WorldWideScience

Sample records for model version includes

  1. Description of the new version 4.0 of the tritium model UFOTRI including user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.

    1993-08-01

    In view of the future operation of fusion reactors the release of tritium may play a dominant role during normal operation as well as after accidents. Because of its physical and chemical properties which differ significantly from those of other radionuclides, the model UFOTRI for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental tritium releases has been developed. It describes the behaviour of tritium in the biosphere and calculates the radiological impact on individuals and the population due to the direct exposure and by the ingestion pathways. Processes such as the conversion of tritium gas into tritiated water (HTO) in the soil, re-emission after deposition and the conversion of HTO into organically bound tritium, are considered. The use of UFOTRI in its probabilistic mode shows the spectrum of the radiological impact together with the associated probability of occurrence. A first model version was established in 1991. As the ongoing work on investigating the main processes of the tritium behaviour in the environment shows up new results, the model has been improved in several points. The report describes the changes incorporated into the model since 1991. Additionally provides the up-dated user guide for handling the revised UFOTRI version which will be distributed to interested organizations. (orig.) [de

  2. The Unified Extensional Versioning Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, U.; Bendix, Lars Gotfred; Christensen, H. B.

    1999-01-01

    Versioning of components in a system is a well-researched field where various adequate techniques have already been established. In this paper, we look at how versioning can be extended to cover also the structural aspects of a system. There exist two basic techniques for versioning - intentional...

  3. The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdlov Alexander V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of multiple, essentially complete genome sequences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes spurred both the demand and the opportunity for the construction of an evolutionary classification of genes from these genomes. Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies. Results We describe here a major update of the previously developed system for delineation of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs from the sequenced genomes of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes and the construction of clusters of predicted orthologs for 7 eukaryotic genomes, which we named KOGs after eukaryotic orthologous groups. The COG collection currently consists of 138,458 proteins, which form 4873 COGs and comprise 75% of the 185,505 (predicted proteins encoded in 66 genomes of unicellular organisms. The eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs include proteins from 7 eukaryotic genomes: three animals (the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, one plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the intracellular microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The current KOG set consists of 4852 clusters of orthologs, which include 59,838 proteins, or ~54% of the analyzed eukaryotic 110,655 gene products. Compared to the coverage of the prokaryotic genomes with COGs, a considerably smaller fraction of eukaryotic genes could be included into the KOGs; addition of new eukaryotic genomes is expected to result in substantial increase in the coverage of eukaryotic genomes with KOGs. Examination of the phyletic patterns of KOGs reveals a conserved core represented in all analyzed species and consisting of ~20% of the KOG set. This conserved portion of the

  4. Model-based version management system framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a model-based version management system. Version Management System (VMS) a branch of software configuration management (SCM) aims to provide a controlling mechanism for evolution of software artifacts created during software development process. Controlling the evolution requires many activities to perform, such as, construction and creation of versions, identification of differences between versions, conflict detection and merging. Traditional VMS systems are file-based and consider software systems as a set of text files. File based VMS systems are not adequate for performing software configuration management activities such as, version control on software artifacts produced in earlier phases of the software life cycle. New challenges of model differencing, merge, and evolution control arise while using models as central artifact. The goal of this work is to present a generic framework model-based VMS which can be used to overcome the problem of tradition file-based VMS systems and provide model versioning services. (author)

  5. Modeling report of DYMOND code (DUPIC version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yacout, Abdellatif M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Ilinois (United States)

    2003-04-01

    The DYMOND code employs the ITHINK dynamic modeling platform to assess the 100-year dynamic evolution scenarios for postulated global nuclear energy parks. Firstly, DYMOND code has been developed by ANL(Argonne National Laboratory) to perform the fuel cycle analysis of LWR once-through and LWR-FBR mixed plant. Since the extensive application of DYMOND code has been requested, the first version of DYMOND has been modified to adapt the DUPIC, MSR and RTF fuel cycle. DYMOND code is composed of three parts; the source language platform, input supply and output. But those platforms are not clearly distinguished. This report described all the equations which were modeled in the modified DYMOND code (which is called as DYMOND-DUPIC version). It divided into five parts;Part A deals model in reactor history which is included amount of the requested fuels and spent fuels. Part B aims to describe model of fuel cycle about fuel flow from the beginning to the end of fuel cycle. Part C is for model in re-processing which is included recovery of burned uranium, plutonium, minor actinide and fission product as well as the amount of spent fuels in storage and disposal. Part D is for model in other fuel cycle which is considered the thorium fuel cycle for MSR and RTF reactor. Part E is for model in economics. This part gives all the information of cost such as uranium mining cost, reactor operating cost, fuel cost etc.

  6. Industrial Waste Management Evaluation Model Version 3.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    IWEM is a screening level ground water model designed to simulate contaminant fate and transport. IWEM v3.1 is the latest version of the IWEM software, which includes additional tools to evaluate the beneficial use of industrial materials

  7. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    area identified in the feasibility study as favourable for further study. This rectangular area has now been designated the Forsmark regional model area. An important component of the present work is a data inventory, in which the location and scope of all potential sources of data is detailed and evaluated with respect to prospective usefulness for future site descriptive modelling for deep disposal. Data sources relevant to the Forsmark regional model area which still, to some degree, need to be evaluated/converted/inserted include the siting and construction of the three nuclear reactors (Forsmark 1-3), the feasibility study for an underground spent nuclear fuel interim storage facility at Forsmark, the pre-investigations and construction of the SFR, and the SAFE project. The present report describes the current level of knowledge of the surface ecosystems in the Forsmark regional model area, in a highly condensed form. It refers to, and draws its examples from, a series of SKB background reports which have been produced since the completion of the Oesthammar feasibility study, and a number of other sources of information which are gathered here for the first time. The data sources are outlined with reference to a series of functional ecosystem types: drainage areas, forest, wetland, agricultural land, lakes and rivers, and sea, each further subdivided into appropriate entities. A systematic approach has been used, even though, at the current level of knowledge, the information in many subdivisions is inadequate or lacking. The aims of biosphere studies within the site investigation programme are to define baseline (preconstruction) conditions, to provide the necessary data base for the environmental impact statement, and to contribute to the dose estimations in the safety analysis. The main emphasis of the report is on the preparation of a site descriptive model, version 0, for the geosphere, since data acquisition and processing in this area, in contrast to the

  8. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    During 2002, SKB is starting detailed investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Simpevarp, which lies in the municipality of Oskarshamn, on the southeast coast of Sweden, about 250 kilometres south of Stockholm. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. SKB maintains two main databases at the present time, a site characterisation database called SICADA and a geographic information system called SKB GIS. The site descriptive model will be developed and presented with the aid of the SKB GIS capabilities, and with SKBs Rock Visualisation System (RVS), which is also linked to SICADA. The version 0 model forms an important framework for subsequent model versions, which are developed successively, as new information from the site investigations becomes available. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. In the case of Simpevarp, this is essentially the information which was compiled for the Oskarshamn feasibility study, which led to the choice of that area as a favourable object for further study, together with information collected since its completion. This information, with the exception of the extensive data base from the nearby Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. Against this background, the present report consists of the following components: an overview of the present content of the databases

  9. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    area identified in the feasibility study as favourable for further study. This rectangular area has now been designated the Forsmark regional model area. An important component of the present work is a data inventory, in which the location and scope of all potential sources of data is detailed and evaluated with respect to prospective usefulness for future site descriptive modelling for deep disposal. Data sources relevant to the Forsmark regional model area which still, to some degree, need to be evaluated/converted/inserted include the siting and construction of the three nuclear reactors (Forsmark 1-3), the feasibility study for an underground spent nuclear fuel interim storage facility at Forsmark, the pre-investigations and construction of the SFR, and the SAFE project. The present report describes the current level of knowledge of the surface ecosystems in the Forsmark regional model area, in a highly condensed form. It refers to, and draws its examples from, a series of SKB background reports which have been produced since the completion of the Oesthammar feasibility study, and a number of other sources of information which are gathered here for the first time. The data sources are outlined with reference to a series of functional ecosystem types: drainage areas, forest, wetland, agricultural land, lakes and rivers, and sea, each further subdivided into appropriate entities. A systematic approach has been used, even though, at the current level of knowledge, the information in many subdivisions is inadequate or lacking. The aims of biosphere studies within the site investigation programme are to define baseline (preconstruction) conditions, to provide the necessary data base for the environmental impact statement, and to contribute to the dose estimations in the safety analysis. The main emphasis of the report is on the preparation of a site descriptive model, version 0, for the geosphere, since data acquisition and processing in this area, in contrast to the

  10. Performance Tests of Snow-Related Variables Over the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayas Using a New Version of NASA GEOS-5 Land Surface Model that Includes the Snow Darkening Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Tppei J.; Lau, K.-U.; Koster, Randal D.; Suarez, Max; Mahanama, Sarith; Dasilva, Arlindo M.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    The snow darkening effect, i.e. the reduction of snow albedo, is caused by absorption of solar radiation by absorbing aerosols (dust, black carbon, and organic carbon) deposited on the snow surface. This process is probably important over Himalayan and Tibetan glaciers due to the transport of highly polluted Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). This effect has been incorporated into the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric transport model. The Catchment land surface model (LSM) used in GEOS-5 considers 3 snow layers. Code was developed to track the mass concentration of aerosols in the three layers, taking into account such processes as the flushing of the compounds as liquid water percolates through the snowpack. In GEOS-5, aerosol emissions, transports, and depositions are well simulated in the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GO CART) module; we recently made the connection between GOCART and the GEOS-5 system fitted with the revised LSM. Preliminary simulations were performed with this new system in "replay" mode (i.e., with atmospheric dynamics guided by reanalysis) at 2x2.5 degree horizontal resolution, covering the period 1 November 2005 - 31 December 2009; we consider the final three years of simulation here. The three simulations used the following variants of the LSM: (1) the original Catchment LSM with a fixed fresh snowfall density of 150 kg m-3 ; (2) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code, used here without aerosol deposition but with changes in density formulation and melting water effect on snow specific surface area, (3) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code as same as (2) but with fixed aerosol deposition rates (computed from GOCART values averaged over the Tibetan Plateau domain [Ion.: 60-120E; lat.: 20-50N] during March-May 2008) applied to all grid points at every time step. For (2) and (3), the same setting on the fresh snowfall density as in (1

  11. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    During 2002, SKB is starting detailed investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Simpevarp, which lies in the municipality of Oskarshamn, on the southeast coast of Sweden, about 250 kilometres south of Stockholm. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. SKB maintains two main databases at the present time, a site characterisation database called SICADA and a geographic information system called SKB GIS. The site descriptive model will be developed and presented with the aid of the SKB GIS capabilities, and with SKBs Rock Visualisation System (RVS), which is also linked to SICADA. The version 0 model forms an important framework for subsequent model versions, which are developed successively, as new information from the site investigations becomes available. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. In the case of Simpevarp, this is essentially the information which was compiled for the Oskarshamn feasibility study, which led to the choice of that area as a favourable object for further study, together with information collected since its completion. This information, with the exception of the extensive data base from the nearby Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. Against this background, the present report consists of the following components: an overview of the present content of the databases

  12. International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set (version 2.0)-including standardization of reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biering-Sorensen, F.; DeVivo, M. J.; Charlifue, S.; Chen, Y.; New, P. W.; Noonan, V.; Post, M. W. M.; Vogel, L.

    Study design: The study design includes expert opinion, feedback, revisions and final consensus. Objectives: The objective of the study was to present the new knowledge obtained since the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Core Data Set (Version 1.0) published in 2006, and describe the

  13. Performance tests of snow-related variables over the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayas using a new version of NASA GEOS-5 land surface model that includes the snow darkening effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, T. J.; Lau, W. K.; Koster, R. D.; Suarez, M.; Mahanama, S. P.; da Silva, A.; Colarco, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    The snow darkening effect, i.e. the reduction of snow albedo, is caused by absorption of solar radiation by absorbing aerosols (dust, black carbon, and organic carbon) deposited on the snow surface. This process is probably important over Himalayan and Tibetan glaciers due to the transport of highly polluted Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). This effect has been incorporated into the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric transport model. The Catchment land surface model (LSM) used in GEOS-5 considers 3 snow layers. Code was developed to track the mass concentration of aerosols in the three layers, taking into account such processes as the flushing of the compounds as liquid water percolates through the snowpack. In GEOS-5, aerosol emissions, transports, and depositions are well simulated in the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) module; we recently made the connection between GOCART and the GEOS-5 system fitted with the revised LSM. Preliminary simulations were performed with this new system in "replay" mode (i.e., with atmospheric dynamics guided by reanalysis) at 2x2.5 degree horizontal resolution, covering the period 1 November 2005 - 31 December 2009; we consider the final three years of simulation here. The three simulations used the following variants of the LSM: (1) the original Catchment LSM with a fixed fresh snowfall density of 150 kg m-3; (2) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code, used here without aerosol deposition but with changes in density formulation and melting water effect on snow specific surface area, (3) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code as same as (2) but with fixed aerosol deposition rates (computed from GOCART values averaged over the Tibetan Plateau domain [lon.: 60-120E; lat.: 20-50N] during March-May 2008) applied to all grid points at every time step. For (2) and (3), the same setting on the fresh snowfall density as in (1) was

  14. Fiscal impacts model documentation. Version 1. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, S.L.; Scott, M.J.

    1986-05-01

    The Fiscal Impacts (FI) Model, Version 1.0 was developed under Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Program to aid in development of the MRS Reference Site Environmental Document (PNL 5476). It computes estimates of 182 fiscal items for state and local government jurisdictions, using input data from the US Census Bureau's 1981 Survey of Governments and local population forecasts. The model can be adapted for any county or group of counties in the United States.

  15. Computerized transportation model for the NRC Physical Protection Project. Versions I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    Details on two versions of a computerized model for the transportation system of the NRC Physical Protection Project are presented. The Version I model permits scheduling of all types of transport units associated with a truck fleet, including truck trailers, truck tractors, escort vehicles and crews. A fixed-fleet itinerary construction process is used in which iterations on fleet size are required until the service requirements are satisfied. The Version II model adds an aircraft mode capability and provides for a more efficient non-fixed-fleet itinerary generation process. Test results using both versions are included

  16. The ONKALO area model. Version 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemppainen, K.; Ahokas, T.; Ahokas, H.; Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Gehoer, S.; Front, K.

    2007-11-01

    The geological model of the ONKALO area consists of three submodels: the lithological model, the brittle deformation model and the alteration model. The lithological model gives properties of definite rock units that can be defined on the basis the migmatite structures, textures and modal compositions. The brittle deformation model describes the results of brittle deformation, where geophysical and hydrogeological results are added. The alteration model describes occurrence of different alteration types and its possible effects. The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: (1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and (2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite structure: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subject to polyphased ductile deformation, including five stages. In 3D modelling of the lithological units, an assumption has been made, on the basis of measurements in outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, that the pervasive, composite foliation produced as a result a polyphase ductile deformation has a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from the surface to the drillholes. The bedrock in the Olkiluoto site has been subject to extensive hydrothermal alteration, which has taken place at reasonably low temperature conditions, the estimated temperature interval being from slightly over 300 deg C to less than 100 deg C. Two types of alteration can be observed: (1) pervasive (disseminated

  17. H2A Production Model, Version 2 User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Ramsden, T.; Zuboy, J.

    2008-09-01

    The H2A Production Model analyzes the technical and economic aspects of central and forecourt hydrogen production technologies. Using a standard discounted cash flow rate of return methodology, it determines the minimum hydrogen selling price, including a specified after-tax internal rate of return from the production technology. Users have the option of accepting default technology input values--such as capital costs, operating costs, and capacity factor--from established H2A production technology cases or entering custom values. Users can also modify the model's financial inputs. This new version of the H2A Production Model features enhanced usability and functionality. Input fields are consolidated and simplified. New capabilities include performing sensitivity analyses and scaling analyses to various plant sizes. This User Guide helps users already familiar with the basic tenets of H2A hydrogen production cost analysis get started using the new version of the model. It introduces the basic elements of the model then describes the function and use of each of its worksheets.

  18. GROGi-F. Modified version of GROGi 2 nuclear evaporation computer code including fission decay channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delagrange, H.

    1977-01-01

    This report is the user manual of the GR0GI-F code, modified version of the GR0GI-2 code. It calculates the cross sections for heavy ion induced fission. Fission probabilities are calculated via the Bohr-Wheeler formalism

  19. Version control of pathway models using XML patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffrey, Peter; Orton, Richard

    2009-03-17

    Computational modelling has become an important tool in understanding biological systems such as signalling pathways. With an increase in size complexity of models comes a need for techniques to manage model versions and their relationship to one another. Model version control for pathway models shares some of the features of software version control but has a number of differences that warrant a specific solution. We present a model version control method, along with a prototype implementation, based on XML patches. We show its application to the EGF/RAS/RAF pathway. Our method allows quick and convenient storage of a wide range of model variations and enables a thorough explanation of these variations. Trying to produce these results without such methods results in slow and cumbersome development that is prone to frustration and human error.

  20. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    purity of the final preparation. Using mini-gels (BioRad Mini-Protean II apparatus), each group can pour, run, and stain their own 8 7.3-cm gel within the lab period; destaining can be carried out at any time afterward. The main contaminating band observed is ovalbumin, at a molecular weight of 46,000. Computer Modeling Using the program Quanta (MSI, Burlington, MA) on Indigo workstations (Silicon Graphics, Hudson, MA), the students retrieve coordinates from an MSI version of the Protein Data Bank, display the structure, and rationalize what changes would occur with a mutated form of the protein. Even for those who do not have Quanta or analogous programs, structural coordinates are available through the Internet. Students are prepared for their independent use of the molecular modeling workstations through a series of tutorials during the course of the semester. These exercises require that the students become familiar with specific applications of Quanta, including setting secondary conformation and hydrogen bonds, energy calculations, selectively displaying parts of molecules, measuring interatomic distances, and editing existing proteins. This introduction to macromolecular modeling is comparable to that suggested by Harvey and Tan (17) as a brief introduction to the field. Peer Review For each writing assignment (short paper and grant proposal), one week of lab is devoted to the peer review process. Students are to come to lab with a draft of their paper and a cover letter to their reviewers, which states how far they believe they are in the writing process; what they like and don't like about their work at this stage; and in what specific areas they need help (e.g., audience level, organization, use of references). They exchange papers, reading two or three during the course of the lab period. For each paper, they fill out a peer review form, which requires that they summarize the paper; look for clarity of presentation, appropriate citations, and use of others

  1. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  2. GCFM Users Guide Revision for Model Version 5.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keimig, Mark A.; Blake, Coleman

    1981-08-10

    This paper documents alterations made to the MITRE/DOE Geothermal Cash Flow Model (GCFM) in the period of September 1980 through September 1981. Version 4.0 of GCFM was installed on the computer at the DOE San Francisco Operations Office in August 1980. This Version has also been distributed to about a dozen geothermal industry firms, for examination and potential use. During late 1980 and 1981, a few errors detected in the Version 4.0 code were corrected, resulting in Version 4.1. If you are currently using GCFM Version 4.0, it is suggested that you make the changes to your code that are described in Section 2.0. User's manual changes listed in Section 3.0 and Section 4.0 should then also be made.

  3. Model Adequacy Analysis of Matching Record Versions in Nosql Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Tsviashchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates a model of matching record versions. The goal of this work is to analyse the model adequacy. This model allows estimating a user’s processing time distribution of the record versions and a distribution of the record versions count. The second option of the model was used, according to which, for a client the time to process record versions depends explicitly on the number of updates, performed by the other users between the sequential updates performed by a current client. In order to prove the model adequacy the real experiment was conducted in the cloud cluster. The cluster contains 10 virtual nodes, provided by DigitalOcean Company. The Ubuntu Server 14.04 was used as an operating system (OS. The NoSQL system Riak was chosen for experiments. In the Riak 2.0 version and later provide “dotted vector versions” (DVV option, which is an extension of the classic vector clock. Their use guarantees, that the versions count, simultaneously stored in DB, will not exceed the count of clients, operating in parallel with a record. This is very important while conducting experiments. For developing the application the java library, provided by Riak, was used. The processes run directly on the nodes. In experiment two records were used. They are: Z – the record, versions of which are handled by clients; RZ – service record, which contains record update counters. The application algorithm can be briefly described as follows: every client reads versions of the record Z, processes its updates using the RZ record counters, and saves treated record in database while old versions are deleted form DB. Then, a client rereads the RZ record and increments counters of updates for the other clients. After that, a client rereads the Z record, saves necessary statistics, and deliberates the results of processing. In the case of emerging conflict because of simultaneous updates of the RZ record, the client obtains all versions of that

  4. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  5. USERS MANUAL: LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS MODEL - VERSION 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document is a user's guide for a computer model, Version 2.0 of the Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM), for estimating air pollution emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The model can be used to estimate emission rates for methane, carbon dioxide, nonmet...

  6. Solar Advisor Model User Guide for Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P.; Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.; Janzou, S.; Cameron, C.

    2008-08-01

    The Solar Advisor Model (SAM) provides a consistent framework for analyzing and comparing power system costs and performance across the range of solar technologies and markets, from photovoltaic systems for residential and commercial markets to concentrating solar power and large photovoltaic systems for utility markets. This manual describes Version 2.0 of the software, which can model photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies for electric applications for several markets. The current version of the Solar Advisor Model does not model solar heating and lighting technologies.

  7. Borehole Optical Stratigraphy Modeling, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of scripts and code designed for modeling the properties of boreholes in polar ice sheets, under a range of variations in the borehole...

  8. Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.; Tsang, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in niches and in the cross drift to

  9. Seepage Model for PA Including Dift Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Li; C. Tsang

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in

  10. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model Beta Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Drummond, R.; Giroti, Tony; Houseman, Doug; Knight, Mark; Levinson, Alex; longcore, Wayne; Lowe, Randy; Mater, J.; Oliver, Terry V.; Slack, Phil; Tolk, Andreas; Montgomery, Austin

    2011-12-02

    The GridWise Architecture Council was formed by the U.S. Department of Energy to promote and enable interoperability among the many entities that interact with the electric power system. This balanced team of industry representatives proposes principles for the development of interoperability concepts and standards. The Council provides industry guidance and tools that make it an available resource for smart grid implementations. In the spirit of advancing interoperability of an ecosystem of smart grid devices and systems, this document presents a model for evaluating the maturity of the artifacts and processes that specify the agreement of parties to collaborate across an information exchange interface. You are expected to have a solid understanding of large, complex system integration concepts and experience in dealing with software component interoperation. Those without this technical background should read the Executive Summary for a description of the purpose and contents of the document. Other documents, such as checklists, guides, and whitepapers, exist for targeted purposes and audiences. Please see the www.gridwiseac.org website for more products of the Council that may be of interest to you.

  11. The integrated Earth System Model Version 1: formulation and functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, William D.; Craig, Anthony P.; Truesdale, John E.; Di Vittorio, Alan; Jones, Andrew D.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Kim, Son H.; Thomson, Allison M.; Patel, Pralit L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Chini, Louise M.; Hurtt, George C.

    2015-07-23

    The integrated Earth System Model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for pro- jecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) and an Earth System Model (ESM) into a common modeling in- frastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species, land use and land cover change, and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. The iESM project integrates the economic and human dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a sin- gle simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore- omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific under- standing of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper de- scribes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.

  12. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a

  13. A conceptual model specification language (CMSL Version 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1992-01-01

    Version 2 of a language (CMSL) to specify conceptual models is defined. CMSL consists of two parts, the value specification language VSL and the object spercification language OSL. There is a formal semantics and an inference system for CMSL but research on this still continues. A method for

  14. IDC Use Case Model Survey Version 1.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Dorthe B.; Harris, James M.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the brief descriptions for the actors and use cases contained in the IDC Use Case Model Survey. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Re- engineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  15. IDC Use Case Model Survey Version 1.1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carr, Dorthe B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This document contains the brief descriptions for the actors and use cases contained in the IDC Use Case Model. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 SNL IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris V1.1 2/2015 SNL IDC Reengineering Project Team Iteration I2 Review Comments M. Harris

  16. Fiscal impacts model documentation. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, S.L.; Scott, M.J.

    1986-05-01

    The Fiscal Impacts (FI) Model, Version 1.0 was developed under Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Program to aid in development of the MRS Reference Site Environmental Document (PNL 5476). It computes estimates of 182 fiscal items for state and local government jurisdictions, using input data from the US Census Bureau's 1981 Survey of Governments and local population forecasts. The model can be adapted for any county or group of counties in the United States

  17. Performance of Versions 1,2 and 3 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, Steven; Stolarski, Richard S.; Nielsen, J. Eric; Duncan, Bryan N.

    2008-01-01

    Version 1 of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOS CCM) was used in the first CCMVa1 model evaluation and forms the basis for several studies of links between ozone and the circulation. That version of the CCM was based on the GEOS-4 GCM. Versions 2 and 3 of the GEOS CCM are based on the GEOS-5 GCM, which retains the "Lin-Rood" dynamical core but has a totally different set of physical parameterizatiOns to GEOS-4. In Version 2 of the GEOS CCM the Goddard stratospheric chemistry module is retained. Difference between Versions 1 and 2 thus reflect the physics changes of the underlying GCMs. Several comparisons between these two models are made, several of which reveal improvements in Version 2 (including a more realistic representation of the interannual variability of the Antarctic vortex). In Version 3 of the GEOS CCM, the stratospheric chemistry mechanism is replaced by the "GMI COMBO" code that includes tropospheric chemistry and different computational approaches. An advantage of this model version. is the reduction of high ozone biases that prevail at low chlorine loadings in Versions 1 and 2. This poster will compare and contrast various aspects of the three model versions that are relevant for understanding interactions between ozone and climate.

  18. Site characterizations around KURT area-Geologic model (Version 1)-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Geon Young

    2009-08-01

    To characterize the geologic elements around study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the several geological investigations such as geophysical surveys and borehole drillings were carried out since 1997. Especially, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to understand the deep geological environments in 2006. At recent, the deep boreholes, which have 500m depth at left research module inside the KURT and 1,000m depth outside the KURT, were drilled around the KURT area to confirm and validate the geological model. The objective of this research is to construct the first version of geological model around KURT area in the point of hydro-geological view. The data in this study are based on the surface geological investigation and borehole investigations drilled in until 2005. At results, total 4 geological elements are obtained from geological analysis, which are a subsurface weathered zone, log-angled fractures zone, fracture zones and bedrock. And, the geometries of these elements are also plotted by three-dimensional model. The first version of geological model which is built in this study will be supported to construct the hydrogeological model and geochemical model

  19. Some Remarks on Stochastic Versions of the Ramsey Growth Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sladký, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 29 (2012), s. 139-152 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/1610; GA ČR GAP402/10/0956; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Economic dynamics * Ramsey growth model with disturbance * stochastic dynamic programming * multistage stochastic programs Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/sladky-some remarks on stochastic versions of the ramsey growth model.pdf

  20. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.3 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement

  1. Using the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM version 2016 with BPMPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai   Zhu

    2016-01-01

     The GFPM is an economic model of global production, consumption and trade of forest products. The original formulation and several applications are described in Buongiorno et al. (2003). However, subsequent versions, including the GFPM 2016 reflect significant changes and extensions. The GFPM 2016 software uses the...

  2. Integrated Farm System Model Version 4.3 and Dairy Gas Emissions Model Version 3.3 Software development and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling routines of the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM version 4.2) and Dairy Gas Emission Model (DairyGEM version 3.2), two whole-farm simulation models developed and maintained by USDA-ARS, were revised with new components for: (1) simulation of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas emissions gene...

  3. What's new in the Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool (AMET) version 1.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new version of the Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool (AMET) has been released. The new version of AMET, version 1.3 (AMETv1.3), contains a number of updates and changes from the previous of version of AMET (v1.2) released in 2012. First, the Perl scripts used in the previous ve...

  4. Interacting vector boson model and other versions of IBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asherova, R.M.; Fursa, D.V.; Georgieva, A.; Smirnov, Yu.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Dyson mapping of interacting vector boson model (IVBM) on the standard IBM with dynamical symmetry U(21) is obtained. This version of IBM contains the S(T=1), D(T=1) and P(T=0) bosons, where T is isospin of bosons. From group theory view point it corresponds to the realization of the Sp(12,R) generators in terms of generators of HW(21)xU(6) group. The problem of elimination of spurious states and Hermitization of this boson representation is discussed. The image of the IVBM Hamiltonian in the space of above mentioned S, D, P-bosons is found. 22 refs

  5. Olkiluoto surface hydrological modelling: Update 2012 including salt transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2013-11-01

    Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing a final disposal program for spent nuclear fuel of its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oy. The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed at a depth of about 400-450 meters in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site. Leakages located at or close to spent fuel repository may give rise to the upconing of deep highly saline groundwater and this is a concern with regard to the performance of the tunnel backfill material after the closure of the tunnels. Therefore a salt transport sub-model was added to the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD). The other improvements include update of the particle tracking algorithm and possibility to estimate the influence of open drillholes in a case where overpressure in inflatable packers decreases causing a hydraulic short-circuit between hydrogeological zones HZ19 and HZ20 along the drillhole. Four new hydrogeological zones HZ056, HZ146, BFZ100 and HZ039 were added to the model. In addition, zones HZ20A and HZ20B intersect with each other in the new structure model, which influences salinity upconing caused by leakages in shafts. The aim of the modelling of long-term influence of ONKALO, shafts and repository tunnels provide computational results that can be used to suggest limits for allowed leakages. The model input data included all the existing leakages into ONKALO (35-38 l/min) and shafts in the present day conditions. The influence of shafts was computed using eight different values for total shaft leakage: 5, 11, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 l/min. The selection of the leakage criteria for shafts was influenced by the fact that upconing of saline water increases TDS-values close to the repository areas although HZ20B does not intersect any deposition tunnels. The total limit for all leakages was suggested to be 120 l/min. The limit for HZ20 zones was proposed to be 40 l/min: about 5 l/min the present day leakages to access tunnel, 25 l/min from

  6. Description and evaluation of the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Emmons

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4 is an offline global chemical transport model particularly suited for studies of the troposphere. The updates of the model from its previous version MOZART-2 are described, including an expansion of the chemical mechanism to include more detailed hydrocarbon chemistry and bulk aerosols. Online calculations of a number of processes, such as dry deposition, emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes and photolysis frequencies, are now included. Results from an eight-year simulation (2000–2007 are presented and evaluated. The MOZART-4 source code and standard input files are available for download from the NCAR Community Data Portal (http://cdp.ucar.edu.

  7. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.; Cillan, T.

    1993-09-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.4 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement. Those interested in using the SWPM database should refer to the SWPM Database User's Guide. This document is available from the PNL Task M Project Manager (D. L. Stiles, 509-372-4358), the PNL Task L Project Manager (L. L. Armacost, 509-372-4304), the WHC Restoration Projects Section Manager (509-372-1443), or the WHC Waste Characterization Manager (509-372-1193)

  8. Representations of the Stratospheric Polar Vortices in Versions 1 and 2 of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOS CCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, S.; Stolarski, R.S.; Nielsen, J.E.; Perlwitz, J.; Oman, L.; Waugh, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study will document the behavior of the polar vortices in two versions of the GEOS CCM. Both versions of the model include the same stratospheric chemistry, They differ in the underlying circulation model. Version 1 of the GEOS CCM is based on the Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 4, general circulation model which includes the finite-volume (Lin-Rood) dynamical core and physical parameterizations from Community Climate Model, Version 3. GEOS CCM Version 2 is based on the GEOS-5 GCM that includes a different tropospheric physics package. Baseline simulations of both models, performed at two-degree spatial resolution, show some improvements in Version 2, but also some degradation, In the Antarctic, both models show an over-persistent stratospheric polar vortex with late breakdown, but the year-to-year variations that are overestimated in Version I are more realistic in Version 2. The implications of this for the interactions with tropospheric climate, the Southern Annular Mode, will be discussed. In the Arctic both model versions show a dominant dynamically forced variabi;ity, but Version 2 has a persistent warm bias in the low stratosphere and there are seasonal differences in the simulations. These differences will be quantified in terms of climate change and ozone loss. Impacts of model resolution, using simulations at one-degree and half-degree, and changes in physical parameterizations (especially the gravity wave drag) will be discussed.

  9. CLPX-Model: Rapid Update Cycle 40km (RUC-40) Model Output Reduced Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Rapid Update Cycle, version 2 at 40km (RUC-2, known to the Cold Land Processes community as RUC40) model is a Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (MAPS)...

  10. The Hamburg Oceanic Carbon Cycle Circulation Model. Version 1. Version 'HAMOCC2s' for long time integrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinze, C.; Maier-Reimer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    The Hamburg Ocean Carbon Cycle Circulation Model (HAMOCC, configuration HAMOCC2s) predicts the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (as induced by oceanic processes), production rates of biogenic particulate matter, and geochemical tracer distributions in the water column as well as the bioturbated sediment. Besides the carbon cycle this model version includes also the marine silicon cycle (silicic acid in the water column and the sediment pore waters, biological opal production, opal flux through the water column and opal sediment pore water interaction). The model is based on the grid and geometry of the LSG ocean general circulation model (see the corresponding manual, LSG=Large Scale Geostrophic) and uses a velocity field provided by the LSG-model in 'frozen' state. In contrast to the earlier version of the model (see Report No. 5), the present version includes a multi-layer sediment model of the bioturbated sediment zone, allowing for variable tracer inventories within the complete model system. (orig.)

  11. Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Souad, E-mail: souadhamada@yahoo.fr [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Louai, Fatima Zohra, E-mail: fz_louai@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Nait-Said, Nasreddine, E-mail: n_naitsaid@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Benabou, Abdelkader, E-mail: Abdelkader.Benabou@univ-lille1.fr [L2EP, Université de Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2016-07-15

    An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.

  12. The NASA/MSFC Global Reference Atmospheric Model: 1999 Version (GRAM-99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    The latest version of Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is presented and discussed. GRAM-99 uses either (binary) Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) or (ASCII) Global Gridded Upper Air Statistics (GGUAS) CD-ROM data sets, for 0-27 km altitudes. As with earlier versions, GRAM-99 provides complete geographical and altitude coverage for each month of the year. GRAM-99 uses a specially-developed data set, based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) data, for 20-120 km altitudes, and NASA's 1999 version Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET-99) model for heights above 90 km. Fairing techniques assure smooth transition in overlap height ranges (20-27 km and 90-120 km). GRAM-99 includes water vapor and 11 other atmospheric constituents (O3, N2O, CO, CH4, CO2, N2, O2, O, A, He and H). A variable-scale perturbation model provides both large-scale (wave) and small-scale (stochastic) deviations from mean values for thermodynamic variables and horizontal and vertical wind components. The small-scale perturbation model includes improvements in representing intermittency ("patchiness"). A major new feature is an option to substitute Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) data for conventional GRAM climatology when a trajectory passes sufficiently near any RRA site. A complete user's guide for running the program, plus sample input and output, is provided. An example is provided for how to incorporate GRAM-99 as subroutines in other programs (e.g., trajectory codes).

  13. Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurisse, O.; Minier, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)

  14. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  15. Land-Use Portfolio Modeler, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketa, Richard; Hong, Makiko

    2010-01-01

    -on-investment. The portfolio model, now known as the Land-Use Portfolio Model (LUPM), provided the framework for the development of the Land-Use Portfolio Modeler, Version 1.0 software (LUPM v1.0). The software provides a geographic information system (GIS)-based modeling tool for evaluating alternative risk-reduction mitigation strategies for specific natural-hazard events. The modeler uses information about a specific natural-hazard event and the features exposed to that event within the targeted study region to derive a measure of a given mitigation strategy`s effectiveness. Harnessing the spatial capabilities of a GIS enables the tool to provide a rich, interactive mapping environment in which users can create, analyze, visualize, and compare different

  16. BehavePlus fire modeling system, version 5.0: Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews

    2009-01-01

    This publication has been revised to reflect updates to version 4.0 of the BehavePlus software. It was originally published as the BehavePlus fire modeling system, version 4.0: Variables in July, 2008.The BehavePlus fire modeling system is a computer program based on mathematical models that describe wildland fire behavior and effects and the...

  17. Global atmospheric model for mercury including oxidation by bromine atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Holmes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global models of atmospheric mercury generally assume that gas-phase OH and ozone are the main oxidants converting Hg0 to HgII and thus driving mercury deposition to ecosystems. However, thermodynamic considerations argue against the importance of these reactions. We demonstrate here the viability of atomic bromine (Br as an alternative Hg0 oxidant. We conduct a global 3-D simulation with the GEOS-Chem model assuming gas-phase Br to be the sole Hg0 oxidant (Hg + Br model and compare to the previous version of the model with OH and ozone as the sole oxidants (Hg + OH/O3 model. We specify global 3-D Br concentration fields based on our best understanding of tropospheric and stratospheric Br chemistry. In both the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models, we add an aqueous photochemical reduction of HgII in cloud to impose a tropospheric lifetime for mercury of 6.5 months against deposition, as needed to reconcile observed total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations with current estimates of anthropogenic emissions. This added reduction would not be necessary in the Hg + Br model if we adjusted the Br oxidation kinetics downward within their range of uncertainty. We find that the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models are equally capable of reproducing the spatial distribution of TGM and its seasonal cycle at northern mid-latitudes. The Hg + Br model shows a steeper decline of TGM concentrations from the tropics to southern mid-latitudes. Only the Hg + Br model can reproduce the springtime depletion and summer rebound of TGM observed at polar sites; the snowpack component of GEOS-Chem suggests that 40% of HgII deposited to snow in the Arctic is transferred to the ocean and land reservoirs, amounting to a net deposition flux to the Arctic of 60 Mg a−1. Summertime events of depleted Hg0 at Antarctic sites due to subsidence are much better simulated by

  18. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Models guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Models Guide summarizes the IBS use of several computer models for predicting the results of emergency situations. These include models for predicting dispersion/doses of airborne contaminants, traffic evacuation, explosion effects, heat radiation from a fire, and siren sound transmission. The guide references additional technical documentation on the models when such documentation is available from other sources. The audience for this manual is chiefly emergency management planners and analysts, but also data managers and system managers.

  19. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate...... the analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice...

  20. Atmosphere-soil-vegetation model including CO2 exchange processes: SOLVEG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu

    2004-11-01

    A new atmosphere-soil-vegetation model named SOLVEG2 (SOLVEG version 2) was developed to study the heat, water, and CO 2 exchanges between the atmosphere and land-surface. The model consists of one-dimensional multilayer sub-models for the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. It also includes sophisticated processes for solar and long-wave radiation transmission in vegetation canopy and CO 2 exchanges among the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. Although the model usually simulates only vertical variation of variables in the surface-layer atmosphere, soil, and vegetation canopy by using meteorological data as top boundary conditions, it can be used by coupling with a three-dimensional atmosphere model. In this paper, details of SOLVEG2, which includes the function of coupling with atmosphere model MM5, are described. (author)

  1. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 Version: Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) presents the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 (Mars-GRAM 2010) and its new features. Mars-GRAM is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Applications include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry, descent and landing, and aerocapture. Additionally, this TM includes instructions on obtaining the Mars-GRAM source code and data files as well as running Mars-GRAM. It also contains sample Mars-GRAM input and output files and an example of how to incorporate Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  2. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  3. Main modelling features of the ASTEC V2.1 major version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelard, P.; Belon, S.; Bosland, L.; Carénini, L.; Coindreau, O.; Cousin, F.; Marchetto, C.; Nowack, H.; Piar, L.; Chailan, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent modelling improvements of the ASTEC European severe accident code are outlined. • Key new physical models now available in the ASTEC V2.1 major version are described. • ASTEC progress towards a multi-design reactor code is illustrated for BWR and PHWR. • ASTEC strong link with the on-going EC CESAM FP7 project is emphasized. • Main remaining modelling issues (on which IRSN efforts are now directing) are given. - Abstract: A new major version of the European severe accident integral code ASTEC, developed by IRSN with some GRS support, was delivered in November 2015 to the ASTEC worldwide community. Main modelling features of this V2.1 version are summarised in this paper. In particular, the in-vessel coupling technique between the reactor coolant system thermal-hydraulics module and the core degradation module has been strongly re-engineered to remove some well-known weaknesses of the former V2.0 series. The V2.1 version also includes new core degradation models specifically addressing BWR and PHWR reactor types, as well as several other physical modelling improvements, notably on reflooding of severely damaged cores, Zircaloy oxidation under air atmosphere, corium coolability during corium concrete interaction and source term evaluation. Moreover, this V2.1 version constitutes the back-bone of the CESAM FP7 project, which final objective is to further improve ASTEC for use in Severe Accident Management analysis of the Gen.II–III nuclear power plants presently under operation or foreseen in near future in Europe. As part of this European project, IRSN efforts to continuously improve both code numerical robustness and computing performances at plant scale as well as users’ tools are being intensified. Besides, ASTEC will continue capitalising the whole knowledge on severe accidents phenomenology by progressively keeping physical models at the state of the art through a regular feed-back from the interpretation of the current and

  4. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8: Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, C. G.; James, B. F.

    1999-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8 is presented and its new features are discussed. Mars-GRAM uses new values of planetary reference ellipsoid radii, gravity term, and rotation rate (consistent with current JPL values) and includes centrifugal effects on gravity. The model now uses NASA Ames Global Circulation Model low resolution topography. Curvature corrections are applied to winds and limits based on speed of sound are applied. Altitude of the F1 ionization peak and density scale height, including effects of change of molecular weight with altitude are computed. A check is performed to disallow temperatures below CO2 sublimination. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAM source code and data files and running the program. Sample input and output are provided. An example of incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code is also given.

  5. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  6. ONKALO rock mechanics model (RMM) - Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moenkkoenen, H.; Hakala, M.; Paananen, M.; Laine, E.

    2012-02-01

    The Rock Mechanics Model of the ONKALO rock volume is a description of the significant features and parameters related to rock mechanics. The main objective is to develop a tool to predict the rock properties, quality and hence the potential for stress failure which can then be used for continuing design of the ONKALO and the repository. This is the second implementation of the Rock Mechanics Model and it includes sub-models of the intact rock strength, in situ stress, thermal properties, rock mass quality and properties of the brittle deformation zones. Because of the varying quantities of available data for the different parameters, the types of presentations also vary: some data sets can be presented in the style of a 3D block model but, in other cases, a single distribution represents the whole rock volume hosting the ONKALO. (orig.)

  7. The Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) Model Version 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baek, Young Sun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model dispatches power plants in a region to meet the electricity demands for any single given year up to 2030. It uses publicly available sources of data describing electric power units such as the National Energy Modeling System and hourly demands from utility submittals to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission that are projected to a future year. The model simulates a single region of the country for a given year, matching generation to demands and predefined net exports from the region, assuming no transmission constraints within the region. ORCED can calculate a number of key financial and operating parameters for generating units and regional market outputs including average and marginal prices, air emissions, and generation adequacy. By running the model with and without changes such as generation plants, fuel prices, emission costs, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, distributed generation, or demand response, the marginal impact of these changes can be found.

  8. A tantalum strength model using a multiscale approach: version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R; Arsenlis, A; Hommes, G; Marian, J; Rhee, M; Yang, L H

    2009-09-21

    A continuum strength model for tantalum was developed in 2007 using a multiscale approach. This was our first attempt at connecting simulation results from atomistic to continuum length scales, and much was learned that we were not able to incorporate into the model at that time. The tantalum model described in this report represents a second cut at pulling together multiscale simulation results into a continuum model. Insight gained in creating previous multiscale models for tantalum and vanadium was used to guide the model construction and functional relations for the present model. While the basic approach follows that of the vanadium model, there are significant departures. Some of the recommendations from the vanadium report were followed, but not all. Results from several new analysis techniques have not yet been incorporated due to technical difficulties. Molecular dynamics simulations of single dislocation motion at several temperatures suggested that the thermal activation barrier was temperature dependent. This dependency required additional temperature functions be included within the assumed Arrhenius relation. The combination of temperature dependent functions created a complex model with a non unique parameterization and extra model constants. The added complexity had no tangible benefits. The recommendation was to abandon the strict Arrhenius form and create a simpler curve fit to the molecular dynamics data for shear stress versus dislocation velocity. Functions relating dislocation velocity and applied shear stress were constructed vor vanadium for both edge and screw dislocations. However, an attempt to formulate a robust continuum constitutive model for vanadium using both dislocation populations was unsuccessful; the level of coupling achieved was inadequate to constrain the dislocation evolution properly. Since the behavior of BCC materials is typically assumed to be dominated by screw dislocations, the constitutive relations were ultimately

  9. ANLECIS-1: Version of ANLECIS Program for Calculations with the Asymetric Rotational Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Mendez, R.; Garcia Moruarte, F.

    1986-01-01

    A new modified version of the ANLECIS Code is reported. This version allows to fit simultaneously the cross section of the direct process by the asymetric rotational model, and the cross section of the compound nucleus process by the Hauser-Feshbach formalism with the modern statistical corrections. The calculations based in this version show a dependence of the compound nucleus cross section with respect to the asymetric parameter γ. (author). 19 refs

  10. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberg Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  11. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  12. CENTURY: Modeling Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change, Version 4 (VEMAP 1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The CENTURY model, Version 4, is a general model of plant-soil nutrient cycling that is being used to simulate carbon and nutrient dynamics for different...

  13. CENTURY: Modeling Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change, Version 4 (VEMAP 1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CENTURY model, Version 4, is a general model of plant-soil nutrient cycling that is being used to simulate carbon and nutrient dynamics for different types of...

  14. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  15. Institutional Transformation Version 2.5 Modeling and Planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mizner, Jack H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallegos, Gerald R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peplinski, William John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vetter, Douglas W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, Christopher A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Addison, Marlin [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States); Schaffer, Matthew A. [Bridgers and Paxton Engineering Firm, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Higgins, Matthew W. [Vibrantcy, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Reducing the resource consumption and emissions of large institutions is an important step toward a sustainable future. Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL) Institutional Transformation (IX) project vision is to provide tools that enable planners to make well-informed decisions concerning sustainability, resource conservation, and emissions reduction across multiple sectors. The building sector has been the primary focus so far because it is the largest consumer of resources for SNL. The IX building module allows users to define the evolution of many buildings over time. The module has been created so that it can be generally applied to any set of DOE-2 ( http://doe2.com ) building models that have been altered to include parameters and expressions required by energy conservation measures (ECM). Once building models have been appropriately prepared, they are checked into a Microsoft Access (r) database. Each building can be represented by many models. This enables the capability to keep a continuous record of models in the past, which are replaced with different models as changes occur to the building. In addition to this, the building module has the capability to apply climate scenarios through applying different weather files to each simulation year. Once the database has been configured, a user interface in Microsoft Excel (r) is used to create scenarios with one or more ECMs. The capability to include central utility buildings (CUBs) that service more than one building with chilled water has been developed. A utility has been created that joins multiple building models into a single model. After using the utility, several manual steps are required to complete the process. Once this CUB model has been created, the individual contributions of each building are still tracked through meters. Currently, 120 building models from SNL's New Mexico and California campuses have been created. This includes all buildings at SNL greater than 10,000 sq. ft

  16. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2001 Version (Mars-GRAM 2001): Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    This document presents Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2001 Version (Mars-GRAM 2001) and its new features. As with the previous version (mars-2000), all parameterizations fro temperature, pressure, density, and winds versus height, latitude, longitude, time of day, and season (Ls) use input data tables from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) for the surface through 80-km altitude and the University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM) for 80 to 70 km. Mars-GRAM 2001 is based on topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and includes new MGCM data at the topographic surface. A new auxiliary program allows Mars-GRAM output to be used to compute shortwave (solar) and longwave (thermal) radiation at the surface and top of atmosphere. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAN source code and data files and for running the program. It also provides sample input and output and an example for incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  17. Red Storm usage model :Version 1.12.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, Karen L.; Sturtevant, Judith E.

    2005-12-01

    Red Storm is an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) funded massively parallel supercomputer located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The Red Storm Usage Model (RSUM) documents the capabilities and the environment provided for the FY05 Tri-Lab Level II Limited Availability Red Storm User Environment Milestone and the FY05 SNL Level II Limited Availability Red Storm Platform Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and SNL. Additionally, the Red Storm Usage Model maps the provided capabilities to the Tri-Lab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the ASC community and have been updated in FY05 to reflect the community's needs. For each section of the RSUM, Appendix I maps the ACE requirements to the Limited Availability User Environment capabilities and includes a description of ACE requirements met and those requirements that are not met in that particular section. The Red Storm Usage Model, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and vetted throughout the Tri-Lab community.

  18. NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model ORDEM2008 (Beta Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbery, Eugene G.; Krisko, Paula H.

    2009-01-01

    This is an interim document intended to accompany the beta-release of the ORDEM2008 model. As such it provides the user with a guide for its use, a list of its capabilities, a brief summary of model development, and appendices included to educate the user as to typical runtimes for different orbit configurations. More detailed documentation will be delivered with the final product. ORDEM2008 supersedes NASA's previous model - ORDEM2000. The availability of new sensor and in situ data, the re-analysis of older data, and the development of new analytical techniques, has enabled the construction of this more comprehensive and sophisticated model. Integrated with the software is an upgraded graphical user interface (GUI), which uses project-oriented organization and provides the user with graphical representations of numerous output data products. These range from the conventional average debris size vs. flux magnitude for chosen analysis orbits, to the more complex color-contoured two-dimensional (2-D) directional flux diagrams in terms of local spacecraft pitch and yaw.

  19. A magnetic version of the Smilansky-Solomyak model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barseghyan, Diana; Exner, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 48 (2017), č. článku 485203. ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Smilansky-Solomyak model * spectral transition * homegeneous magnetic field * discrete spectrum * essential spectrum Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2016

  20. Igpet software for modeling igneous processes: examples of application using the open educational version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael J.; Gazel, Esteban

    2017-04-01

    We provide here an open version of Igpet software, called t-Igpet to emphasize its application for teaching and research in forward modeling of igneous geochemistry. There are three programs, a norm utility, a petrologic mixing program using least squares and Igpet, a graphics program that includes many forms of numerical modeling. Igpet is a multifaceted tool that provides the following basic capabilities: igneous rock identification using the IUGS (International Union of Geological Sciences) classification and several supplementary diagrams; tectonic discrimination diagrams; pseudo-quaternary projections; least squares fitting of lines, polynomials and hyperbolae; magma mixing using two endmembers, histograms, x-y plots, ternary plots and spider-diagrams. The advanced capabilities of Igpet are multi-element mixing and magma evolution modeling. Mixing models are particularly useful for understanding the isotopic variations in rock suites that evolved by mixing different sources. The important melting models include, batch melting, fractional melting and aggregated fractional melting. Crystallization models include equilibrium and fractional crystallization and AFC (assimilation and fractional crystallization). Theses, reports and proposals concerning igneous petrology are improved by numerical modeling. For reviewed publications some elements of modeling are practically a requirement. Our intention in providing this software is to facilitate improved communication and lower entry barriers to research, especially for students.

  1. Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss (Polar SWIFT version 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus

    2017-07-01

    The Polar SWIFT model is a fast scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion in polar winter. It is intended for use in global climate models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) to enable the simulation of mutual interactions between the ozone layer and climate. To date, climate models often use prescribed ozone fields, since a full stratospheric chemistry scheme is computationally very expensive. Polar SWIFT is based on a set of coupled differential equations, which simulate the polar vortex-averaged mixing ratios of the key species involved in polar ozone depletion on a given vertical level. These species are O3, chemically active chlorine (ClOx), HCl, ClONO2 and HNO3. The only external input parameters that drive the model are the fraction of the polar vortex in sunlight and the fraction of the polar vortex below the temperatures necessary for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Here, we present an update of the Polar SWIFT model introducing several improvements over the original model formulation. In particular, the model is now trained on vortex-averaged reaction rates of the ATLAS Chemistry and Transport Model, which enables a detailed look at individual processes and an independent validation of the different parameterizations contained in the differential equations. The training of the original Polar SWIFT model was based on fitting complete model runs to satellite observations and did not allow for this. A revised formulation of the system of differential equations is developed, which closely fits vortex-averaged reaction rates from ATLAS that represent the main chemical processes influencing ozone. In addition, a parameterization for the HNO3 change by denitrification is included. The rates of change of the concentrations of the chemical species of the Polar SWIFT model are purely chemical rates of change in the new version, whereas in the original Polar SWIFT model, they included a transport effect caused by the

  2. The NASA MSFC Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model-2007 Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, F.W.; Justus, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    Reference or standard atmospheric models have long been used for design and mission planning of various aerospace systems. The NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM) was developed in response to the need for a design reference atmosphere that provides complete global geographical variability, and complete altitude coverage (surface to orbital altitudes) as well as complete seasonal and monthly variability of the thermodynamic variables and wind components. A unique feature of GRAM is that, addition to providing the geographical, height, and monthly variation of the mean atmospheric state, it includes the ability to simulate spatial and temporal perturbations in these atmospheric parameters (e.g. fluctuations due to turbulence and other atmospheric perturbation phenomena). A summary comparing GRAM features to characteristics and features of other reference or standard atmospheric models, can be found Guide to Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models. The original GRAM has undergone a series of improvements over the years with recent additions and changes. The software program is called Earth-GRAM2007 to distinguish it from similar programs for other bodies (e.g. Mars, Venus, Neptune, and Titan). However, in order to make this Technical Memorandum (TM) more readable, the software will be referred to simply as GRAM07 or GRAM unless additional clarity is needed. Section 1 provides an overview of the basic features of GRAM07 including the newly added features. Section 2 provides a more detailed description of GRAM07 and how the model output generated. Section 3 presents sample results. Appendices A and B describe the Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) data and the Global Gridded Air Statistics (GGUAS) database. Appendix C provides instructions for compiling and running GRAM07. Appendix D gives a description of the required NAMELIST format input. Appendix E gives sample output. Appendix F provides a list of available

  3. RBDMS user`s guide which includes the RBDMS administrative guide, Version 4.0. Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    RBDMS (Risk Based Data Management System) is an oil and gas electronic data management system which stems from the idea developed from four previous projects conducted by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC). The first study studied oil and gas industry injection well corrosion. It included a methodology for assessing the probability of contaminating underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) via Class 2 injection well operations. A feasibility study was conducted to investigate if an electronic data management system could incorporate the methodology. A second feasibility study was conducted to test the methodology on a much small basis. The RBDMS effort then continued through a grant from DOE with a multi-task project consisting of an inventory and needs assessment of 25 oil and gas producing states pertaining to oil and gas production/regulatory activities, state geological/hydrogeological considerations, Class 2 underground injection activities, electronic data management needs and functional requirements, environmental risk assessment and management objectives, resultant benefit of a RBDMS, and various information and data required for the design and development of a RBDMS in individual states. This appendix contains the documentation for the use of the RBDMS.

  4. Exclusive queueing model including the choice of service windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    In a queueing system involving multiple service windows, choice behavior is a significant concern. This paper incorporates the choice of service windows into a queueing model with a floor represented by discrete cells. We contrived a logit-based choice algorithm for agents considering the numbers of agents and the distances to all service windows. Simulations were conducted with various parameters of agent choice preference for these two elements and for different floor configurations, including the floor length and the number of service windows. We investigated the model from the viewpoint of transit times and entrance block rates. The influences of the parameters on these factors were surveyed in detail and we determined that there are optimum floor lengths that minimize the transit times. In addition, we observed that the transit times were determined almost entirely by the entrance block rates. The results of the presented model are relevant to understanding queueing systems including the choice of service windows and can be employed to optimize facility design and floor management.

  5. Geological Model of the Olkiluoto Site. Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, I.

    2010-10-01

    The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: 1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and 2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite structure: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subjected to polyphased ductile deformation, consisting of five stages, the D2 being locally the most intensive phase, producing thrust-related folding, strong migmatisation and pervasive foliation. In 3D modelling of the lithological units, an assumption has been made, on the basis of measurements in the outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, that the pervasive, composite foliation produced as a result of polyphase ductile deformation has a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from the surface to the drillholes. In addition, the largest ductile deformation zones and tectonic units are described in 3D model. The bedrock at the Olkiluoto site has been subjected to extensive hydrothermal alteration, which has taken place at reasonably low temperature conditions, the estimated temperature interval being from slightly over 300 deg C to less than 100 deg C. Two types of alteration can be observed: firstly, pervasive alteration and secondly fracturecontrolled alteration. Clay mineralisation and sulphidisation are the most prominent alteration events in the site area. Sulphides are located in the uppermost part of the model volume following roughly the foliation and lithological trend. Kaolinite is also mainly located in the

  6. GOOSE Version 1.4: A powerful object-oriented simulation environment for developing reactor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nypaver, D.J.; March-Leuba, C.; Abdalla, M.A.; Guimaraes, L.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype software package for a fully interactive Generalized Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (GOOSE) is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dynamic models are easily constructed and tested; fully interactive capabilities allow the user to alter model parameters and complexity without recompilation. This environment provides assess to powerful tools such as numerical integration packages, graphical displays, and online help. In GOOSE, portability has been achieved by creating the environment in Objective-C 1 , which is supported by a variety of platforms including UNIX and DOS. GOOSE Version 1.4 introduces new enhancements like the capability of creating ''initial,'' ''dynamic,'' and ''digital'' methods. The object-oriented approach to simulation used in GOOSE combines the concept of modularity with the additional features of allowing precompilation, optimization, testing, and validation of individual modules. Once a library of classes has been defined and compiled, models can be built and modified without recompilation. GOOSE Version 1.4 is primarily command-line driven

  7. Tier I Rice Model - Version 1.0 - Guidance for Estimating Pesticide Concentrations in Rice Paddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes a Tier I Rice Model (Version 1.0) for estimating surface water exposure from the use of pesticides in rice paddies. The concentration calculated can be used for aquatic ecological risk and drinking water exposure assessments.

  8. Thermal site descriptive model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations - version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan

    2007-09-01

    This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be

  9. Thermal site descriptive model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations - version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be

  10. Estimating Parameters for the PVsyst Version 6 Photovoltaic Module Performance Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We present an algorithm to determine parameters for the photovoltaic module perf ormance model encoded in the software package PVsyst(TM) version 6. Our method operates on current - voltage (I - V) measured over a range of irradiance and temperature conditions. We describe the method and illustrate its steps using data for a 36 cell crystalli ne silicon module. We qualitatively compare our method with one other technique for estimating parameters for the PVsyst(TM) version 6 model .

  11. The NASA/MSFC Global Reference Atmospheric Model-1995 version (GRAM-95)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, C. G.; Jeffries, W. R., III; Yung, S. P.; Johnson, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The latest version of the Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-95) is presented and discussed. GRAM-95 uses the new Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) CD-ROM data set, for 0- to 27-km altitudes. As with earlier versions, GRAM-95 provides complete geographical and altitude coverage for each month of the year. Individual years 1985 to 1991 and a period-of-record (1980 to 1991) can be simulated for the GUACA height range. GRAM-95 uses a specially developed data set, based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) data, for the 20- to 120-km height range, and the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model for heights above 90 km. Fairing techniques assure a smooth transition in the overlap height ranges (20 to 27 km and 90 to 120 km). In addition to the traditional GRAM variables of pressure, density, temperature and wind components, GRAM-95 now includes water vapor and 11 other atmospheric constituents (O3, N2O, CO, CH4, CO2, N2, O2, O, A, He, and H). A new, variable-scale perturbation model provides both large-scale and small-scale deviations from mean values for the thermodynamic variables and horizontal and vertical wind components. The perturbation model includes new features that simulate intermittency (patchiness) in turbulence and small-scale perturbation fields. The density perturbations and density gradients (density shears) computed by the new model compare favorably in their statistical characteristics with observed density perturbations and density shears from 32 space shuttle reentry profiles. GRAM-95 provides considerable improvement in wind estimates from the new GUACA data set, compared to winds calculated from the geostrophic wind relations previously used in the 0- to 25-km height range. The GRAM-95 code has been put into a more modular form, easier to incorporate as subroutines in other programs (e.g., trajectory codes). A complete user's guide for running the program, plus sample input and output, is provided.

  12. Geological model of the Olkiluoto site. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, J.; Aaltonen, I.; Kemppainen, K.

    2008-01-01

    The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: (1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and (2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite structure: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subjected to polyphased ductile deformation, consisting of five stages, the D2 being locally the most intensive phase, producing thrust-related folding, strong migmatisation and pervasive foliation. In 3D modelling of the lithological units, an assumption has been made, on the basis of measurements in the outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, that the pervasive, composite foliation produced as a result of polyphase ductile deformation has a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from the surface to the drillholes. The bedrock at the Olkiluoto site has been subjected to extensive hydrothermal alteration, which has taken place at reasonably low temperature conditions, the estimated temperature interval being from slightly over 300 deg C to less than 100 deg C. Two types of alteration can be observed: (1) pervasive (disseminated) alteration and (2) fracture-controlled (veinlet) alteration. Kaolinisation and sulphidisation are the most prominent alteration events in the site area. Sulphides are located in the uppermost part of the model volume following roughly the lithological trend (slightly dipping to the SE). Kaolinite is also located in the uppermost part, but the orientation is opposite to the main lithological trend

  13. Calibrating and Updating the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM version 2014 with BPMPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) is an economic model of global production, consumption, and trade of forest products. An earlier version of the model is described in Buongiorno et al. (2003). The GFPM 2014 has data and parameters to simulate changes of the forest sector from 2010 to 2030. Buongiorno and Zhu (2014) describe how to use the model for simulation....

  14. Calibrating and updating the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM version 2016 with BPMPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai  Zhu

    2016-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) is an economic model of global production, consumption, and trade of forest products. An earlier version of the model is described in Buongiorno et al. (2003). The GFPM 2016 has data and parameters to simulate changes of the forest sector from 2013 to 2030. Buongiorno and Zhu (2015) describe how to use the model for...

  15. User guide for MODPATH version 6 - A particle-tracking model for MODFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, David W.

    2012-01-01

    MODPATH is a particle-tracking post-processing model that computes three-dimensional flow paths using output from groundwater flow simulations based on MODFLOW, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) finite-difference groundwater flow model. This report documents MODPATH version 6. Previous versions were documented in USGS Open-File Reports 89-381 and 94-464. The program uses a semianalytical particle-tracking scheme that allows an analytical expression of a particle's flow path to be obtained within each finite-difference grid cell. A particle's path is computed by tracking the particle from one cell to the next until it reaches a boundary, an internal sink/source, or satisfies another termination criterion. Data input to MODPATH consists of a combination of MODFLOW input data files, MODFLOW head and flow output files, and other input files specific to MODPATH. Output from MODPATH consists of several output files, including a number of particle coordinate output files intended to serve as input data for other programs that process, analyze, and display the results in various ways. MODPATH is written in FORTRAN and can be compiled by any FORTRAN compiler that fully supports FORTRAN-2003 or by most commercially available FORTRAN-95 compilers that support the major FORTRAN-2003 language extensions.

  16. New Source Term Model for the RESRAD-OFFSITE Code Version 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Charley [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gnanapragasam, Emmanuel [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kamboj, Sunita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Shih-Yew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the new source term model developed and implemented in Version 3 of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code. This new source term model includes: (1) "first order release with transport" option, in which the release of the radionuclide is proportional to the inventory in the primary contamination and the user-specified leach rate is the proportionality constant, (2) "equilibrium desorption release" option, in which the user specifies the distribution coefficient which quantifies the partitioning of the radionuclide between the solid and aqueous phases, and (3) "uniform release" option, in which the radionuclides are released from a constant fraction of the initially contaminated material during each time interval and the user specifies the duration over which the radionuclides are released.

  17. LERC-SLAM - THE NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER SATELLITE LINK ATTENUATION MODEL PROGRAM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of rain attenuation affecting the communication between a satellite and an earth terminal is an important consideration in planning satellite links. The NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model Program (LeRC-SLAM) provides a static and dynamic statistical assessment of the impact of rain attenuation on a communications link established between an earth terminal and a geosynchronous satellite. The program is designed for use in the specification, design and assessment of satellite links for any terminal location in the continental United States. The basis for LeRC-SLAM is the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model, which uses a log-normal cumulative probability distribution to describe the random process of rain attenuation on satellite links. The derivation of the statistics for the rainrate process at the specified terminal location relies on long term rainfall records compiled by the U.S. Weather Service during time periods of up to 55 years in length. The theory of extreme value statistics is also utilized. The user provides 1) the longitudinal position of the satellite in geosynchronous orbit, 2) the geographical position of the earth terminal in terms of latitude and longitude, 3) the height above sea level of the terminal site, 4) the yearly average rainfall at the terminal site, and 5) the operating frequency of the communications link (within 1 to 1000 GHz, inclusive). Based on the yearly average rainfall at the terminal location, LeRC-SLAM calculates the relevant rain statistics for the site using an internal data base. The program then generates rain attenuation data for the satellite link. This data includes a description of the static (i.e., yearly) attenuation process, an evaluation of the cumulative probability distribution for attenuation effects, and an evaluation of the probability of fades below selected fade depths. In addition, LeRC-SLAM calculates the elevation and azimuth angles of the terminal

  18. LERC-SLAM - THE NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER SATELLITE LINK ATTENUATION MODEL PROGRAM (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of rain attenuation affecting the communication between a satellite and an earth terminal is an important consideration in planning satellite links. The NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model Program (LeRC-SLAM) provides a static and dynamic statistical assessment of the impact of rain attenuation on a communications link established between an earth terminal and a geosynchronous satellite. The program is designed for use in the specification, design and assessment of satellite links for any terminal location in the continental United States. The basis for LeRC-SLAM is the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model, which uses a log-normal cumulative probability distribution to describe the random process of rain attenuation on satellite links. The derivation of the statistics for the rainrate process at the specified terminal location relies on long term rainfall records compiled by the U.S. Weather Service during time periods of up to 55 years in length. The theory of extreme value statistics is also utilized. The user provides 1) the longitudinal position of the satellite in geosynchronous orbit, 2) the geographical position of the earth terminal in terms of latitude and longitude, 3) the height above sea level of the terminal site, 4) the yearly average rainfall at the terminal site, and 5) the operating frequency of the communications link (within 1 to 1000 GHz, inclusive). Based on the yearly average rainfall at the terminal location, LeRC-SLAM calculates the relevant rain statistics for the site using an internal data base. The program then generates rain attenuation data for the satellite link. This data includes a description of the static (i.e., yearly) attenuation process, an evaluation of the cumulative probability distribution for attenuation effects, and an evaluation of the probability of fades below selected fade depths. In addition, LeRC-SLAM calculates the elevation and azimuth angles of the terminal

  19. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2000 Version (Mars-GRAM 2000): Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, C. G.; James, B. F.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2000 Version (Mars-GRAM 2000) and its new features. All parameterizations for temperature, pressure, density, and winds versus height, latitude, longitude, time of day, and L(sub s) have been replaced by input data tables from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) for the surface through 80-km altitude and the University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM) for 80 to 170 km. A modified Stewart thermospheric model is still used for higher altitudes and for dependence on solar activity. "Climate factors" to tune for agreement with GCM data are no longer needed. Adjustment of exospheric temperature is still an option. Consistent with observations from Mars Global Surveyor, a new longitude-dependent wave model is included with user input to specify waves having 1 to 3 wavelengths around the planet. A simplified perturbation model has been substituted for the earlier one. An input switch allows users to select either East or West longitude positive. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAM source code and data files and for running the program. It also provides sample input and output and an example for incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  20. Integrated Biosphere Simulator Model (IBIS), Version 2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Integrated Biosphere Simulator (or IBIS) is designed to be a comprehensive model of the terrestrial biosphere. Tthe model represents a wide range of...

  1. Integrated Biosphere Simulator Model (IBIS), Version 2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Integrated Biosphere Simulator (or IBIS) is designed to be a comprehensive model of the terrestrial biosphere. Tthe model represents a wide range of processes,...

  2. Comparison of three ice cloud optical schemes in climate simulations with community atmospheric model version 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjie; Peng, Yiran; Wang, Bin; Yi, Bingqi; Lin, Yanluan; Li, Jiangnan

    2018-05-01

    A newly implemented Baum-Yang scheme for simulating ice cloud optical properties is compared with existing schemes (Mitchell and Fu schemes) in a standalone radiative transfer model and in the global climate model (GCM) Community Atmospheric Model Version 5 (CAM5). This study systematically analyzes the effect of different ice cloud optical schemes on global radiation and climate by a series of simulations with a simplified standalone radiative transfer model, atmospheric GCM CAM5, and a comprehensive coupled climate model. Results from the standalone radiative model show that Baum-Yang scheme yields generally weaker effects of ice cloud on temperature profiles both in shortwave and longwave spectrum. CAM5 simulations indicate that Baum-Yang scheme in place of Mitchell/Fu scheme tends to cool the upper atmosphere and strengthen the thermodynamic instability in low- and mid-latitudes, which could intensify the Hadley circulation and dehydrate the subtropics. When CAM5 is coupled with a slab ocean model to include simplified air-sea interaction, reduced downward longwave flux to surface in Baum-Yang scheme mitigates ice-albedo feedback in the Arctic as well as water vapor and cloud feedbacks in low- and mid-latitudes, resulting in an overall temperature decrease by 3.0/1.4 °C globally compared with Mitchell/Fu schemes. Radiative effect and climate feedback of the three ice cloud optical schemes documented in this study can be referred for future improvements on ice cloud simulation in CAM5.

  3. A description of the FAMOUS (version XDBUA climate model and control run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Osprey

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available FAMOUS is an ocean-atmosphere general circulation model of low resolution, capable of simulating approximately 120 years of model climate per wallclock day using current high performance computing facilities. It uses most of the same code as HadCM3, a widely used climate model of higher resolution and computational cost, and has been tuned to reproduce the same climate reasonably well. FAMOUS is useful for climate simulations where the computational cost makes the application of HadCM3 unfeasible, either because of the length of simulation or the size of the ensemble desired. We document a number of scientific and technical improvements to the original version of FAMOUS. These improvements include changes to the parameterisations of ozone and sea-ice which alleviate a significant cold bias from high northern latitudes and the upper troposphere, and the elimination of volume-averaged drifts in ocean tracers. A simple model of the marine carbon cycle has also been included. A particular goal of FAMOUS is to conduct millennial-scale paleoclimate simulations of Quaternary ice ages; to this end, a number of useful changes to the model infrastructure have been made.

  4. UNSAT-H Version 2. 0: Unsaturated soil water and heat flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.; Jones, T.L.

    1990-04-01

    This report documents UNSAT-H Version 2.0, a model for calculating water and heat flow in unsaturated media. The documentation includes the bases for the conceptual model and its numerical implementation, benchmark test cases, example simulations involving layered soils and plant transpiration, and the code listing. Waste management practices at the Hanford Site have included disposal of low-level wastes by near-surface burial. Predicting the future long-term performance of any such burial site in terms of migration of contaminants requires a model capable of simulating water flow in the unsaturated soils above the buried waste. The model currently used to meet this need is UNSAT-H. This model was developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assess water dynamics of near-surface, waste-disposal sites at the Hanford Site. The code is primarily used to predict deep drainage as a function of such environmental conditions as climate, soil type, and vegetation. UNSAT-H is also used to simulate the effects of various practices to enhance isolation of wastes. 66 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. BioModels: expanding horizons to include more modelling approaches and formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glont, Mihai; Nguyen, Tung V N; Graesslin, Martin; Hälke, Robert; Ali, Raza; Schramm, Jochen; Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Kothamachu, Varun B; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Swat, Maciej J; Eils, Jurgen; Eils, Roland; Laibe, Camille; Malik-Sheriff, Rahuman S; Chelliah, Vijayalakshmi; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning

    2018-01-04

    BioModels serves as a central repository of mathematical models representing biological processes. It offers a platform to make mathematical models easily shareable across the systems modelling community, thereby supporting model reuse. To facilitate hosting a broader range of model formats derived from diverse modelling approaches and tools, a new infrastructure for BioModels has been developed that is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels. This new system allows submitting and sharing of a wide range of models with improved support for formats other than SBML. It also offers a version-control backed environment in which authors and curators can work collaboratively to curate models. This article summarises the features available in the current system and discusses the potential benefit they offer to the users over the previous system. In summary, the new portal broadens the scope of models accepted in BioModels and supports collaborative model curation which is crucial for model reproducibility and sharing. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. The MiniBIOS model (version 1A4) at the RIVM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijt de Haag PAM; Laheij GMH

    1993-01-01

    This report is the user's guide of the MiniBIOS model, version 1A4. The model is operational at the Laboratory of Radiation Research of the RIVM. MiniBIOS is a simulation model for calculating the transport of radionuclides in the biosphere and the consequential radiation dose to humans. The

  7. Microsoft Repository Version 2 and the Open Information Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Bergstraesser, Thomas; Carlson, Jason; Pal, Shankar; Sanders, Paul; Shutt, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes the programming interface and implementation of the repository engine and the Open Information Model for Microsoft Repository, an object-oriented meta-data management facility that ships in Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server. Discusses Microsoft's component object model, object manipulation, queries, and information…

  8. Construct validity and parent-child agreement of the six new or modified disorders included in the Spanish version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia present and Lifetime Version DSM-5 (K-SADS-PL-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Francisco R; Rosetti, Marcos F; Rodríguez-Delgado, Andrés; Villavicencio, Lino R; Palacio, Juan D; Montiel, Cecilia; Mayer, Pablo A; Félix, Fernando J; Larraguibel, Marcela; Viola, Laura; Ortiz, Silvia; Fernández, Sofía; Jaímes, Aurora; Feria, Miriam; Sosa, Liz; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Ulloa, Rosa E

    2018-06-01

    Changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) incorporate the inclusion or modification of six disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Binge Eating Disorder. The objectives of this study were to assess the construct validity and parent-child agreement of these six disorders in the Spanish language Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-5) in a clinical population of children and adolescents from Latin America. The Spanish version of the K-SADS-PL was modified to integrate changes made to the DSM-5. Clinicians received training in the K-SADS-PL-5 and 90% agreement between raters was obtained. A total of 80 patients were recruited in four different countries in Latin America. All items from each of the six disorders were included in a factor analysis. Parent-child agreement was calculated for every item of the six disorders, including the effect of sex and age. The factor analysis revealed 6 factors separately grouping the items defining each of the new or modified disorders, with Eigenvalues greater than 2. Very good parent-child agreements (r>0.8) were found for the large majority of the items (93%), even when considering the sex or age of the patient. This independent grouping of disorders suggests that the manner in which the disorders were included into the K-SADS-PL-5 reflects robustly the DSM-5 constructs and displayed a significant inter-informant reliability. These findings support the use of K-SADS-PL-5 as a clinical and research tool to evaluate these new or modified diagnoses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Integrated Baseline Bystem (IBS) Version 1.03: Models guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System)(IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planning and analysis. This document is the models guide for the IBS and explains how to use the emergency related computer models. This document provides information for the experienced system user, and is the primary reference for the computer modeling software supplied with the system. It is designed for emergency managers and planners, and others familiar with the concepts of computer modeling. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other IBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary.

  10. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides a comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a seamless...

  11. Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project Digital Elevation Model, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The high-resolution Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project (RAMP) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) combines topographic data from a variety of sources to provide consistent...

  12. Modeled Daily Thaw Depth and Frozen Ground Depth, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains modeled daily thaw depth and freezing depth for the Arctic terrestrial drainage basin. Thaw and freezing depths were calculated over the study...

  13. Using the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM version 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to enable users of the Global Forest Products Model to: • Install and run the GFPM software • Understand the input data • Change the input data to explore different scenarios • Interpret the output The GFPM is an economic model of global production, consumption and trade of forest products (Buongiorno et al. 2003). The GFPM2012 has data...

  14. Macro System Model (MSM) User Guide, Version 1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.

    2011-09-01

    This user guide describes the macro system model (MSM). The MSM has been designed to allow users to analyze the financial, environmental, transitional, geographical, and R&D issues associated with the transition to a hydrogen economy. Basic end users can use the MSM to answer cross-cutting questions that were previously difficult to answer in a consistent and timely manner due to various assumptions and methodologies among different models.

  15. Due Regard Encounter Model Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    Note that no existing model covers encoun- ters between two IFR aircraft in oceanic airspace. The reason for this is that one cannot observe encounters...encounters between instrument flight rules ( IFR ) and non- IFR traffic beyond 12NM. 2 TABLE 1 Encounter model categories. Aircraft of Interest Intruder...Aircraft Location Flight Rule IFR VFR Noncooperative Noncooperative Conventional Unconventional CONUS IFR C C U X VFR C U U X Offshore IFR C C U X VFR C U

  16. Global Reference Atmospheric Models, Including Thermospheres, for Mars, Venus and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.

    2006-01-01

    This document is the viewgraph slides of the presentation. Marshall Space Flight Center's Natural Environments Branch has developed Global Reference Atmospheric Models (GRAMs) for Mars, Venus, Earth, and other solar system destinations. Mars-GRAM has been widely used for engineering applications including systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry descent and landing, and aerocapture. Preliminary results are presented, comparing Mars-GRAM with measurements from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) during its aerobraking in Mars thermosphere. Venus-GRAM is based on the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA), and is suitable for similar engineering applications in the thermosphere or other altitude regions of the atmosphere of Venus. Until recently, the thermosphere in Earth-GRAM has been represented by the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. Earth-GRAM has recently been revised. In addition to including an updated version of MET, it now includes an option to use the Naval Research Laboratory Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRLMSISE-00) as an alternate thermospheric model. Some characteristics and results from Venus-GRAM and Earth-GRAM thermospheres are also presented.

  17. Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke

    2017-04-01

    The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) calculates the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance at a dairy farm, while taking into account the subsequent nutrient cycles of the herd, manure, soil and crop components. Since January 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are required to use ANCA in order to increase understanding of nutrient flows and to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. A nutrient balance calculates the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs. Nutrients enter the farm via purchased feed, fertilizers, deposition and fixation by legumes (nitrogen), and leave the farm via milk, livestock, manure, and roughages. A positive balance indicates to which extent N and/or P are lost to the environment via gaseous emissions (N), leaching, run-off and accumulation in soil. A negative balance indicates that N and/or P are depleted from soil. ANCA was designed to calculate average nutrient flows on farm level (for the herd, manure, soil and crop components). ANCA was not designed to perform calculations of nutrient flows at the field level, as it uses averaged nutrient inputs and outputs across all fields, and it does not include field specific soil characteristics. Land management decisions, however, such as the level of N and P application, are typically taken at the field level given the specific crop and soil characteristics. Therefore the information that ANCA provides is likely not sufficient to support farmers' decisions on land management to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. This is particularly a problem when land management and soils vary between fields. For an accurate estimate of nutrient flows in a given farming system that can be used to optimize land management, the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs (and thus the effect of land management and soil variation) could be essential. Our aim was to determine the effect of the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs on modelled nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies

  18. Single-Phase Bundle Flows Including Macroscopic Turbulence Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Jong; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To deal with various thermal hydraulic phenomena due to rapid change of fluid properties when an accident happens, securing mechanistic approaches as much as possible may reduce the uncertainty arising from improper applications of the experimental models. In this study, the turbulence mixing model, which is well defined in the subchannel analysis code such as VIPRE, COBRA, and MATRA by experiments, is replaced by a macroscopic k-e turbulence model, which represents the aspect of mathematical derivation. The performance of CUPID with macroscopic turbulence model is validated against several bundle experiments: CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. In this study, the macroscopic k-e model has been validated for the application to subchannel analysis. It has been implemented in the CUPID code and validated against CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. The results showed that the macroscopic k-e turbulence model can estimate the experiments properly.

  19. Probabilistic Model for Integrated Assessment of the Behavior at the T.D.P. Version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the completion of the first phase of the implementation of the methodology ABACO2G (Bayes Application to Geological Storage of CO2) and the final version of the ABACO2G probabilistic model for the injection phase before its future validation in the experimental field of the Technology Development Plant in Hontom (Burgos). The model, which is based on the determination of the probabilistic risk component of a geological storage of CO2 using the formalism of Bayesian networks and Monte Carlo probability yields quantitative probability functions of the total system CO2 storage and of each one of their subsystems (storage subsystem and the primary seal; secondary containment subsystem and dispersion subsystem or tertiary one); the implementation of the stochastic time evolution of the CO2 plume during the injection period, the stochastic time evolution of the drying front, the probabilistic evolution of the pressure front, decoupled from the CO2 plume progress front, and the implementation of submodels and leakage probability functions through major leakage risk elements (fractures / faults and wells / deep boreholes) which together define the space of events to estimate the risks associated with the CO2 geological storage system. The activities included in this report have been to replace the previous qualitative estimation submodels of former ABACO2G version developed during Phase I of the project ALM-10-017, by analytical, semi-analytical or numerical submodels for the main elements of risk (wells and fractures), to obtain an integrated probabilistic model of a CO2 storage complex in carbonate formations that meets the needs of the integrated behavior evaluation of the Technology Development Plant in Hontomín

  20. National Stormwater Calculator - Version 1.1 (Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) is a desktop application that estimates the annual amount of rainwater and frequency of runoff from a specific site anywhere in the United States (including Puerto Rico). The SWC estimates runoff at a site based on available information ...

  1. Simulated pre-industrial climate in Bergen Climate Model (version 2: model description and large-scale circulation features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Otterå

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bergen Climate Model (BCM is a fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate. Here, a pre-industrial multi-century simulation with an updated version of BCM is described and compared to observational data. The model is run without any form of flux adjustments and is stable for several centuries. The simulated climate reproduces the general large-scale circulation in the atmosphere reasonably well, except for a positive bias in the high latitude sea level pressure distribution. Also, by introducing an updated turbulence scheme in the atmosphere model a persistent cold bias has been eliminated. For the ocean part, the model drifts in sea surface temperatures and salinities are considerably reduced compared to earlier versions of BCM. Improved conservation properties in the ocean model have contributed to this. Furthermore, by choosing a reference pressure at 2000 m and including thermobaric effects in the ocean model, a more realistic meridional overturning circulation is simulated in the Atlantic Ocean. The simulated sea-ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere is in general agreement with observational data except for summer where the extent is somewhat underestimated. In the Southern Hemisphere, large negative biases are found in the simulated sea-ice extent. This is partly related to problems with the mixed layer parametrization, causing the mixed layer in the Southern Ocean to be too deep, which in turn makes it hard to maintain a realistic sea-ice cover here. However, despite some problematic issues, the pre-industrial control simulation presented here should still be appropriate for climate change studies requiring multi-century simulations.

  2. Connected Equipment Maturity Model Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butzbaugh, Joshua B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Greg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whalen, Scott A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Connected Equipment Maturity Model (CEMM) evaluates the high-level functionality and characteristics that enable equipment to provide the four categories of energy-related services through communication with other entities (e.g., equipment, third parties, utilities, and users). The CEMM will help the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, energy efficiency organizations, and research institutions benchmark the current state of connected equipment and identify capabilities that may be attained to reach a more advanced, future state.

  3. Parameter Estimation in Rainfall-Runoff Modelling Using Distributed Versions of Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michala Jakubcová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper provides the analysis of selected versions of the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The tested versions of the PSO were combined with the shuffling mechanism, which splits the model population into complexes and performs distributed PSO optimization. One of them is a new proposed PSO modification, APartW, which enhances the global exploration and local exploitation in the parametric space during the optimization process through the new updating mechanism applied on the PSO inertia weight. The performances of four selected PSO methods were tested on 11 benchmark optimization problems, which were prepared for the special session on single-objective real-parameter optimization CEC 2005. The results confirm that the tested new APartW PSO variant is comparable with other existing distributed PSO versions, AdaptW and LinTimeVarW. The distributed PSO versions were developed for finding the solution of inverse problems related to the estimation of parameters of hydrological model Bilan. The results of the case study, made on the selected set of 30 catchments obtained from MOPEX database, show that tested distributed PSO versions provide suitable estimates of Bilan model parameters and thus can be used for solving related inverse problems during the calibration process of studied water balance hydrological model.

  4. System cost model user's manual, version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.

    1995-06-01

    The System Cost Model (SCM) was developed by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies in Idaho Falls, Idaho and MK-Environmental Services in San Francisco, California to support the Baseline Environmental Management Report sensitivity analysis for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The SCM serves the needs of the entire DOE complex for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. The model can be used to evaluate total complex costs based on various configuration options or to evaluate site-specific options. The site-specific cost estimates are based on generic assumptions such as waste loads and densities, treatment processing schemes, existing facilities capacities and functions, storage and disposal requirements, schedules, and cost factors. The SCM allows customization of the data for detailed site-specific estimates. There are approximately forty TSD module designs that have been further customized to account for design differences for nonalpha, alpha, remote-handled, and transuranic wastes. The SCM generates cost profiles based on the model default parameters or customized user-defined input and also generates costs for transporting waste from generators to TSD sites

  5. Field evaluations of a forestry version of DRAINMOD-NII model

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Tian; M. A. Youssef; R.W. Skaggs; D.M. Amatya; G.M. Chescheir

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of the newly developed forestry version of DRAINMOD-NII model using a long term (21-year) data set collected from an artificially drained loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in eastern North Carolina, U.S.A. The model simulates the main hydrological and biogeochemical processes in drained forested lands. The...

  6. A Hemispheric Version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This invited presentation will be given at the 4th Biannual Western Modeling Workshop in the Plenary session on Global model development, evaluation, and new source attribution tools. We describe the development and application of the hemispheric version of the CMAQ to examine th...

  7. Thematic report: Macroeconomic models including specifically social and environmental aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kratena, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    WWWforEurope Deliverable No. 8, 30 pages A significant reduction of the global environmental consequences of European consumption and production activities are the main objective of the policy simulations carried out in this paper. For this purpose three different modelling approaches have been chosen. Two macroeconomic models following the philosophy of consistent stock-flow accounting for the main institutional sectors (households, firms, banks, central bank and government) are used for...

  8. PUMA Version 6 Multiplatform with Facilities to be coupled with other Simulation Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    PUMA is a code for nuclear reactor calculation used in all nuclear installations in Argentina for simulation of fuel management, power cycles and transient events by means of spatial kinetic diffusion theory in 3D. For the versions used up to now the WINDOWS platform was used with very good results. Nowadays PUMA must work in different operative systems, LINUX among others, and must also have facilities to be coupled with other models. For this reason this new version was reprogrammed in ADA, language oriented to a safe programming and be found in any operative system. In former versions PUMA was executed through macro instructions written in LOGO. For this version it is possible to use also PYTHON, which makes also possible the access in execution time to internal data of PUMA. The use of PYTHON allows a easy way to couple PUMA with other codes. The possibilities of this new version of PUMA are shown by means of examples of input data and process control using PYTHON and LOGO. It is discussed the implementation of this methodology in other codes to be coupled with PUMA for versions run in WINDOWS and LINUX. (author)

  9. Zig-zag version of the Frenkel-Kontorova model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Savin, A.V.; Zolotaryuk, Alexander

    1996-01-01

    We study a generalization of the Frenkel-Kontorova model which describes a zig-zag chain of particles coupled by both the first- and second-neighbor harmonic forces and subjected to a planar substrate with a commensurate potential relief. The particles are supposed to have two degrees of freedom......: longitudinal and transverse displacements. Two types of two-component kink solutions corresponding to defects with topological charges Q=+/-1,+/-2 have been treated. The topological defects with positive charge (excess of one or two particles in the chain) are shown to be immobile while the negative defects...... (vacancies of one or two particles) have been proved at the same parameter values to be mobile objects. In our studies we apply a minimization scheme which has been proved to be an effective numerical method for seeking solitary wave solutions in molecular systems of large complexity. The dynamics of both...

  10. Conceptual Model of an Application for Automated Generation of Webpage Mobile Versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Rachovski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessing webpages through various types of mobile devices with different screen sizes and using different browsers has put new demands on web developers. The main challenge is the development of websites with responsive design that is adaptable depending on the mobile device used. The article presents a conceptual model of an app for automated generation of mobile pages. It has five-layer architecture: database, database management layer, business logic layer, web services layer and a presentation layer. The database stores all the data needed to run the application. The database management layer uses an ORM model to convert relational data into an object-oriented format and control the access to them. The business logic layer contains components that perform the actual work on building a mobile version of the page, including parsing, building a hierarchical model of the page and a number of transformations. The web services layer provides external applications with access to lower-level functionalities, and the presentation layer is responsible for choosing and using the appropriate CSS. A web application that uses the proposed model was developed and experiments were conducted.

  11. Paleoclimate modeling of the Amazonian glacial cycles using the new version of the LMD Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeleine, J.; Forget, F.; Head, J. W.; Millour, E.; Spiga, A.; Colaitis, A.; Montabone, L.; Montmessin, F.; Maattanen, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    Our study aims at better understanding the Mars climate system through the modeling of the Amazonian glacial cycles with the LMD Global Climate Model. In recent years, many atmospheric measurements by MRO, MGS and MEx, as well as in-situ measurements by the Phoenix lander have revealed the crucial role of various processes in shaping the current climate, such as the radiative effect of water-ice clouds or the scavenging of dust particles by clouds. In parallel, geological evidence for large-scale glaciations has been discovered, and a lot is still to be learned about the origin of the associated geological features. We have been working on developing a new version of the LMD Mars GCM which includes these processes and allows us to assess their impact on the Mars climate system under present-day and past conditions. The processes that are relevant to paleoclimate modeling are the following: - Interactive aerosols: The scavenging of dust particles is made possible by a semi-interactive dust transport scheme which is coupled to the water cycle scheme. The dust particles serve as condensation nuclei for water-ice cloud formation and can be scavenged. Both dust particles and water-ice crystals can scatter radiation depending on their size. - Near-surface convection: A new parameterization of the convection in the boundary layer has been developed and accounts for the turbulent mixing produced by local thermals. This new parameterization may have an impact on ice stability under paleoclimate conditions. - Ice deposition and surface properties: A new soil conduction model allows us to account for the changes in surface thermal inertia due to ice deposition, meaning that the thermal-inertia feedback is active. Also, the coupling between the dust cycle and the water cycle gives access to the amount of dust which is included in the ice deposits, and thereby provides an assessment of the stratigraphy. During the conference, we will revisit our paleoclimate simulations and

  12. Identifying Clusters with Mixture Models that Include Radial Velocity Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnatowicz, Alexis; Ybarra, Jason E.

    2018-01-01

    The study of stellar clusters plays an integral role in the study of star formation. We present a cluster mixture model that considers radial velocity data in addition to spatial data. Maximum likelihood estimation through the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used for parameter estimation. Our mixture model analysis can be used to distinguish adjacent or overlapping clusters, and estimate properties for each cluster.Work supported by awards from the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges (VFIC) Undergraduate Science Research Fellowship and The Research Experience @Bridgewater (TREB).

  13. PRMS-IV, the precipitation-runoff modeling system, version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Regan, R. Steve; Hay, Lauren E.; Viger, Roland J.; Webb, Richard M.; Payn, Robert A.; LaFontaine, Jacob H.

    2015-01-01

    Computer models that simulate the hydrologic cycle at a watershed scale facilitate assessment of variability in climate, biota, geology, and human activities on water availability and flow. This report describes an updated version of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System is a deterministic, distributed-parameter, physical-process-based modeling system developed to evaluate the response of various combinations of climate and land use on streamflow and general watershed hydrology. Several new model components were developed, and all existing components were updated, to enhance performance and supportability. This report describes the history, application, concepts, organization, and mathematical formulation of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System and its model components. This updated version provides improvements in (1) system flexibility for integrated science, (2) verification of conservation of water during simulation, (3) methods for spatial distribution of climate boundary conditions, and (4) methods for simulation of soil-water flow and storage.

  14. Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of unsteady air loads is an essential step in any aeroelastic analysis. The subsonic doublet lattice method (DLM) is used extensively for this purpose due to its simplicity and reliability. The body models available with the popular...

  15. Response Surface Modeling Tool Suite, Version 1.x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-05

    The Response Surface Modeling (RSM) Tool Suite is a collection of three codes used to generate an empirical interpolation function for a collection of drag coefficient calculations computed with Test Particle Monte Carlo (TPMC) simulations. The first code, "Automated RSM", automates the generation of a drag coefficient RSM for a particular object to a single command. "Automated RSM" first creates a Latin Hypercube Sample (LHS) of 1,000 ensemble members to explore the global parameter space. For each ensemble member, a TPMC simulation is performed and the object drag coefficient is computed. In the next step of the "Automated RSM" code, a Gaussian process is used to fit the TPMC simulations. In the final step, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used to evaluate the non-analytic probability distribution function from the Gaussian process. The second code, "RSM Area", creates a look-up table for the projected area of the object based on input limits on the minimum and maximum allowed pitch and yaw angles and pitch and yaw angle intervals. The projected area from the look-up table is used to compute the ballistic coefficient of the object based on its pitch and yaw angle. An accurate ballistic coefficient is crucial in accurately computing the drag on an object. The third code, "RSM Cd", uses the RSM generated by the "Automated RSM" code and the projected area look-up table generated by the "RSM Area" code to accurately compute the drag coefficient and ballistic coefficient of the object. The user can modify the object velocity, object surface temperature, the translational temperature of the gas, the species concentrations of the gas, and the pitch and yaw angles of the object. Together, these codes allow for the accurate derivation of an object's drag coefficient and ballistic coefficient under any conditions with only knowledge of the object's geometry and mass.

  16. A satellite relative motion model including J_2 and J_3 via Vinti's intermediary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biria, Ashley D.; Russell, Ryan P.

    2018-03-01

    Vinti's potential is revisited for analytical propagation of the main satellite problem, this time in the context of relative motion. A particular version of Vinti's spheroidal method is chosen that is valid for arbitrary elliptical orbits, encapsulating J_2, J_3, and generally a partial J_4 in an orbit propagation theory without recourse to perturbation methods. As a child of Vinti's solution, the proposed relative motion model inherits these properties. Furthermore, the problem is solved in oblate spheroidal elements, leading to large regions of validity for the linearization approximation. After offering several enhancements to Vinti's solution, including boosts in accuracy and removal of some singularities, the proposed model is derived and subsequently reformulated so that Vinti's solution is piecewise differentiable. While the model is valid for the critical inclination and nonsingular in the element space, singularities remain in the linear transformation from Earth-centered inertial coordinates to spheroidal elements when the eccentricity is zero or for nearly equatorial orbits. The new state transition matrix is evaluated against numerical solutions including the J_2 through J_5 terms for a wide range of chief orbits and separation distances. The solution is also compared with side-by-side simulations of the original Gim-Alfriend state transition matrix, which considers the J_2 perturbation. Code for computing the resulting state transition matrix and associated reference frame and coordinate transformations is provided online as supplementary material.

  17. A thermal lens model including the Soret effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, Humberto; Sira, Eloy; Rahn, Kareem; Garcia-Sucre, Maximo

    2009-01-01

    In this letter we generalize the thermal lens model to account for the Soret effect in binary liquid mixtures. This formalism permits the precise determination of the Soret coefficient in a steady-state situation. The theory is experimentally verified using the measured values in the ethanol/water mixtures. The time evolution of the Soret signal has been used to derive mass-diffusion times from which mass-diffusion coefficients were calculated. (Author)

  18. Including lateral interactions into microkinetic models of catalytic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, Anders; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina

    2007-01-01

    In many catalytic reactions lateral interactions between adsorbates are believed to have a strong influence on the reaction rates. We apply a microkinetic model to explore the effect of lateral interactions and how to efficiently take them into account in a simple catalytic reaction. Three differ...... different approximations are investigated: site, mean-field, and quasichemical approximations. The obtained results are compared to accurate Monte Carlo numbers. In the end, we apply the approximations to a real catalytic reaction, namely, ammonia synthesis....

  19. A stochastic model of gene expression including splicing events

    OpenAIRE

    Penim, Flávia Alexandra Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Bioinformática e Biologia Computacional, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2014 Proteins carry out the great majority of the catalytic and structural work within an organism. The RNA templates used in their synthesis determines their identity, and this is dictated by which genes are transcribed. Therefore, gene expression is the fundamental determinant of an organism’s nature. The main objective of this thesis was to develop a stochastic computational model a...

  20. COSMO-CLM{sup 2}: a new version of the COSMO-CLM model coupled to the Community Land Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davin, Edouard L.; Jaeger, Eric B.; Seneviratne, Sonia I. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Zurich (Switzerland); Stoeckli, Reto [ETH Zurich, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Zurich (Switzerland); MeteoSwiss, Climate Services, Climate Analysis, Zurich (Switzerland); Levis, Samuel [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study presents an evaluation of a new biosphere-atmosphere Regional Climate Model. COSMO-CLM{sup 2} results from the coupling between the non-hydrostatic atmospheric model COSMO-CLM version 4.0 and the Community Land Model version 3.5 (CLM3.5). In this coupling, CLM3.5 replaces a simpler land surface parameterization (TERRA{sub M}L) used in the standard COSMO-CLM. Compared to TERRA{sub M}L, CLM3.5 comprises a more complete representation of land surface processes including hydrology, biogeophysics, biogeochemistry and vegetation dynamics. Historical climate simulations over Europe with COSMO-CLM and with the new COSMO-CLM{sup 2} are evaluated against various data products. The simulated climate is found to be substantially affected by the coupling with CLM3.5, particularly in summer. Radiation fluxes as well as turbulent fluxes at the surface are found to be more realistically represented in COSMO-CLM{sup 2}. This subsequently leads to improvements of several aspects of the simulated climate (cloud cover, surface temperature and precipitation). We show that a better partitioning of turbulent fluxes is the central factor allowing for the better performances of COSMO-CLM{sup 2} over COSMO-CLM. Despite these improvements, some model deficiencies still remain, most notably a substantial underestimation of surface net shortwave radiation. Overall, these results highlight the importance of land surface processes in shaping the European climate and the benefit of using an advanced land surface model for regional climate simulations. (orig.)

  1. Parton recombination model including resonance production. RL-78-040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.G.; Hwa, R.C.; Matsuda, S.

    1978-05-01

    Possible effects of resonance production on the meson inclusive distribution in the fragmentation region are investigated in the framework of the parton recombination model. From a detailed study of the data on vector-meson production, a reliable ratio of the vector-to-pseudoscalar rates is determined. Then the influence of the decay of the vector mesons on the pseudoscalar spectrum is examined, and the effect found to be no more than 25% for x > 0.5. The normalization of the non-strange antiquark distributions are still higher than those in a quiescent proton. The agreement between the calculated results and data remain very good. 36 references

  2. Extending PSA models including ageing and asset management - 15291

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to Ageing Probabilistic Safety Assessment (APSA) modelling, which is intended to be used to support risk-informed decisions on the effectiveness of maintenance management programs and technical specification requirements of critical equipment of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) within the framework of the Risk Informed Decision Making according to R.G. 1.174 principles. This approach focuses on the incorporation of not only equipment ageing but also effectiveness of maintenance and efficiency of surveillance testing explicitly into APSA models and data. This methodology is applied to a motor-operated valve of the auxiliary feed water system (AFWS) of a PWR. This simple example of application focuses on a critical safety-related equipment of a NPP in order to evaluate the risk impact of considering different approaches to APSA and the combined effect of equipment ageing and maintenance and testing alternatives along NPP design life. The risk impact of several alternatives in maintenance strategy is discussed

  3. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at possible canister scale has been modelled for four different lithological domains (RSMA01 (Aevroe granite), RSMB01 (Fine-grained dioritoid), RSMC01 (mixture of Aevroe granite and Quartz monzodiorite), and RSMD01 (Quartz monzodiorite)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Three alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, the Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings within the specific rock type has also been used in the domain modelling in order to consider the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to the presented relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit only a small variation between the different domains, from 2.62 W/(m.K) to 2.80 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered and for the canister scale it is expected to range from 0.20 to 0.28 W/(m.K). Consequently, the lower confidence limit (95% confidence) for the canister scale is within the range 2.04-2.35 W/(m.K) for the different domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-3.4% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock

  4. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Wrafter, John; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for five different lithological domains: RSMA (Aevroe granite), RSMBA (mixture of Aevroe granite and fine-grained dioritoid), RSMD (quartz monzodiorite), RSME (diorite/gabbro) and RSMM (mix domain with high frequency of diorite to gabbro). A base modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Four alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological domain model for the Laxemar subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models based on measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings have also been used in the domain modelling in order to evaluate the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to an established relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the means of thermal conductivity for the various domains are expected to exhibit a variation from 2.45 W/(m.K) to 2.87 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered, and for the 0.8 m scale it is expected to range from 0.17 to 0.29 W/(m.K). Estimates of lower tail percentiles for the same scale are presented for all five domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-5.3% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominant rock types. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these

  5. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at possible canister scale has been modelled for four different lithological domains (RSMA01 (Aevroe granite), RSMB01 (Fine-grained dioritoid), RSMC01 (mixture of Aevroe granite and Quartz monzodiorite), and RSMD01 (Quartz monzodiorite)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Three alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Simpevarp subarea, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. For one rock type, the Aevroe granite (501044), density loggings within the specific rock type has also been used in the domain modelling in order to consider the spatial variability within the Aevroe granite. This has been possible due to the presented relationship between density and thermal conductivity, valid for the Aevroe granite. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit only a small variation between the different domains, from 2.62 W/(m.K) to 2.80 W/(m.K). The standard deviation varies according to the scale considered and for the canister scale it is expected to range from 0.20 to 0.28 W/(m.K). Consequently, the lower confidence limit (95% confidence) for the canister scale is within the range 2.04-2.35 W/(m.K) for the different domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 1.1-3.4% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock

  6. A Revised Thermosphere for the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM Version 3.4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, D. L.; James, B. F.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the newly-revised model thermosphere for the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM, Version 3.4). It also provides descriptions of other changes made to the program since publication of the programmer's guide for Mars-GRAM Version 3.34. The original Mars-GRAM model thermosphere was based on the global-mean model of Stewart. The revised thermosphere is based largely on parameterizations derived from output data from the three-dimensional Mars Thermospheric Global Circulation Model (MTGCM). The new thermospheric model includes revised dependence on the 10.7 cm solar flux for the global means of exospheric temperature, temperature of the base of the thermosphere, and scale height for the thermospheric temperature variations, as well as revised dependence on orbital position for global mean height of the base of the thermosphere. Other features of the new thermospheric model are: (1) realistic variations of temperature and density with latitude and time of day, (2) more realistic wind magnitudes, based on improved estimates of horizontal pressure gradients, and (3) allowance for user-input adjustments to the model values for mean exospheric temperature and for height and temperature at the base of the thermosphere. Other new features of Mars-GRAM 3.4 include: (1) allowance for user-input values of climatic adjustment factors for temperature profiles from the surface to 75 km, and (2) a revised method for computing the sub-solar longitude position in the 'ORBIT' subroutine.

  7. Site investigation SFR. Hydrogeological modelling of SFR. Model version 0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). A hydrogeological model is developed in three model versions, which will be used for safety assessment and design analyses. This report presents a data analysis of the currently available hydrogeological data from the ongoing Site Investigation SFR (KFR27, KFR101, KFR102A, KFR102B, KFR103, KFR104, and KFR105). The purpose of this work is to develop a preliminary hydrogeological Discrete Fracture Network model (hydro-DFN) parameterisation that can be applied in regional-scale modelling. During this work, the Geologic model had not yet been updated for the new data set. Therefore, all analyses were made to the rock mass outside Possible Deformation Zones, according to Single Hole Interpretation. Owing to this circumstance, it was decided not to perform a complete hydro-DFN calibration at this stage. Instead focus was re-directed to preparatory test cases and conceptual questions with the aim to provide a sound strategy for developing the hydrogeological model SFR v. 1.0. The presented preliminary hydro-DFN consists of five fracture sets and three depth domains. A statistical/geometrical approach (connectivity analysis /Follin et al. 2005/) was performed to estimate the size (i.e. fracture radius) distribution of fractures that are interpreted as Open in geologic mapping of core data. Transmissivity relations were established based on an assumption of a correlation between the size and evaluated specific capacity of geologic features coupled to inflows measured by the Posiva Flow Log device (PFL-f data). The preliminary hydro-DFN was applied in flow simulations in order to test its performance and to explore the role of PFL-f data. Several insights were gained and a few model technical issues were raised. These are summarised in Table 5-1

  8. Site investigation SFR. Hydrogeological modelling of SFR. Model version 0.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehman, Johan; Follin, Sven

    2010-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). A hydrogeological model is developed in three model versions, which will be used for safety assessment and design analyses. This report presents a data analysis of the currently available hydrogeological data from the ongoing Site Investigation SFR (KFR27, KFR101, KFR102A, KFR102B, KFR103, KFR104, and KFR105). The purpose of this work is to develop a preliminary hydrogeological Discrete Fracture Network model (hydro-DFN) parameterisation that can be applied in regional-scale modelling. During this work, the Geologic model had not yet been updated for the new data set. Therefore, all analyses were made to the rock mass outside Possible Deformation Zones, according to Single Hole Interpretation. Owing to this circumstance, it was decided not to perform a complete hydro-DFN calibration at this stage. Instead focus was re-directed to preparatory test cases and conceptual questions with the aim to provide a sound strategy for developing the hydrogeological model SFR v. 1.0. The presented preliminary hydro-DFN consists of five fracture sets and three depth domains. A statistical/geometrical approach (connectivity analysis /Follin et al. 2005/) was performed to estimate the size (i.e. fracture radius) distribution of fractures that are interpreted as Open in geologic mapping of core data. Transmissivity relations were established based on an assumption of a correlation between the size and evaluated specific capacity of geologic features coupled to inflows measured by the Posiva Flow Log device (PFL-f data). The preliminary hydro-DFN was applied in flow simulations in order to test its performance and to explore the role of PFL-f data. Several insights were gained and a few model technical issues were raised. These are summarised in Table 5-1

  9. User's guide to the Yucca Mountain Integrating Model (YMIM) Version 2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gansemer, J.; Lamont, A.

    1995-04-01

    The Yucca Mountain Integrating Model (YMIM) is an integrated model of the engineered barrier system. It contains models of the processes of waste container failure and nuclide release from the fuel rods. YMIM is driven by scenarios of container and rod temperature, near-field chemistry, and near-field hydrology provided by other modules. It is designed to be highly modular so that a model of an individual process can be easily modified to replaced without interfering with the models of other processes. This manual describes the process models and provides instructions for setting up and running YMIM Version 2.1

  10. Three Versions of the Interpersonal Adjective Scales and their Fit to the Circumplex Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan S.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2004-01-01

    The Interpersonal Adjective Scales (IAS) is a well-supported instrument that is designed to map interpersonal traits onto the interpersonal circumplex. However, three versions of the IAS exist and these vary with respect to the degree to which they included item definitions (i.e., glossary added at the end, definitions attached to each item, and…

  11. Energy Integration for 2050 - A Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM), Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-01

    The United States (U.S.) energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible, and economic in the world. On the other hand, it is also excessively reliant on foreign energy sources, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not always practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources, and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gas. The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting research and development on advanced nuclear reactor concepts and technologies, including High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies, directed at helping the United States meet its current and future energy challenges. This report discusses the Draft Strategic Impact Model (SIM), an initial version of which was created during the later part of FY-2010. SIM was developed to analyze and depict the benefits of various energy sources in meeting the energy demand and to provide an overall system understanding of the tradeoffs between building and using HTGRs versus other existing technologies for providing energy (heat and electricity) to various energy-use sectors in the United States. This report also provides the assumptions used in the model, the rationale for the methodology, and the references for the source documentation and source data used in developing the SIM.

  12. Energy Integration for 2050 - A Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM), Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Collins

    2011-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible, and economic in the world. On the other hand, it is also excessively reliant on foreign energy sources, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not always practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources, and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gas. The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting research and development on advanced nuclear reactor concepts and technologies, including High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies, directed at helping the United States meet its current and future energy challenges. This report discusses the Draft Strategic Impact Model (SIM), an initial version of which was created during the later part of FY-2010. SIM was developed to analyze and depict the benefits of various energy sources in meeting the energy demand and to provide an overall system understanding of the tradeoffs between building and using HTGRs versus other existing technologies for providing energy (heat and electricity) to various energy-use sectors in the United States. This report also provides the assumptions used in the model, the rationale for the methodology, and the references for the source documentation and source data used in developing the SIM.

  13. The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF VERSION 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brioude, J.; Arnold, D.; Stohl, A.; Cassiani, M.; Morton, Don; Seibert, P.; Angevine, W. M.; Evan, S.; Dingwell, A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Pisso, I.; Bukhart, J.; Wotawa, G.

    2013-11-01

    The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART was originally designed for cal- culating long-range and mesoscale dispersion of air pollutants from point sources, such as after an accident in a nuclear power plant. In the meantime FLEXPART has evolved into a comprehensive tool for atmospheric transport modeling and analysis at different scales. This multiscale need from the modeler community has encouraged new developments in FLEXPART. In this document, we present a version that works with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteoro- logical model. Simple procedures on how to run FLEXPART-WRF are presented along with special options and features that differ from its predecessor versions. In addition, test case data, the source code and visualization tools are provided to the reader as supplementary material.

  14. Towards New Empirical Versions of Financial and Accounting Models Corrected for Measurement Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Francois-Éric Racicot; Raymond Théoret; Alain Coen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new empirical version of the Fama and French Model based on the Hausman (1978) specification test and aimed at discarding measurement errors in the variables. The proposed empirical framework is general enough to be used for correcting other financial and accounting models of measurement errors. Removing measurement errors is important at many levels as information disclosure, corporate governance and protection of investors.

  15. Development of a comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including a self-report version of the International Spinal Cord Injury sexual function basic data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, P W; Currie, K E

    2016-08-01

    Questionnaire development, validation and completion. Develop comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including validated self-report versions of the International Spinal Cord Injury male sexual function and female sexual and reproductive function basic data sets (SR-iSCI-sexual function). People with spinal cord damage (SCD) living in the community, Australia from August 2013 to June 2014. An iterative process involving rehabilitation medicine clinicians, a nurse specialising in sexuality issues in SCD and people with SCD who developed a comprehensive survey that included the SR-iSCI-sexual function. Participants recruitment through spinal rehabilitation review clinic and community organisations that support people with SCD. Surveys completed by 154 people. Most were male (n=101, 65.6%). Respondents' median age was 50 years (interquartile range (IQR) 38-58), and they were a median of 10 years (IQR 4-20) after the onset of SCD. Sexual problems unrelated to SCD were reported by 12 (8%) respondents, and 114 (n=75.5%) reported sexual problems because of SCD. Orgasms were much less likely (χ(2)=13.1, P=0.006) to be normal in males (n=5, 5%) compared with females (n=11, 22%). Males had significantly worse (χ(2)=26.0, P=0.001) psychogenic genital functioning (normal n=9, 9%) than females (normal n=13, 26%) and worse (χ(2)=10.8, P=0.013) reflex genital functioning. Normal ejaculation was reported in only three (3%) men. Most (n=26, 52%) women reported reduced or absent menstruation pattern since SCD. The SR-iSCI-sexual function provides a useful tool for researchers and clinicians to collect information regarding patient-reported sexual functioning after SCD and to facilitate comparative studies.

  16. Uniform California earthquake rupture forecast, version 3 (UCERF3): the time-independent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Edward H.; Biasi, Glenn P.; Bird, Peter; Dawson, Timothy E.; Felzer, Karen R.; Jackson, David D.; Johnson, Kaj M.; Jordan, Thomas H.; Madden, Christopher; Michael, Andrew J.; Milner, Kevin R.; Page, Morgan T.; Parsons, Thomas; Powers, Peter M.; Shaw, Bruce E.; Thatcher, Wayne R.; Weldon, Ray J.; Zeng, Yuehua; ,

    2013-01-01

    In this report we present the time-independent component of the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 3 (UCERF3), which provides authoritative estimates of the magnitude, location, and time-averaged frequency of potentially damaging earthquakes in California. The primary achievements have been to relax fault segmentation assumptions and to include multifault ruptures, both limitations of the previous model (UCERF2). The rates of all earthquakes are solved for simultaneously, and from a broader range of data, using a system-level "grand inversion" that is both conceptually simple and extensible. The inverse problem is large and underdetermined, so a range of models is sampled using an efficient simulated annealing algorithm. The approach is more derivative than prescriptive (for example, magnitude-frequency distributions are no longer assumed), so new analysis tools were developed for exploring solutions. Epistemic uncertainties were also accounted for using 1,440 alternative logic tree branches, necessitating access to supercomputers. The most influential uncertainties include alternative deformation models (fault slip rates), a new smoothed seismicity algorithm, alternative values for the total rate of M≥5 events, and different scaling relationships, virtually all of which are new. As a notable first, three deformation models are based on kinematically consistent inversions of geodetic and geologic data, also providing slip-rate constraints on faults previously excluded because of lack of geologic data. The grand inversion constitutes a system-level framework for testing hypotheses and balancing the influence of different experts. For example, we demonstrate serious challenges with the Gutenberg-Richter hypothesis for individual faults. UCERF3 is still an approximation of the system, however, and the range of models is limited (for example, constrained to stay close to UCERF2). Nevertheless, UCERF3 removes the apparent UCERF2 overprediction of

  17. Approaches in highly parameterized inversion—PEST++ Version 3, a Parameter ESTimation and uncertainty analysis software suite optimized for large environmental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, David E.; White, Jeremy T.; Hunt, Randall J.; Doherty, John E.

    2015-09-18

    The PEST++ Version 1 object-oriented parameter estimation code is here extended to Version 3 to incorporate additional algorithms and tools to further improve support for large and complex environmental modeling problems. PEST++ Version 3 includes the Gauss-Marquardt-Levenberg (GML) algorithm for nonlinear parameter estimation, Tikhonov regularization, integrated linear-based uncertainty quantification, options of integrated TCP/IP based parallel run management or external independent run management by use of a Version 2 update of the GENIE Version 1 software code, and utilities for global sensitivity analyses. The Version 3 code design is consistent with PEST++ Version 1 and continues to be designed to lower the barriers of entry for users as well as developers while providing efficient and optimized algorithms capable of accommodating large, highly parameterized inverse problems. As such, this effort continues the original focus of (1) implementing the most popular and powerful features of the PEST software suite in a fashion that is easy for novice or experienced modelers to use and (2) developing a software framework that is easy to extend.

  18. UNSAT-H Version 3.0: Unsaturated Soil Water and Heat Flow Model Theory, User Manual, and Examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The UNSAT-H model was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the water dynamics of arid sites and, in particular, estimate recharge fluxes for scenarios pertinent to waste disposal facilities. During the last 4 years, the UNSAT-H model received support from the Immobilized Waste Program (IWP) of the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This program is designing and assessing the performance of on-site disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site (LMHC 1999). The IWP is interested in estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the vadose zone disposal of tank wastes. Simulation modeling with UNSAT-H is one of the methods being used to provide those estimates (e.g., Rockhold et al. 1995; Fayer et al. 1999). To achieve the above goals for assessing water dynamics and estimating recharge rates, the UNSAT-H model addresses soil water infiltration, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, deep drainage, and soil heat flow as one-dimensional processes. The UNSAT-H model simulates liquid water flow using Richards' equation (Richards 1931), water vapor diffusion using Fick's law, and sensible heat flow using the Fourier equation. This report documents UNSAT-H .Version 3.0. The report includes the bases for the conceptual model and its numerical implementation, benchmark test cases, example simulations involving layered soils and plants, and the code manual. Version 3.0 is an, enhanced-capability update of UNSAT-H Version 2.0 (Fayer and Jones 1990). New features include hysteresis, an iterative solution of head and temperature, an energy balance check, the modified Picard solution technique, additional hydraulic functions, multiple-year simulation capability, and general enhancements

  19. Smart Grid Maturity Model: SGMM Model Definition. Version 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    taking place. This might include using radio-frequency identification ( RFID ) technology to link assets to an inventory database that connects GIS and...warehoused). Automation might include workers entering the data via keyboard or barcode reader at the warehouse , or something more advanced like using... RFID tags. WAM-3.7 Modeling of asset investments for key components is underway. The asset performance and management modeling is based on real smart

  20. Overlaid Alice: a statistical model computer code including fission and preequilibrium models. [FORTRAN, cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blann, M.

    1976-01-01

    The most recent edition of an evaporation code originally written previously with frequent updating and improvement. This version replaces the version Alice described previously. A brief summary is given of the types of calculations which can be done. A listing of the code and the results of several sample calculations are presented. (JFP)

  1. Hydrogeochemical evaluation for Simpevarp model version 1.2. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Simpevarp groundwater analytical data collected up to April, 2004. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1.7 km. Model version 1.2 focusses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1000 m depth. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1000 m depending on local topography. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major hydrochemical groups of groundwaters (types A-D) have been identified: TYPE A: This type comprises dilute groundwaters (< 1000 mg/L Cl; 0.5-2.0 g/L TDS) of Na-HCO{sub 3} type present at shallow (<200 m) depths at Simpevarp, but at greater depths (0-900 m) at Laxemar. At both localities the groundwaters are marginally oxidising close to the surface, but otherwise reducing. Main reactions involve weathering, ion exchange (Ca, Mg), surface complexation, and dissolution of calcite. Redox reactions include precipitation of Fe-oxyhydroxides and some microbially mediated reactions (SRB). Meteoric recharge water is mainly present at Laxemar whilst at Simpevarp potential mixing of recharge meteoric water and a modern sea component is observed. Localised mixing of meteoric water with deeper saline groundwaters is indicated at both Laxemar and Simpevarp. TYPE B: This type comprises brackish groundwaters (1000-6000 mg/L Cl; 5-10 g/L TDS) present at

  2. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for two different lithological domains (RFM029 and RFM012, both dominated by granite to granodiorite (101057)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Two alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit a small variation between the different domains, 3.46 W/(mxK) for RFM012 to 3.55 W/(mxK) for RFM029. The spatial distribution of the thermal conductivity does not follow a simple model. Lower and upper 95% confidence limits are based on the modelling results, but have been rounded of to only two significant figures. Consequently, the lower limit is 2.9 W/(mxK), while the upper is 3.8 W/(mxK). This is applicable to both the investigated domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 10.0% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock type. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these results. One of the uncertainties considers the representative scale for the canister. Another important uncertainty is the methodological uncertainties associated with the upscaling of thermal conductivity from cm-scale to canister scale. In addition, the representativeness of rock samples is

  3. Categorical Inputs, Sensitivity Analysis, Optimization and Importance Tempering with tgp Version 2, an R Package for Treed Gaussian Process Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Gramacy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the new features in version 2.x of the tgp package for R, implementing treed Gaussian process (GP models. The topics covered include methods for dealing with categorical inputs and excluding inputs from the tree or GP part of the model; fully Bayesian sensitivity analysis for inputs/covariates; sequential optimization of black-box functions; and a new Monte Carlo method for inference in multi-modal posterior distributions that combines simulated tempering and importance sampling. These additions extend the functionality of tgp across all models in the hierarchy: from Bayesian linear models, to classification and regression trees (CART, to treed Gaussian processes with jumps to the limiting linear model. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the baseline functionality of the package, outlined in the first vignette (Gramacy 2007.

  4. COMODI: an ontology to characterise differences in versions of computational models in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharm, Martin; Waltemath, Dagmar; Mendes, Pedro; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2016-07-11

    Open model repositories provide ready-to-reuse computational models of biological systems. Models within those repositories evolve over time, leading to different model versions. Taken together, the underlying changes reflect a model's provenance and thus can give valuable insights into the studied biology. Currently, however, changes cannot be semantically interpreted. To improve this situation, we developed an ontology of terms describing changes in models. The ontology can be used by scientists and within software to characterise model updates at the level of single changes. When studying or reusing a model, these annotations help with determining the relevance of a change in a given context. We manually studied changes in selected models from BioModels and the Physiome Model Repository. Using the BiVeS tool for difference detection, we then performed an automatic analysis of changes in all models published in these repositories. The resulting set of concepts led us to define candidate terms for the ontology. In a final step, we aggregated and classified these terms and built the first version of the ontology. We present COMODI, an ontology needed because COmputational MOdels DIffer. It empowers users and software to describe changes in a model on the semantic level. COMODI also enables software to implement user-specific filter options for the display of model changes. Finally, COMODI is a step towards predicting how a change in a model influences the simulation results. COMODI, coupled with our algorithm for difference detection, ensures the transparency of a model's evolution, and it enhances the traceability of updates and error corrections. COMODI is encoded in OWL. It is openly available at http://comodi.sems.uni-rostock.de/ .

  5. Planned development and evaluation protocol of two versions of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention aimed at adults, including cognitive and environmental feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; Oenema, Anke

    2014-01-17

    Despite decades of nutrition education, the prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns is still high and inequalities in intake between high and low socioeconomic groups still exist. Therefore, it is important to innovate and improve existing nutrition education interventions. This paper describes the development, design and evaluation protocol of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults targeting fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack and fat intake. This intervention innovates existing computer-tailored interventions by not only targeting motivational factors, but also volitional and self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors. The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping protocol, ensuring a theory-informed and evidence-based intervention. Two versions of the intervention were developed: a basic version targeting knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy and volitional and self-regulation processes, and a plus version additionally addressing the home environment arrangement and the availability and price of healthy food products in supermarkets. Both versions consist of four modules: one for each dietary behavior, i.e. fruit, vegetables, high-energy snacks and fat. Based on the self-regulation phases, each module is divided into three sessions. In the first session, feedback on dietary behavior is provided to increase awareness, feedback on attitude and self-efficacy is provided and goals and action plans are stated. In the second session goal achievement is evaluated, reasons for failure are explored, coping plans are stated and goals can be adapted. In the third session, participants can again evaluate their behavioral change and tips for maintenance are provided. Both versions will be evaluated in a three-group randomized controlled trial with measurements at baseline, 1-month, 4-months and 9-months post-intervention, using online questionnaires. Both versions will be compared with a generic

  6. A multisensor evaluation of the asymmetric convective model, version 2, in southeast Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Jenna S; Pleim, Jonathan E; Jeffries, Harvey E; Vizuete, William

    2013-01-01

    There currently exist a number of planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes that can represent the effects of turbulence in daytime convective conditions, although these schemes remain a large source of uncertainty in meteorology and air quality model simulations. This study evaluates a recently developed combined local and nonlocal closure PBL scheme, the Asymmetric Convective Model, version 2 (ACM2), against PBL observations taken from radar wind profilers, a ground-based lidar, and multiple daytime radiosonde balloon launches. These observations were compared against predictions of PBLs from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.1 with the ACM2 PBL scheme option, and the Fifth-Generation Meteorological Model (MM5) version 3.7.3 with the Eta PBL scheme option that is currently being used to develop ozone control strategies in southeast Texas. MM5 and WRF predictions during the regulatory modeling episode were evaluated on their ability to predict the rise and fall of the PBL during daytime convective conditions across southeastern Texas. The MM5 predicted PBLs consistently underpredicted observations, and were also less than the WRF PBL predictions. The analysis reveals that the MM5 predicted a slower rising and shallower PBL not representative of the daytime urban boundary layer. Alternatively, the WRF model predicted a more accurate PBL evolution improving the root mean square error (RMSE), both temporally and spatially. The WRF model also more accurately predicted vertical profiles of temperature and moisture in the lowest 3 km of the atmosphere. Inspection of median surface temperature and moisture time-series plots revealed higher predicted surface temperatures in WRF and more surface moisture in MM5. These could not be attributed to surface heat fluxes, and thus the differences in performance of the WRF and MM5 models are likely due to the PBL schemes. An accurate depiction of the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is

  7. Incorporation of detailed eye model into polygon-mesh versions of ICRP-110 reference phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thang Tat; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Han Sung; Wang, Zhao Jun; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Lee, Jai Ki; Zankl, Maria; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Beom Sun

    2015-11-21

    The dose coefficients for the eye lens reported in ICRP 2010 Publication 116 were calculated using both a stylized model and the ICRP-110 reference phantoms, according to the type of radiation, energy, and irradiation geometry. To maintain consistency of lens dose assessment, in the present study we incorporated the ICRP-116 detailed eye model into the converted polygon-mesh (PM) version of the ICRP-110 reference phantoms. After the incorporation, the dose coefficients for the eye lens were calculated and compared with those of the ICRP-116 data. The results showed generally a good agreement between the newly calculated lens dose coefficients and the values of ICRP 2010 Publication 116. Significant differences were found for some irradiation cases due mainly to the use of different types of phantoms. Considering that the PM version of the ICRP-110 reference phantoms preserve the original topology of the ICRP-110 reference phantoms, it is believed that the PM version phantoms, along with the detailed eye model, provide more reliable and consistent dose coefficients for the eye lens.

  8. Incremental testing of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system version 4.7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Foley

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the scientific and structural updates to the latest release of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system version 4.7 (v4.7 and points the reader to additional resources for further details. The model updates were evaluated relative to observations and results from previous model versions in a series of simulations conducted to incrementally assess the effect of each change. The focus of this paper is on five major scientific upgrades: (a updates to the heterogeneous N2O5 parameterization, (b improvement in the treatment of secondary organic aerosol (SOA, (c inclusion of dynamic mass transfer for coarse-mode aerosol, (d revisions to the cloud model, and (e new options for the calculation of photolysis rates. Incremental test simulations over the eastern United States during January and August 2006 are evaluated to assess the model response to each scientific improvement, providing explanations of differences in results between v4.7 and previously released CMAQ model versions. Particulate sulfate predictions are improved across all monitoring networks during both seasons due to cloud module updates. Numerous updates to the SOA module improve the simulation of seasonal variability and decrease the bias in organic carbon predictions at urban sites in the winter. Bias in the total mass of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 is dominated by overpredictions of unspeciated PM2.5 (PMother in the winter and by underpredictions of carbon in the summer. The CMAQv4.7 model results show slightly worse performance for ozone predictions. However, changes to the meteorological inputs are found to have a much greater impact on ozone predictions compared to changes to the CMAQ modules described here. Model updates had little effect on existing biases in wet deposition predictions.

  9. Statistical model of fractures and deformation zones. Preliminary site description, Laxemar subarea, version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, WA (United States)

    2005-10-15

    The goal of this summary report is to document the data sources, software tools, experimental methods, assumptions, and model parameters in the discrete-fracture network (DFN) model for the local model volume in Laxemar, version 1.2. The model parameters presented herein are intended for use by other project modeling teams. Individual modeling teams may elect to simplify or use only a portion of the DFN model, depending on their needs. This model is not intended to be a flow model or a mechanical model; as such, only the geometrical characterization is presented. The derivations of the hydraulic or mechanical properties of the fractures or their subsurface connectivities are not within the scope of this report. This model represents analyses carried out on particular data sets. If additional data are obtained, or values for existing data are changed or excluded, the conclusions reached in this report, and the parameter values calculated, may change as well. The model volume is divided into two subareas; one located on the Simpevarp peninsula adjacent to the power plant (Simpevarp), and one further to the west (Laxemar). The DFN parameters described in this report were determined by analysis of data collected within the local model volume. As such, the final DFN model is only valid within this local model volume and the modeling subareas (Laxemar and Simpevarp) within.

  10. Simulations of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period using two versions of the NASA/GISS ModelE2-R Coupled Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Chandler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP bears many similarities to aspects of future global warming as projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007. Both marine and terrestrial data point to high-latitude temperature amplification, including large decreases in sea ice and land ice, as well as expansion of warmer climate biomes into higher latitudes. Here we present our most recent simulations of the mid-Pliocene climate using the CMIP5 version of the NASA/GISS Earth System Model (ModelE2-R. We describe the substantial impact associated with a recent correction made in the implementation of the Gent-McWilliams ocean mixing scheme (GM, which has a large effect on the simulation of ocean surface temperatures, particularly in the North Atlantic Ocean. The effect of this correction on the Pliocene climate results would not have been easily determined from examining its impact on the preindustrial runs alone, a useful demonstration of how the consequences of code improvements as seen in modern climate control runs do not necessarily portend the impacts in extreme climates. Both the GM-corrected and GM-uncorrected simulations were contributed to the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP Experiment 2. Many findings presented here corroborate results from other PlioMIP multi-model ensemble papers, but we also emphasise features in the ModelE2-R simulations that are unlike the ensemble means. The corrected version yields results that more closely resemble the ocean core data as well as the PRISM3D reconstructions of the mid-Pliocene, especially the dramatic warming in the North Atlantic and Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Sea, which in the new simulation appears to be far more realistic than previously found with older versions of the GISS model. Our belief is that continued development of key physical routines in the atmospheric model, along with higher resolution and recent corrections to mixing parameterisations in the ocean

  11. Simulations of the Mid-Pliocene Warm Period Using Two Versions of the NASA-GISS ModelE2-R Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, M. A.; Sohl, L. E.; Jonas, J. A.; Dowsett, H. J.; Kelley, M.

    2013-01-01

    The mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP) bears many similarities to aspects of future global warming as projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007). Both marine and terrestrial data point to high-latitude temperature amplification, including large decreases in sea ice and land ice, as well as expansion of warmer climate biomes into higher latitudes. Here we present our most recent simulations of the mid-Pliocene climate using the CMIP5 version of the NASAGISS Earth System Model (ModelE2-R). We describe the substantial impact associated with a recent correction made in the implementation of the Gent-McWilliams ocean mixing scheme (GM), which has a large effect on the simulation of ocean surface temperatures, particularly in the North Atlantic Ocean. The effect of this correction on the Pliocene climate results would not have been easily determined from examining its impact on the preindustrial runs alone, a useful demonstration of how the consequences of code improvements as seen in modern climate control runs do not necessarily portend the impacts in extreme climates.Both the GM-corrected and GM-uncorrected simulations were contributed to the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) Experiment 2. Many findings presented here corroborate results from other PlioMIP multi-model ensemble papers, but we also emphasize features in the ModelE2-R simulations that are unlike the ensemble means. The corrected version yields results that more closely resemble the ocean core data as well as the PRISM3D reconstructions of the mid-Pliocene, especially the dramatic warming in the North Atlantic and Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Sea, which in the new simulation appears to be far more realistic than previously found with older versions of the GISS model. Our belief is that continued development of key physical routines in the atmospheric model, along with higher resolution and recent corrections to mixing parameterisations in the ocean model, have led

  12. A framework for expanding aqueous chemistry in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the development and implementation of an extendable aqueous-phase chemistry option (AQCHEM − KMT(I)) for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, version 5.1. Here, the Kinetic PreProcessor (KPP), version 2.2.3, is used t...

  13. A computationally efficient description of heterogeneous freezing: A simplified version of the Soccer ball model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeier, Dennis; Ervens, Barbara; Clauss, Tina; Voigtländer, Jens; Wex, Heike; Hartmann, Susan; Stratmann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In a recent study, the Soccer ball model (SBM) was introduced for modeling and/or parameterizing heterogeneous ice nucleation processes. The model applies classical nucleation theory. It allows for a consistent description of both apparently singular and stochastic ice nucleation behavior, by distributing contact angles over the nucleation sites of a particle population assuming a Gaussian probability density function. The original SBM utilizes the Monte Carlo technique, which hampers its usage in atmospheric models, as fairly time-consuming calculations must be performed to obtain statistically significant results. Thus, we have developed a simplified and computationally more efficient version of the SBM. We successfully used the new SBM to parameterize experimental nucleation data of, e.g., bacterial ice nucleation. Both SBMs give identical results; however, the new model is computationally less expensive as confirmed by cloud parcel simulations. Therefore, it is a suitable tool for describing heterogeneous ice nucleation processes in atmospheric models.

  14. Community Land Model Version 3.0 (CLM3.0) Developer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, FM

    2004-12-21

    This document describes the guidelines adopted for software development of the Community Land Model (CLM) and serves as a reference to the entire code base of the released version of the model. The version of the code described here is Version 3.0 which was released in the summer of 2004. This document, the Community Land Model Version 3.0 (CLM3.0) User's Guide (Vertenstein et al., 2004), the Technical Description of the Community Land Model (CLM) (Oleson et al., 2004), and the Community Land Model's Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM): Technical Description and User's Guide (Levis et al., 2004) provide the developer, user, or researcher with details of implementation, instructions for using the model, a scientific description of the model, and a scientific description of the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model integrated with CLM respectively. The CLM is a single column (snow-soil-vegetation) biogeophysical model of the land surface which can be run serially (on a laptop or personal computer) or in parallel (using distributed or shared memory processors or both) on both vector and scalar computer architectures. Written in Fortran 90, CLM can be run offline (i.e., run in isolation using stored atmospheric forcing data), coupled to an atmospheric model (e.g., the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)), or coupled to a climate system model (e.g., the Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3)) through a flux coupler (e.g., Coupler 6 (CPL6)). When coupled, CLM exchanges fluxes of energy, water, and momentum with the atmosphere. The horizontal land surface heterogeneity is represented by a nested subgrid hierarchy composed of gridcells, landunits, columns, and plant functional types (PFTs). This hierarchical representation is reflected in the data structures used by the model code. Biophysical processes are simulated for each subgrid unit (landunit, column, and PFT) independently, and prognostic variables are maintained for each subgrid unit

  15. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  16. MESOI Version 2.0: an interactive mesoscale Lagrangian puff dispersion model with deposition and decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Glantz, C.S.

    1983-11-01

    MESOI Version 2.0 is an interactive Lagrangian puff model for estimating the transport, diffusion, deposition and decay of effluents released to the atmosphere. The model is capable of treating simultaneous releases from as many as four release points, which may be elevated or at ground-level. The puffs are advected by a horizontal wind field that is defined in three dimensions. The wind field may be adjusted for expected topographic effects. The concentration distribution within the puffs is initially assumed to be Gaussian in the horizontal and vertical. However, the vertical concentration distribution is modified by assuming reflection at the ground and the top of the atmospheric mixing layer. Material is deposited on the surface using a source depletion, dry deposition model and a washout coefficient model. The model also treats the decay of a primary effluent species and the ingrowth and decay of a single daughter species using a first order decay process. This report is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the theoretical and mathematical bases upon which MESOI Version 2.0 is based. The second part contains the MESOI computer code. The programs were written in the ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 and were developed on a VAX 11/780 computer. 43 references, 14 figures, 13 tables

  17. MESOI Version 2. 0: an interactive mesoscale Lagrangian puff dispersion model with deposition and decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Glantz, C.S.

    1983-11-01

    MESOI Version 2.0 is an interactive Lagrangian puff model for estimating the transport, diffusion, deposition and decay of effluents released to the atmosphere. The model is capable of treating simultaneous releases from as many as four release points, which may be elevated or at ground-level. The puffs are advected by a horizontal wind field that is defined in three dimensions. The wind field may be adjusted for expected topographic effects. The concentration distribution within the puffs is initially assumed to be Gaussian in the horizontal and vertical. However, the vertical concentration distribution is modified by assuming reflection at the ground and the top of the atmospheric mixing layer. Material is deposited on the surface using a source depletion, dry deposition model and a washout coefficient model. The model also treats the decay of a primary effluent species and the ingrowth and decay of a single daughter species using a first order decay process. This report is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the theoretical and mathematical bases upon which MESOI Version 2.0 is based. The second part contains the MESOI computer code. The programs were written in the ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 and were developed on a VAX 11/780 computer. 43 references, 14 figures, 13 tables.

  18. The Extrapolar SWIFT model (version 1.0): fast stratospheric ozone chemistry for global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyling, Daniel; Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus

    2018-03-01

    The Extrapolar SWIFT model is a fast ozone chemistry scheme for interactive calculation of the extrapolar stratospheric ozone layer in coupled general circulation models (GCMs). In contrast to the widely used prescribed ozone, the SWIFT ozone layer interacts with the model dynamics and can respond to atmospheric variability or climatological trends.The Extrapolar SWIFT model employs a repro-modelling approach, in which algebraic functions are used to approximate the numerical output of a full stratospheric chemistry and transport model (ATLAS). The full model solves a coupled chemical differential equation system with 55 initial and boundary conditions (mixing ratio of various chemical species and atmospheric parameters). Hence the rate of change of ozone over 24 h is a function of 55 variables. Using covariances between these variables, we can find linear combinations in order to reduce the parameter space to the following nine basic variables: latitude, pressure altitude, temperature, overhead ozone column and the mixing ratio of ozone and of the ozone-depleting families (Cly, Bry, NOy and HOy). We will show that these nine variables are sufficient to characterize the rate of change of ozone. An automated procedure fits a polynomial function of fourth degree to the rate of change of ozone obtained from several simulations with the ATLAS model. One polynomial function is determined per month, which yields the rate of change of ozone over 24 h. A key aspect for the robustness of the Extrapolar SWIFT model is to include a wide range of stratospheric variability in the numerical output of the ATLAS model, also covering atmospheric states that will occur in a future climate (e.g. temperature and meridional circulation changes or reduction of stratospheric chlorine loading).For validation purposes, the Extrapolar SWIFT model has been integrated into the ATLAS model, replacing the full stratospheric chemistry scheme. Simulations with SWIFT in ATLAS have proven that the

  19. Recent extensions and use of the statistical model code EMPIRE-II - version: 2.17 Millesimo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.

    2003-01-01

    This lecture notes describe new features of the modular code EMPIRE-2.17 designed to perform comprehensive calculations of nuclear reactions using variety of nuclear reaction models. Compared to the version 2.13, the current release has been extended by including Coupled-Channel mechanism, exciton model, Monte Carlo approach to preequilibrium emission, use of microscopic level densities, widths fluctuation correction, detailed calculation of the recoil spectra, and powerful plotting capabilities provided by the ZVView package. The second part of this lecture concentrates on the use of the code in practical calculations, with emphasis on the aspects relevant to nuclear data evaluation. In particular, adjusting model parameters is discussed in details. (author)

  20. Technical note: The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART version 6.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART was originally (about 8 years ago designed for calculating the long-range and mesoscale dispersion of air pollutants from point sources, such as after an accident in a nuclear power plant. In the meantime FLEXPART has evolved into a comprehensive tool for atmospheric transport modeling and analysis. Its application fields were extended from air pollution studies to other topics where atmospheric transport plays a role (e.g., exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere, or the global water cycle. It has evolved into a true community model that is now being used by at least 25 groups from 14 different countries and is seeing both operational and research applications. A user manual has been kept actual over the years and was distributed over an internet page along with the model's source code. In this note we provide a citeable technical description of FLEXPART's latest version (6.2.

  1. QMM – A Quarterly Macroeconomic Model of the Icelandic Economy. Version 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    implemented in the forecasting round for the Monetary Bulletin 2006/1 in March 2006. QMM is used by the Bank for forecasting and various policy simulations and therefore plays a key role as an organisational framework for viewing the medium-term future when formulating monetary policy at the Bank. This paper......This paper documents and describes Version 2.0 of the Quarterly Macroeconomic Model of the Central Bank of Iceland (QMM). QMM and the underlying quarterly database have been under construction since 2001 at the Research and Forecasting Division of the Economics Department at the Bank and was first...

  2. Online dynamical downscaling of temperature and precipitation within the iLOVECLIM model (version 1.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Quiquet

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the inclusion of an online dynamical downscaling of temperature and precipitation within the model of intermediate complexity iLOVECLIM v1.1. We describe the following methodology to generate temperature and precipitation fields on a 40 km  ×  40 km Cartesian grid of the Northern Hemisphere from the T21 native atmospheric model grid. Our scheme is not grid specific and conserves energy and moisture in the same way as the original climate model. We show that we are able to generate a high-resolution field which presents a spatial variability in better agreement with the observations compared to the standard model. Although the large-scale model biases are not corrected, for selected model parameters, the downscaling can induce a better overall performance compared to the standard version on both the high-resolution grid and on the native grid. Foreseen applications of this new model feature include the improvement of ice sheet model coupling and high-resolution land surface models.

  3. Online dynamical downscaling of temperature and precipitation within the iLOVECLIM model (version 1.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiquet, Aurélien; Roche, Didier M.; Dumas, Christophe; Paillard, Didier

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the inclusion of an online dynamical downscaling of temperature and precipitation within the model of intermediate complexity iLOVECLIM v1.1. We describe the following methodology to generate temperature and precipitation fields on a 40 km × 40 km Cartesian grid of the Northern Hemisphere from the T21 native atmospheric model grid. Our scheme is not grid specific and conserves energy and moisture in the same way as the original climate model. We show that we are able to generate a high-resolution field which presents a spatial variability in better agreement with the observations compared to the standard model. Although the large-scale model biases are not corrected, for selected model parameters, the downscaling can induce a better overall performance compared to the standard version on both the high-resolution grid and on the native grid. Foreseen applications of this new model feature include the improvement of ice sheet model coupling and high-resolution land surface models.

  4. A RETRAN-02 model of the Sizewell B PCSR design - the Winfrith one-loop model, version 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnersly, S.R.

    1983-11-01

    A one-loop RETRAN-02 model of the Sizewell B Pre Construction Safety Report (PCSR) design, set up at Winfrith, is described and documented. The model is suitable for symmetrical pressurised transients. Comparison with data from the Sizewell B PCSR shows that the model is a good representation of that design. Known errors, limitations and deficiencies are described. The mode of storage and maintenance at Winfrith using PROMUS (Program Maintenance and Update System) is noted. It is recommended that users modify the standard data by adding replacement cards to the end so as to aid in identification, use and maintenance of local versions. (author)

  5. The Digital Astronaut Project Computational Bone Remodeling Model (Beta Version) Bone Summit Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2013-01-01

    Under the conditions of microgravity, astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month, particularly in the lower extremities such as the proximal femur [1-3]. The most commonly used countermeasure against bone loss in microgravity has been prescribed exercise [4]. However, data has shown that existing exercise countermeasures are not as effective as desired for preventing bone loss in long duration, 4 to 6 months, spaceflight [1,3,5,6]. This spaceflight related bone loss may cause early onset of osteoporosis to place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. Consequently, NASA seeks to have improved understanding of the mechanisms of bone demineralization in microgravity in order to appropriately quantify this risk, and to establish appropriate countermeasures [7]. In this light, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with the NASA Bone Discipline Lead to implement well-validated computational models to help predict and assess bone loss during spaceflight, and enhance exercise countermeasure development. More specifically, computational modeling is proposed as a way to augment bone research and exercise countermeasure development to target weight-bearing skeletal sites that are most susceptible to bone loss in microgravity, and thus at higher risk for fracture. Given that hip fractures can be debilitating, the initial model development focused on the femoral neck. Future efforts will focus on including other key load bearing bone sites such as the greater trochanter, lower lumbar, proximal femur and calcaneus. The DAP has currently established an initial model (Beta Version) of bone loss due to skeletal unloading in femoral neck region. The model calculates changes in mineralized volume fraction of bone in this segment and relates it to changes in bone mineral density (vBMD) measured by Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT). The model is governed by equations describing changes in bone volume fraction (BVF), and rates of

  6. A psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version of the Research Utilization Questionnaire using a Rasch measurement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Veronica; Boström, Anne-Marie; Malinowsky, Camilla

    2017-07-30

    Evidence-based practice and research utilisation has become a commonly used concept in health care. The Research Utilization Questionnaire (RUQ) has been recognised to be a widely used instrument measuring the perception of research utilisation among nursing staff in clinical practice. Few studies have however analysed the psychometric properties of the RUQ. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the three subscales in RUQ using a Rasch measurement model. This study has a cross-sectional design using a sample of 163 staff (response rate 81%) working in one nursing home in Sweden. Data were collected using the Swedish version of RUQ in 2012. The three subscales Attitudes towards research, Availability of and support for research use and Use of research findings in clinical practice were investigated. Data were analysed using a Rasch measurement model. The results indicate presence of multidimensionality in all subscales. Moreover, internal scale validity and person response validity also provide some less satisfactory results, especially for the subscale Use of research findings. Overall, there seems to be a problem with the negatively worded statements. The findings suggest that clarification and refining of items, including additional psychometric evaluation of the RUQ, are needed before using the instrument in clinical practice and research studies among staff in nursing homes. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Implementation of methane cycling for deep time, global warming simulations with the DCESS Earth System Model (Version 1.2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaffer, Gary; Villanueva, Esteban Fernández; Rondanelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Geological records reveal a number of ancient, large and rapid negative excursions of carbon-13 isotope. Such excursions can only be explained by massive injections of depleted carbon to the Earth System over a short duration. These injections may have forced strong global warming events, sometimes....... With this improved DCESS model version and paleo-reconstructions, we are now better armed to gauge the amounts, types, time scales and locations of methane injections driving specific, observed deep time, global warming events......., or from warming-induced dissociation of methane hydrate, a solid compound of methane and water found in ocean sediments. As a consequence of the ubiquity and importance of methane in major Earth events, Earth System models should include a comprehensive treatment of methane cycling but such a treatment...

  8. Development of models for the sodium version of the two-phase three-dimensional thermal hydraulics code THERMIT. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1980-05-01

    Several different models and correlations were developed and incorporated in the sodium version of THERMIT, a thermal-hydraulics code written at MIT for the purpose of analyzing transients under LMFBR conditions. This includes: a mechanism for the inclusion of radial heat conduction in the sodium coolant as well as radial heat loss to the structure surrounding the test section. The fuel rod conduction scheme was modified to allow for more flexibility in modelling the gas plenum regions and fuel restructuring. The formulas for mass and momentum exchange between the liquid and vapor phases were improved. The single phase and two phase friction factors were replaced by correlations more appropriate to LMFBR assembly geometry.

  9. Landfill Gas Energy Cost Model Version 3.0 (LFGcost-Web V3 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help stakeholders estimate the costs of a landfill gas (LFG) energy project, in 2002, LMOP developed a cost tool (LFGcost). Since then, LMOP has routinely updated the tool to reflect changes in the LFG energy industry. Initially the model was designed for EPA to assist landfills in evaluating the economic and financial feasibility of LFG energy project development. In 2014, LMOP developed a public version of the model, LFGcost-Web (Version 3.0), to allow landfill and industry stakeholders to evaluate project feasibility on their own. LFGcost-Web can analyze costs for 12 energy recovery project types. These project costs can be estimated with or without the costs of a gas collection and control system (GCCS). The EPA used select equations from LFGcost-Web to estimate costs of the regulatory options in the 2015 proposed revisions to the MSW Landfills Standards of Performance (also known as New Source Performance Standards) and the Emission Guidelines (herein thereafter referred to collectively as the Landfill Rules). More specifically, equations derived from LFGcost-Web were applied to each landfill expected to be impacted by the Landfill Rules to estimate annualized installed capital costs and annual O&M costs of a gas collection and control system. In addition, after applying the LFGcost-Web equations to the list of landfills expected to require a GCCS in year 2025 as a result of the proposed Landfill Rules, the regulatory analysis evaluated whether electr

  10. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.4). Technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, C.; Cillan, T.

    1993-09-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.4 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement. Those interested in using the SWPM database should refer to the SWPM Database User`s Guide. This document is available from the PNL Task M Project Manager (D. L. Stiles, 509-372-4358), the PNL Task L Project Manager (L. L. Armacost, 509-372-4304), the WHC Restoration Projects Section Manager (509-372-1443), or the WHC Waste Characterization Manager (509-372-1193).

  11. Immersion freezing by natural dust based on a soccer ball model with the Community Atmospheric Model version 5: climate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Xiaohong

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a simplified version of the soccer ball model (SBM) developed by Niedermeier et al (2014 Geophys. Res. Lett. 41 736-741) into the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). It is the first time that SBM is used in an atmospheric model to parameterize the heterogeneous ice nucleation. The SBM, which was simplified for its suitable application in atmospheric models, uses the classical nucleation theory to describe the immersion/condensation freezing by dust in the mixed-phase cloud regime. Uncertain parameters (mean contact angle, standard deviation of contact angle probability distribution, and number of surface sites) in the SBM are constrained by fitting them to recent natural dust (Saharan dust) datasets. With the SBM in CAM5, we investigate the sensitivity of modeled cloud properties to the SBM parameters, and find significant seasonal and regional differences in the sensitivity among the three SBM parameters. Changes of mean contact angle and the number of surface sites lead to changes of cloud properties in Arctic in spring, which could be attributed to the transport of dust ice nuclei to this region. In winter, significant changes of cloud properties induced by these two parameters mainly occur in northern hemispheric mid-latitudes (e.g., East Asia). In comparison, no obvious changes of cloud properties caused by changes of standard deviation can be found in all the seasons. These results are valuable for understanding the heterogeneous ice nucleation behavior, and useful for guiding the future model developments.

  12. Incorporating remote sensing-based ET estimates into the Community Land Model version 4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dagang; Wang, Guiling; Parr, Dana T.; Liao, Weilin; Xia, Youlong; Fu, Congsheng

    2017-07-01

    Land surface models bear substantial biases in simulating surface water and energy budgets despite the continuous development and improvement of model parameterizations. To reduce model biases, Parr et al. (2015) proposed a method incorporating satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET) products into land surface models. Here we apply this bias correction method to the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and test its performance over the conterminous US (CONUS). We first calibrate a relationship between the observational ET from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) product and the model ET from CLM4.5, and assume that this relationship holds beyond the calibration period. During the validation or application period, a simulation using the default CLM4.5 (CLM) is conducted first, and its output is combined with the calibrated observational-vs.-model ET relationship to derive a corrected ET; an experiment (CLMET) is then conducted in which the model-generated ET is overwritten with the corrected ET. Using the observations of ET, runoff, and soil moisture content as benchmarks, we demonstrate that CLMET greatly improves the hydrological simulations over most of the CONUS, and the improvement is stronger in the eastern CONUS than the western CONUS and is strongest over the Southeast CONUS. For any specific region, the degree of the improvement depends on whether the relationship between observational and model ET remains time-invariant (a fundamental hypothesis of the Parr et al. (2015) method) and whether water is the limiting factor in places where ET is underestimated. While the bias correction method improves hydrological estimates without improving the physical parameterization of land surface models, results from this study do provide guidance for physically based model development effort.

  13. Incorporating remote sensing-based ET estimates into the Community Land Model version 4.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Land surface models bear substantial biases in simulating surface water and energy budgets despite the continuous development and improvement of model parameterizations. To reduce model biases, Parr et al. (2015 proposed a method incorporating satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET products into land surface models. Here we apply this bias correction method to the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5 and test its performance over the conterminous US (CONUS. We first calibrate a relationship between the observational ET from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM product and the model ET from CLM4.5, and assume that this relationship holds beyond the calibration period. During the validation or application period, a simulation using the default CLM4.5 (CLM is conducted first, and its output is combined with the calibrated observational-vs.-model ET relationship to derive a corrected ET; an experiment (CLMET is then conducted in which the model-generated ET is overwritten with the corrected ET. Using the observations of ET, runoff, and soil moisture content as benchmarks, we demonstrate that CLMET greatly improves the hydrological simulations over most of the CONUS, and the improvement is stronger in the eastern CONUS than the western CONUS and is strongest over the Southeast CONUS. For any specific region, the degree of the improvement depends on whether the relationship between observational and model ET remains time-invariant (a fundamental hypothesis of the Parr et al. (2015 method and whether water is the limiting factor in places where ET is underestimated. While the bias correction method improves hydrological estimates without improving the physical parameterization of land surface models, results from this study do provide guidance for physically based model development effort.

  14. Representation of the Great Lakes in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Version 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, L.; Rood, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Great Lakes play a significant role in modifying regional temperatures and precipitation, and as the lakes change in response to a warming climate (i.e., warmer surface water temperatures, decreased ice cover, etc) lake-land-atmosphere dynamics are affected. Because the lakes modify regional weather and are a driver of regional climate change, understanding how they are represented in climate models is important to the reliability of model based information for the region. As part of the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences + Assessments (GLISA) Ensemble project, a major effort is underway to evaluate the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version (CMIP) 5 global climate models for how well they physically represent the Great Lakes and lake-effects. The CMIP models were chosen because they are a primary source of information in many products developed for decision making (i.e., National Climate Assessment, downscaled future climate projections, etc.), yet there is very little description of how well they represent the lakes. This presentation will describe the results of our investigation of if and how the Great Lakes are represented in the CMIP5 models.

  15. Version 2.0 of the European Gas Model. Changes and their impact on the German gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmert, David; Petrov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    In January 2015 ACER, the European Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators, presented an updated version of its target model for the inner-European natural gas market, also referred to as version 2.0 of the Gas Target Model. During 2014 the existing model, originally developed by the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) and launched in 2011, had been analysed, revised and updated in preparation of the new version. While it has few surprises to offer, the new Gas Target Model contains specifies and goes into greater detail on many elements of the original model. Some of the new content is highly relevant to the German gas sector, not least the deliberations on the current key issues, which are security of supply and the ability of the gas markets to function.

  16. Hydrogeochemical evaluation for Simpevarp model version 1.2. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus

    2004-12-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Simpevarp groundwater analytical data collected up to April, 2004. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1.7 km. Model version 1.2 focusses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1000 m depth. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1000 m depending on local topography. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major hydrochemical groups of groundwaters (types A-D) have been identified: TYPE A: This type comprises dilute groundwaters ( 3 type present at shallow ( 300 m) levels at Simpevarp, and at even greater depths (approx. 1200 m) at Laxemar. At Simpevarp the groundwaters are mainly Na-Ca-Cl with increasingly enhanced Br and SO 4 with depth. At Laxemar they are mainly Ca-Na-Cl also with increasing enhancements of Br and SO 4 with depth. Main reactions involve ion exchange (Ca). At both sites a glacial component and a deep saline component are present. At Simpevarp the saline component may be potentially non marine and/or non-marine/old Littorina marine in origin; at Laxemar it is more likely to be non-marine in origin. TYPE D: This type comprises reducing highly saline groundwaters (> 20 000 mg/L Cl; to a maximum of ∼70 g/L TDS) and only has been identified at Laxemar at depths exceeding 1200 m. It is mainly Ca-Na-Cl with higher Br but lower SO 4 compared

  17. Evaluation of a new CNRM-CM6 model version for seasonal climate predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Danila; Ardilouze, Constantin; Batté, Lauriane; Dorel, Laurant; Guérémy, Jean-François; Déqué, Michel

    2017-04-01

    This work presents the quality assessment of a new version of the Météo-France coupled climate prediction system, which has been developed in the EU COPERNICUS Climate Change Services framework to carry out seasonal forecast. The system is based on the CNRM-CM6 model, with Arpege-Surfex 6.2.2 as atmosphere/land component and Nemo 3.2 as ocean component, which has directly embedded the sea-ice component Gelato 6.0. In order to have a robust diagnostic, the experiment is composed by 60 ensemble members generated with stochastic dynamic perturbations. The experiment has been performed over a 37-year re-forecast period from 1979 to 2015, with two start dates per year, respectively in May 1st and November 1st. The evaluation of the predictive skill of the model is shown under two perspectives: on the one hand, the ability of the model to faithfully respond to positive or negative ENSO, NAO and QBO events, independently of the predictability of these events. Such assessment is carried out through a composite analysis, and shows that the model succeeds in reproducing the main patterns for 2-meter temperature, precipitation and geopotential height at 500 hPa during the winter season. On the other hand, the model predictive skill of the same events (positive and negative ENSO, NAO and QBO) is evaluated.

  18. Implementing and Evaluating Variable Soil Thickness in the Community Land Model, Version 4.5 (CLM4.5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunke, Michael A.; Broxton, Patrick; Pelletier, Jon; Gochis, David; Hazenberg, Pieter; Lawrence, David M.; Leung, L. Ruby; Niu, Guo-Yue; Troch, Peter A.; Zeng, Xubin

    2016-05-01

    One of the recognized weaknesses of land surface models as used in weather and climate models is the assumption of constant soil thickness due to the lack of global estimates of bedrock depth. Using a 30 arcsecond global dataset for the thickness of relatively porous, unconsolidated sediments over bedrock, spatial variation in soil thickness is included here in version 4.5 of the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). The number of soil layers for each grid cell is determined from the average soil depth for each 0.9° latitude x 1.25° longitude grid cell. Including variable soil thickness affects the simulations most in regions with shallow bedrock corresponding predominantly to areas of mountainous terrain. The greatest changes are to baseflow, with the annual minimum generally occurring earlier, while smaller changes are seen in surface fluxes like latent heat flux and surface runoff in which only the annual cycle amplitude is increased. These changes are tied to soil moisture changes which are most substantial in locations with shallow bedrock. Total water storage (TWS) anomalies do not change much over most river basins around the globe, since most basins contain mostly deep soils. However, it was found that TWS anomalies substantially differ for a river basin with more mountainous terrain. Additionally, the annual cycle in soil temperature are affected by including realistic soil thicknesses due to changes to heat capacity and thermal conductivity.

  19. Hydrogeochemical evaluation of the Forsmark site, model version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Gimeno, Maria; Auque, Luis; Gomez, Javier [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Gurban, Ioana [3D-Terra, Montreal (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Forsmark and Simpevarp, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, geochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in model version 1.1 which represents the first evaluation of the available Forsmark groundwater analytical data collected up to May 1, 2003 (i.e. the first 'data freeze'). The HAG group had access to a total of 456 water samples collected mostly from the surface and sub-surface environment (e.g. soil pipes in the overburden, streams and lakes); only a few samples were collected from drilled boreholes. The deepest samples reflected depths down to 200 m. Furthermore, most of the waters sampled (74%) lacked crucial analytical information that restricted the evaluation. Consequently, model version 1.1 focussed on the processes taking place in the uppermost part of the bedrock rather than at repository levels. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Forsmark are a result of many factors such as: a) the flat topography and closeness to the Baltic Sea resulting in relative small hydrogeological driving forces which can preserve old water types from being flushed out, b) the changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation and land uplift, c) repeated marine/lake water regressions/transgressions, and d) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing processes. Based on the general geochemical character and the apparent age two major water types occur in Forsmark: fresh-meteoric waters with a bicarbonate imprint and low residence times (tritium values above detection limit), and brackish-marine waters with Cl contents up to 6,000 mg/L and longer residence times (tritium

  20. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database user's guide (Version 1.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) specifically to address Hanford solid waste management issues. This document is one of a set of documents supporting the SWPM system and providing instructions in the use and maintenance of SWPM components. This manual contains instructions for preparing to use Version 1.3 of the SWPM database, for entering and maintaining data, and for performing routine database functions. This document supports only those operations which are specific to SWPM database menus and functions and does not provide instruction in the use of Paradox, the database management system in which the SWPM database is established

  1. Temperature and Humidity Profiles in the TqJoint Data Group of AIRS Version 6 Product for the Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Fang, Fan; Hearty, Thomas J.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Lynnes, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission is entering its 13th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing long-wave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. Thus AIRS data have been widely used, among other things, for short-term climate research and observational component for model evaluation. One instance is the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) which uses AIRS version 5 data in the climate model evaluation. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for data from the AIRS mission. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released data from the version 6 algorithm in early 2013. The new algorithm represents a significant improvement over previous versions in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality of products. The ongoing Earth System Grid for next generation climate model research project, a collaborative effort of GES DISC and NASA JPL, will bring temperature and humidity profiles from AIRS version 6. The AIRS version 6 product adds a new "TqJoint" data group, which contains data for a common set of observations across water vapor and temperature at all atmospheric levels and is suitable for climate process studies. How different may the monthly temperature and humidity profiles in "TqJoint" group be from the "Standard" group where temperature and water vapor are not always valid at the same time? This study aims to answer the question by comprehensively comparing the temperature and humidity profiles from the "TqJoint" group and the "Standard" group. The comparison includes mean differences at different levels globally and over land and ocean. We are also working on examining the sampling differences between the "TqJoint" and "Standard" group using MERRA data.

  2. Mathematical multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including mitral valve dynamics. Application to ischemic mitral insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS) model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV) loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves. PMID:21942971

  3. Mathematical multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including mitral valve dynamics. Application to ischemic mitral insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen Marie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves.

  4. Accelerator System Model (ASM) user manual with physics and engineering model documentation. ASM version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The Accelerator System Model (ASM) is a computer program developed to model proton radiofrequency accelerators and to carry out system level trade studies. The ASM FORTRAN subroutines are incorporated into an intuitive graphical user interface which provides for the open-quotes constructionclose quotes of the accelerator in a window on the computer screen. The interface is based on the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes (SPARC) software technology written for the Macintosh operating system in the C programming language. This User Manual describes the operation and use of the ASM application within the SPARC interface. The Appendix provides a detailed description of the physics and engineering models used in ASM. ASM Version 1.0 is joint project of G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc. and the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Neither the ASM Version 1.0 software nor this ASM Documentation may be reproduced without the expressed written consent of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc

  5. Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) version 2.51

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jockel, P.; Tost, H.; Pozzer, A.; Kunze, M.; Kirner, O.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.; Brinkop, S.; Cai, D.S.; Dyroff, C.; Eckstein, J.; Frank, F.; Garny, H.; Gottschald, K.D.; Graf, P.; Grewe, V.; Kerkweg, A.; Kern, B.; Matthes, S; Mertens, M; Meul, S.; Neumaier, M.; Nützel, M; Oberländer-Hayn, S; Ruhnke, R.; Runde, T.; Sander, R.; Scharffe, D; Zahn, A.

    2016-01-01

    Three types of reference simulations, as recommended by the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), have been performed with version 2.51 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts – Hamburg (ECHAM)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model: hindcast

  6. PCR-GLOBWB version 2.0: A High Resolution Integrated Global Hydrology and Water Resources Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, E.; Van Beek, L. P.; Drost, N.; de Graaf, I. E. M.; de Jong, K.; Straatsma, M. W.; Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    PCRaster GLOBal Water Balance is a grid-based global hydrological model developed at Utrecht University. It simulates soil moisture in vertically stacked soil layers, as well as exchange to the atmosphere and underlying groundwater reservoir. Fluxes are simulated under different land cover types by considering sub-grid variations in topography, vegetation phenology and soil properties. The model includes physically-based schemes for runoff generation and infiltration, resulting in direct runoff, interflow, groundwater recharge and baseflow, as well as channel routing.We present the latest version of the model, PCR-GLOBWB 2.0, consolidating all new developments introduced since PCR-GLOWB 1.0 was first published (van Beek et al, 2011). The main new components are: An inclusion of water demand module and the progressive introduction of reservoirs and expansion of irrigation areas (Wada et al, 2014) An attribution of water use to ground- and surface water resources and the fate of return flow (de Graaf et al, 2014) A routing scheme accounting for variable extent of floodplains (Winsemius et al, 2013) PCR-GLOBWB 2.0 now runs at a spatial resolution of 5 arc min (± 10 km) in comparison to the 30 arc min (50 km) resolution used in PCR-GLOWB 1.0. At the finer resolution and with the added components, PCR-GLOBWB 2.0 shows improvements over the previous version: observed discharges from 5142 GRDC stations can be approximated more closely and model efficiency improves, particularly for smaller catchment areas (ρ = 0.87); human impacts, altering the seasonal and inter-annual variation of terrestrial water storage, are well simulated and evident in the validation to GRACE data (ρ = 0.81). These improvements open up new possibilities to assess the state of global water resources.Also, we show an outlook of model results at higher resolutions: 3 arc min (5 km) and 30 arc sec (1 km) for specific test-bed areas: California, Illinois and Rhine-Meuse. We discuss fundamental

  7. The Lag Model, a Turbulence Model for Wall Bounded Flows Including Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Coakley, Thomas J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new class of turbulence model is described for wall bounded, high Reynolds number flows. A specific turbulence model is demonstrated, with results for favorable and adverse pressure gradient flowfields. Separation predictions are as good or better than either Spalart Almaras or SST models, do not require specification of wall distance, and have similar or reduced computational effort compared with these models.

  8. A generic method for automatic translation between input models for different versions of simulation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfontein, Dawid E.; Mulder, Eben J.; Reitsma, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    A computer code was developed for the semi-automatic translation of input models for the VSOP-A diffusion neutronics simulation code to the format of the newer VSOP 99/05 code. In this paper, this algorithm is presented as a generic method for producing codes for the automatic translation of input models from the format of one code version to another, or even to that of a completely different code. Normally, such translations are done manually. However, input model files, such as for the VSOP codes, often are very large and may consist of many thousands of numeric entries that make no particular sense to the human eye. Therefore the task, of for instance nuclear regulators, to verify the accuracy of such translated files can be very difficult and cumbersome. This may cause translation errors not to be picked up, which may have disastrous consequences later on when a reactor with such a faulty design is built. Therefore a generic algorithm for producing such automatic translation codes may ease the translation and verification process to a great extent. It will also remove human error from the process, which may significantly enhance the accuracy and reliability of the process. The developed algorithm also automatically creates a verification log file which permanently record the names and values of each variable used, as well as the list of meanings of all the possible values. This should greatly facilitate reactor licensing applications

  9. VALIDATION OF THE ASTER GLOBAL DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL VERSION 2 OVER THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gesch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 (GDEM v2 was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1 in 2009. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v2 was calculated by comparison with more than 18,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE measured for GDEM v2 is 8.68 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 9.34 meters for GDEM v1. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v2 mean error of –0.20 meters is a significant improvement over the GDEM v1 mean error of –3.69 meters. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover to examine the effects of cover types on measured errors. The GDEM v2 mean errors by land cover class verify that the presence of aboveground features (tree canopies and built structures cause a positive elevation bias, as would be expected for an imaging system like ASTER. In open ground classes (little or no vegetation with significant aboveground height, GDEM v2 exhibits a negative bias on the order of 1 meter. GDEM v2 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v2 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM.

  10. The SF-8 Spanish Version for Health-Related Quality of Life Assessment: Psychometric Study with IRT and CFA Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, José M; Galiana, Laura; Fernández, Irene

    2018-03-22

    The aim of current research is to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the SF-8, overcoming previous shortcomings. A double line of analyses was used: competitive structural equations models to establish factorial validity, and Item Response theory to analyze item psychometric characteristics and information. 593 people aged 60 years or older, attending long life learning programs at the University were surveyed. Their age ranged from 60 to 92 years old. 67.6% were women. The survey included scales on personality dimensions, attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors related to aging. Competitive confirmatory models pointed out two-factors (physical and mental health) as the best representation of the data: χ2(13) = 72.37 (p < .01); CFI = .99; TLI = .98; RMSEA = .08 (.06, .10). Item 5 was removed because of unreliability and cross-loading. Graded response models showed appropriate fit for two-parameter logistic model both the physical and the mental dimensions. Item Information Curves and Test Information Functions pointed out that the SF-8 was more informative for low levels of health. The Spanish SF-8 has adequate psychometric properties, being better represented by two dimensions, once Item 5 is removed. Gathering evidence on patient-reported outcome measures is of crucial importance, as this type of measurement instruments are increasingly used in clinical arena.

  11. Global Earthquake Activity Rate models based on version 2 of the Global Strain Rate Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, P.; Kreemer, C.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Global Earthquake Activity Rate (GEAR) models have usually been based on either relative tectonic motion (fault slip rates and/or distributed strain rates), or on smoothing of seismic catalogs. However, a hybrid approach appears to perform better than either parent, at least in some retrospective tests. First, we construct a Tectonic ('T') forecast of shallow (≤ 70 km) seismicity based on global plate-boundary strain rates from version 2 of the Global Strain Rate Map. Our approach is the SHIFT (Seismic Hazard Inferred From Tectonics) method described by Bird et al. [2010, SRL], in which the character of the strain rate tensor (thrusting and/or strike-slip and/or normal) is used to select the most comparable type of plate boundary for calibration of the coupled seismogenic lithosphere thickness and corner magnitude. One difference is that activity of offshore plate boundaries is spatially smoothed using empirical half-widths [Bird & Kagan, 2004, BSSA] before conversion to seismicity. Another is that the velocity-dependence of coupling in subduction and continental-convergent boundaries [Bird et al., 2009, BSSA] is incorporated. Another forecast component is the smoothed-seismicity ('S') forecast model of [Kagan & Jackson, 1994, JGR; Kagan & Jackson, 2010, GJI], which was based on optimized smoothing of the shallow part of the GCMT catalog, years 1977-2004. Both forecasts were prepared for threshold magnitude 5.767. Then, we create hybrid forecasts by one of 3 methods: (a) taking the greater of S or T; (b) simple weighted-average of S and T; or (c) log of the forecast rate is a weighted average of the logs of S and T. In methods (b) and (c) there is one free parameter, which is the fractional contribution from S. All hybrid forecasts are normalized to the same global rate. Pseudo-prospective tests for 2005-2012 (using versions of S and T calibrated on years 1977-2004) show that many hybrid models outperform both parents (S and T), and that the optimal weight on S

  12. Simulating the 2012 High Plains Drought Using Three Single Column Model Versions of the Community Earth System Model (SCM-CESM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, I. D.; Denning, S.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of changes in the frequency and severity of drought on fresh water sustainability is a great concern for many regions of the world. One such location is the High Plains, where the local economy is primarily driven by fresh water withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer, which accounts for approximately 30% of total irrigation withdrawals from all U.S. aquifers combined. Modeling studies that focus on the feedback mechanisms that control the climate and eco-hydrology during times of drought are limited in the sense that they use conventional General Circulation Models (GCMs) with grid length scales ranging from one hundred to several hundred kilometers. Additionally, these models utilize crude statistical parameterizations of cloud processes for estimating sub-grid fluxes of heat and moisture and have a poor representation of land surface heterogeneity. For this research, we focus on the 2012 High Plains drought, and will perform numerical simulations using three single column model versions of the Community Earth System Model (SCM-CESM) at multiple sites overlying the Ogallala Aquifer for the 2010-2012 period. In the first version of SCM-CESM, CESM will be used in standard mode (Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a single instance of the Community Land Model (CLM)), secondly, CESM will be used in Super-Parameterized mode (SP-CESM), where a cloud resolving model (CRM consists of 32 atmospheric columns) replaces the standard CAM atmospheric parameterization and is coupled to a single instance of CLM, and thirdly, CESM is used in "Multi Instance" SP-CESM mode, where an instance of CLM is coupled to each CRM column of SP-CESM (32 CRM columns coupled to 32 instances of CLM). To assess the physical realism of the land-atmosphere feedbacks simulated at each site by all versions of SCM-CESM, differences in simulated energy and moisture fluxes will be computed between years for the 2010-2012 period, and will be compared to differences calculated using

  13. A multi-sectoral version of the Post-Keynesian growth model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Azevedo Araujo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With this inquiry, we seek to develop a disaggregated version of the post-Keynesian approach to economic growth, by showing that indeed it can be treated as a particular case of the Pasinettian model of structural change and economic expansion. By relying upon vertical integration it becomes possible to carry out the analysis initiated by Kaldor (1956 and Robinson (1956, 1962, and followed by Dutt (1984, Rowthorn (1982 and later Bhaduri and Marglin (1990 in a multi-sectoral model in which demand and productivity increase at different paces in each sector. By adopting this approach it is possible to show that the structural economic dynamics is conditioned not only to patterns of evolving demand and diffusion of technological progress but also to the distributive features of the economy, which can give rise to different regimes of economic growth. Besides, we find it possible to determine the natural rate of profit that makes the mark-up rate to be constant over time.

  14. Forsmark site investigation. Assessment of the validity of the rock domain model, version 1.2, based on the modelling of gravity and petrophysical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Uppsala (SE)); Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (SE))

    2007-11-15

    This document reports the results gained by the geophysical modelling of rock domains based on gravity and petrophysical data, which is one of the activities performed within the site investigation work at Forsmark. The main objective with this activity is to assess the validity of the geological rock domain model version 1.2, and to identify discrepancies in the model that may indicate a need for revision of the model or a need for additional investigations. The verification is carried out by comparing the calculated gravity model response, which takes account of the geological model, with a local gravity anomaly that represents the measured data. The model response is obtained from the three-dimensional geometry and the petrophysical data provided for each rock domain in the geological model. Due to model boundary conditions, the study is carried out in a smaller area within the regional model area. Gravity model responses are calculated in three stages; an initial model, a base model and a refined base model. The refined base model is preferred and is used for comparison purposes. In general, there is a good agreement between the refined base model that makes use of the rock domain model, version 1.2 and the measured gravity data, not least where it concerns the depth extension of the critical rock domain RFM029. The most significant discrepancy occurs in the area extending from the SFR office to the SFR underground facility and further to the northwest. It is speculated that this discrepancy is caused by a combination of an overestimation of the volume of gabbro (RFM016) that plunges towards the southeast in the rock domain model, and an underestimation of the volume of occurrence of pegmatite and pegmatitic granite that are known to be present and occur as larger bodies around SFR. Other discrepancies are noted in rock domain RFM022, which is considered to be overestimated in the rock domain model, version 1.2, and in rock domain RFM017, where the gravity

  15. Extensions of the Rosner-Colditz breast cancer prediction model to include older women and type-specific predicted risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Robert J; Colditz, Graham A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chen, Wendy Y; Hankinson, Susan E; Willett, Walter W; Rosner, Bernard

    2017-08-01

    A breast cancer risk prediction rule previously developed by Rosner and Colditz has reasonable predictive ability. We developed a re-fitted version of this model, based on more than twice as many cases now including women up to age 85, and further extended it to a model that distinguished risk factor prediction of tumors with different estrogen/progesterone receptor status. We compared the calibration and discriminatory ability of the original, the re-fitted, and the type-specific models. Evaluation used data from the Nurses' Health Study during the period 1980-2008, when 4384 incident invasive breast cancers occurred over 1.5 million person-years. Model development used two-thirds of study subjects and validation used one-third. Predicted risks in the validation sample from the original and re-fitted models were highly correlated (ρ = 0.93), but several parameters, notably those related to use of menopausal hormone therapy and age, had different estimates. The re-fitted model was well-calibrated and had an overall C-statistic of 0.65. The extended, type-specific model identified several risk factors with varying associations with occurrence of tumors of different receptor status. However, this extended model relative to the prediction of any breast cancer did not meaningfully reclassify women who developed breast cancer to higher risk categories, nor women remaining cancer free to lower risk categories. The re-fitted Rosner-Colditz model has applicability to risk prediction in women up to age 85, and its discrimination is not improved by consideration of varying associations across tumor subtypes.

  16. Application of version 3.1 of EPRI BWR radiolysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Version 3.1 of the EPRI BWR vessel internals application (BWRVIA) code for calculating oxidant and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) around a BWR primary circuit has recently been released and this paper outlines the changes that have been carried out to the model and how the model compares with plant observations. There were two primary motivations for the development of BWRVIA V3.1 for plants injecting hydrogen into the feedwater to mitigate intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor piping and internals; the fact that many BWRs now add Pt to the primary system to catalyze hydrogen:oxidant recombination at surfaces so the model needs to provide an accurate description of molar ratio (ratio of hydrogen to oxidant) around the primary circuit, and secondly to improve predictions of ECP in the lower plenum region for plants operating under moderate hydrogen water chemistry (HWC-M). Version 3.1 upgraded the model's benchmark for neutron and gamma dose rates and provided for model calculations with core axial power shapes that were bottom, middle and top peaked, characteristic of some core designs at beginning, middle, and end of cycle conditions. Improved reaction rate expressions also were incorporated along with refinements based on sensitivity testing and comparison to plant data under noble metal hydrogen water chemistry regimes. In the presence of Pt deposits on surfaces, molar ratios greater than 2 at a particular location in the primary circuit imply reducing conditions, low ECP and therefore protection from stress corrosion cracking. Plants that apply noble metal will therefore be protected from SCC in these locations. In recent years several HWC-M plants have obtained ECP data from local power range monitors sampling water from the bottom head of the vessel. These ECP measurements have shown that not all BWRs respond similarly to hydrogen addition with some plants requiring very high feed water hydrogen levels to achieve ECP

  17. Infrastructure Upgrades to Support Model Longevity and New Applications: The Variable Infiltration Capacity Model Version 5.0 (VIC 5.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijssen, B.; Hamman, J.; Bohn, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is a macro-scale semi-distributed hydrologic model. VIC development began in the early 1990s and it has been used extensively, applied from basin to global scales. VIC has been applied in a many use cases, including the construction of hydrologic data sets, trend analysis, data evaluation and assimilation, forecasting, coupled climate modeling, and climate change impact analysis. Ongoing applications of the VIC model include the University of Washington's drought monitor and forecast systems, and NASA's land data assimilation systems. The development of VIC version 5.0 focused on reconfiguring the legacy VIC source code to support a wider range of modern modeling applications. The VIC source code has been moved to a public Github repository to encourage participation by the model development community-at-large. The reconfiguration has separated the physical core of the model from the driver, which is responsible for memory allocation, pre- and post-processing and I/O. VIC 5.0 includes four drivers that use the same physical model core: classic, image, CESM, and Python. The classic driver supports legacy VIC configurations and runs in the traditional time-before-space configuration. The image driver includes a space-before-time configuration, netCDF I/O, and uses MPI for parallel processing. This configuration facilitates the direct coupling of streamflow routing, reservoir, and irrigation processes within VIC. The image driver is the foundation of the CESM driver; which couples VIC to CESM's CPL7 and a prognostic atmosphere. Finally, we have added a Python driver that provides access to the functions and datatypes of VIC's physical core from a Python interface. This presentation demonstrates how reconfiguring legacy source code extends the life and applicability of a research model.

  18. The operational eEMEP model version 10.4 for volcanic SO2 and ash forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensen, Birthe M.; Schulz, Michael; Wind, Peter; Valdebenito, Álvaro M.; Fagerli, Hilde

    2017-05-01

    concentrations with more certainty for forecast or scientific analysis purposes, a finer resolution is needed. The model is further developed to simulate ash from highly explosive eruptions. A possibility of increasing the number of vertical layers, achieving finer vertical resolution, as well as a higher model top, is included in the eEMEP version. Ash size distributions may be altered for different volcanic eruptions and assumptions. Since ash particles are larger than typical particles in the standard model, gravitational settling across all vertical layers is included. We attempt finally a specific validation of the simulation of ash and its vertical distribution. Model simulations with and without gravitational settling for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption are compared to lidar observations over central Europe. The results show that with gravitation the centre of the ash mass can be 1 km lower over central Europe than without gravitation. However, the height variations in the ash layer caused by real weather situations are not captured perfectly well by either of the two simulations, playing down the role of gravitation parameterization imperfections. Both model simulations have on average an ash centre of mass below the observed values. Correlations between the observed and corresponding model centres of mass are higher for the model simulation with gravitational settling for four of the six stations studied here. The inclusion of gravitational settling is suggested to be required for a volcanic ash model.

  19. A Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Based Instructional Design Model: A Third Version Implementation Study in a Technology Integration Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Jung; Kim, ChanMin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the third version of a technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) based instructional design model that incorporates the distinctive, transformative, and integrative views of TPACK into a comprehensive actionable framework. Strategies of relating TPACK domains to real-life learning experiences, role-playing, and…

  20. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 - summary of validation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Tetushi; Kaku, Manabu; Iwasaki, Akira; Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Zhang, Z.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Krieger, Tabatha; Curtis, Bill; Haase, Jeff; Abrams, Michael; Carabajal, C.; Meyer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    On June 29, 2009, NASA and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan released a Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) to users worldwide at no charge as a contribution to the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). This “version 1” ASTER GDEM (GDEM1) was compiled from over 1.2 million scenebased DEMs covering land surfaces between 83°N and 83°S latitudes. A joint U.S.-Japan validation team assessed the accuracy of the GDEM1, augmented by a team of 20 cooperators. The GDEM1 was found to have an overall accuracy of around 20 meters at the 95% confidence level. The team also noted several artifacts associated with poor stereo coverage at high latitudes, cloud contamination, water masking issues and the stacking process used to produce the GDEM1 from individual scene-based DEMs (ASTER GDEM Validation Team, 2009). Two independent horizontal resolution studies estimated the effective spatial resolution of the GDEM1 to be on the order of 120 meters.

  1. Atmospheric radionuclide transport model with radon postprocessor and SBG module. Model description version 2.8.0; ARTM. Atmosphaerisches Radionuklid-Transport-Modell mit Radon Postprozessor und SBG-Modul. Modellbeschreibung zu Version 2.8.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Cornelia; Sogalla, Martin; Thielen, Harald; Martens, Reinhard

    2015-04-20

    The study on the atmospheric radionuclide transport model with radon postprocessor and SBG module (model description version 2.8.0) covers the following issues: determination of emissions, radioactive decay, atmospheric dispersion calculation for radioactive gases, atmospheric dispersion calculation for radioactive dusts, determination of the gamma cloud radiation (gamma submersion), terrain roughness, effective source height, calculation area and model points, geographic reference systems and coordinate transformations, meteorological data, use of invalid meteorological data sets, consideration of statistical uncertainties, consideration of housings, consideration of bumpiness, consideration of terrain roughness, use of frequency distributions of the hourly dispersion situation, consideration of the vegetation period (summer), the radon post processor radon.exe, the SBG module, modeling of wind fields, shading settings.

  2. Users' manual for LEHGC: A Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite-Element Model of Hydrogeochemical Transport Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media. Version 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    1995-11-01

    The computer program LEHGC is a Hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite-Element Model of HydroGeo-Chemical (LEHGC) Transport Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media. LEHGC iteratively solves two-dimensional transport and geochemical equilibrium equations and is a descendant of HYDROGEOCHEM, a strictly Eulerian finite-element reactive transport code. The hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian scheme improves on the Eulerian scheme by allowing larger time steps to be used in the advection-dominant transport calculations. This causes less numerical dispersion and alleviates the problem of calculated negative concentrations at sharp concentration fronts. The code also is more computationally efficient than the strictly Eulerian version. LEHGC is designed for generic application to reactive transport problems associated with contaminant transport in subsurface media. Input to the program includes the geometry of the system, the spatial distribution of finite elements and nodes, the properties of the media, the potential chemical reactions, and the initial and boundary conditions. Output includes the spatial distribution of chemical element concentrations as a function of time and space and the chemical speciation at user-specified nodes. LEHGC Version 1.1 is a modification of LEHGC Version 1.0. The modification includes: (1) devising a tracking algorithm with the computational effort proportional to N where N is the number of computational grid nodes rather than N 2 as in LEHGC Version 1.0, (2) including multiple adsorbing sites and multiple ion-exchange sites, (3) using four preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for the solution of matrix equations, and (4) providing a model for some features of solute transport by colloids

  3. Users` manual for LEHGC: A Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite-Element Model of Hydrogeochemical Transport Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media. Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Gour-Tsyh [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Carpenter, S.L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Hopkins, P.L.; Siegel, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The computer program LEHGC is a Hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite-Element Model of HydroGeo-Chemical (LEHGC) Transport Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media. LEHGC iteratively solves two-dimensional transport and geochemical equilibrium equations and is a descendant of HYDROGEOCHEM, a strictly Eulerian finite-element reactive transport code. The hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian scheme improves on the Eulerian scheme by allowing larger time steps to be used in the advection-dominant transport calculations. This causes less numerical dispersion and alleviates the problem of calculated negative concentrations at sharp concentration fronts. The code also is more computationally efficient than the strictly Eulerian version. LEHGC is designed for generic application to reactive transport problems associated with contaminant transport in subsurface media. Input to the program includes the geometry of the system, the spatial distribution of finite elements and nodes, the properties of the media, the potential chemical reactions, and the initial and boundary conditions. Output includes the spatial distribution of chemical element concentrations as a function of time and space and the chemical speciation at user-specified nodes. LEHGC Version 1.1 is a modification of LEHGC Version 1.0. The modification includes: (1) devising a tracking algorithm with the computational effort proportional to N where N is the number of computational grid nodes rather than N{sup 2} as in LEHGC Version 1.0, (2) including multiple adsorbing sites and multiple ion-exchange sites, (3) using four preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for the solution of matrix equations, and (4) providing a model for some features of solute transport by colloids.

  4. Modelling Mediterranean agro-ecosystems by including agricultural trees in the LPJmL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M.; von Bloh, W.; Shi, S.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-11-01

    In the Mediterranean region, climate and land use change are expected to impact on natural and agricultural ecosystems by warming, reduced rainfall, direct degradation of ecosystems and biodiversity loss. Human population growth and socioeconomic changes, notably on the eastern and southern shores, will require increases in food production and put additional pressure on agro-ecosystems and water resources. Coping with these challenges requires informed decisions that, in turn, require assessments by means of a comprehensive agro-ecosystem and hydrological model. This study presents the inclusion of 10 Mediterranean agricultural plants, mainly perennial crops, in an agro-ecosystem model (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land - LPJmL): nut trees, date palms, citrus trees, orchards, olive trees, grapes, cotton, potatoes, vegetables and fodder grasses. The model was successfully tested in three model outputs: agricultural yields, irrigation requirements and soil carbon density. With the development presented in this study, LPJmL is now able to simulate in good detail and mechanistically the functioning of Mediterranean agriculture with a comprehensive representation of ecophysiological processes for all vegetation types (natural and agricultural) and in a consistent framework that produces estimates of carbon, agricultural and hydrological variables for the entire Mediterranean basin. This development paves the way for further model extensions aiming at the representation of alternative agro-ecosystems (e.g. agroforestry), and opens the door for a large number of applications in the Mediterranean region, for example assessments of the consequences of land use transitions, the influence of management practices and climate change impacts.

  5. Mathematical Model of Thyristor Inverter Including a Series-parallel Resonant Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Luft

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with theaid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.

  6. Mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Luft, M.; Szychta, E.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with the aid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.

  7. Mathematical Model of Thyristor Inverter Including a Series-parallel Resonant Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslaw Luft; Elzbieta Szychta

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with theaid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.

  8. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  9. User’s Manual for the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) Version 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    number of aspects of the ocean model run, including the model physics and numerics, the forcing, and the output. modelo - name of model (NCOM1) being...Examples of global tidal data bases are the Grenoble Tidal Data Base (e.g., FES-99 and FES-2004) and the Oregon State University (OSU) tidal data...Atmos. Sci., 31: 1791-1806. Oregon State Tidal Model web page, http://www.oce.orst.edu/po/research/tide/index.html. 57 NRL/MR/7320--08-9151 NCOM

  10. Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) Version 4.0 (User’s Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    number of aspects of the ocean model run, including the model physics and numerics, the forcing, and the output. modelo - name of model (NCOM1...Examples of global tidal data bases are the Grenoble Tidal Data Base (e.g., FES-99 and FES-2004) and the Oregon State University (OSU) tidal...Atmos. Sci., 31: 1791-1806. Oregon State Tidal Model web page, http://www.oce.orst.edu/po/research/tide/index.html. 57 NRL/MR/7320--08-9151

  11. Hydrogeochemical evaluation of the Simpevarp area, model version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Gimeno, Maria; Auque, Luis; Gomez, Javier [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Gurban, Ioana [3D-Terra (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in model version 1.1 which represents the first evaluation of the available Simpevarp groundwater analytical data collected up to July 1st, 2003 (i.e. the first 'data freeze' of the site). The HAG (Hydrochemical Analytical Group) group had access to a total of 535 water samples collected from the surface and sub-surface environment (e.g. soil pipes in the overburden, streams and lakes); only a few samples were collected from drilled boreholes. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 250 m. Furthermore, most of the waters sampled (79%) lacked crucial analytical information that restricted the evaluation. Consequently, model version 1.1 focussed on the processes taking place in the uppermost part of the bedrock rather than at repository levels. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Simpevarp are a result of many factors such as: a) the flat topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation and land uplift, c) repeated marine/lake water regressions/transgressions, and d) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees of modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing processes. Higher topography to the west of Simpevarp has resulted in hydraulic gradients which have partially flushed out old water types. Except for sea waters, most surface waters and some groundwaters from percussion boreholes are fresh, non-saline waters according to the classification used for Aespoe groundwaters. The rest

  12. Modeling of the Direct Current Generator Including the Magnetic Saturation and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Mercado-Samur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the inclusion of temperature effect on the field resistance on the direct current generator model DC1A, which is valid to stability studies is proposed. First, the linear generator model is presented, after the effect of magnetic saturation and the change in the resistance value due to temperature produced by the field current are included. The comparison of experimental results and model simulations to validate the model is used. A direct current generator model which is a better representation of the generator is obtained. Visual comparison between simulations and experimental results shows the success of the proposed model, because it presents the lowest error of the compared models. The accuracy of the proposed model is observed via Modified Normalized Sum of Squared Errors index equal to 3.8979%.

  13. PVWatts Version 5 Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, A. P.

    2014-09-01

    The NREL PVWatts calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes includes several built-in parameters that are hidden from the user. This technical reference describes the sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimate. This reference is applicable to the significantly revised version of PVWatts released by NREL in 2014.

  14. Combining prior knowledge with data driven modeling of a batch distillation column including start-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, PF; Betlem, BHL; Roffel, B

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a simple model which describes the product quality and production over time of an experimental batch distillation column, including start-up. The model structure is based on a simple physical framework, which is augmented with fuzzy logic. This provides a way

  15. Enhanced UWB Radio Channel Model for Short-Range Communication Scenarios Including User Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt; Nguyen, Tuan Hung; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2005-01-01

    channel model represents an enhancement of the existing IEEE 802.15.3a/4a PAN channel model, where antenna and user-proximity effects are not included. Our investigations showed that significant variations of the received wideband power and time-delay signal clustering are possible due the human body...

  16. Including operational data in QMRA model: development and impact of model inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaidi, Kenza; Barbeau, Benoit; Carrière, Annie; Desjardins, Raymond; Prévost, Michèle

    2009-03-01

    A Monte Carlo model, based on the Quantitative Microbial Risk Analysis approach (QMRA), has been developed to assess the relative risks of infection associated with the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water. The impact of various approaches for modelling the initial parameters of the model on the final risk assessments is evaluated. The Monte Carlo simulations that we performed showed that the occurrence of parasites in raw water was best described by a mixed distribution: log-Normal for concentrations > detection limit (DL), and a uniform distribution for concentrations risks significantly. The mean annual risks for conventional treatment are: 1.97E-03 (removal credit adjusted by log parasite = log spores), 1.58E-05 (log parasite = 1.7 x log spores) or 9.33E-03 (regulatory credits based on the turbidity measurement in filtered water). Using full scale validated SCADA data, the simplified calculation of CT performed at the plant was shown to largely underestimate the risk relative to a more detailed CT calculation, which takes into consideration the downtime and system failure events identified at the plant (1.46E-03 vs. 3.93E-02 for the mean risk).

  17. Mathematical modeling of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal gland (HPA) axis, including hippocampal mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Vinther, Frank; Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of the HPA axis. The HPA axis consists of the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands in which the three hormones CRH, ACTH and cortisol interact through receptor dynamics. Furthermore, it has been suggested that receptors in the hippocampus have...... an influence on the axis.A model is presented with three coupled, non-linear differential equations, with the hormones CRH, ACTH and cortisol as variables. The model includes the known features of the HPA axis, and includes the effects from the hippocampus through its impact on CRH in the hypothalamus...

  18. Regional hydrogeological simulations. Numerical modelling using ConnectFlow. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Hoch, Andrew; Hunter, Fiona; Jackson, Peter [Serco Assurance, Risley (United Kingdom); Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) carries out site investigations in two different candidate areas in Sweden with the objective of describing the in situ conditions for a bedrock repository for spent nuclear fuel. The two candidate areas are named Forsmark and Simpevarp. The site characterisation work is divided into two phases, an initial site investigation phase (IPLU) and a complete site investigation phase (KPLU). The results of IPLU are used as a basis for deciding on a subsequent KPLU phase. On the basis of the KPLU investigations a decision is made as to whether detailed characterisation will be performed (including sinking of a shaft).An integrated component in the site characterisation work is the development of site descriptive models. These comprise basic models in three dimensions with an accompanying text description. Central in the modelling work is the geological model which provides the geometrical context in terms of a model of deformation zones and the rock mass between the zones. Using the geological and geometrical description models as a basis, descriptive models for other geo-disciplines (hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, rock mechanics, thermal properties and transport properties) will be developed. Great care is taken to arrive at a general consistency in the description of the various models and assessment of uncertainty and possible needs of alternative models.Here, a numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to understand the zone of influence for groundwater flow that effects the Simpevarp area. Transport calculations are then performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (tens of square kilometres) to identify potential discharge areas for the site. The transport from the two site-scale release areas (a few square kilometres) at the Simpevarp site and the Laxemar site are also considered more specifically and using greater grid resolution.The main

  19. The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observational Simulator Package: Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swales, Dustin J.; Pincus, Robert; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observational Simulator Package (COSP) gathers together a collection of observation proxies or satellite simulators that translate model-simulated cloud properties to synthetic observations as would be obtained by a range of satellite observing systems. This paper introduces COSP2, an evolution focusing on more explicit and consistent separation between host model, coupling infrastructure, and individual observing proxies. Revisions also enhance flexibility by allowing for model-specific representation of sub-grid-scale cloudiness, provide greater clarity by clearly separating tasks, support greater use of shared code and data including shared inputs across simulators, and follow more uniform software standards to simplify implementation across a wide range of platforms. The complete package including a testing suite is freely available.

  20. The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observational Simulator Package: Version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Swales

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observational Simulator Package (COSP gathers together a collection of observation proxies or satellite simulators that translate model-simulated cloud properties to synthetic observations as would be obtained by a range of satellite observing systems. This paper introduces COSP2, an evolution focusing on more explicit and consistent separation between host model, coupling infrastructure, and individual observing proxies. Revisions also enhance flexibility by allowing for model-specific representation of sub-grid-scale cloudiness, provide greater clarity by clearly separating tasks, support greater use of shared code and data including shared inputs across simulators, and follow more uniform software standards to simplify implementation across a wide range of platforms. The complete package including a testing suite is freely available.

  1. Modification of TOUGH2 to Include the Dusty Gas Model for Gas Diffusion; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, STEPHEN W.

    2001-01-01

    The GEO-SEQ Project is investigating methods for geological sequestration of CO(sub 2). This project, which is directed by LBNL and includes a number of other industrial, university, and national laboratory partners, is evaluating computer simulation methods including TOUGH2 for this problem. The TOUGH2 code, which is a widely used code for flow and transport in porous and fractured media, includes simplified methods for gas diffusion based on a direct application of Fick's law. As shown by Webb (1998) and others, the Dusty Gas Model (DGM) is better than Fick's Law for modeling gas-phase diffusion in porous media. In order to improve gas-phase diffusion modeling for the GEO-SEQ Project, the EOS7R module in the TOUGH2 code has been modified to include the Dusty Gas Model as documented in this report. In addition, the liquid diffusion model has been changed from a mass-based formulation to a mole-based model. Modifications for separate and coupled diffusion in the gas and liquid phases have also been completed. The results from the DGM are compared to the Fick's law behavior for TCE and PCE diffusion across a capillary fringe. The differences are small due to the relatively high permeability (k= 10(sup -11) m(sup 2)) of the problem and the small mole fraction of the gases. Additional comparisons for lower permeabilities and higher mole fractions may be useful

  2. Numerical Acoustic Models Including Viscous and Thermal losses: Review of Existing and New Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Risby; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Aage, Niels

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an updated overview of numerical methods including acoustic viscous and thermal losses. Numerical modelling of viscothermal losses has gradually become more important due to the general trend of making acoustic devices smaller. Not including viscothermal acoustic losses...... in such numerical computations will therefore lead to inaccurate or even wrong results. Both, Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM), formulations are available that incorporate these loss mechanisms. Including viscothermal losses in FEM computations can be computationally very demanding, due...... and BEM method including viscothermal dissipation are compared and investigated....

  3. Direct-phase-variable model of a synchronous reluctance motor including all slot and winding harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obe, Emeka S.; Binder, A.

    2011-01-01

    A detailed model in direct-phase variables of a synchronous reluctance motor operating at mains voltage and frequency is presented. The model includes the stator and rotor slot openings, the actual winding layout and the reluctance rotor geometry. Hence, all mmf and permeance harmonics are taken into account. It is seen that non-negligible harmonics introduced by slots are present in the inductances computed by the winding function procedure. These harmonics are usually ignored in d-q models. The machine performance is simulated in the stator reference frame to depict the difference between this new direct-phase model including all harmonics and the conventional rotor reference frame d-q model. Saturation is included by using a polynomial fitting the variation of d-axis inductance with stator current obtained by finite-element software FEMAG DC (registered) . The detailed phase-variable model can yield torque pulsations comparable to those obtained from finite elements while the d-q model cannot.

  4. A Scalable Version of the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System Spectral Forecast Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Rosmond

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS includes a state-of-the-art spectral forecast model similar to models run at several major operational numerical weather prediction (NWP centers around the world. The model, developed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL in Monterey, California, has run operational at the Fleet Numerical Meteorological and Oceanographic Center (FNMOC since 1982, and most recently is being run on a Cray C90 in a multi-tasked configuration. Typically the multi-tasked code runs on 10 to 15 processors with overall parallel efficiency of about 90%. resolution is T159L30, but other operational and research applications run at significantly lower resolutions. A scalable NOGAPS forecast model has been developed by NRL in anticipation of a FNMOC C90 replacement in about 2001, as well as for current NOGAPS research requirements to run on DOD High-Performance Computing (HPC scalable systems. The model is designed to run with message passing (MPI. Model design criteria include bit reproducibility for different processor numbers and reasonably efficient performance on fully shared memory, distributed memory, and distributed shared memory systems for a wide range of model resolutions. Results for a wide range of processor numbers, model resolutions, and different vendor architectures are presented. Single node performance has been disappointing on RISC based systems, at least compared to vector processor performance. This is a common complaint, and will require careful re-examination of traditional numerical weather prediction (NWP model software design and data organization to fully exploit future scalable architectures.

  5. Parameterization Improvements and Functional and Structural Advances in Version 4 of the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Slater

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Community Land Model is the land component of the Community Climate System Model. Here, we describe a broad set of model improvements and additions that have been provided through the CLM development community to create CLM4. The model is extended with a carbon-nitrogen (CN biogeochemical model that is prognostic with respect to vegetation, litter, and soil carbon and nitrogen states and vegetation phenology. An urban canyon model is added and a transient land cover and land use change (LCLUC capability, including wood harvest, is introduced, enabling study of historic and future LCLUC on energy, water, momentum, carbon, and nitrogen fluxes. The hydrology scheme is modified with a revised numerical solution of the Richards equation and a revised ground evaporation parameterization that accounts for litter and within-canopy stability. The new snow model incorporates the SNow and Ice Aerosol Radiation model (SNICAR - which includes aerosol deposition, grain-size dependent snow aging, and vertically-resolved snowpack heating –– as well as new snow cover and snow burial fraction parameterizations. The thermal and hydrologic properties of organic soil are accounted for and the ground column is extended to ~50-m depth. Several other minor modifications to the land surface types dataset, grass and crop optical properties, atmospheric forcing height, roughness length and displacement height, and the disposition of snow-capped runoff are also incorporated.Taken together, these augmentations to CLM result in improved soil moisture dynamics, drier soils, and stronger soil moisture variability. The new model also exhibits higher snow cover, cooler soil temperatures in organic-rich soils, greater global river discharge, and lower albedos over forests and grasslands, all of which are improvements compared to CLM3.5. When CLM4 is run with CN, the mean biogeophysical simulation is slightly degraded because the vegetation structure is prognostic rather

  6. A modified version of the Molly rumen model to quantify methane emissions from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetharaniam, I; Vibart, R E; Hanigan, M D; Janssen, P H; Tavendale, M H; Pacheco, D

    2015-07-01

    We modified the rumen submodel of the Molly dairy cow model to simulate the rumen of a sheep and predict its methane emissions. We introduced a rumen hydrogen (H2) pool as a dynamic variable, which (together with the microbial pool in Molly) was used to predict methane production, to facilitate future consideration of thermodynamic control of methanogenesis. The new model corrected a misspecification of the equation of microbial H2 utilization in Molly95, which could potentially give rise to unrealistic predictions under conditions of low intake rates. The new model included a function to correct biases in the estimation of net H2 production based on the default stoichiometric relationships in Molly95, with this function specified in terms of level of intake. Model parameters for H2 and methane production were fitted to experimental data that included fresh temperate forages offered to sheep at a wide range of intake levels and then tested against independent data. The new model provided reasonable estimates relative to the calibration data set, but a different parameterization was needed to improve its predicted ability relative to the validation data set. Our results indicate that, although feedback inhibition on H2 production and methanogen activity increased with feeding level, other feedback effects that vary with diet composition need to be considered in future work on modeling rumen digestion in Molly.

  7. Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Anandan, P.; Malathi, N.; Mohankumar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resi...

  8. Dipole model analysis of highest precision HERA data, including very low Q2's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszczak, A.; Kowalski, H.

    2016-12-01

    We analyse, within a dipole model, the final, inclusive HERA DIS cross section data in the low χ region, using fully correlated errors. We show, that these highest precision data are very well described within the dipole model framework starting from Q 2 values of 3.5 GeV 2 to the highest values of Q 2 =250 GeV 2 . To analyze the saturation effects we evaluated the data including also the very low 0.35including this region show a preference of the saturation ansatz.

  9. Including the effects of elastic compressibility and volume changes in geodynamical modeling of crust-lithosphere-mantle deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Monserrat, Albert; Morgan, Jason P.

    2016-04-01

    Materials in Earth's interior are exposed to thermomechanical (e.g. variations in stress/pressure and temperature) and chemical (e.g. phase changes, serpentinization, melting) processes that are associated with volume changes. Most geodynamical codes assume the incompressible Boussinesq approximation, where changes in density due to temperature or phase change effect buoyancy, yet volumetric changes are not allowed, and mass is not locally conserved. Elastic stresses induced by volume changes due to thermal expansion, serpentinization, and melt intrusion should cause 'cold' rocks to brittlely fail at ~1% strain. When failure/yielding is an important rheological feature, we think it plausible that volume-change-linked stresses may have a significant influence on the localization of deformation. Here we discuss a new Lagrangian formulation for "elasto-compressible -visco-plastic" flow. In this formulation, the continuity equation has been generalised from a Boussinesq incompressible formulation to include recoverable, elastic, volumetric deformations linked to the local state of mean compressive stress. This formulation differs from the 'anelastic approximation' used in compressible viscous flow in that pressure- and temperature- dependent volume changes are treated as elastic deformation for a given pressure, temperature, and composition/phase. This leads to a visco-elasto-plastic formulation that can model the effects of thermal stresses, pressure-dependent volume changes, and local phase changes. We use a modified version of the (Miliman-based) FEM code M2TRI to run a set of numerical experiments for benchmarking purposes. Three benchmarks are being used to assess the accuracy of this formulation: (1) model the effects on density of a compressible mantle under the influence of gravity; (2) model the deflection of a visco-elastic beam under the influence of gravity, and its recovery when gravitational loading is artificially removed; (3) Modelling the stresses

  10. The No-Core Gamow Shell Model: Including the continuum in the NCSM

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, B R; Michel, N; Płoszajczak, M

    2015-01-01

    We are witnessing an era of intense experimental efforts that will provide information about the properties of nuclei far from the line of stability, regarding resonant and scattering states as well as (weakly) bound states. This talk describes our formalism for including these necessary ingredients into the No-Core Shell Model by using the Gamow Shell Model approach. Applications of this new approach, known as the No-Core Gamow Shell Model, both to benchmark cases as well as to unstable nuclei will be given.

  11. Conceptualizing a Dynamic Fall Risk Model Including Intrinsic Risks and Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Palumbo, Pierpaolo; Schwickert, Lars; Rapp, Kilan; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Todd, Chris; Lord, Stephen R; Kerse, Ngaire

    2017-11-01

    Falls are a major cause of injury and disability in older people, leading to serious health and social consequences including fractures, poor quality of life, loss of independence, and institutionalization. To design and provide adequate prevention measures, accurate understanding and identification of person's individual fall risk is important. However, to date, the performance of fall risk models is weak compared with models estimating, for example, cardiovascular risk. This deficiency may result from 2 factors. First, current models consider risk factors to be stable for each person and not change over time, an assumption that does not reflect real-life experience. Second, current models do not consider the interplay of individual exposure including type of activity (eg, walking, undertaking transfers) and environmental risks (eg, lighting, floor conditions) in which activity is performed. Therefore, we posit a dynamic fall risk model consisting of intrinsic risk factors that vary over time and exposure (activity in context). eHealth sensor technology (eg, smartphones) begins to enable the continuous measurement of both the above factors. We illustrate our model with examples of real-world falls from the FARSEEING database. This dynamic framework for fall risk adds important aspects that may improve understanding of fall mechanisms, fall risk models, and the development of fall prevention interventions. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling of cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFETs including the fringing field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Baishya, Srimanta

    2013-01-01

    A physically based analytical model for surface potential and threshold voltage including the fringing gate capacitances in cylindrical surround gate (CSG) MOSFETs has been developed. Based on this a subthreshold drain current model has also been derived. This model first computes the charge induced in the drain/source region due to the fringing capacitances and considers an effective charge distribution in the cylindrically extended source/drain region for the development of a simple and compact model. The fringing gate capacitances taken into account are outer fringe capacitance, inner fringe capacitance, overlap capacitance, and sidewall capacitance. The model has been verified with the data extracted from 3D TCAD simulations of CSG MOSFETs and was found to be working satisfactorily. (semiconductor devices)

  13. The Watts-Strogatz network model developed by including degree distribution: theory and computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y W; Zhang, L F; Huang, J P

    2007-01-01

    By using theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we develop the Watts-Strogatz network model by including degree distribution, in an attempt to improve the comparison between characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients predicted by the original Watts-Strogatz network model and those of the real networks with the small-world property. Good agreement between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and those of the computer simulations has been shown. It is found that the developed Watts-Strogatz network model can fit the real small-world networks more satisfactorily. Some other interesting results are also reported by adjusting the parameters in a model degree-distribution function. The developed Watts-Strogatz network model is expected to help in the future analysis of various social problems as well as financial markets with the small-world property

  14. Including Effects of Water Stress on Dead Organic Matter Decay to a Forest Carbon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Han, S. H.; Kim, S.; Son, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Decay of dead organic matter is a key process of carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems. The change in decay rate depends on temperature sensitivity and moisture conditions. The Forest Biomass and Dead organic matter Carbon (FBDC) model includes a decay sub-model considering temperature sensitivity, yet does not consider moisture conditions as drivers of the decay rate change. This study aimed to improve the FBDC model by including a water stress function to the decay sub-model. Also, soil C sequestration under climate change with the FBDC model including the water stress function was simulated. The water stress functions were determined with data from decomposition study on Quercus variabilis forests and Pinus densiflora forests of Korea, and adjustment parameters of the functions were determined for both species. The water stress functions were based on the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Including the water stress function increased the explained variances of the decay rate by 19% for the Q. variabilis forests and 7% for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The increase of the explained variances resulted from large difference in temperature range and precipitation range across the decomposition study plots. During the period of experiment, the mean annual temperature range was less than 3°C, while the annual precipitation ranged from 720mm to 1466mm. Application of the water stress functions to the FBDC model constrained increasing trend of temperature sensitivity under climate change, and thus increased the model-estimated soil C sequestration (Mg C ha-1) by 6.6 for the Q. variabilis forests and by 3.1 for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The addition of water stress functions increased reliability of the decay rate estimation and could contribute to reducing the bias in estimating soil C sequestration under varying moisture condition. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01)

  15. The Investment Model Scale (IMS): further studies on construct validation and development of a shorter version (IMS-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, David; Lopes, Diniz

    2013-01-01

    The Investment Model (IM; Rusbult, 1980, 1983) has been widely used to study the development and maintenance of romantic relationships. Its components--satisfaction, quality of alternatives, investment size and commitment--are operationalized in the Investment Model Scale (IMS; Rusbult, Martz, & Agnew, 1998). Given its importance for personal relationships literature, this article presents the adaptation and validation of the IMS to Portugal, and the development and validation of a shorter version, the IMS-S. A confirmatory factor analysis replicates the IMS's original four factors structure. A similar structure was found for the IMS-S. For both versions, results show the instruments to have validity and good reliability. Results are discussed considering the scales' importance for studying romantic relationships.

  16. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model-2010 Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, F. W.; Justus, C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Reference or standard atmospheric models have long been used for design and mission planning of various aerospace systems. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Global Reference Atmospheric Model was developed in response to the need for a design reference atmosphere that provides complete global geographical variability and complete altitude coverage (surface to orbital altitudes), as well as complete seasonal and monthly variability of the thermodynamic variables and wind components. In addition to providing the geographical, height, and monthly variation of the mean atmospheric state, it includes the ability to simulate spatial and temporal perturbations.

  17. A NetCDF version of the two-dimensional energy balance model based on the full multigrid algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelin Zhuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A NetCDF version of the two-dimensional energy balance model based on the full multigrid method in Fortran is introduced for both pedagogical and research purposes. Based on the land–sea–ice distribution, orbital elements, greenhouse gases concentration, and albedo, the code calculates the global seasonal surface temperature. A step-by-step guide with examples is provided for practice.

  18. Including an ocean carbon cycle model into iLOVECLIM (v1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouttes, N.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Mariotti, V.; Bopp, L.

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration plays a crucial role in the radiative balance and as such has a strong influence on the evolution of climate. Because of the numerous interactions between climate and the carbon cycle, it is necessary to include a model of the carbon cycle within a

  19. Statistical analysis of fracture data, adapted for modelling Discrete Fracture Networks-Version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, Raymond

    2004-04-01

    The report describes the parameters which are necessary for DFN modelling, the way in which they can be extracted from the data base acquired during site investigations, and their assignment to geometrical objects in the geological model. The purpose here is to present a methodology for use in SKB modelling projects. Though the methodology is deliberately tuned to facilitate subsequent DFN modelling with other tools, some of the recommendations presented here are applicable to other aspects of geo-modelling as well. For instance, we here recommend a nomenclature to be used within SKB modelling projects, which are truly multidisciplinary, to ease communications between scientific disciplines and avoid misunderstanding of common concepts. This report originally occurred as an appendix to a strategy report for geological modelling (SKB-R--03-07). Strategy reports were intended to be successively updated to include experience gained during site investigations and site modelling. Rather than updating the entire strategy report, we choose to present the update of the appendix as a stand-alone document. This document thus replaces Appendix A2 in SKB-R--03-07. In short, the update consists of the following: The target audience has been broadened and as a consequence thereof, the purpose of the document. Correction of errors found in various formulae. All expressions have been rewritten. Inclusion of more worked examples in each section. A new section describing area normalisation. A new section on spatial correlation. A new section describing anisotropy. A new chapter describing the expected output from DFN modelling, within SKB projects

  20. Statistical analysis of fracture data, adapted for modelling Discrete Fracture Networks-Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond

    2004-04-01

    The report describes the parameters which are necessary for DFN modelling, the way in which they can be extracted from the data base acquired during site investigations, and their assignment to geometrical objects in the geological model. The purpose here is to present a methodology for use in SKB modelling projects. Though the methodology is deliberately tuned to facilitate subsequent DFN modelling with other tools, some of the recommendations presented here are applicable to other aspects of geo-modelling as well. For instance, we here recommend a nomenclature to be used within SKB modelling projects, which are truly multidisciplinary, to ease communications between scientific disciplines and avoid misunderstanding of common concepts. This report originally occurred as an appendix to a strategy report for geological modelling (SKB-R--03-07). Strategy reports were intended to be successively updated to include experience gained during site investigations and site modelling. Rather than updating the entire strategy report, we choose to present the update of the appendix as a stand-alone document. This document thus replaces Appendix A2 in SKB-R--03-07. In short, the update consists of the following: The target audience has been broadened and as a consequence thereof, the purpose of the document. Correction of errors found in various formulae. All expressions have been rewritten. Inclusion of more worked examples in each section. A new section describing area normalisation. A new section on spatial correlation. A new section describing anisotropy. A new chapter describing the expected output from DFN modelling, within SKB projects.

  1. MIG version 0.0 model interface guidelines: Rules to accelerate installation of numerical models into any compliant parent code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, R.M.; Wong, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    A set of model interface guidelines, called MIG, is presented as a means by which any compliant numerical material model can be rapidly installed into any parent code without having to modify the model subroutines. Here, {open_quotes}model{close_quotes} usually means a material model such as one that computes stress as a function of strain, though the term may be extended to any numerical operation. {open_quotes}Parent code{close_quotes} means a hydrocode, finite element code, etc. which uses the model and enforces, say, the fundamental laws of motion and thermodynamics. MIG requires the model developer (who creates the model package) to specify model needs in a standardized but flexible way. MIG includes a dictionary of technical terms that allows developers and parent code architects to share a common vocabulary when specifying field variables. For portability, database management is the responsibility of the parent code. Input/output occurs via structured calling arguments. As much model information as possible (such as the lists of required inputs, as well as lists of precharacterized material data and special needs) is supplied by the model developer in an ASCII text file. Every MIG-compliant model also has three required subroutines to check data, to request extra field variables, and to perform model physics. To date, the MIG scheme has proven flexible in beta installations of a simple yield model, plus a more complicated viscodamage yield model, three electromechanical models, and a complicated anisotropic microcrack constitutive model. The MIG yield model has been successfully installed using identical subroutines in three vectorized parent codes and one parallel C++ code, all predicting comparable results. By maintaining one model for many codes, MIG facilitates code-to-code comparisons and reduces duplication of effort, thereby reducing the cost of installing and sharing models in diverse new codes.

  2. Programs OPTMAN and SHEMMAN Version 6 (1999) - Coupled-Channels optical model and collective nuclear structure calculation -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Lee, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ouk; Sukhovitski, Efrem Sh. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-01-01

    Programs SHEMMAN and OPTMAN (Version 6) have been developed for determinations of nuclear Hamiltonian parameters and for optical model calculations, respectively. The optical model calculations by OPTMAN with coupling schemes built on wave functions functions of non-axial soft-rotator are self-consistent, since the parameters of the nuclear Hamiltonian are determined by adjusting the energies of collective levels to experimental values with SHEMMAN prior to the optical model calculation. The programs have been installed at Nuclear Data Evaluation Laboratory of KAERI. This report is intended as a brief manual of these codes. 43 refs., 9 figs., 1 tabs. (Author)

  3. An imprecise Dirichlet model for Bayesian analysis of failure data including right-censored observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, F.P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is intended to make researchers in reliability theory aware of a recently introduced Bayesian model with imprecise prior distributions for statistical inference on failure data, that can also be considered as a robust Bayesian model. The model consists of a multinomial distribution with Dirichlet priors, making the approach basically nonparametric. New results for the model are presented, related to right-censored observations, where estimation based on this model is closely related to the product-limit estimator, which is an important statistical method to deal with reliability or survival data including right-censored observations. As for the product-limit estimator, the model considered in this paper aims at not using any information other than that provided by observed data, but our model fits into the robust Bayesian context which has the advantage that all inferences can be based on probabilities or expectations, or bounds for probabilities or expectations. The model uses a finite partition of the time-axis, and as such it is also related to life-tables

  4. MEMLS3&a: Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks adapted to include backscattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Proksch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS was originally developed for microwave emissions of snowpacks in the frequency range 5–100 GHz. It is based on six-flux theory to describe radiative transfer in snow including absorption, multiple volume scattering, radiation trapping due to internal reflection and a combination of coherent and incoherent superposition of reflections between horizontal layer interfaces. Here we introduce MEMLS3&a, an extension of MEMLS, which includes a backscatter model for active microwave remote sensing of snow. The reflectivity is decomposed into diffuse and specular components. Slight undulations of the snow surface are taken into account. The treatment of like- and cross-polarization is accomplished by an empirical splitting parameter q. MEMLS3&a (as well as MEMLS is set up in a way that snow input parameters can be derived by objective measurement methods which avoid fitting procedures of the scattering efficiency of snow, required by several other models. For the validation of the model we have used a combination of active and passive measurements from the NoSREx (Nordic Snow Radar Experiment campaign in Sodankylä, Finland. We find a reasonable agreement between the measurements and simulations, subject to uncertainties in hitherto unmeasured input parameters of the backscatter model. The model is written in Matlab and the code is publicly available for download through the following website: http://www.iapmw.unibe.ch/research/projects/snowtools/memls.html.

  5. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using the Advanced Research Version of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) to Forecast Turbulence at Small Scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Passner, Jeffrey E

    2008-01-01

    ...) as well as for longer-range forecasting support. The model utilized to investigate fine-scale weather processes, the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-ARW...

  7. Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to Produce Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) (Final Report, Version 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's announced the availability of the final report, Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to Produce Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) (Version 2). This update furthered land change modeling by providing nationwide housing developmen...

  8. TS Fuzzy Model-Based Controller Design for a Class of Nonlinear Systems Including Nonsmooth Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafamand, Navid; Asemani, Mohammad Hassan; Khayatiyan, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    criterion, new robust controller design conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived. Three practical case studies, electric power steering system, a helicopter model and servo-mechanical system, are presented to demonstrate the importance of such class of nonlinear systems comprising......This paper proposes a novel robust controller design for a class of nonlinear systems including hard nonlinearity functions. The proposed approach is based on Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy modeling, nonquadratic Lyapunov function, and nonparallel distributed compensation scheme. In this paper, a novel...... TS modeling of the nonlinear dynamics with signum functions is proposed. This model can exactly represent the original nonlinear system with hard nonlinearity while the discontinuous signum functions are not approximated. Based on the bounded-input-bounded-output stability scheme and L₁ performance...

  9. A roller chain drive model including contact with guide-bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sine Leergaard; Hansen, John Michael; Ambrósio, J. A. C.

    2004-01-01

    as continuous force. The model of the roller-chain drive now proposed departs from an earlier model where two contact/impact methods are proposed to describe the contact between the rollers of the chain and the teeth of the sprockets. These different formulations are based on unilateral constraints....... In the continuous force method the roller-sprocket contact, is represented by forces applied on each seated roller and in the respective sprocket teeth. These forces are functions of the pseudo penetrations between roller and sprocket, impacting velocities and a restitution coefficient. In the continuous force......A model of a roller chain drive is developed and applied to the simulation and analysis of roller chain drives of large marine diesel engines. The model includes the impact with guide-bars that are the motion delimiter components on the chain strands between the sprockets. The main components...

  10. Prospects for genetically modified non-human primate models, including the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Erika

    2015-04-01

    Genetically modified mice have contributed much to studies in the life sciences. In some research fields, however, mouse models are insufficient for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of pathology or as disease models. Often, genetically modified non-human primate (NHP) models are desired, as they are more similar to human physiology, morphology, and anatomy. Recent progress in studies of the reproductive biology in NHPs has enabled the introduction of exogenous genes into NHP genomes or the alteration of endogenous NHP genes. This review summarizes recent progress in the production of genetically modified NHPs, including the common marmoset, and future perspectives for realizing genetically modified NHP models for use in life sciences research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Model (WEBMOD), user’s manual, version 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Richard M.T.; Parkhurst, David L.

    2017-02-08

    The Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Model (WEBMOD) uses the framework of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Modular Modeling System to simulate fluxes of water and solutes through watersheds. WEBMOD divides watersheds into model response units (MRU) where fluxes and reactions are simulated for the following eight hillslope reservoir types: canopy; snowpack; ponding on impervious surfaces; O-horizon; two reservoirs in the unsaturated zone, which represent preferential flow and matrix flow; and two reservoirs in the saturated zone, which also represent preferential flow and matrix flow. The reservoir representing ponding on impervious surfaces, currently not functional (2016), will be implemented once the model is applied to urban areas. MRUs discharge to one or more stream reservoirs that flow to the outlet of the watershed. Hydrologic fluxes in the watershed are simulated by modules derived from the USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System; the National Weather Service Hydro-17 snow model; and a topography-driven hydrologic model (TOPMODEL). Modifications to the standard TOPMODEL include the addition of heterogeneous vertical infiltration rates; irrigation; lateral and vertical preferential flows through the unsaturated zone; pipe flow draining the saturated zone; gains and losses to regional aquifer systems; and the option to simulate baseflow discharge by using an exponential, parabolic, or linear decrease in transmissivity. PHREEQC, an aqueous geochemical model, is incorporated to simulate chemical reactions as waters evaporate, mix, and react within the various reservoirs of the model. The reactions that can be specified for a reservoir include equilibrium reactions among water; minerals; surfaces; exchangers; and kinetic reactions such as kinetic mineral dissolution or precipitation, biologically mediated reactions, and radioactive decay. WEBMOD also simulates variations in the concentrations of the stable isotopes deuterium and oxygen-18 as a result of

  12. Improving weather predictability by including land-surface model parameter uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Pappenberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    The land surface forms an important component of Earth system models and interacts nonlinearly with other parts such as ocean and atmosphere. To capture the complex and heterogenous hydrology of the land surface, land surface models include a large number of parameters impacting the coupling to other components of the Earth system model. Focusing on ECMWF's land-surface model HTESSEL we present in this study a comprehensive parameter sensitivity evaluation using multiple observational datasets in Europe. We select 6 poorly constrained effective parameters (surface runoff effective depth, skin conductivity, minimum stomatal resistance, maximum interception, soil moisture stress function shape, total soil depth) and explore their sensitivity to model outputs such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff using uncoupled simulations and coupled seasonal forecasts. Additionally we investigate the possibility to construct ensembles from the multiple land surface parameters. In the uncoupled runs we find that minimum stomatal resistance and total soil depth have the most influence on model performance. Forecast skill scores are moreover sensitive to the same parameters as HTESSEL performance in the uncoupled analysis. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by comparing multiple best performing parameter sets and multiple randomly chosen parameter sets. We find better temperature and precipitation forecast skill with the best-performing parameter perturbations demonstrating representativeness of model performance across uncoupled (and hence less computationally demanding) and coupled settings. Finally, we construct ensemble forecasts from ensemble members derived with different best-performing parameterizations of HTESSEL. This incorporation of parameter uncertainty in the ensemble generation yields an increase in forecast skill, even beyond the skill of the default system. Orth, R., E. Dutra, and F. Pappenberger, 2016: Improving weather predictability by

  13. A numerical model including PID control of a multizone crystal growth furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarella, Charles H.; Kassemi, Mohammad

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a 2D axisymmetric combined conduction and radiation model of a multizone crystal growth furnace. The model is based on a programmable multizone furnace (PMZF) designed and built at NASA Lewis Research Center for growing high quality semiconductor crystals. A novel feature of this model is a control algorithm which automatically adjusts the power in any number of independently controlled heaters to establish the desired crystal temperatures in the furnace model. The control algorithm eliminates the need for numerous trial and error runs previously required to obtain the same results. The finite element code, FIDAP, used to develop the furnace model, was modified to directly incorporate the control algorithm. This algorithm, which presently uses PID control, and the associated heat transfer model are briefly discussed. Together, they have been used to predict the heater power distributions for a variety of furnace configurations and desired temperature profiles. Examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PID controlled model in establishing isothermal, Bridgman, and other complicated temperature profies in the sample. Finally, an example is given to show how the algorithm can be used to change the desired profile with time according to a prescribed temperature-time evolution.

  14. A New Circuit Model for Spin-Torque Oscillator Including Perpendicular Torque of Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyein Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin-torque oscillator (STO is a promising new technology for the future RF oscillators, which is based on the spin-transfer torque (STT effect in magnetic multilayered nanostructure. It is expected to provide a larger tunability, smaller size, lower power consumption, and higher level of integration than the semiconductor-based oscillators. In our previous work, a circuit-level model of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR STO was proposed. In this paper, we present a physics-based circuit-level model of the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ-based STO. MTJ-STO model includes the effect of perpendicular torque that has been ignored in the GMR-STO model. The variations of three major characteristics, generation frequency, mean oscillation power, and generation linewidth of an MTJ-STO with respect to the amount of perpendicular torque, are investigated, and the results are applied to our model. The operation of the model was verified by HSPICE simulation, and the results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results also prove that a full circuit-level simulation with MJT-STO devices can be made with our proposed model.

  15. Representing winter wheat in the Community Land Model (version 4.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaqiong; Williams, Ian N.; Bagley, Justin E.; Torn, Margaret S.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2017-05-01

    Winter wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of Earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in carbon cycling and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Accurate simulation of winter wheat growth is not only crucial for future yield prediction under a changing climate, but also for accurately predicting the energy and water cycles for winter wheat dominated regions. We modified the winter wheat model in the Community Land Model (CLM) to better simulate winter wheat leaf area index, latent heat flux, net ecosystem exchange of CO2, and grain yield. These included schemes to represent vernalization as well as frost tolerance and damage. We calibrated three key parameters (minimum planting temperature, maximum crop growth days, and initial value of leaf carbon allocation coefficient) and modified the grain carbon allocation algorithm for simulations at the US Southern Great Plains ARM site (US-ARM), and validated the model performance at eight additional sites across North America. We found that the new winter wheat model improved the prediction of monthly variation in leaf area index, reduced latent heat flux, and net ecosystem exchange root mean square error (RMSE) by 41 and 35 % during the spring growing season. The model accurately simulated the interannual variation in yield at the US-ARM site, but underestimated yield at sites and in regions (northwestern and southeastern US) with historically greater yields by 35 %.

  16. Including Finite Surface Span Effects in Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of finite span on the jet-surface interaction noise source and the jet mixing noise shielding and reflection effects is considered using recently acquired experimental data. First, the experimental setup and resulting data are presented with particular attention to the role of surface span on far-field noise. These effects are then included in existing empirical models that have previously assumed that all surfaces are semi-infinite. This extended abstract briefly describes the experimental setup and data leaving the empirical modeling aspects for the final paper.

  17. Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anandan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resistance shows significant improvement as the channel length decreases. The effects of thermal noise including self-heating of the device are explored. Moreover, significant reduction in noise with respect to channel thermal resistance, gate length, and biasing is analyzed.

  18. Producing high-accuracy lattice models from protein atomic coordinates including side chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Saunders, Rhodri; Smith, Cameron; Backofen, Rolf; Deane, Charlotte M

    2012-01-01

    Lattice models are a common abstraction used in the study of protein structure, folding, and refinement. They are advantageous because the discretisation of space can make extensive protein evaluations computationally feasible. Various approaches to the protein chain lattice fitting problem have been suggested but only a single backbone-only tool is available currently. We introduce LatFit, a new tool to produce high-accuracy lattice protein models. It generates both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models in any user defined lattice. LatFit implements a new distance RMSD-optimisation fitting procedure in addition to the known coordinate RMSD method. We tested LatFit's accuracy and speed using a large nonredundant set of high resolution proteins (SCOP database) on three commonly used lattices: 3D cubic, face-centred cubic, and knight's walk. Fitting speed compared favourably to other methods and both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models show low deviation from the original data (~1.5 Å RMSD in the FCC lattice). To our knowledge this represents the first comprehensive study of lattice quality for on-lattice protein models including side chains while LatFit is the only available tool for such models.

  19. A High-Rate, Single-Crystal Model including Phase Transformations, Plastic Slip, and Twinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addessio, Francis L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bolme, Cynthia Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Explosive Science and Shock Physics Division; Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cerreta, Ellen Kathleen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lebensohn, Ricardo A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Luscher, Darby Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Mayeur, Jason Rhea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Morrow, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Rigg, Paulo A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Inst. for Shock Physics

    2016-08-09

    An anisotropic, rate-­dependent, single-­crystal approach for modeling materials under the conditions of high strain rates and pressures is provided. The model includes the effects of large deformations, nonlinear elasticity, phase transformations, and plastic slip and twinning. It is envisioned that the model may be used to examine these coupled effects on the local deformation of materials that are subjected to ballistic impact or explosive loading. The model is formulated using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. A plate impact experiment on a multi-­crystal sample of titanium was conducted. The particle velocities at the back surface of three crystal orientations relative to the direction of impact were measured. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the details of the high-­rate deformation and pursue issues related to the phase transformation for titanium. Simulations using the single crystal model were conducted and compared to the high-­rate experimental data for the impact loaded single crystals. The model was found to capture the features of the experiments.

  20. Modeling and analysis of the affinity filtration process, including broth feeding, washing, and elution steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L Z; Dong, X Y; Sun, Y

    1998-01-01

    Affinity filtration is a developing protein purification technique that combines the high selectivity of affinity chromatography and the high processing speed of membrane filtration. In this work a lumped kinetic model was developed to describe the whole affinity filtration process, including broth feeding, contaminant washing, and elution steps. Affinity filtration experiments were conducted to evaluate the model using bovine serum albumin as a model protein and a highly substituted Blue Sepharose as an affinity adsorbent. The model with nonadjustable parameters agreed fairly to the experimental results. Thus, the performance of the affinity filtration in processing a crude broth containing contaminant proteins was analyzed by computer simulations using the lumped model. The simulation results show that there is an optimal protein loading for obtaining the maximum recovery yield of the desired protein with a constant purity at each operating condition. The concentration of a crude broth is beneficial in increasing the recovery yield of the desired protein. Using a constant amount of the affinity adsorbent, the recovery yield can be enhanced by decreasing the solution volume in the stirred tank due to the increase of the adsorbent weight fraction. It was found that the lumped kinetic model was simple and useful in analyzing the whole affinity filtration process.

  1. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples; Mall foer saekerhetsrapporter med beskrivande exempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository.

  2. Collisional-radiative model including recombination processes for W27+ ion★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Izumi; Sasaki, Akira; Kato, Daiji; Koike, Fumihiro

    2017-10-01

    We have constructed a collisional-radiative (CR) model for W27+ ions including 226 configurations with n ≤ 9 and ł ≤ 5 for spectroscopic diagnostics. We newly include recombination processes in the model and this is the first result of extreme ultraviolet spectrum calculated for recombining plasma component. Calculated spectra in 40-70 Å range in ionizing and recombining plasma components show similar 3 strong lines and 1 line weak in recombining plasma component at 45-50 Å and many weak lines at 50-65 Å for both components. Recombination processes do not contribute much to the spectrum at around 60 Å for W27+ ion. Dielectronic satellite lines are also minor contribution to the spectrum of recombining plasma component. Dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficient from W28+ to W27+ ions is also calculated with the same atomic data in the CR model. We found that larger set of energy levels including many autoionizing states gave larger DR rate coefficients but our rate agree within factor 6 with other works at electron temperature around 1 keV in which W27+ and W28+ ions are usually observed in plasmas. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, and Grzegorz Karwasz.

  3. SITE-94. The CRYSTAL Geosphere Transport Model: Technical documentation version 2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worgan, K.; Robinson, P.

    1995-12-01

    CRYSTAL, a one-dimensional contaminant transport model of a densely fissured geosphere, was originally developed for the SKI Project-90 performance assessment program. It has since been extended to include matrix blocks of alternative basic geometries. CRYSTAL predicts the transport of arbitrary-length decay chains by advection, diffusion and surface sorption in the fissures and diffusion into the rock matrix blocks. The model equations are solved in Laplace transform space, and inverted numerically to the time domain. This approach avoids time-stepping and consequently is numerically very efficient. The source term for crystal may be supplied internally using either simple leaching or band release submodels or by input of a general time-series output from a near-field model. The time series input is interfaced with the geosphere model using the method of convolution. The response of the geosphere to delta-function inputs from each nuclide is combined with the time series outputs from the near-field, to obtain the nuclide flux emerging from the far-field. 14 refs

  4. A 3D model of the oculomotor plant including the pulley system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegener, A.; Armentano, R. L.

    2007-11-01

    Early models of the oculomotor plant only considered the eye globes and the muscles that move them. Recently, connective tissue structures have been found enveloping the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and firmly anchored to the orbital wall. These structures act as pulleys; they determine the functional origin of the EOMs and, in consequence, their effective pulling direction. A three dimensional model of the oculomotor plant, including pulleys, has been developed and simulations in Simulink were performed during saccadic eye movements. Listing's law was implemented based on the supposition that there exists an eye orientation related signal. The inclusion of the pulleys in the model makes this assumption plausible and simplifies the problem of the plant noncommutativity.

  5. Business models for renewable energy in the built environment. Updated version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuertenberger, L.; Menkveld, M.; Vethman, P.; Van Tilburg, X. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bleyl, J.W. [Energetic Solutions, Graz (Austria)

    2012-04-15

    The project RE-BIZZ aims to provide insight to policy makers and market actors in the way new and innovative business models (and/or policy measures) can stimulate the deployment of renewable energy technologies (RET) and energy efficiency (EE) measures in the built environment. The project is initiated and funded by the IEA Implementing Agreement for Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD). It analysed ten business models in three categories (amongst others different types of Energy Service Companies (ESCOs), Developing properties certified with a 'green' building label, Building owners profiting from rent increases after EE measures, Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing, On-bill financing, and Leasing of RET equipment) including their organisational and financial structure, the existing market and policy context, and an analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT). The study concludes with recommendations for policy makers and other market actors.

  6. Verification and Validation of Encapsulation Flow Models in GOMA, Version 1.1; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MONDY, LISA ANN; RAO, REKHA R.; SCHUNK, P. RANDALL; SACKINGER, PHILIP A.; ADOLF, DOUGLAS B.

    2001-01-01

    Encapsulation is a common process used in manufacturing most non-nuclear components including: firing sets, neutron generators, trajectory sensing signal generators (TSSGs), arming, fusing and firing devices (AF and Fs), radars, programmers, connectors, and batteries. Encapsulation is used to contain high voltage, to mitigate stress and vibration and to protect against moisture. The purpose of the ASCI Encapsulation project is to develop a simulation capability that will allow us to aid in the encapsulation design process, especially for neutron generators. The introduction of an encapsulant poses many problems because of the need to balance ease of processing and properties necessary to achieve the design benefits such as tailored encapsulant properties, optimized cure schedule and reduced failure rates. Encapsulants can fail through fracture or delamination as a result of cure shrinkage, thermally induced residual stresses, voids or incomplete component embedding and particle gradients. Manufacturing design requirements include (1) maintaining uniform composition of particles in order to maintain the desired thermal coefficient of expansion (CTE) and density, (2) mitigating void formation during mold fill, (3) mitigating cure and thermally induced stresses during cure and cool down, and (4) eliminating delamination and fracture due to cure shrinkage/thermal strains. The first two require modeling of the fluid phase, and it is proposed to use the finite element code GOMA to accomplish this. The latter two require modeling of the solid state; however, ideally the effects of particle distribution would be included in the calculations, and thus initial conditions would be set from GOMA predictions. These models, once they are verified and validated, will be transitioned into the SIERRA framework and the ARIA code. This will facilitate exchange of data with the solid mechanics calculations in SIERRA/ADAGIO

  7. Double-gate junctionless transistor model including short-channel effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, B C; Pavanello, M A; Ávila-Herrera, F; Cerdeira, A

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a physically based model for double-gate junctionless transistors (JLTs), continuous in all operation regimes. To describe short-channel transistors, short-channel effects (SCEs), such as increase of the channel potential due to drain bias, carrier velocity saturation and mobility degradation due to vertical and longitudinal electric fields, are included in a previous model developed for long-channel double-gate JLTs. To validate the model, an analysis is made by using three-dimensional numerical simulations performed in a Sentaurus Device Simulator from Synopsys. Different doping concentrations, channel widths and channel lengths are considered in this work. Besides that, the series resistance influence is numerically included and validated for a wide range of source and drain extensions. In order to check if the SCEs are appropriately described, besides drain current, transconductance and output conductance characteristics, the following parameters are analyzed to demonstrate the good agreement between model and simulation and the SCEs occurrence in this technology: threshold voltage (V TH ), subthreshold slope (S) and drain induced barrier lowering. (paper)

  8. Modeling the distribution of ammonia across Europe including bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Wichink Kruit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A large shortcoming of current chemistry transport models (CTM for simulating the fate of ammonia in the atmosphere is the lack of a description of the bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange. In this paper, results of an update of the surface–atmosphere exchange module DEPAC, i.e. DEPosition of Acidifying Compounds, in the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS are discussed. It is shown that with the new description, which includes bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange, the modeled ammonia concentrations increase almost everywhere, in particular in agricultural source areas. The reason is that by using a compensation point the ammonia lifetime and transport distance is increased. As a consequence, deposition of ammonia and ammonium decreases in agricultural source areas, while it increases in large nature areas and remote regions especially in southern Scandinavia. The inclusion of a compensation point for water reduces the dry deposition over sea and allows reproducing the observed marine background concentrations at coastal locations to a better extent. A comparison with measurements shows that the model results better represent the measured ammonia concentrations. The concentrations in nature areas are slightly overestimated, while the concentrations in agricultural source areas are still underestimated. Although the introduction of the compensation point improves the model performance, the modeling of ammonia remains challenging. Important aspects are emission patterns in space and time as well as a proper approach to deal with the high concentration gradients in relation to model resolution. In short, the inclusion of a bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange is a significant step forward for modeling ammonia.

  9. Including policy and management in socio-hydrology models: initial conceptualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Korbee, Dorien

    2017-04-01

    Socio-hydrology studies the interactions in coupled human-water systems. So far, the use of dynamic models that capture the direct feedback between societal and hydrological systems has been dominant. What has not yet been included with any particular emphasis, is the policy or management layer, which is a central element in for instance integrated water resources management (IWRM) or adaptive delta management (ADM). Studying the direct interactions between human-water systems generates knowledges that eventually helps influence these interactions in ways that may ensure better outcomes - for society and for the health and sustainability of water systems. This influence sometimes occurs through spontaneous emergence, uncoordinated by societal agents - private sector, citizens, consumers, water users. However, the term 'management' in IWRM and ADM also implies an additional coordinated attempt through various public actors. This contribution is a call to include the policy and management dimension more prominently into the research focus of the socio-hydrology field, and offers first conceptual variables that should be considered in attempts to include this policy or management layer in socio-hydrology models. This is done by drawing on existing frameworks to study policy processes throughout both planning and implementation phases. These include frameworks such as the advocacy coalition framework, collective learning and policy arrangements, which all emphasis longer-term dynamics and feedbacks between actor coalitions in strategic planning and implementation processes. A case about longter-term dynamics in the management of the Haringvliet in the Netherlands is used to illustrate the paper.

  10. EIA model documentation: World oil refining logistics demand model,``WORLD`` reference manual. Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-11

    This manual is intended primarily for use as a reference by analysts applying the WORLD model to regional studies. It also provides overview information on WORLD features of potential interest to managers and analysts. Broadly, the manual covers WORLD model features in progressively increasing detail. Section 2 provides an overview of the WORLD model, how it has evolved, what its design goals are, what it produces, and where it can be taken with further enhancements. Section 3 reviews model management covering data sources, managing over-optimization, calibration and seasonality, check-points for case construction and common errors. Section 4 describes in detail the WORLD system, including: data and program systems in overview; details of mainframe and PC program control and files;model generation, size management, debugging and error analysis; use with different optimizers; and reporting and results analysis. Section 5 provides a detailed description of every WORLD model data table, covering model controls, case and technology data. Section 6 goes into the details of WORLD matrix structure. It provides an overview, describes how regional definitions are controlled and defines the naming conventions for-all model rows, columns, right-hand sides, and bounds. It also includes a discussion of the formulation of product blending and specifications in WORLD. Several Appendices supplement the main sections.

  11. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland. Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, A.; Forchhammer, K.; Pettersson, A. [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); La Pointe, P.; Lim, D-H. [Golder Associates Inc. (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modeling team in the production of the 2010 revision to the geological discrete fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 565m; deformation zones are expressly excluded from the DFN model. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modeling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is selected to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches, geological and structural data from cored drillholes, and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory. Unlike the initial geological DFN, which was focused on the vicinity of the ONKALO tunnel, the 2010 revisions present a model parameterization for the entire island. Fracture domains are based on the tectonic subdivisions at the site (northern, central, and southern tectonic units) presented in the Geological Site Model (GSM), and are further subdivided along the intersection of major brittle-ductile zones. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east that is subparallel to the mean bedrock foliation direction, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking approximately east-west. The subhorizontally-dipping fractures

  12. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland. Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, A.; Forchhammer, K.; Pettersson, A.; La Pointe, P.; Lim, D-H.

    2012-06-01

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modeling team in the production of the 2010 revision to the geological discrete fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 565m; deformation zones are expressly excluded from the DFN model. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modeling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is selected to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches, geological and structural data from cored drillholes, and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory. Unlike the initial geological DFN, which was focused on the vicinity of the ONKALO tunnel, the 2010 revisions present a model parameterization for the entire island. Fracture domains are based on the tectonic subdivisions at the site (northern, central, and southern tectonic units) presented in the Geological Site Model (GSM), and are further subdivided along the intersection of major brittle-ductile zones. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east that is subparallel to the mean bedrock foliation direction, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking approximately east-west. The subhorizontally-dipping fractures

  13. Validation Evidence for the Elementary School Version of the MUSIC® Model of Academic Motivation Inventory (Pruebas de validación para el Modelo MUSIC® de Inventario de Motivación Educativa para Escuela Primaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D.; Sigmon, Miranda L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of our study was to assess whether the Elementary School version of the MUSIC® Model of Academic Motivation Inventory was valid for use with elementary students in classrooms with regular classroom teachers and student teachers enrolled in a university teacher preparation program. Method: The participants included 535…

  14. Modelling of Water Cooled Fuel Including Design Basis and Severe Accidents. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The demands on nuclear fuel have recently been increasing, and include transient regimes, higher discharge burnup and longer fuel cycles. This has resulted in an increase of loads on fuel and core internals. In order to satisfy these demands while ensuring compliance with safety criteria, new national and international programmes have been launched and advanced modelling codes are being developed. The Fukushima Daiichi accident has particularly demonstrated the need for adequate analysis of all aspects of fuel performance to prevent a failure and also to predict fuel behaviour were an accident to occur.This publication presents the Proceedings of the Technical Meeting on Modelling of Water Cooled Fuel Including Design Basis and Severe Accidents, which was hosted by the Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC) in Chengdu, China, following the recommendation made in 2013 at the IAEA Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology. This recommendation was in agreement with IAEA mid-term initiatives, linked to the post-Fukushima IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan, as well as the forthcoming Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Fuel Modelling in Accident Conditions. At the technical meeting in Chengdu, major areas and physical phenomena, as well as types of code and experiment to be studied and used in the CRP, were discussed. The technical meeting provided a forum for international experts to review the state of the art of code development for modelling fuel performance of nuclear fuel for water cooled reactors with regard to steady state and transient conditions, and for design basis and early phases of severe accidents, including experimental support for code validation. A round table discussion focused on the needs and perspectives on fuel modelling in accident conditions. This meeting was the ninth in a series of IAEA meetings, which reflects Member States’ continuing interest in nuclear fuel issues. The previous meetings were held in 1980 (jointly with

  15. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Geological discrete-fracture network model (version 1) for the Olkiluoto site, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, A.; Buoro, A.; Dahlbo, K.; Wiren, L.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of a discrete-fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 500 m; an upper scale limit is not expressly defined, but the DFN model explicitly excludes structures at deformation-zone scales (∼ 500 m) and larger. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modelling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is currently planned to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches (as of July 2007), geological and structural data from cored boreholes (as of July 2007), and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory (January 2008). The modelling results suggest that the rock volume at Olkiluoto surrounding the ONKALO tunnel can be separated into three distinct volumes (fracture domains): an upper block, an intermediate block, and a lower block. The three fracture domains are bounded horizontally and vertically by large deformation zones. Fracture properties, such as fracture orientation and relative orientation set intensity, vary between fracture domains. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subverticallydipping fracture set

  17. Land Boundary Conditions for the Goddard Earth Observing System Model Version 5 (GEOS-5) Climate Modeling System: Recent Updates and Data File Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanama, Sarith P.; Koster, Randal D.; Walker, Gregory K.; Takacs, Lawrence L.; Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle; Liu, Qing; Zhao, Bin; Suarez, Max J.

    2015-01-01

    The Earths land surface boundary conditions in the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) modeling system were updated using recent high spatial and temporal resolution global data products. The updates include: (i) construction of a global 10-arcsec land-ocean lakes-ice mask; (ii) incorporation of a 10-arcsec Globcover 2009 land cover dataset; (iii) implementation of Level 12 Pfafstetter hydrologic catchments; (iv) use of hybridized SRTM global topography data; (v) construction of the HWSDv1.21-STATSGO2 merged global 30 arc second soil mineral and carbon data in conjunction with a highly-refined soil classification system; (vi) production of diffuse visible and near-infrared 8-day MODIS albedo climatologies at 30-arcsec from the period 2001-2011; and (vii) production of the GEOLAND2 and MODIS merged 8-day LAI climatology at 30-arcsec for GEOS-5. The global data sets were preprocessed and used to construct global raster data files for the software (mkCatchParam) that computes parameters on catchment-tiles for various atmospheric grids. The updates also include a few bug fixes in mkCatchParam, as well as changes (improvements in algorithms, etc.) to mkCatchParam that allow it to produce tile-space parameters efficiently for high resolution AGCM grids. The update process also includes the construction of data files describing the vegetation type fractions, soil background albedo, nitrogen deposition and mean annual 2m air temperature to be used with the future Catchment CN model and the global stream channel network to be used with the future global runoff routing model. This report provides detailed descriptions of the data production process and data file format of each updated data set.

  18. A structural model for the in vivo human cornea including collagen-swelling interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi; Petsche, Steven J; Pinsky, Peter M

    2015-08-06

    A structural model of the in vivo cornea, which accounts for tissue swelling behaviour, for the three-dimensional organization of stromal fibres and for collagen-swelling interaction, is proposed. Modelled as a binary electrolyte gel in thermodynamic equilibrium, the stromal electrostatic free energy is based on the mean-field approximation. To account for active endothelial ionic transport in the in vivo cornea, which modulates osmotic pressure and hydration, stromal mobile ions are shown to satisfy a modified Boltzmann distribution. The elasticity of the stromal collagen network is modelled based on three-dimensional collagen orientation probability distributions for every point in the stroma obtained by synthesizing X-ray diffraction data for azimuthal angle distributions and second harmonic-generated image processing for inclination angle distributions. The model is implemented in a finite-element framework and employed to predict free and confined swelling of stroma in an ionic bath. For the in vivo cornea, the model is used to predict corneal swelling due to increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) and is adapted to model swelling in Fuchs' corneal dystrophy. The biomechanical response of the in vivo cornea to a typical LASIK surgery for myopia is analysed, including tissue fluid pressure and swelling responses. The model provides a new interpretation of the corneal active hydration control (pump-leak) mechanism based on osmotic pressure modulation. The results also illustrate the structural necessity of fibre inclination in stabilizing the corneal refractive surface with respect to changes in tissue hydration and IOP. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Land-total and Ocean-total Precipitation and Evaporation from a Community Atmosphere Model version 5 Perturbed Parameter Ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covey, Curt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lucas, Donald D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Trenberth, Kevin E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-03-02

    This document presents the large scale water budget statistics of a perturbed input-parameter ensemble of atmospheric model runs. The model is Version 5.1.02 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). These runs are the “C-Ensemble” described by Qian et al., “Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of Precipitation at Global and Local Scales in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5” (Journal of Advances in Modeling the Earth System, 2015). As noted by Qian et al., the simulations are “AMIP type” with temperature and sea ice boundary conditions chosen to match surface observations for the five year period 2000-2004. There are 1100 ensemble members in addition to one run with default inputparameter values.

  20. Model Analyst’s Toolkit User Guide, Version 7.1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Analyst’s Toolkit Version 7.1.0 4 Figure 1 MAT interface elements Use the standard Windows methods for moving and resizing windows. You can also move...and resize views using the toolbar at the top of each view. Figure 2 Selected Entities view To rearrange a view  Float a view by clicking and...and click OK in the Existing Concept area to create the data feature. If you uncheck the data series, the dot next to the series is shown in red on

  1. Theoretical modelling of epigenetically modified DNA sequences [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Teresa Pires Carvalho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a set of calculations designed to examine the effects of epigenetic modifications on the structure of DNA. The incorporation of methyl, hydroxymethyl, formyl and carboxy substituents at the 5-position of cytosine is shown to hardly affect the geometry of CG base pairs, but to result in rather larger changes to hydrogen-bond and stacking binding energies, as predicted by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT methods. The same modifications within double-stranded GCG and ACA trimers exhibit rather larger structural effects, when including the sugar-phosphate backbone as well as sodium counterions and implicit aqueous solvation. In particular, changes are observed in the buckle and propeller angles within base pairs and the slide and roll values of base pair steps, but these leave the overall helical shape of DNA essentially intact. The structures so obtained are useful as a benchmark of faster methods, including molecular mechanics (MM and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM methods. We show that previously developed MM parameters satisfactorily reproduce the trimer structures, as do QM/MM calculations which treat bases with dispersion-corrected DFT and the sugar-phosphate backbone with AMBER. The latter are improved by inclusion of all six bases in the QM region, since a truncated model including only the central CG base pair in the QM region is considerably further from the DFT structure. This QM/MM method is then applied to a set of double-stranded DNA heptamers derived from a recent X-ray crystallographic study, whose size puts a DFT study beyond our current computational resources. These data show that still larger structural changes are observed than in base pairs or trimers, leading us to conclude that it is important to model epigenetic modifications within realistic molecular contexts.

  2. General hypothesis and shell model for the synthesis of semiconductor nanotubes, including carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, S. Noor

    2010-09-01

    Semiconductor nanotubes, including carbon nanotubes, have vast potential for new technology development. The fundamental physics and growth kinetics of these nanotubes are still obscured. Various models developed to elucidate the growth suffer from limited applicability. An in-depth investigation of the fundamentals of nanotube growth has, therefore, been carried out. For this investigation, various features of nanotube growth, and the role of the foreign element catalytic agent (FECA) in this growth, have been considered. Observed growth anomalies have been analyzed. Based on this analysis, a new shell model and a general hypothesis have been proposed for the growth. The essential element of the shell model is the seed generated from segregation during growth. The seed structure has been defined, and the formation of droplet from this seed has been described. A modified definition of the droplet exhibiting adhesive properties has also been presented. Various characteristics of the droplet, required for alignment and organization of atoms into tubular forms, have been discussed. Employing the shell model, plausible scenarios for the formation of carbon nanotubes, and the variation in the characteristics of these carbon nanotubes have been articulated. The experimental evidences, for example, for the formation of shell around a core, dipole characteristics of the seed, and the existence of nanopores in the seed, have been presented. They appear to justify the validity of the proposed model. The diversities of nanotube characteristics, fundamentals underlying the creation of bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes, and the impurity generation on the surface of carbon nanotubes have been elucidated. The catalytic action of FECA on growth has been quantified. The applicability of the proposed model to the nanotube growth by a variety of mechanisms has been elaborated. These mechanisms include the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, the oxide-assisted growth mechanism, the self

  3. Modelling turbulent vertical mixing sensitivity using a 1-D version of NEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reffray, G.; Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Calone, C.

    2015-01-01

    Through two numerical experiments, a 1-D vertical model called NEMO1D was used to investigate physical and numerical turbulent-mixing behaviour. The results show that all the turbulent closures tested (k+l from Blanke and Delecluse, 1993, and two equation models: generic length scale closures from Umlauf and Burchard, 2003) are able to correctly reproduce the classical test of Kato and Phillips (1969) under favourable numerical conditions while some solutions may diverge depending on the degradation of the spatial and time discretization. The performances of turbulence models were then compared with data measured over a 1-year period (mid-2010 to mid-2011) at the PAPA station, located in the North Pacific Ocean. The modelled temperature and salinity were in good agreement with the observations, with a maximum temperature error between -2 and 2 °C during the stratified period (June to October). However, the results also depend on the numerical conditions. The vertical RMSE varied, for different turbulent closures, from 0.1 to 0.3 °C during the stratified period and from 0.03 to 0.15 °C during the homogeneous period. This 1-D configuration at the PAPA station (called PAPA1D) is now available in NEMO as a reference configuration including the input files and atmospheric forcing set described in this paper. Thus, all the results described can be recovered by downloading and launching PAPA1D. The configuration is described on the NEMO site (PAPA">http://www.nemo-ocean.eu/Using-NEMO/Configurations/C1D_PAPA). This package is a good starting point for further investigation of vertical processes.

  4. A new model for including the effect of fly ash on biochemical methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, Pablo; Huiliñir, César; Pinto-Villegas, Paula; Castillo, Alejandra; Montalvo, Silvio; Guerrero, Lorna

    2017-10-01

    The modelling of the effect of trace elements on anaerobic digestion, and specifically the effect of fly ash, has been scarcely studied. Thus, the present work was aimed at the development of a new function that allows accumulated methane models to predict the effect of FA on the volume of methane accumulation. For this, purpose five fly ash concentrations (10, 25, 50, 250 and 500mg/L) using raw and pre-treated sewage sludge were used to calibrate the new function, while three fly ash concentrations were used (40, 150 and 350mg/L) for validation. Three models for accumulated methane volume (the modified Gompertz equation, the logistic function, and the transfer function) were evaluated. The results showed that methane production increased in the presence of FA when the sewage sludge was not pre-treated, while with pretreated sludge there is inhibition of methane production at FA concentrations higher than 50mg/L. In the calibration of the proposed function, it fits well with the experimental data under all the conditions, including the inhibition and stimulating zones, with the values of the parameters of the methane production models falling in the range of those reported in the literature. For validation experiments, the model succeeded in representing the behavior of new experiments in both the stimulating and inhibiting zones, with NRMSE and R 2 ranging from 0.3577 to 0.03714 and 0.2209 to 0.9911, respectively. Thus, the proposed model is robust and valid for the studied conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: Part 2 – Including organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the inclusion of organic particulate material within the Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model (ADDEM framework described in the companion paper applied to inorganic aerosol components. The performance of ADDEM is analysed in terms of its capability to reproduce the behaviour of various organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems using recently published bulk data. Within the modelling architecture already described two separate thermodynamic models are coupled in an additive approach and combined with a method for solving the Kohler equation in order to develop a tool for predicting the water content associated with an aerosol of known inorganic/organic composition and dry size. For development of the organic module, the widely used group contribution method UNIFAC is employed to explicitly deal with the non-ideality in solution. The UNIFAC predictions for components of atmospheric importance were improved considerably by using revised interaction parameters derived from electro-dynamic balance studies. Using such parameters, the model was found to adequately describe mixed systems including 5–6 dicarboxylic acids, down to low relative humidity conditions. By comparison with electrodynamic balance data, it was also found that the model was capable of capturing the behaviour of aqueous aerosols containing Suwannee River Fulvic acid, a structure previously used to represent the functionality of complex oxidised macromolecules often found in atmospheric aerosols. The additive approach for modelling mixed inorganic/organic systems worked well for a variety of mixtures. As expected, deviations between model predictions and measurements increase with increasing concentration. Available surface tension models, used in evaluating the Kelvin term, were found to reproduce measured data with varying success. Deviations from experimental data increased with increased organic compound complexity. For components only slightly

  6. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: Part 2 Including organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, D. O.; McFiggans, G. B.; Coe, H.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the inclusion of organic particulate material within the Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model (ADDEM) framework described in the companion paper applied to inorganic aerosol components. The performance of ADDEM is analysed in terms of its capability to reproduce the behaviour of various organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems using recently published bulk data. Within the modelling architecture already described two separate thermodynamic models are coupled in an additive approach and combined with a method for solving the Kohler equation in order to develop a tool for predicting the water content associated with an aerosol of known inorganic/organic composition and dry size. For development of the organic module, the widely used group contribution method UNIFAC is employed to explicitly deal with the non-ideality in solution. The UNIFAC predictions for components of atmospheric importance were improved considerably by using revised interaction parameters derived from electro-dynamic balance studies. Using such parameters, the model was found to adequately describe mixed systems including 5-6 dicarboxylic acids, down to low relative humidity conditions. By comparison with electrodynamic balance data, it was also found that the model was capable of capturing the behaviour of aqueous aerosols containing Suwannee River Fulvic acid, a structure previously used to represent the functionality of complex oxidised macromolecules often found in atmospheric aerosols. The additive approach for modelling mixed inorganic/organic systems worked well for a variety of mixtures. As expected, deviations between model predictions and measurements increase with increasing concentration. Available surface tension models, used in evaluating the Kelvin term, were found to reproduce measured data with varying success. Deviations from experimental data increased with increased organic compound complexity. For components only slightly soluble in water

  7. A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Maas, Jan

    2015-11-01

    © EDP Sciences, SMAI 2015. In this paper the optimal transport and the metamorphosis perspectives are combined. For a pair of given input images geodesic paths in the space of images are defined as minimizers of a resulting path energy. To this end, the underlying Riemannian metric measures the rate of transport cost and the rate of viscous dissipation. Furthermore, the model is capable to deal with strongly varying image contrast and explicitly allows for sources and sinks in the transport equations which are incorporated in the metric related to the metamorphosis approach by Trouvé and Younes. In the non-viscous case with source term existence of geodesic paths is proven in the space of measures. The proposed model is explored on the range from merely optimal transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals. These functionals are defined on corresponding pairs of intensity functions and on associated pairwise matching deformations. Existence of time discrete geodesics is demonstrated. Furthermore, a finite element implementation is proposed and applied to instructive test cases and to real images. In the non-viscous case this is compared to the algorithm proposed by Benamou and Brenier including a discretization of the source term. Finally, the model is generalized to define discrete weighted barycentres with applications to textures and objects.

  8. Empirical Validation of a Thermal Model of a Complex Roof Including Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Guichard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the empirical validation of a building thermal model of a complex roof including a phase change material (PCM. A mathematical model dedicated to PCMs based on the heat apparent capacity method was implemented in a multi-zone building simulation code, the aim being to increase the understanding of the thermal behavior of the whole building with PCM technologies. In order to empirically validate the model, the methodology is based both on numerical and experimental studies. A parametric sensitivity analysis was performed and a set of parameters of the thermal model has been identified for optimization. The use of the generic optimization program called GenOpt® coupled to the building simulation code enabled to determine the set of adequate parameters. We first present the empirical validation methodology and main results of previous work. We then give an overview of GenOpt® and its coupling with the building simulation code. Finally, once the optimization results are obtained, comparisons of the thermal predictions with measurements are found to be acceptable and are presented.

  9. A multiscale model for glioma spread including cell-tissue interactions and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engwer, Christian; Knappitsch, Markus; Surulescu, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Glioma is a broad class of brain and spinal cord tumors arising from glia cells, which are the main brain cells that can develop into neoplasms. They are highly invasive and lead to irregular tumor margins which are not precisely identifiable by medical imaging, thus rendering a precise enough resection very difficult. The understanding of glioma spread patterns is hence essential for both radiological therapy as well as surgical treatment. In this paper we propose a multiscale model for glioma growth including interactions of the cells with the underlying tissue network, along with proliferative effects. Our current accounting for two subpopulations of cells to accomodate proliferation according to the go-or-grow dichtomoty is an extension of the setting in [16]. As in that paper, we assume that cancer cells use neuronal fiber tracts as invasive pathways. Hence, the individual structure of brain tissue seems to be decisive for the tumor spread. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is able to provide such information, thus opening the way for patient specific modeling of glioma invasion. Starting from a multiscale model involving subcellular (microscopic) and individual (mesoscale) cell dynamics, we perform a parabolic scaling to obtain an approximating reaction-diffusion-transport equation on the macroscale of the tumor cell population. Numerical simulations based on DTI data are carried out in order to assess the performance of our modeling approach.

  10. Habitability of super-Earth planets around other suns: models including Red Giant Branch evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Schröder, K-P; Bounama, C; Franck, S

    2009-01-01

    The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super-Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth-mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production and takes into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. This allows us to identify a so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zone (pHZ), as determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Our model considers solar evolution during the main-sequence stage and along the Red Giant Branch as described by the most recent solar model. We obtain a large set of solutions consistent with the principal possibility of life. The highest likelihood of habitability is found for "water worlds." Only mass-rich water worlds are able to realize pHZ-type habitability beyond the stellar main sequence on the Red Giant Branch.

  11. Analysis of electronic models for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzky, Annegret

    2010-07-01

    We introduce an electronic model for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities. The resulting drift-diffusion model corresponds to a generalized van Roosbroeck system with additional source terms coupled with ODEs containing space and energy as parameters for all defect densities. The system has to be considered in heterostructures and with mixed boundary conditions from device simulation. We give a weak formulation of the problem. If the boundary data and the sources are compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium the free energy along solutions decays monotonously. In other cases it may be increasing, but we estimate its growth. We establish boundedness and uniqueness results and prove the existence of a weak solution. This is done by considering a regularized problem, showing its solvability and the boundedness of its solutions independent of the regularization level. (orig.)

  12. Effect of including decay chains on predictions of equilibrium-type terrestrial food chain models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Equilibrium-type food chain models are commonly used for assessing the radiological impact to man from environmental releases of radionuclides. Usually these do not take into account build-up of radioactive decay products during environmental transport. This may be a potential source of underprediction. For estimating consequences of this simplification, the equations of an internationally recognised terrestrial food chain model have been extended to include decay chains of variable length. Example calculations show that for releases from light water reactors as expected both during routine operation and in the case of severe accidents, the build-up of decay products during environmental transport is generally of minor importance. However, a considerable number of radionuclides of potential radiological significance have been identified which show marked contributions of decay products to calculated contamination of human food and resulting radiation dose rates. (author)

  13. Design of a integrated source-risk model for radon (Version 1.0); Ontwerp Geintegreerd bron-risicomodel voor radon (Versie 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laheij, G.M.H.; Stoop, P.; De Vries, L.J.; Aldenkamp, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993 a definition study for the development of a model describing the complete chain: source - exhalation - dispersion - exposure - effect/risk for radon has been performed. Advantages using a source-risk model are that risk calculations are standardized, the effects of measures applied to different parts of the source-risk chain can be compared and the most important parameters within the total source-risk chain can be determined. The models presently available in the Netherlands were investigated by interviewing several owners of models at KVI, TNO and RIVM. The models were screened for completeness, validation and operational status. The investigation made clear that, by choosing for each part of the source-risk chain the most convenient model, a source-risk chain model for radon may be realised. An organisational form of the source-risk model was recommended in which only the simple models are administrated at a central site. The other models are operated and administrated by the model owners. This report describes the design study for version 1.0 of the source-risk model. Procedures and requirements for the interaction between the several models and the database included in the source-risk model are given. This is worked out in a working script in which both the responsibilities of the model owners and of the administrator and the procedures for model calculations and queries on the database are given. Also a data dictionary is given, in which all parameters, used within the source-risk chain, are described, next to a contract in which agreements to ensure the operationality of the source-risk model can be found. Furthermore, the parts of the model which should be developed, i.e. the information system (the database), transfer format and balance model, are described. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. The Parallelized Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM version 4.0 for atmospheric and oceanic flows: model formulation, recent developments, and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Maronga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the current version of the Parallelized Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM whose core has been developed at the Institute of Meteorology and Climatology at Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany. PALM is a Fortran 95-based code with some Fortran 2003 extensions and has been applied for the simulation of a variety of atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers for more than 15 years. PALM is optimized for use on massively parallel computer architectures and was recently ported to general-purpose graphics processing units. In the present paper we give a detailed description of the current version of the model and its features, such as an embedded Lagrangian cloud model and the possibility to use Cartesian topography. Moreover, we discuss recent model developments and future perspectives for LES applications.

  15. The Parallelized Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM) version 4.0 for atmospheric and oceanic flows: model formulation, recent developments, and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronga, B.; Gryschka, M.; Heinze, R.; Hoffmann, F.; Kanani-Sühring, F.; Keck, M.; Ketelsen, K.; Letzel, M. O.; Sühring, M.; Raasch, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we present the current version of the Parallelized Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM) whose core has been developed at the Institute of Meteorology and Climatology at Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany). PALM is a Fortran 95-based code with some Fortran 2003 extensions and has been applied for the simulation of a variety of atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers for more than 15 years. PALM is optimized for use on massively parallel computer architectures and was recently ported to general-purpose graphics processing units. In the present paper we give a detailed description of the current version of the model and its features, such as an embedded Lagrangian cloud model and the possibility to use Cartesian topography. Moreover, we discuss recent model developments and future perspectives for LES applications.

  16. The global chemistry transport model TM5: description and evaluation of the tropospheric chemistry version 3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Huijnen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive description and benchmark evaluation of the tropospheric chemistry version of the global chemistry transport model TM5 (Tracer Model 5, version TM5-chem-v3.0. A full description is given concerning the photochemical mechanism, the interaction with aerosol, the treatment of the stratosphere, the wet and dry deposition parameterizations, and the applied emissions. We evaluate the model against a suite of ground-based, satellite, and aircraft measurements of components critical for understanding global photochemistry for the year 2006.

    The model exhibits a realistic oxidative capacity at a global scale. The methane lifetime is ~8.9 years with an associated lifetime of methyl chloroform of 5.86 years, which is similar to that derived using an optimized hydroxyl radical field.

    The seasonal cycle in observed carbon monoxide (CO is well simulated at different regions across the globe. In the Northern Hemisphere CO concentrations are underestimated by about 20 ppbv in spring and 10 ppbv in summer, which is related to missing chemistry and underestimated emissions from higher hydrocarbons, as well as to uncertainties in the seasonal variation of CO emissions. The model also captures the spatial and seasonal variation in formaldehyde tropospheric columns as observed by SCIAMACHY. Positive model biases over the Amazon and eastern United States point to uncertainties in the isoprene emissions as well as its chemical breakdown.

    Simulated tropospheric nitrogen dioxide columns correspond well to observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument in terms of its seasonal and spatial variability (with a global spatial correlation coefficient of 0.89, but TM5 fields are lower by 25–40%. This is consistent with earlier studies pointing to a high bias of 0–30% in the OMI retrievals, but uncertainties in the emission inventories have probably also contributed to the discrepancy.

    TM5 tropospheric

  17. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2010-12-01

    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific

  18. Model for Analysis of the Energy Demand (MAED) users' manual for version MAED-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This manual is organized in two major parts. The first part includes eight main sections describing how to use the MAED-1 computer program and the second one consists of five appendices giving some additional information about the program. Concerning the main sections of the manual, Section 1 gives a summary description and some background information about the MAED-1 model. Section 2 extends the description of the MAED-1 model in more detail. Section 3 introduces some concepts, mainly related to the computer requirements imposed by the program, that are used throughout this document. Sections 4 to 7 describe how to execute each of the various programs (or modules) of the MAED-1 package. The description for each module shows the user how to prepare the control and data cards needed to execute the module and how to interpret the printed output produced. Section 8 recapitulates about the use of MAED-1 for carrying out energy and electricity planning studies, describes the several phases normally involved in this type of study and provides the user with practical hints about the most important aspects that need to be verified at each phase while executing the various MAED modules

  19. Web-accessible molecular modeling with Rosetta: The Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rocco; Lyskov, Sergey; Das, Rhiju; Meiler, Jens; Gray, Jeffrey J

    2018-01-01

    The Rosetta molecular modeling software package provides a large number of experimentally validated tools for modeling and designing proteins, nucleic acids, and other biopolymers, with new protocols being added continually. While freely available to academic users, external usage is limited by the need for expertise in the Unix command line environment. To make Rosetta protocols available to a wider audience, we previously created a web server called Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE), which provides a common environment for hosting web-accessible Rosetta protocols. Here we describe a simplification of the ROSIE protocol specification format, one that permits easier implementation of Rosetta protocols. Whereas the previous format required creating multiple separate files in different locations, the new format allows specification of the protocol in a single file. This new, simplified protocol specification has more than doubled the number of Rosetta protocols available under ROSIE. These new applications include pK a determination, lipid accessibility calculation, ribonucleic acid redesign, protein-protein docking, protein-small molecule docking, symmetric docking, antibody docking, cyclic toxin docking, critical binding peptide determination, and mapping small molecule binding sites. ROSIE is freely available to academic users at http://rosie.rosettacommons.org. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  20. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: 2 Including organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, D. O.; McFiggans, G. B.; Coe, H.

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the inclusion of organic particulate material within the Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model (ADDEM) framework described in the companion paper applied to inorganic aerosol components. The performance of ADDEM is analysed in terms of its capability to reproduce the behaviour of various organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems using recently published bulk data. Within the modelling architecture already described two separate thermodynamic models are coupled in an additive approach and combined with a method for solving the Köhler equation in order to develop a tool for predicting the water content associated with an aerosol of known inorganic/organic composition and dry size. For development of the organic module, the widely used group contribution method UNIFAC is employed to explicitly deal with the non-ideality in solution. The UNIFAC predictions for components of atmospheric importance were improved considerably by using revised interaction parameters derived from electro-dynamic balance studies. Using such parameters, the model was found to adequately describe mixed systems including 5-6 dicarboxylic acids, down to low relative humidity conditions. The additive approach for modelling mixed inorganic/organic systems worked well for a variety of mixtures. As expected, deviations between predicted and measured data increase with increasing concentration. Available surface tension models, used in evaluating the Kelvin term, were found to reproduce measured data with varying success. Deviations from experimental data increased with increased organic compound complexity. For components only slightly soluble in water, significant deviations from measured surface tension depression behaviour were predicted with both model formalisms tested. A Sensitivity analysis showed that such variation is likely to lead to predicted growth factors within the measurement uncertainty for growth factor taken in the sub-saturated regime. Greater

  1. A Hydrological Concept including Lateral Water Flow Compatible with the Biogeochemical Model ForSAFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Zanchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a hydrology concept developed to include lateral water flow in the biogeochemical model ForSAFE. The hydrology concept was evaluated against data collected at Svartberget in the Vindeln Research Forest in Northern Sweden. The results show that the new concept allows simulation of a saturated and an unsaturated zone in the soil as well as water flow that reaches the stream comparable to measurements. The most relevant differences compared to streamflow measurements are that the model simulates a higher base flow in winter and lower flow peaks after snowmelt. These differences are mainly caused by the assumptions made to regulate the percolation at the bottom of the simulated soil columns. The capability for simulating lateral flows and a saturated zone in ForSAFE can greatly improve the simulation of chemical exchange in the soil and export of elements from the soil to watercourses. Such a model can help improve the understanding of how environmental changes in the forest landscape will influence chemical loads to surface waters.

  2. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in a quintessence cosmological model: Including anisotropic stress of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y. T.; Xu, L. X.; Gui, Y. X.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the quintessence cold dark matter model with constant equation of state and constant speed of sound in dark energy rest frame, including dark energy perturbation and its anisotropic stress. Comparing with the ΛCDM model, we find that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW)-power spectrums are affected by different background evolutions and dark energy perturbation. As we change the speed of sound from 1 to 0 in the quintessence cold dark matter model with given state parameters, it is found that the inclusion of dark energy anisotropic stress makes the variation of magnitude of the ISW source uncertain due to the anticorrelation between the speed of sound and the ratio of dark energy density perturbation contrast to dark matter density perturbation contrast in the ISW-source term. Thus, the magnitude of the ISW-source term is governed by the competition between the alterant multiple of (1+3/2xc-circumflex s 2 ) and that of δ de /δ m with the variation of c-circumflex s 2 .

  3. Expanded rock blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST, including buffer blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidman, J.P.; Chung, S.H. [ICI Explosives (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A discrete element computer program named DMC{_}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in 2-D. DMC{_}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts. The blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST have been expanded to include independently dipping geologic layers, top surface, bottom surface and pit floor. The pit can also now be defined using coordinates based on the toe of the bench. A method for modeling decked explosives has been developed which allows accurate treatment of the inert materials (stemming) in the explosive column and approximate treatment of different explosives in the same blasthole. A DMC{_}BLAST user can specify decking through a specific geologic layer with either inert material or a different explosive. Another new feature of DMC{_}BLAST is specification of an uplift angle which is the angle between the normal to the blasthole and a vector defining the direction of explosive loading on particles adjacent to the blasthole. A buffer (choke) blast capability has been added for situations where previously blasted material is adjacent to the free face of the bench preventing any significant lateral motion during the blast.

  4. GENII Version 2 Users’ Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2004-03-08

    The GENII Version 2 computer code was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the radiological risk estimating procedures of Federal Guidance Report 13 into updated versions of existing environmental pathway analysis models. The resulting environmental dosimetry computer codes are compiled in the GENII Environmental Dosimetry System. The GENII system was developed to provide a state-of-the-art, technically peer-reviewed, documented set of programs for calculating radiation dose and risk from radionuclides released to the environment. The codes were designed with the flexibility to accommodate input parameters for a wide variety of generic sites. Operation of a new version of the codes, GENII Version 2, is described in this report. Two versions of the GENII Version 2 code system are available, a full-featured version and a version specifically designed for demonstrating compliance with the dose limits specified in 40 CFR 61.93(a), the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) for radionuclides. The only differences lie in the limitation of the capabilities of the user to change specific parameters in the NESHAPS version. This report describes the data entry, accomplished via interactive, menu-driven user interfaces. Default exposure and consumption parameters are provided for both the average (population) and maximum individual; however, these may be modified by the user. Source term information may be entered as radionuclide release quantities for transport scenarios, or as basic radionuclide concentrations in environmental media (air, water, soil). For input of basic or derived concentrations, decay of parent radionuclides and ingrowth of radioactive decay products prior to the start of the exposure scenario may be considered. A single code run can

  5. Modelling and control of a microgrid including photovoltaic and wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammed Touseef

    Extensive increase of distributed generation (DG) penetration and the existence of multiple DG units at distribution level have introduced the notion of micro-grid. This thesis develops a detailed non-linear and small-signal dynamic model of a microgrid that includes PV, wind and conventional small scale generation along with their power electronics interfaces and the filters. The models developed evaluate the amount of generation mix from various DGs for satisfactory steady state operation of the microgrid. In order to understand the interaction of the DGs on microgrid system initially two simpler configurations were considered. The first one consists of microalternator, PV and their electronics, and the second system consists of microalternator and wind system each connected to the power system grid. Nonlinear and linear state space model of each microgrid are developed. Small signal analysis showed that the large participation of PV/wind can drive the microgrid to the brink of unstable region without adequate control. Non-linear simulations are carried out to verify the results obtained through small-signal analysis. The role of the extent of generation mix of a composite microgrid consisting of wind, PV and conventional generation was investigated next. The findings of the smaller systems were verified through nonlinear and small signal modeling. A central supervisory capacitor energy storage controller interfaced through a STATCOM was proposed to monitor and enhance the microgrid operation. The potential of various control inputs to provide additional damping to the system has been evaluated through decomposition techniques. The signals identified to have damping contents were employed to design the supervisory control system. The controller gains were tuned through an optimal pole placement technique. Simulation studies demonstrate that the STATCOM voltage phase angle and PV inverter phase angle were the best inputs for enhanced stability boundaries.

  6. Exergoeconomic performance optimization for a steady-flow endoreversible refrigeration model including six typical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingen; Kan, Xuxian; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Feng [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2013-07-01

    The operation of a universal steady flow endoreversible refrigeration cycle model consisting of a constant thermal-capacity heating branch, two constant thermal-capacity cooling branches and two adiabatic branches is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the refrigeration cycle is investigated by taking profit rate optimization criterion as the objective. The relations between the profit rate and the temperature ratio of working fluid, between the COP (coefficient of performance) and the temperature ratio of working fluid, as well as the optimal relation between profit rate and the COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to search the compromised optimization between economics (profit rate) and the utilization factor (COP) for endoreversible refrigeration cycles, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite-time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, performance analysis and optimization of the model are carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle process on the performance of the cycles using numerical example. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of endoreversible Carnot, Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Dual and Brayton refrigeration cycles.

  7. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth includes potential pathogens in the carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Janet C; Park, Joong-Wook; Prado, Julio; Eades, Susan C; Mirza, Mustajab H; Fugaro, Michael N; Häggblom, Max M; Reinemeyer, Craig R

    2012-10-12

    Carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis are used to study the development of lameness. It is hypothesized that a diet-induced shift in cecal bacterial communities contributes to the development of the pro-inflammatory state that progresses to laminar failure. It is proposed that vasoactive amines, protease activators and endotoxin, all bacterial derived bioactive metabolites, play a role in disease development. Questions regarding the oral bioavailability of many of the bacterial derived bioactive metabolites remain. This study evaluates the possibility that a carbohydrate-induced overgrowth of potentially pathogenic cecal bacteria occurs and that bacterial translocation contributes toward the development of the pro-inflammatory state. Two groups of mixed-breed horses were used, those with laminitis induced by cornstarch (n=6) or oligofructan (n=6) and non-laminitic controls (n=8). Cecal fluid and tissue homogenates of extra-intestinal sites including the laminae were used to enumerate Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Horses that developed Obel grade2 lameness, revealed a significant overgrowth of potentially pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative intestinal bacteria within the cecal fluid. Although colonization of extra-intestinal sites with potentially pathogenic bacteria was not detected, results of this study indicate that cecal/colonic lymphadenopathy and eosinophilia develop in horses progressing to lameness. It is hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory state in carbohydrate overload models of equine acute laminitis is driven by an immune response to the rapid overgrowth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cecal bacterial communities in the gut. Further equine research is indicated to study the immunological response, involving the lymphatic system that develops in the model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hybrid2: The hybrid system simulation model, Version 1.0, user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1996-06-01

    In light of the large scale desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world, the need for a detailed long term performance prediction model for hybrid power systems was seen. To meet these ends, engineers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) have spent the last three years developing the Hybrid2 software. The Hybrid2 code provides a means to conduct long term, detailed simulations of the performance of a large array of hybrid power systems. This work acts as an introduction and users manual to the Hybrid2 software. The manual describes the Hybrid2 code, what is included with the software and instructs the user on the structure of the code. The manual also describes some of the major features of the Hybrid2 code as well as how to create projects and run hybrid system simulations. The Hybrid2 code test program is also discussed. Although every attempt has been made to make the Hybrid2 code easy to understand and use, this manual will allow many organizations to consider the long term advantages of using hybrid power systems instead of conventional petroleum based systems for remote power generation.

  9. Construct validity of the Chinese version of the Self-care of Heart Failure Index determined using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaofeng; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Jian; Lv, Rong; Guo, Jinyu

    2015-01-01

    The Self-care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI) is an empirically tested instrument for measuring the self-care of patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to develop a simplified Chinese version of the SCHFI and provide evidence for its construct validity. A total of 182 Chinese with heart failure were surveyed. A 2-step structural equation modeling procedure was applied to test construct validity. Factor analysis showed 3 factors explaining 43% of the variance. Structural equation model confirmed that self-care maintenance, self-care management, and self-care confidence are indeed indicators of self-care, and self-care confidence was a positive and equally strong predictor of self-care maintenance and self-care management. Moreover, self-care scores were correlated with the Partners in Health Scale, indicating satisfactory concurrent validity. The Chinese version of the SCHFI is a theory-based instrument for assessing self-care of Chinese patients with heart failure.

  10. CFD simulations and reduced order modeling of a refrigerator compartment including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Ozgur; Oskay, Ruknettin; Paksoy, Akin; Aradag, Selin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Free convection in a refrigerator is simulated including radiation effects. ► Heat rates are affected drastically when radiation effects are considered. ► 95% of the flow energy can be represented by using one spatial POD mode. - Abstract: Considering the engineering problem of natural convection in domestic refrigerator applications, this study aims to simulate the fluid flow and temperature distribution in a single commercial refrigerator compartment by using the experimentally determined temperature values as the specified constant wall temperature boundary conditions. The free convection in refrigerator applications is evaluated as a three-dimensional (3D), turbulent, transient and coupled non-linear flow problem. Radiation heat transfer mode is also included in the analysis. According to the results, taking radiation effects into consideration does not change the temperature distribution inside the refrigerator significantly; however the heat rates are affected drastically. The flow inside the compartment is further analyzed with a reduced order modeling method called Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and the energy contents of several spatial and temporal modes that exist in the flow are examined. The results show that approximately 95% of all the flow energy can be represented by only using one spatial mode

  11. Assessment of two versions of regional climate model in simulating the Indian Summer Monsoon over South Asia CORDEX domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Panda, S. K.; Saraswat, Vaishali; Dash, S. K.

    2018-04-01

    This study assess the performance of two versions of Regional Climate Model (RegCM) in simulating the Indian summer monsoon over South Asia for the period 1998 to 2003 with an aim of conducting future climate change simulations. Two sets of experiments were carried out with two different versions of RegCM (viz. RegCM4.2 and RegCM4.3) with the lateral boundary forcings provided from European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast Reanalysis (ERA-interim) at 50 km horizontal resolution. The major updates in RegCM4.3 in comparison to the older version RegCM4.2 are the inclusion of measured solar irradiance in place of hardcoded solar constant and additional layers in the stratosphere. The analysis shows that the Indian summer monsoon rainfall, moisture flux and surface net downward shortwave flux are better represented in RegCM4.3 than that in the RegCM4.2 simulations. Excessive moisture flux in the RegCM4.2 simulation over the northern Arabian Sea and Peninsular India resulted in an overestimation of rainfall over the Western Ghats, Peninsular region as a result of which the all India rainfall has been overestimated. RegCM4.3 has performed well over India as a whole as well as its four rainfall homogenous zones in reproducing the mean monsoon rainfall and inter-annual variation of rainfall. Further, the monsoon onset, low-level Somali Jet and the upper level tropical easterly jet are better represented in the RegCM4.3 than RegCM4.2. Thus, RegCM4.3 has performed better in simulating the mean summer monsoon circulation over the South Asia. Hence, RegCM4.3 may be used to study the future climate change over the South Asia.

  12. Promoting self-determination skills in the classroom: the Self-determined Learning Model of Instruction (Spanish version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina MUMBARDÓ ADAM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Within Spanish context, initiatives to promote self-determination in educational settings still lacking despite of the availability of instruments designed to enable the instruction of self-determination skills, such as the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction. This evidence-based practice enables teachers to instruct students to develop self-determination actions and skills. This study aims to present the Spanish translated and adapted version of the afore mentioned program/tool, in an effort to improve the focus of self-determination instruction in the Spanish educational context by providing practitioners with a model of instruction intended to teach skills associated with the promotion and enhancement of self-determined action.

  13. A framework for expanding aqueous chemistry in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Kathleen M.; Carlton, Annmarie G.; Pye, Havala O. T.; Baek, Jaemeen; Hutzell, William T.; Stanier, Charles O.; Baker, Kirk R.; Wyat Appel, K.; Jaoui, Mohammed; Offenberg, John H.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of an extendable aqueous-phase chemistry option (AQCHEM - KMT(I)) for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, version 5.1. Here, the Kinetic PreProcessor (KPP), version 2.2.3, is used to generate a Rosenbrock solver (Rodas3) to integrate the stiff system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that describe the mass transfer, chemical kinetics, and scavenging processes of CMAQ clouds. CMAQ's standard cloud chemistry module (AQCHEM) is structurally limited to the treatment of a simple chemical mechanism. This work advances our ability to test and implement more sophisticated aqueous chemical mechanisms in CMAQ and further investigate the impacts of microphysical parameters on cloud chemistry. Box model cloud chemistry simulations were performed to choose efficient solver and tolerance settings, evaluate the implementation of the KPP solver, and assess the direct impacts of alternative solver and kinetic mass transfer on predicted concentrations for a range of scenarios. Month-long CMAQ simulations for winter and summer periods over the US reveal the changes in model predictions due to these cloud module updates within the full chemical transport model. While monthly average CMAQ predictions are not drastically altered between AQCHEM and AQCHEM - KMT, hourly concentration differences can be significant. With added in-cloud secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from biogenic epoxides (AQCHEM - KMTI), normalized mean error and bias statistics are slightly improved for 2-methyltetrols and 2-methylglyceric acid at the Research Triangle Park measurement site in North Carolina during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) period. The added in-cloud chemistry leads to a monthly average increase of 11-18 % in cloud SOA at the surface in the eastern United States for June 2013.

  14. Evolution of the continental upper mantle : numerical modelling of thermo-chemical convection including partial melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis elaborates on the evolution of the continental upper mantle based on numerical modelling results. The descriptive and explanatory basis is formed by a numerical thermo-chemical convection model. The model evolution starts in the early Archaean about 4 billion years ago. The model follows

  15. Evolution of the continental upper mantle : numerical modelling of thermo-chemical convection including partial melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, J.H. de

    1999-01-01

    This thesis elaborates on the evolution of the continental upper mantle based on numerical modelling results. The descriptive and explanatory basis is formed by a numerical thermo-chemical convection model. The model evolution starts in the early Archaean about 4 billion years ago. The model

  16. A Thermal Evolution Model of the Earth Including the Biosphere, Continental Growth and Mantle Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2014-12-01

    By harvesting solar energy and converting it to chemical energy, photosynthetic life plays an important role in the energy budget of Earth [2]. This leads to alterations of chemical reservoirs eventually affecting the Earth's interior [4]. It further has been speculated [3] that the formation of continents may be a consequence of the evolution life. A steady state model [1] suggests that the Earth without its biosphere would evolve to a steady state with a smaller continent coverage and a dryer mantle than is observed today. We present a model including (i) parameterized thermal evolution, (ii) continental growth and destruction, and (iii) mantle water regassing and outgassing. The biosphere enhances the production rate of sediments which eventually are subducted. These sediments are assumed to (i) carry water to depth bound in stable mineral phases and (ii) have the potential to suppress shallow dewatering of the underlying sediments and crust due to their low permeability. We run a Monte Carlo simulation for various initial conditions and treat all those parameter combinations as success which result in the fraction of continental crust coverage observed for present day Earth. Finally, we simulate the evolution of an abiotic Earth using the same set of parameters but a reduced rate of continental weathering and erosion. Our results suggest that the origin and evolution of life could have stabilized the large continental surface area of the Earth and its wet mantle, leading to the relatively low mantle viscosity we observe at present. Without photosynthetic life on our planet, the Earth would be geodynamical less active due to a dryer mantle, and would have a smaller fraction of continental coverage than observed today. References[1] Höning, D., Hansen-Goos, H., Airo, A., Spohn, T., 2014. Biotic vs. abiotic Earth: A model for mantle hydration and continental coverage. Planetary and Space Science 98, 5-13. [2] Kleidon, A., 2010. Life, hierarchy, and the

  17. Code-switched English Pronunciation Modeling for Swahili Spoken Term Detection (Pub Version, Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-03

    resourced Languages, SLTU 2016, 9-12 May 2016, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Code-switched English Pronunciation Modeling for Swahili Spoken Term Detection Neil...Abstract We investigate modeling strategies for English code-switched words as found in a Swahili spoken term detection system. Code switching...et al. / Procedia Computer Science 81 ( 2016 ) 128 – 135 Our research focuses on pronunciation modeling of English (embedded language) words within

  18. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Short Version: scale reduction via exploratory bifactor modeling of the broad anxiety factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Reise, Steven P; Chorpita, Bruce F; Ale, Chelsea; Regan, Jennifer; Young, John; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Weisz, John R

    2012-12-01

    Using a school-based (N = 1,060) and clinic-referred (N = 303) youth sample, the authors developed a 25-item shortened version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) using Schmid-Leiman exploratory bifactor analysis to reduce client burden and administration time and thus improve the transportability characteristics of this youth anxiety and depression measure. Results revealed that all anxiety items primarily reflected a single "broad anxiety" dimension, which informed the development of a reduced 15-item Anxiety Total scale. Although specific DSM-oriented anxiety subscales were not included in this version, the items comprising the Anxiety Total scale were evenly pulled from the 5 anxiety-related content domains from the original RCADS. The resultant 15-item Anxiety Total scale evidenced significant correspondence with anxiety diagnostic groups based on structured clinical interviews. The scores from the 10-item Depression Total scale (retained from the original version) were also associated with acceptable reliability in the clinic-referred and school-based samples (α = .80 and .79, respectively); this is in contrast to the alternate 5-item shortened RCADS Depression Total scale previously developed by Muris, Meesters, and Schouten (2002), which evidenced depression scores of unacceptable reliability (α = .63). The shortened RCADS developed in the present study thus balances efficiency, breadth, and scale score reliability in a way that is potentially useful for repeated measurement in clinical settings as well as wide-scale screenings that assess anxiety and depressive problems. These future applications are discussed, as are recommendations for continued use of exploratory bifactor modeling in scale development.

  19. Mass-conserving subglacial hydrology in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model version 0.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueler, E.; van Pelt, W.

    2015-06-01

    We describe and test a two-horizontal-dimension subglacial hydrology model which combines till with a distributed system of water-filled, linked cavities which open through sliding and close through ice creep. The addition of this sub-model to the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) accomplishes three specific goals: (a) conservation of the mass of water, (b) simulation of spatially and temporally variable basal shear stress from physical mechanisms based on a minimal number of free parameters, and (c) convergence under grid refinement. The model is a common generalization of four others: (i) the undrained plastic bed model of Tulaczyk et al. (2000b), (ii) a standard "routing" model used for identifying locations of subglacial lakes, (iii) the lumped englacial-subglacial model of Bartholomaus et al. (2011), and (iv) the elliptic-pressure-equation model of Schoof et al. (2012). We preserve physical bounds on the pressure. In steady state a functional relationship between water amount and pressure emerges. We construct an exact solution of the coupled, steady equations and use it for verification of our explicit time stepping, parallel numerical implementation. We demonstrate the model at scale by 5 year simulations of the entire Greenland ice sheet at 2 km horizontal resolution, with one million nodes in the hydrology grid.

  20. Development of a new version of the Liverpool Malaria Model. I. Refining the parameter settings and mathematical formulation of basic processes based on a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Anne E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A warm and humid climate triggers several water-associated diseases such as malaria. Climate- or weather-driven malaria models, therefore, allow for a better understanding of malaria transmission dynamics. The Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM is a mathematical-biological model of malaria parasite dynamics using daily temperature and precipitation data. In this study, the parameter settings of the LMM are refined and a new mathematical formulation of key processes related to the growth and size of the vector population are developed. Methods One of the most comprehensive studies to date in terms of gathering entomological and parasitological information from the literature was undertaken for the development of a new version of an existing malaria model. The knowledge was needed to allow the justification of new settings of various model parameters and motivated changes of the mathematical formulation of the LMM. Results The first part of the present study developed an improved set of parameter settings and mathematical formulation of the LMM. Important modules of the original LMM version were enhanced in order to achieve a higher biological and physical accuracy. The oviposition as well as the survival of immature mosquitoes were adjusted to field conditions via the application of a fuzzy distribution model. Key model parameters, including the mature age of mosquitoes, the survival probability of adult mosquitoes, the human blood index, the mosquito-to-human (human-to-mosquito transmission efficiency, the human infectious age, the recovery rate, as well as the gametocyte prevalence, were reassessed by means of entomological and parasitological observations. This paper also revealed that various malaria variables lack information from field studies to be set properly in a malaria modelling approach. Conclusions Due to the multitude of model parameters and the uncertainty involved in the setting of parameters, an extensive

  1. Numerical modelling of seawater intrusion in Shenzhen (China) using a 3D density-dependent model including tidal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Yang, Qingchun; Martín, Jordi D.; Juncosa, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    During the 1990s, groundwater overexploitation has resulted in seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of the Shenzhen city, China. Although water supply facilities have been improved and alleviated seawater intrusion in recent years, groundwater overexploitation is still of great concern in some local areas. In this work we present a three-dimensional density-dependent numerical model developed with the FEFLOW code, which is aimed at simulating the extent of seawater intrusion while including tidal effects and different groundwater pumping scenarios. Model calibration, using waterheads and reported chloride concentration, has been performed based on the data from 14 boreholes, which were monitored from May 2008 to December 2009. A fairly good fitness between the observed and computed values was obtained by a manual trial-and-error method. Model prediction has been carried out forward 3 years with the calibrated model taking into account high, medium and low tide levels and different groundwater exploitation schemes. The model results show that tide-induced seawater intrusion significantly affects the groundwater levels and concentrations near the estuarine of the Dasha river, which implies that an important hydraulic connection exists between this river and groundwater, even considering that some anti-seepage measures were taken in the river bed. Two pumping scenarios were considered in the calibrated model in order to predict the future changes in the water levels and chloride concentration. The numerical results reveal a decreased tendency of seawater intrusion if groundwater exploitation does not reach an upper bound of about 1.32 × 104 m3/d. The model results provide also insights for controlling seawater intrusion in such coastal aquifer systems.

  2. Development of a user-friendly interface version of the Salmonella source-attribution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Lund, Jan

    with a user-manual, which is also part of this report. Users of the interface are recommended to read this report before starting using the interface to become familiar with the model principles and the mathematics behind, which is required in order to interpret the model results and assess the validity...

  3. Technical documentation and user's guide for City-County Allocation Model (CCAM). Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, L.T. Jr.; Scott, M.J.; Hammer, P.

    1986-05-01

    The City-County Allocation Model (CCAM) was developed as part of the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Program. The CCAM model was designed to allocate population changes forecasted by the MASTER model to specific local communities within commuting distance of the MRS facility. The CCAM model was designed to then forecast the potential changes in demand for key community services such as housing, police protection, and utilities for these communities. The CCAM model uses a flexible on-line data base on demand for community services that is based on a combination of local service levels and state and national service standards. The CCAM model can be used to quickly forecast the potential community service consequence of economic development for local communities anywhere in the country. The remainder of this document is organized as follows. The purpose of this manual is to assist the user in understanding and operating the City-County Allocation Model (CCAM). The annual explains the data sources for the model and code modifications as well as the operational procedures

  4. On-the-fly confluence detection for statistical model checking (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmanns, Arnd; Timmer, Mark

    Statistical model checking is an analysis method that circumvents the state space explosion problem in model-based verification by combining probabilistic simulation with statistical methods that provide clear error bounds. As a simulation-based technique, it can only provide sound results if the

  5. Hydrogen Macro System Model User Guide, Version 1.2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.; Genung, K.; Hoseley, R.; Smith, A.; Yuzugullu, E.

    2009-07-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  6. Model Package Report: Central Plateau Vadose Zone Geoframework Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Sarah D.

    2018-03-27

    The purpose of the Central Plateau Vadose Zone (CPVZ) Geoframework model (GFM) is to provide a reasonable, consistent, and defensible three-dimensional (3D) representation of the vadose zone beneath the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site to support the Composite Analysis (CA) vadose zone contaminant fate and transport models. The GFM is a 3D representation of the subsurface geologic structure. From this 3D geologic model, exported results in the form of point, surface, and/or volumes are used as inputs to populate and assemble the various numerical model architectures, providing a 3D-layered grid that is consistent with the GFM. The objective of this report is to define the process used to produce a hydrostratigraphic model for the vadose zone beneath the Hanford Site Central Plateau and the corresponding CA domain.

  7. Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…

  8. ETM documentation update – including modelling conventions and manual for software tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik

    , it summarises the work done during 2013, and it also contains presentations for promotion of fusion as a future element in the electricity generation mix and presentations for the modelling community concerning model development and model documentation – in particular for TIAM collaboration workshops....

  9. PhytoSFDM version 1.0.0: Phytoplankton Size and Functional Diversity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Trejos, Esteban; Brandt, Gunnar; Smith, S. Lan; Merico, Agostino

    2016-11-01

    Biodiversity is one of the key mechanisms that facilitate the adaptive response of planktonic communities to a fluctuating environment. How to allow for such a flexible response in marine ecosystem models is, however, not entirely clear. One particular way is to resolve the natural complexity of phytoplankton communities by explicitly incorporating a large number of species or plankton functional types. Alternatively, models of aggregate community properties focus on macroecological quantities such as total biomass, mean trait, and trait variance (or functional trait diversity), thus reducing the observed natural complexity to a few mathematical expressions. We developed the PhytoSFDM modelling tool, which can resolve species discretely and can capture aggregate community properties. The tool also provides a set of methods for treating diversity under realistic oceanographic settings. This model is coded in Python and is distributed as open-source software. PhytoSFDM is implemented in a zero-dimensional physical scheme and can be applied to any location of the global ocean. We show that aggregate community models reduce computational complexity while preserving relevant macroecological features of phytoplankton communities. Compared to species-explicit models, aggregate models are more manageable in terms of number of equations and have faster computational times. Further developments of this tool should address the caveats associated with the assumptions of aggregate community models and about implementations into spatially resolved physical settings (one-dimensional and three-dimensional). With PhytoSFDM we embrace the idea of promoting open-source software and encourage scientists to build on this modelling tool to further improve our understanding of the role that biodiversity plays in shaping marine ecosystems.

  10. On a discrete version of the CP 1 sigma model and surfaces immersed in R3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundland, A M; Levi, D; Martina, L

    2003-01-01

    We present a discretization of the CP 1 sigma model. We show that the discrete CP 1 sigma model is described by a nonlinear partial second-order difference equation with rational nonlinearity. To derive discrete surfaces immersed in three-dimensional Euclidean space a 'complex' lattice is introduced. The so-obtained surfaces are characterized in terms of the quadrilateral cross-ratio of four surface points. In this way we prove that all surfaces associated with the discrete CP 1 sigma model are of constant mean curvature. An explicit example of such discrete surfaces is constructed

  11. Serverification of Molecular Modeling Applications: The Rosetta Online Server That Includes Everyone (ROSIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchúir, Shane Ó.; Der, Bryan S.; Drew, Kevin; Kuroda, Daisuke; Xu, Jianqing; Weitzner, Brian D.; Renfrew, P. Douglas; Sripakdeevong, Parin; Borgo, Benjamin; Havranek, James J.; Kuhlman, Brian; Kortemme, Tanja; Bonneau, Richard; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Das, Rhiju

    2013-01-01

    The Rosetta molecular modeling software package provides experimentally tested and rapidly evolving tools for the 3D structure prediction and high-resolution design of proteins, nucleic acids, and a growing number of non-natural polymers. Despite its free availability to academic users and improving documentation, use of Rosetta has largely remained confined to developers and their immediate collaborators due to the code’s difficulty of use, the requirement for large computational resources, and the unavailability of servers for most of the Rosetta applications. Here, we present a unified web framework for Rosetta applications called ROSIE (Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone). ROSIE provides (a) a common user interface for Rosetta protocols, (b) a stable application programming interface for developers to add additional protocols, (c) a flexible back-end to allow leveraging of computer cluster resources shared by RosettaCommons member institutions, and (d) centralized administration by the RosettaCommons to ensure continuous maintenance. This paper describes the ROSIE server infrastructure, a step-by-step ‘serverification’ protocol for use by Rosetta developers, and the deployment of the first nine ROSIE applications by six separate developer teams: Docking, RNA de novo, ERRASER, Antibody, Sequence Tolerance, Supercharge, Beta peptide design, NCBB design, and VIP redesign. As illustrated by the number and diversity of these applications, ROSIE offers a general and speedy paradigm for serverification of Rosetta applications that incurs negligible cost to developers and lowers barriers to Rosetta use for the broader biological community. ROSIE is available at http://rosie.rosettacommons.org. PMID:23717507

  12. Modeled Radar Attenuation Rate Profile at the Vostok 5G Ice Core Site, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a modeled radar attenuation rate profile, showing the predicted contributions from pure ice and impurities to radar attenuation at the Vostok...

  13. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement : carrier intervention effectiveness model, version 1.0 : [analysis brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Carrier Intervention Effectiveness Model (CIEM) : provides the Federal Motor Carrier Safety : Administration (FMCSA) with a tool for measuring : the safety benefits of carrier interventions conducted : under the Compliance, Safety, Accountability...

  14. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement : Carrier Intervention Effectiveness Model, Version 1.1, technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), in cooperation with the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe), has developed a quantitative model to measure the effectiveness of motor carrier interventions in terms of ...

  15. Antarctic 5-km Digital Elevation Model from ERS-1 Altimetry, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Antarctica to 81.5 degrees south latitude, at a resolution of 5 km. Approximately twenty million data...

  16. Technical manual for basic version of the Markov chain nest productivity model (MCnest)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Markov Chain Nest Productivity Model (or MCnest) integrates existing toxicity information from three standardized avian toxicity tests with information on species life history and the timing of pesticide applications relative to the timing of avian breeding seasons to quantit...

  17. MAPSS: Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System Model, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: MAPSS (Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System) is a landscape to global vegetation distribution model that was developed to simulate the potential biosphere...

  18. MAPSS: Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System Model, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPSS (Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System) is a landscape to global vegetation distribution model that was developed to simulate the potential biosphere impacts and...

  19. Observation Data Model Core Components, its Implementation in the Table Access Protocol Version 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louys, Mireille; Tody, Doug; Dowler, Patrick; Durand, Daniel; Michel, Laurent; Bonnarel, Francos; Micol, Alberto; IVOA DataModel Working Group; Louys, Mireille; Tody, Doug; Dowler, Patrick; Durand, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    This document defines the core components of the Observation data model that are necessary to perform data discovery when querying data centers for astronomical observations of interest. It exposes use-cases to be carried out, explains the model and provides guidelines for its implementation as a data access service based on the Table Access Protocol (TAP). It aims at providing a simple model easy to understand and to implement by data providers that wish to publish their data into the Virtual Observatory. This interface integrates data modeling and data access aspects in a single service and is named ObsTAP. It will be referenced as such in the IVOA registries. In this document, the Observation Data Model Core Components (ObsCoreDM) defines the core components of queryable metadata required for global discovery of observational data. It is meant to allow a single query to be posed to TAP services at multiple sites to perform global data discovery without having to understand the details of the services present at each site. It defines a minimal set of basic metadata and thus allows for a reasonable cost of implementation by data providers. The combination of the ObsCoreDM with TAP is referred to as an ObsTAP service. As with most of the VO Data Models, ObsCoreDM makes use of STC, Utypes, Units and UCDs. The ObsCoreDM can be serialized as a VOTable. ObsCoreDM can make reference to more complete data models such as Characterisation DM, Spectrum DM or Simple Spectral Line Data Model (SSLDM). ObsCore shares a large set of common concepts with DataSet Metadata Data Model (Cresitello-Dittmar et al. 2016) which binds together most of the data model concepts from the above models in a comprehensive and more general frame work. This current specification on the contrary provides guidelines for implementing these concepts using the TAP protocol and answering ADQL queries. It is dedicated to global discovery.

  20. Illustrating and homology modeling the proteins of the Zika virus [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Ekins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus (ZIKV is a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which is similar to dengue virus, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Recent outbreaks in South America, Latin America, the Caribbean and in particular Brazil have led to concern for the spread of the disease and potential to cause Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been known of for over 60 years there is very little in the way of knowledge of the virus with few publications and no crystal structures. No antivirals have been tested against it either in vitro or in vivo. ZIKV therefore epitomizes a neglected disease. Several suggested steps have been proposed which could be taken to initiate ZIKV antiviral drug discovery using both high throughput screens as well as structure-based design based on homology models for the key proteins. We now describe preliminary homology models created for NS5, FtsJ, NS4B, NS4A, HELICc, DEXDc, peptidase S7, NS2B, NS2A, NS1, E stem, glycoprotein M, propeptide, capsid and glycoprotein E using SWISS-MODEL. Eleven out of 15 models pass our model quality criteria for their further use. While a ZIKV glycoprotein E homology model was initially described in the immature conformation as a trimer, we now describe the mature dimer conformer which allowed the construction of an illustration of the complete virion. By comparing illustrations of ZIKV based on this new homology model and the dengue virus crystal structure we propose potential differences that could be exploited for antiviral and vaccine design. The prediction of sites for glycosylation on this protein may also be useful in this regard. While we await a cryo-EM structure of ZIKV and eventual crystal structures of the individual proteins, these homology models provide the community with a starting point for structure-based design of drugs and vaccines as well as a for computational virtual screening.

  1. Transverse Crack Modeling and Validation in Rotor Systems, Including Thermal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bachschmid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a model that allows the simulation of the static behavior of a transverse crack in a horizontal rotor under the action of weight and other possible static loads and the dynamic behavior of cracked rotating shaft. The crack breathes—that is, the mechanism of the crack's opening and closing is ruled by the stress on the cracked section exerted by the external loads. In a rotor, the stresses are time-dependent and have a period equal to the period of rotation; thus, the crack periodically breathes. An original, simplified model allows cracks of various shapes to be modeled and thermal stresses to be taken into account, as they may influence the opening and closing mechanism. The proposed method was validated by using two criteria. First the crack's breathing mechanism, simulated by the model, was compared with the results obtained by a nonlinear, threedimensional finite element model calculation, and a good agreement in the results was observed. Then the proposed model allowed the development of the equivalent cracked beam. The results of this model were compared with those obtained by the three-dimensional finite element model. Also in this case, there was a good agreement in the results.

  2. A model for firm-specific strategic wisdom : including illustrations and 49 guiding questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Roeland Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis provides an answer to the question ‘How may one think strategically’. It does so by presenting a new prescriptive ‘Model for Firm-Specific Strategic Wisdom’. This Model aims to guide any individual strategist in his or her thinking from a state of firm-specific ‘ignorance’ to a state

  3. Complete Loss and Thermal Model of Power Semiconductors Including Device Rating Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    models, only the electrical loadings are focused and treated as design variables, while the device rating is normally pre-defined by experience with limited design flexibility. Consequently, a more complete loss and thermal model is proposed in this paper, which takes into account not only the electrical...

  4. Numerical models of single- and double-negative metamaterials including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2017-01-01

    detailed understanding on how viscous and thermal losses affect the setups at different frequencies. The modeling of a simpler single-negative metamaterial also broadens this overview. Both setups have been modeled with quadratic BEM meshes. Each sample, scaled at two different sizes, has been represented...

  5. Gasification of biomass in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier--a realistic model including tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Niladri Sekhar; Ghosh, Sudip; De, Sudipta

    2012-03-01

    This study presents a model for fixed bed downdraft biomass gasifiers considering tar also as one of the gasification products. A representative tar composition along with its mole fractions, as available in the literature was used as an input parameter within the model. The study used an equilibrium approach for the applicable gasification reactions and also considered possible deviations from equilibrium to further upgrade the equilibrium model to validate a range of reported experimental results. Heat balance was applied to predict the gasification temperature and the predicted values were compared with reported results in literature. A comparative study was made with some reference models available in the literature and also with experimental results reported in the literature. Finally a predicted variation of performance of the gasifier by this validated model for different air-fuel ratio and moisture content was also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A modified version of the SMAR model for estimating root-zone soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies have proved the effectiveness of SMAR in estimating root-zone soil moisture, yet there is still room for improvement in its application. For example, the soil water loss function (i.e. deep percolation and evapotranspiration), assumed to be a linear function in the SMAR model, may produce approximations in ...

  7. (ML)2: a formal language for KADS models of expertise (short version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Balder, J.

    1992-01-01

    We present (ML)2, a formal language for the representation of KADS models of expertise. (ML)2 is a combination of first order predicate logic (for the declarative representation of domain knowledge), meta-logic (for the representation of how to use the domain knowledge) and dynamic logic (for the

  8. Landfill Gas Energy Cost Model Version 3.0 (LFGcost-Web V3.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help stakeholders estimate the costs of a landfill gas (LFG) energy project, in 2002, LMOP developed a cost tool (LFGcost). Since then, LMOP has routinely updated the tool to reflect changes in the LFG energy industry. Initially the model was designed for EPA to assist landfil...

  9. Unit testing, model validation, and biological simulation [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal P. Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the software industry has gone hand in hand with the development of tools and cultural practices for ensuring the reliability of complex pieces of software. These tools and practices are now acknowledged to be essential to the management of modern software. As computational models and methods have become increasingly common in the biological sciences, it is important to examine how these practices can accelerate biological software development and improve research quality. In this article, we give a focused case study of our experience with the practices of unit testing and test-driven development in OpenWorm, an open-science project aimed at modeling Caenorhabditis elegans. We identify and discuss the challenges of incorporating test-driven development into a heterogeneous, data-driven project, as well as the role of model validation tests, a category of tests unique to software which expresses scientific models.

  10. LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS MODEL (LANDGEM) VERSION 3.02 USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM) is an automated estimation tool with a Microsoft Excel interface that can be used to estimate emission rates for total landfill gas, methane, carbon dioxide, nonmethane organic compounds, and individual air pollutants from municipal soli...

  11. ALICE-87 (Livermore). Precompound Nuclear Model Code. Version for Personal Computer IBM/AT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.

    1988-05-01

    The precompound nuclear model code ALICE-87 from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA) was implemented for use on personal computer. It is available on a set of high density diskettes from the Data Bank of Nuclear Energy Agency (Saclay) and the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author). Refs and figs

  12. User’s Manual for the Defense Priority Model Version 2.0 Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    propagation, fishing, irrigation of food-chain crops, water supply for meat or dairy livestock, water supply for food processing 2 Drinking water source 3...Development of Predictive Models for Xenobiotic Bioaccumulation in terrestrial ecosystems. ORNL-5869. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 13 14

  13. Preliminary site description: Groundwater flow simulations. Simpevarp area (version 1.1) modelled with CONNECTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Lee; Worth, David; Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko; Holmen, Johan

    2004-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the role of known and unknown hydrogeological conditions for the present-day distribution of saline groundwater at the Simpevarp and Laxemar sites. An improved understanding of the paleo-hydrogeology is necessary in order to gain credibility for the Site Descriptive Model in general and the Site Hydrogeological Description in particular. This is to serve as a basis for describing the present hydrogeological conditions as well as predictions of future hydrogeological conditions. This objective implies a testing of: geometrical alternatives in the structural geology and bedrock fracturing, variants in the initial and boundary conditions, and parameter uncertainties (i.e. uncertainties in the hydraulic property assignment). This testing is necessary in order to evaluate the impact on the groundwater flow field of the specified components and to promote proposals of further investigations of the hydrogeological conditions at the site. The general methodology for modelling transient salt transport and groundwater flow using CONNECTFLOW that was developed for Forsmark has been applied successfully also for Simpevarp. Because of time constraints only a key set of variants were performed that focussed on the influences of DFN model parameters, the kinematic porosity, and the initial condition. Salinity data in deep boreholes available at the time of the project was too limited to allow a good calibration exercise. However, the model predictions are compared with the available data from KLX01 and KLX02 below. Once more salinity data is available it may be possible to draw more definite conclusions based on the differences between variants. At the moment though the differences should just be used understand the sensitivity of the models to various input parameters

  14. Groundwater model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system version 3.0: Incorporating revisions in southwestern Utah and east central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lynette E.

    2017-12-01

    The groundwater model described in this report is a new version of previously published steady-state numerical groundwater flow models of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system, and was developed in conjunction with U.S. Geological Survey studies in Parowan, Pine, and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah. This version of the model is GBCAAS v. 3.0 and supersedes previous versions. The objectives of the model for Parowan Valley were to simulate revised conceptual estimates of recharge and discharge, to estimate simulated aquifer storage properties and the amount of reduction in storage as a result of historical groundwater withdrawals, and to assess reduction in groundwater withdrawals necessary to mitigate groundwater-level declines in the basin. The objectives of the model for the area near Pine and Wah Wah Valleys were to recalibrate the model using new observations of groundwater levels and evapotranspiration of groundwater; to provide new estimates of simulated recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and interbasin flow; and to simulate the effects of proposed groundwater withdrawals on the regional flow system. Meeting these objectives required the addition of 15 transient calibration stress periods and 14 projection stress periods, aquifer storage properties, historical withdrawals in Parowan Valley, and observations of water-level changes in Parowan Valley. Recharge in Parowan Valley and withdrawal from wells in Parowan Valley and two nearby wells in Cedar City Valley vary for each calibration stress period representing conditions from March 1940 to November 2013. Stresses, including recharge, are the same in each stress period as in the steady-state stress period for all areas outside of Parowan Valley. The model was calibrated to transient conditions only in Parowan Valley. Simulated storage properties outside of Parowan Valley were set the same as the Parowan Valley properties and are not considered calibrated. Model observations in GBCAAS v. 3.0 are

  15. A viscoplastic model including anisotropic damage for the time dependent behaviour of rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellet, F.; Hajdu, A.; Deleruyelle, F.; Besnus, F.

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents a new constitutive model for the time dependent mechanical behaviour of rock which takes into account both viscoplastic behaviour and evolution of damage with respect to time. This model is built by associating a viscoplastic constitutive law to the damage theory. The main characteristics of this model are the account of a viscoplastic volumetric strain (i.e. contractancy and dilatancy) as well as the anisotropy of damage. The latter is described by a second rank tensor. Using this model, it is possible to predict delayed rupture by determining time to failure, in creep tests for example. The identification of the model parameters is based on experiments such as creep tests, relaxation tests and quasi-static tests. The physical meaning of these parameters is discussed and comparisons with lab tests are presented. The ability of the model to reproduce the delayed failure observed in tertiary creep is demonstrated as well as the sensitivity of the mechanical response to the rate of loading. The model could be used to simulate the evolution of the excavated damage zone around underground openings.

  16. Bifurcation approach to the predator-prey population models (Version of the computer book)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazykin, A.D.; Zudin, S.L.

    1993-09-01

    Hierarchically organized family of predator-prey systems is studied. The classification is founded on two interacting principles: the biological and mathematical ones. The different combinations of biological factors included correspond to different bifurcations (up to codimension 3). As theoretical so computing methods are used for analysis, especially concerning non-local bifurcations. (author). 6 refs, figs

  17. CERT Resilience Management Model - Mail-Specific Process Areas: Mail Induction (Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    particularly during times of stress and disruption. The USPIS objectives for this project included the following [Crabb 2012, Joch 2013]: • Define...that access to mail must be restricted as appropriate to postal service personnel or authorized contractors with mail handling responsibilities [UPU PSS

  18. Potential transformation of trace species including aircraft exhaust in a cloud environment. The `Chedrom model`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolin, Y.E.; Karol, I.L. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.

  19. A Two-Dimensional Modeling Procedure to Estimate the Loss Equivalent Resistance Including the Saturation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ana Salas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a modeling procedure specifically designed for a ferrite inductor excited by a waveform in time domain. We estimate the loss resistance in the core (parameter of the electrical model of the inductor by means of a Finite Element Method in 2D which leads to significant computational advantages over the 3D model. The methodology is validated for an RM (rectangular modulus ferrite core working in the linear and the saturation regions. Excellent agreement is found between the experimental data and the computational results.

  20. Ion temperature in the outer ionosphere - first version of a global empirical model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Třísková, Ludmila; Truhlík, Vladimír; Šmilauer, Jan; Smirnova, N. F.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 9 (2004), s. 1998-2003 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/02/P037; GA AV ČR IAA3042201; GA MŠk ME 651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : plasma temperatures * topside ionosphere * empirical models Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2004

  1. The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) surface-water model, version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telis, Pamela A.; Xie, Zhixiao; Liu, Zhongwei; Li, Yingru; Conrads, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of water-level gages, interpolation models that generate daily water-level and water-depth data, and applications that compute derived hydrologic data across the freshwater part of the greater Everglades landscape. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for EDEN in order for EDEN to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan.

  2. Uncorrelated Encounter Model of the National Airspace System, Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    between two IFR aircraft in oceanic airspace. The reason for this is that one cannot observe encounters of sufficient fidelity in the available data...does not observe a sufficient number of encounters between instrument flight rules ( IFR ) and non- IFR traffic beyond 12 NM from the shore. 4 TABLE 1...Encounter model categories. Aircraft of Interest Intruder Aircraft Location Flight Rule IFR VFR Noncooperative Noncooperative Conventional

  3. Two modified versions of the speciation code PHREEQE for modelling macromolecule-proton/cation interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    There is a growing need to consider the influence of organic macromolecules on the speciation of ions in natural waters. It is recognized that a simple discrete ligand approach to the binding of protons/cations to organic macromolecules is not appropriate to represent heterogeneities of binding site distributions. A more realistic approach has been incorporated into the speciation code PHREEQE which retains the discrete ligand approach but modifies the binding intensities using an electrostatic (surface complexation) model. To allow for different conformations of natural organic material two alternative concepts have been incorporated: it is assumed that (a) the organic molecules form rigid, impenetrable spheres, and (b) the organic molecules form flat surfaces. The former concept will be more appropriate for molecules in the smaller size range, while the latter will be more representative for larger size molecules or organic surface coatings. The theoretical concept is discussed and the relevant changes to the standard PHREEQE code are explained. The modified codes are called PHREEQEO-RS and PHREEQEO-FS for the rigid-sphere and flat-surface models respectively. Improved output facilities for data transfer to other computers, e.g. the Macintosh, are introduced. Examples where the model is tested against literature data are shown and practical problems are discussed. Appendices contain listings of the modified subroutines GAMMA and PTOT, an example input file and an example command procedure to run the codes on VAX computers

  4. Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to Produce Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) (Version 2) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the draft report, Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to Produce Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) for a 30-day public comment period. The ICLUS version 2 (v2) modeling tool furthered land change mod...

  5. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Schomacker, Kristian Juul

    2015-01-01

    Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death......, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance...... and unit-linked insurance. By use of a two-account model, we are able to illustrate general concepts without making the model too abstract. To allow for complicated financial markets without dramatically increasing the mathematical complexity, we focus on economic scenarios. We illustrate the use of our...

  6. A Lumped Thermal Model Including Thermal Coupling and Thermal Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three......-dimensional thermal models based on Finite Element Method (FEM) need massive computations, which make the long-term thermal dynamics difficult to calculate. In this paper, a new lumped three-dimensional thermal model is proposed, which can be easily characterized from FEM simulations and can acquire the critical...

  7. Advanced Modeling of Ramp Operations including Departure Status at Secondary Airports, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses three modeling elements relevant to NASA's IADS research and ATD-2 project, two related to ramp operations at primary airports and one related...

  8. Extending the Scope of the Acculturation/Pidginization Model to Include Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Examines five cognitive models for second-language acquisition (SLA) and assesses how each might account for the Pidginized interlanguage found in the early stages of second-language acquisition. (23 references) (JL)

  9. An integrated computable general equilibrium model including multiple types and uses of water

    OpenAIRE

    Luckmann, Jonas Jens

    2015-01-01

    Water is a scarce resource in many regions of the world and competition for water is an increasing problem. To countervail this trend policies are needed regulating supply and demand for water. As water is used in many economic activities, water related management decisions usually have complex implications. Economic simulation models have been proven useful to ex-ante assess the consequences of policy changes. Specifically, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models are very suitable to ana...

  10. Transverse Crack Modeling and Validation in Rotor Systems Including Thermal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bachschmid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a model is described that allows one to simulate the static behavior of a transversal crack in a horizontal rotor, under the action of the weight and other possible static loads and the dynamical behavior of the rotating cracked shaft. The crack “breaths,” i.e., the mechanism of opening and closing of the crack, is ruled by the stress acting on the cracked section due to the external loads; in a rotor the stress is time-depending with a period equal to the period of rotation, thus the crack “periodically breaths.” An original simplified model is described that allows cracks of different shape to be modeled and thermal stresses to be taken into account, since they may influence the opening and closing mechanism. The proposed method has been validated using two criteria. Firstly, the crack “breathing” mechanism, simulated with the model, has been compared with the results obtained by a nonlinear 3-D FEM calculation and a good agreement in the results has been observed. Secondly, the proposed model allows the development of the equivalent cracked beam. The results of this model are compared with those obtained by the above-mentioned 3-D FEM. There is a good agreement in the results, of this case as well.

  11. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  12. Simplification and Validation of a Spectral-Tensor Model for Turbulence Including Atmospheric Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Abhijit; Mann, Jakob; Kelly, Mark; Larsen, Gunner C.

    2018-02-01

    A spectral-tensor model of non-neutral, atmospheric-boundary-layer turbulence is evaluated using Eulerian statistics from single-point measurements of the wind speed and temperature at heights up to 100 m, assuming constant vertical gradients of mean wind speed and temperature. The model has been previously described in terms of the dissipation rate ɛ , the length scale of energy-containing eddies L , a turbulence anisotropy parameter Γ, the Richardson number Ri, and the normalized rate of destruction of temperature variance η _θ ≡ ɛ _θ /ɛ . Here, the latter two parameters are collapsed into a single atmospheric stability parameter z / L using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, where z is the height above the Earth's surface, and L is the Obukhov length corresponding to Ri,η _θ. Model outputs of the one-dimensional velocity spectra, as well as cospectra of the streamwise and/or vertical velocity components, and/or temperature, and cross-spectra for the spatial separation of all three velocity components and temperature, are compared with measurements. As a function of the four model parameters, spectra and cospectra are reproduced quite well, but horizontal temperature fluxes are slightly underestimated in stable conditions. In moderately unstable stratification, our model reproduces spectra only up to a scale ˜ 1 km. The model also overestimates coherences for vertical separations, but is less severe in unstable than in stable cases.

  13. A Novel Mean-Value Model of the Cardiovascular System Including a Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Schmid Daners, Marianne

    2017-06-01

    Time-varying elastance models (TVEMs) are often used for simulation studies of the cardiovascular system with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Because these models are computationally expensive, they cannot be used for long-term simulation studies. In addition, their equilibria are periodic solutions, which prevent the extraction of a linear time-invariant model that could be used e.g. for the design of a physiological controller. In the current paper, we present a new type of model to overcome these problems: the mean-value model (MVM). The MVM captures the behavior of the cardiovascular system by representative mean values that do not change within the cardiac cycle. For this purpose, each time-varying element is manually converted to its mean-value counterpart. We compare the derived MVM to a similar TVEM in two simulation experiments. In both cases, the MVM is able to fully capture the inter-cycle dynamics of the TVEM. We hope that the new MVM will become a useful tool for researchers working on physiological control algorithms. This paper provides a plant model that enables for the first time the use of tools from classical control theory in the field of physiological LVAD control.

  14. People Capability Maturity Model (P-CMM) Version 2.0, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    periodically counseled about career options, and opportunities for advancement are communicated to them. Competency-Based Practices The purpose of...resources manager, product evangelist , and janitor; in a larger organization, one or more spe- cialists may fill each of these roles. Another...appropriate ways to handle interpersonal problems include the following: • Improving interpersonal communication skills • Advising or counseling one or more

  15. Including crystal structure attributes in machine learning models of formation energies via Voronoi tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Logan; Liu, Ruoqian; Krishna, Amar; Hegde, Vinay I.; Agrawal, Ankit; Choudhary, Alok; Wolverton, Chris

    2017-07-01

    While high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) has become a prevalent tool for materials discovery, it is limited by the relatively large computational cost. In this paper, we explore using DFT data from high-throughput calculations to create faster, surrogate models with machine learning (ML) that can be used to guide new searches. Our method works by using decision tree models to map DFT-calculated formation enthalpies to a set of attributes consisting of two distinct types: (i) composition-dependent attributes of elemental properties (as have been used in previous ML models of DFT formation energies), combined with (ii) attributes derived from the Voronoi tessellation of the compound's crystal structure. The ML models created using this method have half the cross-validation error and similar training and evaluation speeds to models created with the Coulomb matrix and partial radial distribution function methods. For a dataset of 435 000 formation energies taken from the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), our model achieves a mean absolute error of 80 meV/atom in cross validation, which is lower than the approximate error between DFT-computed and experimentally measured formation enthalpies and below 15% of the mean absolute deviation of the training set. We also demonstrate that our method can accurately estimate the formation energy of materials outside of the training set and be used to identify materials with especially large formation enthalpies. We propose that our models can be used to accelerate the discovery of new materials by identifying the most promising materials to study with DFT at little additional computational cost.

  16. ITS Version 3.0: Powerful, user-friendly software for radiation modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kensek, R.P.; Halbleib, J.A.; Valdez, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    ITS (the Integrated Tiger Series) is a powerful, but user-friendly, software package permitting state-of-the-art modelling of electron and/or photon radiation effects. The programs provide Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields. The ITS system combines operational simplicity and physical accuracy in order to provide experimentalist and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems

  17. RadCon: A radiological consequences model. Technical guide - Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J; Domel, R.U.; Harris, F.F.; Twining, J.R.

    2000-05-01

    A Radiological Consequence model (RadCon) is being developed at ANSTO to assess the radiological consequences, after an incident, in any climate, using appropriate meteorological and radiological transfer parameters. The major areas of interest to the developers are tropical and subtropical climates. This is particularly so given that it is anticipated that nuclear energy will become a mainstay for economies in these regions within the foreseeable future. Therefore, data acquisition and use of parameter values have been concentrated primarily on these climate types. Atmospheric dispersion and deposition for Australia can be modelled and supplied by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC, one of five in the world) which is part of the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC), Puri et al. (1992). RadCon combines these data (i.e. the time dependent air and ground concentration generated by the dispersion model or measured quantities in the case of an actual incident) with specific regional parameter values to determine the dose to people via the major pathways of external and internal irradiation. For the external irradiation calculations, data are needed on lifestyle information such as the time spent indoors/outdoors, the high/low physical activity rates for different groups of people (especially critical groups) and shielding factors for housing types. For the internal irradiation calculations, data are needed on food consumption, effect of food processing, transfer parameters (soil to plant, plant to animal) and interception values appropriate for the region under study. Where the relevant data are not available default temperate data are currently used. The results of a wide ranging literature search has highlighted where specific research will be initiated to determine the information required for tropical and sub-tropical regions. The user is able to initiate sensitivity analyses within RadCon. This allows the parameters to be ranked in

  18. OBLIMAP 2.0: a fast climate model–ice sheet model coupler including online embeddable mapping routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Reerink

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper accompanies the second OBLIMAP open-source release. The package is developed to map climate fields between a general circulation model (GCM and an ice sheet model (ISM in both directions by using optimal aligned oblique projections, which minimize distortions. The curvature of the surfaces of the GCM and ISM grid differ, both grids may be irregularly spaced and the ratio of the grids is allowed to differ largely. OBLIMAP's stand-alone version is able to map data sets that differ in various aspects on the same ISM grid. Each grid may either coincide with the surface of a sphere, an ellipsoid or a flat plane, while the grid types might differ. Re-projection of, for example, ISM data sets is also facilitated. This is demonstrated by relevant applications concerning the major ice caps. As the stand-alone version also applies to the reverse mapping direction, it can be used as an offline coupler. Furthermore, OBLIMAP 2.0 is an embeddable GCM–ISM coupler, suited for high-frequency online coupled experiments. A new fast scan method is presented for structured grids as an alternative for the former time-consuming grid search strategy, realising a performance gain of several orders of magnitude and enabling the mapping of high-resolution data sets with a much larger number of grid nodes. Further, a highly flexible masked mapping option is added. The limitation of the fast scan method with respect to unstructured and adaptive grids is discussed together with a possible future parallel Message Passing Interface (MPI implementation.

  19. Including fluid shear viscosity in a structural acoustic finite element model using a scalar fluid representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Li, Yizeng; Grosh, Karl

    2013-01-01

    An approximate boundary condition is developed in this paper to model fluid shear viscosity at boundaries of coupled fluid-structure system. The effect of shear viscosity is approximated by a correction term to the inviscid boundary condition, written in terms of second order in-plane derivatives of pressure. Both thin and thick viscous boundary layer approximations are formulated; the latter subsumes the former. These approximations are used to develop a variational formation, upon which a viscous finite element method (FEM) model is based, requiring only minor modifications to the boundary integral contributions of an existing inviscid FEM model. Since this FEM formulation has only one degree of freedom for pressure, it holds a great computational advantage over the conventional viscous FEM formulation which requires discretization of the full set of linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The results from thick viscous boundary layer approximation are found to be in good agreement with the prediction from a Navier-Stokes model. When applicable, thin viscous boundary layer approximation also gives accurate results with computational simplicity compared to the thick boundary layer formulation. Direct comparison of simulation results using the boundary layer approximations and a full, linearized Navier-Stokes model are made and used to evaluate the accuracy of the approximate technique. Guidelines are given for the parameter ranges over which the accurate application of the thick and thin boundary approximations can be used for a fluid-structure interaction problem. PMID:23729844

  20. Kinetic modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis of solid wastes, including disintegration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Gen, Santiago [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sousbie, Philippe; Rangaraj, Ganesh [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Lema, Juan M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodríguez, Jorge, E-mail: jrodriguez@masdar.ac.ae [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Institute Centre for Water and Environment (iWater), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, PO Box 54224 Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Torrijos, Michel [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Fractionation of solid wastes into readily and slowly biodegradable fractions. • Kinetic coefficients estimation from mono-digestion batch assays. • Validation of kinetic coefficients with a co-digestion continuous experiment. • Simulation of batch and continuous experiments with an ADM1-based model. - Abstract: A methodology to estimate disintegration and hydrolysis kinetic parameters of solid wastes and validate an ADM1-based anaerobic co-digestion model is presented. Kinetic parameters of the model were calibrated from batch reactor experiments treating individually fruit and vegetable wastes (among other residues) following a new protocol for batch tests. In addition, decoupled disintegration kinetics for readily and slowly biodegradable fractions of solid wastes was considered. Calibrated parameters from batch assays of individual substrates were used to validate the model for a semi-continuous co-digestion operation treating simultaneously 5 fruit and vegetable wastes. The semi-continuous experiment was carried out in a lab-scale CSTR reactor for 15 weeks at organic loading rate ranging between 2.0 and 4.7 g VS/L d. The model (built in Matlab/Simulink) fit to a large extent the experimental results in both batch and semi-continuous mode and served as a powerful tool to simulate the digestion or co-digestion of solid wastes.

  1. Results of including geometric nonlinearities in an aeroelastic model of an F/A-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttrill, Carey S.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated, nonlinear simulation model suitable for aeroelastic modeling of fixed-wing aircraft has been developed. While the author realizes that the subject of modeling rotating, elastic structures is not closed, it is believed that the equations of motion developed and applied herein are correct to second order and are suitable for use with typical aircraft structures. The equations are not suitable for large elastic deformation. In addition, the modeling framework generalizes both the methods and terminology of non-linear rigid-body airplane simulation and traditional linear aeroelastic modeling. Concerning the importance of angular/elastic inertial coupling in the dynamic analysis of fixed-wing aircraft, the following may be said. The rigorous inclusion of said coupling is not without peril and must be approached with care. In keeping with the same engineering judgment that guided the development of the traditional aeroelastic equations, the effect of non-linear inertial effects for most airplane applications is expected to be small. A parameter does not tell the whole story, however, and modes flagged by the parameter as significant also need to be checked to see if the coupling is not a one-way path, i.e., the inertially affected modes can influence other modes.

  2. HIV Model Parameter Estimates from Interruption Trial Data including Drug Efficacy and Reservoir Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) have had significant impact on understanding HIV disease dynamics and optimizing patient treatment. A model that characterizes the essential disease dynamics can be used for prediction only if the model parameters are identifiable from clinical data. Most previous parameter identification studies for HIV have used sparsely sampled data from the decay phase following the introduction of therapy. In this paper, model parameters are identified from frequently sampled viral-load data taken from ten patients enrolled in the previously published AutoVac HAART interruption study, providing between 69 and 114 viral load measurements from 3–5 phases of viral decay and rebound for each patient. This dataset is considerably larger than those used in previously published parameter estimation studies. Furthermore, the measurements come from two separate experimental conditions, which allows for the direct estimation of drug efficacy and reservoir contribution rates, two parameters that cannot be identified from decay-phase data alone. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method is used to estimate the model parameter values, with initial estimates obtained using nonlinear least-squares methods. The posterior distributions of the parameter estimates are reported and compared for all patients. PMID:22815727

  3. Modelling of bypass transition including the pseudolaminar part of the boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prihoda, J.; Hlava, T. [Ceska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Thermomechanics; Kozel, K. [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-12-01

    The boundary-layer transition in turbomachinery is accelerated by a number of parameters, especially by the free-stream turbulence. This so-called bypass transition is usually modelled by means of one-equation or two-equation turbulence models based on turbulent viscosity. Using of transport equations for turbulent energy and for dissipation rate in these models is questionable before the onset of the last stage of the transition, i.e. before the formation of turbulent spots. Used approximations of production and turbulent diffusion are the weak points of turbulence models with turbulent viscosity in the pseudolaminar boundary layer, as the Boussinesq assumption on turbulent viscosity is not fulfilled in this part of the boundary layer. In order to obtain a more reliable prediction of the transitional boundary layer, Mayle and Schulz (1997) proposed for the solution of pseudolaminar boundary layer a special `laminar-kinetic-energy` equation based on the analysis of laminar boundary layer in flows with velocity fluctuations. The effect of production and turbulent diffusion on the development of turbulent energy in the pseudolaminar boundary layer was tested using a two-layer turbulence model. (orig.)

  4. Modelling of bypass transition including the pseudolaminar part of the boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prihoda, J.; Hlava, T. (Ceska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Thermomechanics); Kozel, K. (Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering)

    1999-01-01

    The boundary-layer transition in turbomachinery is accelerated by a number of parameters, especially by the free-stream turbulence. This so-called bypass transition is usually modelled by means of one-equation or two-equation turbulence models based on turbulent viscosity. Using of transport equations for turbulent energy and for dissipation rate in these models is questionable before the onset of the last stage of the transition, i.e. before the formation of turbulent spots. Used approximations of production and turbulent diffusion are the weak points of turbulence models with turbulent viscosity in the pseudolaminar boundary layer, as the Boussinesq assumption on turbulent viscosity is not fulfilled in this part of the boundary layer. In order to obtain a more reliable prediction of the transitional boundary layer, Mayle and Schulz (1997) proposed for the solution of pseudolaminar boundary layer a special 'laminar-kinetic-energy' equation based on the analysis of laminar boundary layer in flows with velocity fluctuations. The effect of production and turbulent diffusion on the development of turbulent energy in the pseudolaminar boundary layer was tested using a two-layer turbulence model. (orig.)

  5. Creating, generating and comparing random network models with NetworkRandomizer [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Tosadori

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological networks are becoming a fundamental tool for the investigation of high-throughput data in several fields of biology and biotechnology. With the increasing amount of information, network-based models are gaining more and more interest and new techniques are required in order to mine the information and to validate the results. To fill the validation gap we present an app, for the Cytoscape platform, which aims at creating randomised networks and randomising existing, real networks. Since there is a lack of tools that allow performing such operations, our app aims at enabling researchers to exploit different, well known random network models that could be used as a benchmark for validating real, biological datasets. We also propose a novel methodology for creating random weighted networks, i.e. the multiplication algorithm, starting from real, quantitative data. Finally, the app provides a statistical tool that compares real versus randomly computed attributes, in order to validate the numerical findings. In summary, our app aims at creating a standardised methodology for the validation of the results in the context of the Cytoscape platform.

  6. Beam dynamics in high intensity cyclotrons including neighboring bunch effects: Model, implementation, and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Yang (杨建俊

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Space-charge effects, being one of the most significant collective effects, play an important role in high intensity cyclotrons. However, for cyclotrons with small turn separation, other existing effects are of equal importance. Interactions of radially neighboring bunches are also present, but their combined effects have not yet been investigated in any great detail. In this paper, a new particle in the cell-based self-consistent numerical simulation model is presented for the first time. The model covers neighboring bunch effects and is implemented in the three-dimensional object-oriented parallel code OPAL-cycl, a flavor of the OPAL framework. We discuss this model together with its implementation and validation. Simulation results are presented from the PSI 590 MeV ring cyclotron in the context of the ongoing high intensity upgrade program, which aims to provide a beam power of 1.8 MW (CW at the target destination.

  7. Finding practical phenomenological models that include both photoresist behavior and etch process effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunwook; Do, Thuy; Sturtevant, John

    2015-03-01

    For more than five decades, the semiconductor industry has overcome technology challenges with innovative ideas that have continued to enable Moore's Law. It is clear that multi-patterning lithography is vital for 20nm half pitch using 193i. Multi-patterning exposure sequences and pattern multiplication processes can create complicated tolerance accounting due to the variability associated with the component processes. It is essential to ensure good predictive accuracy of compact etch models used in multipatterning simulation. New modelforms have been developed to account for etch bias behavior at 20 nm and below. The new modeling components show good results in terms of global fitness and some improved predication capability for specific features. We've also investigated a new methodology to make the etch model aware of 3D resist profiles.

  8. A Simple Model of Fields Including the Strong or Nuclear Force and a Cosmological Speculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Spencer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Reexamining the assumptions underlying the General Theory of Relativity and calling an object's gravitational field its inertia, and acceleration simply resistance to that inertia, yields a simple field model where the potential (kinetic energy of a particle at rest is its capacity to move itself when its inertial field becomes imbalanced. The model then attributes electromagnetic and strong forces to the effects of changes in basic particle shape. Following up on the model's assumption that the relative intensity of a particle's gravitational field is always inversely related to its perceived volume and assuming that all black holes spin, may create the possibility of a cosmic rebound where a final spinning black hole ends with a new Big Bang.

  9. Modeling of the dynamics of wind to power conversion including high wind speed behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Bjerge, Martin Huus; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes and validates an efficient, generic and computationally simple dynamic model for the conversion of the wind speed at hub height into the electrical power by a wind turbine. This proposed wind turbine model was developed as a first step to simulate wind power time series...... speed shutdowns and restarts are represented as on–off switching rules that govern the output of the wind turbine at extreme wind speed conditions. The model uses the concept of equivalent wind speed, estimated from the single point (hub height) wind speed using a second-order dynamic filter...... measurements available from the DONG Energy offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  10. An extended TRANSCAR model including ionospheric convection: simulation of EISCAT observations using inputs from AMIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-L. Blelly

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRANSCAR ionospheric model was extended to account for the convection of the magnetic field lines in the auroral and polar ionosphere. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian 13-moment approach was used to describe the dynamics of an ionospheric plasma tube. In the present study, one focuses on large scale transports in the polar ionosphere. The model was used to simulate a 35-h period of EISCAT-UHF observations on 16-17 February 1993. The first day was magnetically quiet, and characterized by elevated electron concentrations: the diurnal F2 layer reached as much as 1012m-3, which is unusual for a winter and moderate solar activity (F10.7=130 period. An intense geomagnetic event occurred on the second day, seen in the data as a strong intensification of the ionosphere convection velocities in the early afternoon (with the northward electric field reaching 150mVm-1 and corresponding frictional heating of the ions up to 2500K. The simulation used time-dependent AMIE outputs to infer flux-tube transports in the polar region, and to provide magnetospheric particle and energy inputs to the ionosphere. The overall very good agreement, obtained between the model and the observations, demonstrates the high ability of the extended TRANSCAR model for quantitative modelling of the high-latitude ionosphere; however, some differences are found which are attributed to the precipitation of electrons with very low energy. All these results are finally discussed in the frame of modelling the auroral ionosphere with space weather applications in mind.

  11. An extended TRANSCAR model including ionospheric convection: simulation of EISCAT observations using inputs from AMIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-L. Blelly

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRANSCAR ionospheric model was extended to account for the convection of the magnetic field lines in the auroral and polar ionosphere. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian 13-moment approach was used to describe the dynamics of an ionospheric plasma tube. In the present study, one focuses on large scale transports in the polar ionosphere. The model was used to simulate a 35-h period of EISCAT-UHF observations on 16-17 February 1993. The first day was magnetically quiet, and characterized by elevated electron concentrations: the diurnal F2 layer reached as much as 1012m-3, which is unusual for a winter and moderate solar activity (F10.7=130 period. An intense geomagnetic event occurred on the second day, seen in the data as a strong intensification of the ionosphere convection velocities in the early afternoon (with the northward electric field reaching 150mVm-1 and corresponding frictional heating of the ions up to 2500K. The simulation used time-dependent AMIE outputs to infer flux-tube transports in the polar region, and to provide magnetospheric particle and energy inputs to the ionosphere. The overall very good agreement, obtained between the model and the observations, demonstrates the high ability of the extended TRANSCAR model for quantitative modelling of the high-latitude ionosphere; however, some differences are found which are attributed to the precipitation of electrons with very low energy. All these results are finally discussed in the frame of modelling the auroral ionosphere with space weather applications in mind.

  12. Evaluation of European air quality modelled by CAMx including the volatility basis set scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciarelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Four periods of EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme intensive measurement campaigns (June 2006, January 2007, September–October 2008 and February–March 2009 were modelled using the regional air quality model CAMx with VBS (volatility basis set approach for the first time in Europe within the framework of the EURODELTA-III model intercomparison exercise. More detailed analysis and sensitivity tests were performed for the period of February–March 2009 and June 2006 to investigate the uncertainties in emissions as well as to improve the modelling of organic aerosol (OA. Model performance for selected gas phase species and PM2.5 was evaluated using the European air quality database AirBase. Sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ozone (O3 were found to be overestimated for all the four periods, with O3 having the largest mean bias during June 2006 and January–February 2007 periods (8.9 pbb and 12.3 ppb mean biases respectively. In contrast, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and carbon monoxide (CO were found to be underestimated for all the four periods. CAMx reproduced both total concentrations and monthly variations of PM2.5 for all the four periods with average biases ranging from −2.1 to 1.0 µg m−3. Comparisons with AMS (aerosol mass spectrometer measurements at different sites in Europe during February–March 2009 showed that in general the model overpredicts the inorganic aerosol fraction and underpredicts the organic one, such that the good agreement for PM2.5 is partly due to compensation of errors. The effect of the choice of VBS scheme on OA was investigated as well. Two sensitivity tests with volatility distributions based on previous chamber and ambient measurements data were performed. For February–March 2009 the chamber case reduced the total OA concentrations by about 42 % on average. In contrast, a test based on ambient measurement data increased OA concentrations by about 42 % for the same period bringing

  13. Molecular Modeling of Aerospace Polymer Matrices Including Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radue, Matthew S.

    Carbon fiber (CF) composites are increasingly replacing metals used in major structural parts of aircraft, spacecraft, and automobiles. The current limitations of carbon fiber composites are addressed through computational material design by modeling the salient aerospace matrix materials. Molecular Dynamics (MD) models of epoxies with and without carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforcement and models of pure bismaleimides (BMIs) were developed to elucidate structure-property relationships for improved selection and tailoring of matrices. The influence of monomer functionality on the mechanical properties of epoxies is studied using the Reax Force Field (ReaxFF). From deformation simulations, the Young's modulus, yield point, and Poisson's ratio are calculated and analyzed. The results demonstrate an increase in stiffness and yield strength with increasing resin functionality. Comparison between the network structures of distinct epoxies is further advanced by the Monomeric Degree Index (MDI). Experimental validation demonstrates the MD results correctly predict the relationship in Young's moduli for all epoxies modeled. Therefore, the ReaxFF is confirmed to be a useful tool for studying the mechanical behavior of epoxies. While epoxies have been well-studied using MD, there has been no concerted effort to model cured BMI polymers due to the complexity of the network-forming reactions. A novel, adaptable crosslinking framework is developed for implementing 5 distinct cure reactions of Matrimid-5292 (a BMI resin) and investigating the network structure using MD simulations. The influence of different cure reactions and extent of curing are analyzed on the several thermo-mechanical properties such as mass density, glass transition temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic moduli, and thermal conductivity. The developed crosslinked models correctly predict experimentally observed trends for various properties. Finally, the epoxies modeled (di-, tri-, and tetra

  14. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number...... of safety barrier (passive, automated, or involving human action). Such models are valuable for many purposes, but are difficult to apply to more complex situations, as the influences are to be set individually for each barrier. The approach described in this paper is trying to improve the state...

  15. Offshore Wind Guidance Document: Oceanography and Sediment Stability (Version 1) Development of a Conceptual Site Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones

    2014-06-01

    This guidance document provide s the reader with an overview of the key environmental considerations for a typical offshore wind coastal location and the tools to help guide the reader through a thoro ugh planning process. It will enable readers to identify the key coastal processes relevant to their offshore wind site and perform pertinent analysis to guide siting and layout design, with the goal of minimizing costs associated with planning, permitting , and long - ter m maintenance. The document highlight s site characterization and assessment techniques for evaluating spatial patterns of sediment dynamics in the vicinity of a wind farm under typical, extreme, and storm conditions. Finally, the document des cribe s the assimilation of all of this information into the conceptual site model (CSM) to aid the decision - making processes.

  16. New version of the theoretical databank of transferable aspherical pseudoatoms, UBDB2011--towards nucleic acid modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzembska, Katarzyna N; Dominiak, Paulina M

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical databank of aspherical pseudoatoms (UBDB) was recently extended with over 100 new atom types present in RNA, DNA and in some other molecules of great importance in biology and pharmacy. The atom-type definitions were modified and new atom keys added to provide a more precise description of the atomic charge-density distribution. X-H bond lengths were updated according to recent neutron diffraction studies and implemented in the LSDB program as well as used for modelling the appropriate atom types. The UBDB2011 databank was extensively tested. Electrostatic interaction energies calculated on the basis of the databank of aspherical atom models were compared with the corresponding results obtained directly from wavefunctions at the same level of theory (SPDFG/B3LYP/6-31G** and SPDFG/B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ). Various small complexes were analysed to cover most of the different interaction types, i.e. adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine with hydrogen bonding, guanine-adenine with stacking contacts, and a group of neutral and charged species of nucleic acid bases interacting with amino acid side chains. The energy trends are well preserved (R(2) > 0.9); however the energy values differ between the two methods by about 4 kcal mol(-1) (1 kcal mol(-1) = 4.184 kJ mol(-1)) on average. What is noticeable is that the replacement of one basis set by another in a purely quantum chemical approach leads to the same electrostatic energy difference, i.e. of about 4 kcal mol(-1) in magnitude. The present work opens up the possibility of applying the UBDB2011 for macromolecules that contain DNA/RNA fragments. This study shows that on the basis of the UBDB2011 databank electrostatic interaction energies can be estimated and structure refinements carried out. However, some method limitations are apparent.

  17. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We study an extension of the economic production lot size model, where more than one production rate can be used during a cycle. Moreover, the production rates, as well as their corresponding runtimes are decision variables. We decompose the problem into two subproblems. First, we show that all...

  18. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    We study an extension of the economic production lot size model, where more than one production rate can be used during a cycle. Moreover, the production rates, as well as their corresponding runtimes are decision variables. First, we show that all production rates should be choosen in the interval...

  19. Static aeroelastic analysis including geometric nonlinearities based on reduced order model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchuan Xie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method proposed for modeling large deflection of aircraft in nonlinear aeroelastic analysis by developing reduced order model (ROM. The method is applied for solving the static aeroelastic and static aeroelastic trim problems of flexible aircraft containing geometric nonlinearities; meanwhile, the non-planar effects of aerodynamics and follower force effect have been considered. ROMs are computational inexpensive mathematical representations compared to traditional nonlinear finite element method (FEM especially in aeroelastic solutions. The approach for structure modeling presented here is on the basis of combined modal/finite element (MFE method that characterizes the stiffness nonlinearities and we apply that structure modeling method as ROM to aeroelastic analysis. Moreover, the non-planar aerodynamic force is computed by the non-planar vortex lattice method (VLM. Structure and aerodynamics can be coupled with the surface spline method. The results show that both of the static aeroelastic analysis and trim analysis of aircraft based on structure ROM can achieve a good agreement compared to analysis based on the FEM and experimental result.

  20. Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust 2 and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.

  1. Extending the formal model of a spatial data infrastructure to include volunteered geographical information

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available -to-date VGI, have led to the integration of VGI into some SDIs. Therefore it is necessary to rethink our formal model of an SDI to accommodate VGI. We started our rethinking process with the SDI stakeholders in an attempt to establish which changes...

  2. Loss and thermal model for power semiconductors including device rating information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    pre-defined by experience with poor design flexibility. Consequently a more complete loss and thermal model is proposed in this paper, which takes into account not only the electrical loading but also the device rating as input variables. The quantified correlation between the power loss, thermal...

  3. Social Rationality as a Unified Model of Man (Including Bounded Rationality)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2001-01-01

    In 1957, Simon published a collection of his essays under the title of “Models of Man: Social and Rational”. In the preface, he explains the choice for this title: All of the essays “are concerned with laying foundations for a science of man that will comfortably accommodate his dual nature as a

  4. Simple vibration modeling of structural fuzzy with continuous boundary by including two-dimensional spatial memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    is considered as one or more fuzzy substructures that are known in some statistical sense only. Experiments have shown that such fuzzy substructures often introduce a damping in the master which is much higher than the structural losses account for. A special method for modeling fuzzy substructures with a one...

  5. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of

  6. Modeling the elastic behavior of ductile cast iron including anisotropy in the graphite nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    by means of a 3D periodic unit cell model. In this respect, an explicit procedure to enforce both periodic displacement and periodic traction boundary conditions in ABAQUS is presented, and the importance of fulfilling the traction continuity conditions at the unit cell boundaries is discussed. It is shown...

  7. A biologically inspired neural model for visual and proprioceptive integration including sensory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Maryam; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Lari, Abdolaziz Azizi

    2013-12-01

    Humans perceive the surrounding world by integration of information through different sensory modalities. Earlier models of multisensory integration rely mainly on traditional Bayesian and causal Bayesian inferences for single causal (source) and two causal (for two senses such as visual and auditory systems), respectively. In this paper a new recurrent neural model is presented for integration of visual and proprioceptive information. This model is based on population coding which is able to mimic multisensory integration of neural centers in the human brain. The simulation results agree with those achieved by casual Bayesian inference. The model can also simulate the sensory training process of visual and proprioceptive information in human. Training process in multisensory integration is a point with less attention in the literature before. The effect of proprioceptive training on multisensory perception was investigated through a set of experiments in our previous study. The current study, evaluates the effect of both modalities, i.e., visual and proprioceptive training and compares them with each other through a set of new experiments. In these experiments, the subject was asked to move his/her hand in a circle and estimate its position. The experiments were performed on eight subjects with proprioception training and eight subjects with visual training. Results of the experiments show three important points: (1) visual learning rate is significantly more than that of proprioception; (2) means of visual and proprioceptive errors are decreased by training but statistical analysis shows that this decrement is significant for proprioceptive error and non-significant for visual error, and (3) visual errors in training phase even in the beginning of it, is much less than errors of the main test stage because in the main test, the subject has to focus on two senses. The results of the experiments in this paper is in agreement with the results of the neural model

  8. Implementation of methane cycling for deep-time global warming simulations with the DCESS Earth system model (version 1.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shaffer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Geological records reveal a number of ancient, large and rapid negative excursions of the carbon-13 isotope. Such excursions can only be explained by massive injections of depleted carbon to the Earth system over a short duration. These injections may have forced strong global warming events, sometimes accompanied by mass extinctions such as the Triassic-Jurassic and end-Permian extinctions 201 and 252 million years ago, respectively. In many cases, evidence points to methane as the dominant form of injected carbon, whether as thermogenic methane formed by magma intrusions through overlying carbon-rich sediment or from warming-induced dissociation of methane hydrate, a solid compound of methane and water found in ocean sediments. As a consequence of the ubiquity and importance of methane in major Earth events, Earth system models for addressing such events should include a comprehensive treatment of methane cycling but such a treatment has often been lacking. Here we implement methane cycling in the Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS model, a simplified but well-tested Earth system model of intermediate complexity. We use a generic methane input function that allows variation in input type, size, timescale and ocean–atmosphere partition. To be able to treat such massive inputs more correctly, we extend the model to deal with ocean suboxic/anoxic conditions and with radiative forcing and methane lifetimes appropriate for high atmospheric methane concentrations. With this new model version, we carried out an extensive set of simulations for methane inputs of various sizes, timescales and ocean–atmosphere partitions to probe model behavior. We find that larger methane inputs over shorter timescales with more methane dissolving in the ocean lead to ever-increasing ocean anoxia with consequences for ocean life and global carbon cycling. Greater methane input directly to the atmosphere leads to more warming and, for example

  9. Implementation of methane cycling for deep-time global warming simulations with the DCESS Earth system model (version 1.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Gary; Fernández Villanueva, Esteban; Rondanelli, Roberto; Olaf Pepke Pedersen, Jens; Malskær Olsen, Steffen; Huber, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    Geological records reveal a number of ancient, large and rapid negative excursions of the carbon-13 isotope. Such excursions can only be explained by massive injections of depleted carbon to the Earth system over a short duration. These injections may have forced strong global warming events, sometimes accompanied by mass extinctions such as the Triassic-Jurassic and end-Permian extinctions 201 and 252 million years ago, respectively. In many cases, evidence points to methane as the dominant form of injected carbon, whether as thermogenic methane formed by magma intrusions through overlying carbon-rich sediment or from warming-induced dissociation of methane hydrate, a solid compound of methane and water found in ocean sediments. As a consequence of the ubiquity and importance of methane in major Earth events, Earth system models for addressing such events should include a comprehensive treatment of methane cycling but such a treatment has often been lacking. Here we implement methane cycling in the Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS) model, a simplified but well-tested Earth system model of intermediate complexity. We use a generic methane input function that allows variation in input type, size, timescale and ocean-atmosphere partition. To be able to treat such massive inputs more correctly, we extend the model to deal with ocean suboxic/anoxic conditions and with radiative forcing and methane lifetimes appropriate for high atmospheric methane concentrations. With this new model version, we carried out an extensive set of simulations for methane inputs of various sizes, timescales and ocean-atmosphere partitions to probe model behavior. We find that larger methane inputs over shorter timescales with more methane dissolving in the ocean lead to ever-increasing ocean anoxia with consequences for ocean life and global carbon cycling. Greater methane input directly to the atmosphere leads to more warming and, for example, greater carbon dioxide release

  10. Evaluating water management strategies with the Systems Impact Assessment Model: SIAM version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, John M.; Heasley, John; Hanna, Blair; Sandelin, Jeff; Flug, Marshall; Campbell, Sharon; Henriksen, Jim; Douglas, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Water from many of California's coastal rivers has been used for a wide variety of development ventures, including major agricultural diversions, hydropower generation, and contaminant assimilation from industry, agriculture and logging. Anthropogenic impacts often degrade water quality and decrease the quantity and quality of aquatic habitat. Reallocating streamflow away from uses that degrade water quality to uses that foster higher water quality is a critical step in restoring riverine habitat and the anadromous fish that rely on that habitat for a portion of their life cycle. Reallocation always brings with it the need to examine the economic efficiency of the proposed changes. If the dollar benefits of improving water quality are greater than the costs, the criterion of improving economic efficiency is satisfied, a fact that can be highly persuasive to decision makers contemplating reallocation.

  11. A catchment-scale groundwater model including sewer pipe leakage in an urban system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peche, Aaron; Fuchs, Lothar; Spönemann, Peter; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: pipe leakage, urban hydrogeology, catchment scale, OpenGeoSys, HYSTEM-EXTRAN Wastewater leakage from subsurface sewer pipe defects leads to contamination of the surrounding soil and groundwater (Ellis, 2002; Wolf et al., 2004). Leakage rates at pipe defects have to be known in order to quantify contaminant input. Due to inaccessibility of subsurface pipe defects, direct (in-situ) measurements of leakage rates are tedious and associated with a high degree of uncertainty (Wolf, 2006). Proposed catchment-scale models simplify leakage rates by neglecting unsaturated zone flow or by reducing spatial dimensions (Karpf & Krebs, 2013, Boukhemacha et al., 2015). In the present study, we present a physically based 3-dimensional numerical model incorporating flow in the pipe network, in the saturated zone and in the unsaturated zone to quantify leakage rates on the catchment scale. The model consists of the pipe network flow model HYSTEM-EXTAN (itwh, 2002), which is coupled to the subsurface flow model OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012). We also present the newly developed coupling scheme between the two flow models. Leakage functions specific to a pipe defect are derived from simulations of pipe leakage using spatially refined grids around pipe defects. In order to minimize computational effort, these leakage functions are built into the presented numerical model using unrefined grids around pipe defects. The resulting coupled model is capable of efficiently simulating spatially distributed pipe leakage coupled with subsurficial water flow in a 3-dimensional environment. References: Boukhemacha, M. A., Gogu, C. R., Serpescu, I., Gaitanaru, D., & Bica, I. (2015). A hydrogeological conceptual approach to study urban groundwater flow in Bucharest city, Romania. Hydrogeology Journal, 23(3), 437-450. doi:10.1007/s10040-014-1220-3. Ellis, J. B., & Revitt, D. M. (2002). Sewer losses and interactions with groundwater quality. Water Science and Technology, 45(3), 195

  12. GWSCREEN: A Semi-analytical Model for Assessment of the Groundwater Pathway from Surface or Buried Contamination, Theory and User's Manual, Version 2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, Arthur South

    1998-08-01

    GWSCREEN was developed for assessment of the groundwater pathway from leaching of radioactive and non-radioactive substances from surface or buried sources. The code was designed for implementation in the Track I and Track II assessment of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act sites identified as low probability hazard at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The code calculates 1) the limiting soil concentration such that, after leaching and transport to the aquifer regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded, 2) peak aquifer concentration and associated human health impacts, and 3) aquifer concentrations and associated human health impacts as a function of time and space. The code uses a mass conservation approach to model three processes: contaminant release from a source volume, vertical contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone, and 2D or 3D contaminant transport in the saturated zone. The source model considers the sorptive properties and solubility of the contaminant. In Version 2.5, transport in the unsaturated zone is described by a plug flow or dispersive solution model. Transport in the saturated zone is calculated with a semi-analytical solution to the advection dispersion equation in groundwater. Three source models are included; leaching from a surface or buried source, infiltration pond, or user-defined arbitrary release. Dispersion in the aquifer may be described by fixed dispersivity values or three, spatial-variable dispersivity functions. Version 2.5 also includes a Monte Carlo sampling routine for uncertainty/sensitivity analysis and a preprocessor to allow multiple input files and multiple contaminants to be run in a single simulation. GWSCREEN has been validated against other codes using similar algorithms and techniques. The code was originally designed for assessment and screening of the groundwater pathway when field data are limited. It was intended to simulate relatively simple

  13. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  14. Including Antenna Models in Microwave Imaging for Breast-Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Meincke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Microwave imaging is emerging as a tool for screening for breast cancer, but the lack of methods for including the characteristics of the antennas of the imaging systems in the imaging algorithms limits their performance. In this paper, a method for incorporating the full antenna characteristics...

  15. Hyphal ontogeny in Neurospora crassa: a model organism for all seasons [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Riquelme

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi have proven to be a better-suited model system than unicellular yeasts in analyses of cellular processes such as polarized growth, exocytosis, endocytosis, and cytoskeleton-based organelle traffic. For example, the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa develops a variety of cellular forms. Studying the molecular basis of these forms has led to a better, yet incipient, understanding of polarized growth. Polarity factors as well as Rho GTPases, septins, and a localized delivery of vesicles are the central elements described so far that participate in the shift from isotropic to polarized growth. The growth of the cell wall by apical biosynthesis and remodeling of polysaccharide components is a key process in hyphal morphogenesis. The coordinated action of motor proteins and Rab GTPases mediates the vesicular journey along the hyphae toward the apex, where the exocyst mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. Cytoplasmic microtubules and actin microfilaments serve as tracks for the transport of vesicular carriers as well as organelles in the tubular cell, contributing to polarization. In addition to exocytosis, endocytosis is required to set and maintain the apical polarity of the cell. Here, we summarize some of the most recent breakthroughs in hyphal morphogenesis and apical growth in N. crassa and the emerging questions that we believe should be addressed.

  16. Fe–Mn alloys: A mixed-bond spin-1/2 Ising model version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, A.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); Albuquerque, Douglas F. de, E-mail: douglas@ufs.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); Departamento de Matemática, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); Moreno, N.O. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristovão, SE (Brazil)

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we apply the mixed-bond spin-1/2 Ising model to study the magnetic properties of Fe–Mn alloys in the α phase by employing the effective field theory (EFT). Here, we suggest a new approach to the ferromagnetic coupling between nearest neighbours Fe–Fe that depends on the ratio between the Mn–Mn coupling and the Fe–Mn coupling and of second power of the Mn concentration q in contrast to linear dependence considered in the other articles. Also, we propose a new probability distribution for binary alloys with mixed-bonds based on the distribution for ternary alloys and we obtain a very good agreement for all considered values of q in T–q plane, in particular for q>0.11. - Highlights: • We apply the mixed-bond spin-1/2 to study the properties of Fe–Mn. • We employ the EFT and suggest a new approach to ferromagnetic coupling. • The new probability distribution is considered. • The phase diagram is obtained for all values of q in T–q plane.

  17. Fe–Mn alloys: A mixed-bond spin-1/2 Ising model version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, A.S.; Albuquerque, Douglas F. de; Moreno, N.O.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we apply the mixed-bond spin-1/2 Ising model to study the magnetic properties of Fe–Mn alloys in the α phase by employing the effective field theory (EFT). Here, we suggest a new approach to the ferromagnetic coupling between nearest neighbours Fe–Fe that depends on the ratio between the Mn–Mn coupling and the Fe–Mn coupling and of second power of the Mn concentration q in contrast to linear dependence considered in the other articles. Also, we propose a new probability distribution for binary alloys with mixed-bonds based on the distribution for ternary alloys and we obtain a very good agreement for all considered values of q in T–q plane, in particular for q>0.11. - Highlights: • We apply the mixed-bond spin-1/2 to study the properties of Fe–Mn. • We employ the EFT and suggest a new approach to ferromagnetic coupling. • The new probability distribution is considered. • The phase diagram is obtained for all values of q in T–q plane

  18. Sensitivity of precipitation to parameter values in the community atmosphere model version 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Gardar; Lucas, Donald; Qian, Yun; Swiler, Laura Painton; Wildey, Timothy Michael

    2014-03-01

    One objective of the Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) program is to develop the capability to thoroughly test and understand the uncertainties in the overall climate model and its components as they are being developed. The focus on uncertainties involves sensitivity analysis: the capability to determine which input parameters have a major influence on the output responses of interest. This report presents some initial sensitivity analysis results performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LNNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In the 2011-2012 timeframe, these laboratories worked in collaboration to perform sensitivity analyses of a set of CAM5, 2° runs, where the response metrics of interest were precipitation metrics. The three labs performed their sensitivity analysis (SA) studies separately and then compared results. Overall, the results were quite consistent with each other although the methods used were different. This exercise provided a robustness check of the global sensitivity analysis metrics and identified some strongly influential parameters.

  19. Numerical models of single- and double-negative metamaterials including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2017-01-01

    Negative index acoustic metamaterials are artificial structures made of subwavelength units arranged in a lattice, whose effective acoustic parameters, bulk modulus and mass density, can be negative. In these materials, sound waves propagate inside the periodic structure, assumed rigid, showing...... extraordinary properties. We are interested in two particular cases: a double-negative metamaterial, where both parameters are negative at some frequencies, and a single-negative metamaterial with negative bulk modulus within a broader frequency band. In previous research involving the double-negative...... detailed understanding on how viscous and thermal losses affect the setups at different frequencies. The modeling of a simpler single-negative metamaterial also broadens this overview. Both setups have been modeled with quadratic BEM meshes. Each sample, scaled at two different sizes, has been represented...

  20. Paint Pavement Marking Performance Prediction Model That Includes the Impacts of Snow Removal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hypothesized that snow plows wear down mountain road pavement markings. 2007 Craig et al. -Edge lines degrade slower than center/skip lines 2007...retroreflectivity to create the models. They discovered that paint pavement markings last 80% longer on Portland Cement Concrete than Asphalt Concrete at low AADT...retroreflectivity, while yellow markings lost 21%. Lu and Barter attributed the sizable degradation to snow removal, sand application, and studded

  1. An earth outgoing longwave radiation climate model. II - Radiation with clouds included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Keng; Smith, G. Louis; Bartman, Fred L.

    1988-01-01

    The model of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLWR) of Yang et al. (1987) is modified by accounting for the presence of clouds and their influence on OLWR. Cloud top temperature was adjusted so that the calculation agreed with NOAA scanning radiometer measurements. Cloudy sky cases were calculated for global average, zonal average, and worldwide distributed cases. The results were found to agree well with satellite observations.

  2. Modelling topical photodynamic therapy treatment including the continuous production of Protoporphyrin IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. L.; Brown, C. T. A.; Wood, K.; Moseley, H.

    2016-11-01

    Most existing theoretical models of photodynamic therapy (PDT) assume a uniform initial distribution of the photosensitive molecule, Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This is an adequate assumption when the prodrug is systematically administered; however for topical PDT this is no longer a valid assumption. Topical application and subsequent diffusion of the prodrug results in an inhomogeneous distribution of PpIX, especially after short incubation times, prior to light illumination. In this work a theoretical simulation of PDT where the PpIX distribution depends on the incubation time and the treatment modality is described. Three steps of the PpIX production are considered. The first is the distribution of the topically applied prodrug, the second in the conversion from the prodrug to PpIX and the third is the light distribution which affects the PpIX distribution through photobleaching. The light distribution is modelled using a Monte Carlo radiation transfer model and indicates treatment depths of around 2 mm during daylight PDT and approximately 3 mm during conventional PDT. The results suggest that treatment depths are not only limited by the light penetration but also by the PpIX distribution.

  3. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Creemers

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of the school and on the type of problems/difficulties the school is facing. Reference is made to the methods used to test this assumption of the dynamic model by measuring school effectiveness in mathematics, Greek language, and religious education over two consecutive school years. The main findings are as follows. School factors were found to have situational effects. Specifically, the development of a school policy for teaching and the school evaluation of policy for teaching were found to have stronger effects in schools where the quality of teaching at classroom level was low. Moreover, time stability in the effectiveness status of schools was identified and thereby changes in the functioning of schools were found not to have a significant impact on changes in the effectiveness status of schools. Implications of the findings for the development of the dynamic model and suggestions for further research are presented.

  4. The new version of the Institute of Numerical Mathematics Sigma Ocean Model (INMSOM) for simulation of Global Ocean circulation and its variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Fomin, Vladimir; Diansky, Nikolay; Korshenko, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present the improved version of the ocean general circulation sigma-model developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INM RAS). The previous version referred to as INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) is used as the oceanic component of the IPCC climate system model INMCM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Climate Model (Volodin et al 2010,2013). Besides, INMOM as the only sigma-model was used for simulations according to CORE-II scenario (Danabasoglu et al. 2014,2016; Downes et al. 2015; Farneti et al. 2015). In general, INMOM results are comparable to ones of other OGCMs and were used for investigation of climatic variations in the North Atlantic (Gusev and Diansky 2014). However, detailed analysis of some CORE-II INMOM results revealed some disadvantages of the INMOM leading to considerable errors in reproducing some ocean characteristics. So, the mass transport in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) was overestimated. As well, there were noticeable errors in reproducing thermohaline structure of the ocean. After analysing the previous results, the new version of the OGCM was developed. It was decided to entitle is INMSOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Sigma Ocean Model). The new title allows one to distingwish the new model, first, from its older version, and second, from another z-model developed in the INM RAS and referred to as INMIO (Institute of Numerical Mathematics and Institute of Oceanology ocean model) (Ushakov et al. 2016). There were numerous modifications in the model, some of them are as follows. 1) Formulation of the ocean circulation problem in terms of full free surface with taking into account water amount variation. 2) Using tensor form of lateral viscosity operator invariant to rotation. 3) Using isopycnal diffusion including Gent-McWilliams mixing. 4) Using atmospheric forcing computation according to NCAR methodology (Large and Yeager 2009). 5

  5. Comparison of lead isotopes with source apportionment models, including SOM, for air particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian; Korsch, Michael; Dickson, Bruce; Cohen, David; Mizon, Karen; Michael Davis, J.

    2007-01-01

    We have measured high precision lead isotopes in PM 2.5 particulates from a highly-trafficked site (Mascot) and rural site (Richmond) in the Sydney Basin, New South Wales, Australia to compare with isotopic data from total suspended particulates (TSP) from other sites in the Sydney Basin and evaluate relationships with source fingerprints obtained from multi-element PM 2.5 data. The isotopic data for the period 1998 to 2004 show seasonal peaks and troughs that are more pronounced in the rural site for the PM 2.5 .samples but are consistent with the TSP. The Self Organising Map (SOM) method has been applied to the multi-element PM 2.5 data to evaluate its use in obtaining fingerprints for comparison with standard statistical procedures (ANSTO model). As seasonal effects are also significant for the multi-element data, the SOM modelling is reported as site and season dependent. At the Mascot site, the ANSTO model exhibits decreasing 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios with increasing contributions of fingerprints for 'secondary smoke' (industry), 'soil', 'smoke' and 'seaspray'. Similar patterns were shown by SOM winter fingerprints for both sites. At the rural site, there are large isotopic variations but for the majority of samples these are not associated with increased contributions from the main sources with the ANSTO model. For two winter sampling times, there are increased contributions from 'secondary industry', 'smoke', 'soil' and seaspray with one time having a source or sources of Pb similar to that of Mascot. The only positive relationship between increasing 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratio and source contributions is found at the rural site using the SOM summer fingerprints, both of which show a significant contribution from sulphur. Several of the fingerprints using either model have significant contributions from black carbon (BC) and/or sulphur (S) that probably derive from diesel fuels and industrial sources. Increased contributions from sources with the SOM summer

  6. A global wetland methane emissions and uncertainty dataset for atmospheric chemical transport models (WetCHARTs version 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bloom

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetland emissions remain one of the principal sources of uncertainty in the global atmospheric methane (CH4 budget, largely due to poorly constrained process controls on CH4 production in waterlogged soils. Process-based estimates of global wetland CH4 emissions and their associated uncertainties can provide crucial prior information for model-based top-down CH4 emission estimates. Here we construct a global wetland CH4 emission model ensemble for use in atmospheric chemical transport models (WetCHARTs version 1.0. Our 0.5°  ×  0.5° resolution model ensemble is based on satellite-derived surface water extent and precipitation reanalyses, nine heterotrophic respiration simulations (eight carbon cycle models and a data-constrained terrestrial carbon cycle analysis and three temperature dependence parameterizations for the period 2009–2010; an extended ensemble subset based solely on precipitation and the data-constrained terrestrial carbon cycle analysis is derived for the period 2001–2015. We incorporate the mean of the full and extended model ensembles into GEOS-Chem and compare the model against surface measurements of atmospheric CH4; the model performance (site-level and zonal mean anomaly residuals compares favourably against published wetland CH4 emissions scenarios. We find that uncertainties in carbon decomposition rates and the wetland extent together account for more than 80 % of the dominant uncertainty in the timing, magnitude and seasonal variability in wetland CH4 emissions, although uncertainty in the temperature CH4 : C dependence is a significant contributor to seasonal variations in mid-latitude wetland CH4 emissions. The combination of satellite, carbon cycle models and temperature dependence parameterizations provides a physically informed structural a priori uncertainty that is critical for top-down estimates of wetland CH4 fluxes. Specifically, our ensemble can provide enhanced information on the prior

  7. Extending Galactic Habitable Zone Modeling to Include the Emergence of Intelligent Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ian S; Gowanlock, Michael G

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies of the galactic habitable zone have been concerned with identifying those regions of the Galaxy that may favor the emergence of complex life. A planet is deemed habitable if it meets a set of assumed criteria for supporting the emergence of such complex life. In this work, we extend the assessment of habitability to consider the potential for life to further evolve to the point of intelligence--termed the propensity for the emergence of intelligent life, φI. We assume φI is strongly influenced by the time durations available for evolutionary processes to proceed undisturbed by the sterilizing effects of nearby supernovae. The times between supernova events provide windows of opportunity for the evolution of intelligence. We developed a model that allows us to analyze these window times to generate a metric for φI, and we examine here the spatial and temporal variation of this metric. Even under the assumption that long time durations are required between sterilizations to allow for the emergence of intelligence, our model suggests that the inner Galaxy provides the greatest number of opportunities for intelligence to arise. This is due to the substantially higher number density of habitable planets in this region, which outweighs the effects of a higher supernova rate in the region. Our model also shows that φI is increasing with time. Intelligent life emerged at approximately the present time at Earth's galactocentric radius, but a similar level of evolutionary opportunity was available in the inner Galaxy more than 2 Gyr ago. Our findings suggest that the inner Galaxy should logically be a prime target region for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence and that any civilizations that may have emerged there are potentially much older than our own.

  8. porewater chemistry experiment at Mont Terri rock laboratory. Reactive transport modelling including bacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournassat, Christophe; Gaucher, Eric C.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Wersin, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An in-situ test in the Opalinus Clay formation, termed pore water Chemistry (PC) experiment, was run for a period of five years. It was based on the concept of diffusive equilibration whereby traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed off borehole. The main original focus was to obtain reliable data on the pH/pCO 2 of the pore water, but because of unexpected microbially- induced redox reactions, the objective was then changed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes happening in the borehole and to understand their impact on pH/pCO 2 and pH in the low permeability clay formation. The biologically perturbed chemical evolution of the PC experiment was simulated with reactive transport models. The aim of this modelling exercise was to develop a 'minimal-' model able to reproduce the chemical evolution of the PC experiment, i.e. the chemical evolution of solute inorganic and organic compounds (organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon etc...) that are coupled with each other through the simultaneous occurrence of biological transformation of solute or solid compounds, in-diffusion and out-diffusion of solute species and precipitation/dissolution of minerals (in the borehole and in the formation). An accurate description of the initial chemical conditions in the surrounding formation together with simplified kinetics rule mimicking the different phases of bacterial activities allowed reproducing the evolution of all main measured parameters (e.g. pH, TOC). Analyses from the overcoring and these simulations evidence the high buffer capacity of Opalinus clay regarding chemical perturbations due to bacterial activity. This pH buffering capacity is mainly attributed to the carbonate system as well as to the clay surfaces reactivity. Glycerol leaching from the pH-electrode might be the primary organic source responsible for

  9. Coupled modeling of land hydrology–regional climate including human carbon emission and water exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Hui Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions and water use are two major kinds of human activities. To reveal whether these two activities can modify the hydrological cycle and climate system in China, we conducted two sets of numerical experiments using regional climate model RegCM4. In the first experiment used to study the climatic responses to human carbon emissions, the model were configured over entire China because the impacts of carbon emissions can be detected across the whole country. Results from the first experiment revealed that near-surface air temperature may significantly increase from 2007 to 2059 at a rate exceeding 0.1 °C per decade in most areas across the country; southwestern and southeastern China also showed increasing trends in summer precipitation, with rates exceeding 10 mm per decade over the same period. In summer, only northern China showed an increasing trend of evapotranspiration, with increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade; in winter, increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade were observed in most regions. These effects are believed to be caused by global warming from human carbon emissions. In the second experiment used to study the effects of human water use, the model were configured over a limited region—Haihe River Basin in the northern China, because compared with the human carbon emissions, the effects of human water use are much more local and regional, and the Haihe River Basin is the most typical region in China that suffers from both intensive human groundwater exploitation and surface water diversion. We incorporated a scheme of human water regulation into RegCM4 and conducted the second experiment. Model outputs showed that the groundwater table severely declined by ∼10 m in 1971–2000 through human groundwater over-exploitation in the basin; in fact, current conditions are so extreme that even reducing the pumping rate by half cannot eliminate the groundwater depletion cones observed in the area

  10. Able but unintelligent: including positively stereotyped black subgroups in the stereotype content model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Amy S; Czopp, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) posits that warmth and competence are the key components underlying judgments about social groups. Because competence can encompass different components (e.g., intelligence, talent) different group members may be perceived to be competent for different reasons. Therefore, we believe it may be important to specify the type of competence being assessed when examining perceptions of groups that are positively stereotyped (i.e., Black athletes and musical Blacks). Consistent with the SCM, these subgroups were perceived as high in competence-talent but not in competence-intelligence and low in warmth. Both the intelligence and talent frame of competence fit in the SCM's social structural hypothesis.

  11. Description and Application of A Model of Seepage under A Weir Including Mechanical Clogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Zbigniew

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses seepage flow under a damming structure (a weir in view of mechanical clogging in a thin layer at the upstream site. It was assumed that in this layer flow may be treated as one-dimensional (perpendicular to the layer, while elsewhere flow was modelled as two-dimensional. The solution in both zones was obtained in the discrete form using the finite element method and the Euler method. The effect of the clogging layer on seepage flow was modelled using the third kind boundary condition. Seepage parameters in the clogging layer were estimated based on laboratory tests conducted by Skolasińska [2006]. Typical problem was taken to provide simulation and indicate how clogging affects the seepage rate and other parameters of the flow. Results showed that clogging at the upstream site has a significant effect on the distribution of seepage velocity and hydraulic gradients. The flow underneath the structure decreases with time, but these changes are relatively slow.

  12. Modeling radiation dosimetry to predict cognitive outcomes in pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors including medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Kiehna, Erin N.; Li Chenghong; Shukla, Hemant; Sengupta, Saikat; Xiong Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Model the effects of radiation dosimetry on IQ among pediatric patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors (n = 39) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before and after treatment with postoperative, risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and conformal primary-site irradiation, followed by chemotherapy. Differential dose-volume data for 5 brain volumes (total brain, supratentorial brain, infratentorial brain, and left and right temporal lobes) were correlated with IQ after surgery and at follow-up by use of linear regression. Results: When the dose distribution was partitioned into 2 levels, both had a significantly negative effect on longitudinal IQ across all 5 brain volumes. When the dose distribution was partitioned into 3 levels (low, medium, and high), exposure to the supratentorial brain appeared to have the most significant impact. For most models, each Gy of exposure had a similar effect on IQ decline, regardless of dose level. Conclusions: Our results suggest that radiation dosimetry data from 5 brain volumes can be used to predict decline in longitudinal IQ. Despite measures to reduce radiation dose and treatment volume, the volume that receives the highest dose continues to have the greatest effect, which supports current volume-reduction efforts

  13. An Improved Heat Budget Estimation Including Bottom Effects for General Ocean Circulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Kendall; Warrior, Hari; Otis, Daniel; Chen, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of the underwater light field on heat-budget calculations of general ocean circulation models for shallow waters. The presence of a bottom significantly alters the estimated heat budget in shallow waters, which affects the corresponding thermal stratification and hence modifies the circulation. Based on the data collected during the COBOP field experiment near the Bahamas, we have used a one-dimensional turbulence closure model to show the influence of the bottom reflection and absorption on the sea surface temperature field. The water depth has an almost one-to-one correlation with the temperature rise. Effects of varying the bottom albedo by replacing the sea grass bed with a coral sand bottom, also has an appreciable effect on the heat budget of the shallow regions. We believe that the differences in the heat budget for the shallow areas will have an influence on the local circulation processes and especially on the evaporative and long-wave heat losses for these areas. The ultimate effects on humidity and cloudiness of the region are expected to be significant as well.

  14. On the modelling of semi-insulating GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, W.; Duderstadt, F.

    2004-07-01

    Necessary heat treatment of single crystal semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), which is deployed in micro- and opto- electronic devices, generate undesirable liquid precipitates in the solid phase. The appearance of precipitates is influenced by surface tension at the liquid/solid interface and deviatoric stresses in the solid. The central quantity for the description of the various aspects of phase transitions is the chemical potential, which can be additively decomposed into a chemical and a mechanical part. In particular the calculation of the mechanical part of the chemical potential is of crucial importance. We determine the chemical potential in the framework of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law which gives an appropriate stress/strain relation for many solids in the small strain regime. We establish criteria, which allow the correct replacement of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law by the simpler Hooke law. The main objectives of this study are: (i) We develop a thermo-mechanical model that describes diffusion and interface motion, which both are strongly influenced by surface tension effects and deviatoric stresses. (ii) We give an overview and outlook on problems that can be posed and solved within the framework of the model. (iii) We calculate non-standard phase diagrams, i.e. those that take into account surface tension and non-deviatoric stresses, for GaAs above 786 C, and we compare the results with classical phase diagrams without these phenomena. (orig.)

  15. Effect of neurosteroids on a model lipid bilayer including cholesterol: An Atomic Force Microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The WECHSL-Mod3 code: A computer program for the interaction of a core melt with concrete including the long term behavior. Model description and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foit, J.J.; Adroguer, B.; Cenerino, G.; Stiefel, S.

    1995-02-01

    The WECHSL-Mod3 code is a mechanistic computer code developed for the analysis of the thermal and chemical interaction of initially molten reactor materials with concrete in a two-dimensional as well as in a one-dimensional, axisymmetrical concrete cavity. The code performs calculations from the time of initial contact of a hot molten pool over start of solidification processes until long term basemat erosion over several days with the possibility of basemat penetration. It is assumed that an underlying metallic layer exists covered by an oxidic layer or that only one oxidic layer is present which can contain a homogeneously dispersed metallic phase. Heat generation in the melt is by decay heat and chemical reactions from metal oxidation. Energy is lost to the melting concrete and to the upper containment by radiation or evaporation of sumpwater possibly flooding the surface of the melt. Thermodynamic and transport properties as well as criteria for heat transfer and solidification processes are internally calculated for each time step. Heat transfer is modelled taking into account the high gas flux from the decomposing concrete and the heat conduction in the crusts possibly forming in the long term at the melt/concrete interface. The CALTHER code (developed at CEA, France) which models the radiative heat transfer from the upper surface of the corium melt to the surrounding cavity is implemented in the present WECHSL version. The WECHSL code in its present version was validated by the BETA, ACE and SURC experiments. The test samples include a BETA and the SURC2 post test calculations and a WECHSL application to a reactor accident. (orig.) [de

  17. Influence of Solar and Thermal Radiation on Future Heat Stress Using CMIP5 Archive Driving the Community Land Model Version 4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzan, J. R.; Huber, M.

    2015-12-01

    The summer of 2015 has experienced major heat waves on 4 continents, and heat stress left ~4000 people dead in India and Pakistan. Heat stress is caused by a combination of meteorological factors: temperature, humidity, and radiation. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) uses Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT)—an empirical metric this is calibrated with temperature, humidity, and radiation—for determining labor capacity during heat stress. Unfortunately, most literature studying global heat stress focuses on extreme temperature events, and a limited number of studies use the combination of temperature and humidity. Recent global assessments use WBGT, yet omit the radiation component without recalibrating the metric.Here we explicitly calculate future WBGT within a land surface model, including radiative fluxes as produced by a modeled globe thermometer. We use the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5), which is a component model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), and is maintained by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). To drive our CLM4.5 simulations, we use greenhouse gasses Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (business as usual), and atmospheric output from the CMIP5 Archive. Humans work in a variety of environments, and we place the modeled globe thermometer in a variety of environments. We modify CLM4.5 code to calculate solar and thermal radiation fluxes below and above canopy vegetation, and in bare ground. To calculate wet bulb temperature, we implemented the HumanIndexMod into CLM4.5. The temperature, wet bulb temperature, and radiation fields are calculated at every model time step and are outputted 4x Daily. We use these fields to calculate WBGT and labor capacity for two time slices: 2026-2045 and 2081-2100.

  18. Including temperature in a wavefunction description of the dynamics of the quantum Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werther, Michael; Grossmann, Frank

    2018-01-01

    We present a wavefunction methodology to account for finite temperature initial conditions in the quantum Rabi model. The approach is based on the Davydov Ansatz together with a statistical sampling of the canonical harmonic oscillator initial density matrix. Equations of motion are gained from a variational principle and numerical results are compared to those of the thermal Hamiltonian approach. For a system consisting of a single spin and a single oscillator and for moderate coupling strength, we compare our new results with full quantum ones as well as with other Davydov-type results based on alternative sampling/summation strategies. All of these perform better than the ones based on the thermal Hamiltonian approach. The best agreement is shown by a Boltzmann weighting of individual eigenstate propagations. Extending this to a bath of many oscillators will, however, be very demanding numerically. The use of any one of the investigated stochastic sampling approaches will then be favorable.

  19. Dynamic Analysis of Thick Plates Including Deep Beams on Elastic Foundations Using Modified Vlasov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozgan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic analysis of foundation plate-beam systems with transverse shear deformation is presented using modified Vlasov foundation model. Finite element formulation of the problem is derived by using an 8-node (PBQ8 finite element based on Mindlin plate theory for the plate and a 2-node Hughes element based on Timoshenko beam theory for the beam. Selective reduced integration technique is used to avoid shear locking problem for the evaluation of the stiffness matrices for both the elements. The effect of beam thickness, the aspect ratio of the plate and subsoil depth on the response of plate-beam-soil system is analyzed. Numerical examples show that the displacement, bending moments and shear forces are changed significantly by adding the beams.

  20. Robust and Adaptive OMR System Including Fuzzy Modeling, Fusion of Musical Rules, and Possible Error Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for optical music recognition (OMR in case of monophonic typeset scores. After clarifying the difficulties specific to this domain, we propose appropriate solutions at both image analysis level and high-level interpretation. Thus, a recognition and segmentation method is designed, that allows dealing with common printing defects and numerous symbol interconnections. Then, musical rules are modeled and integrated, in order to make a consistent decision. This high-level interpretation step relies on the fuzzy sets and possibility framework, since it allows dealing with symbol variability, flexibility, and imprecision of music rules, and merging all these heterogeneous pieces of information. Other innovative features are the indication of potential errors and the possibility of applying learning procedures, in order to gain in robustness. Experiments conducted on a large data base show that the proposed method constitutes an interesting contribution to OMR.

  1. Energy-based fatigue model for shape memory alloys including thermomechanical coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Jihong; Moumni, Ziad; Van Herpen, Alain; Zhang, Weihong

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a low cycle fatigue criterion for pseudoelastic shape memory alloys to take into account thermomechanical coupling. To this end, fatigue tests are carried out at different loading rates under strain control at room temperature using NiTi wires. Temperature distribution on the specimen is measured using a high speed thermal camera. Specimens are tested to failure and fatigue lifetimes of specimens are measured. Test results show that the fatigue lifetime is greatly influenced by the loading rate: as the strain rate increases, the fatigue lifetime decreases. Furthermore, it is shown that the fatigue cracks initiate when the stored energy inside the material reaches a critical value. An energy-based fatigue criterion is thus proposed as a function of the irreversible hysteresis energy of the stabilized cycle and the loading rate. Fatigue life is calculated using the proposed model. The experimental and computational results compare well.

  2. Areal rainfall estimation using moving cars - computer experiments including hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Ehsan; Haberlandt, Uwe; Sester, Monika; Fitzner, Daniel; Wallner, Markus

    2016-09-01

    The need for high temporal and spatial resolution precipitation data for hydrological analyses has been discussed in several studies. Although rain gauges provide valuable information, a very dense rain gauge network is costly. As a result, several new ideas have emerged to help estimating areal rainfall with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Rabiei et al. (2013) observed that moving cars, called RainCars (RCs), can potentially be a new source of data for measuring rain rate. The optical sensors used in that study are designed for operating the windscreen wipers and showed promising results for rainfall measurement purposes. Their measurement accuracy has been quantified in laboratory experiments. Considering explicitly those errors, the main objective of this study is to investigate the benefit of using RCs for estimating areal rainfall. For that, computer experiments are carried out, where radar rainfall is considered as the reference and the other sources of data, i.e., RCs and rain gauges, are extracted from radar data. Comparing the quality of areal rainfall estimation by RCs with rain gauges and reference data helps to investigate the benefit of the RCs. The value of this additional source of data is not only assessed for areal rainfall estimation performance but also for use in hydrological modeling. Considering measurement errors derived from laboratory experiments, the result shows that the RCs provide useful additional information for areal rainfall estimation as well as for hydrological modeling. Moreover, by testing larger uncertainties for RCs, they observed to be useful up to a certain level for areal rainfall estimation and discharge simulation.

  3. ECO: a generic eutrophication model including comprehensive sediment-water interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Johannes G C; van Beek, Jan K L

    2013-01-01

    The content and calibration of the comprehensive generic 3D eutrophication model ECO for water and sediment quality is presented. Based on a computational grid for water and sediment, ECO is used as a tool for water quality management to simulate concentrations and mass fluxes of nutrients (N, P, Si), phytoplankton species, detrital organic matter, electron acceptors and related substances. ECO combines integral simulation of water and sediment quality with sediment diagenesis and closed mass balances. Its advanced process formulations for substances in the water column and the bed sediment were developed to allow for a much more dynamic calculation of the sediment-water exchange fluxes of nutrients as resulting from steep concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface than is possible with other eutrophication models. ECO is to more accurately calculate the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients in the sediment, and to allow for more accurate prediction of phytoplankton biomass and water quality in response to mitigative measures such as nutrient load reduction. ECO was calibrated for shallow Lake Veluwe (The Netherlands). Due to restoration measures this lake underwent a transition from hypertrophic conditions to moderately eutrophic conditions, leading to the extensive colonization by submerged macrophytes. ECO reproduces observed water quality well for the transition period of ten years. The values of its process coefficients are in line with ranges derived from literature. ECO's calculation results underline the importance of redox processes and phosphate speciation for the nutrient return fluxes. Among other things, the results suggest that authigenic formation of a stable apatite-like mineral in the sediment can contribute significantly to oligotrophication of a lake after a phosphorus load reduction.

  4. A phantom model demonstration of tomotherapy dose painting delivery, including managed respiratory motion without motion management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissick, Michael W; Mo Xiaohu; McCall, Keisha C; Mackie, Thomas R [Department of Medical Physics, Wisconsin Institutes for Medical Research, 111 Highland Avenue, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Schubert, Leah K [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Westerly, David C, E-mail: mwkissick@wisc.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2010-05-21

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate a potential alternative scenario for accurate dose-painting (non-homogeneous planned dose) delivery at 1 cm beam width with helical tomotherapy (HT) in the presence of 1 cm, three-dimensional, intra-fraction respiratory motion, but without any active motion management. A model dose-painting experiment was planned and delivered to the average position (proper phase of a 4DCT scan) with three spherical PTV levels to approximate dose painting to compensate for hypothetical hypoxia in a model lung tumor. Realistic but regular motion was produced with the Washington University 4D Motion Phantom. A small spherical Virtual Water(TM) phantom was used to simulate a moving lung tumor inside of the LUNGMAN(TM) anthropomorphic chest phantom to simulate realistic heterogeneity uncertainties. A piece of 4 cm Gafchromic EBT(TM) film was inserted into the 6 cm diameter sphere. TomoTherapy, Inc., DQA(TM) software was used to verify the delivery performed on a TomoTherapy Hi-Art II(TM) device. The dose uncertainty in the purposeful absence of motion management and in the absence of large, low frequency drifts (periods greater than the beam width divided by the couch velocity) or randomness in the breathing displacement yields very favorable results. Instead of interference effects, only small blurring is observed because of the averaging of many breathing cycles and beamlets and the avoidance of interference. Dose painting during respiration with helical tomotherapy is feasible in certain situations without motion management. A simple recommendation is to make respiration as regular as possible without low frequency drifting. The blurring is just small enough to suggest that it may be acceptable to deliver without motion management if the motion is equal to the beam width or smaller (at respiration frequencies) when registered to the average position.

  5. A phantom model demonstration of tomotherapy dose painting delivery, including managed respiratory motion without motion management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissick, Michael W; Mo Xiaohu; McCall, Keisha C; Mackie, Thomas R; Schubert, Leah K; Westerly, David C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate a potential alternative scenario for accurate dose-painting (non-homogeneous planned dose) delivery at 1 cm beam width with helical tomotherapy (HT) in the presence of 1 cm, three-dimensional, intra-fraction respiratory motion, but without any active motion management. A model dose-painting experiment was planned and delivered to the average position (proper phase of a 4DCT scan) with three spherical PTV levels to approximate dose painting to compensate for hypothetical hypoxia in a model lung tumor. Realistic but regular motion was produced with the Washington University 4D Motion Phantom. A small spherical Virtual Water(TM) phantom was used to simulate a moving lung tumor inside of the LUNGMAN(TM) anthropomorphic chest phantom to simulate realistic heterogeneity uncertainties. A piece of 4 cm Gafchromic EBT(TM) film was inserted into the 6 cm diameter sphere. TomoTherapy, Inc., DQA(TM) software was used to verify the delivery performed on a TomoTherapy Hi-Art II(TM) device. The dose uncertainty in the purposeful absence of motion management and in the absence of large, low frequency drifts (periods greater than the beam width divided by the couch velocity) or randomness in the breathing displacement yields very favorable results. Instead of interference effects, only small blurring is observed because of the averaging of many breathing cycles and beamlets and the avoidance of interference. Dose painting during respiration with helical tomotherapy is feasible in certain situations without motion management. A simple recommendation is to make respiration as regular as possible without low frequency drifting. The blurring is just small enough to suggest that it may be acceptable to deliver without motion management if the motion is equal to the beam width or smaller (at respiration frequencies) when registered to the average position.

  6. Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model With Mappings to ACE Requirements for the General Availability User Environment Capabilities Release Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil,Benny Manuel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ballance, Robert [SNL; Haskell, Karen [SNL

    2012-08-09

    Cielo is a massively parallel supercomputer funded by the DOE/NNSA Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program, and operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES), a partnership between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The primary Cielo compute platform is physically located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model documents the capabilities and the environment to be provided for the Q1 FY12 Level 2 Cielo Capability Computing (CCC) Platform Production Readiness Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, or Sandia National Laboratories, but also addresses the needs of users working in the unclassified environment. The Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model maps the provided capabilities to the tri-Lab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) Version 8.0 requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the Production Readiness Milestone user environment capabilities of the ASC community. A description of ACE requirements met, and those requirements that are not met, are included in each section of this document. The Cielo Computing Environment, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and reviewed throughout the tri-Lab community.

  7. Numerical Representation of Wintertime Near-Surface Inversions in the Arctic with a 2.5-km Version of the Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, A.; Mariani, Z.; Gascon, G.; Bélair, S.; Milbrandt, J.; Joe, P. I.; Crawford, R.; Melo, S.

    2017-12-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) is implementing a 2.5-km resolution version of the Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model over the Canadian Arctic. Radiosonde observations were used to evaluate the numerical representation of surface-based temperature inversion which is a major feature in the Arctic region. Arctic surface-based inversions are often created by imbalance between radiative cooling processes at surface and warm air advection above. This can have a significant effect on vertical mixing of pollutants and moisture, and ultimately, on cloud formation. It is therefore important to correctly predict the existence of surface inversions along with their characteristics (i.e., intensity and depth). Previous climatological studies showed that the frequency and intensity of surface-based inversions are larger during colder months in the Arctic. Therefore, surface-based inversions were estimated using radiosonde measurements during winter (December 2015 to February 2016) at Iqaluit (Nunavut, Canada). Results show that the inversion intensity can exceed 10 K with depths as large as 1 km. Preliminary evaluation of GEM outputs reveals that the model tends to underestimate the intensity of near-surface inversions, and in some cases, the model failed to predict an inversion. This study presents the factors contributing to this bias including surface temperature and snow cover.

  8. Improvement in genetic evaluation of female fertility in dairy cattle using multiple-trait models including milk production traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Madsen, P; Lund, M S

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the improvement in genetic evaluation of fertility traits by using production traits as secondary traits (MILK = 305-d milk yield, FAT = 305-d fat yield, and PROT = 305-d protein yield). Data including 471,742 records from first lactations of Denmark Holstein cows, covering...... (DATAC1, which only contained the first crop daughters) for proven bulls. In addition, the superiority of the models was evaluated by expected reliability of EBV, calculated from the prediction error variance of EBV. Based on these criteria, the models combining milk production traits showed better model...... stability and predictive ability than single-trait models for all the fertility traits, except for nonreturn rate within 56 d after first service. The stability and predictive ability for the model including MILK or PROT were similar to the model including all 3 milk production traits and better than...

  9. Regional modelling of future African climate north of 15S including greenhouse warming and land degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeth, H. [Geographical Institute, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Thamm, H.P. [Geographical Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Previous studies have highlighted the crucial role of land degradation in tropical African climate. This effect urgently has to be taken into account when predicting future African climate under enhanced greenhouse conditions. Here, we present time slice experiments of African climate until 2025, using a high-resolution regional climate model. A supposable scenario of future land use changes, involving vegetation loss and soil degradation, is prescribed simultaneously with increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations in order to detect, where the different forcings counterbalance or reinforce each other. This proceeding allows us to define the regions of highest vulnerability with respect to future freshwater availability and food security in tropical and subtropical Africa and may provide a decision basis for political measures. The model simulates a considerable reduction in precipitation amount until 2025 over most of tropical Africa, amounting to partly more than 500 mm (20-40% of the annual sum), particularly in the Congo Basin and the Sahel Zone. The change is strongest in boreal summer and basically reflects the pattern of maximum vegetation cover during the seasonal cycle. The related change in the surface energy fluxes induces a substantial near-surface warming by up to 7C. According to the modified temperature gradients over tropical Africa, the summer monsoon circulation intensifies and transports more humid air masses into the southern part of West Africa. This humidifying effect is overcompensated by a remarkable decrease in surface evaporation, leading to the overall drying tendency over most of Africa. Extreme daily rainfall events become stronger in autumn but less intense in spring. Summer and autumn appear to be characterized by more severe heat waves over Subsaharan West Africa. In addition, the Tropical Easterly Jet is weakening, leading to enhanced drought conditions in the Sahel Zone. All these results suggest that the local impact of land

  10. Study of the Eco-Economic Indicators by Means of the New Version of the Merge Integrated Model Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Vadimovich Digas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most relevant issues of the day is the forecasting problem of climatic changes and mitigation of their consequences. The official point of view reflected in the Climate doctrine of the Russian Federation consists in the recognition of the need of the development of the state approach to the climatic problems and related issues on the basis of the comprehensive scientific analysis of ecological, economic and social factors. For this purpose, the integrated estimation models of interdisciplinary character are attracted. Their functionality is characterized by the possibility of construction and testing of various dynamic scenarios of complex systems. The main purposes of the computing experiments described in the article are a review of the consequences of hypothetical participation of Russia in initiatives for greenhouse gas reduction as the Kyoto Protocol and approbation of one of the calculation methods of the green gross domestic product representing the efficiency of environmental management in the modelling. To implement the given goals, the MERGE optimization model is used, its classical version is intended for the quantitative estimation of the application results of nature protection strategies. The components of the model are the eco-power module, climatic module and the module of loss estimates. In the work, the main attention is paid to the adaptation of the MERGE model to a current state of the world economy in the conditions of a complicated geopolitical situation and introduction of a new component to the model, realizing a simplified method for calculation the green gross domestic product. The Project of scenario conditions and the key macroeconomic forecast parameters of the socio-economic development of Russia for 2016 and the schedule date of 2017−2018 made by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation are used as a basic source of entrance data for the analysis of possible trajectories of the

  11. Study of the Eco-Economic Indicators by Means of the New Version of the Merge Integrated Model. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Vadimovich Digas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most relevant issues of the day is the forecasting problem of climatic changes and mitigation of their consequences. The official point of view reflected in the Climate doctrine of the Russian Federation consists in the recognition of the need of the development of the state approach to the climatic problems and related issues on the basis of the comprehensive scientific analysis of ecological, economic and social factors. For this purpose, the integrated estimation models of interdisciplinary character are attracted. Their functionality is characterized by the possibility of construction and testing of various dynamic scenarios of complex systems. The main purposes of the computing experiments described in the article are a review of the consequences of hypothetical participation of Russia in initiatives for greenhouse gas reduction as the Kyoto Protocol and approbation of one of the calculation methods of the green GDP representing the efficiency of environmental management in the modelling. To implement the given goals, the MERGE optimization model is used, its classical version is intended for the quantitative estimation of the application results of nature protection strategies. The components of the model are the eco-power module, climatic module and the module of loss estimates. In the work, the main attention is paid to the adaptation of the MERGE model to a current state of the world economy in the conditions of a complicated geopolitical situation and introduction of a new component to the model, realizing a simplified method for calculation the green GDP. The Project of scenario conditions and the key macroeconomic forecast parameters of the socio-economic development of Russia for 2016 and the schedule date of 2017−2018 made by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation are used as a basic source of entrance data for the analysis of possible trajectories of the economic development of Russia and the

  12. Thermal Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan

    2003-04-01

    Site investigations are in progress for the siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the planning work, strategies are developed for site descriptive modelling regarding different disciplines, amongst them the thermal conditions. The objective of the strategy for a thermal site descriptive model is to guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the site investigations. It is understood that further development may be needed. The model describes the thermal properties and other thermal parameters of intact rock, fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The methodology is based on estimation of thermal properties of intact rock and discontinuities, using both empirical and theoretical/numerical approaches, and estimation of thermal processes using mathematical modelling. The methodology will be used and evaluated for the thermal site descriptive modelling at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

  13. Landau quantized dynamics and spectra for group-VI dichalcogenides, including a model quantum wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horing, Norman J. M.

    2017-06-01

    This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green's function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green's function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green's function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function). The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ (x ) -potential profile. This retarded Green's function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green's function for the system without the δ (x ) -potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green's function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.

  14. Landau quantized dynamics and spectra for group-VI dichalcogenides, including a model quantum wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman J. M. Horing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green’s function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green’s function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green’s function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function. The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ(x-potential profile. This retarded Green’s function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green’s function for the system without the δ(x-potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green’s function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.

  15. Nuclear criticality safety handbook. Version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, Version 2 essentially includes the description of the Supplement Report to the Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, released in 1995, into the first version of Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, published in 1988. The following two points are new: (1) exemplifying safety margins related to modelled dissolution and extraction processes, (2) describing evaluation methods and alarm system for criticality accidents. Revision is made based on previous studies for the chapter that treats modelling the fuel system: e.g., the fuel grain size that the system can be regarded as homogeneous, non-uniformity effect of fuel solution, and burnup credit. This revision solves the inconsistencies found in the first version between the evaluation of errors found in JACS code system and criticality condition data that were calculated based on the evaluation. (author)

  16. VELMA Ecohydrological Model, Version 2.0 -- Analyzing Green Infrastructure Options for Enhancing Water Quality and Ecosystem Service Co-Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2-page factsheet describes an enhanced version (2.0) of the VELMA eco-hydrological model. VELMA – Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments – has been redesigned to assist communities, land managers, policy makers and other decision makers in evaluataing the effecti...

  17. Composite double oscillation in a modified version of the oregonator model of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Robert D.; Vanecek, David J.; Field, Richard J.

    1980-10-01

    A number of nonmonotonic behaviors appear when the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction is run in a flow system (CSTR) which are not observed when the reaction is run in a closed system. Among these behaviors is composite double oscillation in which nearly identical bursts of oscillation are separated by regular periods of quiescence. Here we use a modified version of the oregonator model of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction to simulate composite double oscillation. Our modification involves the addition of a new variable which is related to the amount of brominated organic material present in the system. This new variable changes slowly on the time scale of the oscillations and controls the value of f, the stoichiometric factor of step 5 in the oregonator. Thus the behavior of the modified oregonator in CSTR mode when flowrates are moderate can be rationalized in terms of the properties of the unmodified oregonator in a closed system. We show that composite double oscillation is a hysteresis phenomenon occurring over a small range of values of f where a locally stable steady state and a locally stable limit cycle coexist. Composite double oscillation occurs as the system is carried back-and-forth across the area of coexistence by the new, slowly moving variable whose concentration grows during the oscillatory phase, when the system is on the locally stable limit cycle, and decays during the quiescent phase, when the system is on the locally stable steady state.

  18. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level and individual (lower level exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure. More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure. In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models.Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure.Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions.When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation

  19. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Yamamoto, Eiji; Takao, Soshi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level) and individual (lower level) exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure). More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure). In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models. Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure. Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions. When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation, particularly

  20. Brayton Cycle Numerical Modeling using the RELAP5-3D code, version 4.3.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhini, Eduardo P.; Lobo, Paulo D.C.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.; Filho, Francisco A.B.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B.

    2017-01-01

    This work contributes to enable and develop technologies to mount fast micro reactors, to generate heat and electric energy, for the purpose to warm and to supply electrically spacecraft equipment and, also, the production of nuclear space propulsion effect. So, for this purpose, the Brayton Cycle demonstrates to be an optimum approach for space nuclear power. The Brayton thermal cycle gas has as characteristic to be a closed cycle, with two adiabatic processes and two isobaric processes. The components performing the cycle's processes are compressor, turbine, heat source, cold source and recuperator. Therefore, the working fluid's mass flow runs the thermal cycle that converts thermal energy into electrical energy, able to use in spaces and land devices. The objective is numerically to model the Brayton thermal cycle gas on nominal operation with one turbomachine composed for a radial-inflow compressor and turbine of a 40.8 kWe Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU). The Brayton cycle numerical modeling is being performed with the program RELAP5-3D, version 4.3.4. The nominal operation uses as working fluid a mixture 40 g/mole He-Xe with a flow rate of 1.85 kg/s, shaft rotational speed of 45 krpm, compressor and turbine inlet temperature of 400 K and 1149 K, respectively, and compressor exit pressure 0.931 MPa. Then, the aim is to get physical corresponding data to operate each cycle component and the general cycle on this nominal operation. (author)

  1. Brayton Cycle Numerical Modeling using the RELAP5-3D code, version 4.3.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhini, Eduardo P.; Lobo, Paulo D.C.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.; Filho, Francisco A.B.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B., E-mail: edu_longhini@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Estudos Avançados (IEAv), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisão de Energia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    This work contributes to enable and develop technologies to mount fast micro reactors, to generate heat and electric energy, for the purpose to warm and to supply electrically spacecraft equipment and, also, the production of nuclear space propulsion effect. So, for this purpose, the Brayton Cycle demonstrates to be an optimum approach for space nuclear power. The Brayton thermal cycle gas has as characteristic to be a closed cycle, with two adiabatic processes and two isobaric processes. The components performing the cycle's processes are compressor, turbine, heat source, cold source and recuperator. Therefore, the working fluid's mass flow runs the thermal cycle that converts thermal energy into electrical energy, able to use in spaces and land devices. The objective is numerically to model the Brayton thermal cycle gas on nominal operation with one turbomachine composed for a radial-inflow compressor and turbine of a 40.8 kWe Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU). The Brayton cycle numerical modeling is being performed with the program RELAP5-3D, version 4.3.4. The nominal operation uses as working fluid a mixture 40 g/mole He-Xe with a flow rate of 1.85 kg/s, shaft rotational speed of 45 krpm, compressor and turbine inlet temperature of 400 K and 1149 K, respectively, and compressor exit pressure 0.931 MPa. Then, the aim is to get physical corresponding data to operate each cycle component and the general cycle on this nominal operation. (author)

  2. Asian dust transport during the springtime of year 2001 and 2002 with a nested version of dust transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, I.; Satake, S.; Hara, Y.; Takemura, T.; Wang, Z.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2002-12-01

    Number of yellow sand (Kosa) observation has been surprisingly increasing in Japan and Korea since 2000. Especially extremely high PM10 concentration (exceeding 0.5mg/m3) was observed in Japan several times in 2002, so we have an urgent scientific and political need to forecast/reproduce the detailed dust emission, transport and deposition processes. Intensive modeling studies have already been conducted to examine transport of Sahara dust and its impact on global radiation budget. One of the important differences between the Sahara desert and the Asian desert (mainly Gobi Desert and Takla Makan Desert) is the elevation of the dust source. The averaged elevation of Gobi Desert is approximately 1500 to 2500 m. These deserts are surrounded by high mountains. Furthermore advance of the recent manmade desertification made complicated land use patches for the arid region in Inner Mongolia. Therefore the development of a high horizontal resolution dust model is highly required. In this study, we will report a newly developed nested version of the dust transport model (as a part of Chemical weather FORecasting System; CFORS) in order to have a better understanding of Asian springtime heady dust episode. Here, CFORS is a multi-tracer, on-line, system built within the RAMS mesoscale meteorological model. A unique feature of nested CFORS is that multiple tracers are run on-line in RAMS under the two-way nesting, so that all the fine-scale on-line meteorological information such as 3-D winds, boundary-layer turbulence, surface fluxes and precipitation amount are directly used by the dust emission and transport at every time step. As a result, nested-CFORS produces with high time resolution 3-dimensional fields of dust distributions and major meteorological parameters under the nesting capability of RAMS. In this work, the dust transport model simulation with the nested-CFORS was conducted between March and April of the years 2001 and 2002, respectively. The sensititivy

  3. Combining prior knowledge with data-driven modeling of a batch distillation column including start-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, P.F.; van Lith, Pascal F.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a simple model which describes the product quality and production over time of an experimental batch distillation column, including start-up. The model structure is based on a simple physical framework, which is augmented with fuzzy logic. This provides a way

  4. Influence of Dust and Black Carbon on the Snow Albedo in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.; Koster, Randal D.; Lau, K. M.; Aoki, Teruo; Sud, Yogesh C.; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Motoyoshi, Hiroki; Kodama, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Present-day land surface models rarely account for the influence of both black carbon and dust in the snow on the snow albedo. Snow impurities increase the absorption of incoming shortwave radiation (particularly in the visible bands), whereby they have major consequences for the evolution of snowmelt and life cycles of snowpack. A new parameterization of these snow impurities was included in the catchment-based land surface model used in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Earth Observing System version 5. Validation tests against in situ observed data were performed for the winter of 2003.2004 in Sapporo, Japan, for both the new snow albedo parameterization (which explicitly accounts for snow impurities) and the preexisting baseline albedo parameterization (which does not). Validation tests reveal that daily variations of snow depth and snow surface albedo are more realistically simulated with the new parameterization. Reasonable perturbations in the assigned snow impurity concentrations, as inferred from the observational data, produce significant changes in snowpack depth and radiative flux interactions. These findings illustrate the importance of parameterizing the influence of snow impurities on the snow surface albedo for proper simulation of the life cycle of snow cover.

  5. User's guide to the MESOI diffusion model: Version 1. 1 (for Data General Eclipse S/230 with AFOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athey, G.F.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1982-09-01

    MESOI is an interactive, Langrangian puff trajectory model. The model theory is documented separately (Ramsdell and Athey, 1981). Version 1.1 is a modified form of the original 1.0. It is designed to run on a Data General Eclipse computer. The model has improved support features which make it useful as an emergency response tool. This report is intended to provide the user with the information necessary to successfully conduct model simulations using MESOI Version 1.1 and to use the support programs STAPREP and EXPLT. The user is also provided information on the use of the data file maintenance and review program UPDATE. Examples are given for the operation of the program. Test data sets are described which allow the user to practice with the programs and to confirm proper implementation and execution.

  6. Statistical model of fractures and deformations zones for Forsmark. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Pointe, Paul R.; Olofsson, Isabelle; Hermanson, Jan

    2005-04-01

    Compared to version 1.1, a much larger amount of data especially from boreholes is available. Both one-hole interpretation and Boremap indicate the presence of high and low fracture intensity intervals in the rock mass. The depth and width of these intervals varies from borehole to borehole but these constant fracture intensity intervals are contiguous and present quite sharp transitions. There is not a consistent pattern of intervals of high fracture intensity at or near to the surface. In many cases, the intervals of highest fracture intensity are considerably below the surface. While some fractures may have occurred or been reactivated in response to surficial stress relief, surficial stress relief does not appear to be a significant explanatory variable for the observed variations in fracture intensity. Data from the high fracture intensity intervals were extracted and statistical analyses were conducted in order to identify common geological factors. Stereoplots of fracture orientation versus depth for the different fracture intensity intervals were also produced for each borehole. Moreover percussion borehole data were analysed in order to identify the persistence of these intervals throughout the model volume. The main conclusions of these analyses are the following: The fracture intensity is conditioned by the rock domain, but inside a rock domain intervals of high and low fracture intensity are identified. The intervals of high fracture intensity almost always correspond to intervals with distinct fracture orientations (whether a set, most often the NW sub-vertical set, is highly dominant, or some orientation sets are missing). These high fracture intensity intervals are positively correlated to the presence of first and second generation minerals (epidote, calcite). No clear correlation for these fracture intensity intervals has been identified between holes. Based on these results the fracture frequency has been calculated in each rock domain for the

  7. Statistical model of fractures and deformations zones for Forsmark. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul R. [Golder Associate Inc., Redmond, WA (United States); Olofsson, Isabelle; Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    Compared to version 1.1, a much larger amount of data especially from boreholes is available. Both one-hole interpretation and Boremap indicate the presence of high and low fracture intensity intervals in the rock mass. The depth and width of these intervals varies from borehole to borehole but these constant fracture intensity intervals are contiguous and present quite sharp transitions. There is not a consistent pattern of intervals of high fracture intensity at or near to the surface. In many cases, the intervals of highest fracture intensity are considerably below the surface. While some fractures may have occurred or been reactivated in response to surficial stress relief, surficial stress relief does not appear to be a significant explanatory variable for the observed variations in fracture intensity. Data from the high fracture intensity intervals were extracted and statistical analyses were conducted in order to identify common geological factors. Stereoplots of fracture orientation versus depth for the different fracture intensity intervals were also produced for each borehole. Moreover percussion borehole data were analysed in order to identify the persistence of these intervals throughout the model volume. The main conclusions of these analyses are the following: The fracture intensity is conditioned by the rock domain, but inside a rock domain intervals of high and low fracture intensity are identified. The intervals of high fracture intensity almost always correspond to intervals with distinct fracture orientations (whether a set, most often the NW sub-vertical set, is highly dominant, or some orientation sets are missing). These high fracture intensity intervals are positively correlated to the presence of first and second generation minerals (epidote, calcite). No clear correlation for these fracture intensity intervals has been identified between holes. Based on these results the fracture frequency has been calculated in each rock domain for the

  8. Rock mechanics modelling of rock mass properties - summary of primary data. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanaro, Flavio [Berg Bygg Konsult AB, Solna (Sweden); Oehman, Johan; Fredriksson, Anders [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    The results presented in this report are the summary of the primary data for the Laxemar Site Descriptive Modelling version 1.2. At this stage, laboratory tests on intact rock and fracture samples from borehole KSH01A, KSH02A, KAV01 (already considered in Simpevarp SDM version 1.2) and borehole KLX02 and KLX04 were available. Concerning the mechanical properties of the intact rock, the rock type 'granite to quartz monzodiorite' or 'Aevroe granite' (code 501044) was tested for the first time within the frame of the site descriptive modelling. The average uniaxial compressive strength and Young's modulus of the granite to quartz to monzodiorite are 192 MPa and 72 GPa, respectively. The crack initiation stress is observed to be 0.5 times the uniaxial compressive strength for the same rock type. Non negligible differences are observed between the statistics of the mechanical properties of the granite to quartz monzodiorite in borehole KLX02 and KLX04. The available data on rock fractures were analysed to determine the mechanical properties of the different fracture sets at the site (based on tilt test results) and to determine systematic differences between the results obtained with different sample preparation techniques (based on direct shear tests). The tilt tests show that there are not significant differences of the mechanical properties due to the fracture orientation. Thus, all fracture sets seem to have the same strength and deformability. The average peak friction angle for the Coulomb's Criterion of the fracture sets varies between 33.6 deg and 34.1 deg, while the average cohesion ranges between 0.46 and 0.52 MPa, respectively. The average of the Coulomb's residual cohesion and friction angle vary in the ranges 28.0 deg - 29.2 deg and 0.40-0.45 MPa, respectively. The only significant difference could be observed on the average cohesion between fracture set S{sub A} and S{sub d}. The direct shear tests show that the

  9. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Haustermans, Karin; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Van den Heuvel, Frank; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011–0.013) clinical factor was “previous abdominal surgery.” As second significant (p = 0.012–0.016) factor, “cardiac history” was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including “diabetes” was significant (p = 0.039–0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003–0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D 50 . Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions

  10. Can a one-layer optical skin model including melanin and inhomogeneously distributed blood explain spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Hanna; Pettersson, Anders; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    Model based analysis of calibrated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used for determining oxygenation and concentration of skin chromophores. This study aimed at assessing the effect of including melanin in addition to hemoglobin (Hb) as chromophores and compensating for inhomogeneously distributed blood (vessel packaging), in a single-layer skin model. Spectra from four humans were collected during different provocations using a twochannel fiber optic probe with source-detector separations 0.4 and 1.2 mm. Absolute calibrated spectra using data from either a single distance or both distances were analyzed using inverse Monte Carlo for light transport and Levenberg-Marquardt for non-linear fitting. The model fitting was excellent using a single distance. However, the estimated model failed to explain spectra from the other distance. The two-distance model did not fit the data well at either distance. Model fitting was significantly improved including melanin and vessel packaging. The most prominent effect when fitting data from the larger separation compared to the smaller separation was a different light scattering decay with wavelength, while the tissue fraction of Hb and saturation were similar. For modeling spectra at both distances, we propose using either a multi-layer s