the existence of tone, size and quality within the same product. This feature, caused by the lack of homogeneity of the product (LHP), generates various problems in managing the product through the different business processes, such as, stocks management, order management, the production management, etc. Thus, it is necessary to develop an ERP solution that is able to manage adequately the ceramic product, including tone, size and quality. In this paper we analyze the requirements of the ceramic sector, in terms of product identification, and propose a data model to meet these requirements. The model arises as a basic guide for the development of vertical ERP solutions tailored to the ceramic industry. (Author)

  2. The southern high-resolution modeling consortium - a source for research and operational collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Achtemeier; Scott L. Goodrick; Yongqiang Liu

    2003-01-01

    The Southern High-Resolution Modeling Consortium (SHRMC) is one of five regional Fire Consortia for Advanced Modeling of Meteorology and Smoke (FCAMMS) consortia established as part of the National Fire Plan. FCAMMS involves research and development activities collaborating across all land management agencies, NOAA, NASA, and Universities. These activities will support...

  3. Impact of climate change on river flooding assessed with different spatial model resolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Martijn J.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of climate change on flooding in the river Meuse is assessed on a daily basis using spatially and temporally changed climate patterns and a hydrological model with three different spatial resolutions. This is achieved by selecting a hydrological modelling framework and implementing

  4. An object model for genome information at all levels of resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, S.; Parrott, N.W.; Smith, R.; Lawrence, C.

    1993-12-31

    An object model for genome data at all levels of resolution is described. The model was derived by considering the requirements for representing genome related objects in three application domains: genome maps, large-scale DNA sequencing, and exploring functional information in gene and protein sequences. The methodology used for the object-oriented analysis is also described.

  5. Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B. [Chalk River Laboratories (Canada); Unrau, D. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} {kappa}-{epsilon} transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels.

  6. Regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection - Part 1: The participatory modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Dirk; Konrad, Wilfried; Class, Holger; Kissinger, Alexander; Knopf, Stefan; Noack, Vera

    2017-06-01

    Saltwater intrusion into potential drinking water aquifers due to the injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the potential hazards associated with the geological storage of CO2. Thus, in a site selection process, models for predicting the fate of the displaced brine are required, for example, for a risk assessment or the optimization of pressure management concepts. From the very beginning, this research on brine migration aimed at involving expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessment in simulating the impacts of injecting CO2 into deep saline aquifers by means of a participatory modeling process. The involvement exercise made use of two approaches. First, guideline-based interviews were carried out, aiming at eliciting expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessments of geological structures and mechanisms affecting CO2-induced brine migration. Second, a stakeholder workshop including the World Café format yielded evaluations and judgments of the numerical modeling approach, scenario selection, and preliminary simulation results. The participatory modeling approach gained several results covering brine migration in general, the geological model sketch, scenario development, and the review of the preliminary simulation results. These results were included in revised versions of both the geological model and the numerical model, helping to improve the analysis of regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection.

  7. Regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection – Part 1: The participatory modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Scheer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saltwater intrusion into potential drinking water aquifers due to the injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the potential hazards associated with the geological storage of CO2. Thus, in a site selection process, models for predicting the fate of the displaced brine are required, for example, for a risk assessment or the optimization of pressure management concepts. From the very beginning, this research on brine migration aimed at involving expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessment in simulating the impacts of injecting CO2 into deep saline aquifers by means of a participatory modeling process. The involvement exercise made use of two approaches. First, guideline-based interviews were carried out, aiming at eliciting expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessments of geological structures and mechanisms affecting CO2-induced brine migration. Second, a stakeholder workshop including the World Café format yielded evaluations and judgments of the numerical modeling approach, scenario selection, and preliminary simulation results. The participatory modeling approach gained several results covering brine migration in general, the geological model sketch, scenario development, and the review of the preliminary simulation results. These results were included in revised versions of both the geological model and the numerical model, helping to improve the analysis of regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection.

  8. Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B.; Unrau, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the open-quotes standardclose quotes κ-ε transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels

  9. Improved vertical displacements induced by a refined thermal expansion model and its quantitative analysis in GPS height time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaihua; Chen, Hua; Jiang, Weiping; Li, Zhao; Ma, Yifang; Deng, Liansheng

    2018-04-01

    There are apparent seasonal variations in GPS height time series, and thermal expansion is considered to be one of the potential geophysical contributors. The displacements introduced by thermal expansion are usually derived without considering the annex height and underground part of the monument (e.g. located on roof or top of the buildings), which may bias the geophysical explanation of the seasonal oscillation. In this paper, the improved vertical displacements are derived by a refined thermal expansion model where the annex height and underground depth of the monument are taken into account, and then 560 IGS stations are adopted to validate the modeled thermal expansion (MTE) displacements. In order to evaluate the impact of thermal expansion on GPS heights, the MTE displacements of 80 IGS stations with less data discontinuities are selected to compare with their observed GPS vertical (OGV) displacements with the modeled surface loading (MSL) displacements removed in advance. Quantitative analysis results show the maximum annual and semiannual amplitudes of the MTE are 6.65 mm (NOVJ) and 0.51 mm (IISC), respectively, and the maximum peak-to-peak oscillation of the MTE displacements can be 19.4 mm. The average annual amplitude reductions are 0.75 mm and 1.05 mm respectively after removing the MTE and MSL displacements from the OGV, indicating the seasonal oscillation induced by thermal expansion is equivalent to >75% of the impact of surface loadings. However, there are rarely significant reductions for the semiannual amplitude. Given the result in this study that thermal expansion can explain 17.3% of the annual amplitude in GPS heights on average, it must be precisely modeled both in GPS precise data processing and GPS time series analysis, especially for those stations located in the middle and high latitudes with larger annual temperature oscillation, or stations with higher monument.

  10. Brief communication: On the influence of vertical wind shear on the combined power output of two model wind turbines in yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schottler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vertical wind shear on the total power output of two aligned model wind turbines as a function of yaw misalignment of the upstream turbine is studied experimentally. It is shown that asymmetries of the power output of the downstream turbine and the combined power of both with respect to the upstream turbine's yaw misalignment angle can be linked to the vertical wind shear of the inflow.

  11. Modeling Sediment Transport Using a Lagrangian Particle Tracking Algorithm Coupled with High-Resolution Large Eddy Simulations: a Critical Analysis of Model Limits and Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling Sediment Transport Using a Lagrangian Particle Tracking Algorithm Coupled with High-Resolution Large Eddy Simulations: a Critical Analysis of Model Limits and Sensitivity Som Dutta1, Paul Fischer2, Marcelo H. Garcia11Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Il, 61801 2Department of Computer Science and Department of MechSE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Il, 61801 Since the seminal work of Niño and Garcia [1994], one-way coupled Lagrangian particle tracking has been used extensively for modeling sediment transport. Over time, the Lagrangian particle tracking method has been coupled with Eulerian flow simulations, ranging from Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based models to Detached Eddy Simulations (DES) [Escauriaza and Sotiropoulos, 2011]. Advent of high performance computing (HPC) platforms and faster algorithms have resulted in the work of Dutta et al. [2016], where Lagrangian particle tracking was coupled with high-resolution Large Eddy Simulations (LES) to model the complex and highly non-linear phenomenon of Bulle-Effect at diversions. Despite all the advancements in using Lagrangian particle tracking, there has not been a study that looks in detail at the limits of the model in the context of sediment transport, and also analyzes the sensitivity of the various force formulation in the force balance equation of the particles. Niño and Garcia [1994] did a similar analysis, but the vertical flow velocity distribution was modeled as the log-law. The current study extends the analysis by modeling the flow using high-resolution LES at a Reynolds number comparable to experiments of Niño et al. [1994]. Dutta et al., (2016), Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of flow and bedload transport at an idealized 90-degree diversion: insight into Bulle-Effect, River Flow 2016 - Constantinescu, Garcia & Hanes (Eds), Taylor & Francis Group, London, 101-109. Escauriaza and Sotiropoulos

  12. Clinical outcome and vertical transmission variability among canine Neospora caninum isolates in a pregnant mouse model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellarupe, Andrea; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Jiménez-Ruiz, Elena; Schares, Gereon; Unzaga, Juan Manuel; Venturini, María Cecilia; Ortega-Mora, Luis M

    2014-03-01

    We compared the clinical outcome and vertical transmission of six canine Neospora caninum isolates using a pregnant BALB/c model. Four of the isolates were obtained from oocysts of naturally infected dogs (Nc-Ger2, Nc-Ger3, Nc-Ger6 and Nc-6Arg) and two were from diseased dogs with neurological signs (Nc-Bahia and Nc-Liv). The dams were inoculated with 2×106 tachyzoites of each isolate at day 7 of pregnancy. Morbidity, mortality and the antibody responses were evaluated in both the dams and the offspring, as was parasite transmission to the progeny. The mortality rates varied from 100% in Nc-Bahia and Nc-Liv-infected pups to 19% or less for those infected with the isolates from oocysts. The vertical transmission rates varied from 9 to 53% for N. caninum from oocysts, compared with 100% for the Nc-Liv and Nc-Bahia isolates. All dams showed specific IgG responses against tachyzoite and rNc-GRA7 antigens, confirming Neospora infection. The highest IgG levels were detected in mice inoculated with the Nc-Liv and Nc-Bahia isolates. These results demonstrate marked differences in virulence between the N. caninum isolates obtained from oocysts and neurologically affected dogs. This variability could help us to explain the differences in the outcome of the infection in definitive and intermediate hosts.

  13. An Interval-Parameter Fuzzy Linear Programming with Stochastic Vertices Model for Water Resources Management under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An interval-parameter fuzzy linear programming with stochastic vertices (IFLPSV method is developed for water resources management under uncertainty by coupling interval-parameter fuzzy linear programming (IFLP with stochastic programming (SP. As an extension of existing interval parameter fuzzy linear programming, the developed IFLPSV approach has advantages in dealing with dual uncertainty optimization problems, which uncertainty presents as interval parameter with stochastic vertices in both of the objective functions and constraints. The developed IFLPSV method improves upon the IFLP method by allowing dual uncertainty parameters to be incorporated into the optimization processes. A hybrid intelligent algorithm based on genetic algorithm and artificial neural network is used to solve the developed model. The developed method is then applied to water resources allocation in Beijing city of China in 2020, where water resources shortage is a challenging issue. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been obtained, which are helpful and useful for decision makers. Although the amount of water supply from Guanting and Miyun reservoirs is declining with rainfall reduction, water supply from the South-to-North Water Transfer project will have important impact on water supply structure of Beijing city, particularly in dry year and extraordinary dry year.

  14. The impact of resolving the Rossby radius at mid-latitudes in the ocean: results from a high-resolution version of the Met Office GC2 coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Helene T.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Hyder, Pat; Graham, Tim; Rae, Jamie; Belcher, Stephen E.; Bourdallé-Badie, Romain; Copsey, Dan; Coward, Andrew; Guiavarch, Catherine; Harris, Chris; Hill, Richard; Hirschi, Joël J.-M.; Madec, Gurvan; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Neininger, Erica; New, Adrian L.; Rioual, Jean-Christophe; Sinha, Bablu; Storkey, David; Shelly, Ann; Thorpe, Livia; Wood, Richard A.

    2016-10-01

    There is mounting evidence that resolving mesoscale eddies and western boundary currents as well as topographically controlled flows can play an important role in air-sea interaction associated with vertical and lateral transports of heat and salt. Here we describe the development of the Met Office Global Coupled Model version 2 (GC2) with increased resolution relative to the standard model: the ocean resolution is increased from 1/4 to 1/12° (28 to 9 km at the Equator), the atmosphere resolution increased from 60 km (N216) to 25 km (N512) and the coupling period reduced from 3 hourly to hourly. The technical developments that were required to build a version of the model at higher resolution are described as well as results from a 20-year simulation. The results demonstrate the key role played by the enhanced resolution of the ocean model: reduced sea surface temperature (SST) biases, improved ocean heat transports, deeper and stronger overturning circulation and a stronger Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Our results suggest that the improvements seen here require high resolution in both atmosphere and ocean components as well as high-frequency coupling. These results add to the body of evidence suggesting that ocean resolution is an important consideration when developing coupled models for weather and climate applications.

  15. A Nonlinear Model of Mix Coil Spring – Rubber for Vertical Suspension of Railway Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Mădălina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a nonlinear model to represent the mechanical behaviour of a mix coil spring - rubber used in the secondary suspension of passenger rail vehicles. The principle of the model relies on overlapping of the forces corresponding to three components - the elastic component, the viscous component and the dry friction component. The model has two sources on non-linearity, in the elastic force and the friction force, respectively. The main attributes of the model are made visible by its response to an imposed displacement-type harmonic excitation. The results thus obtained from the applications of numerical simulation show a series of basic properties of the model, namely the dependence on amplitude and the excitation frequency of the model response, as well as of its stiffness and damping.

  16. Comparison of Satellite NO2 Observations with High Resolution Model Simulations over the Balkan Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyrichidou, I.; Koukouli, M. E.; Balis, D. S.; Katragkou, E.; Poupkou, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Markakis, K.; Melas, D.; van der A., R.; Boersma, F. K.; Roozendael, M. van

    2010-01-01

    High resolution model estimations of tropospheric NO 2 column amounts from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) were simulated for the Balkan Peninsula and were compared with satellite data for a period of one year, in order to study the characteristics of the spatial and temporal variability of pollution in the area. The Balkan area is considered a crossroad of different pollution sources and therefore has been divided in urban, industrial and rural regions, aiming to investigate the consistency of satellite retrievals and model predictions at high spatial resolution. Satellite measurements of tropospheric NO 2 are available daily at 13:30 LT since 2004 from OMI/Aura with a resolution of 13x24 km. The anthropogenic emissions used in CAMx for the domain under study, was compiled employing bottom-up approaches (road transport sector, off-road machinery) as well as other national registries and international databases. High resolution GIS maps (road network, landuses, population) were also used in order to achieve high spatial resolution. In most of the cases the model reveals similar spatial patterns with the satellite data, while over certain areas discrepancies were found and investigated.

  17. Simulating the Agulhas system in global ocean models - nesting vs. multi-resolution unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biastoch, Arne; Sein, Dmitry; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Wang, Qiang; Danilov, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Many questions in ocean and climate modelling require the combined use of high resolution, global coverage and multi-decadal integration length. For this combination, even modern resources limit the use of traditional structured-mesh grids. Here we compare two approaches: A high-resolution grid nested into a global model at coarser resolution (NEMO with AGRIF) and an unstructured-mesh grid (FESOM) which allows to variably enhance resolution where desired. The Agulhas system around South Africa is used as a testcase, providing an energetic interplay of a strong western boundary current and mesoscale dynamics. Its open setting into the horizontal and global overturning circulations also requires global coverage. Both model configurations simulate a reasonable large-scale circulation. Distribution and temporal variability of the wind-driven circulation are quite comparable due to the same atmospheric forcing. However, the overturning circulation differs, owing each model's ability to represent formation and spreading of deep water masses. In terms of regional, high-resolution dynamics, all elements of the Agulhas system are well represented. Owing to the strong nonlinearity in the system, Agulhas Current transports of both configurations and in comparison with observations differ in strength and temporal variability. Similar decadal trends in Agulhas Current transport and Agulhas leakage are linked to the trends in wind forcing.

  18. Analytical model of SiPM time resolution and order statistics with crosstalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, S., E-mail: Sergey.Vinogradov@liverpool.ac.uk [University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Leninskiy Prospekt 53, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Time resolution is the most important parameter of photon detectors in a wide range of time-of-flight and time correlation applications within the areas of high energy physics, medical imaging, and others. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) have been initially recognized as perfect photon-number-resolving detectors; now they also provide outstanding results in the scintillator timing resolution. However, crosstalk and afterpulsing introduce false secondary non-Poissonian events, and SiPM time resolution models are experiencing significant difficulties with that. This study presents an attempt to develop an analytical model of the timing resolution of an SiPM taking into account statistics of secondary events resulting from a crosstalk. Two approaches have been utilized to derive an analytical expression for time resolution: the first one based on statistics of independent identically distributed detection event times and the second one based on order statistics of these times. The first approach is found to be more straightforward and “analytical-friendly” to model analog SiPMs. Comparisons of coincidence resolving times predicted by the model with the known experimental results from a LYSO:Ce scintillator and a Hamamatsu MPPC are presented.

  19. Analytical model of SiPM time resolution and order statistics with crosstalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Time resolution is the most important parameter of photon detectors in a wide range of time-of-flight and time correlation applications within the areas of high energy physics, medical imaging, and others. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) have been initially recognized as perfect photon-number-resolving detectors; now they also provide outstanding results in the scintillator timing resolution. However, crosstalk and afterpulsing introduce false secondary non-Poissonian events, and SiPM time resolution models are experiencing significant difficulties with that. This study presents an attempt to develop an analytical model of the timing resolution of an SiPM taking into account statistics of secondary events resulting from a crosstalk. Two approaches have been utilized to derive an analytical expression for time resolution: the first one based on statistics of independent identically distributed detection event times and the second one based on order statistics of these times. The first approach is found to be more straightforward and “analytical-friendly” to model analog SiPMs. Comparisons of coincidence resolving times predicted by the model with the known experimental results from a LYSO:Ce scintillator and a Hamamatsu MPPC are presented

  20. Can Low-Resolution Airborne Laser Scanning Data Be Used to Model Stream Rating Curves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. Lyon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study explores the potential of using low-resolution (0.2 points/m2 airborne laser scanning (ALS-derived elevation data to model stream rating curves. Rating curves, which allow the functional translation of stream water depth into discharge, making them integral to water resource monitoring efforts, were modeled using a physics-based approach that captures basic geometric measurements to establish flow resistance due to implicit channel roughness. We tested synthetically thinned high-resolution (more than 2 points/m2 ALS data as a proxy for low-resolution data at a point density equivalent to that obtained within most national-scale ALS strategies. Our results show that the errors incurred due to the effect of low-resolution versus high-resolution ALS data were less than those due to flow measurement and empirical rating curve fitting uncertainties. As such, although there likely are scale and technical limitations to consider, it is theoretically possible to generate rating curves in a river network from ALS data of the resolution anticipated within national-scale ALS schemes (at least for rivers with relatively simple geometries. This is promising, since generating rating curves from ALS scans would greatly enhance our ability to monitor streamflow by simplifying the overall effort required.

  1. Toward a Unified Representation of Atmospheric Convection in Variable-Resolution Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walko, Robert [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this project was to improve the representation of convection in atmospheric weather and climate models that employ computational grids with spatially-variable resolution. Specifically, our work targeted models whose grids are fine enough over selected regions that convection is resolved explicitly, while over other regions the grid is coarser and convection is represented as a subgrid-scale process. The working criterion for a successful scheme for representing convection over this range of grid resolution was that identical convective environments must produce very similar convective responses (i.e., the same precipitation amount, rate, and timing, and the same modification of the atmospheric profile) regardless of grid scale. The need for such a convective scheme has increased in recent years as more global weather and climate models have adopted variable resolution meshes that are often extended into the range of resolving convection in selected locations.

  2. High resolution climate simulations with the AWI Climate Model (AWI-CM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Dmitry; Semmler, Tido; Danilov, Sergey; Rackow, Thomas; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Jung, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The ocean component of AWI-CM (FESOM) uses unstructured meshes, which allows the use of variable resolutions without traditional nesting. Due to the flexibility of unstructured meshes, one needs to carefully design meshes so that the variable resolution can most efficiently improve the simulated results with the least possible computational cost. We propose a new approach to set up variable resolution, which uses the satellite-observed sea surface height variability to determine the regions where high resolution should be assigned. This approach is verified using both idealized experiments and ocean simulations. It will also become one of the standard mesh design methods for general FESOM users. The added value of the use of the high resolution ocean model is demonstrated by two different FESOM ocean setups (LR and HR) coupled with the atmospheric model ECHAM6. LR (low resolution) employs a coarse mesh with nominal resolution of about 100 km in the global ocean, about 25 km north of 50°N, about 35 km in the equatorial band, and moderate refinement along the coasts. HR (high resolution) uses a locally eddy-resolving mesh. Its design relies on the AVISO satellite altimetry product. The coarsest resolution on this mesh is set to 60 km, and the finest resolution is 10 km. The refinement was determined by a low-pass filtered SSH variance (SSHV) pattern derived from the AVISO data. Fine resolution is obtained in regions with high SSHV, including the pathways of main currents - the Gulf Stream, Kuroshio, Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and Agulhas Current. The HR mesh contains about 1.3 million surface grid nodes, which is close to the number of nodes on a 1/4° Mercator mesh (only wet nodes are dealt with on unstructured meshes). This mesh size ensures reasonably fast simulations with available computational resources. The AWI-CM simulations with the two global ocean setups were carried out in the framework of the PRIMAVERA EU project according to the High

  3. A SYSTEM DYNAMICS-BASED CONFLICT RESOLUTION MODEL FOR RIVER WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karamouz, M. Akhbari, A. Moridi, R. Kerachian

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available System dynamics approach by simulating a bargaining process can be used for resolving conflict of interests in water quality management. This approach can be a powerful alternative for traditional approaches for conflict resolution, which often rely on classical game theory. Waste load allocation models for river water quality management determine the optimal monthly waste load allocation to each point load. Most of these approaches are based on the multi-objective optimization models and do not consider the existing conflicts. In this study, a system dynamics-based conflict resolution model is presented for monthly waste load allocation in river systems. In this model, the stakeholders and decision-makers negotiate with each other considering their relative authorities, aspirations and dissatisfactions. System dynamics approach is actually used for simulating the bargaining process among the players. The model incorporates the objectives and preferences of stakeholders and decision-makers of the system in the form of utility functions and could provide a final agreement among the players. To evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of the concentration of the water quality indicator in the system, a water quality simulation model is also linked to the conflict resolution model. In the proposed model, a pre-assigned utility is allocated to different water users and the results are evaluated using a simulation model. The allocated utilities are tested and adjusted in order to provide an agreement between the assumed utilities and the utilities assigned by the model. The proposed model is applied to the Karkheh River system located in the southwest of Iran. The results show that the model can effectively incorporate the preferences of the players in providing a final agreement and the runtime of the proposed model is much less than the classical conflict resolution models. It is also shown that the waste load allocation can significantly reduce

  4. Tradeoffs of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers modeling for the development of driver circuits in short distance optical links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialm, Gion; Erni, Daniel; Vez, Dominique; Kromer, Christian; Ellinger, Frank; Bona, Gian-Luca; Morf, Thomas; Jäckel, Heinz

    2005-10-01

    In short-distance optical links, the development of driving circuits for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) requires precise and computationally efficient VCSEL models. A small-signal model of a VCSEL is computationally efficient and simple to implement; however, it does not take into account the nonlinear output behavior of the VCSEL. In contrast, VCSEL models that are highly based on first principles cannot be implemented in standard circuit device simulators, because the simulation of eye diagrams becomes too time consuming. We present another approach using VCSEL models, which are based on the 1-D rate equations. Our analysis shows that they combine efficient extraction and short simulation time with an accurate calculation of eye diagrams over a wide range of ambient temperatures. As different implementations of the rate equations exist, tradeoffs between three different versions are presented and compared with measured GaAs oxide-confined VCSELs. The first model has a linear and the second a logarithmic function of the gain versus the carrier density. The third model considers the additional transport time for carriers to reach the active region with quantum wells. For parameter extraction, a minimum set of parameters is identified, which can be determined from fundamental measurements.

  5. Prompt signals and displaced vertices in sparticle searches for next-to-minimal gauge-mediated supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allanach, B.C. [University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Badziak, Marcin [University of Warsaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cottin, Giovanna [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Desai, Nishita [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Hugonie, Cyril [LUPM, UMR 5299, CNRS, Universite de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Ziegler, Robert [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France)

    2016-09-15

    We study the LHC phenomenology of the next-to-minimal model of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, both for Run I and Run II. The Higgs phenomenology of the model is consistent with observations: a 125 GeV standard model-like Higgs which mixes with singlet-like state of mass around 90 GeV that provides a 2σ excess at LEP II. The model possesses regions of parameter space where a longer-lived lightest neutralino decays in the detector into a gravitino and a b-jet pair or a tau pair resulting in potential displaced vertex signatures. We investigate current bounds on sparticle masses and the discovery potential of the model, both via conventional searches and via searches for displaced vertices. The searches based on promptly decaying sparticles currently give a lower limit on the gluino mass 1080 GeV and could be sensitive up to 1900 GeV with 100 fb{sup -1}, whereas the current displaced vertex searches cannot probe this model due to b-quarks in the final state. We show how the displaced vertex cuts might be relaxed in order to improve signal efficiency, while simultaneously applied prompt cuts reduce background, resulting in a much better sensitivity than either strategy alone and motivating a fully fledged experimental study. (orig.)

  6. Implementation and application of the actuator line model by OpenFOAM for a vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, L.; Giljarhus, K.-E.; Hjertager, B.; Kalvig, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    University of Stavanger has started The Smart Sustainable Campus & Energy Lab project, to gain knowledge and facilitate project based education in the field of renewable and sustainable energy and increase the research effort in the same area. This project includes the future installation of a vertical axis wind turbine on the campus roof. A newly developed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model by OpenFOAM have been implemented to study the wind behavior over the building and the turbine performance. The online available wind turbine model case from Bachant, Goude and Wosnik from 2016 is used as the starting point. This is a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) case set up that uses the Actuator Line Model. The available test case considers a water tank with controlled external parameters. Bachant et al.’s model has been modified to study a VAWT in the atmospheric boundary layer. Various simulations have been performed trying to verify the models use and suitability. Simulation outcomes help to understand the impact of the surroundings on the turbine as well as its reaction to parameters changes. The developed model can be used for wind energy and flow simulations for both onshore and offshore applications.

  7. A vertically integrated eutrophication model and its application to a river-style reservoir--Fuchunjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingfeng; Luo, Liancong; Qin, Boqiang; Cui, Guangbai; Yu, Zuoming; Yao, Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    Based on a 2-D hydrodynamic model, a vertically integrated eutrophication model was developed. The physical sub-model can be used for calculation of water density at different depths, and the water quality sub-model was used for calculation of algal growth. The cohesive and non-cohesive sediments were simulated separately with different methods. The light extinction coefficient used in the underwater light regime sub-model was linearly related to the sum of sediment and phytoplankton biomass. Some components less important to the model were simplified to improve practicability and calculation efficiency. Using field data from Fuchunjiang Reservoir, we calculated the sensitivity of ecological parameters included in this model and validated the model. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that the parameters strongly influenced the phytoplankton biomass, including phytoplankton maximum growth rate, respiration rate, non-predatory mortality rate, settling rate, zooplankton maximum filtration rate, specific extinction coefficient for suspended solids and sediment oxygen demand rate. The model was calibrated by adjusting these parameters. Total chlorophyll a (chl-a) concentrations at different layers in the water column were reproduced very well by the model simulations. The simulated chl-a values were positively correlated to the measured values with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.92. The mean difference between measured and simulated chl-a concentrations was 12% of the measured chl-a concentration. Measured and simulated DO concentrations were also positively correlated (r = 0.74) and the mean difference was 4% of measured DO concentrations. The successful validation of model indicated that it would be very useful in water quality management and algal bloom prediction in Fuchunjiang Reservoir and a good tool for water quality regulation of other river-style reservoirs.

  8. High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0 for CMIP6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Haarsma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Robust projections and predictions of climate variability and change, particularly at regional scales, rely on the driving processes being represented with fidelity in model simulations. The role of enhanced horizontal resolution in improved process representation in all components of the climate system is of growing interest, particularly as some recent simulations suggest both the possibility of significant changes in large-scale aspects of circulation as well as improvements in small-scale processes and extremes. However, such high-resolution global simulations at climate timescales, with resolutions of at least 50 km in the atmosphere and 0.25° in the ocean, have been performed at relatively few research centres and generally without overall coordination, primarily due to their computational cost. Assessing the robustness of the response of simulated climate to model resolution requires a large multi-model ensemble using a coordinated set of experiments. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6 is the ideal framework within which to conduct such a study, due to the strong link to models being developed for the CMIP DECK experiments and other model intercomparison projects (MIPs. Increases in high-performance computing (HPC resources, as well as the revised experimental design for CMIP6, now enable a detailed investigation of the impact of increased resolution up to synoptic weather scales on the simulated mean climate and its variability. The High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP presented in this paper applies, for the first time, a multi-model approach to the systematic investigation of the impact of horizontal resolution. A coordinated set of experiments has been designed to assess both a standard and an enhanced horizontal-resolution simulation in the atmosphere and ocean. The set of HighResMIP experiments is divided into three tiers consisting of atmosphere-only and coupled runs and spanning the period

  9. Spatiotemporal variation of vertical particle fluxes and modelled chlorophyll a standing stocks in the Benguela Upwelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorrath, Maria-Elena; Lahajnar, Niko; Fischer, Gerhard; Libuku, Viktor Miti; Schmidt, Martin; Emeis, Kay-Christian

    2018-04-01

    Marine particle fluxes from high productive coastal upwelling systems return upwelled CO2 and nutrients to the deep ocean and sediments and have a substantial impact on the global carbon cycle. This study examines relations between production regimes on the shelf and over the continental margin of the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) in the SE Atlantic Ocean. Data of composition and timing of vertical particle flux come from sediment trap time series (deployed intermittently between 1988 and 2014) in the regions Walvis Ridge, Walvis Bay, Luederitz and Orange River. We compare their seasonal variability to modelled patterns of chlorophyll concentrations in a 3-D ecosystem model. Both modelled seasonal chlorophyll a standing stocks and sampled particle flux patterns are highly correspondent with a bimodal seasonal cycle offshore the BUS. The material in the particle flux in offshore traps is dominantly carbonate (40-70%), and flux peaks in offshore particle flux originate from two independent events: in austral autumn thermocline shoaling and vertical mixing are decoupled from coastal upwelling, while fluxes in spring coincide with the upwelling season, indicated by slightly elevated biogenic opal values at some locations. Coastal particle fluxes are characterized by a trimodal pattern and are dominated by biogenic opal (22-35%) and organic matter (30-60%). The distinct seasonality in observed fluxes on the shelf is caused by high variability in production, sinking behaviour, wind stress, and hydrodynamic processes. We speculate that global warming will increase ocean stratification and alter coastal upwelling, so that consequences for primary production and particle flux in the BUS are inevitable.

  10. Simulating high ebb currents in the North Passage of the Yangtze estuary using a vertical 1-D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyang; Shen, Xiaoteng; Maa, Jerome P.-Y.; Shen, Jian

    2017-09-01

    A strong maximum ebb current (>3 m/s) in the upper water column was observed at Station CS3 in the middle of the North Passage of the Yangtze River Estuary during the wet season, which was higher than either its upstream or downstream counterparts. To better understand the mechanisms and factors causing the strong ebb current, a vertical one-dimensional (1-D) model was used to conduct a diagnostic study. The model used time series of observed tidal amplitudes, vertical salinity, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) profiles to compute the density and turbulence. Two tunable parameters, the tidal amplitude attenuation coefficient (i.e., the phase lag) and the background surface pressure gradient that represents the net pressure gradient induced by the freshwater discharge and baroclinic effect, were used to determine the best match with the observed high velocity amplitudes in addition to the bottom roughness height. Three hypotheses of possible causes are tested: (1) the large freshwater discharge, (2) the bottom stratification effects (which were caused by a possible high near-bed suspended sediment gradient), and (3) the unique location of the CS3 station that was influenced by local geometry. The findings show that neither of the first two factors has much influence on the pronounced ebb velocities. Instead, the energy loss caused by the change of channel geometry and a maximum convex bathymetry in the North Passage of the Yangtze River Estuary are the main reasons behind the extremely high observed ebb current velocity profiles. The high near-bottom SSC and gradient located within 0.5 m above the bed only slightly alters the velocity profiles. This 1-D model is convenient for testing a different hypothesis and for coupling with other selected variables to account for the floc size distributions in future studies.

  11. Vertical Photographs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes of photographs of marine mammals and sea turtles taken with high resolution cameras mounted in airplanes, unmanned platforms or the bow of...

  12. A New Approach for Modeling Darrieus-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Rotors Using Electrical Equivalent Circuit Analogy: Basis of Theoretical Formulations and Model Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Tchakoua

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Models are crucial in the engineering design process because they can be used for both the optimization of design parameters and the prediction of performance. Thus, models can significantly reduce design, development and optimization costs. This paper proposes a novel equivalent electrical model for Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines (DTVAWTs. The proposed model was built from the mechanical description given by the Paraschivoiu double-multiple streamtube model and is based on the analogy between mechanical and electrical circuits. This work addresses the physical concepts and theoretical formulations underpinning the development of the model. After highlighting the working principle of the DTVAWT, the step-by-step development of the model is presented. For assessment purposes, simulations of aerodynamic characteristics and those of corresponding electrical components are performed and compared.

  13. Gravitational attraction of a vertical pyramid model of flat top-and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different types of gravity models, like right rectangular prism, poly- gonal lamina and polyhedral models with constant and different depth-wise density functions have been used by several authors (Talwani and Ewing. 1960; Nagy 1966; Banerjee and Das Gupta 1977;. Chai and Hinze 1988; Garcıa-Abdeslem 1992, 2005;.

  14. A Method for Evaluation of Model-Generated Vertical Profiles of Meteorological Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    precipitable water vapor (PWV) forecasts for use by the Southern European Observatory, it presented Approved for public release; distribution...Language NOHRSC National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center NWP numerical weather prediction PWV Precipitable Water Vapor RAOB radiosonde...Model is used for longwave and the Dudhia scheme for shortwave. The Noah land surface model is used to represent land surface processes. The pre

  15. A Simple Model for the Vertical Transport of Reactive Species in the Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif; Lenschow, Donald H.; Gurarie, David

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a simple, steady-state, one-dimensional second-order closure model to obtain continuous profiles of turbulent fluxes and mean concentrations of non-conserved scalars in a convective boundary layer without shear. As a basic tool we first set up a model for conserved species with ...

  16. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  17. Last Glacial Maximum simulations over southern Africa using a variable-resolution global model: synoptic-scale verification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkoana, R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available the paleoclimate of the Cape south coast region of South Africa using high resolution regional climate modelling. The model used for this purpose is a variable-resolution global atmospheric model, the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM), which has been...

  18. What Controls the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol? Relationships Between Process Sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and Inter-Model Variation from AeroCom Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipling, Zak; Stier, Philip; Johnson, Colin E.; Mann, Graham W.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bergman, Tommi; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors in one particular model, we investigate the effects of individual processes in HadGEM3-UKCA and compare the resulting diversity of aerosol vertical profiles with the inter-model diversity from the AeroCom Phase II control experiment. In this way we show that (in this model at least) the vertical profile is controlled by a relatively small number of processes, although these vary among aerosol components and particle sizes. We also show that sufficiently coarse variations in these processes can produce a similar diversity to that among different models in terms of the global-mean profile and, to a lesser extent, the zonal-mean vertical position. However, there are features of certain models' profiles that cannot be reproduced, suggesting the influence of further structural differences between models. In HadGEM3-UKCA, convective transport is found to be very important in controlling the vertical profile of all aerosol components by mass. In-cloud scavenging is very important for all except mineral dust. Growth by condensation is important for sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol (along with aqueous oxidation for the former and ageing by soluble material for the latter). The vertical extent of biomass-burning emissions into the free troposphere is also important for the profile of carbonaceous aerosol. Boundary-layer mixing plays a dominant role for sea salt and mineral dust, which are emitted only from the surface. Dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are important for the profile of mineral dust only. In this model, the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation and coagulation dominate the vertical profile of the smallest particles by number (e.g. total CN >3 nm), while the profiles of larger particles (e.g. CN>100 nm) are controlled by the

  19. What model resolution is required in climatological downscaling over complex terrain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Samra, Renalda; Bou-Zeid, Elie; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2018-05-01

    This study presents results from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model applied for climatological downscaling simulations over highly complex terrain along the Eastern Mediterranean. We sequentially downscale general circulation model results, for a mild and wet year (2003) and a hot and dry year (2010), to three local horizontal resolutions of 9, 3 and 1 km. Simulated near-surface hydrometeorological variables are compared at different time scales against data from an observational network over the study area comprising rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. The overall performance of WRF at 1 and 3 km horizontal resolution was satisfactory, with significant improvement over the 9 km downscaling simulation. The total yearly precipitation from WRF's 1 km and 3 km domains exhibited Wind speeds, on the other hand, are generally overestimated for all model resolutions, in comparison with observational data, particularly on the coast (up to 50%) compared to inland stations (up to 40%). The findings therefore indicate that a 3 km resolution is sufficient for the downscaling, especially that it would allow more years and scenarios to be investigated compared to the higher 1 km resolution at the same computational effort. In addition, the results provide a quantitative measure of the potential errors for various hydrometeorological variables.

  20. High resolution transmission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for Jovian exoplanet atmospheres: constraints from theoretical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States); Perna, Rosalba [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Heng, Kevin, E-mail: kemptone@grinnell.edu [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-11-01

    We present high resolution transmission spectra of giant planet atmospheres from a coupled three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric dynamics and transmission spectrum model that includes Doppler shifts which arise from winds and planetary motion. We model Jovian planets covering more than two orders of magnitude in incident flux, corresponding to planets with 0.9-55 day orbital periods around solar-type stars. The results of our 3D dynamical models reveal certain aspects of high resolution transmission spectra that are not present in simple one-dimensional (1D) models. We find that the hottest planets experience strong substellar to anti-stellar (SSAS) winds, resulting in transmission spectra with net blueshifts of up to 3 km s{sup –1}, whereas less irradiated planets show almost no net Doppler shifts. We find only minor differences between transmission spectra for atmospheres with temperature inversions and those without. Compared to 1D models, peak line strengths are significantly reduced for the hottest atmospheres owing to Doppler broadening from a combination of rotation (which is faster for close-in planets under the assumption of tidal locking) and atmospheric winds. Finally, high resolution transmission spectra may be useful in studying the atmospheres of exoplanets with optically thick clouds since line cores for very strong transitions should remain optically thick to very high altitude. High resolution transmission spectra are an excellent observational test for the validity of 3D atmospheric dynamics models, because they provide a direct probe of wind structures and heat circulation. Ground-based exoplanet spectroscopy is currently on the verge of being able to verify some of our modeling predictions, most notably the dependence of SSAS winds on insolation. We caution that interpretation of high resolution transmission spectra based on 1D atmospheric models may be inadequate, as 3D atmospheric motions can produce a noticeable effect on the absorption

  1. Assessment of Turbulence Models for Isothermal Vertical-upward Bubbly Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, V. T.; Yun, B. J.; Song, C. H. [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, B. U.; Euh, D. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    EAGLE (Elaborated Analysis of Gas-Liquid Evolution) code was developed by KAERI for a multi-dimensional analysis of two-phase flow with the implementations of non-drag force, turbulence models, and the interfacial area transport equation. The code structure was based on the two-fluid model and the Simplified Marker And Cell (SMAC) algorithm was modified to be available for an isothermal bubbly two-phase flow simulation. In the Euler/Eulerian approach simulating bubbly flow, the influence of the bubbles on the turbulence of the liquid has to be modeled correctly since the liquid turbulence strongly influences the models describing bubble coalescence and bubble breakup in any interfacial area transport equation. In the present paper, two common concepts for modeling the influence of bubbles on liquid turbulence quantities implemented in k-{epsilon} turbulence model are described and analyzed. Simulation were done using EAGLE code and compared with gas volume fraction distributions and turbulence parameters obtained from experimental data of Hibiki et al (2001)

  2. Assessment of Turbulence Models for Isothermal Vertical-upward Bubbly Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, V. T.; Yun, B. J.; Song, C. H.; Bae, B. U.; Euh, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    EAGLE (Elaborated Analysis of Gas-Liquid Evolution) code was developed by KAERI for a multi-dimensional analysis of two-phase flow with the implementations of non-drag force, turbulence models, and the interfacial area transport equation. The code structure was based on the two-fluid model and the Simplified Marker And Cell (SMAC) algorithm was modified to be available for an isothermal bubbly two-phase flow simulation. In the Euler/Eulerian approach simulating bubbly flow, the influence of the bubbles on the turbulence of the liquid has to be modeled correctly since the liquid turbulence strongly influences the models describing bubble coalescence and bubble breakup in any interfacial area transport equation. In the present paper, two common concepts for modeling the influence of bubbles on liquid turbulence quantities implemented in k-ε turbulence model are described and analyzed. Simulation were done using EAGLE code and compared with gas volume fraction distributions and turbulence parameters obtained from experimental data of Hibiki et al (2001)

  3. Discrete symmetries, spectra, degeneracies, cross sections: a toy model with interactions centred at the vertices of Platonic solids