WorldWideScience

Sample records for model unit map

  1. Unit 02 - Maps and Map Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 55, CC in GIS; Rhind, David

    1990-01-01

    This unit explores the map analysis roots of GIS. It discusses cartography and its relationship to GIS, including topics such as map types and characteristics, the concept of scale, map projections, applications of maps, computer-assisted cartography and geographic data display and analysis.

  2. Mapping Curie temperature depth in the western United States with a fractal model for crustal magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouligand, C.; Glen, J.M.G.; Blakely, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    We have revisited the problem of mapping depth to the Curie temperature isotherm from magnetic anomalies in an attempt to provide a measure of crustal temperatures in the western United States. Such methods are based on the estimation of the depth to the bottom of magnetic sources, which is assumed to correspond to the temperature at which rocks lose their spontaneous magnetization. In this study, we test and apply a method based on the spectral analysis of magnetic anomalies. Early spectral analysis methods assumed that crustal magnetization is a completely uncorrelated function of position. Our method incorporates a more realistic representation where magnetization has a fractal distribution defined by three independent parameters: the depths to the top and bottom of magnetic sources and a fractal parameter related to the geology. The predictions of this model are compatible with radial power spectra obtained from aeromagnetic data in the western United States. Model parameters are mapped by estimating their value within a sliding window swept over the study area. The method works well on synthetic data sets when one of the three parameters is specified in advance. The application of this method to western United States magnetic compilations, assuming a constant fractal parameter, allowed us to detect robust long-wavelength variations in the depth to the bottom of magnetic sources. Depending on the geologic and geophysical context, these features may result from variations in depth to the Curie temperature isotherm, depth to the mantle, depth to the base of volcanic rocks, or geologic settings that affect the value of the fractal parameter. Depth to the bottom of magnetic sources shows several features correlated with prominent heat flow anomalies. It also shows some features absent in the map of heat flow. Independent geophysical and geologic data sets are examined to determine their origin, thereby providing new insights on the thermal and geologic crustal

  3. Geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States (excluding California) national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Haller, Kathleen M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Hammond, William C.; Bird, Peter; Moschetti, Morgan; Shen, Zhengkang; Bormann, Jayne; Thatcher, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the conterminous United States incorporate additional uncertainty in fault slip-rate parameter that controls the earthquake-activity rates than was applied in previous versions of the hazard maps. This additional uncertainty is accounted for by new geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States. Models that were considered include an updated geologic model based on expert opinion and four combined inversion models informed by both geologic and geodetic input. The two block models considered indicate significantly higher slip rates than the expert opinion and the two fault-based combined inversion models. For the hazard maps, we apply 20 percent weight with equal weighting for the two fault-based models. Off-fault geodetic-based models were not considered in this version of the maps. Resulting changes to the hazard maps are generally less than 0.05 g (acceleration of gravity). Future research will improve the maps and interpret differences between the new models.

  4. Geothermal Favorability Map Derived From Logistic Regression Models of the Western United States (favorabilitysurface.zip)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a surface showing relative favorability for the presence of geothermal systems in the western United States. It is an average of 12 models that correlates...

  5. Modeling and mapping the probability of occurrence of invasive wild pigs across the contiguous United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith L McClure

    Full Text Available Wild pigs (Sus scrofa, also known as wild swine, feral pigs, or feral hogs, are one of the most widespread and successful invasive species around the world. Wild pigs have been linked to extensive and costly agricultural damage and present a serious threat to plant and animal communities due to their rooting behavior and omnivorous diet. We modeled the current distribution of wild pigs in the United States to better understand the physiological and ecological factors that may determine their invasive potential and to guide future study and eradication efforts. Using national-scale wild pig occurrence data reported between 1982 and 2012 by wildlife management professionals, we estimated the probability of wild pig occurrence across the United States using a logistic discrimination function and environmental covariates hypothesized to influence the distribution of the species. Our results suggest the distribution of wild pigs in the U.S. was most strongly limited by cold temperatures and availability of water, and that they were most likely to occur where potential home ranges had higher habitat heterogeneity, providing access to multiple key resources including water, forage, and cover. High probability of occurrence was also associated with frequent high temperatures, up to a high threshold. However, this pattern is driven by pigs' historic distribution in warm climates of the southern U.S. Further study of pigs' ability to persist in cold northern climates is needed to better understand whether low temperatures actually limit their distribution. Our model highlights areas at risk of invasion as those with habitat conditions similar to those found in pigs' current range that are also near current populations. This study provides a macro-scale approach to generalist species distribution modeling that is applicable to other generalist and invasive species.

  6. Seismic Hazard Map for the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows seismic hazard in the United States. The data represent a model showing the probability that ground motion will reach a certain level. This map...

  7. A geo-information theoretical approach to inductive erosion modelling based on terrain mapping units.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suryana, N.

    1997-01-01

    Three main aspects of the research, namely the concept of object orientation, the development of an Inductive Erosion Model (IEM) and the development of a framework for handling uncertainty in the data or information resulting from a GIS are interwoven in this thesis. The first and the second aspect

  8. Simulation modeling to evaluate the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on commercial dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R M; Whitlock, R H; Stehman, S M; Benedictus, A; Chapagain, P P; Grohn, Y T; Schukken, Y H

    2008-03-17

    We developed a series of deterministic mathematical models of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) transmission on commercial US dairies. Our models build upon and modify models and assumptions in previous work to better reflect the pathobiology of the disease. Parameter values were obtained from literature for animal turnover in US dairy herds and rates of transition between disease states. The models developed were used to test three hypotheses. (1) Infectious transmission following intervention is relatively insensitive to the presence of high-shedding animals. (2) Vertical and pseudo-vertical transmission increases prevalence of disease but is insufficient to explain persistence following intervention. (3) Transiently shedding young animals might aid persistence. Our simulations indicated that multiple levels of contagiousness among infected adult animals in combination with vertical transmission and MAP shedding in infected young animals explained the maintenance of low-prevalence infections in herds. High relative contagiousness of high-shedding adult animals resulted in these animals serving as the predominant contributor to transmission. This caused elimination of infection in herds using the test-and-cull intervention tested in these simulations. Addition of vertical transmission caused persistence of infection in a moderately complicated model. In the most complex model that allowed age-based contacts, calf-to-calf transmission was required for persistence.

  9. The Syntax Model of Mobile Maps Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Jiangpeng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the method of formal language (FL, the syntax model of mobile map generation is studied. The syntax model is located in the level of logical calculus of map generation based on the analysis of its process. Combined the hierarchical and recursive characteristics of map representation, the simplest form of syntax structure is abstracted as carto-lexicons and syntax-rules. The classification system of carto-lexicons is established as well as the model of the spatial relation predicate system, and the map operation rules and rules of different levels of syntactic units are discussed. The compilation process and key techniques of the syntax model are discussed, and the feasibility of the model is verified through mobile maps generation experiment. The essence of the model is a kind of formal language grammar, which uses finite rules and lexicons to generate maps automatically, as well as a kind of high-level cartography interface of human-computer interactive.

  10. Model for mapping settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Graesser, Jordan B.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2016-07-05

    A programmable media includes a graphical processing unit in communication with a memory element. The graphical processing unit is configured to detect one or more settlement regions from a high resolution remote sensed image based on the execution of programming code. The graphical processing unit identifies one or more settlements through the execution of the programming code that executes a multi-instance learning algorithm that models portions of the high resolution remote sensed image. The identification is based on spectral bands transmitted by a satellite and on selected designations of the image patches.

  11. Global Map: Ports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing ferry ports in the United States and Puerto Rico. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of the United...

  12. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  13. Global Map: Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of the...

  14. Basement domain map of the conterminous United States and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Box, Stephen E.; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; San Juan, Carma A.; Blakely, Richard J.; Saltus, Richard W.; Anderson, Eric D.; DeWitt, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The basement-domain map is a compilation of basement domains in the conterminous United States and Alaska designed to be used at 1:5,000,000-scale, particularly as a base layer for national-scale mineral resource assessments. Seventy-seven basement domains are represented as eighty-three polygons on the map. The domains are based on interpretations of basement composition, origin, and architecture and developed from a variety of sources. Analysis of previously published basement, lithotectonic, and terrane maps as well as models of planetary development were used to formulate the concept of basement and the methodology of defining domains that spanned the ages of Archean to present but formed through different processes. The preliminary compilations for the study areas utilized these maps, national-scale gravity and aeromagnetic data, published and limited new age and isotopic data, limited new field investigations, and conventional geologic maps. Citation of the relevant source data for compilations and the source and types of original interpretation, as derived from different types of data, are provided in supporting descriptive text and tables.

  15. Creating a national scale floodplain map for the United States using soil information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, V.; Du, L.; Sangwan, N.

    2015-12-01

    Floods are the most damaging of all natural disasters, adversely affecting millions of lives and causing financial losses worth billions of dollars every year across the globe. Flood inundation maps play a key role in the assessment and mitigation of potential flood hazards. However, there are several communities in the United States where flood risk maps are not available due to the lack of the resources needed to create such maps through the conventional modeling approach. The objective of this study is to develop and examine an economical alternative approach to floodplain mapping using widely available gSSURGO soil data in the United States. The gSSURGO dataset is used to create floodplain maps for the entire United States by using attributes related to soil taxonomy, flood frequency and geomorphic description. For validation, the flood extents obtained from the soil data are compared with existing maps, including the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) issued Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM), flood extents observed during past floods, and other flood maps derived using Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Preliminary results show that overlap between the SSURGO based floodplain maps and FEMA maps range from 65 to 90 percent. While these results are promising, a more comprehensive validation of these maps must be conducted. The soil based approach floodplain mapping approach offers an objective, economical and faster alternative in areas where detailed flood modeling and mapping has not been conducted.

  16. Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont - Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The bedrock geology was last mapped at a statewide scale 50 years ago at a scale of 1:250,000 (Doll and others, 1961). The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale...

  17. Geologic Map of Alaska: geologic units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a polygon coverage and associated attribute data derived from the 1980 Geologic Map of Alaska compiled by H.M. Beikman and published by the...

  18. Map service: United States Decadal Production History Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  19. Map service: United States Oil and Gas Production 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  20. Object-relational mapping model

    OpenAIRE

    Žukauskas, Arūnas

    2007-01-01

    This work is analyzing problems, arising because of sematical gap between relational and object-oriented approaches and discusses how to utilize object-relational mapping for solving this problem. After analysis of object-relational mapping framework (further – ORM) principles and features of existing ORM frameworks a model is suggested, that allows to implement ORM by utilizing MVP principles in a way that retains major portion of both approach pros and is perfect for transitioning existing ...

  1. Custom map projections for regional groundwater models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2017-01-01

    For regional groundwater flow models (areas greater than 100,000 km2), improper choice of map projection parameters can result in model error for boundary conditions dependent on area (recharge or evapotranspiration simulated by application of a rate using cell area from model discretization) and length (rivers simulated with head-dependent flux boundary). Smaller model areas can use local map coordinates, such as State Plane (United States) or Universal Transverse Mercator (correct zone) without introducing large errors. Map projections vary in order to preserve one or more of the following properties: area, shape, distance (length), or direction. Numerous map projections are developed for different purposes as all four properties cannot be preserved simultaneously. Preservation of area and length are most critical for groundwater models. The Albers equal-area conic projection with custom standard parallels, selected by dividing the length north to south by 6 and selecting standard parallels 1/6th above or below the southern and northern extent, preserves both area and length for continental areas in mid latitudes oriented east-west. Custom map projection parameters can also minimize area and length error in non-ideal projections. Additionally, one must also use consistent vertical and horizontal datums for all geographic data. The generalized polygon for the Floridan aquifer system study area (306,247.59 km2) is used to provide quantitative examples of the effect of map projections on length and area with different projections and parameter choices. Use of improper map projection is one model construction problem easily avoided.

  2. Improving the Magnetic Anomaly Map of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIndoo, M.; Shaw, A.; Batir, J.; Ravat, D.; Milligan, P.; Kucks, R. P.; Hill, P.; Hildenbrand, T. G.

    2007-05-01

    We have improved magnetic anomaly map of the United States using National Uranium Reconnaissance & Evaluations (NURE) aeromagnetic surveys collected during the 1970s. Previous versions of these data processed using IGRF/DGRF do not mesh well at the survey boundaries because of leveling artifacts. Similarly, the U.S. component of the North American magnetic anomaly map has long wavelength errors caused by warping of hundreds of state and local aeromagnetic surveys during the merging process. The main difference in our processing that has allowed us to retain proper base levels is the use of the temporally continuous main field Comprehensive Model (CM4) by Sabaka et al. (2004, GJI, 159, 521-547). The advantage of using the NURE surveys is that most of these surveys have time information and diurnal variation observed with basestation magnetometers is removed from them. Furthermore, we have cleaned the NURE data by removing many spurious values through visual inspection. Some NURE surveys did not have total field values or time information. For these surveys, we reintroduced the IGRF for their approximate date and removed the core field determined by CM4. We compare the results of our processing and improvements with the U.S. aeromagnetic anomaly data prepared by different merging techniques. The improved map is more suitable for regional geologic and geodynamic interpretations.

  3. Mapping Snow Cover Loss Patterns in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.; Kampf, S. K.; Richer, E.; Stone, B.

    2011-12-01

    Cara Moore, Stephanie Kampf, Eric Richer, Brandon Stone Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1499 The Western United States depends on snowmelt to provide water for industrial, municipal, and agricultural needs. Some areas in this region have observed an increase in the proportion of precipitation falling as rain rather than snow in response to climate warming, a trend that can alter the timing and magnitude of runoff. Transitional snow zones, which lie between lower elevation intermittent snowpack and higher elevation persistent snowpack, may be particularly sensitive to changing climate conditions. Snow covered area is an easily obtainable measurement that can help identify the locations and elevations of these transitional snow zones. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of snowpack characteristics in the Western U.S. by mapping snow cover loss patterns using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow covered area (SCA) product. Snow cover loss patterns can be difficult to compare objectively between regions because spring snow storms lead to abrupt increases and decreases in SCA. Therefore, we develop a curve-fitting snow cover depletion model (SCoDMod) used to derive standardized snow cover loss curves. We fit the model to snow cover patterns within 100m elevation zones from January 1st until July 19th for each USGS eight digit hydrologic unit in the Western US. We use the model to identify 11 year (2000-2010) average snow cover loss patterns and compare those patterns to snow cover loss behavior in wet and dry years. Model results give maps of average SCA in the Western United States on the first of the month from January to July, as well as maps of the date of SCA loss to 75% (Q75), 50% (Q50), and 25% (Q25) SCA. Results show that the Cascade, Sierra Nevada, and Rocky mountains from Colorado northward retain >90% SCA until March, whereas most parts of lower elevation

  4. Model Mapping Approach Based on Ontology Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkui Hou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The mapping relations between different models are the foundation for model transformation in model-driven software development. On the basis of ontology semantics, model mappings between different levels are classified by using structural semantics of modeling languages. The general definition process for mapping relations is explored, and the principles of structure mapping are proposed subsequently. The approach is further illustrated by the mapping relations from class model of object oriented modeling language to the C programming codes. The application research shows that the approach provides a theoretical guidance for the realization of model mapping, and thus can make an effective support to model-driven software development

  5. USGS Governmental Unit Boundaries Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Governmental Unit Boundaries service from The National Map (TNM) represents major civil areas for the Nation, including States or Territories, counties (or...

  6. Network Model Building (Process Mapping)

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, Gary; Yih, Yuehwern

    2004-01-01

    12 slides Provider Notes:See Project Planning Video (Windows Media) Posted at the bottom are Gary Blau's slides. Before watching, please note that "process mapping" and "modeling" are mentioned in the video and notes. Here they are meant to refer to the NSCORT "project plan"

  7. Map of assessed shale gas in the United States, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has compiled a map of shale-gas assessments in the United States that were completed by 2012 as part of the National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered gas within shale-gas assessment units. These shale-gas assessment units are mapped, and square-mile cells are shown to represent proprietary shale-gas wells. The square-mile cells include gas-producing wells from shale intervals. In some cases, shale-gas formations contain gas in deeper parts of a basin and oil at shallower depths (for example, the Woodford Shale and the Eagle Ford Shale). Because a discussion of shale oil is beyond the scope of this report, only shale-gas assessment units and cells are shown. The map can be printed as a hardcopy map or downloaded for interactive analysis in a Geographic Information System data package using the ArcGIS map document (file extension MXD) and published map file (file extension PMF). Also available is a publications access table with hyperlinks to current U.S. Geological Survey shale gas assessment publications and web pages. Assessment results and geologic reports are available as completed at the U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program Web Site, http://energy.usgs.gov/OilGas/AssessmentsData/NationalOilGasAssessment.aspx. A historical perspective of shale gas activity in the United States is documented and presented in a video clip included as a PowerPoint slideshow.

  8. Seismic-hazard maps for the conterminous United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Powers, Peter M.; Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Field, Edward H.; Chen, Rui; Luco, Nicolas; Wheeler, Russell L.; Williams, Robert A.; Olsen, Anna H.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    The maps presented here provide an update to the 2008 data contained in U.S Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3195 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3195/).Probabilistic seismic-hazard maps were prepared for the conterminous United States for 2014 portraying peak horizontal acceleration and horizontal spectral response acceleration for 0.2- and 1.0-second periods with probabilities of exceedance of 10 percent in 50 years and 2 percent in 50 years. All of the maps were prepared by combining the hazard derived from spatially smoothed historical seismicity with the hazard from fault-specific sources. The acceleration values contoured are the random horizontal component. The reference site condition is firm rock, defined as having an average shear-wave velocity of 760 m/s in the top 30 meters corresponding to the boundary between NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction program) site classes B and C.

  9. A proposal of Potentially Meaningful Teaching Unit using concept maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Rafaela Hilger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results from the implementation of a Potentially Meaningful Teaching Unit in four classes of third grade of secondary educational from a public school in the city of Bagé (Rio Grande do Sul. The proposed content deals with concepts related to Quantum Physics (quantization, uncertainty principle, state and superposition of states, presented in accordance with the sequence of eight steps of Potentially Meaningful Teaching Unit, seeking meaningful learning of these concepts. Are analyzed in this work mental maps and concept maps produced in pairs, as well as the comparison between them. Also presented are some comments from students about their development in the understanding of the concepts covered in the proposal. The proposal was a well received and, although the study is still in progress and part of a broader research, already provide evidence of significant learning, which is the goal of a Potentially Meaningful Teaching Unit.

  10. Landscape similarity, retrieval, and machine mapping of physiographic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiewicz, Jaroslaw; Netzel, Pawel; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    2014-09-01

    We introduce landscape similarity - a numerical measure that assesses affinity between two landscapes on the basis of similarity between the patterns of their constituent landform elements. Such a similarity function provides core technology for a landscape search engine - an algorithm that parses the topography of a study area and finds all places with landscapes broadly similar to a landscape template. A landscape search can yield answers to a query in real time, enabling a highly effective means to explore large topographic datasets. In turn, a landscape search facilitates auto-mapping of physiographic units within a study area. The country of Poland serves as a test bed for these novel concepts. The topography of Poland is given by a 30 m resolution DEM. The geomorphons method is applied to this DEM to classify the topography into ten common types of landform elements. A local landscape is represented by a square tile cut out of a map of landform elements. A histogram of cell-pair features is used to succinctly encode the composition and texture of a pattern within a local landscape. The affinity between two local landscapes is assessed using the Wave-Hedges similarity function applied to the two corresponding histograms. For a landscape search the study area is organized into a lattice of local landscapes. During the search the algorithm calculates the similarity between each local landscape and a given query. Our landscape search for Poland is implemented as a GeoWeb application called TerraEx-Pl and is available at http://sil.uc.edu/. Given a sample, or a number of samples, from a target physiographic unit the landscape search delineates this unit using the principles of supervised machine learning. Repeating this procedure for all units yields a complete physiographic map. The application of this methodology to topographic data of Poland results in the delineation of nine physiographic units. The resultant map bears a close resemblance to a conventional

  11. Using the Large Fire Simulator System to map wildland fire potential for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen Hollingsworth; James Menakis

    2010-01-01

    This project mapped wildland fire potential (WFP) for the conterminous United States by using the large fire simulation system developed for Fire Program Analysis (FPA) System. The large fire simulation system, referred to here as LFSim, consists of modules for weather generation, fire occurrence, fire suppression, and fire growth modeling. Weather was generated with...

  12. Digital Geologic Map of the American Camp Unit and vicinity, Washington (NPS, GRD, GRE, SAJH, SJIS digital map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the American Camp Unit and vicinity, Washington is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.2 layer (.LYR) files, two ancillary...

  13. Iterative build OMIT maps: Map improvement by iterative model-building and refinement without model bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, England; Terwilliger, Thomas; Terwilliger, T.C.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf Wilhelm; Afonine, P.V.; Moriarty, N.W.; Zwart, P.H.; Hung, L.-W.; Read, R.J.; Adams, P.D.

    2008-02-12

    A procedure for carrying out iterative model-building, density modification and refinement is presented in which the density in an OMIT region is essentially unbiased by an atomic model. Density from a set of overlapping OMIT regions can be combined to create a composite 'Iterative-Build' OMIT map that is everywhere unbiased by an atomic model but also everywhere benefiting from the model-based information present elsewhere in the unit cell. The procedure may have applications in the validation of specific features in atomic models as well as in overall model validation. The procedure is demonstrated with a molecular replacement structure and with an experimentally-phased structure, and a variation on the method is demonstrated by removing model bias from a structure from the Protein Data Bank.

  14. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Ports of the United States 201406 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing ferry ports in the United States and Puerto Rico. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of the United...

  15. Modeling and Analysis of Information Product Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heien, Christopher Harris

    2012-01-01

    Information Product Maps are visual diagrams used to represent the inputs, processing, and outputs of data within an Information Manufacturing System. A data unit, drawn as an edge, symbolizes a grouping of raw data as it travels through this system. Processes, drawn as vertices, transform each data unit input into various forms prior to delivery…

  16. Geoelectric hazard maps for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Jonas, Seth; Kelbert, Anna; Rigler, E. Joshua; Finn, Carol A.; Balch, Christopher C.; Rutledge, Robert; Waggel, Richard M.; Sabata, Andrew T.; Kozyra, Janet U.; Black, Carrie E.

    2016-09-01

    In support of a multiagency project for assessing induction hazards, we present maps of extreme-value geoelectric amplitudes over about half of the continental United States. These maps are constructed using a parameterization of induction: estimates of Earth surface impedance, obtained at discrete geographic sites from magnetotelluric survey data, are convolved with latitude-dependent statistical maps of extreme-value geomagnetic activity, obtained from decades of magnetic observatory data. Geoelectric amplitudes are estimated for geomagnetic waveforms having 240 s sinusoidal period and amplitudes over 10 min that exceed a once-per-century threshold. As a result of the combination of geographic differences in geomagnetic activity and Earth surface impedance, once-per-century geoelectric amplitudes span more than 2 orders of magnitude and are an intricate function of location. For north-south induction, once-per-century geoelectric amplitudes across large parts of the United States have a median value of 0.26 V/km; for east-west geomagnetic variation the median value is 0.23 V/km. At some locations, once-per-century geoelectric amplitudes exceed 3 V/km.

  17. Modeling Research Project Risks with Fuzzy Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodea, Constanta Nicoleta; Dascalu, Mariana Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a risks evaluation model for research projects. The model is based on fuzzy inference. The knowledge base for fuzzy process is built with a causal and cognitive map of risks. The map was especially developed for research projects, taken into account their typical lifecycle. The model was applied to an e-testing research…

  18. Optimization of mathematical models for thematic maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thematic map is a major class of maps designed to demonstrate particular features or concepts,functioning as an indispensable tool in geographical research.The process of thematic mapping is one into which geographical research goes deeply and broadly.The key activity and course of thematic map production is the use of mathematical models to create thematic data layers.Therefore,the selection and optimization of mathematical models is in the forefront of thematic map research.The theoretical foundations,mechanisms and methods of mathematical model optimization are expounded in this paper,including two approaches,the phase by phase mode and the multi-aim scheme balance mode.Case studies in eco-environment mapping and emergency mapping are described and analyzed,with a hierarchical analysis method being used in the model optimization for eco-environment fragility and sensitivity assessment mapping in Beibuwan (Guangxi) District,the dynamic system (DS) method being used in the model optimization for ecological security adjustment mapping in Xishuang Banna,Yunnan province,and the multi-phase mode being used in the models for forest fire and infectious diseases mapping.

  19. Three-dimensional mapping of equiprobable hydrostratigraphic units at the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, C.; Pohlmann, K.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-09-01

    Geological and geophysical data are used with the sequential indicator simulation algorithm of Gomez-Hernandez and Srivastava to produce multiple, equiprobable, three-dimensional maps of informal hydrostratigraphic units at the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit, Nevada Test Site. The upper 50 percent of the Tertiary volcanic lithostratigraphic column comprises the study volume. Semivariograms are modeled from indicator-transformed geophysical tool signals. Each equiprobable study volume is subdivided into discrete classes using the ISIM3D implementation of the sequential indicator simulation algorithm. Hydraulic conductivity is assigned within each class using the sequential Gaussian simulation method of Deutsch and Journel. The resulting maps show the contiguity of high and low hydraulic conductivity regions.

  20. Parabolic starlike mappings of the unit ball $B^n$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Rahrovi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Let $f$ be a locally univalent function on the unit disk $U$. We consider the normalized extensions of $f$ to the Euclidean unit ball $B^nsubseteqmathbb{C}^n$ given by$$Phi_{n,gamma}(f(z=left(f(z_1,(f'(z_1^gammahat{z}right,$$ where $gammain[0,1/2]$, $z=(z_1,hat{z}in B^n$ and$$Psi_{n,beta}(f(z=left(f(z_1,(frac{f(z_1}{z_1}^betahat{z}right,$$in which $betain[0,1]$, $f(z_1neq 0$ and $z=(z_1,hat{z}inB^n$. In the case $gamma=1/2$, the function $Phi_{n,gamma}(f$ reduces to the well known Roper-Suffridge extension operator. By using different methods, we prove that if $f$ is parabolic starlike mapping on $U$ then $Phi_{n,gamma}(f$ and $Psi_{n,beta}(f$ are parabolic starlike mappings on $B^n$.

  1. Mapping Initial Hydrostatic Models in Godunov Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Zingale, M A; Zu Hone, J; Calder, A C; Fryxell, B; Plewa, T; Truran, J W; Caceres, A; Olson, K; Ricker, P M; Riley, K; Rosner, R; Siegel, A; Timmes, F X; Vladimirova, N

    2002-01-01

    We look in detail at the process of mapping an astrophysical initial model from a stellar evolution code onto the computational grid of an explicit, Godunov type code while maintaining hydrostatic equilibrium. This mapping process is common in astrophysical simulations, when it is necessary to follow short-timescale dynamics after a period of long timescale buildup. We look at the effects of spatial resolution, boundary conditions, the treatment of the gravitational source terms in the hydrodynamics solver, and the initialization process itself. We conclude with a summary detailing the mapping process that yields the lowest ambient velocities in the mapped model.

  2. Mapping average GPP, RE, and NEP for 2000 to 2013 using satellite data integrated into regression-tree models in the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Integrating spatially explicit biogeophysical and remotely sensed data into regression-tree models enables the spatial extrapolation of training data over large...

  3. Landslide overview map of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch-Hall, Dorothy H.; Colton, Roger B.; Davies, William E.; Lucchitta, Ivo; Skipp, Betty A.; Varnes, David J.

    1982-01-01

    The accompanying landslide overview map of the conterminous United States is one of a series of National Environmental Overview Maps that summarize geologic, hydrogeologic, and topographic data essential to the assessment of national environmental problems. The map delineates areas where large numbers of landslides exist and areas which are susceptible to landsliding. It was prepared by evaluating the geologic map of the United States and classifying the geologic units according to high, medium, or low landslide incidence (number) and high, medium, or low susceptibility to landsliding. Rock types, structures, topography, precipitation, landslide type, and landslide incidence are mentioned for each physical subdivision of the United States. The differences in slope stability between the Colorado Plateau, the Appalachian Highlands, the Coast Ranges of California, and the Southern Rocky Mountains are compared in detail, to illustrate the influence of various natural factors on the types of landsliding that occur in regions having different physical conditions. These four mountainous regions are among the most landslide-prone areas in the United States. The Colorado Plateau is a deformed platform where interbedded sedimentary rocks of varied lithologic properties have been gently warped and deeply eroded. The rocks are extensively fractured. Regional fracture systems, joints associated with individual geologic structures, and joints parallel to topographic surfaces, such as cliff faces, greatly influence slope stability. Detached blocks at the edges of mesas, as well as columns, arched recesses, and many natural arches on the Colorado Plateau, were formed wholly or in part by mass movement. In the Appalachian Highlands, earth flows, debris flows, and debris avalanches predominate in weathered bedrock and colluvium. Damaging debris avalanches result when persistent steady rainfall is followed by a sudden heavy downpour. Landsliding in unweathered bedrock is controlled

  4. Documentation for the 2014 update of the United States national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Powers, Peter M.; Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Field, Ned; Chen, Rui; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Luco, Nico; Wheeler, Russell L.; Williams, Robert A.; Olsen, Anna H.

    2014-01-01

    The national seismic hazard maps for the conterminous United States have been updated to account for new methods, models, and data that have been obtained since the 2008 maps were released (Petersen and others, 2008). The input models are improved from those implemented in 2008 by using new ground motion models that have incorporated about twice as many earthquake strong ground shaking data and by incorporating many additional scientific studies that indicate broader ranges of earthquake source and ground motion models. These time-independent maps are shown for 2-percent and 10-percent probability of exceedance in 50 years for peak horizontal ground acceleration as well as 5-hertz and 1-hertz spectral accelerations with 5-percent damping on a uniform firm rock site condition (760 meters per second shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m, VS30). In this report, the 2014 updated maps are compared with the 2008 version of the maps and indicate changes of plus or minus 20 percent over wide areas, with larger changes locally, caused by the modifications to the seismic source and ground motion inputs.

  5. Geostatistical modeling of topography using auxiliary maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengl, T.; Bajat, B.; Blagojević, D.; Reuter, H.I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper recommends computational procedures for employing auxiliary maps, such as maps of drainage patterns, land cover and remote-sensing-based indices, directly in the geostatistical modeling of topography. The methodology is based on the regression-kriging technique, as implemented in the R pa

  6. Concept Mapping as an Instrument for Evaluating an Instruction Unit on Holography (Concept Maps als Evaluierungsinstrumente einer Unterrichtseinheit zur Holographie)

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, M E; Horn, Martin Erik; Mikelskis, Helmut F.

    2004-01-01

    Due to its amazing three-dimensional effects, holography is a very motivating, yet very demanding subject for physics classes at the upper level in school. For this reason an instruction unit on holography that supplement holographic experiments with computer-supported work sessions and a simulation program was developed. The effects of the lessons on holography were determined by a pre-post-test design. In addition to videotaping the lessons, knowledge and motivational tests as well as student interviews, students were asked to prepare concept maps, which were used to track processes of model construction. The way this knowledge was applied largely depends on the students' understanding of models. In particular it was shown that the participating students' demonstrated capacity for distinguishing between the different models of light is of great importance. Only students with a developed capacity for distinguishing between models are able to reason in an problem-oriented manner. They recognize the limits of ...

  7. Saline aquifer mapping project in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lester J.; Spechler, Rick M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study of saline aquifers in the southeastern United States to evaluate the potential use of brackish or saline water from the deeper portions of the Floridan aquifer system and the underlying Coastal Plain aquifer system (Fig. 1). The objective of this study is to improve the overall understanding of the available saline water resources for potential future development. Specific tasks are to (1) develop a digital georeferenced database of borehole geophysical data to enable analysis and characterization of saline aquifers (see locations in Fig. 1), (2) identify and map the regional extent of saline aquifer systems and describe the thickness and character of hydrologic units that compose these systems, and (3) delineate salinity variations at key well sites and along section lines to provide a regional depiction of the freshwater-saltwater interfaces. Electrical resistivity and induction logs, coupled with a variety of different porosity logs (sonic, density, and neutron), are the primary types of borehole geophysical logs being used to estimate the water quality in brackish and saline formations. The results from the geophysical log calculations are being compared to available water-quality data obtained from water wells and from drill-stem water samples collected in test wells. Overall, the saline aquifer mapping project is helping to improve the understanding of saline water resources in the area. These aquifers may be sources of large quantities of water that could be treated by using reverse osmosis or similar technologies, or they could be used for aquifer storage and recovery systems.

  8. Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Political Areas of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the counties and equivalent entities of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. States and the...

  9. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  10. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Airports of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of the...

  11. A mitotically inheritable unit containing a MAP kinase module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicka, Sébastien; Bonnet, Crystel; Sobering, Andrew K; Ganesan, Latha P; Silar, Philippe

    2006-09-05

    Prions are novel kinds of hereditary units, relying solely on proteins, that are infectious and inherited in a non-Mendelian fashion. To date, they are either based on autocatalytic modification of a 3D conformation or on autocatalytic cleavage. Here, we provide further evidence that in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, a MAP kinase cascade is probably able to self-activate and generate C, a hereditary unit that bears many similarities to prions and triggers cell degeneration. We show that in addition to the MAPKKK gene, both the MAPKK and MAPK genes are necessary for the propagation of C, and that overexpression of MAPK as that of MAPKKK facilitates the appearance of C. We also show that a correlation exists between the presence of C and localization of the MAPK inside nuclei. These data emphasize the resemblance between prions and a self-positively regulated cascade in terms of their transmission. This thus further expands the concept of protein-base inheritance to regulatory networks that have the ability to self-activate.

  12. Quality Evaluation Model for Map Labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong; ZHANG Zuxun; DU Daosheng

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses and sums up the basic criterions of guaranteeing the labeling quality and abstracts the four basic factors including the conflict for a label with a label, overlay for label with the features, position's priority and the association for a label with its feature. By establishing the scoring system, a formalized four-factors quality evaluation model is constructed. Last, this paper introduces the experimental result of the quality evaluation model applied to the automatic map labeling system-MapLabel.

  13. Enhanced surrogate models for statistical design exploiting space mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Mohamed, Achmed S.;

    2005-01-01

    We present advances in microwave and RF device modeling exploiting Space Mapping (SM) technology. We propose new SM modeling formulations utilizing input mappings, output mappings, frequency scaling and quadratic approximations. Our aim is to enhance circuit models for statistical analysis...

  14. Externalising Students' Mental Models through Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Nu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use concept maps as an "expressed model" to investigate students' mental models regarding the homeostasis of blood sugar. The difficulties in learning the concept of homeostasis and in probing mental models have been revealed in many studies. Homeostasis of blood sugar is one of the themes in junior high school…

  15. The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S.; French, R.; Nall, M.; Muery, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) is managing the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling tools and data products that support lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test, and operations associated with crewed and/or robotic operations on the lunar surface. In addition, LMMP should prove to be a convenient and useful tool for scientific analysis and for education and public outreach (E/PO) activities. LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Lunar Prospector, Clementine, Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, and Chandrayaan-1) as available and appropriate. LMMP will provide such products as image mosaics, DEMs, hazard assessment maps, temperature maps, lighting maps and models, gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and ensure the highest quality data products. A beta version of the LMMP software was released for limited distribution in December 2009, with the public release of version 1 expected in the Fall of 2010.

  16. Flow field mapping in data rack model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěcha J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to map the flow field inside the data rack model, fitted with three 1U server models. The server model is based on the common four-processor 1U server. The main dimensions of the data rack model geometry are taken fully from the real geometry. Only the model was simplified with respect to the greatest possibility in the experimental measurements. The flow field mapping was carried out both experimentally and numerically. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry method was used for the experimental flow field mapping, when the flow field has been mapped for defined regions within the 2D/3D data rack model. Ansys CFX and OpenFOAM software were used for the numerical solution. Boundary conditions for numerical model were based on data obtained from experimental measurement of velocity profile at the output of the server mockup. This velocity profile was used as the input boundary condition in the calculation. In order to achieve greater consistency of the numerical model with experimental data, the numerical model was modified with regard to the results of experimental measurements. Results from the experimental and numerical measurements were compared and the areas of disparateness were identified. In further steps the obtained proven numerical model will be utilized for the real geometry of data racks and data.

  17. THE FOURIER SERIES MODEL IN MAP ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past several years the double Fourier Series has been applied to the analysis of contour-type maps as an alternative to the more commonly...used polynomial model. The double Fourier Series has high potential in the study of areal variations, inasmuch as a succession of trend maps based on...and it is shown that the double Fourier Series can be used to summarize the directional properties of areally-distributed data. An Appendix lists

  18. Map of Arsenic concentrations in groundwater of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map graphic image at http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/arsenic_map.png illustrates arsenic values, in micrograms per liter, for groundwater samples from about...

  19. A novel fluence map optimization model incorporating leaf sequencing constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Renchao; Min, Zhifang; Song, Enmin; Liu, Hong; Ye, Yinyu

    2010-02-21

    A novel fluence map optimization model incorporating leaf sequencing constraints is proposed to overcome the drawbacks of the current objective inside smoothing models. Instead of adding a smoothing item to the objective function, we add the total number of monitor unit (TNMU) requirement directly to the constraints which serves as an important factor to balance the fluence map optimization and leaf sequencing optimization process at the same time. Consequently, we formulate the fluence map optimization models for the trailing (left) leaf synchronized, leading (right) leaf synchronized and the interleaf motion constrained non-synchronized leaf sweeping schemes, respectively. In those schemes, the leaves are all swept unidirectionally from left to right. Each of those models is turned into a linear constrained quadratic programming model which can be solved effectively by the interior point method. Those new models are evaluated with two publicly available clinical treatment datasets including a head-neck case and a prostate case. As shown by the empirical results, our models perform much better in comparison with two recently emerged smoothing models (the total variance smoothing model and the quadratic smoothing model). For all three leaf sweeping schemes, our objective dose deviation functions increase much slower than those in the above two smoothing models with respect to the decreasing of the TNMU. While keeping plans in the similar conformity level, our new models gain much better performance on reducing TNMU.

  20. Mineral potential mapping with mathematical geological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porwal, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical geological models are being increasingly used by natural resources delineation and planning agencies for mapping areas of mineral potential in order to optimize land use in accordance with socio-economic needs of the society. However, a key problem in spatial-mathematical-model-based mi

  1. Problems in indoor mapping and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.; Sithole, G.; Nakagawa, M.; Zhu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Research in support of indoor mapping and modelling (IMM) has been active for over thirty years. This research has come in the form of As-Built surveys, Data structuring, Visualisation techniques, Navigation models and so forth. Much of this research is founded on advancements in photogrammetry, com

  2. Mineral potential mapping with mathematical geological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porwal, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical geological models are being increasingly used by natural resources delineation and planning agencies for mapping areas of mineral potential in order to optimize land use in accordance with socio-economic needs of the society. However, a key problem in spatial-mathematical-model-based

  3. Data Model to CSS Mappings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Benjamin R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Montoya, Mark Sinclair [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vickers, James Wallace [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandoval, Rudy Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This initial draft document contains formative data model content for select areas of Re-Engineering Phase 2 IDC System. The purpose of this document is to facilitate discussion among the stakeholders. It is not intended as a definitive proposal.

  4. The National Map seamless digital elevation model specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Constance, Eric W.; Arundel, Samantha T.; Lowe, Amanda J.; Mantey, Kimberly S.; Phillips, Lori A.

    2017-08-02

    This specification documents the requirements and standards used to produce the seamless elevation layers for The National Map of the United States. Seamless elevation data are available for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Alaska, and the U.S. territories, in three different resolutions—1/3-arc-second, 1-arc-second, and 2-arc-second. These specifications include requirements and standards information about source data requirements, spatial reference system, distribution tiling schemes, horizontal resolution, vertical accuracy, digital elevation model surface treatment, georeferencing, data source and tile dates, distribution and supporting file formats, void areas, metadata, spatial metadata, and quality assurance and control.

  5. Reflections on the Value of Mapping the Final Theory Examination in a Molecular Biochemistry Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Rajaraman Eri; Anthony Cook; Natalie Brown

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of examination mapping as a tool to enhancing assessment and teaching quality in a second-year biochemistry unit for undergraduates. Examination mapping is a process where all questions in a written examination paper are assessed for links to the unit’s intended learning outcomes. We describe how mapping a final written examination helped visualise the impact of the assessment task on intended learning outcomes and skills for that biochemistry unit. The method...

  6. From Google Maps to Google Models (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. V.

    2010-12-01

    Why hasn’t integrated modelling taken off? To its advocates, it is self-evidently the best and arguably the only tool available for understanding and predicting the likely response of the environment to events and policies. Legislation requires managers to ensure that their plans are sustainable. How, other than by modelling the interacting processes involved, can the option with the greatest benefits be identified? Integrated modelling (IM) is seen to have huge potential. In science, IM is used to extend and encapsulate our understanding of the whole earth system. Such models are beginning to be incorporated in operational decision support systems and used to seek sustainable solutions to society’s problems, but only on a limited scale. Commercial take up is negligible yet the opportunities would appear limitless. The need is there; the potential is there, so what is inhibiting IM’s take up? What must be done to reap the rewards of the R & D to date? To answer the question, it useful to look back at the developments which have seen paper maps evolve into Google Maps and the systems that now surround it; facilities available not just to experts and governments but to anyone with a an iphone and an internet connection. The initial objective was to automate the process of drawing lines on paper, though it was quickly realised that digitising maps was the key to unlocking the information they held. However, it took thousands of PhD and MSc projects before a computer could generate a map comparable to that produced by a cartographer and many more before it was possible to extract reliable useful information from maps. It also required advances in IT and a change of mindset from one focused on paper map production to one focused on information delivery. To move from digital maps to Google Maps required the availability of data on a world scale, the resources to bring them together, the development of remote sensing, satellite navigation and communications

  7. Singular SRB Measures for a Non 1-1 Map of the Unit Square

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góra, Paweł; Boyarsky, Abraham; Li, Zhenyang

    2016-09-01

    We consider a map of the unit square which is not 1-1, such as the memory map studied in Góra (Statistical and deterministic dynamics of maps with memory, http://arxiv.org/abs/1604.06991). Memory maps are defined as follows: x_{n+1}=M_{α }(x_{n-1},xn)=τ (α \\cdot xn+(1-α )\\cdot x_{n-1}), where τ is a one-dimensional map on I=[0,1] and 0http://arxiv.org/abs/1604.06991). In this paper we prove that for α in (3/4,1) the map G_α admits a singular Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen measure. We do this by applying Rychlik's results for the Lozi map. However, unlike the Lozi map, the maps G_α are not invertible which creates complications that we are able to overcome.

  8. Concept maps and canonical models in neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Sanguino, A; del Rosario, R C H; Mendoza, E R

    2009-05-01

    Most bioscientists engage in informal modelling in their research and explicitly document this activity's results in diagrams or "concept maps". While canonical modelling approaches such as Biochemical Systems Theory (BST) immediately allow the construction of a corresponding system of equations, the problem of determining appropriate parameter values remains. Goel et al. introduced Concept Map Modelling (CMM) as a framework to address this problem through an interactive dialogue between experimenters and modellers. The CMM dialogue extracts the experimenters' implicit knowledge about dynamical behaviour of the parts of the system being modelled in form of rough sketches and verbal statements, e.g. value ranges. These are then used as inputs for parameter and initial value estimates for the symbolic canonical model based on the diagram. Canonical models have the big advantage that a great variety of parameter estimation methods have been developed for them in recent years. The paper discusses the suitability of this approach for neuropsychiatry using recent work of Qi et al. on a canonical model of presynaptic dopamine metabolism. Due to the complexity of systems encountered in neuropsychiatry, hybrid models are often used to complement the canonical models discussed here.

  9. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Ports of the United States 201406 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing ferry ports in the United States and Puerto Rico. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of the United...

  10. Modeling geologic history with balanced paleogeographic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, C.A.; Hay, W.W.

    1987-05-01

    Using the principles of uniformitarianism, mass balance, and sedimentary cycling, an erosion-sedimentation-tectonic model has been developed to produce paleogeographic maps to describe the geologic history of the northwest Gulf of Mexico and the Western Interior source areas. The initial inputs are (1) boundaries of the sedimentary system (source and sink); (2) present-day average elevation of 1/sup 0/ squares within the boundaries; and (3) a stratigraphic column for each 1/sup 0/ square. Paleotopography is calculated by an iterative process involving replacement of sediment to the source area and calculation of erosion and uplift rates. The maps are considered properly balanced when erosion of the predicted paleotopography over a given time interval yields the correct sediment volumes in the right places. As far back as the latest Cretaceous, the paleogeography predicted by the model is remarkably close to that suggested by other studies even though no external information on tectonics is supplied. For paleogeographies older than Campanian, input on tectonics outside the boundaries is required to generate realistic maps. The balanced paleogeographic maps are a new tool useful for exploring many aspects of basin development, including thermal history.

  11. Appendix B: Description of Map Units for Northeast Asia Summary Geodynamics Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan

    2009-01-01

    The major purposes of this chapter are to provide (1) an overview of the regional geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of Northeast Asia for readers who are unfamiliar with the region, (2) a general scientific introduction to the succeeding chapters of this volume, and (3) an overview of the methodology of metallogenic and tectonic analysis used in this study. We also describe how a high-quality metallogenic and tectonic analysis, including construction of an associated metallogenic-tectonic model will greatly benefit other mineral resource studies, including synthesis of mineral-deposit models; improve prediction of undiscovered mineral deposit as part of a quantitative mineral-resource-assessment studies; assist land-use and mineral-exploration planning; improve interpretations of the origins of host rocks, mineral deposits, and metallogenic belts, and suggest new research. Research on the metallogenesis and tectonics of such major regions as Northeast Asia (eastern Russia, Mongolia, northern China, South Korea, and Japan) and the Circum-North Pacific (the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera) requires a complex methodology including (1) definitions of key terms, (2) compilation of a regional geologic base map that can be interpreted according to modern tectonic concepts and definitions, (3) compilation of a mineral-deposit database that enables a determination of mineral-deposit models and clarification of the relations of deposits to host rocks and tectonic origins, (4) synthesis of a series of mineral-deposit models that characterize the known mineral deposits and inferred undiscovered deposits in the region, (5) compilation of a series of metallogenic-belt belts constructed on the regional geologic base map, and (6) construction of a unified metallogenic and tectonic model. The summary of regional geology and metallogenesis presented here is based on publications of the major international collaborative studies of the metallogenesis and

  12. Knowledge Map: Mathematical Model and Dynamic Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Zhuge; Xiang-Feng Luo

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge representation and reasoning is a key issue of the Knowledge Grid. This paper proposes a Knowledge Map (KM) model for representing and reasoning causal knowledge as an overlay in the Knowledge Grid. It extends Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to represent and reason not only simple cause-effect relations, but also time-delay causal relations, conditional probabilistic causal relations and sequential relations. The mathematical model and dynamic behaviors of KM are presented. Experiments show that, under certain conditions, the dynamic behaviors of KM can translate between different states. Knowing this condition, experts can control or modify the constructed KM while its dynamic behaviors do not accord with their expectation. Simulations and applications show that KM is more powerful and natural than FCM in emulating real world.

  13. Map of assessed coalbed-gas resources in the United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a digital map of coalbed-gas resource assessments in the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas resources within coalbed-gas assessment units (AUs). This is the third digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, including an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and published map file (.pmf). In addition, the publication access table contains hyperlinks to current USGS coalbed-gas assessment publications and web pages.

  14. Spatial disaggregation of complex soil map units at regional scale based on soil-landscape relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Sébastien; Lemercier, Blandine; Berthier, Lionel; Walter, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Accurate soil information over large extent is essential to manage agronomical and environmental issues. Where it exists, information on soil is often sparse or available at coarser resolution than required. Typically, the spatial distribution of soil at regional scale is represented as a set of polygons defining soil map units (SMU), each one describing several soil types not spatially delineated, and a semantic database describing these objects. Delineation of soil types within SMU, ie spatial disaggregation of SMU allows improved soil information's accuracy using legacy data. The aim of this study was to predict soil types by spatial disaggregation of SMU through a decision tree approach, considering expert knowledge on soil-landscape relationships embedded in soil databases. The DSMART (Disaggregation and Harmonization of Soil Map Units Through resampled Classification Trees) algorithm developed by Odgers et al. (2014) was used. It requires soil information, environmental covariates, and calibration samples, to build then extrapolate decision trees. To assign a soil type to a particular spatial position, a weighed random allocation approach is applied: each soil type in the SMU is weighted according to its assumed proportion of occurrence in the SMU. Thus soil-landscape relationships are not considered in the current version of DSMART. Expert rules on soil distribution considering the relief, parent material and wetlands location were proposed to drive the procedure of allocation of soil type to sampled positions, in order to integrate the soil-landscape relationships. Semantic information about spatial organization of soil types within SMU and exhaustive landscape descriptors were used. In the eastern part of Brittany (NW France), 171 soil types were described; their relative area in the SMU were estimated, geomorphological and geological contexts were recorded. The model predicted 144 soil types. An external validation was performed by comparing predicted

  15. GIS-based Conceptual Database Model for Planetary Geoscientific Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Nass, Andrea; Neukum, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    concerning, e.g., map products (product and cartograpic representation), sensor-data products, stratigraphy definitions for each planet (facies, formation, ...), and mapping units. Domains and subtypes as well as a set of two dozens relationships define their interaction and allow a high level of constraints that aid to limit errors by domain- and topologic boundary conditions without limiting the abilitiy of the mapper to perform his/her task. The geodatabase model is part of a data model currently under development and design in the context of providing tools and definitions for mapping, cartographic representations and data exploitation. The database model as an integral part is designed for portability with respect to geoscientific mapping tasks in general and can be applied to every GIS project dealing with terrestrial planetary objects. It will be accompanied by definitions and representations on the cartographic level as well as tools and utilities for providing easy accessible workflows focussing on query, organization, maintainance, integration of planetary data and meta information. The data model's layout is modularized with individual components dealing with symbol representations (geology and geomorphology), metadata accessibility and modification, definition of stratigraphic entitites and their relationships as well as attribute domains, extensions for planetary mapping and analysis tasks as well as integration of data information on the level of vector representations for easy accessible querying, data processing in connection with ISIS/GDAL and data integration.

  16. Singular SRB Measures for a Non 1-1 Map of the Unit Square

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góra, Paweł; Boyarsky, Abraham; Li, Zhenyang

    2016-10-01

    We consider a map of the unit square which is not 1-1, such as the memory map studied in Góra (Statistical and deterministic dynamics of maps with memory, http://arxiv.org/abs/1604.06991). Memory maps are defined as follows: x_{n+1}=M_{α }(x_{n-1},xn)=τ (α \\cdot xn+(1-α )\\cdot x_{n-1}), where τ is a one-dimensional map on I=[0,1] and 0tent map. To study the dynamics of M_α , we consider the two-dimensional map G_{α }:[x_{n-1},xn]mapsto [xn,τ (α \\cdot xn+(1-α )\\cdot x_{n-1})]. The map G_α for α in (0,3/4] was studied in Góra (Statistical and deterministic dynamics of maps with memory, http://arxiv.org/abs/1604.06991). In this paper we prove that for α in (3/4,1) the map G_α admits a singular Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen measure. We do this by applying Rychlik's results for the Lozi map. However, unlike the Lozi map, the maps G_α are not invertible which creates complications that we are able to overcome.

  17. Mapping of Phytoecological Units of the ’Cerrados’ of the Central Plateaus of Brazil,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mapping of phytoecological units in the Region of Cerrado , of Brazil, has the purpose of giving a global view of the result obtained through the...mapping of a big extension of the country’s vegetation cover, where predominates the ’ cerrado ’. The phytoecological units represent the close links...which, besides several ’ cerrado ’ physiognomies, some forests were found. On the north of the area it occurs the contact between the dominium of the

  18. Global Map: Cities and Towns of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing cities and towns in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of...

  19. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Cities and Towns of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing cities and towns in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of...

  20. Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Major Roads of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of...

  1. Mapping Atmospheric Moisture Climatologies across the Conterminous United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Daly

    Full Text Available Spatial climate datasets of 1981-2010 long-term mean monthly average dew point and minimum and maximum vapor pressure deficit were developed for the conterminous United States at 30-arcsec (~800m resolution. Interpolation of long-term averages (twelve monthly values per variable was performed using PRISM (Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model. Surface stations available for analysis numbered only 4,000 for dew point and 3,500 for vapor pressure deficit, compared to 16,000 for previously-developed grids of 1981-2010 long-term mean monthly minimum and maximum temperature. Therefore, a form of Climatologically-Aided Interpolation (CAI was used, in which the 1981-2010 temperature grids were used as predictor grids. For each grid cell, PRISM calculated a local regression function between the interpolated climate variable and the predictor grid. Nearby stations entering the regression were assigned weights based on the physiographic similarity of the station to the grid cell that included the effects of distance, elevation, coastal proximity, vertical atmospheric layer, and topographic position. Interpolation uncertainties were estimated using cross-validation exercises. Given that CAI interpolation was used, a new method was developed to allow uncertainties in predictor grids to be accounted for in estimating the total interpolation error. Local land use/land cover properties had noticeable effects on the spatial patterns of atmospheric moisture content and deficit. An example of this was relatively high dew points and low vapor pressure deficits at stations located in or near irrigated fields. The new grids, in combination with existing temperature grids, enable the user to derive a full suite of atmospheric moisture variables, such as minimum and maximum relative humidity, vapor pressure, and dew point depression, with accompanying assumptions. All of these grids are available online at http://prism.oregonstate.edu, and

  2. Multimedia Mapping using Continuous State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a system that transforms speech waveforms to animated faces are proposed. The system relies on continuous state space models to perform the mapping, this makes it possible to ensure video with no sudden jumps and allows continuous control of the parameters in 'face space'. Simulations...... are performed on recordings of 3-5 sec. video sequences with sentences from the Timit database. The model is able to construct an image sequence from an unknown noisy speech sequence fairly well even though the number of training examples are limited....

  3. An Economic Model of Coupled Exponential Maps

    CERN Document Server

    López-Ruiz, R; Cosenza, M G; Sánchez, J R

    2007-01-01

    In this work, an ensemble of economic interacting agents is considered. The agents are arranged in a linear array where only local couplings are allowed. The deterministic dynamics of each agent is given by a map. This map is expressed by two factors. The first one is a linear term that models the expansion of the agent's economy and that is controlled by the {\\it growth capacity parameter}. The second one is an inhibition exponential term that is regulated by the {\\it local environmental pressure}. Depending on the parameter setting, the system can display Pareto or Boltzmann-Gibbs behavior in the asymptotic dynamical regime. The regions of parameter space where the system exhibits one of these two statistical behaviors are delimited. Other properties of the system, such as the mean wealth, the standard deviation and the Gini coefficient, are also calculated.

  4. Design of Conceptual Model in Digital Map Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The components of map information are analyzed theoretically in this paper,and the map information includes mainly the spatial information,attributive information and temporal characteristics information.Then the digital map entity is defined according to construction characteristics of the map information.Finally,on the basis of the analyses of the construction characteristics of digital map entity and present conceptual model of digital map database,an Abstracted conceptual model of digital map database is presented.And the Normal Form theory of relational database is discussed particularly.

  5. Documentation for the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Wheeler, Russell L.; Wesson, Robert L.; Zeng, Yuehua; Boyd, Oliver S.; Perkins, David M.; Luco, Nicolas; Field, Edward H.; Wills, Chris J.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Maps display earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across the United States and are applied in seismic provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessments, and other public policy. This update of the maps incorporates new findings on earthquake ground shaking, faults, seismicity, and geodesy. The resulting maps are derived from seismic hazard curves calculated on a grid of sites across the United States that describe the frequency of exceeding a set of ground motions. The USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project developed these maps by incorporating information on potential earthquakes and associated ground shaking obtained from interaction in science and engineering workshops involving hundreds of participants, review by several science organizations and State surveys, and advice from two expert panels. The National Seismic Hazard Maps represent our assessment of the 'best available science' in earthquake hazards estimation for the United States (maps of Alaska and Hawaii as well as further information on hazard across the United States are available on our Web site at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/).

  6. Map of assessed continuous (unconventional) oil resources in the United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts quantitative assessments of potential oil and gas resources of the onshore United States and associated coastal State waters. Since 2000, the USGS has completed assessments of continuous (unconventional) resources in the United States based on geologic studies and analysis of well-production data and has compiled digital maps of the assessment units classified into four categories: shale gas, tight gas, coalbed gas, and shale oil or tight oil (continuous oil). This is the fourth digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps; its focus being shale-oil or tight-oil (continuous-oil) assessments. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, which includes an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and a published map file (.pmf). Supporting geologic studies of total petroleum systems and assessment units, as well as studies of the methodology used in the assessment of continuous-oil resources in the United States, are listed with hyperlinks in table 1. Assessment results and geologic reports are available at the USGS websitehttp://energy.usgs.gov/OilGas/AssessmentsData/NationalOilGasAssessment.aspx.

  7. The isometric extension of “into” mappings on unit spheres of AL-spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we show that if V0 is an isometric mapping from the unit sphere of an AL-space onto the unit sphere of a Banach space E, then V0 can be extended to a linear isometry defined on the whole space.

  8. Crater-based dating of geological units on Mars: methods and application for the new global geological map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Fortezzo, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    The new, post-Viking generation of Mars orbital imaging and topographical data provide significant higher-resolution details of surface morphologies, which induced a new effort to photo-geologically map the surface of Mars at 1:20,000,000 scale. Although from unit superposition relations a relative stratigraphical framework can be compiled, it was the ambition of this mapping project to provide absolute unit age constraints through crater statistics. In this study, the crater counting method is described in detail, starting with the selection of image data, type locations (both from the mapper’s and crater counter’s perspectives) and the identification of impact craters. We describe the criteria used to validate and analyse measured crater populations, and to derive and interpret crater model ages. We provide examples of how geological information about the unit’s resurfacing history can be retrieved from crater size–frequency distributions. Three cases illustrate short-, intermediate, and long-term resurfacing histories. In addition, we introduce an interpretation-independent visualisation of the crater resurfacing history that uses the reduction of the crater population in a given size range relative to the expected population given the observed crater density at larger sizes. From a set of potential type locations, 48 areas from 22 globally mapped units were deemed suitable for crater counting. Because resurfacing ages were derived from crater statistics, these secondary ages were used to define the unit age rather than the base age. Using the methods described herein, we modelled ages that are consistent with the interpreted stratigraphy. Our derived model ages allow age assignments to be included in unit names. We discuss the limitations of using the crater dating technique for global-scale geological mapping. Finally, we present recommendations for the documentation and presentation of crater statistics in publications.

  9. Combined landslide inventory and susceptibility assessment based on different mapping units: an example from the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Den Eeckhaut

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For a 277 km2 study area in the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium, a landslide inventory and two landslide susceptibility zonations were combined to obtain an optimal landslide susceptibility assessment, in five classes. For the experiment, a regional landslide inventory, a 10 m × 10 m digital representation of topography, and lithological and soil hydrological information obtained from 1:50 000 scale maps, were exploited. In the study area, the regional inventory shows 192 landslides of the slide type, including 158 slope failures occurred before 1992 (model calibration set, and 34 failures occurred after 1992 (model validation set. The study area was partitioned in 2.78×106 grid cells and in 1927 topographic units. The latter are hydro-morphological units obtained by subdividing slope units based on terrain gradient. Independent models were prepared for the two terrain subdivisions using discriminant analysis. For grid cells, a single pixel was identified as representative of the landslide depletion area, and geo-environmental information for the pixel was obtained from the thematic maps. The landslide and geo-environmental information was used to model the propensity of the terrain to host landslide source areas. For topographic units, morphologic and hydrologic information and the proportion of lithologic and soil hydrological types in each unit, were used to evaluate landslide susceptibility, including the depletion and depositional areas. Uncertainty associated with the two susceptibility models was evaluated, and the model performance was tested using the independent landslide validation set. An heuristic procedure was adopted to combine the landslide inventory and the susceptibility zonations. The procedure makes optimal use of the available landslide and susceptibility information, minimizing the limitations inherent in the inventory and the susceptibility maps. For the established susceptibility classes, regulations to

  10. Improved predictive mapping of indoor radon concentrations using ensemble regression trees based on automatic clustering of geological units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropat, Georg; Bochud, Francois; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Murith, Christophe; Palacios Gruson, Martha; Baechler, Sébastien

    2015-09-01

    According to estimations around 230 people die as a result of radon exposure in Switzerland. This public health concern makes reliable indoor radon prediction and mapping methods necessary in order to improve risk communication to the public. The aim of this study was to develop an automated method to classify lithological units according to their radon characteristics and to develop mapping and predictive tools in order to improve local radon prediction. About 240 000 indoor radon concentration (IRC) measurements in about 150 000 buildings were available for our analysis. The automated classification of lithological units was based on k-medoids clustering via pair-wise Kolmogorov distances between IRC distributions of lithological units. For IRC mapping and prediction we used random forests and Bayesian additive regression trees (BART). The automated classification groups lithological units well in terms of their IRC characteristics. Especially the IRC differences in metamorphic rocks like gneiss are well revealed by this method. The maps produced by random forests soundly represent the regional difference of IRCs in Switzerland and improve the spatial detail compared to existing approaches. We could explain 33% of the variations in IRC data with random forests. Additionally, the influence of a variable evaluated by random forests shows that building characteristics are less important predictors for IRCs than spatial/geological influences. BART could explain 29% of IRC variability and produced maps that indicate the prediction uncertainty. Ensemble regression trees are a powerful tool to model and understand the multidimensional influences on IRCs. Automatic clustering of lithological units complements this method by facilitating the interpretation of radon properties of rock types. This study provides an important element for radon risk communication. Future approaches should consider taking into account further variables like soil gas radon measurements as

  11. Electrostatic potential map modelling with COSY Infinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, J.A., E-mail: maloneyja@triumf.ca; Baartman, R.; Planche, T.; Saminathan, S.

    2016-06-01

    COSY Infinity (Makino and Berz, 2005) is a differential-algebra based simulation code which allows accurate calculation of transfer maps to arbitrary order. COSY’s existing internal procedures were modified to allow electrostatic elements to be specified using an array of field potential data from the midplane. Additionally, a new procedure was created allowing electrostatic elements and their fringe fields to be specified by an analytic function. This allows greater flexibility in accurately modelling electrostatic elements and their fringe fields. Applied examples of these new procedures are presented including the modelling of a shunted electrostatic multipole designed with OPERA, a spherical electrostatic bender, and the effects of different shaped apertures in an electrostatic beam line.

  12. Electrostatic potential map modelling with COSY Infinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J. A.; Baartman, R.; Planche, T.; Saminathan, S.

    2016-06-01

    COSY Infinity (Makino and Berz, 2005) is a differential-algebra based simulation code which allows accurate calculation of transfer maps to arbitrary order. COSY's existing internal procedures were modified to allow electrostatic elements to be specified using an array of field potential data from the midplane. Additionally, a new procedure was created allowing electrostatic elements and their fringe fields to be specified by an analytic function. This allows greater flexibility in accurately modelling electrostatic elements and their fringe fields. Applied examples of these new procedures are presented including the modelling of a shunted electrostatic multipole designed with OPERA, a spherical electrostatic bender, and the effects of different shaped apertures in an electrostatic beam line.

  13. Suppressing escape events in maps of the unit interval with demographic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Rojas, César; Challenger, Joseph D.; Fanelli, Duccio; McKane, Alan J.

    2016-11-01

    We explore the properties of discrete-time stochastic processes with a bounded state space, whose deterministic limit is given by a map of the unit interval. We find that, in the mesoscopic description of the system, the large jumps between successive iterates of the process can result in probability leaking out of the unit interval, despite the fact that the noise is multiplicative and vanishes at the boundaries. By including higher-order terms in the mesoscopic expansion, we are able to capture the non-Gaussian nature of the noise distribution near the boundaries, but this does not preclude the possibility of a trajectory leaving the interval. We propose a number of prescriptions for treating these escape events, and we compare the results with those obtained for the metastable behavior of the microscopic model, where escape events are not possible. We find that, rather than truncating the noise distribution, censoring this distribution to prevent escape events leads to results which are more consistent with the microscopic model. The addition of higher moments to the noise distribution does not increase the accuracy of the final results, and it can be replaced by the simpler Gaussian noise.

  14. Mapping past, present, and future climatic suitability for invasive Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the United States: a process-based modeling approach using CMIP5 downscaled climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, M. A. P.; Marcantonio, M.; Melton, F. S.; Barker, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    The ongoing spread of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, in the continental United States leaves new areas at risk for local transmission of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. All three viruses have caused major disease outbreaks in the Americas with infected travelers returning regularly to the U.S. The expanding range of these mosquitoes raises questions about whether recent spread has been enabled by climate change or other anthropogenic influences. In this analysis, we used downscaled climate scenarios from the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX GDDP) dataset to model Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus population growth rates across the United States. We used a stage-structured matrix population model to understand past and present climatic suitability for these vectors, and to project future suitability under CMIP5 climate change scenarios. Our results indicate that much of the southern U.S. is suitable for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus year-round. In addition, a large proportion of the U.S. is seasonally suitable for mosquito population growth, creating the potential for periodic incursions into new areas. Changes in climatic suitability in recent decades for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus have occurred already in many regions of the U.S., and model projections of future climate suggest that climate change will continue to reshape the range of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the U.S., and potentially the risk of the viruses they transmit.

  15. Mapping Past, Present, and Future Climatic Suitability for Invasive Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus in the United States: A Process-Based Modeling Approach Using CMIP5 Downscaled Climate Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Marisa Anne Pella; Marcantonio, Matteo; Melton, Forrest S.; Barker, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing spread of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, in the continental United States leaves new areas at risk for local transmission of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. All three viruses have caused major disease outbreaks in the Americas with infected travelers returning regularly to the U.S. The expanding range of these mosquitoes raises questions about whether recent spread has been enabled by climate change or other anthropogenic influences. In this analysis, we used downscaled climate scenarios from the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX GDDP) dataset to model Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus population growth rates across the United States. We used a stage-structured matrix population model to understand past and present climatic suitability for these vectors, and to project future suitability under CMIP5 climate change scenarios. Our results indicate that much of the southern U.S. is suitable for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus year-round. In addition, a large proportion of the U.S. is seasonally suitable for mosquito population growth, creating the potential for periodic incursions into new areas. Changes in climatic suitability in recent decades for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus have occurred already in many regions of the U.S., and model projections of future climate suggest that climate change will continue to reshape the range of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the U.S., and potentially the risk of the viruses they transmit.

  16. Model United Nations at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    From 20 to 22 January, 300 young people from international secondary schools in Switzerland, France and Turkey will meet at CERN to debate scientific topics at a Model UN Conference.   Representing some 50 countries, they will form committees and a model General Assembly to discuss the meeting’s chosen topic: “UN – World Science Pole for Progress”.

  17. Bloch constant of holomorphic mappings on the unit polydisk of C~n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we give a definition of Bloch mappings defined in the unit polydisk Dn, which generalizes the concept of Bloch functions defined in the unit disk D.It is known that Bloch theorem fails unless we have some restrictive assumption on holomorphic mappings in several complex variables.We shall establish the corresponding distortion theorems for subfamiliesβ(K)andβloc(K) of Bloch mappings defined in the polydisk Dn,which extend the distortion theorems of Liu and Minda to higher dimensions.As an application,we obtain lower and upper bounds of Bloch constants for various subfamilies of Bloeh mappings defined in Dn.In particular,our results reduce to the classical results of Ahlfors and Landau when n=1.

  18. Problems In Indoor Mapping and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanova, S.; Sithole, G.; Nakagawa, M.; Zhu, Q.

    2013-11-01

    Research in support of indoor mapping and modelling (IMM) has been active for over thirty years. This research has come in the form of As-Built surveys, Data structuring, Visualisation techniques, Navigation models and so forth. Much of this research is founded on advancements in photogrammetry, computer vision and image analysis, computer graphics, robotics, laser scanning and many others. While IMM used to be the privy of engineers, planners, consultants, contractors, and designers, this is no longer the case as commercial enterprises and individuals are also beginning to apply indoor models in their business process and applications. There are three main reasons for this. Firstly, the last two decades have seen greater use of spatial information by enterprises and the public. Secondly, IMM has been complimented by advancements in mobile computing and internet communications, making it easier than ever to access and interact with spatial information. Thirdly, indoor modelling has been advanced geometrically and semantically, opening doors for developing user-oriented, context-aware applications. This reshaping of the public's attitude and expectations with regards to spatial information has realised new applications and spurred demand for indoor models and the tools to use them. This paper examines the present state of IMM and considers the research areas that deserve attention in the future. In particular the paper considers problems in IMM that are relevant to commercial enterprises and the general public, groups this paper expects will emerge as the greatest users IMM. The subject of indoor modelling and mapping is discussed here in terms of Acquisitions and Sensors, Data Structures and Modelling, Visualisation, Applications, Legal Issues and Standards. Problems are discussed in terms of those that exist and those that are emerging. Existing problems are those that are currently being researched. Emerging problems are those problems or demands that are

  19. Mapping Venus: Modeling the Magellan Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Doug

    1997-01-01

    Provides details of an activity designed to help students understand the relationship between astronomy and geology. Applies concepts of space research and map-making technology to the construction of a topographic map of a simulated section of Venus. (DDR)

  20. Impact of wetlands mapping on parameterization of hydrologic simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands and other surface depressions can impact hydrologic response within the landscape in a number of ways, such as intercepting runoff and near-surface flows or changing the potential for evaporation and seepage into the soil. The role of these features is increasingly being integrated into hydrological simulation models, such as the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), and applied to landscapes where wetlands are dominating features. Because the extent of these features varies widely through time, many modeling applications rely on delineations of the maximum possible extent to define total capacity of a model's spatial response unit. This poster presents an evaluation of several wetland map delineations for the Pipestem River basin in the North Dakota Prairie-pothole region. The featured data sets include the US Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory (NWI), surface water bodies extracted from the US Geological Survey National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), and elevation depressions extracted from 1 meter LiDAR data for the area. In addition to characterizing differences in the quality of these datasets, the poster will assess the impact of these differences when parameters are derived from them for the spatial response units of the PRMS model.

  1. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 100-Meter Resolution Elevation of the Conterminous United States 201403 BIL

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing elevation for the conterminous United States, in meters relative to mean sea level. The data are a modified version...

  2. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  3. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Airports of the United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of the...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Streams of the United States 201406 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing streams in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of the...

  5. Tight Integration of Digital Map and In-Vehicle Positioning Unit for Car Navigation in Urban Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wu; Yu Meng; Li Zhi-lin; Chen Yong-qi; J. Chao

    2003-01-01

    Now GPS has been widely used for land, sea and air navigation.However, due to signal blockage and severe multipath environments in urban areas, such as in Hong Kong, GPS alone can not satisfy most land vehicle navigation requirements. Dead Reckoning (DR) systems have been widely used to bridge the gaps of GPS and to smooth GPS position errors. However,the DR drift errors increase with time rapidly and frequent calibration is required. Under the normal situation, GPS is sufficient to provide the calibration to the DR unit. However, GPS may not be available in urban areas for more than 20 min, and the DR position errors can reach hundreds of meters during the period. As land vehicles have to be on roads, digital map can be used to constrain the locations of vehicles, known as map-matching.One of the main problems for map-matching techniques is mis-matching, that may be caused by the positioning sensor errors and the complexity of city road network. In this paper, a newly developed model to tightly integrate digital map and in-vehicle positioning unit for car navigation is introduced.With this method, it improves the position accuracy by constraining the vehicle location on the roads. Moreover it provides the close-loop controls for the DR drift errors by feeding back the coordinates of the feature points of the road network and road bearings to the DR unit and therefore the navigation system can be used for longer period when GPS is not available.Extensive tests have been carried out in Hong Kong. It demonstrates that this close-loop approach is much better on the reliability of map-matching, as the positioning sensor errors are constantly calibrated by the digital map.

  6. Transmission Maps of the ACIS UV/Optical Blocking Filter Flight Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, L. K.; Broos, P. S.; Mackay, J. F.

    1996-05-01

    The AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) employs filters made of Lexan coated on both sides with aluminum to block optical and UV light, so that the CCDs see only X-radiation from astronomical targets. These filters must be characterized by spatially mapping their transmission at various astrophysically and instrumentally important energies. The Penn State University ACIS team determined that a synchrotron, where a variety of well-determined X-ray energies is available, would provide the best calibration. We measured engineering grade UV/optical blocking filters at the University of Wisconsin Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) in June and October 1995, modified the hardware and software on a dry run in January 1996, and just completed the calibration of the flight filters in March 1996. The Multilayer Beamline at the SRC was used for these measurements because it can access several energies important to the calibration and its built-in, computer-controlled x-z stage allows us to map the filters automatically with user-specified spatial resolution. These transmission maps formed the basis for choosing the actual flight filter units from the set of filters manufactured with flight specifications. We obtained transmission measurements at five energies in the range 200-2000 eV. We present here best-fit models of the filter transmission based on these data points. Better than one percent accuracy in transmission as a function of energy was achieved over the entire filter area on scales corresponding to thirty arcseconds in the focal plane of AXAF (the amplitude of the planned aspect dither of the spacecraft). The pair of filters (one for the Imaging array and one for the Spectroscopy array) selected for flight will be installed on the ACIS focal plane in early summer.

  7. Using historical aerial photography and softcopy photogrammetry for waste unit mapping in L Lake.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christel, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    L Lake was developed as a cooling water reservoir for the L Reactor at the Savannah River Site. The construction of the lake, which began in the fall of 1984, altered the structure and function of Steel Creek. Completed in the fall of 1985, L Lake has a capacity of 31 million cubic meters and a normal pool of 58 meters. When L Reactor operations ceased in 1988, the water level in the lake still had to be maintained. Site managers are currently trying to determine the feasibility of draining or drawing down the lake in order to save tax dollars. In order to understand the full repercussions of such an undertaking, it was necessary to compile a comprehensive inventory of what the lake bottom looked like prior to filling. Aerial photographs, acquired nine days before the filling of the lake began, were scanned and used for softcopy photogrammetry processing. A one-meter digital elevation model was generated and a digital orthophoto mosaic was created as the base map for the project. Seven categories of features, including the large waste units used to contain the contaminated soil removed from the dam site, were screen digitized and used to generate accurate maps. Other map features include vegetation waste piles, where contaminated vegetation from the flood plain was contained, and ash piles, which are sites where vegetation debris was burned and then covered with clean soil. For all seven categories, the area of disturbance totaled just over 63 hectares. When the screen digitizing was completed, the elevation at the centroid of each disturbance was determined. When the information is used in the Savannah River Site Geographical Information System, it can be used to visualize the various L Lake draw-down scenarios suggested by site managers and hopefully, to support evaluations of the cost effectiveness for each proposed activity.

  8. Mapping Natural Terroir Units using a multivariate approach and legacy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priori, Simone; Barbetti, Roberto; L'Abate, Giovanni; Bucelli, Piero; Storchi, Paolo; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.

    2014-05-01

    Natural Terroir Unit (NTU) is a volume of earth's biosphere that is characterized by a stable set of variables related to the topography, climate, geology and soil. Methods to study the association soil-climate-vines are numerous, but the main question is always: which variables are actually important for the quality and the typicality of grapevines, and then wine, for a particular scale? This work aimed to setting up a multivariate methodology to define viticultural terroirs at the province scale (1:125,000), using viticultural and oenological legacy data. The study area was the Siena province in the Tuscany region (Central Italy). The reference grapevine cultivar was "Sangiovese", which is the most important cultivar of the region. The methodology was based upon the creation of a GIS storing several viticultural and oenological legacy data of 55 experimental vineyards (vintages between 1989-2009), the long term climate data, the digital elevation model, the soil-landscapes (land systems) and the soil profiles with the soil analysis. The selected viticultural and oenological parameters were: must sugar content, sugar accumulation rate from veraison to harvest, must titratable acidity, grape yield per vine, number of bunches for vine, mean bunch weight, and mean weight of berries. The environmental parameters related to viticulture, selected by an explorative PCA, were: elevation, mean annual temperature, mean soil temperature, annual precipitation, clay, sand and gravel content of soils, soil water availability, redoximorphic features and rooting depth. The geostatistical models of the variables interpolation were chosen on the best of mean standardize error, obtained by the cross-validation, between "Simple cokriging with varying local mean", "Multicollocated simple cokriging with varying local mean" and "Regression kriging". These variables were used for a k-means clustering aimed to map the Natural Terroirs Units (NTUs). The viticultural areas of Siena province

  9. Non-linear Loudspeaker Unit Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of a 6½-inch loudspeaker unit are performed and compared with a displacement measurement. The non-linear loudspeaker model is based on the major nonlinear functions and expanded with time-varying suspension behaviour and flux modulation. The results are presented with FFT plots of three...... frequencies and different displacement levels. The model errors are discussed and analysed including a test with loudspeaker unit where the diaphragm is removed....

  10. Modeling of active beam units with Modelica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an active beam model suitable for building energy simulations with the programming language Modelica. The model encapsulates empirical equations derived by a novel active beam terminal unit that operates with low-temperature heating and high-temperature cooling systems....... Measurements from a full-scale experiment are used to compare the thermal behavior of the active beam with the one predicted by simulations. The simulation results show that the model corresponds closely with the actual operation. The model predicts the outlet water temperature of the active beam...... with a maximum mean absolute error of 0.18 °C. In term of maximum mean absolute percentage error, simulation results differ by 0.9%. The methodology presented is general enough to be applied for modeling other active beam units. Modeling of active beam units with Modelica. Available from: https...

  11. NASA Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Brian; Law, Emily

    2016-10-01

    NASA's Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling Portals provide web-based suites of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, planetary scientists, students, and the general public to access mapped lunar data products from past and current missions for the Moon, Mars, and Vesta. New portals for additional planetary bodies are being planned. This presentation will recap some of the enhancements to these products during the past year and preview work currently being undertaken.New data products added to the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP) include both generalized products as well as polar data products specifically targeting potential sites for the Resource Prospector mission. New tools being developed include traverse planning and surface potential analysis. Current development work on LMMP also includes facilitating mission planning and data management for lunar CubeSat missions. Looking ahead, LMMP is working with the NASA Astromaterials Office to integrate with their Lunar Apollo Sample database to help better visualize the geographic contexts of retrieved samples. All of this will be done within the framework of a new user interface which, among other improvements, will provide significantly enhanced 3D visualizations and navigation.Mars Trek, the project's Mars portal, has now been assigned by NASA's Planetary Science Division to support site selection and analysis for the Mars 2020 Rover mission as well as for the Mars Human Landing Exploration Zone Sites, and is being enhanced with data products and analysis tools specifically requested by the proposing teams for the various sites. NASA Headquarters is giving high priority to Mars Trek's use as a means to directly involve the public in these upcoming missions, letting them explore the areas the agency is focusing upon, understand what makes these sites so fascinating, follow the selection process, and get caught up in the excitement of exploring Mars.The portals also

  12. NASA Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Law, E.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling Portals provide web-based suites of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, planetary scientists, students, and the general public to access mapped lunar data products from past and current missions for the Moon, Mars, and Vesta. New portals for additional planetary bodies are being planned. This presentation will recap significant enhancements to these toolsets during the past year and look forward to the results of the exciting work currently being undertaken. Additional data products and tools continue to be added to the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP). These include both generalized products as well as polar data products specifically targeting potential sites for the Resource Prospector mission. Current development work on LMMP also includes facilitating mission planning and data management for lunar CubeSat missions, and working with the NASA Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office's Lunar Apollo Sample database in order to help better visualize the geographic contexts from which samples were retrieved. A new user interface provides, among other improvements, significantly enhanced 3D visualizations and navigation. Mars Trek, the project's Mars portal, has now been assigned by NASA's Planetary Science Division to support site selection and analysis for the Mars 2020 Rover mission as well as for the Mars Human Landing Exploration Zone Sites. This effort is concentrating on enhancing Mars Trek with data products and analysis tools specifically requested by the proposing teams for the various sites. Also being given very high priority by NASA Headquarters is Mars Trek's use as a means to directly involve the public in these upcoming missions, letting them explore the areas the agency is focusing upon, understand what makes these sites so fascinating, follow the selection process, and get caught up in the excitement of exploring Mars. The portals also serve as

  13. Optimization using surrogate models - by the space mapping technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    mapping surrogate has a lower approximation error for long steps. For short steps, however, the Taylor model of the expensive model is best, due to exact interpolation at the model origin. Five algorithms for space mapping optimization are presented and the numerical performance is evaluated. Three...... conditions are satisfied. So hybrid methods, combining the space mapping technique with classical optimization methods, should be used if convergence to high accuracy is wanted. Approximation abilities of the space mapping surrogate are compared with those of a Taylor model of the expensive model. The space...

  14. Optimization using surrogate models - by the space mapping technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    mapping surrogate has a lower approximation error for long steps. For short steps, however, the Taylor model of the expensive model is best, due to exact interpolation at the model origin. Five algorithms for space mapping optimization are presented and the numerical performance is evaluated. Three...... conditions are satisfied. So hybrid methods, combining the space mapping technique with classical optimization methods, should be used if convergence to high accuracy is wanted. Approximation abilities of the space mapping surrogate are compared with those of a Taylor model of the expensive model. The space...

  15. Quaternary geologic map of the Winnipeg 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, D. S.; Ringrose, S.M.; Clayton, Lee; Schreiner, B.T.; Goebel, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Winnipeg 4? ? 6? Quadrangle, United States and Canada, is a component of the U.S. Geological Survey Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States map series (Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-1420), an effort to produce 4? ? 6? Quaternary geologic maps, at 1:1 million scale, of the entire conterminous United States and adjacent Canada. The map and the accompanying text and supplemental illustrations provide a regional overview of the areal distributions and characteristics of surficial deposits and materials of Quaternary age (~1.8 Ma to present) in parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. The map is not a map of soils as soils are recognized in agriculture. Rather, it is a map of soils as recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which agricultural soils are formed. The map units are distinguished chiefly on the basis of (1)genesis (processes of origin) or environments of deposition: for example, sediments deposited primarily by glacial ice (glacial deposits or till), sediments deposited in lakes (lacustrine deposits), or sediments deposited by wind (eolian deposits); (2) age: for example, how long ago the deposits accumulated; (3) texture (grain size)of the deposits or materials; (4) composition (particle lithology) of the deposits or materials; (5) thickness; and (6) other physical, chemical, and engineering properties. Supplemental illustrations show (1) temporal correlation of the map units, (2) the areal relationships of late Wisconsin glacial ice lobes and sublobes, (3) temporal and spatial correlation of late Wisconsin glacial phases, readvance limits, and ice margin stillstands, (4) temporal and stratigraphic correlation of surface and subsurface glacial deposits in the Winnipeg quadrangle and in adjacent 4? ? 6? quadrangles, and (5) responsibility for state and province compilations. The database provides information related to geologic hazards (for example

  16. Evaluation of bias associated with capture maps derived from nonlinear groundwater flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Cara; Allander, Kip K.; Pohll, Greg; Morway, Eric; Naranjo, Ramon C.; Huntington, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The impact of groundwater withdrawal on surface water is a concern of water users and water managers, particularly in the arid western United States. Capture maps are useful tools to spatially assess the impact of groundwater pumping on water sources (e.g., streamflow depletion) and are being used more frequently for conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater. Capture maps have been derived using linear groundwater flow models and rely on the principle of superposition to demonstrate the effects of pumping in various locations on resources of interest. However, nonlinear models are often necessary to simulate head-dependent boundary conditions and unconfined aquifers. Capture maps developed using nonlinear models with the principle of superposition may over- or underestimate capture magnitude and spatial extent. This paper presents new methods for generating capture difference maps, which assess spatial effects of model nonlinearity on capture fraction sensitivity to pumping rate, and for calculating the bias associated with capture maps. The sensitivity of capture map bias to selected parameters related to model design and conceptualization for the arid western United States is explored. This study finds that the simulation of stream continuity, pumping rates, stream incision, well proximity to capture sources, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and groundwater evapotranspiration extinction depth substantially affect capture map bias. Capture difference maps demonstrate that regions with large capture fraction differences are indicative of greater potential capture map bias. Understanding both spatial and temporal bias in capture maps derived from nonlinear groundwater flow models improves their utility and defensibility as conjunctive-use management tools.

  17. Mapping water use—Landsat and water resources in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca L.

    2016-06-27

    Using Landsat satellite data, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have helped to refine a technique called evapotranspiration (ET) mapping to measure how much water crops are using across landscapes and through time. These water-use maps are created using a computer model that integrates Landsat and weather data.

  18. Recovering map static nonlinearities from chaotic data using dynamical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis Antonio

    1997-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the estimation from chaotic data of maps with static nonlinearities. A number of issues concerning model construction such as structure selection, over-parametrization and model validation are discussed in the light of the shape of the static non-linearities reproduced by the estimated maps. A new interpretation of term clusters and cluster coefficients of polynomial models is provided based on this approach. The paper discusses model limitations and some useful principles to select the structure of nonlinear maps. Some of the ideas have been tested using several nonlinear systems including a boost voltage regulator map and a set of real data from a chaotic circuit.

  19. The MAP program: building the digital terrain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Twito; R.W. Mifflin; R.J. McGaughey

    1987-01-01

    PLANS, a software package for integrated timber-harvest planning, uses digital terrain models to provide the topographic data needed to fit harvest and transportation designs to specific terrain. MAP, an integral program in the PLANS package, is used to construct the digital terrain models required by PLANS. MAP establishes digital terrain models using digitizer-traced...

  20. Space Mapping Optimization of Microwave Circuits Exploiting Surrogate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    is a convex combination of a mapped coarse model and a linearized fine model. It exploits, in a novel way, a linear frequency-sensitive mapping. During the optimization iterates, the coarse and fine models are simulated at different sets of frequencies. This approach is shown to be especially powerful...

  1. Integrated Modeling for Flood Hazard Mapping Using Watershed Modeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh S. Sadrolashrafi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this stduy, a new framework which integrates the Geographic Information System (GIS with the Watershed Modeling System (WMS for flood modeling is developed. It also interconnects the terrain models and the GIS software, with commercial standard hydrological and hydraulic models, including HEC-1, HEC-RAS, etc. The Dez River Basin (about 16213 km2 in Khuzestan province, IRAN, is domain of study because of occuring frequent severe flash flooding. As a case of study, a major flood in autumn of 2001 is chosen to examine the modeling framework. The model consists of a rainfall-runoff model (HEC-1 that converts excess precipitation to overland flow and channel runoff and a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS that simulates steady state flow through the river channel network based on the HEC-1, peak hydrographs. In addition, it delineates the maps of potential flood zonation for the Dez River Basin. These are achieved based on the state of the art GIS with using WMS software. Watershed parameters are calibrated manually to perform a good simulation of discharge at three sub-basins. With the calibrated discharge, WMS is capable of producing flood hazard map. The modeling framework presented in this study demonstrates the accuracy and usefulness of the WMS software for flash flooding control. The results of this research will benefit future modeling efforts by providing validate hydrological software to forecast flooding on a regional scale. This model designed for the Dez River Basin, while this regional scale model may be used as a prototype for model applications in other areas.

  2. POLARIS: A 30-meter probabilistic soil series map of the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Nathaniel W; Wood, Eric F; McBratney, Alexander B; Hempel, Jonathan W; Nauman, Travis; Brungard, Colby W.; Odgers, Nathan P

    2016-01-01

    A new complete map of soil series probabilities has been produced for the contiguous United States at a 30 m spatial resolution. This innovative database, named POLARIS, is constructed using available high-resolution geospatial environmental data and a state-of-the-art machine learning algorithm (DSMART-HPC) to remap the Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database. This 9 billion grid cell database is possible using available high performance computing resources. POLARIS provides a spatially continuous, internally consistent, quantitative prediction of soil series. It offers potential solutions to the primary weaknesses in SSURGO: 1) unmapped areas are gap-filled using survey data from the surrounding regions, 2) the artificial discontinuities at political boundaries are removed, and 3) the use of high resolution environmental covariate data leads to a spatial disaggregation of the coarse polygons. The geospatial environmental covariates that have the largest role in assembling POLARIS over the contiguous United States (CONUS) are fine-scale (30 m) elevation data and coarse-scale (~ 2 km) estimates of the geographic distribution of uranium, thorium, and potassium. A preliminary validation of POLARIS using the NRCS National Soil Information System (NASIS) database shows variable performance over CONUS. In general, the best performance is obtained at grid cells where DSMART-HPC is most able to reduce the chance of misclassification. The important role of environmental covariates in limiting prediction uncertainty suggests including additional covariates is pivotal to improving POLARIS' accuracy. This database has the potential to improve the modeling of biogeochemical, water, and energy cycles in environmental models; enhance availability of data for precision agriculture; and assist hydrologic monitoring and forecasting to ensure food and water security.

  3. Geomatics for Mapping of Groundwater Potential Zones in Northern Part of the United Arab Emiratis - Sharjah City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruzouq, R.; Shanableh, A.; Merabtene, T.

    2015-04-01

    In United Arab Emirates (UAE) domestic water consumption has increased rapidly over the last decade. The increased demand for high-quality water, create an urgent need to evaluate the groundwater production of aquifers. The development of a reasonable model for groundwater potential is therefore crucial for future systematic developments, efficient management, and sustainable use of groundwater resources. The objective of this study is to map the groundwater potential zones in northern part of UAE and assess the contributing factors for exploration of potential groundwater resources. Remote sensing data and geographic information system will be used to locate potential zones for groundwater. Various maps (i.e., base, soil, geological, Hydro-geological, Geomorphologic Map, structural, drainage, slope, land use/land cover and average annual rainfall map) will be prepared based on geospatial techniques. The groundwater availability of the basin will qualitatively classified into different classes based on its hydro-geo-morphological conditions. The land use/land cover map will be also prepared for the different seasons using a digital classification technique with a ground truth based on field investigation.

  4. AN INEQUALITY OF HOMOGENEOUS EXPANSION FOR BIHOLOMORPHIC QUASI-CONVEX MAPPINGS ON THE UNIT POLYDISK AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaosong; Liu Taishun

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors obtain an inequality of homogeneous expansion for f, where f is a quasi-convex mapping (including quasi-convex mapping of type A and quasi-convex mapping of type B) defined on the open unit polydisk in Cn. Meanwhile, the authors also investigate its application.

  5. Detailed mapping of surface units on Mars with HRSC color data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, J.-Ph.; Wendt, L.; McCord, T. B.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    phyllosilicates form generally bright outcrops with complex contour lines that allow visual discrimination, even if this bright color is similar to well-illuminated bright red dust. When the surface is spectrally diverse like Marwth Vallis, contrast enhancement may be sufficient to reveal subtle color differences that correspond to different types of materials (Fig. 1a). However, those remain faint color variations as all the bands are highly correlated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) PCA is a tool for decorrelation and noise removal that maximizes color unit differences. On Marwth Vallis, PCA highlights the diversity of the surface on a spectacular way (Fig. 1b). Those images may be compared to the maps of mineral composition obtained by [11] from spectral analysis imaging spectrometer data. Part of the information in Fig. 1b is likely related to surface roughness because of the complex geometry of observation of the instrument. Furthermore, only an extremely clear atmosphere and low-compressed datasets allow obtaining such sharp results. Consequently, the meaning of the colors varies from image-to-image and is qualitative only. More quantitative and comparable results require spectral analysis, either to remove or to normalize atmospheric and geometric effects. Spectral analysis on HRSC data For this application the surface units to be distinguished have to possess linear independent color vectors in the five-dimensional color space of HRSC data. It has been shown by [2-5] that on the global scale, only four spectral endmembers representing red, iron oxide-rich material, dark, basaltic material, and ice plus a shade component containing effects of observation and illumination geometry, are sufficient to explain most of the colors present in HRSC color imagery. We assess this at our test areas contain a maximum of surface mineralogy diversity by applying refined methods to model (and remove) the shade contribution in order to test if a further surface component can be

  6. Mapping extent and change in surface mines within the United States for 2001 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Stehman, Stephen V.; Parker, Owen P.

    2016-01-01

    A complete, spatially explicit dataset illustrating the 21st century mining footprint for the conterminous United States does not exist. To address this need, we developed a semi-automated procedure to map the country's mining footprint (30-m pixel) and establish a baseline to monitor changes in mine extent over time. The process uses mine seed points derived from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS), and USGS National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) and recodes patches of barren land that meet a “distance to seed” requirement and a patch area requirement before mapping a pixel as mining. Seed points derived from EIA coal points, an edited MRDS point file, and 1992 NLCD mine points were used in three separate efforts using different distance and patch area parameters for each. The three products were then merged to create a 2001 map of moderate-to-large mines in the United States, which was subsequently manually edited to reduce omission and commission errors. This process was replicated using NLCD 2006 barren pixels as a base layer to create a 2006 mine map and a 2001–2006 mine change map focusing on areas with surface mine expansion. In 2001, 8,324 km2 of surface mines were mapped. The footprint increased to 9,181 km2 in 2006, representing a 10·3% increase over 5 years. These methods exhibit merit as a timely approach to generate wall-to-wall, spatially explicit maps representing the recent extent of a wide range of surface mining activities across the country. 

  7. Capability of Spaceborne Hyperspectral EnMAP Mission for Mapping Fractional Cover for Soil Erosion Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Malec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion can be linked to relative fractional cover of photosynthetic-active vegetation (PV, non-photosynthetic-active vegetation (NPV and bare soil (BS, which can be integrated into erosion models as the cover-management C-factor. This study investigates the capability of EnMAP imagery to map fractional cover in a region near San Jose, Costa Rica, characterized by spatially extensive coffee plantations and grazing in a mountainous terrain. Simulated EnMAP imagery is based on airborne hyperspectral HyMap data. Fractional cover estimates are derived in an automated fashion by extracting image endmembers to be used with a Multiple End-member Spectral Mixture Analysis approach. The C-factor is calculated based on the fractional cover estimates determined independently for EnMAP and HyMap. Results demonstrate that with EnMAP imagery it is possible to extract quality endmember classes with important spectral features related to PV, NPV and soil, and be able to estimate relative cover fractions. This spectral information is critical to separate BS and NPV which greatly can impact the C-factor derivation. From a regional perspective, we can use EnMAP to provide good fractional cover estimates that can be integrated into soil erosion modeling.

  8. Assessment and mapping of slope stability based on slope units: A case study in Yan’an, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianqi Zhuang; Jianbing Peng; Yonglong Xu; Qiang Xu; Xinghua Zhu; Wei Li

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation frequently triggers shallow landslides in the Loess Plateau of Shaanxi, China, resulting in loss of life, damage to gas and oil routes, and destruction of transport infrastructure and farmland. To assess the possibility of shallow landslides at different precipitation levels, a method to draw slope units and steepest slope profiles based on ARCtools and a new method for calculating slope stability areproposed. The methods were implemented in a case study conducted in Yan’an, north-west China. High resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model) images, soil parameters from in-situ laboratory measurements and maximum depths of precipitation infiltration were used as input parameters in the method. Next,DEM and reverse DEM were employed to map 2146 slope units in the study area, based on which the steepest profiles of the slope units were constructed. Combining analysis of the water content of loess, strength of the sliding surface, its response to precipitation and the infinite slope stability equation, a newequation to calculate infinite slope stability is proposed to assess shallow landslide stability. The slope unit stability was calculated using the equation at 10-, 20-, 50- and 100-year return periods of antecedent effective precipitation. The number of slope units experiencing failure increased in response to increasing effective antecedent rainfall. These results were validated based on the occurrence of landslides in recent decades. Finally, the applicability and limitations of the model are discussed.

  9. Combining models and measurements for European scale exceedance mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, B.; Horálek, J.; Kurfürst, P.; de Smet, P.; de Leeuw, F.

    2009-04-01

    There is a need at the European policy and management level to have access to comprehensive assessments of air quality on the European scale. In support of this need the European Topic Centre for Air Quality and Climate Change carries out, on behalf of the European Environmental Agency, a range of European scale air quality mapping activities. In this paper statistical interpolation techniques have been applied to map and assess the rural background concentrations of PM10 and ozone on a daily basis over all of Europe. These daily maps are further used to determine exceedances of the air quality directive limit values for annual and daily mean PM10 as well as the percentile (26'th highest) 8 hour running mean for ozone. The maps are created using multiple linear regression of both the LOTOS-EUROS and EMEP chemical transport models along with daily air quality data taken from Airbase. Residual kriging of the regression fields is then applied for the final maps. Comparisons are made when using different models, different interpolation methods and when using annual instead of daily statistics. In addition to the assessment maps attention is also given to estimating the uncertainty of the maps. The methodology for determining the uncertainty in exceedances is described and maps of the uncertainty, along with probability of exceedance maps, are provided. By the use of cross-validation methods the quality of the maps is assessed. The results show that models alone do not provide useful assessment maps of exceedances for either PM10 or ozone. When used in combination with measurements both of the models give similar levels of uncertainty. The uncertainty is, in almost all cases, reduced when daily maps are used to determine exceedances rather than the use of annual statistics.

  10. Quaternary geologic map of the Boston 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    State compilations by Hartshorn, Joseph H.; Thompson, W.B.; Chapman, W.F.; Black, R.F.; Richmond, Gerald Martin; Grant, D.R.; Fullerton, David S.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin

    1991-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Boston 4 deg x 6 deg Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  11. Quaternary geologic map of the White Lake 4° x 6° quadrangle, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    State compilations by Pope, David E.; Gilliland, William A.; Wermund, E.G.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin; Weide, David L.; Moore, David W.; Digital edition by Bush, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    This map is part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420). It was first published as a printed edition in 1990. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheet and component parts as PDF files. The Quaternary Geologic Map of the White Lake 4° x 6° Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the ground on which we walk, the dirt in which we dig foundations, and the soil in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. In recent years, surficial deposits and materials have become the focus of much interest by scientists, environmentalists, governmental agencies, and the general public. They are the foundations of ecosystems, the materials that support plant growth and animal habitat, and the materials through which travels much of the water required for our agriculture, our industry, and our general well being. They also are materials that easily can become contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic wastes. In this context, the value of the surficial geologic map is evident.

  12. Non-Markovianity Measure Based on Brukner–Zeilinger Invariant Information for Unital Quantum Dynamical Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhi; Zhu, Lie-Qiang; Li, Li

    2017-03-01

    A non-Markovianity measure based on Brukner–Zeilinger invariant information to characterize non-Markovian effect of open systems undergoing unital dynamical maps is proposed. The method takes advantage of non-increasing property of the Brukner–Zeilinger invariant information under completely positive and trace-preserving unital maps. The simplicity of computing the Brukner–Zeilinger invariant information is the advantage of the proposed measure because of mainly depending on the purity of quantum state. The measure effectively captures the characteristics of non-Markovianity of unital dynamical maps. As some concrete application, we consider two typical non-Markovian noise channels, i.e., the phase damping channel and the random unitary channel to show the sensitivity of the proposed measure. By investigation, we find that the conditions of detecting the non-Markovianity for the phase damping channel are consistent with the results of existing measures for non-Markovianity, i.e., information flow, divisibility and quantum mutual information. However, for the random unitary channel non-Markovian conditions are same to that of the information flow, but is different from that of the divisibility and quantum mutual information. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61505053, the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province under Grant No. 2015JJ3092, the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hunan Province, China under Grant No. 16B177, the School Foundation from the Hunan University of Arts and Science under Grant No. 14ZD01

  13. Chaotic and stable perturbed maps: 2-cycles and spatial models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, E.; Haroutunian, J.

    2010-06-01

    As the growth rate parameter increases in the Ricker, logistic and some other maps, the models exhibit an irreversible period doubling route to chaos. If a constant positive perturbation is introduced, then the Ricker model (but not the classical logistic map) experiences period doubling reversals; the break of chaos finally gives birth to a stable two-cycle. We outline the maps which demonstrate a similar behavior and also study relevant discrete spatial models where the value in each cell at the next step is defined only by the values at the cell and its nearest neighbors. The stable 2-cycle in a scalar map does not necessarily imply 2-cyclic-type behavior in each cell for the spatial generalization of the map.

  14. Bernoulli Embedding Model and Its Application in Texture Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xin Zhang; Ying Tang; Hui Zhao; Hu-Jun Bao

    2006-01-01

    A novel texture mapping technique is proposed based on nonlinear dimension reduction, called Bernoulli logistic embedding (BLE). Our probabilistic embedding model builds texture mapping with minimal shearing effects. A log-likelihood function, related to the Bregman distance, is used to measure the similarity between two related matrices defined over the spaces before and after embedding. Low-dimensional embeddings can then be obtained through minimizing this function by a fast block relaxation algorithm. To achieve better quality of texture mapping, the embedded results are adopted as initial values for mapping enhancement by stretch-minimizing. Our method can be applied to both complex mesh surfaces and dense point clouds.

  15. An Automatic Uav Mapping System for Supporting un (united Nations) Field Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K.; Cheon, J. W.; Kim, H. Y.; Lee, I.

    2016-06-01

    The United Nations (UN) has performed field operations worldwide such as peacekeeping or rescue missions. When such an operation is needed, the UN dispatches an operation team usually with a GIS (Geographic Information System) customized to a specific operation. The base maps for the GIS are generated mostly with satellite images which may not retain a high resolution and the current situation. To build an up-to-date high resolution map, we propose a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) based automatic mapping system, which can operate in a fully automatic way from the data acquisition of sensory data to the data processing for the generation of the geospatial products such as a mosaicked orthoimage of a target area. In this study, we analyse the requirements for UN field operations, suggest a UAV mapping system with an operation scenario, and investigate the applicability of the system. With the proposed system, we can construct a tailored GIS with up-to-date and high resolution base maps for a specific operation efficiently.

  16. Multiscale sampling of plant diversity: Effects of minimum mapping unit size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Chong, G.W.; Kalkhan, M.A.; Schell, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    Only a small portion of any landscape can be sampled for vascular plant diversity because of constraints of cost (salaries, travel time between sites, etc.). Often, the investigator decides to reduce the cost of creating a vegetation map by increasing the minimum mapping unit (MMU), and/or by reducing the number of vegetation classes to be considered. Questions arise about what information is sacrificed when map resolution is decreased. We compared plant diversity patterns from vegetation maps made with 100-ha, 50-ha, 2-ha, and 0.02-ha MMUs in a 754-ha study area in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, United States, using four 0.025-ha and 21 0.1-ha multiscale vegetation plots. We developed and tested species-log(area) curves, correcting the curves for within-vegetation type heterogeneity with Jaccard's coefficients. Total species richness in the study area was estimated from vegetation maps at each resolution (MMU), based on the corrected species-area curves, total area of the vegetation type, and species overlap among vegetation types. With the 0.02-ha MMU, six vegetation types were recovered, resulting in an estimated 552 species (95% CI = 520-583 species) in the 754-ha study area (330 plant species were observed in the 25 plots). With the 2-ha MMU, five vegetation types were recognized, resulting in an estimated 473 species for the study area. With the 50-ha MMU, 439 plant species were estimated for the four vegetation types recognized in the study area. With the 100-ha MMU, only three vegetation types were recognized, resulting in an estimated 341 plant species for the study area. Locally rare species and keystone ecosystems (areas of high or unique plant diversity) were missed at the 2-ha, 50-ha, and 100-ha scales. To evaluate the effects of minimum mapping unit size requires: (1) an initial stratification of homogeneous, heterogeneous, and rare habitat types; and (2) an evaluation of within-type and between-type heterogeneity generated by environmental

  17. HYPERSTATIC STRUCTURE MAPPING MODEL BUILDING AND OPTIMIZING DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Gening; GAO Youshan; ZHANG Xueliang; YANG Ruigang

    2007-01-01

    Hyperstatic structure plane model being built by structural mechanics is studied. Space model precisely reflected in real stress of the structure is built by finite element method (FEM) analysis commerce software. Mapping model of complex structure system is set up, with convenient calculation just as in plane model and comprehensive information as in space model. Plane model and space model are calculated under the same working condition. Plane model modular construction inner force is considered as input data; Space model modular construction inner force is considered as output data. Thus specimen is built on input data and output data. Character and affiliation are extracted through training specimen, with the employment of nonlinear mapping capability of the artificial neural network. Mapping model with interpolation and extrapolation is gained, laying the foundation for optimum design. The steel structure of high-layer parking system (SSHLPS) is calculated as an instance. A three-layer back-propagation (BP) net including one hidden layer is constructed with nine input nodes and eight output nodes for a five-layer SSHLPS. The three-layer structure optimization result through the mapping model interpolation contrasts with integrity re-analysis, and seven layers structure through the mapping model extrapolation contrasts with integrity re-analysis. Any layer SSHLPS among 1~8 can be calculated with much accuracy. Amount of calculation can also be reduced if it is applied into the same topological structure, with reduced distortion and assured precision.

  18. Missional Imaginations for Theological Education: Mixed Model, Exploratory, Action-Oriented Research Mapping the Theological Identity and Organizational Readiness for Change of Five Theological School Systems in the United States Originating after 1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Kyle J. A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the formal theologies and organizational readiness for change with a view towards adopting missional prototypes for theological education across a school's (system's) tradition, curriculum, and structure. The research assessed five theological schools in the United States through an exploratory, action-oriented,…

  19. Space Mapping Optimization of Microwave Circuits Exploiting Surrogate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    A powerful new space-mapping (SM) optimization algorithm is presented in this paper. It draws upon recent developments in both surrogate model-based optimization and modeling of microwave devices, SM optimization is formulated as a general optimization problem of a surrogate model. This model...

  20. Preliminary overview map of volcanic hazards in the 48 conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullineaux, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions and related phenomena can be expected to occur in the Western United States, and in some places are potentially hazardous enough to be considered in longe-range land-use planning. But the immediate risk from volcanic hazards is low because eruptions are so infrequent in the conterminous United States that few, if any, occur during any one person 1s lifetime. Furthermore, severely destructive effects of eruptions, other than extremely rare ones of catastrophic scale, probably would be limited to areas within a few tens of kilometers downvalley or downwind from a volcano. Thus, the area seriously endangered by any one eruption would be only a very small part of the Western United States. The accompanying map identifies areas in which volcanic hazards pose some degree of risk, and shows that the problem is virtually limited to the far western States. The map also shows the possible areal distribution of several kinds of dangerous eruptive events and indicates the relative likelihood of their occurrence at various volcanoes. The kinds of events described here as hazards are those that can occur suddenly and with little or no warning; they do not include long-term geologic processes. Table 1 summarizes the origin and some characteristics of potentially hazardous volcanic phenomena. The map is diagrammatic. It does not show the specific location of the next expected eruption , because such an event cannot be reliably predicted . Instead, the map shows general areas or zones that, over a long period of time, are relatively likely to be affected in one or more places by various kinds of hazardous volcanic events. However, only a small part of one of these areas would be affected by any single eruption.

  1. Mapping quantal touch using 7 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging and single-unit intraneural microstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Panchuelo, Rosa Maria; Ackerley, Rochelle; Glover, Paul M; Bowtell, Richard W; Wessberg, Johan; Francis, Susan T; McGlone, Francis

    2016-05-07

    Using ultra-high field 7 Tesla (7T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we map the cortical and perceptual responses elicited by intraneural microstimulation (INMS) of single mechanoreceptive afferent units in the median nerve, in humans. Activations are compared to those produced by applying vibrotactile stimulation to the unit's receptive field, and unit-type perceptual reports are analyzed. We show that INMS and vibrotactile stimulation engage overlapping areas within the topographically appropriate digit representation in the primary somatosensory cortex. Additional brain regions in bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex, premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, insula and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in contralateral prefrontal cortex are also shown to be activated in response to INMS. The combination of INMS and 7T fMRI opens up an unprecedented opportunity to bridge the gap between first-order mechanoreceptive afferent input codes and their spatial, dynamic and perceptual representations in human cortex.

  2. Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan (MAP) Enforcement Response Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan (MAP) (40 CFR 763 Subpart E Appendix C) mandates safety training for those who do asbestos removal work, and implements the additional training requirements mandated by Congress

  3. A tractable genotype-phenotype map modelling the self-assembly of protein quaternary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbury, Sam F; Johnston, Iain G; Louis, Ard A; Ahnert, Sebastian E

    2014-06-01

    The mapping between biological genotypes and phenotypes is central to the study of biological evolution. Here, we introduce a rich, intuitive and biologically realistic genotype-phenotype (GP) map that serves as a model of self-assembling biological structures, such as protein complexes, and remains computationally and analytically tractable. Our GP map arises naturally from the self-assembly of polyomino structures on a two-dimensional lattice and exhibits a number of properties: redundancy (genotypes vastly outnumber phenotypes), phenotype bias (genotypic redundancy varies greatly between phenotypes), genotype component disconnectivity (phenotypes consist of disconnected mutational networks) and shape space covering (most phenotypes can be reached in a small number of mutations). We also show that the mutational robustness of phenotypes scales very roughly logarithmically with phenotype redundancy and is positively correlated with phenotypic evolvability. Although our GP map describes the assembly of disconnected objects, it shares many properties with other popular GP maps for connected units, such as models for RNA secondary structure or the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice model for protein tertiary structure. The remarkable fact that these important properties similarly emerge from such different models suggests the possibility that universal features underlie a much wider class of biologically realistic GP maps.

  4. A tractable genotype–phenotype map modelling the self-assembly of protein quaternary structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbury, Sam F.; Johnston, Iain G.; Louis, Ard A.; Ahnert, Sebastian E.

    2014-01-01

    The mapping between biological genotypes and phenotypes is central to the study of biological evolution. Here, we introduce a rich, intuitive and biologically realistic genotype–phenotype (GP) map that serves as a model of self-assembling biological structures, such as protein complexes, and remains computationally and analytically tractable. Our GP map arises naturally from the self-assembly of polyomino structures on a two-dimensional lattice and exhibits a number of properties: redundancy (genotypes vastly outnumber phenotypes), phenotype bias (genotypic redundancy varies greatly between phenotypes), genotype component disconnectivity (phenotypes consist of disconnected mutational networks) and shape space covering (most phenotypes can be reached in a small number of mutations). We also show that the mutational robustness of phenotypes scales very roughly logarithmically with phenotype redundancy and is positively correlated with phenotypic evolvability. Although our GP map describes the assembly of disconnected objects, it shares many properties with other popular GP maps for connected units, such as models for RNA secondary structure or the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice model for protein tertiary structure. The remarkable fact that these important properties similarly emerge from such different models suggests the possibility that universal features underlie a much wider class of biologically realistic GP maps. PMID:24718456

  5. Model-based Acceleration of Parameter mapping (MAP) for saturation prepared radially acquired data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran-Gia, Johannes; Stäb, Daniel; Wech, Tobias; Hahn, Dietbert; Köstler, Herbert

    2013-12-01

    A reconstruction technique called Model-based Acceleration of Parameter mapping (MAP) is presented allowing for quantification of longitudinal relaxation time and proton density from radial single-shot measurements after saturation recovery magnetization preparation. Using a mono-exponential model in image space, an iterative fitting algorithm is used to reconstruct one well resolved and consistent image for each of the projections acquired during the saturation recovery relaxation process. The functionality of the algorithm is examined in numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo studies. MAP reconstructions of single-shot acquisitions feature the same image quality and resolution as fully sampled reference images in phantom and in-vivo studies. The longitudinal relaxation times obtained from the MAP reconstructions are in very good agreement with the reference values in numerical simulations as well as phantom and in-vivo measurements. Compared to available contrast manipulation techniques, no averaging of projections acquired at different time points of the relaxation process is required in MAP imaging. The proposed technique offers new ways of extracting quantitative information from single-shot measurements acquired after magnetization preparation. The reconstruction simultaneously yields images with high spatiotemporal resolution fully consistent with the acquired data as well as maps of the effective longitudinal relaxation parameter and the relative proton density. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  6. Modeling thermally active building components using space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frank; Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    simplified models of the components do not always provide useful solutions, since they are not always able to reproduce the correct thermal behavior. The space mapping technique transforms a simplified, but computationally inexpensive model, in order to align it with a detailed model or measurements....... This paper describes the principle of the space mapping technique, and introduces a simple space mapping technique. The technique is applied to a lumped parameter model of a thermo active component, which provides a model of the thermal performance of the component as a function of two design parameters......In order to efficiently implement thermally active building components in new buildings, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal interaction between them and other building components. Applying parameter investigation or numerical optimization methods to a differential-algebraic (DAE) model...

  7. Maps showing ground-water units and withdrawal, Basin and Range Province, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, B.T.; Bedinger, M.S.; Mikels, John

    1984-01-01

    This report on ground-water units and withdrawal in the Basin and Range province of Texas (see index map) was prepared as part of a program of the U.S. Geological Survey to identify prospective regions for further study relative to isolation of high-level nuclear waste (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1984), utilizing program guidelines defined in Sargent and Bedinger (1984). Also included in this report are selected references on pertinent geologic and hydrologic studies of the region. Other map reports in this series contain detailed data on ground-water quality, surface distribution of selected rock types, tectonic conditions, areal geophysics, Pleistocene lakes and marshes, and mineral and energy resources.

  8. The 2014 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M. D.; Mueller, C. S.; Moschetti, M. P.; Haller, K. M.; Zeng, Y.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A. D.; Rezaeian, S.; Powers, P.; Field, E. H.; Boyd, O. S.; Chen, R.; Rukstales, K. S.; Wheeler, R. L.; Luco, N.; Williams, R. A.; Olson, A.

    2013-12-01

    The USGS is in the process of updating the U.S. National Seismic Hazard Maps for the lower 48 States that will be considered for inclusion in future building codes, risk assessments, and other public policy applications. These seismic hazard maps are based on our assessment of the best available science at the time of the update, and incorporate a broad range of scientific models and parameters. The maps were discussed in regional workshops held across the U.S., reviewed by our Steering Committee, and available on-line during a 45-day period for public comment. The USGS hazard maps depict earthquake ground-shaking exceedance levels for various probabilities over a 50-year time period and are based on calculations at several hundred thousand sites across the U.S. Inputs to the hazard maps are based on scientific estimates of the locations, magnitudes, and rates of earthquakes as well as ground motion models describing each earthquake's ground shaking. We model rates of earthquakes either on known faults or as seismicity-based background earthquakes that account for unknown faults and an incomplete fault inventory. Probabilities of ground shaking are calculated from ground motion models that estimate the likely shaking caused by an earthquake. Several new datasets and models have been developed since the 2008 update of the maps. For the Central and Eastern U.S. we implemented a new moment magnitude catalog and completeness estimates, updated the maximum magnitude distribution, updated and tested the smoothing algorithms for adaptive and fixed-radius methods, extended the fault model -including the sizes and rates of New Madrid Seismic Zone earthquakes, considered induced earthquakes, and included updated and new ground motion models along with a new weighting scheme. In the Intermountain West we implemented new smoothing algorithms, fault geometry for normal faults, Wasatch fault model, and fault slip rates based on models obtained by inverting geodetic and geologic

  9. Designing and implementing a geologic information system using a spatiotemporal ontology model for a geologic map of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jaehong; Nam, Kwang Woo; Ryu, Keun Ho

    2012-11-01

    A geologic information system was utilized for geologic mapping in Korea using a spatiotemporal ontology model. Five steps were required to make the GIS representation of the geologic map information. The first step was to limit the geologic mapping to Korean area. The second step was to extract the rock units with spatial objects from the geologic map and the geologic time units with temporal objects. The third step was to standardize the geologic terms in Korean and English for both the spatial and temporal objects. The fourth step was to conceptualize the classified objects in the geologic map units and the formation of guidelines for the specification of a spatiotemporal ontology model. Finally, we constructed a spatiotemporal retrieval system and an ontology system related to the geologic map of Korea, which were applied to the spatiotemporal ontology model. The spatiotemporal ontology model was defined as a sophisticated model that provides for the evolution from a data base to a knowledge base. This ontology model can be conceptualized as a well-defined set of terms used for expressing spatial objects in rock units and temporal objects in geologic time units, as well as a system of contents and structures. In addition, it includes symbology units such as color and pattern symbols mapped one-to-one with the spatiotemporal concepts. The existing information retrieval services provide information that is limited to the user's knowledge, whereas our geologic ontology system provides a broad range of information in graphical form, including locations and interrelationships. In this way, the information can be upgraded to the level of knowledge. A geologic term tree was designed, based on the existing classification schemes, with the goal of creating an accessible internet source.

  10. Combining forest inventory, satellite remote sensing, and geospatial data for mapping forest attributes of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Nelson; Greg Liknes; Charles H. Perry

    2009-01-01

    Analysis and display of forest composition, structure, and pattern provides information for a variety of assessments and management decision support. The objective of this study was to produce geospatial datasets and maps of conterminous United States forest land ownership, forest site productivity, timberland, and reserved forest land. Satellite image-based maps of...

  11. Neuro-Space Mapping for Modeling Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shuxia; Cheng Qianfu; Wu Haifeng; Zhang Qijun

    2015-01-01

    A neuro-space mapping(Neuro-SM) for modeling heterojunction bipolar transistor(HBT) is presented, which can automatically modify the input signals of the given model by neural network. The novel Neuro-SM formu-lations for DC and small-signal simulation are proposed to obtain the mapping network. Simulation results show that the errors between Neuro-SM models and the accurate data are less than 1%, demonstrating that the accurcy of the proposed method is higher than those of the existing models.

  12. Modelling heat transport through completely positive maps

    CERN Document Server

    Wichterich, H; Gemmer, J; Henrich, M J; Michel, M; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Gemmer, Jochen; Henrich, Markus J.; Michel, Mathias; Wichterich, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    We investigate heat transport in a spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain, coupled locally to independent thermal baths of different temperature. The analysis is carried out within the framework of the theory of open systems by means of appropriate quantum master equations. The standard microscopic derivation of the weak-coupling Lindblad equation in the secular approximation is considered, and shown to be inadequate for the description of stationary nonequilibrium properties like a non-vanishing energy current. Furthermore, we derive an alternative master equation that is capable to describe a stationary energy current and, at the same time, leads to a completely positive dynamical map. This paves the way for efficient numerical investigations of heat transport in larger systems based on Monte Carlo wave function techniques.

  13. InMAP: a new model for air pollution interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic air pollution models are essential tools in air quality management. Widespread use of such models is hindered, however, by the extensive expertise or computational resources needed to run most models. Here, we present InMAP (Intervention Model for Air Pollution), which offers an alternative to comprehensive air quality models for estimating the air pollution health impacts of emission reductions and other potential interventions. InMAP estimates annual-average changes in primary and secondary fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations - the air pollution outcome generally causing the largest monetized health damages - attributable to annual changes in precursor emissions. InMAP leverages pre-processed physical and chemical information from the output of a state-of-the-science chemical transport model (WRF-Chem) within an Eulerian modeling framework, to perform simulations that are several orders of magnitude less computationally intensive than comprehensive model simulations. InMAP uses a variable resolution grid that focuses on human exposures by employing higher spatial resolution in urban areas and lower spatial resolution in rural and remote locations and in the upper atmosphere; and by directly calculating steady-state, annual average concentrations. In comparisons run here, InMAP recreates WRF-Chem predictions of changes in total PM2.5 concentrations with population-weighted mean fractional error (MFE) and bias (MFB) planned for future model releases include a larger spatial domain, more temporal information, and the ability to predict ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations. The InMAP model source code and input data are freely available online.

  14. Modeling the human invader in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Giri, Chandra P.

    2010-02-01

    Modern biogeographers recognize that humans are seen as constituents of ecosystems, drivers of significant change, and perhaps, the most invasive species on earth. We found it instructive to model humans as invasive organisms with the same environmental factors. We present a preliminary model of the spread of modern humans in the conterminous United States between 1992 and 2001 based on a subset of National Land Cover Data (NLCD), a time series LANDSAT product. We relied on the commonly used Maxent model, a species-environmental matching model, to map urbanization. Results: Urban areas represented 5.1% of the lower 48 states in 2001, an increase of 7.5% (18,112 km2) in the nine year period. At this rate, an area the size of Massachusetts is converted to urban land use every ten years. We used accepted models commonly used for mapping plant and animal distributions and found that climatic and environmental factors can strongly predict our spread (i.e., the conversion of forests, shrub/grass, and wetland areas into urban areas), with a 92.5% success rate (Area Under the Curve). Adding a roads layer in the model improved predictions to a 95.5% success rate. 8.8% of the 1-km2 cells in the conterminous U.S. now have a major road in them. In 2001, 0.8% of 1-km2 cells in the U.S. had an urbanness value of > 800, (>89% of a 1-km2 cell is urban), while we predict that 24.5% of 1-km2 cells in the conterminous U.S. will be > 800 eventually. Main conclusion: Humans have a highly predictable pattern of urbanization based on climatic and topographic variables. Conservation strategies may benefit from that predictability.

  15. MAPPING GLAUCONITE UNITES WITH USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES IN NORTH EAST OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmadirouhani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glauconite is a greenish ferric-iron silicate mineral with micaceous structure, characteristically formed in shallow marine environments. Glauconite has been used as a pigmentation agent for oil paint, contaminants remover in environmental studies and a source of potassium in plant fertilizers, and other industries. Koppeh-dagh basin is extended in Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan countries and Glauconite units exist in this basin. In this research for enhancing and mapping glauconitic units in Koppeh-dagh structural zone in north east of Iran, remote sensing techniques such as Spectral Angle Mapper classification (SAM, band ratio and band composition methods on SPOT, ASTER and Landsat data in 3 steps were applied.

  16. SAT-MAP-CLIMATE project results[SATellite base bio-geophysical parameter MAPping and aggregation modelling for CLIMATE models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C.; Woetmann Nielsen, N.; Soegaard, H.; Boegh, E.; Hesselbjerg Christensen, J.; Jensen, N.O.; Schultz Rasmussen, M.; Astrup, P.; Dellwik, E.

    2002-08-01

    Earth Observation (EO) data from imaging satellites are analysed with respect to albedo, land and sea surface temperatures, land cover types and vegetation parameters such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the leaf area index (LAI). The observed parameters are used in the DMI-HIRLAM-D05 weather prediction model in order to improve the forecasting. The effect of introducing actual sea surface temperatures from NOAA AVHHR compared to climatological mean values, shows a more pronounced land-sea breeze effect which is also observable in field observations. The albedo maps from NOAA AVHRR are rather similar to the climatological mean values so for the HIRLAM model this is insignicant, yet most likely of some importance in the HIRHAM regional climate model. Land cover type maps are assigned local roughness values determined from meteorological field observations. Only maps with a spatial resolution around 25 m can adequately map the roughness variations of the typical patch size distribution in Denmark. A roughness map covering Denmark is aggregated (ie area-average non-linearly) by a microscale aggregation model that takes the non-linear turbulent responses of each roughness step change between patches in an arbitrary pattern into account. The effective roughnesses are calculated into a 15 km by 15 km grid for the HIRLAM model. The effect of hedgerows is included as an added roughness effect as a function of hedge density mapped from a digital vector map. Introducing the new effective roughness maps into the HIRLAM model appears to remedy on the seasonal wind speed bias over land and sea in spring. A new parameterisation on the effective roughness for scalar surface fluxes is developed and tested on synthetic data. Further is a method for the estimation the evapotranspiration from albedo, surface temperatures and NDVI succesfully compared to field observations. The HIRLAM predictions of water vapour at 12 GMT are used for atmospheric correction of

  17. Topographic variables improve climate models of forage species abundance in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species distribution modeling has most commonly been applied to presence-only data and to woody species, but detailed predicted abundance maps for forage species would be of great value for agricultural management and land use planning. We used field data from 107 farms across the northeastern Unite...

  18. Map Resource Packet: Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade Seven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This packet of maps is an auxiliary resource to the "World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade Seven." The set includes: outline, precipitation, and elevation maps; maps for locating key places; landform maps; and historical maps. The list of maps are…

  19. Mapping the potential distribution of the invasive Red Shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) across waterways of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Helen M.; Chernoff, Barry; Fuller, Pam L.; Butman, David

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the future spread of non-native aquatic species continues to be a high priority for natural resource managers striving to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem function. Modeling the potential distributions of alien aquatic species through spatially explicit mapping is an increasingly important tool for risk assessment and prediction. Habitat modeling also facilitates the identification of key environmental variables influencing species distributions. We modeled the potential distribution of an aggressive invasive minnow, the red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), in waterways of the conterminous United States using maximum entropy (Maxent). We used inventory records from the USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, native records for C. lutrensis from museum collections, and a geographic information system of 20 raster climatic and environmental variables to produce a map of potential red shiner habitat. Summer climatic variables were the most important environmental predictors of C. lutrensis distribution, which was consistent with the high temperature tolerance of this species. Results from this study provide insights into the locations and environmental conditions in the US that are susceptible to red shiner invasion.

  20. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake of the Woods 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Edward V.; Fullerton, David S.; Goebel, Joseph E.; Ringrose, Susan M.; Edited and Integrated by Fullerton, David S.

    1995-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake of the Woods 4 deg x 6 deg Quadrangle, United States and Canada, was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States map series (Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-1420, NM-15). The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. This map is a product of collaboration of the Ontario Geological Survey, the Minnesota Geological Survey, the Manitoba Department of Energy and Mines, and the U.S. Geological Survey, and is designed for both scientific and practical purposes. It was prepared in two stages. First, separate maps and map explanations were prepared by the compilers. Second, the maps were combined, integrated, and supplemented by the editor. Map unit symbols were revised to a uniform system of classification and the map unit descriptions were prepared by the editor from information received from the compilers and from additional sources listed under Sources of Information. Diagrams accompanying the map were prepared by the editor. For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relationships, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and

  1. Large scale neural circuit mapping data analysis accelerated with the graphical processing unit (GPU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yulin; Veidenbaum, Alexander V.; Nicolau, Alex; Xu, Xiangmin

    2014-01-01

    Background Modern neuroscience research demands computing power. Neural circuit mapping studies such as those using laser scanning photostimulation (LSPS) produce large amounts of data and require intensive computation for post-hoc processing and analysis. New Method Here we report on the design and implementation of a cost-effective desktop computer system for accelerated experimental data processing with recent GPU computing technology. A new version of Matlab software with GPU enabled functions is used to develop programs that run on Nvidia GPUs to harness their parallel computing power. Results We evaluated both the central processing unit (CPU) and GPU-enabled computational performance of our system in benchmark testing and practical applications. The experimental results show that the GPU-CPU co-processing of simulated data and actual LSPS experimental data clearly outperformed the multi-core CPU with up to a 22x speedup, depending on computational tasks. Further, we present a comparison of numerical accuracy between GPU and CPU computation to verify the precision of GPU computation. In addition, we show how GPUs can be effectively adapted to improve the performance of commercial image processing software such as Adobe Photoshop. Comparison with Existing Method(s) To our best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of GPU application in neural circuit mapping and electrophysiology-based data processing. Conclusions Together, GPU enabled computation enhances our ability to process large-scale data sets derived from neural circuit mapping studies, allowing for increased processing speeds while retaining data precision. PMID:25277633

  2. Modeling and Mapping of Human Source Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    developing a functional framework (and identifying relevant models and algorithms) is to follow the Joint Directors of Laboratories ( JDL ) data fusion...process model ([32], [18]) and explore an analog between traditional fusion processing (at the JDL level 0 and level 1 sub-processes) for physical sensors...this work is shown below. A diagrammatic summary of the analysis is shown in Figures 5 and 6. Figure 4: Information Fusion Hierarchy ( JDL Levels

  3. Using data-driven model-brain mappings to constrain formal models of cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelmer P Borst

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a method to create data-driven mappings from components of cognitive models to brain regions. Cognitive models are notoriously hard to evaluate, especially based on behavioral measures alone. Neuroimaging data can provide additional constraints, but this requires a mapping from model components to brain regions. Although such mappings can be based on the experience of the modeler or on a reading of the literature, a formal method is preferred to prevent researcher-based biases. In this paper we used model-based fMRI analysis to create a data-driven model-brain mapping for five modules of the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We then validated this mapping by applying it to two new datasets with associated models. The new mapping was at least as powerful as an existing mapping that was based on the literature, and indicated where the models were supported by the data and where they have to be improved. We conclude that data-driven model-brain mappings can provide strong constraints on cognitive models, and that model-based fMRI is a suitable way to create such mappings.

  4. Unit testing, model validation, and biological simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mark D.; Ghayoomie, S. Vahid; Larson, Stephen D.; Gerkin, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the software industry has gone hand in hand with the development of tools and cultural practices for ensuring the reliability of complex pieces of software. These tools and practices are now acknowledged to be essential to the management of modern software. As computational models and methods have become increasingly common in the biological sciences, it is important to examine how these practices can accelerate biological software development and improve research quality. In this article, we give a focused case study of our experience with the practices of unit testing and test-driven development in OpenWorm, an open-science project aimed at modeling Caenorhabditis elegans. We identify and discuss the challenges of incorporating test-driven development into a heterogeneous, data-driven project, as well as the role of model validation tests, a category of tests unique to software which expresses scientific models. PMID:27635225

  5. Regional Mapping, Modelling, and Monitoring of Tree Aboveground Biomass Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Airborne lidar collections are preferred for mapping aboveground biomass carbon (AGBC), while historical Landsat imagery are preferred for monitoring decadal scale forest cover change. Our modelling approach tracks AGBC change regionally using Landsat time series metrics; training areas are defined by airborne lidar extents within which AGBC is accurately mapped with high confidence. Geospatial topographic and climate layers are also included in the predictive model. Validation is accomplished using systematically sampled Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data that have been independently collected, processed and summarized at the county level. Our goal is to demonstrate that spatially and temporally aggregated annual AGBC map predictions show no bias when compared to annual county-level summaries across the Northwest USA. A prominent source of bias is trees outside forest; much of the more arid portions of our study area meet the FIA definition of non-forest because the tree cover does not exceed their minimum tree cover threshold. We employ detailed tree cover maps derived from high-resolution aerial imagery to extend our AGBC predictions into non-forest areas. We also employ Landsat-derived annual disturbance maps into our mapped AGBC predictions prior to aggregation and validation.

  6. On Modeling CPU Utilization of MapReduce Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rizvandi, Nikzad Babaii; Zomaya, Albert Y

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to predict the total CPU utilization in terms of CPU clock tick of applications when running on MapReduce framework. Our approach has two key phases: profiling and modeling. In the profiling phase, an application is run several times with different sets of MapReduce configuration parameters to profile total CPU clock tick of the application on a given platform. In the modeling phase, multi linear regression is used to map the sets of MapReduce configuration parameters (number of Mappers, number of Reducers, size of File System (HDFS) and the size of input file) to total CPU clock ticks of the application. This derived model can be used for predicting total CPU requirements of the same application when using MapReduce framework on the same platform. Our approach aims to eliminate error-prone manual processes and presents a fully automated solution. Three standard applications (WordCount, Exim Mainlog parsing and Terasort) are used to evaluate our modeling technique on pseu...

  7. Toward a periodic table of personality: Mapping personality scales between the five-factor model and the circumplex model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen A; Anderson, Neil R

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we examine the structures of 10 personality inventories (PIs) widely used for personnel assessment by mapping the scales of PIs to the lexical Big Five circumplex model resulting in a Periodic Table of Personality. Correlations between 273 scales from 10 internationally popular PIs with independent markers of the lexical Big Five are reported, based on data from samples in 2 countries (United Kingdom, N = 286; United States, N = 1,046), permitting us to map these scales onto the Abridged Big Five Dimensional Circumplex model (Hofstee, de Raad, & Goldberg, 1992). Emerging from our findings we propose a common facet framework derived from the scales of the PIs in our study. These results provide important insights into the literature on criterion-related validity of personality traits, and enable researchers and practitioners to understand how different PI scales converge and diverge and how compound PI scales may be constructed or replicated. Implications for research and practice are considered.

  8. Mapping the Mineral Resource Base for Mineral Carbon-Dioxide Sequestration in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevor, S.C.; Graves, C.R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This database provides information on the occurrence of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States that are suitable for sequestering captured carbon dioxide in mineral form, also known as mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. Mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration is a proposed greenhouse gas mitigation technology whereby carbon dioxide (CO2) is disposed of by reacting it with calcium or magnesium silicate minerals to form a solid magnesium or calcium carbonate product. The technology offers a large capacity to permanently store CO2 in an environmentally benign form via a process that takes little effort to verify or monitor after disposal. These characteristics are unique among its peers in greenhouse gas disposal technologies. The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral CO2 sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester the carbon dioxide. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made in the United States that details their geographical distribution and extent, nor has anyone evaluated their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. The focus of our national-scale map is entirely on ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine- and serpentine-rich rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral CO2 sequestration.

  9. Topsoil organic carbon content of Europe, a new map based on a generalised additive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brogniez, Delphine; Ballabio, Cristiano; Stevens, Antoine; Jones, Robert J. A.; Montanarella, Luca; van Wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for up-to-date spatially continuous organic carbon (OC) data for global environment and climatic modeling. Whilst the current map of topsoil organic carbon content for Europe (Jones et al., 2005) was produced by applying expert-knowledge based pedo-transfer rules on large soil mapping units, the aim of this study was to replace it by applying digital soil mapping techniques on the first European harmonised geo-referenced topsoil (0-20 cm) database, which arises from the LUCAS (land use/cover area frame statistical survey) survey. A generalized additive model (GAM) was calibrated on 85% of the dataset (ca. 17 000 soil samples) and a backward stepwise approach selected slope, land cover, temperature, net primary productivity, latitude and longitude as environmental covariates (500 m resolution). The validation of the model (applied on 15% of the dataset), gave an R2 of 0.27. We observed that most organic soils were under-predicted by the model and that soils of Scandinavia were also poorly predicted. The model showed an RMSE of 42 g kg-1 for mineral soils and of 287 g kg-1 for organic soils. The map of predicted OC content showed the lowest values in Mediterranean countries and in croplands across Europe, whereas highest OC content were predicted in wetlands, woodlands and in mountainous areas. The map of standard error of the OC model predictions showed high values in northern latitudes, wetlands, moors and heathlands, whereas low uncertainty was mostly found in croplands. A comparison of our results with the map of Jones et al. (2005) showed a general agreement on the prediction of mineral soils' OC content, most probably because the models use some common covariates, namely land cover and temperature. Our model however failed to predict values of OC content greater than 200 g kg-1, which we explain by the imposed unimodal distribution of our model, whose mean is tilted towards the majority of soils, which are mineral. Finally, average

  10. Generalized multidirectional fuzzy map model of the logistics system networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chun-Rong; Liu, Ming-Yuan; Li, Yan; He, Yue M.

    1997-07-01

    By conducting [0, 1] treatment to time consuming of logistics system network key links, and regarding the time consumed by manufacture, inspection, storage, assembling, packing and market as a kind of existent extent of the joint and the time consumed by materials handling, transportation and logistics information as the connection strength between joints in a generalized multi-directional fuzzy map, a generalized multi-directional fuzzy map model of logistics system networks is built. The mutual flow among network joints and the special form of generalized fuzzy matrix is analyzed. Finally, an example of model building is given.

  11. Relationship Marketing results: proposition of a cognitive mapping model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iná Futino Barreto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This research sought to develop a cognitive model that expresses how marketing professionals understand the relationship between the constructs that define relationship marketing (RM. It also tried to understand, using the obtained model, how objectives in this field are achieved. Design/methodology/approach – Through cognitive mapping, we traced 35 individual mental maps, highlighting how each respondent understands the interactions between RM elements. Based on the views of these individuals, we established an aggregate mental map. Theoretical foundation – The topic is based on a literature review that explores the RM concept and its main elements. Based on this review, we listed eleven main constructs. Findings – We established an aggregate mental map that represents the RM structural model. Model analysis identified that CLV is understood as the final result of RM. We also observed that the impact of most of the RM elements on CLV is brokered by loyalty. Personalization and quality, on the other hand, proved to be process input elements, and are the ones that most strongly impact others. Finally, we highlight that elements that punish customers are much less effective than elements that benefit them. Contributions - The model was able to insert core elements of RM, but absent from most formal models: CLV and customization. The analysis allowed us to understand the interactions between the RM elements and how the end result of RM (CLV is formed. This understanding improves knowledge on the subject and helps guide, assess and correct actions.

  12. MELCOR modeling of Fukushima unit 2 accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevon, Tuomo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    A MELCOR model of the Fukushima Daiichi unit 2 accident was created in order to get a better understanding of the event and to improve severe accident modeling methods. The measured pressure and water level could be reproduced relatively well with the calculation. This required adjusting the RCIC system flow rates and containment leak area so that a good match to the measurements is achieved. Modeling of gradual flooding of the torus room with water that originated from the tsunami was necessary for a satisfactory reproduction of the measured containment pressure. The reactor lower head did not fail in this calculation, and all the fuel remained in the RPV. 13 % of the fuel was relocated from the core area, and all the fuel rods lost their integrity, releasing at least some volatile radionuclides. According to the calculation, about 90 % of noble gas inventory and about 0.08 % of cesium inventory was released to the environment. The release started 78 h after the earthquake, and a second release peak came at 90 h. Uncertainties in the calculation are very large because there is scarce public data available about the Fukushima power plant and because it is not yet possible to inspect the status of the reactor and the containment. Uncertainty in the calculated cesium release is larger than factor of ten.

  13. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Nipigon 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Edward V.; Fullerton, David S.; Farrand, William R.; Edited and Integrated by Fullerton, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Nipigon 4 degree x 6 degree Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. This map is a product of collaboration of the Ontario Geological Survey, the University of Michigan, and the U.S. Geological Survey, and is designed for both scientific and practical purposes. It was prepared in two stages. First, separate maps and map explanations were prepared by the compilers. Second, the maps were combined, integrated, and supplemented by the editor. Map unit symbols were revised to a uniform system of classification and the map unit descriptions were prepared by the editor from information received from the compilers and from additional sources listed under Sources of Information. Diagrams accompanying the map were prepared by the editor. For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relationships, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the map unit descriptions. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as kame moraine deposits, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of

  14. The General Urban Plan of Casimcea territorial administrative unit, map of natural and anthropogenic risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin BĂNICĂ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The General Urban Plan represents the legal ground for any development action proposed. After endorsement and approval as required by law, GUP is act of authority of local government for the area in which it applies. The aim is to establish priorities regulations applied in land use planning and construction of structures. In terms of geographical location, the administrative territory of Casimcea, Tulcea county, falls in the central Northwest Plateau Casimcei. This is the second unit of the Central Dobrogea Plateau. Geographical location in southeastern Romania, climatic and relief conditions and anthropogenic pressure, expose the village administrative territorial unit Casimcea, permanent susceptibility to produce natural and antropogenical risks. In this context, we identified the following categories of natural and anthropogenic risks: i natural risk phenomena (earthquakes, strong winds, heavy rains, floods caused by overflowing or precipitation, erosion of river banks and torrents, gravitational processes, rain droplet erosion and surface soil erosion; and ii anthropogenic risk phenomena (overgrazing, chemicals use in agriculture, road transport infrastructure and electricity, wind turbines for electricity production, waste deposits, agro-zootechnical complexs, and human cemeteries. Extending their surface was materialized by creating a map of natural and anthropogenic risk on Casimcea territorial administrative unit, explaining the share of potentially affected areas as territorial balance

  15. Geochemical and mineralogical maps for soils of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Solano, Federico; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began sampling in 2007 for a low-density (1 site per 1,600 square kilometers, 4,857 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of soils in the conterminous United States as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project. The sampling protocol for the national-scale survey included, at each site, a sample from a depth of 0 to 5 centimeters, a composite of the soil A horizon, and a deeper sample from the soil C horizon or, if the top of the C horizon was at a depth greater than 1 meter, a sample from a depth of approximately 80–100 centimeters. The elements by methods that yield the total or near-total elemental content. The major mineralogical components in the samples from the soil A and C horizons were determined by a quantitative X-ray diffraction method using Rietveld refinement. Sampling in the conterminous United States was completed in 2010, with chemical and mineralogical analyses completed in May 2013. The resulting data set provides an estimate of the abundance and spatial distribution of chemical elements and minerals in soils of the conterminous United States and represents a baseline for soil geochemistry and mineralogy against which future changes may be recognized and quantified. This report releases geochemical and mineralogical maps along with a histogram, boxplot, and empirical cumulative distribution function plot for each element or mineral.

  16. Mental maps and travel behaviour: meanings and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannes, Els; Kusumastuti, Diana; Espinosa, Maikel León; Janssens, Davy; Vanhoof, Koen; Wets, Geert

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the " mental map" concept is positioned with regard to individual travel behaviour to start with. Based on Ogden and Richards' triangle of meaning (The meaning of meaning: a study of the influence of language upon thought and of the science of symbolism. International library of psychology, philosophy and scientific method. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1966) distinct thoughts, referents and symbols originating from different scientific disciplines are identified and explained in order to clear up the notion's fuzziness. Next, the use of this concept in two major areas of research relevant to travel demand modelling is indicated and discussed in detail: spatial cognition and decision-making. The relevance of these constructs to understand and model individual travel behaviour is explained and current research efforts to implement these concepts in travel demand models are addressed. Furthermore, these mental map notions are specified in two types of computational models, i.e. a Bayesian Inference Network (BIN) and a Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM). Both models are explained, and a numerical and a real-life example are provided. Both approaches yield a detailed quantitative representation of the mental map of decision-making problems in travel behaviour.

  17. MAGELLAN: a cognitive map-based model of human wayfinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jeremy R; Lew, Timothy F; Li, Ningcheng; Sekuler, Robert; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    In an unfamiliar environment, searching for and navigating to a target requires that spatial information be acquired, stored, processed, and retrieved. In a study encompassing all of these processes, participants acted as taxicab drivers who learned to pick up and deliver passengers in a series of small virtual towns. We used data from these experiments to refine and validate MAGELLAN, a cognitive map-based model of spatial learning and wayfinding. MAGELLAN accounts for the shapes of participants' spatial learning curves, which measure their experience-based improvement in navigational efficiency in unfamiliar environments. The model also predicts the ease (or difficulty) with which different environments are learned and, within a given environment, which landmarks will be easy (or difficult) to localize from memory. Using just 2 free parameters, MAGELLAN provides a useful account of how participants' cognitive maps evolve over time with experience, and how participants use the information stored in their cognitive maps to navigate and explore efficiently.

  18. Predictive spatial modelling for mapping soil salinity at continental scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Elisabeth; Wilford, John; de Caritat, Patrice

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinity is a serious limitation to agriculture and one of the main causes of land degradation. Soil is considered saline if its electrical conductivity (EC) is > 4 dS/m. Maps of saline soil distribution are essential for appropriate land development. Previous attempts to map soil salinity over extensive areas have relied on satellite imagery, aerial electromagnetic (EM) and/or proximally sensed EM data; other environmental (climate, topographic, geologic or soil) datasets are generally not used. Having successfully modelled and mapped calcium carbonate distribution over the 0-80 cm depth in Australian soils using machine learning with point samples from the National Geochemical Survey of Australia (NGSA), we took a similar approach to map soil salinity at 90-m resolution over the continent. The input data were the EC1:5 measurements on the internal correlation (r) of 0.88 between predicted and measured logEC1:5 (training data), an average external correlation of 0.48 (test subset), and a Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (which evaluates the 1:1 fit) of 0.61. Therefore, the rules derived were mapped and the mean prediction for each 90-m pixel was used for the final logEC1:5 map. This is the most detailed picture of soil salinity over Australia since the 2001 National Land and Water Resources Audit and is generally consistent with it. Our map will be useful as a baseline salinity map circa 2008, when the NGSA samples were collected, for future State of the Environment reports.

  19. The Distance Field Model and Distance Constrained MAP Adaptation Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUPeng; WANGZuoying

    2003-01-01

    Spatial structure information, i.e., the rel-ative position information of phonetic states in the feature space, is long to be carefully researched yet. In this pa-per, a new model named “Distance Field” is proposed to describe the spatial structure information. Based on this model, a modified MAP adaptation algorithm named dis-tance constrained maximum a poateriori (DCMAP) is in-troduced. The distance field model gives large penalty when the spatial structure is destroyed. As a result the DCMAP reserves the spatial structure information in adaptation process. Experiments show the Distance Field Model improves the performance of MAP adapta-tion. Further results show DCMAP has strong cross-state estimation ability, which is used to train a well-performed speaker-dependent model by data from only part of pho-

  20. Effects of different scale land cover maps in watershed modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Antonio; Araújo, Antonio; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Water management is a rather complex process that usually involves multiple stakeholder, multiple data and sources, and complex mathematical modelling. One of the key data sets to understand a particular water system is the characterization of the land cover. Land cover maps are essential for the estimation of environmental variables (e.g. LAI, ETa) related to water quantity. Also, land cover maps are used for modelling the water quality. For instance, watersheds that have intensive agriculture can have poor water quality due to increase of nutrients loading; forest fires have a significant negative impact over the water quality by increasing the sediment loads; forest fires can increase flood risks. The land cover dynamics can as well severely affect the water quantity and quality in watersheds. In the MyWater project we are conducting a study to supply water quantity and quality information services for five study areas in five different countries (Brazil, Greece, Mozambique, Netherlands, and Portugal). In this project several land cover maps were produced both at regional and local scales, based on the exploitation of medium and high resolution satellite images (MERIS and SPOT 4). These maps were produced through semi-automatic supervised classification procedures, using an LCCS based nomenclature of 15 classes. Validation results pointed to global accuracy values greater than 80% for all maps. In this paper we focus on studying the effect of using different scale land cover maps in the watershed modelling and its impact in results. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  1. Geological maps and models: are we certain how uncertain they are?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Steve; Waters, Colin; McEvoy, Fiona

    2014-05-01

    Geological maps and latterly 3D models provide the spatial framework for geology at diverse scales or resolutions. As demands continue to rise for sustainable use of the subsurface, use of these maps and models is informing decisions on management of natural resources, hazards and environmental change. Inaccuracies and uncertainties in geological maps and models can impact substantially on the perception, assessment and management of opportunities and the associated risks . Lithostratigraphical classification schemes predominate, and are used in most geological mapping and modelling. The definition of unit boundaries, as 2D lines or 3D surfaces is the prime objective. The intervening area or volume is rarely described other than by its bulk attributes, those relating to the whole unit. Where sufficient data exist on the spatial and/or statistical distribution of properties it can be gridded or voxelated with integrity. Here we only discuss the uncertainty involved in defining the boundary conditions. The primary uncertainty of any geological map or model is the accuracy of the geological boundaries, i.e. tops, bases, limits, fault intersections etc. Traditionally these have been depicted on BGS maps using three line styles that reflect the uncertainty of the boundary, e.g. observed, inferred, conjectural. Most geological maps tend to neglect the subsurface expression (subcrops etc). Models could also be built with subsurface geological boundaries (as digital node strings) tagged with levels of uncertainty; initial experience suggests three levels may again be practicable. Once tagged these values could be used to autogenerate uncertainty plots. Whilst maps are predominantly explicit and based upon evidence and the conceptual the understanding of the geologist, models of this type are less common and tend to be restricted to certain software methodologies. Many modelling packages are implicit, being driven by simple statistical interpolation or complex algorithms

  2. The mapping methods and division of tectonic units of the regional tectonic map in the eastern China seas and adjacent regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yanhong; ZHANG Xunhua; WEN Zhenhe; GUO Zhenxuan

    2009-01-01

    The geological-geophysical map series of the eastern China seas and adjacent region (1:1 000 000) will be published in the late half year of 2009. The regional tectonic map is one of the main professional maps. The Mapping methods, the division method of geological tectonic units and the main geological tectonic units are mainly discussed. The strata from Pliocene to Holocene are peeled off so as to display the Pre-Pliocene structures. In basins, isopaches are drawn for the Cenozoic deposits. The plate tectonic theory and present tectonic pattern are adopted as the priorities in tectonic division. As to the division of intraplate tectonic units, it is a revision, complement and improvement of previous dividing systems, and the nomenclature for each tectonic unit follows the current system in China. The first-order tectonic unit is plate (Pacific Plate, Eurasian Plate and Philippine Sea Plate). The second-order tectonic unit is tectonic domain (East Asian continental tectonic domain,East Asian continental margin tectonic domain and west Pacific tectonic domain). The Philippine Sea Plate and the west part of the Pacific Plate are called the West Pacific tectonic domain. The part of the Eurasian Plate involved in this study area can be further divided into East Asian continental tectonic domain and East Asian continental margin tectonic domain. The East Asian continental margin domain is composed of the Ryukyu island arc, the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin and the back-arc basin of Sea of Japan. The East Asian continental tectonic domain in this study area is composed of the Sino-Korea Massif, the Changjiang River (Yangtze) Massif and South China Massif. In turn, these massifs consist of basins, folded belts or uplift zones. The basins,the folded belts or the uplift zones are further divided into uplifts and depressions made up of sags and swells.

  3. Understanding Variations of Soil Mapping Units and Associated Data for Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Melissa D; Southard, Randal J; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2015-07-01

    Soil samples have potential to be useful in forensic investigations, but their utility may be limited due to the inherent variability of soil properties, the wide array of analytical methods, and complexity of data analysis. This study examined the differentiation of similar soils based on both gross (texture, color, mineralogy) and explicit soil properties (elemental composition, cation exchange, Fe-oxyhydroxides). Soils were collected from Fallbrook and adjacent map units from Riverside and San Diego Counties in California. Samples were characterized using multiple techniques, including chemical extracts, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results were analyzed using multiple analytical approaches to compare counties and land uses. Some analyses (XRD, extractions) were better at distinguishing among samples than others (color, texture). Ratios of rare earth elements were particularly useful for distinguishing samples between counties. This potential to "fingerprint" soils illustrates the usefulness of a comprehensive soil database for criminal investigators.

  4. Robust discriminative response map fitting with constrained local models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asthana, Akshay; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Cheng, Shiyang; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel discriminative regression based approach for the Constrained Local Models (CLMs) framework, referred to as the Discriminative Response Map Fitting (DRMF) method, which shows impressive performance in the generic face fitting scenario. The motivation behind this approach is that, u

  5. Mapping and modelling ecosystem services for science, policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burkhard, B.; Crossman, N.; Nedkov, S.; Petz, K.; Alkemade, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem services are a significant research and policy topic and there are many modelling and mapping approaches aimed at understanding the stocks, demands and flows of ecosystem services on different spatial and temporal scales. The integration of geo-biophysical processes and structure

  6. Mapping and modelling ecosystem services for science, policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burkhard, B.; Crossman, N.; Nedkov, S.; Petz, K.; Alkemade, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem services are a significant research and policy topic and there are many modelling and mapping approaches aimed at understanding the stocks, demands and flows of ecosystem services on different spatial and temporal scales. The integration of geo-biophysical processes and structure assessmen

  7. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Lund, Torben Ellegaard

    2011-01-01

    There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus......, and conclude that the sensitivity map is a versatile and computationally efficient tool for visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging....

  8. Modern aerial gamma-ray spectrometry and regional potassium map of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    Aerial gamma-ray surveys of the natural environment measure the flux of gamma rays produced by the radioactive decay of 40K, 214Bi, and 208Tl in the upper 10–20 cm of surface materials. 40K is a radioactive potassium isotope which can be used to estimate the total amount of potassium in the soils and rocks. 214Bi is a decay product of the 238U radioactive decay series and is used to estimate the uranium concentrations, and 208Tl, a decay product of the 232Th radioactive decay series, is used to estimate thorium concentrations. Aerial gamma-ray data covering the 48 contiguous states of the United States have been compiled to produce maps showing the distributions of equivalent uranium, equivalent thorium, and potassium. This compilation involved processing the aerial survey data from about 470 1° × 2° quadrangle maps.

  9. Mapping the terrestrial reptile distributions in Oman and the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gardner

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial reptile fauna of Oman and the United Arab Emirates is rich, with at least 79 species of lizards and snakes and a single species of worm lizard. However, to date there have been no accurate maps published of their distribution ranges, and distribution data relies on scattered museum specimen localities and published accounts. Considerable numbers of locality data points do exist, collected by visting and resident herpetologists, and more recently, from ecologists working on surveys for environmental impact assessments and biodiversity action plans. These data are invaluable, as amongst other uses, they can assist conservation planning and management, and will eventually document changes in distributions over time. This is especially true where there has been extensive habitat loss and degradation due to urbanisation and development activities. Data have been collected from museum records, published accounts and unpublished data from a variety of sources, including many records made by the author over the last 20 years, with the aim of producing an atlas of species distributions. The number of records is now approaching 5.000, giving sufficient coverage to produce maps that are useful for a variety of applications. Examples are discussed, including endangered and endemic species, snakes of medical importance and species of potential interest in ecological and evolutionary studies.

  10. Mapping Relational Operations onto Hypergraph Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-10-01

    ="false" Priority="31" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Reference"/>

    The relational model is the most commonly used data model for storing large datasets, perhaps due to the simplicity of the tabular format which had revolutionized database management systems. However, many real world objects are recursive and associative in nature which makes storage in the relational model difficult. The hypergraph model is a generalization of a graph model, where each hypernode can be made up of other nodes or graphs and each hyperedge can be made up of one or more edges. It may address the recursive and associative limitations of relational model

  11. Linear models for joint association and linkage QTL mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rohan L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populational linkage disequilibrium and within-family linkage are commonly used for QTL mapping and marker assisted selection. The combination of both results in more robust and accurate locations of the QTL, but models proposed so far have been either single marker, complex in practice or well fit to a particular family structure. Results We herein present linear model theory to come up with additive effects of the QTL alleles in any member of a general pedigree, conditional to observed markers and pedigree, accounting for possible linkage disequilibrium among QTLs and markers. The model is based on association analysis in the founders; further, the additive effect of the QTLs transmitted to the descendants is a weighted (by the probabilities of transmission average of the substitution effects of founders' haplotypes. The model allows for non-complete linkage disequilibrium QTL-markers in the founders. Two submodels are presented: a simple and easy to implement Haley-Knott type regression for half-sib families, and a general mixed (variance component model for general pedigrees. The model can use information from all markers. The performance of the regression method is compared by simulation with a more complex IBD method by Meuwissen and Goddard. Numerical examples are provided. Conclusion The linear model theory provides a useful framework for QTL mapping with dense marker maps. Results show similar accuracies but a bias of the IBD method towards the center of the region. Computations for the linear regression model are extremely simple, in contrast with IBD methods. Extensions of the model to genomic selection and multi-QTL mapping are straightforward.

  12. Bayesian multi-scale modeling for aggregated disease mapping data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aregay, Mehreteab; Lawson, Andrew B; Faes, Christel; Kirby, Russell S

    2015-09-29

    In disease mapping, a scale effect due to an aggregation of data from a finer resolution level to a coarser level is a common phenomenon. This article addresses this issue using a hierarchical Bayesian modeling framework. We propose four different multiscale models. The first two models use a shared random effect that the finer level inherits from the coarser level. The third model assumes two independent convolution models at the finer and coarser levels. The fourth model applies a convolution model at the finer level, but the relative risk at the coarser level is obtained by aggregating the estimates at the finer level. We compare the models using the deviance information criterion (DIC) and Watanabe-Akaike information criterion (WAIC) that are applied to real and simulated data. The results indicate that the models with shared random effects outperform the other models on a range of criteria.

  13. Modeling thermally active building components using space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frank; Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    In order to efficiently implement thermally active building components in new buildings, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal interaction between them and other building components. Applying parameter investigation or numerical optimization methods to a differential-algebraic (DAE) model....... This paper describes the principle of the space mapping technique, and introduces a simple space mapping technique. The technique is applied to a lumped parameter model of a thermo active component, which provides a model of the thermal performance of the component as a function of two design parameters...... of a building provides a systematic way of estimating efficient building designs. However, using detailed numerical calculations of the components in the building is a time consuming process, which may become prohibitive if the DAE model is to be used for parameter variation or optimization. Unfortunately...

  14. a Review of Recent Research in Indoor Modelling & Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, M.; Isikdag, U.; Basaraner, M.

    2016-06-01

    Indoor modeling and mapping has been an active area of research in last 20 years in order to tackle the problems related to positioning and tracking of people and objects indoors, and provides many opportunities for several domains ranging from emergency response to logistics in micro urban spaces. The outputs of recent research in the field have been presented in several scientific publications and events primarily related to spatial information science and technology. This paper summarizes the outputs of last 10 years of research on indoor modeling and mapping within a proper classification which covers 7 areas, i.e. Information Acquisition by Sensors, Model Definition, Model Integration, Indoor Positioning and LBS, Routing & Navigation Methods, Augmented and Virtual Reality Applications, and Ethical Issues. Finally, the paper outlines the current and future research directions and concluding remarks.

  15. A REVIEW OF RECENT RESEARCH IN INDOOR MODELLING & MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gunduz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor modeling and mapping has been an active area of research in last 20 years in order to tackle the problems related to positioning and tracking of people and objects indoors, and provides many opportunities for several domains ranging from emergency response to logistics in micro urban spaces. The outputs of recent research in the field have been presented in several scientific publications and events primarily related to spatial information science and technology. This paper summarizes the outputs of last 10 years of research on indoor modeling and mapping within a proper classification which covers 7 areas, i.e. Information Acquisition by Sensors, Model Definition, Model Integration, Indoor Positioning and LBS, Routing & Navigation Methods, Augmented and Virtual Reality Applications, and Ethical Issues. Finally, the paper outlines the current and future research directions and concluding remarks.

  16. Uncertainty Modeling Based on Bayesian Network in Ontology Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuhua; LIU Tao; SUN Xiaolin

    2006-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is crucial in exact concept mapping between ontologies. This paper presents a new framework on modeling uncertainty in ontologies based on bayesian networks (BN). In our approach, ontology Web language (OWL) is extended to add probabilistic markups for attaching probability information, the source and target ontologies (expressed by patulous OWL) are translated into bayesian networks (BNs), the mapping between the two ontologies can be digged out by constructing the conditional probability tables (CPTs) of the BN using a improved algorithm named I-IPFP based on iterative proportional fitting procedure (IPFP). The basic idea of this framework and algorithm are validated by positive results from computer experiments.

  17. Visual Mapping of Sedimentary Facies Can Yield Accurate And Geomorphically Meaningful Results at Morphological Unit to River Segment Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Wyrick, J. R.; Jackson, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Long practiced in fisheries, visual substrate mapping of coarse-bedded rivers is eschewed by geomorphologists for inaccuracy and limited sizing data. Geomorphologists perform time-consuming measurements of surficial grains, with the few locations precluding spatially explicit mapping and analysis of sediment facies. Remote sensing works for bare land, but not vegetated or subaqueous sediments. As visual systems apply the log2 Wentworth scale made for sieving, they suffer from human inability to readily discern those classes. We hypothesized that size classes centered on the PDF of the anticipated sediment size distribution would enable field crews to accurately (i) identify presence/absence of each class in a facies patch and (ii) estimate the relative amount of each class to within 10%. We first tested 6 people using 14 measured samples with different mixtures. Next, we carried out facies mapping for ~ 37 km of the lower Yuba River in California. Finally, we tested the resulting data to see if it produced statistically significant hydraulic-sedimentary-geomorphic results. Presence/absence performance error was 0-4% for four people, 13% for one person, and 33% for one person. The last person was excluded from further effort. For the abundance estimation performance error was 1% for one person, 7-12% for three people, and 33% for one person. This last person was further trained and re-tested. We found that the samples easiest to visually quantify were unimodal and bimodal, while those most difficult had nearly equal amounts of each size. This confirms psychological studies showing that humans have a more difficult time quantifying abundances of subgroups when confronted with well-mixed groups. In the Yuba, mean grain size decreased downstream, as is typical for an alluvial river. When averaged by reach, mean grain size and bed slope were correlated with an r2 of 0.95. At the morphological unit (MU) scale, eight in-channel bed MU types had an r2 of 0.90 between mean

  18. Rapid Texture Mapping from Image Sequences for Building Geometry Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zuxun; WU Jun; ZHANG Jianqing

    2003-01-01

    An effective approach,mapping the texture for building model based on the digital photogrammetric theory, is proposed. The easily-acquired image sequences from digital video camera on helicopter are used astexture resource, and the correspon-dence between the space edge in building geometry model and its line feature in image sequences is determined semiautomatically. The experimental results in production of three-dimensional data for car navigation show us an attractive future both in efficiency and effect.

  19. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Political Areas of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the counties and equivalent entities of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. States and the...

  20. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Inland Water Areas of the United States 201406 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing waterbodies and wetlands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified...

  1. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Streams of the United States 201406 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing streams in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of the...

  2. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Canals and Aqueducts of the United States 201406 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the canals, aqueducts, and the Intracoastal Waterway in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands....

  3. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Political Boundary Lines of the United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the boundaries of counties and equivalent entities of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands....

  4. Effect of lithological data of different scales on modelling landslide susceptibility maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassner, C.; Petschko, H.; Bell, R.; Glade, T.

    2012-04-01

    In landslide susceptibility modelling, lithology is often only available at rather coarse scales. The effects of this course resolution on the final map are often unknown. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate how different lithological data affect the results of landslide susceptibility modelling and to analyse spatial differences in the resulting maps in Scheibbs, a district of Lower Austria. Within this study logistic regression is used to model landslide susceptibility, focusing on the consequences deriving from the use of two different lithological datasets (mapping scale 1:200,000 and 1:50,000). Here, the dependent variable is the landslide inventory and the independent variables are derivates of the digital elevation model (DEM) at a 10m resolution (slope, aspect, and curvature), the land cover map (10m x 10m) and lithological maps. Nominal data (land cover and lithology) were transformed to metric data by frequency ratios. Three different techniques are applied to evaluate model performance to allow for a comparison of the models/maps using lithological data with varying scales. The first approach uses AUROC curves of the test and training datasets, which were generated by random sampling. Secondly, the resulting susceptibility maps were classified into four classes with equal intervals. Then, the performance was evaluated from the percentages of terrain units that each model correctly classifies and the number of landslides falling within the area classified as unstable (true positives). In a third evaluation step the geomorphological quality of the resulting susceptibility maps was visually interpreted. Different classification methods (e.g. quartiles, jenks) were tested. The results show that the lithological data (1:50,000) have slightly better AUROC values. Surprisingly, the statistical validation of the true positives does not allow a definite preference in terms of best accuracy for either dataset. Test results on geomorphological value show

  5. Using data-driven model-brain mappings to constrain formal models of cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Jelmer P; Nijboer, Menno; Taatgen, Niels A; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method to create data-driven mappings from components of cognitive models to brain regions. Cognitive models are notoriously hard to evaluate, especially based on behavioral measures alone. Neuroimaging data can provide additional constraints, but this requires a mapping f

  6. XRF map identification problems based on a PDE electrodeposition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgura, Ivonne; Bozzini, Benedetto

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we focus on the following map identification problem (MIP): given a morphochemical reaction–diffusion (RD) PDE system modeling an electrodepostion process, we look for a time t *, belonging to the transient dynamics and a set of parameters \\mathbf{p} , such that the PDE solution, for the morphology h≤ft(x,y,{{t}\\ast};\\mathbf{p}\\right) and for the chemistry θ ≤ft(x,y,{{t}\\ast};\\mathbf{p}\\right) approximates a given experimental map M *. Towards this aim, we introduce a numerical algorithm using singular value decomposition (SVD) and Frobenius norm to give a measure of error distance between experimental maps for h and θ and simulated solutions of the RD-PDE system on a fixed time integration interval. The technique proposed allows quantitative use of microspectroscopy images, such as XRF maps. Specifically, in this work we have modelled the morphology and manganese distributions of nanostructured components of innovative batteries and we have followed their changes resulting from ageing under operating conditions. The availability of quantitative information on space-time evolution of active materials in terms of model parameters will allow dramatic improvements in knowledge-based optimization of battery fabrication and operation.

  7. GIS and ANN model for landslide susceptibility mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Landslide hazard is as the probability of occurrence of apotentially damaging landslide phenomenon within specified period of time and within a given area. The susceptibility map provides the relative spatial probability of landslides occurrence. A study is presented of the application of GIS and artificial neural network model to landslide susceptibility mapping, with particular reference to landslides on natural terrain in this paper. The method has been applied to Lantau Island, the largest outlying island within the territory of Hong Kong. A three-level neural network model was constructed and trained by the back-propagate algorithm in the geographical database of the study area. The data in the database includes digital elevation modal and its derivatives, landslides distribution and their attributes, superficial geological maps, vegetation cover, the raingauges distribution and their 14 years 5-minute observation. Based on field inspection and analysis of correlation between terrain variables and landslides frequency, lithology, vegetation cover, slope radient, slope aspect, slope curvature, elevation, the characteristic value, the rainstorms corresponding to the landslide, and distance to drainage line are considered to be related to landslide usceptibility in this study. The artificial neural network is then coupled with the ArcView3.2 GIS software to produce the landslide susceptibility map, which classifies the susceptibility into three levels: low, moderate, and high. The results from this study indicate that GIS coupled with artificial nural network model is a flexible and powerful approach to identify the spatial probability of hazards.

  8. Broad-band Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps (10-150 s) across the United States from ambient noise data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kaifeng; Luo, Yinhe; Xie, Jun

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of imaging broad-band (10-150 s) Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps on a continental scale using ambient noise tomography (ANT). We obtain broad-band Rayleigh waves from cross-correlations of ambient noise data between all station pairs of USArray and measure the dispersion curves from these cross-correlations at a period band of 10-150 s. The large-scale dense USArray enables us to obtain over 500 000 surface wave paths which cover the contiguous United States densely. Using these paths, we generate Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps at 10-150 s periods. Our phase velocity maps are similar to other reported phase velocity maps based on ambient noise data at short periods (phase velocity maps from ANT can be used to construct 3-D lithospheric and asthenospheric velocity structures.

  9. A Novel Dynamic Physical Storage Model for Vehicle Navigation Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical storage model is one of the key technologies for vehicle navigation maps used in a navigation system. However, the performance of most traditional storage models is limited in dynamic navigation due to the static storage format they use. In this paper, we proposed a new physical storage model, China Navigation Data Format (CNDF, which helped access and update the navigation data. The CNDF model used the reach-based hierarchy method to build a road hierarchal network, which enhanced the efficiency of data compression. It also adopted the Linear Link Coding method, in which the start position was combined with the end position as the identification code for multi-level links, and each link traced up-level links consistently without recording the array of identifications. The navigation map of East China (including Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong, Hebei, and Jiangsu at 1:10,000, generated using the CNDF model, and the real time traffic information in Beijing were combined to test the performance of a navigation system using an embedded navigation device. Results showed that it cost less than 1 second each time to refresh the navigation map, and the accuracy of the hierarchal shortest-path algorithm was 99.9%. Our work implied that the CNDF model is efficient in vehicle navigation applications.

  10. Model United Nations comes to CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    From 20 to 22 January pupils from international schools in Switzerland, France and Turkey came to CERN for three days of "UN-type" conferences.   The MUN organisers, who are all pupils at the Lycée international in Ferney-Voltaire, worked tirelessly for weeks to make the event a real success. The members of the MUN/MFNU association at the Lycée international in Ferney-Voltaire spent several months preparing for their first "Model United Nations" (MUN),  a simulation of a UN session at which young "diplomats" take on the role of delegates representing different nations to discuss a given topic. And as their chosen topic was science, it was only natural that they should hold the event at CERN. For three days, from 20 to 22 January, no fewer than 340 pupils from 12 international schools* in Switzerland, France and Turkey came together to deliberate, consult and debate on the importance of scientific progress fo...

  11. Quantitative analysis of terrain units mapped in the northern quarter of Venus from Venera 15/16 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G. G.

    1991-01-01

    The contacts between 34 geological/geomorphic terrain units in the northern quarter of Venus mapped from Venera 15/16 data were digitized and converted to a Sinusoidal Equal-Area projection. The result was then registered with a merged Pioneer Venus/Venera 15/16 altimetric database, root mean square (rms) slope values, and radar reflectivity values derived from Pioneer Venus. The resulting information includes comparisons among individual terrain units and terrain groups to which they are assigned in regard to percentage of map area covered, elevation, rms slopes, distribution of suspected craters greater than 10 km in diameter.

  12. A Color Topographic Map Based on the Dichromatic Reflectance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Zavidovique

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Topographic maps are an interesting alternative to edge-based techniques common in computer vision applications. Indeed, unlike edges, level lines are closed and less sensitive to external parameters. They provide a compact geometrical representation of images and they are, to some extent, robust to contrast changes. The aim of this paper is to propose a novel and vectorial representation of color topographic maps. In contrast with existing color topographic maps, it does not require any color conversion. For this purpose, our technique refers to the dichromatic reflectance model, which explains the distribution of colors as the mixture of two reflectance components, related either to the body or to the specular reflection. Thus, instead of defining the topographic map along the sole luminance direction in the RGB space, we propose to design color lines along each dominant color vector, from the body reflection. Experimental results show that this approach provides a better tradeoff between the compactness and the quality of a topographic map.

  13. A Color Topographic Map Based on the Dichromatic Reflectance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouiffès Michèle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Topographic maps are an interesting alternative to edge-based techniques common in computer vision applications. Indeed, unlike edges, level lines are closed and less sensitive to external parameters. They provide a compact geometrical representation of images and they are, to some extent, robust to contrast changes. The aim of this paper is to propose a novel and vectorial representation of color topographic maps. In contrast with existing color topographic maps, it does not require any color conversion. For this purpose, our technique refers to the dichromatic reflectance model, which explains the distribution of colors as the mixture of two reflectance components, related either to the body or to the specular reflection. Thus, instead of defining the topographic map along the sole luminance direction in the RGB space, we propose to design color lines along each dominant color vector, from the body reflection. Experimental results show that this approach provides a better tradeoff between the compactness and the quality of a topographic map.

  14. Exact Maps in Density Functional Theory for Lattice Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, Tanja; Fuks, Johanna I; Rubio, Angel

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we employ exact diagonalization for model systems on a real-space lattice to explicitly construct the exact density-to-potential and for the first time the exact density-to-wavefunction map that underly the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem in density functional theory. Having the explicit wavefunction-to- density map at hand, we are able to construct arbitrary observables as functionals of the ground-state density. We analyze the density-to-potential map as the distance between the fragments of a system increases and the correlation in the system grows. We observe a feature that gradually develops in the density-to-potential map as well as in the density-to-wavefunction map. This feature is inherited by arbitrary expectation values as functional of the ground-state density. We explicitly show the excited-state energies, the excited-state densities, and the correlation entropy as functionals of the ground-state density. All of them show this exact feature that sharpens as the coupling of the fragmen...

  15. Integrated Modeling for Flood Hazard Mapping Using Watershed Modeling System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seyedeh S. Sadrolashrafi; Thamer A. Mohamed; Ahmad R.B. Mahmud; Majid K. Kholghi; Amir Samadi

    2008-01-01

    ...) with the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) for flood modeling is developed. It also interconnects the terrain models and the GIS software, with commercial standard hydrological and hydraulic models, including HEC-1, HEC-RAS, etc...

  16. Stress field modelling from digital geological map data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Gáspár; Barancsuk, Ádám; Szentpéteri, Krisztián

    2016-04-01

    To create a model for the lithospheric stress a functional geodatabase is required which contains spatial and geodynamic parameters. A digital structural-geological map is a geodatabase, which usually contains enough attributes to create a stress field model. Such a model is not accurate enough for engineering-geological purposes because simplifications are always present in a map, but in many cases maps are the only sources for a tectonic analysis. The here presented method is designed for field geologist, who are interested to see the possible realization of the stress field over the area, on which they are working. This study presents an application which can produce a map of 3D stress vectors from a kml-file. The core application logic is implemented on top of a spatially aware relational database management system. This allows rapid and geographically accurate analysis of the imported geological features, taking advantage of standardized spatial algorithms and indexing. After pre-processing the map features in a GIS, according to the Type-Property-Orientation naming system, which was described in a previous study (Albert et al. 2014), the first stage of the algorithm generates an irregularly spaced point cloud by emitting a pattern of points within a user-defined buffer zone around each feature. For each point generated, a component-wise approximation of the tensor field at the point's position is computed, derived from the original feature's geodynamic properties. In a second stage a weighted moving average method calculates the stress vectors in a regular grid. Results can be exported as geospatial data for further analysis or cartographic visualization. Computation of the tensor field's components is based on the implementation of the Mohr diagram of a compressional model, which uses a Coulomb fracture criterion. Using a general assumption that the main principal stress must be greater than the stress from the overburden, the differential stress is

  17. Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  18. Map-Based Channel Model for Urban Macrocell Propagation Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose F. Monserrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of LTE towards 5G has started and different research projects and institutions are in the process of verifying new technology components through simulations. Coordination between groups is strongly recommended and, in this sense, a common definition of test cases and simulation models is needed. The scope of this paper is to present a realistic channel model for urban macrocell scenarios. This model is map-based and takes into account the layout of buildings situated in the area under study. A detailed description of the model is given together with a comparison with other widely used channel models. The benchmark includes a measurement campaign in which the proposed model is shown to be much closer to the actual behavior of a cellular system. Particular attention is given to the outdoor component of the model, since it is here where the proposed approach is showing main difference with other previous models.

  19. Value stream mapping in a computational simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Becker Mendes de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The decision-making process has been extensively studied by researchers and executives. This paper aims to use the methodology of Value Stream Mapping (VSM in an integrated manner with a computer simulation model, in order to expand managers decision-making vision. The object of study is based on a production system that involves a process of automatic packaging of products, where it became necessary to implement changes in order to accommodate new products, so that the detection of bottlenecks and the visualization of impacts generated by future modifications are necessary. The simulation aims to support manager’s decision considering that the system involves several variables and their behaviors define the complexity of the process. Significant reduction in project costs by anticipating their behavior, together with the results of the Value Stream Mapping to identify activities that add value or not for the process were the main results. The validation of the simulation model will occur with the current map of the system and with the inclusion of Kaizen events so that waste in future maps are found in a practical and reliable way, which could support decision-makings.

  20. Logical Mapping: An Intermedia Synchronization Model for Multimedia Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul E. Pomares Hernandez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of temporal dependencies among different media data, such as text, still images, video and audio, and which have simultaneous distributed sources as origin, is an open research area and an important issue for emerging distributed multimedia systems, such as Teleimmersion, Telemedicine, and IPTV. Although there are several works oriented to satisfy temporal dependencies in distributed multimedia systems, they are far from resolving the problem. In this paper we propose a logical synchronization model able to specify at runtime any kind of temporal relationship among the distributed multimedia data involved in a temporal scenario. The synchronization model is based on a new concept that we call logical mapping. A logical mapping, in general terms, translates a temporal relation based on a timeline to be expressed according to its causal dependencies. The logical mappings allow us to avoid the use of global references, such as a wall clock and shared memory. We note that the proposed intermedia synchronization model does not require previous knowledge of when, nor of how long, the media involved of a temporal scenario is executed. Finally, in order to show the viability of the proposed model, a syncrhonization approach is presented.

  1. Visualization and modelling of STLmax topographic brain activity maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammone, Nadia; Principe, José C; Morabito, Francesco C; Shiau, Deng S; Sackellares, J Chris

    2010-06-15

    This paper evaluates the descriptive power of brain topography based on a dynamical parameter, the Short-Term Maximum Lyapunov Exponent (STLmax), estimated from EEG, for finding out a relationship of STLmax spatial distribution with the onset zone and with the mechanisms leading to epileptic seizures. Our preliminary work showed that visual assessment of STLmax topography exhibited a link with the location of seizure onset zone. The objective of the present work is to model the spatial distribution of STLmax in order to automatically extract these features from the maps. One-hour preictal segments from four long-term continuous EEG recordings (two scalp and two intracranial) were processed and the corresponding STLmax profiles were estimated. The spatial STLmax maps were modelled by a combination of two Gaussians functions. The parameters of the fitted model allow automatic extraction of quantitative information about the spatial distribution of STLmax: the EEG signal recorded from the brain region where seizures originate exhibited low-STLmax levels, long before the seizure onset, in 3 out of 4 patients (1 out of 2 of scalp patients and 2 out of 2 in intracranial patients). Topographic maps extracted directly from the EEG power did not provide useful information about the location, therefore we conclude that the analysis so far carried out suggests the possibility of using a model of STLmax topography as a tool for monitoring the evolution of epileptic brain dynamics. In the future, a more elaborate approach will be investigated in order to improve the specificity of the method.

  2. Shallow geothermal potential of Cantone Ticino through map modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Rodolfo; Pera, Sebastian; Belliardi, Marco

    2017-04-01

    thermal properties was then assigned to each lithological unit (both rocky and sedimentary) according to SIA 384/6 regulation and a thermal conductivity map (for outcrops and equivalent Quaternary deposits) was produced. 128 simulations with EED software varying λ, GST and heat flux were then performed in order to find a regression that could allow calculating for the whole region the total borehole length required to satisfy a hypothesized annual heat demand of 30 MWh/year. BHE length map was then verified against 967 real systems and the overall error was quantified in approximately 21% (±27m). Maps of technological, economical and market indexes were finally produced also with the help a newly developed economic tool. Geothermal potential maps were also compared with the current authorization map and the disparity was clearly observable: the areas where new closed loop systems are currently allowed often represent the ones with a lower geothermal potential. This means that a revision of the authorization process is necessary in order to have a more optimized management of this resource that could also take into account the natural, technological and economic constraints. In parallel, the verified maps proposed in this work proved to be a reliable instrument to pre-emptively perform semi-quantitative estimates for new GSHP systems.

  3. A gene frequency model for QTL mapping using Bayesian inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekkers Jack CM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information for mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL comes from two sources: linkage disequilibrium (non-random association of allele states and cosegregation (non-random association of allele origin. Information from LD can be captured by modeling conditional means and variances at the QTL given marker information. Similarly, information from cosegregation can be captured by modeling conditional covariances. Here, we consider a Bayesian model based on gene frequency (BGF where both conditional means and variances are modeled as a function of the conditional gene frequencies at the QTL. The parameters in this model include these gene frequencies, additive effect of the QTL, its location, and the residual variance. Bayesian methodology was used to estimate these parameters. The priors used were: logit-normal for gene frequencies, normal for the additive effect, uniform for location, and inverse chi-square for the residual variance. Computer simulation was used to compare the power to detect and accuracy to map QTL by this method with those from least squares analysis using a regression model (LSR. Results To simplify the analysis, data from unrelated individuals in a purebred population were simulated, where only LD information contributes to map the QTL. LD was simulated in a chromosomal segment of 1 cM with one QTL by random mating in a population of size 500 for 1000 generations and in a population of size 100 for 50 generations. The comparison was studied under a range of conditions, which included SNP density of 0.1, 0.05 or 0.02 cM, sample size of 500 or 1000, and phenotypic variance explained by QTL of 2 or 5%. Both 1 and 2-SNP models were considered. Power to detect the QTL for the BGF, ranged from 0.4 to 0.99, and close or equal to the power of the regression using least squares (LSR. Precision to map QTL position of BGF, quantified by the mean absolute error, ranged from 0.11 to 0.21 cM for BGF, and was better

  4. Tiled vector data model for the geographical features of symbolized maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haihong; Li, You; Zhang, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Electronic maps (E-maps) provide people with convenience in real-world space. Although web map services can display maps on screens, a more important function is their ability to access geographical features. An E-map that is based on raster tiles is inferior to vector tiles in terms of interactive ability because vector maps provide a convenient and effective method to access and manipulate web map features. However, the critical issue regarding rendering tiled vector maps is that geographical features that are rendered in the form of map symbols via vector tiles may cause visual discontinuities, such as graphic conflicts and losses of data around the borders of tiles, which likely represent the main obstacles to exploring vector map tiles on the web. This paper proposes a tiled vector data model for geographical features in symbolized maps that considers the relationships among geographical features, symbol representations and map renderings. This model presents a method to tailor geographical features in terms of map symbols and ‘addition’ (join) operations on the following two levels: geographical features and map features. Thus, these maps can resolve the visual discontinuity problem based on the proposed model without weakening the interactivity of vector maps. The proposed model is validated by two map data sets, and the results demonstrate that the rendered (symbolized) web maps present smooth visual continuity. PMID:28475578

  5. A Concept Map Knowledge Model of Intelligence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    semantics, morphology, and inclusion of a focus question, which are discussed in Sub-section 2.3. A brief history of Novakian CMapping is given in Sub...model and is more interactive; and • It allows the inclusion of numerous resources that can be accessed with a click of a computer mouse, which is...Conéctate al Conocimiento: Una Estrategia Nacional de Panamá basada en Mapas Conceptuales. In Second International Conference on Concept Mapping

  6. Modeling and Analyzing Terrain Data Acquired by Modern Mapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-22

    enhanced by new terrain mapping technologies such as Laser altimetry (LIDAR), ground based laser scanning and Real Time Kinematic GPS ( RTK - GPS ) that...developed and implemented an approach that has the following features: it is modular so that a user can use different models for each of the modules ...support some way of connecting separate modules together to form pipelines, however this requires manual intervention. While a typical GIS can manage

  7. A human motion model based on maps for navigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Susanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foot-mounted indoor positioning systems work remarkably well when using additionally the knowledge of floor-plans in the localization algorithm. Walls and other structures naturally restrict the motion of pedestrians. No pedestrian can walk through walls or jump from one floor to another when considering a building with different floor-levels. By incorporating known floor-plans in sequential Bayesian estimation processes such as particle filters (PFs, long-term error stability can be achieved as long as the map is sufficiently accurate and the environment sufficiently constraints pedestrians' motion. In this article, a new motion model based on maps and floor-plans is introduced that is capable of weighting the possible headings of the pedestrian as a function of the local environment. The motion model is derived from a diffusion algorithm that makes use of the principle of a source effusing gas and is used in the weighting step of a PF implementation. The diffusion algorithm is capable of including floor-plans as well as maps with areas of different degrees of accessibility. The motion model more effectively represents the probability density function of possible headings that are restricted by maps and floor-plans than a simple binary weighting of particles (i.e., eliminating those that crossed walls and keeping the rest. We will show that the motion model will help for obtaining better performance in critical navigation scenarios where two or more modes may be competing for some of the time (multi-modal scenarios.

  8. Spectral flow as a map between N = (2 , 0)-models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, P.; Faraggi, A. E.; Gepner, D.

    2014-07-01

    The space of (2 , 0) models is of particular interest among all heterotic-string models because it includes the models with the minimal SO (10) unification structure, which is well motivated by the Standard Model of particle physics data. The fermionic Z2 ×Z2 heterotic-string models revealed the existence of a new symmetry in the space of string configurations under the exchange of spinors and vectors of the SO (10) GUT group, dubbed spinor-vector duality. In this paper we generalize this idea to arbitrary internal rational conformal field theories (RCFTs). We explain how the spectral flow operator normally acting within a general (2 , 2) theory can be used as a map between (2 , 0) models. We describe the details, give an example and propose more simple currents that can be used in a similar way.

  9. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

    2011-01-01

    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  10. Mapping malaria risk in Bangladesh using Bayesian geostatistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Heidi; Haque, Ubydul; Clements, Archie C A; Tatem, Andrew J; Vallely, Andrew; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Islam, Akramul; Haque, Rashidul

    2010-10-01

    Background malaria-control programs are increasingly dependent on accurate risk maps to effectively guide the allocation of interventions and resources. Advances in model-based geostatistics and geographical information systems (GIS) have enabled researchers to better understand factors affecting malaria transmission and thus, more accurately determine the limits of malaria transmission globally and nationally. Here, we construct Plasmodium falciparum risk maps for Bangladesh for 2007 at a scale enabling the malaria-control bodies to more accurately define the needs of the program. A comprehensive malaria-prevalence survey (N = 9,750 individuals; N = 354 communities) was carried out in 2007 across the regions of Bangladesh known to be endemic for malaria. Data were corrected to a standard age range of 2 to less than 10 years. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models with environmental covariates were used to predict P. falciparum prevalence for 2- to 10-year-old children (PfPR(2-10)) across the endemic areas of Bangladesh. The predictions were combined with gridded population data to estimate the number of individuals living in different endemicity classes. Across the endemic areas, the average PfPR(2-10) was 3.8%. Environmental variables selected for prediction were vegetation cover, minimum temperature, and elevation. Model validation statistics revealed that the final Bayesian geostatistical model had good predictive ability. Risk maps generated from the model showed a heterogeneous distribution of PfPR(2-10) ranging from 0.5% to 50%; 3.1 million people were estimated to be living in areas with a PfPR(2-10) greater than 1%. Contemporary GIS and model-based geostatistics can be used to interpolate malaria risk in Bangladesh. Importantly, malaria risk was found to be highly varied across the endemic regions, necessitating the targeting of resources to reduce the burden in these areas.

  11. Soil Moisture Mapping in an Arid Area Using a Land Unit Area (LUA Sampling Approach and Geostatistical Interpolation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Gharechelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture (SM plays a key role in many environmental processes and has a high spatial and temporal variability. Collecting sample SM data through field surveys (e.g., for validation of remote sensing-derived products can be very expensive and time consuming if a study area is large, and producing accurate SM maps from the sample point data is a difficult task as well. In this study, geospatial processing techniques are used to combine several geo-environmental layers relevant to SM (soil, geology, rainfall, land cover, etc. into a land unit area (LUA map, which delineates regions with relatively homogeneous geological/geomorphological, land use/land cover, and climate characteristics. This LUA map is used to guide the collection of sample SM data in the field, and the field data is finally spatially interpolated to create a wall-to-wall map of SM in the study area (Garmsar, Iran. The main goal of this research is to create a SM map in an arid area, using a land unit area (LUA approach to obtain the most appropriate sample locations for collecting SM field data. Several environmental GIS layers, which have an impact on SM, were combined to generate a LUA map, and then field surveying was done in each class of the LUA map. A SM map was produced based on LUA, remote sensing data indexes, and spatial interpolation of the field survey sample data. The several interpolation methods (inverse distance weighting, kriging, and co-kriging were evaluated for generating SM maps from the sample data. The produced maps were compared to each other and validated using ground truth data. The results show that the LUA approach is a reasonable method to create the homogenous field to introduce a representative sample for field soil surveying. The geostatistical SM map achieved adequate accuracy; however, trend analysis and distribution of the soil sample point locations within the LUA types should be further investigated to achieve even better results. Co

  12. Map algebra and model algebra for integrated model building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, O.; Karssenberg, D.J.; Jong, K. de; Kok, J.-L. de; Jong, S.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Computer models are important tools for the assessment of environmental systems. A seamless workflow of construction and coupling of model components is essential for environmental scientists. However, currently available software packages are often tailored either to the construction of model compo

  13. Exact maps in density functional theory for lattice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Tanja; Appel, Heiko; Fuks, Johanna I.; Rubio, Angel

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, we employ exact diagonalization for model systems on a real-space lattice to explicitly construct the exact density-to-potential and graphically illustrate the complete exact density-to-wavefunction map that underly the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem in density functional theory. Having the explicit wavefunction-to-density map at hand, we are able to construct arbitrary observables as functionals of the ground-state density. We analyze the density-to-potential map as the distance between the fragments of a system increases and the correlation in the system grows. We observe a feature that gradually develops in the density-to-potential map as well as in the density-to-wavefunction map. This feature is inherited by arbitrary expectation values as functional of the ground-state density. We explicitly show the excited-state energies, the excited-state densities, and the correlation entropy as functionals of the ground-state density. All of them show this exact feature that sharpens as the coupling of the fragments decreases and the correlation grows. We denominate this feature as intra-system steepening and discuss how it relates to the well-known inter-system derivative discontinuity. The inter-system derivative discontinuity is an exact concept for coupled subsystems with degenerate ground state. However, the coupling between subsystems as in charge transfer processes can lift the degeneracy. An important conclusion is that for such systems with a near-degenerate ground state, the corresponding cut along the particle number N of the exact density functionals is differentiable with a well-defined gradient near integer particle number.

  14. Logistic Regression Model on Antenna Control Unit Autotracking Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-20

    412TW-PA-15240 Logistic Regression Model on Antenna Control Unit Autotracking Mode DANIEL T. LAIRD AIR FORCE TEST CENTER EDWARDS AFB, CA...OCT 15 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Logistic Regression Model on Antenna Control Unit Autotracking Mode 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...alternative-hypothesis. This paper will present an Antenna Auto- tracking model using Logistic Regression modeling. This paper presents an example of

  15. Conceptual model and map of financial exploitation of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Kendon J; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W; Fairman, Kimberly P; Rosen, Abby; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the processes and outcomes of three-dimensional concept mapping to conceptualize financial exploitation of older adults. Statements were generated from a literature review and by local and national panels consisting of 16 experts in the field of financial exploitation. These statements were sorted and rated using Concept Systems software, which grouped the statements into clusters and depicted them as a map. Statements were grouped into six clusters, and ranked by the experts as follows in descending severity: (a) theft and scams, (b) financial victimization, (c) financial entitlement, (d) coercion, (e) signs of possible financial exploitation, and (f) money management difficulties. The hierarchical model can be used to identify elder financial exploitation and differentiate it from related but distinct areas of victimization. The severity hierarchy may be used to develop measures that will enable more precise screening for triage of clients into appropriate interventions.

  16. Simulating snow maps for Norway: description and statistical evaluation of the seNorge snow model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Saloranta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Daily maps of snow conditions have been produced in Norway with the seNorge snow model since 2004. The seNorge snow model operates with 1 × 1 km resolution, uses gridded observations of daily temperature and precipitation as its input forcing, and simulates, among others, snow water equivalent (SWE, snow depth (SD, and the snow bulk density (ρ. In this paper the set of equations contained in the seNorge model code is described and a thorough spatiotemporal statistical evaluation of the model performance from 1957–2011 is made using the two major sets of extensive in situ snow measurements that exist for Norway. The evaluation results show that the seNorge model generally overestimates both SWE and ρ, and that the overestimation of SWE increases with elevation throughout the snow season. However, the R2-values for model fit are 0.60 for (log-transformed SWE and 0.45 for ρ, indicating that after removal of the detected systematic model biases (e.g. by recalibrating the model or expressing snow conditions in relative units the model performs rather well. The seNorge model provides a relatively simple, not very data-demanding, yet nonetheless process-based method to construct snow maps of high spatiotemporal resolution. It is an especially well suited alternative for operational snow mapping in regions with rugged topography and large spatiotemporal variability in snow conditions, as is the case in the mountainous Norway.

  17. Vegetation map for the Hakalau Forest Unit of the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex on the island of Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James D.

    2017-01-01

    This vegetation map was produced to serve as an updated habitat base for management of natural resources of the Hakalau Forest Unit (HFU) of the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Refuge) on the island of Hawai‘i. The map is based on a vegetation map originally produced as part of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Hawai‘i Forest Bird Survey to depict the distribution, structure, and composition of plant communities on the island of Hawai‘i as they existed in 1977. The current map has been updated to represent current conditions of plant communities in the HFU, based on WorldView 2 imagery taken in 2012 and very-high-resolution imagery collected by Pictometry International from 2010 to 2014. Thirty-one detailed plant communities are identified on this map, and fourteen of these units are found within the boundaries of HFU. Additionally, the mapped units can be displayed as five tree canopy cover units, three moisture zones units, eight dominant tree species units, and four habitat status units by choosing the various fields to group the units from the map attribute table. This updated map will provide a foundation for the refinement and tracking of management actions on the Refuge for the near future, particularly as the habitats in this area are subject to projected climate change.

  18. Modelling fluidized catalytic cracking unit stripper efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Dopico M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our modelling of a FCCU stripper, following our earlier research. This model can measure stripper efficiency against the most important variables: pressure, temperature, residence time and steam flow. Few models in the literature model the stripper and usually they do against only one variable. Nevertheless, there is general agreement on the importance of the stripper in the overall process, and the fact that there are few models maybe it is due to the difficulty to obtain a comprehensive model. On the other hand, the proposed model does use all the variables of the stripper, calculating efficiency on the basis of steam flow, pressure, residence time and temperature. The correctness of the model is then analysed, and we examine several possible scenarios, like decreasing the steam flow, which is achieved by increasing the temperature in the stripper.

  19. Mapping Cyclists’ Experiences and Agent-Based Modelling of Their Wayfinding Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snizek, Bernhard

    This dissertation is about modelling cycling transport behaviour. It is partly about urban experiences seen by the cyclist and about modelling, more specifically the agent-based modelling of cyclists' wayfinding behaviour. The dissertation consists of three papers. The first deals with the develo......This dissertation is about modelling cycling transport behaviour. It is partly about urban experiences seen by the cyclist and about modelling, more specifically the agent-based modelling of cyclists' wayfinding behaviour. The dissertation consists of three papers. The first deals......-based model of cycling transport behaviour using geodata, data from the Danish travel survey as well as behavioural data extracted from trajectories recorded utilising GPS units. Mapping Bicyclists’ Experiences in Copenhagen This paper presents an approach to the collection, mapping and analysing of cyclists......’ experiences. By relating spatial experiences to urban indicators such as land-use, street characteristics, cycle infrastructure, centrality and other aspects of the urban environment, their influence on cyclists’ experiences were analysed. 398 cyclists responded and plotted their most recent cycle route...

  20. Interacting damage models mapped onto ising and percolation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, Renaud; Pride, Steven R.

    2004-03-23

    The authors introduce a class of damage models on regular lattices with isotropic interactions between the broken cells of the lattice. Quasistatic fiber bundles are an example. The interactions are assumed to be weak, in the sense that the stress perturbation from a broken cell is much smaller than the mean stress in the system. The system starts intact with a surface-energy threshold required to break any cell sampled from an uncorrelated quenched-disorder distribution. The evolution of this heterogeneous system is ruled by Griffith's principle which states that a cell breaks when the release in potential (elastic) energy in the system exceeds the surface-energy barrier necessary to break the cell. By direct integration over all possible realizations of the quenched disorder, they obtain the probability distribution of each damage configuration at any level of the imposed external deformation. They demonstrate an isomorphism between the distributions so obtained and standard generalized Ising models, in which the coupling constants and effective temperature in the Ising model are functions of the nature of the quenched-disorder distribution and the extent of accumulated damage. In particular, they show that damage models with global load sharing are isomorphic to standard percolation theory, that damage models with local load sharing rule are isomorphic to the standard ising model, and draw consequences thereof for the universality class and behavior of the autocorrelation length of the breakdown transitions corresponding to these models. they also treat damage models having more general power-law interactions, and classify the breakdown process as a function of the power-law interaction exponent. Last, they also show that the probability distribution over configurations is a maximum of Shannon's entropy under some specific constraints related to the energetic balance of the fracture process, which firmly relates this type of quenched-disorder based

  1. Landform Evolution Modeling of Specific Fluvially Eroded Physiographic Units on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Schenk, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have proposed certain terrain types (i.e., physiographic units) on Titan thought to be formed by fluvial processes acting on local uplands of bedrock or in some cases sediment. We have earlier used our landform evolution models to make general comparisons between Titan and other ice world landscapes (principally those of the Galilean satellites) that we have modeled the action of fluvial processes. Here we give examples of specific landscapes that, subsequent to modeled fluvial work acting on the surfaces, produce landscapes which resemble mapped terrain types on Titan.

  2. Review of the Space Mapping Approach to Engineering Optimization and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    We review the Space Mapping (SM) concept and its applications in engineering optimization and modeling. The aim of SM is to avoid computationally expensive calculations encountered in simulating an engineering system. The existence of less accurate but fast physically-based models is exploited. S......-based Modeling (SMM). These include Space Derivative Mapping (SDM), Generalized Space Mapping (GSM) and Space Mapping-based Neuromodeling (SMN). Finally, we address open points for research and future development....

  3. What Is the Unit of Visual Attention? Object for Selection, but Boolean Map for Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    In the past 20 years, numerous theories and findings have suggested that the unit of visual attention is the object. In this study, I first clarify 2 different meanings of unit of visual attention, namely the unit of access in the sense of measurement and the unit of selection in the sense of division. In accordance with this distinction, I argue…

  4. Chromosome mapping radiation hybrid data and stochastic spin models

    CERN Document Server

    Falk, C T

    1995-01-01

    This work approaches human chromosome mapping by developing algorithms for ordering markers associated with radiation hybrid data. Motivated by recent work of Boehnke et al. [1], we formulate the ordering problem by developing stochastic spin models to search for minimum-break marker configurations. As a particular application, the methods developed are applied to 14 human chromosome-21 markers tested by Cox et al. [2]. The methods generate configurations consistent with the best found by others. Additionally, we find that the set of low-lying configurations is described by a Markov-like ordering probability distribution. The distribution displays cluster correlations reflecting closely linked loci.

  5. Mapping from Speech to Images Using Continuous State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a system that transforms speech waveforms to animated faces are proposed. The system relies on continuous state space models to perform the mapping, this makes it possible to ensure video with no sudden jumps and allows continuous control of the parameters in 'face space......'. The performance of the system is critically dependent on the number of hidden variables, with too few variables the model cannot represent data, and with too many overfitting is noticed. Simulations are performed on recordings of 3-5 sec.\\$\\backslash\\$ video sequences with sentences from the Timit database. From...... a subjective point of view the model is able to construct an image sequence from an unknown noisy speech sequence even though the number of training examples are limited....

  6. Research on reality map colour design computer model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书楼; 陈宝雯; 刘天舒; 施祖辉; 卢峰; 韩培军; 刘冰

    1995-01-01

    Through the crucial techniques and technical difficulties of the research on reality map colour design computer model (RMCDCM), based on the principle of chromatics and the experimental analysis, a new model about the transformation between CMY ink printing and RGB screen colours and RMCDCM is set up In the chromatics, there is a general concept that the range of RGB screen colours is larger than that of printing colours. The concept is exactly explained. It not only accounts for the erroneous phenomena from the theory which are produced when CRT monitor, PAL and NTSC models reproduce printing colour standards, but also solves the technical problems from the methodology which long exist in the research for screen reproduction and printing restoration of printing colour standards. A theoretical basis is provided.

  7. Using Coronal Hole Maps to Constrain MHD Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Ronald M.; Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran

    2017-08-01

    In this presentation, we explore the use of coronal hole maps (CHMs) as a constraint for thermodynamic MHD models of the solar corona. Using our EUV2CHM software suite (predsci.com/chd), we construct CHMs from SDO/AIA 193Å and STEREO-A/EUVI 195Å images for multiple Carrington rotations leading up to the August 21st, 2017 total solar eclipse. We then contruct synoptic CHMs from synthetic EUV images generated from global thermodynamic MHD simulations of the corona for each rotation. Comparisons of apparent coronal hole boundaries and estimates of the net open flux are used to benchmark and constrain our MHD model leading up to the eclipse. Specifically, the comparisons are used to find optimal parameterizations of our wave turbulence dissipation (WTD) coronal heating model.

  8. Neural and Cognitive Modeling with Networks of Leaky Integrator Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graben, Peter beim; Liebscher, Thomas; Kurths, Jürgen

    After reviewing several physiological findings on oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their possible explanations by dynamical modeling, we present neural networks consisting of leaky integrator units as a universal paradigm for neural and cognitive modeling. In contrast to standard recurrent neural networks, leaky integrator units are described by ordinary differential equations living in continuous time. We present an algorithm to train the temporal behavior of leaky integrator networks by generalized back-propagation and discuss their physiological relevance. Eventually, we show how leaky integrator units can be used to build oscillators that may serve as models of brain oscillations and cognitive processes.

  9. The pediatric intensive care unit business model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleien, Charles L

    2013-06-01

    All pediatric intensivists need a primer on ICU finance. The author describes potential alternate revenue sources for the division. Differentiating units by size or academic affiliation, the author describes drivers of expense. Strategies to manage the bottom line including negotiations for hospital services are covered. Some of the current trends in physician productivity and its described metrics, with particular focus on clinical FTE management is detailed. Methods of using this data to enhance revenue are discussed. Some of the other current trends in the ICU business related to changes at the federal and state level as well as in the insurance sector, moving away from fee-for-service are covered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced geospatial technologies applied to gravel-bed river mapping and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, Graeme Richard

    Mapping and modeling of river channels is essential in defining the Channel Migration Zone (CMZ). CMZ delineation is necessary to mitigate hazards, create opportunities to protect riparian habitat, predict channel response to changing land cover and disturbances, and design more environmentally-aligned engineering structures. This provides a compelling challenge to the GIScientist because of the need to understand fluvial process dynamics in space and time, and the narrow, elongated, and sinuous geometry of fluvial systems which complicates data collection, management and modeling of digital data describing these. This requires creation, management and correlation of a vast array of data of varying density and quality. Research presented here develops and applies advanced geospatial data, technologies, and modeling to CMZ mapping of a dynamic gravel-bed river in the state of Washington, USA. Chapter 2 demonstrates how new, object-based image processing techniques enhance river mapping accuracies and data modeling opportunities by incorporating the spatial characteristics and relationships of hydrogeomorphic objects into the classification process, by fusing high resolution DEMs with image data, and by accounting for uncertainty. In chapter 3, development and assimilation of a high resolution topographic LiDAR-based DEM with a one-dimensional hydraulic model enables the avulsion hazard of a reach of the Naches River in the state of Washington to be determined for multiple flow and channel-change scenarios. The DEM is used to optimize performance of the 1D hydraulic model HEC-RAS, post-processed output of which facilitates calculation of spatially explicit shear stress (tau0) and specific stream power per unit bed area (o). In Chapter 4 a new data intensive GIS-based framework for delineating CMZs is implemented and assessed. The approach incorporates historical maps, field-survey data, and LiDAR derived data products as well as a system design that provides a

  11. Fast traffic noise mapping of cities using the graphics processing unit of a personal computer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.; Zhou, H.; Lohman, W.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic noise mapping of cities requires large computer calculation times. This originates from the large number of point-to-point sound propagation calculations that must be performed. In this article it is demonstrated that noise mapping calculation times can be reduced considerably by the use of

  12. SiSeRHMap v1.0: a simulator for mapped seismic response using a hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelle, Gerardo; Bonito, Laura; Lampasi, Alessandro; Revellino, Paola; Guerriero, Luigi; Sappa, Giuseppe; Guadagno, Francesco Maria

    2016-04-01

    The SiSeRHMap (simulator for mapped seismic response using a hybrid model) is a computerized methodology capable of elaborating prediction maps of seismic response in terms of acceleration spectra. It was realized on the basis of a hybrid model which combines different approaches and models in a new and non-conventional way. These approaches and models are organized in a code architecture composed of five interdependent modules. A GIS (geographic information system) cubic model (GCM), which is a layered computational structure based on the concept of lithodynamic units and zones, aims at reproducing a parameterized layered subsoil model. A meta-modelling process confers a hybrid nature to the methodology. In this process, the one-dimensional (1-D) linear equivalent analysis produces acceleration response spectra for a specified number of site profiles using one or more input motions. The shear wave velocity-thickness profiles, defined as trainers, are randomly selected in each zone. Subsequently, a numerical adaptive simulation model (Emul-spectra) is optimized on the above trainer acceleration response spectra by means of a dedicated evolutionary algorithm (EA) and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) as the final optimizer. In the final step, the GCM maps executor module produces a serial map set of a stratigraphic seismic response at different periods, grid solving the calibrated Emul-spectra model. In addition, the spectra topographic amplification is also computed by means of a 3-D validated numerical prediction model. This model is built to match the results of the numerical simulations related to isolate reliefs using GIS morphometric data. In this way, different sets of seismic response maps are developed on which maps of design acceleration response spectra are also defined by means of an enveloping technique.

  13. Global dynamics of triaxial galactic models through frequency map analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaphilippou, Y.; Laskar, J.

    1998-01-01

    In a previous article (Papaphilippou & Laskar 1996), we used the frequency map analysis for studying the dynamics of the axisymmetric softened version of the logarithmic potential. The method is now applied to its 3-dimensional generalisation in order to deepen our knowledge regarding the dynamics of triaxial power-law galactic models. The principal dynamical features of the system are reviewed within the appropriate Hamiltonian frame of reference. The quasi-periodic approximations furnished by the method permit to clarify the dynamics of the principal types of orbits and their connection with perturbations of integrable cases of the general Hamiltonian. All the fine details of the dynamics associated with the addition of the third degree of freedom are displayed in the complete frequency map, a direct representation of the system's Arnol'd web. The influence of resonant lines and the extent of the chaotic zones are directly visualized in the physical space of the system. This approach reveals many unknown dynamical features of triaxial galactic potentials and gives strong indications that chaos should be an innate characteristic of triaxial configurations. The impact of these results in the construction of self-consistent galactic models are finally discussed.

  14. Optimizing Crawler4j using MapReduce Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddesh, G. M.; Suresh, Kavya; Madhuri, K. Y.; Nijagal, Madhushree; Rakshitha, B. R.; Srinivasa, K. G.

    2016-08-01

    World wide web is a decentralized system that consists of a repository of information on the basis of web pages. These web pages act as a source of information or data in the present analytics world. Web crawlers are used for extracting useful information from web pages for different purposes. Firstly, it is used in web search engines where the web pages are indexed to form a corpus of information and allows the users to query on the web pages. Secondly, it is used for web archiving where the web pages are stored for later analysis phases. Thirdly, it can be used for web mining where the web pages are monitored for copyright purposes. The amount of information processed by the web crawler needs to be improved by using the capabilities of modern parallel processing technologies. In order to solve the problem of parallelism and the throughput of crawling this work proposes to optimize the Crawler4j using the Hadoop MapReduce programming model by parallelizing the processing of large input data. Crawler4j is a web crawler that retrieves useful information about the pages that it visits. The crawler Crawler4j coupled with data and computational parallelism of Hadoop MapReduce programming model improves the throughput and accuracy of web crawling. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves significant improvements with respect to performance and throughput. Hence the proposed approach intends to carve out a new methodology towards optimizing web crawling by achieving significant performance gain.

  15. Optimizing Crawler4j using MapReduce Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddesh, G. M.; Suresh, Kavya; Madhuri, K. Y.; Nijagal, Madhushree; Rakshitha, B. R.; Srinivasa, K. G.

    2017-06-01

    World wide web is a decentralized system that consists of a repository of information on the basis of web pages. These web pages act as a source of information or data in the present analytics world. Web crawlers are used for extracting useful information from web pages for different purposes. Firstly, it is used in web search engines where the web pages are indexed to form a corpus of information and allows the users to query on the web pages. Secondly, it is used for web archiving where the web pages are stored for later analysis phases. Thirdly, it can be used for web mining where the web pages are monitored for copyright purposes. The amount of information processed by the web crawler needs to be improved by using the capabilities of modern parallel processing technologies. In order to solve the problem of parallelism and the throughput of crawling this work proposes to optimize the Crawler4j using the Hadoop MapReduce programming model by parallelizing the processing of large input data. Crawler4j is a web crawler that retrieves useful information about the pages that it visits. The crawler Crawler4j coupled with data and computational parallelism of Hadoop MapReduce programming model improves the throughput and accuracy of web crawling. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves significant improvements with respect to performance and throughput. Hence the proposed approach intends to carve out a new methodology towards optimizing web crawling by achieving significant performance gain.

  16. Modeled Thickness of the Overburden Geomodel Unit (obthk_f)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The obthk_f grid represents the modeled thickness of the Overburden geomodel unit at a 500 foot resolution. It is one grid of a geomodel that consists of eleven...

  17. Implementation of NGA-West2 ground motion models in the 2014 U.S. National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Petersen, Mark D.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Powers, Peter; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Frankel, Arthur D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHMs) have been an important component of seismic design regulations in the United States for the past several decades. These maps present earthquake ground shaking intensities at specified probabilities of being exceeded over a 50-year time period. The previous version of the NSHMs was developed in 2008; during 2012 and 2013, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey have been updating the maps based on their assessment of the “best available science,” resulting in the 2014 NSHMs. The update includes modifications to the seismic source models and the ground motion models (GMMs) for sites across the conterminous United States. This paper focuses on updates in the Western United States (WUS) due to the use of new GMMs for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions developed by the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA-West2) project. Individual GMMs, their weighted combination, and their impact on the hazard maps relative to 2008 are discussed. In general, the combined effects of lower medians and increased standard deviations in the new GMMs have caused only small changes, within 5–20%, in the probabilistic ground motions for most sites across the WUS compared to the 2008 NSHMs.

  18. Personalised modelling of facial action unit intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Shuang; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions depend greatly on facial morphology and expressiveness of the observed person. Recent studies have shown great improvement of the personalized over non-personalized models in variety of facial expression related tasks, such as face and emotion recognition. However, in the context

  19. Unit root modeling for trending stock market series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afees A. Salisu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine how the unit root for stock market series should be modeled. We employ the Narayan and Liu (2015 trend GARCH-based unit root and its variants in order to more carefully capture the inherent statistical behavior of the series. We utilize daily, weekly and monthly data covering nineteen countries across the regions of America, Asia and Europe. We find that the nature of data frequency matters for unit root testing when dealing with stock market data. Our evidence also suggests that stock market data is better modeled in the presence of structural breaks, conditional heteroscedasticity and time trend.

  20. Construction of Fuzzy Map for Autonomous Mobile Robots Based on Fuzzy Confidence Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Fu Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of fuzzy models to explicitly consider sensor uncertainty and finite resolution in solving the SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping problem for autonomous mobile robots. The approach establishes fuzzy confidence models in describing occupied obstacles and available space. The problem is transformed into an optimization task of minimizing the alignment error between newly scanned local fuzzy maps and selected parts of a developing global fuzzy map. In aligning local fuzzy maps into a global fuzzy map, we developed a prediction strategy to crop the most potential part from the sensed local fuzzy maps to be overlapped with the global fuzzy map. A mobile vehicle equipped with a laser range finder, the Hokuyo URG-04LX, is used to demonstrate the procedure of fuzzy map building. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is effective in generating a comprehensive global fuzzy map, which is suitable for both human comprehension and path design during real-time navigation.

  1. Global Urban Mapping and Modeling for Sustainable Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Li, X.; Asrar, G.; Yu, S.; Smith, S.; Eom, J.; Imhoff, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In the past several decades, the world has experienced fast urbanization, and this trend is expected to continue for decades to come. Urbanization, one of the major land cover and land use changes (LCLUC), is becoming increasingly important in global environmental changes, such as urban heat island (UHI) growth and vegetation phenology change. Better scientific insights and effective decision-making unarguably require reliable science-based information on spatiotemporal changes in urban extent and their environmental impacts. In this study, we developed a globally consistent 20-year urban map series to evaluate the time-reactive nature of global urbanization from the nighttime lights remote sensing data, and projected future urban expansion in the 21st century by employing an integrated modeling framework (Zhou et al. 2014, Zhou et al. 2015). We then evaluated the impacts of urbanization on building energy use and vegetation phenology that affect both ecosystem services and human health. We extended the modeling capability of building energy use in the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) with consideration of UHI effects by coupling the remote sensing based urbanization modeling and explored the impact of UHI on building energy use. We also investigated the impact of urbanization on vegetation phenology by using an improved phenology detection algorithm. The derived spatiotemporal information on historical and potential future urbanization and its implications in building energy use and vegetation phenology will be of great value in sustainable urban design and development for building energy use and human health (e.g., pollen allergy), especially when considered together with other factors such as climate variability and change. Zhou, Y., S. J. Smith, C. D. Elvidge, K. Zhao, A. Thomson & M. Imhoff (2014) A cluster-based method to map urban area from DMSP/OLS nightlights. Remote Sensing of Environment, 147, 173-185. Zhou, Y., S. J. Smith, K. Zhao, M. Imhoff, A

  2. How does Poisson kriging compare to the popular BYM model for mapping disease risks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebreab Samson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geostatistical techniques are now available to account for spatially varying population sizes and spatial patterns in the mapping of disease rates. At first glance, Poisson kriging represents an attractive alternative to increasingly popular Bayesian spatial models in that: 1 it is easier to implement and less CPU intensive, and 2 it accounts for the size and shape of geographical units, avoiding the limitations of conditional auto-regressive (CAR models commonly used in Bayesian algorithms while allowing for the creation of isopleth risk maps. Both approaches, however, have never been compared in simulation studies, and there is a need to better understand their merits in terms of accuracy and precision of disease risk estimates. Results Besag, York and Mollie's (BYM model and Poisson kriging (point and area-to-area implementations were applied to age-adjusted lung and cervix cancer mortality rates recorded for white females in two contrasted county geographies: 1 state of Indiana that consists of 92 counties of fairly similar size and shape, and 2 four states in the Western US (Arizona, California, Nevada and Utah forming a set of 118 counties that are vastly different geographical units. The spatial support (i.e. point versus area has a much smaller impact on the results than the statistical methodology (i.e. geostatistical versus Bayesian models. Differences between methods are particularly pronounced in the Western US dataset: BYM model yields smoother risk surface and prediction variance that changes mainly as a function of the predicted risk, while the Poisson kriging variance increases in large sparsely populated counties. Simulation studies showed that the geostatistical approach yields smaller prediction errors, more precise and accurate probability intervals, and allows a better discrimination between counties with high and low mortality risks. The benefit of area-to-area Poisson kriging increases as the county

  3. How does Poisson kriging compare to the popular BYM model for mapping disease risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, Pierre; Gebreab, Samson

    2008-01-01

    Background Geostatistical techniques are now available to account for spatially varying population sizes and spatial patterns in the mapping of disease rates. At first glance, Poisson kriging represents an attractive alternative to increasingly popular Bayesian spatial models in that: 1) it is easier to implement and less CPU intensive, and 2) it accounts for the size and shape of geographical units, avoiding the limitations of conditional auto-regressive (CAR) models commonly used in Bayesian algorithms while allowing for the creation of isopleth risk maps. Both approaches, however, have never been compared in simulation studies, and there is a need to better understand their merits in terms of accuracy and precision of disease risk estimates. Results Besag, York and Mollie's (BYM) model and Poisson kriging (point and area-to-area implementations) were applied to age-adjusted lung and cervix cancer mortality rates recorded for white females in two contrasted county geographies: 1) state of Indiana that consists of 92 counties of fairly similar size and shape, and 2) four states in the Western US (Arizona, California, Nevada and Utah) forming a set of 118 counties that are vastly different geographical units. The spatial support (i.e. point versus area) has a much smaller impact on the results than the statistical methodology (i.e. geostatistical versus Bayesian models). Differences between methods are particularly pronounced in the Western US dataset: BYM model yields smoother risk surface and prediction variance that changes mainly as a function of the predicted risk, while the Poisson kriging variance increases in large sparsely populated counties. Simulation studies showed that the geostatistical approach yields smaller prediction errors, more precise and accurate probability intervals, and allows a better discrimination between counties with high and low mortality risks. The benefit of area-to-area Poisson kriging increases as the county geography becomes more

  4. Mapping of the stochastic Lotka-Volterra model to models of population genetics and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, George W. A.; McKane, Alan J.

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between the M -species stochastic Lotka-Volterra competition (SLVC) model and the M -allele Moran model of population genetics is explored via timescale separation arguments. When selection for species is weak and the population size is large but finite, precise conditions are determined for the stochastic dynamics of the SLVC model to be mappable to the neutral Moran model, the Moran model with frequency-independent selection, and the Moran model with frequency-dependent selection (equivalently a game-theoretic formulation of the Moran model). We demonstrate how these mappings can be used to calculate extinction probabilities and the times until a species' extinction in the SLVC model.

  5. Ace Basin National Wildlife Refuge (Combahee Unit) [Land Status Map: Sheet 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Ernest F. Hollings Ace Basin National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified...

  6. Geochemical and mineralogical maps for soils of the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical and mineralogical maps along with a histogram, boxplot, and empirical cumulative distribution function plot for each element or mineral whose data are...

  7. 3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papritz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a 3D-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical model with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this model is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive models (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for 3D-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear model with spatially correlated errors to

  8. Modelling and Design of a Microstrip Band-Pass Filter Using Space Mapping Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Tavakoli, Saeed; Mohanna, Shahram

    2010-01-01

    Determination of design parameters based on electromagnetic simulations of microwave circuits is an iterative and often time-consuming procedure. Space mapping is a powerful technique to optimize such complex models by efficiently substituting accurate but expensive electromagnetic models, fine models, with fast and approximate models, coarse models. In this paper, we apply two space mapping, an explicit space mapping as well as an implicit and response residual space mapping, techniques to a case study application, a microstrip band-pass filter. First, we model the case study application and optimize its design parameters, using explicit space mapping modelling approach. Then, we use implicit and response residual space mapping approach to optimize the filter's design parameters. Finally, the performance of each design methods is evaluated. It is shown that the use of above-mentioned techniques leads to achieving satisfactory design solutions with a minimum number of computationally expensive fine model eval...

  9. Mapping Generative Models onto a Network of Digital Spiking Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroni, Bruno U; Das, Srinjoy; Arthur, John V; Merolla, Paul A; Jackson, Bryan L; Modha, Dharmendra S; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2016-08-01

    Stochastic neural networks such as Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) have been successfully used in applications ranging from speech recognition to image classification, and are particularly interesting because of their potential for generative tasks. Inference and learning in these algorithms use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure called Gibbs sampling, where a logistic function forms the kernel of this sampler. On the other side of the spectrum, neuromorphic systems have shown great promise for low-power and parallelized cognitive computing, but lack well-suited applications and automation procedures. In this work, we propose a systematic method for bridging the RBM algorithm and digital neuromorphic systems, with a generative pattern completion task as proof of concept. For this, we first propose a method of producing the Gibbs sampler using bio-inspired digital noisy integrate-and-fire neurons. Next, we describe the process of mapping generative RBMs trained offline onto the IBM TrueNorth neurosynaptic processor-a low-power digital neuromorphic VLSI substrate. Mapping these algorithms onto neuromorphic hardware presents unique challenges in network connectivity and weight and bias quantization, which, in turn, require architectural and design strategies for the physical realization. Generative performance is analyzed to validate the neuromorphic requirements and to best select the neuron parameters for the model. Lastly, we describe a design automation procedure which achieves optimal resource usage, accounting for the novel hardware adaptations. This work represents the first implementation of generative RBM inference on a neuromorphic VLSI substrate.

  10. Chaotic oscillations in a map-based model of neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbage, M; Nekorkin, V I; Vdovin, L V

    2007-12-01

    We propose a discrete time dynamical system (a map) as a phenomenological model of excitable and spiking-bursting neurons. The model is a discontinuous two-dimensional map. We find conditions under which this map has an invariant region on the phase plane, containing a chaotic attractor. This attractor creates chaotic spiking-bursting oscillations of the model. We also show various regimes of other neural activities (subthreshold oscillations, phasic spiking, etc.) derived from the proposed model.

  11. A NOVEL SOFT COMPUTING MODEL ON LANDSLIDE HAZARD ZONE MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Quraishi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of landslide is very prominent in India as well as world over. In India North-East region and all the areas beneath the Himalayan range is prone to landslide. As state wise Uttrakhand, Himachal Pradesh and northern part of West Bengal are identified as a risk zone for landslide. In West Bengal, Darjeeling area is identified as our focus zone. There are several types of landslides depending upon various conditions. Most contributing factor of landslide is Earthquakes. Both field and the GIS data are very versatile and large in amount. Creating a proper data warehouse includes both Remote and field studies. Our proposed soft computing model merge the field and remote sensing data and create an optimized landslide susceptible map of the zone and also provide a broad risk assessment. It takes into account census and economic survey data as an input to calculate and predict the probable number of damaged houses, roads, other amenities including the effect on GDP. The model is highly customizable and tends to provide situation specific results. A fuzzy logic based approach has been considered to partially implement the model in terms of different parameter data sets to show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  12. The MAPPINGS III Library of Fast Radiative Shock Models

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Mark G; Dopita, Michael A; Sutherland, Ralph S; Kewley, Lisa J

    2008-01-01

    We present a new library of fully-radiative shock models calculated with the MAPPINGS III shock and photoionization code. The library consists of grids of models with shock velocities in the range v=100-1000 km/s and magnetic parameters B/sqrt(n) of 10^-4 - 10 muG cm^(3/2) for five different atomic abundance sets, and for a pre-shock density of 1.0 cm^(-3). Additionally, Solar abundance model grids have been calculated for densities of 0.01, 0.1, 10, 100, and 1000 cm^(-3) with the same range in v and B/sqrt(n). Each model includes components of both the radiative shock and its photoionized precursor, ionized by the EUV and soft X-ray radiation generated in the radiative gas. We present the details of the ionization structure, the column densities, and the luminosities of the shock and its precursor. Emission line ratio predictions are separately given for the shock and its precursor as well as for the composite shock+precursor structure to facilitate comparison with observations in cases where the shock and i...

  13. Commute Maps: Separating Slowly Mixing Molecular Configurations for Kinetic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Frank; Banisch, Ralf; Clementi, Cecilia

    2016-11-08

    Identification of the main reaction coordinates and building of kinetic models of macromolecular systems require a way to measure distances between molecular configurations that can distinguish slowly interconverting states. Here we define the commute distance that can be shown to be closely related to the expected commute time needed to go from one configuration to the other, and back. A practical merit of this quantity is that it can be easily approximated from molecular dynamics data sets when an approximation of the Markov operator eigenfunctions is available, which can be achieved by the variational approach to approximate eigenfunctions of Markov operators, also called variational approach of conformation dynamics (VAC) or the time-lagged independent component analysis (TICA). The VAC or TICA components can be scaled such that a so-called commute map is obtained in which Euclidean distance corresponds to the commute distance, and thus kinetic models such as Markov state models can be computed based on Euclidean operations, such as standard clustering. In addition, the distance metric gives rise to a quantity we call total kinetic content, which is an excellent score to rank input feature sets and kinetic model quality.

  14. Aeroheating Mapping to Thermal Model for Autonomous Aerobraking Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal modeling has been performed to evaluate the potential for autonomous aerobraking of a spacecraft in the atmosphere of a planet. As part of this modeling, the aeroheating flux during aerobraking must be applied to the spacecraft solar arrays to evaluate their thermal response. On the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, this was done via two separate thermal models and an extensive suite of mapping scripts. That method has been revised, and the thermal analysis of an aerobraking pass can now be accomplished via a single thermal model, using a new capability in the Thermal Desktop software. This capability, Boundary Condition Mapper, has the ability to input heating flux files that vary with time, position on the solar array, and with the skin temperature. A recently added feature to the Boundary Condition Mapper is that this module can also utilize files that describe the variation of aeroheating over the surface with atmospheric density (rather than time); this is the format of the MRO aeroheating files. This capability has allowed a huge streamlining of the MRO thermal process, simplifying the procedure for importing new aeroheating files and trajectory information. The new process, as well as the quantified time savings, is described.

  15. An Alternative Approach to Mapping Thermophysical Units from Martian Thermal Inertia and Albedo Data Using a Combination of Unsupervised Classification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriita Jones

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal inertia and albedo provide information on the distribution of surface materials on Mars. These parameters have been mapped globally on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES onboard the Mars Global Surveyor. Two-dimensional clusters of thermal inertia and albedo reflect the thermophysical attributes of the dominant materials on the surface. In this paper three automated, non-deterministic, algorithmic classification methods are employed for defining thermophysical units: Expectation Maximisation of a Gaussian Mixture Model; Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA; and Maximum Likelihood. We analyse the behaviour of the thermophysical classes resulting from the three classifiers, operating on the 2007 TES thermal inertia and albedo datasets. Producing a rigorous mapping of thermophysical classes at ~3 km/pixel resolution remains important for constraining the geologic processes that have shaped the Martian surface on a regional scale, and for choosing appropriate landing sites. The results from applying these algorithms are compared to geologic maps, surface data from lander missions, features derived from imaging, and previous classifications of thermophysical units which utilized manual (and potentially more time consuming classification methods. These comparisons comprise data suitable for validation of our classifications. Our work shows that a combination of the algorithms—ISODATA and Maximum Likelihood—optimises the sensitivity to the underlying dataspace, and that new information on Martian surface materials can be obtained by using these methods. We demonstrate that the algorithms used here can be applied to define a finer partitioning of albedo and thermal inertia for a more detailed mapping of surface materials, grain sizes and thermal behaviour of the Martian surface and shallow subsurface, at the ~3 km scale.

  16. Preliminary deformation model for National Seismic Hazard map of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Sarsito, Dina; Prijatna, Kosasih; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z. [Geodesy Research Division, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Susilo,; Efendi, Joni [Agency for Geospatial Information (BIG) (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Preliminary deformation model for the Indonesia’s National Seismic Hazard (NSH) map is constructed as the block rotation and strain accumulation function at the elastic half-space. Deformation due to rigid body motion is estimated by rotating six tectonic blocks in Indonesia. The interseismic deformation due to subduction is estimated by assuming coupling on subduction interface while deformation at active fault is calculated by assuming each of the fault‘s segment slips beneath a locking depth or in combination with creeping in a shallower part. This research shows that rigid body motion dominates the deformation pattern with magnitude more than 15 mm/year, except in the narrow area near subduction zones and active faults where significant deformation reach to 25 mm/year.

  17. D Topological Indoor Building Modeling Integrated with Open Street Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, A.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Boguslawski, P.

    2016-09-01

    Considering various fields of applications for building surveying and various demands, geometry representation of a building is the most crucial aspect of a building survey. The interiors of the buildings need to be described along with the relative locations of the rooms, corridors, doors and exits in many kinds of emergency response, such as fire, bombs, smoke, and pollution. Topological representation is a challenging task within the Geography Information Science (GIS) environment, as the data structures required to express these relationships are particularly difficult to develop. Even within the Computer Aided Design (CAD) community, the structures for expressing the relationships between adjacent building parts are complex and often incomplete. In this paper, an integration of 3D topological indoor building modeling in Dual Half Edge (DHE) data structure and outdoor navigation network from Open Street Map (OSM) is presented.

  18. Representing the environment 3.0. Maps, models, networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Bollini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Web 3.0 is changing the world we live and perceive the environment anthropomorphized, making a stratifation of levels of experience and mediated by the devices. If the urban landscape is designed, shaped and planned space, there is a social landscape that overwrite the territory of values, representations shared images, narratives of personal and collective history. Mobile technology introduces an additional parameter, a kind of non-place, which allows the coexistence of the here and elsewhere in an sort of digital landscape. The maps, mental models, the system of social networks become, then, the way to present, represented and represent themselves in a kind of ideal coring of the co-presence of levels of physical, cognitive and collective space.

  19. Maps and grids of hydrogeologic information created from standardized water-well drillers’ records of the glaciated United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E. Randall; Arihood, Leslie D.; Reeves, Howard W.; Sperl, Benjamin J.S.; Qi, Sharon L.; Stipe, Valerie E.; Bunch, Aubrey R.

    2017-01-18

    As part of the National Water Availability and Use Program established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2005, this study took advantage of about 14 million records from State-managed collections of water-well drillers’ records and created a database of hydrogeologic properties for the glaciated United States. The water-well drillers’ records were standardized to be relatively complete and error-free and to provide consistent variables and naming conventions that span all State boundaries.Maps and geospatial grids were developed for (1) total thickness of glacial deposits, (2) total thickness of coarse-grained deposits, (3) specific-capacity based transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity, and (4) texture-based estimated equivalent horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity. The information included in these maps and grids is required for most assessments of groundwater availability, in addition to having applications to studies of groundwater flow and transport. The texture-based estimated equivalent horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity were based on an assumed range of hydraulic conductivity values for coarse- and fine-grained deposits and should only be used with complete awareness of the methods used to create them. However, the maps and grids of texture-based estimated equivalent hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity may be useful for application to areas where a range of measured values is available for re-scaling.Maps of hydrogeologic information for some States are presented as examples in this report but maps and grids for all States are available electronically at the project Web site (USGS Glacial Aquifer System Groundwater Availability Study, http://mi.water.usgs.gov/projects/WaterSmart/Map-SIR2015-5105.html) and the Science Base Web site, https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/58756c7ee4b0a829a3276352.

  20. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 5 - Energy density mapping projections. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. Task 5 focused on energy projection mapping to estimate and visualise the energy consumption density and GHG emissions under different scenarios. The scenarios from task 4 were built around the energy consumption density of the residential sector under future land use patterns and rely on different energy source combinations (the suite of pathways). In task 5 the energy usage under the different scenarios were fed back into GIS, thereby giving a visual representation of forecasted residential energy consumption per unit area. The methodology is identical to that used in task 2 where current usage was mapped, whereas the mapping in this task is for future forecasts. These results are documented in this report. In addition, GHG mapping under the various scenarios was also undertaken. (LN)

  1. E/V Nautilus Mapping and ROV Dives Reveal Hundreds of Vents along the West Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R.; Raineault, N.; Embley, R. W.; Merle, S. G.; Girguis, P. R.; Irish, O.; Lubetkin, M.; German, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Cormier, M. H.; Caldow, C.; Freedman, R.; Gee, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Exploration Vessel (E/V) Nautilus has mapped more than 30,000 km2 of seafloor off the west coast of the United States between July 2015 and September 2016. The 30 kHz EM302 multibeam mapping system collects water column data in addition to bathymetry and backscatter. Examination of the water column data revealed hundreds of distinct vertical features, presumably plumes of methane gas released from the seafloor. While seafloor reservoirs of methane are thought to contribute 5-10% of the global discharge, inventories of seafloor methane seeps are poorly constrained due to the lack of data such as the distribution and abundance of seafloor gas plumes. The results of mapping efforts reveal an unexpected number of methane seeps. ROV dives were then used to provide geological context to the seeps and associated unique biological communities. Altogether these findings contribute significantly to our baseline inventory of seeps along the continental margins of the United States. The presence of unexpectedly large numbers of methane seeps on the US Pacific, Gulf and Atlantic margins may influence the management of human extraction activities on the margin seabed.

  2. Land use mapping and modelling for the Phoenix Quadrangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The mapping of generalized land use (level 1) from ERTS 1 images was shown to be feasible with better than 95% accuracy in the Phoenix quadrangle. The accuracy of level 2 mapping in urban areas is still a problem. Updating existing maps also proved to be feasible, especially in water categories and agricultural uses; however, expanding urban growth has presented with accuracy. ERTS 1 film images indicated where areas of change were occurring, thus aiding focusing-in for more detailed investigation. ERTS color composite transparencies provided a cost effective source of information for land use mapping of very large regions at small map scales.

  3. ­­Estimating Forest Management Units from Road Network Maps in the Southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.; Hall, J.; Fu, C. S.; Binford, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The most important factor affecting forest structure and function is the type of management undertaken in forest stands. Owners manage forests using appropriately sized areas to meet management objectives, which include economic return, sustainability, recreation, or esthetic enjoyment. Thus, the socio-environmental unit of study for forests should be the management unit. To study the ecological effects of different kinds of management activities, we must identify individual management units. Road networks, which provide access for human activities, are widely used in managing forests in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain and Piedmont (SEUS). Our research question in this study is: How can we identify individual forest management units in an entire region? To answer it, we hypothesize that the road network defines management units on the landscape. Road-caused canopy openings are not always captured by satellite sensors, so it is difficult to delineate ecologically relevant patches based only on remote sensing data. We used a reliable, accurate and freely available road network data, OpenStreetMap (OSM), and the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) to delineate management units in a section of the SEUS defined by Landsat Wprldwide Reference System (WRS) II footprint path 17 row 39. The spatial frequency distributions of forest management units indicate that while units Management units ≥ 0.5 Ha ranged from 0.5 to 160,770 Ha (the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge). We compared the size-frequency distributions of management units with four independently derived management types: production, ecological, preservation, and passive management. Preservation and production management had the largest units, at 40.5 ± 2196.7 (s.d.) and 41.3 ± 273.5 Ha, respectively. Ecological and passive averaged about half as large at 19.2 ± 91.5 and 22.4 ± 96.0 Ha, respectively. This result supports the hypothesis that the road network defines management units in SEUS. If this way

  4. Unified Model of Purification Units in Hydrogen Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴思东; 王彧斐; 冯霄

    2014-01-01

    Purification processes are widely used in hydrogen networks of refineries to increase hydrogen reuse. In refineries, hydrogen purification techniques include hydrocarbon, hydrogen sulfide and CO removal units. In addi-tion, light hydrocarbon recovery from the hydrogen source streams can also result in hydrogen purification. In order to simplify the superstructure and mathematical model of hydrogen network integration, the models of different pu-rification processes are unified in this paper, including mass balance and the expressions for hydrogen recovery and impurity removal ratios, which are given for all the purification units in refineries. Based on the proposed unified model, a superstructure of hydrogen networks with purification processes is constructed.

  5. Using albedo to reform wind erosion modelling, mapping and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Adrian; Webb, Nicholas P.

    2016-12-01

    Wind erosion and dust emission models are used to assess the impacts of dust on radiative forcing in the atmosphere, cloud formation, nutrient fertilisation and human health. The models are underpinned by a two-dimensional geometric property (lateral cover; L) used to characterise the three-dimensional aerodynamic roughness (sheltered area or wakes) of the Earth's surface and calibrate the momentum it extracts from the wind. We reveal a fundamental weakness in L and demonstrate that values are an order of magnitude too small and significant aerodynamic interactions between roughness elements and their sheltered areas have been omitted, particularly under sparse surface roughness. We describe a solution which develops published work to establish a relation between sheltered area and the proportion of shadow over a given area; the inverse of direct beam directional hemispherical reflectance (black sky albedo; BSA). We show direct relations between shadow and wind tunnel measurements and thereby provide direct calibrations of key aerodynamic properties. Estimation of the aerodynamic parameters from albedo enables wind erosion assessments over areas, across platforms from the field to airborne and readily available satellite data. Our new approach demonstrated redundancy in existing wind erosion models and thereby reduced model complexity and improved fidelity. We found that the use of albedo enabled an adequate description of aerodynamic sheltering to characterise fluid dynamics and predict sediment transport without the use of a drag partition scheme (Rt) or threshold friction velocity (u∗t). We applied the calibrations to produce global maps of aerodynamic properties which showed very similar spatial patterns to each other and confirmed the redundancy in the traditional parameters of wind erosion modelling. We evaluated temporal patterns of predicted horizontal mass flux at locations across Australia which revealed variation between land cover types that would not

  6. A Method of Surrogate Model Construction which Leverages Lower-Fidelity Information using Space Mapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    errors found using the polynomial response surrogate (LS PRM ) overlaid on the data from the space-mapped (SM) surrogate...nonlinear space-mapped surrogate responses, with the least-squares PRM surrogate response plotted for comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 42...Percent error comparison between the least-squares space-mapping and the PRM surrogate models derived from samples in the second dataset

  7. MODELING METHOD FOR PRODUCT STRUCTURE MAPPING BASED ON REVERSE SOLVING OF LOCUS AND MOTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuyou; YI Guodong; XU Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of structure design in reverse-design of mechanism, a structure mapping method based on reverse solving of locus and motion (RSLM) is presented. The mechanism scheme meeting the requirements of geometric and structural features is obtained through RSLM. The element instance subsets related to component are established based on the element type mapping, pair structure type mapping and design knowledge mapping between components and elements layer by layer. The assembly position mapping of elements is established based on the topological structure information of mechanism scheme, and the product modeling of structure mapping is realized. The algorithm program and prototype system of product structure mapping based on RSLM are developed. Application samples show that the method implements the integration of scheme design, assembly design and structure design, and modeling for product structure mapping based on RSLM. The feasibility of assembly is analyzed in scheme design that contributes to reducing the design error, and raising the design efficiency and quality.

  8. Forest type mapping using incorporation of spatial models and ETM+ data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joibary, Shaban Shataee; Darvishsefat, Ali A; Kellenberger, Tobias W

    2007-07-15

    Results of former researches have shown that spectrally based analysis alone could not satisfy forest type classification in mountainous mixed forests. Forest type based on composed different parameters such as topography elements like aspect, elevation and slop. These elements that are affected on occurrences of forest type can be stated as spatial distribution models. Using ancillary data integrated with spectral data could help to separate forest type. In order to find the abilities of using topographic spatial predictive models to improve forest type classification, an investigation was carried out to classify forest type using ETM+ data in a part of northern forests of Iran. The Tasseled Cap, Ratioing transformations and Principal Component Analysis were applied to the spectral bands. The best spectral and predictive data sets for classifying forest type using maximum likelihood classification were chosen using the Bhattacharya seperability index. Primary analysis between forest type and topographic parameters showed that elevation and aspect are most correlated with the occurrences of type. Probability occurrence rates of forest type were extracted in the aspect; elevation, integrated aspect and elevation as well as homogeneous units structured on elevation and aspect classes. Based on occurrence rates of forest type, spatial predictive distribution models were generated for each type individually. Classification of the best spectral data sets was accomplished by maximum likelihood classifier and using these spatial predictive models. Results were assessed using a sample ground truth of forest type. This study showed that spatial predictive models could considerably improve the results compared with spectral data alone from 49 to 60%. Among spatial models used, the spatial predictive models constructed based on the homogeneous units could improve results in comparison to other models. Applying other parameters related to forest type like soil maps would

  9. A Multianalyzer Machine Learning Model for Marine Heterogeneous Data Schema Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges that marine heterogeneous data integration faces are the problem of accurate schema mapping between heterogeneous data sources. In order to improve the schema mapping efficiency and get more accurate learning results, this paper proposes a heterogeneous data schema mapping method basing on multianalyzer machine learning model. The multianalyzer analysis the learning results comprehensively, and a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation system is introduced for output results’ evaluation and multi factor quantitative judging. Finally, the data mapping comparison experiment on the East China Sea observing data confirms the effectiveness of the model and shows multianalyzer’s obvious improvement of mapping error rate.

  10. Four-component united-atom model of bitumen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Lemarchand, Claire; Nielsen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-component united-atom molecular model of bitumen. The model includes realistic chemical constituents and introduces a coarse graining level that suppresses the highest frequency modes. Molecular dynamics simulations of the model are carried out using graphic-processor-units based...... software in time spans in order of microseconds, which enables the study of slow relaxation processes characterizing bitumen. This paper also presents results of the model dynamics as expressed through the mean-square displacement, the stress autocorrelation function, and rotational relaxation...... the stress autocorrelation function, the shear viscosity and shear modulus are evaluated, showing a viscous response at frequencies below 100 MHz. The model predictions of viscosity and diffusivities are compared to experimental data, giving reasonable agreement. The model shows that the asphaltene, resin...

  11. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Major Roads of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of...

  12. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Cities and Towns of the United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing cities and towns in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of...

  13. Geologic quadrangle maps of the United States: geology of the Casa Diablo Mountain quadrangle, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, C. Dean; Ross, Donald Clarence

    1957-01-01

    The Casa Diablo Mountain quadrangle was mapped in the summers of 1952 and 1953 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Division of Mines as part of a study of potential tungsten-bearing areas.

  14. Translation of Bernstein Coefficients Under an Affine Mapping of the Unit Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, John A., II

    2012-01-01

    We derive an expression connecting the coefficients of a polynomial expanded in the Bernstein basis to the coefficients of an equivalent expansion of the polynomial under an affine mapping of the domain. The expression may be useful in the calculation of bounds for multi-variate polynomials.

  15. Map and Aerial Photo Collections in the United States: Survey of the Seventy Largest Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Stanley D.

    1981-01-01

    Data gathered from 56 libraries, agencies, and other institutions holding large collections of maps and aerial photographs are reported, including such areas as personnel, equipment, acquisitions, floor space, promotion, and use of computers. The 70 largest collections are ranked and profiled, and a sample questionnaire is provided. (FM)

  16. Parametric time delay modeling for floating point units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Hossam A. H.; Liddicoat, Albert A.; Flynn, Michael J.

    2002-12-01

    A parametric time delay model to compare floating point unit implementations is proposed. This model is used to compare a previously proposed floating point adder using a redundant number representation with other high-performance implementations. The operand width, the fan-in of the logic gates and the radix of the redundant format are used as parameters to the model. The comparison is done over a range of operand widths, fan-in and radices to show the merits of each implementation.

  17. Mapping soil organic carbon stocks by robust geostatistical and boosted regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Madlene; Papritz, Andreas; Baltensweiler, Andri; Walthert, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in forests offsets greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, quantifying C stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems is of interest for greenhouse gas reporting according to the Kyoto protocol. In Switzerland, the National Forest Inventory offers comprehensive data to quantify the aboveground forest biomass and its change in time. Estimating stocks of soil organic C (SOC) in forests is more difficult because the variables needed to quantify stocks vary strongly in space and precise quantification of some of them is very costly. Based on data from 1'033 plots we modeled SOC stocks of the organic layer and the mineral soil to depths of 30 cm and 100 cm for the Swiss forested area. For the statistical modeling a broad range of covariates were available: Climate data (e. g. precipitation, temperature), two elevation models (resolutions 25 and 2 m) with respective terrain attributes and spectral reflectance data representing vegetation. Furthermore, the main mapping units of an overview soil map and a coarse scale geological map were used to coarsely represent the parent material of the soils. The selection of important covariates for SOC stocks modeling out of a large set was a major challenge for the statistical modeling. We used two approaches to deal with this problem: 1) A robust restricted maximum likelihood method to fit linear regression model with spatially correlated errors. The large number of covariates was first reduced by LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) and then further narrowed down to a parsimonious set of important covariates by cross-validation of the robustly fitted model. To account for nonlinear dependencies of the response on the covariates interaction terms of the latter were included in model if this improved the fit. 2) A boosted structured regression model with componentwise linear least squares or componentwise smoothing splines as base procedures. The selection of important covariates was done by the

  18. Mapping Investments and Published Outputs in Norovirus Research: A Systematic Analysis of Research Funded in the United States and United Kingdom During 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Lichtman, Amos B; Soyode, Damilola T; Harris, Jennifer N; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    Norovirus accounts for a considerable portion of the global disease burden. Mapping national or international investments relating to norovirus research is limited. We analyzed the focus and type of norovirus research funding awarded to institutions in the United States and United Kingdom during 1997-2013. Data were obtained from key public and philanthropic funders across both countries, and norovirus-related research was identified from study titles and abstracts. Included studies were further categorized by the type of scientific investigation, and awards related to vaccine, diagnostic, and therapeutic research were identified. Norovirus publication trends are also described using data from Scopus. In total, US and United Kingdom funding investment for norovirus research was £97.6 million across 349 awards; 326 awards (amount, £84.9 million) were received by US institutions, and 23 awards (£12.6 million) were received by United Kingdom institutions. Combined, £81.2 million of the funding (83.2%) was for preclinical research, and £16.4 million (16.8%) was for translational science. Investments increased from £1.7 million in 1997 to £11.8 million in 2013. Publication trends showed a consistent temporal increase from 48 in 1997 to 182 in 2013. Despite increases over time, trends in US and United Kingdom funding for norovirus research clearly demonstrate insufficient translational research and limited investment in diagnostics, therapeutics, or vaccine research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Mapping the solid-state properties of crystalline lysozyme during pharmaceutical unit-operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Mohammad Amin; Grimsey, Ian M; Forbes, Robert T

    2015-10-10

    Bulk crystallisation of protein therapeutic molecules towards their controlled drug delivery is of interest to the biopharmaceutical industry. The complexity of biotherapeutic molecules is likely to lead to complex material properties of crystals in the solid state and to complex transitions. This complexity is explored using batch crystallised lysozyme as a model. The effects of drying and milling on the solid-state transformations of lysozyme crystals were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), FT-Raman, and enzymatic assay. XRPD was used to characterise crystallinity and these data supported those of crystalline lysozyme which gave a distinctive DSC thermogram. The apparent denaturation temperature (Tm) of the amorphous lysozyme was ∼201 °C, while the Tm of the crystalline form was ∼187 °C. Raman spectra supported a more α-helix rich structure of crystalline lysozyme. This structure is consistent with reduced cooperative unit sizes compared to the amorphous lysozyme and is consistent with a reduction in the Tm of the crystalline form. Evidence was obtained that milling also induced denaturation in the solid-state, with the denatured lysozyme showing no thermal transition. The denaturation of the crystalline lysozyme occurred mainly through its amorphous form. Interestingly, the mechanical denaturation of lysozyme did not affect its biological activity on dissolution. Lysozyme crystals on drying did not become amorphous, while milling-time played a crucial role in the crystalline-amorphous-denatured transformations of lysozyme crystals. DSC is shown to be a key tool to monitor quantitatively these transformations.

  20. Crosstalk and transitions between multiple spatial maps in an attractor neural network model of the hippocampus: Phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monasson, R.; Rosay, S.

    2013-06-01

    We study the stable phases of an attractor neural network model, with binary units, for hippocampal place cells encoding one-dimensional (1D) or 2D spatial maps or environments. Different maps correspond to random allocations (permutations) of the place fields. Based on replica calculations we show that, below critical levels for the noise in the neural response and for the number of environments, the network activity is spatially localized in one environment. For high noise and loads the network activity extends over space, either uniformly or with spatial heterogeneities due to the crosstalk between the maps, and memory of environments is lost. Remarkably the spatially localized regime is very robust against the neural noise until it reaches its critical level. Numerical simulations are in excellent quantitative agreement with our theoretical predictions.

  1. GIS-based niche modeling for mapping species' habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberry, John T; Preston, Kristine L; Knick, Steven T

    2006-06-01

    Ecological "niche modeling" using presence-only locality data and large-scale environmental variables provides a powerful tool for identifying and mapping suitable habitat for species over large spatial extents. We describe a niche modeling approach that identifies a minimum (rather than an optimum) set of basic habitat requirements for a species, based on the assumption that constant environmental relationships in a species' distribution (i.e., variables that maintain a consistent value where the species occurs) are most likely to be associated with limiting factors. Environmental variables that take on a wide range of values where a species occurs are less informative because they do not limit a species' distribution, at least over the range of variation sampled. This approach is operationalized by partitioning Mahalanobis D2 (standardized difference between values of a set of environmental variables for any point and mean values for those same variables calculated from all points at which a species was detected) into independent components. The smallest of these components represents the linear combination of variables with minimum variance; increasingly larger components represent larger variances and are increasingly less limiting. We illustrate this approach using the California Gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica Brewster) and provide SAS code to implement it.

  2. A Generic Approach to Self-localization and Mapping of Mobile Robots Without Using a Kinematic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesper, Patrick; Berscheid, Lars; Wörgötter, Florentin;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a generic approach to the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) problem is proposed. The approach is based on a probabilistic SLAM algorithm and employs only two portable sensors, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a laser range finder (LRF) to estimate the state and envi......In this paper a generic approach to the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) problem is proposed. The approach is based on a probabilistic SLAM algorithm and employs only two portable sensors, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a laser range finder (LRF) to estimate the state...... and environment of a robot. Scan-matching is applied to compensate for noisy IMU measurements. This approach does not require any robot-specific characteristics, e.g. wheel encoders or kinematic models. In principle, this minimal sensory setup can be mounted on different robot systems without major modifications...

  3. Forecasting Models for Hydropower Unit Stability Using LS-SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM approach for forecasting stability parameters of Francis turbine unit. To achieve training and testing data for the models, four field tests were presented, especially for the vibration in Y-direction of lower generator bearing (LGB and pressure in draft tube (DT. A heuristic method such as a neural network using Backpropagation (NNBP is introduced as a comparison model to examine the feasibility of forecasting performance. In the experimental results, LS-SVM showed superior forecasting accuracies and performances to the NNBP, which is of significant importance to better monitor the unit safety and potential faults diagnosis.

  4. A Stochastic Unit Commitment Model for a Local CHP Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Local CHP development in Denmark has during the 90’s been characterised by large growth primarily due to government subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs. In line with the liberalisation process in the EU, Danish local CHPs of a certain size must operate on market terms from 2005. This paper...... presents a stochastic unit commitment model for a single local CHP plant (consisting of CHP unit, boiler, and heat storage facility) which takes into account varying spot prices. Further, additional technology is implemented in the model in the form of an immersion heater. Simulations are conducted using...

  5. Point process models for household distributions within small areal units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zack W. Almquist

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatio-demographic data sets are increasingly available worldwide, permitting ever more realistic modeling and analysis of social processes ranging from mobility to disease trans- mission. The information provided by these data sets is typically aggregated by areal unit, for reasons of both privacy and administrative cost. Unfortunately, such aggregation does not permit fine-grained assessment of geography at the level of individual households. In this paper, we propose to partially address this problem via the development of point pro- cess models that can be used to effectively simulate the location of individual households within small areal units.

  6. SiSeRHMap v1.0: a simulator for mapped seismic response using a hybrid model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Grelle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SiSeRHMap is a computerized methodology capable of drawing up prediction maps of seismic response. It was realized on the basis of a hybrid model which combines different approaches and models in a new and non-conventional way. These approaches and models are organized in a code-architecture composed of five interdependent modules. A GIS (Geographic Information System Cubic Model (GCM, which is a layered computational structure based on the concept of lithodynamic units and zones, aims at reproducing a parameterized layered subsoil model. A metamodeling process confers a hybrid nature to the methodology. In this process, the one-dimensional linear equivalent analysis produces acceleration response spectra of shear wave velocity-thickness profiles, defined as trainers, which are randomly selected in each zone. Subsequently, a numerical adaptive simulation model (Spectra is optimized on the above trainer acceleration response spectra by means of a dedicated Evolutionary Algorithm (EA and the Levenberg–Marquardt Algorithm (LMA as the final optimizer. In the final step, the GCM Maps Executor module produces a serial map-set of a stratigraphic seismic response at different periods, grid-solving the calibrated Spectra model. In addition, the spectra topographic amplification is also computed by means of a numerical prediction model. This latter is built to match the results of the numerical simulations related to isolate reliefs using GIS topographic attributes. In this way, different sets of seismic response maps are developed, on which, also maps of seismic design response spectra are defined by means of an enveloping technique.

  7. Fixed point property for nonexpansive mappings and nonexpansive semigroups on the unit disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Benítez-Babilonia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For closed convex subsets D of a Banach spaces, in 2009, Tomonari Suzuki [11] proved that the fixed point property (FPP for nonexpansive mappings and the FPP for nonexpansive semigroups are equivalent. In this paper some relations between the aforementioned properties for mappings and semigroups defined on D, a closed convex subset of the hyperbolic metric space (D, ρ, are studied. This work arises as a generalization to the space (D, ρ of the study made by Suzuki. Resumen. Para subconjuntos D cerrados y convexos de espacios de Banach, Tomonari Suzuki [11] demostró en 2009 que la propiedad del punto fijo (PPF para funciones no expansivas y la PPF para semigrupos de funciones no expansivas son equivalentes. En este trabajo se estudian algunas relaciones entre dichas propiedades, cuando D es un subconjunto del espacio mético (D, ρ. Este trabajo surge como una generalización al espacio (D, ρ de los resultados de Suzuki.

  8. An unit commitment model for hydrothermal systems; Um modelo de unit commitment para sistemas hidrotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Thiago de Paula; Luciano, Edson Jose Rezende; Nepomuceno, Leonardo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: ra611191@feb.unesp.br, edson.joserl@uol.com.br, leo@feb.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    A model of Unit Commitment to hydrothermal systems that includes the costs of start/stop of generators is proposed. These costs has been neglected in a good part of the programming models for operation of hydrothermal systems (pre-dispatch). The impact of the representation of costs in total production costs is evaluated. The proposed model is solved by a hybrid methodology, which involves the use of genetic algorithms (to solve the entire part of the problem) and sequential quadratic programming methods. This methodology is applied to the solution of an IEEE test system. The results emphasize the importance of representation of the start/stop in the generation schedule.

  9. XML-based integration data model and schema mapping in multidatabase systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ruixuan; Lu Zhengding; Xiao Weijun; Wu Wei

    2005-01-01

    Multidatabase systems are designed to achieve schema integration and data interoperation among distributed and heterogeneous database systems. But data model heterogeneity and schema heterogeneity make this a challenging task. A multidatabase common data model is firstly introduced based on XML, named XML-based Integration Data Model (XIDM), which is suitable for integrating different types of schemas. Then an approach of schema mappings based on XIDM in multidatabase systems has been presented. The mappings include global mappings, dealing with horizontal and vertical partitioning between global schemas and export schemas, and local mappings, processing the transformation between export schemas and local schemas. Finally, the illustration and implementation of schema mappings in a multidatabase prototype - Panorama system are also discussed. The implementation results demonstrate that the XIDM is an efficient model for managing multiple heterogeneous data sources and the approaches of schema mapping based on XIDM behave very well when integrating relational, object-oriented database systems and other file systems.

  10. Mapping and modelling of changes in agricultural intensity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Verburg, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial maps of agricultural intensity are needed for analyses of environmental issues, including biodiversity changes. We present a method to produce such maps for Europe. While most studies beyond farm level focus on land cover change only, this paper focuses on spatial variation in land use

  11. Modelling and mapping of critical thresholds in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posch M; de Smet PAM; Hettelingh JP; Downing RJ; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This report is the sixth in a bi-annual series prepared by the Coordination Center for Effects (CCE) to document the progress made in calculating and mapping critical loads in Europe. The CCE, as part of the Mapping Programme under the UN/ECE Working Group on Effects (WGE), develops methodologies a

  12. Modelling Inland Flood Events for Hazard Maps in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Nzerem, K.; Sassi, M.; Hilberts, A.; Assteerawatt, A.; Tillmanns, S.; Mathur, P.; Mitas, C.; Rafique, F.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan experiences significant inland flooding, driven by torrential rainfall from plum rain storms and typhoons during summer and fall. From last 13 to 16 years data, 3,000 buildings were damaged by such floods annually with a loss US$0.41 billion (Water Resources Agency). This long, narrow island nation with mostly hilly/mountainous topography is located at tropical-subtropical zone with annual average typhoon-hit-frequency of 3-4 (Central Weather Bureau) and annual average precipitation of 2502mm (WRA) - 2.5 times of the world's average. Spatial and temporal distributions of countrywide precipitation are uneven, with very high local extreme rainfall intensities. Annual average precipitation is 3000-5000mm in the mountainous regions, 78% of it falls in May-October, and the 1-hour to 3-day maximum rainfall are about 85 to 93% of the world records (WRA). Rivers in Taiwan are short with small upstream areas and high runoff coefficients of watersheds. These rivers have the steepest slopes, the shortest response time with rapid flows, and the largest peak flows as well as specific flood peak discharge (WRA) in the world. RMS has recently developed a countrywide inland flood model for Taiwan, producing hazard return period maps at 1arcsec grid resolution. These can be the basis for evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood losses. The model is initiated with sub-daily historical meteorological forcings and calibrated to daily discharge observations at about 50 river gauges over the period 2003-2013. Simulations of hydrologic processes, via rainfall-runoff and routing models, are subsequently performed based on a 10000 year set of stochastic forcing. The rainfall-runoff model is physically based continuous, semi-distributed model for catchment hydrology. The 1-D wave propagation hydraulic model considers catchment runoff in routing and describes large-scale transport processes along the river. It also accounts for reservoir storage

  13. Site-conditions map for Portugal based on VS measurements: methodology and final model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Susana; Narciso, João; Carvalho, João; Lopes, Isabel; Quinta Ferreira, Mario; Moura, Rui; Borges, José; Nemser, Eliza; Pinto, carlos

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present a statistically significant site-condition model for Portugal based on shear-wave velocity (VS) data and surface geology. We also evaluate the performance of commonly used Vs30 proxies based on exogenous data and analyze the implications of using those proxies for calculating site amplification in seismic hazard assessment. The dataset contains 161 Vs profiles acquired in Portugal in the context of research projects, technical reports, academic thesis and academic papers. The methodologies involved in characterizing the Vs structure at the sites in the database include seismic refraction, multichannel analysis of seismic waves and refraction microtremor. Invasive measurements were performed in selected locations in order to compare the Vs profiles obtained from both invasive and non-invasive techniques. In general there was good agreement in the subsurface structure of Vs30 obtained from the different methodologies. The database flat-file includes information on Vs30, surface geology at 1:50.000 and 1:500.000 scales, elevation and topographic slope and based on SRTM30 topographic dataset. The procedure used to develop the site-conditions map is based on a three-step process that includes defining a preliminary set of geological units based on the literature, performing statistical tests to assess whether or not the differences in the distributions of Vs30 are statistically significant, and merging of the geological units accordingly. The dataset was, to some extent, affected by clustering and/or preferential sampling and therefore a declustering algorithm was applied. The final model includes three geological units: 1) Igneous, metamorphic and old (Paleogene and Mesozoic) sedimentary rocks; 2) Neogene and Pleistocene formations, and 3) Holocene formations. The evaluation of proxies indicates that although geological analogues and topographic slope are in general unbiased, the latter shows significant bias for particular geological units and

  14. GIS-based niche modeling for mapping species' habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberry, J.T.; Preston, K.L.; Knick, S.

    2006-01-01

    Ecological a??niche modelinga?? using presence-only locality data and large-scale environmental variables provides a powerful tool for identifying and mapping suitable habitat for species over large spatial extents. We describe a niche modeling approach that identifies a minimum (rather than an optimum) set of basic habitat requirements for a species, based on the assumption that constant environmental relationships in a species' distribution (i.e., variables that maintain a consistent value where the species occurs) are most likely to be associated with limiting factors. Environmental variables that take on a wide range of values where a species occurs are less informative because they do not limit a species' distribution, at least over the range of variation sampled. This approach is operationalized by partitioning Mahalanobis D2 (standardized difference between values of a set of environmental variables for any point and mean values for those same variables calculated from all points at which a species was detected) into independent components. The smallest of these components represents the linear combination of variables with minimum variance; increasingly larger components represent larger variances and are increasingly less limiting. We illustrate this approach using the California Gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica Brewster) and provide SAS code to implement it.

  15. Mathematical model of layered metallurgical furnaces and units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvydkiy, V. S.; Spirin, N. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The basic approaches to mathematical modeling of the layered steel furnaces and units are considered. It is noted that the particular importance have the knowledge about the mechanisms and physical nature of processes of the charge column movement and the gas flow in the moving layer, as well as regularities of development of heat- and mass-transfer in them. The statement and mathematical description of the problem solution targeting the potential gas flow in the layered unit of an arbitrary profile are presented. On the basis of the proposed mathematical model the software implementation of information-modeling system of BF gas dynamics is carried out. The results of the computer modeling of BF non-isothermal gas dynamics with regard to the cohesion zone, gas dynamics of the combustion zone and calculation of hot-blast stoves are provided

  16. COST ESTIMATION MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNIT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost models for unit processes typically utilized in a conventional water treatment plant and in package treatment plant technology are compiled in this paper. The cost curves are represented as a function of specified design parameters and are categorized into four major catego...

  17. Modeled Top of the Overburden Geomodel Unit (obtop_f)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The obtop_f grid represents the modeled elevation of the top of the Overburden geomodel unit at a 500 foot resolution. It is one grid of a geomodel that consists of...

  18. Social Innovation using the Best Practice Unit model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilken, Jean Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The model of the Best Practice Unit (BPU) is a specific form of practice based research. It is a variation of the Community of Practice (CoP) as developed by Wenger, McDermott and Snyder (2002) with the specific aim to innovate a professional practice by combining learning, development and research.

  19. Model United Nations and Deep Learning: Theoretical and Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Susan; Pallas, Josh; Lambert, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the purposeful subject design, incorporating a Model United Nations (MUN), facilitated deep learning and professional skills attainment in the field of International Relations. Deep learning was promoted in subject design by linking learning objectives to Anderson and Krathwohl's (2001) four levels of knowledge or…

  20. Modeling the effect of short stay units on patient admissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, Maartje E.; Boucherie, Richard J.; Carter, Michael W.; Stanford, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Two purposes of Short Stay Units (SSU) are the reduction of Emergency Department crowding and increased urgent patient admissions. At an SSU urgent patients are temporarily held until they either can go home or transferred to an inpatient ward. In this paper we present an overflow model to evaluate

  1. THE SHARP ESTIMATE OF THE THIRD HOMOGENEOUS EXPANSION FOR A CLASS OF STARLIKE MAPPINGS OF ORDER α ON THE UNIT POLYDISK IN Cn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaosong; Liu Taishun

    2012-01-01

    In this article,first,a sufficient condition for a starlike mapping of order α f(x) defined on the unit ball in a complex Banach space is given. Second,the sharp estimate of the third homogeneous expansion for f is established as well,where f(z) =(f1(z),f2(z),…,fn(z))' is a starlike mapping of order α or a normalized biholomorphic starlike mapping defined on the unit polydisk in Cn,and D2fk(0)(z2)/2 =zk(nΣl=1 aklzl),k =1,2,…,n,here,akl =1/2!(6)2fk(0)/(6)zk(6)zl,k,l==1,2,…,n.Our result states that the Bieberbach conjecture in several complex variables (the case of the third homogeneous expansion for starlike mappings of order α and biholomorphic starlike mappings) is partly proved.

  2. Integrating super resolution mapping and SEBS modeling for evapotranspiration mapping at the field scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahour, M.; Stein, A.; Sharifi, M.A.; Tolpekin, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the use of super resolution mapping (SRM) for precision agriculture. SRM was applied to a high resolution GeoEye image of a vineyard in Iran with the aim to determine the actual evapotranspiration (AET) and potential evapotranspiration (PET). The Surface Energy Balance System

  3. 3-D or median map? Earthquake scenario ground-motion maps from physics-based models versus maps from ground-motion prediction equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K.

    2015-12-01

    There are two common ways to create a ground-motion map for a hypothetical earthquake: using ground motion prediction equations (by far the more common of the two) and using 3-D physics-based modeling. The former is very familiar to engineers, the latter much less so, and the difference can present a problem because engineers tend to trust the familiar and distrust novelty. Maps for essentially the same hypothetical earthquake using the two different methods can look very different, while appearing to present the same information. Using one or the other can lead an engineer or disaster planner to very different estimates of damage and risk. The reasons have to do with depiction of variability, spatial correlation of shaking, the skewed distribution of real-world shaking, and the upward-curving relationship between shaking and damage. The scientists who develop the two kinds of map tend to specialize in one or the other and seem to defend their turf, which can aggravate the problem of clearly communicating with engineers.The USGS Science Application for Risk Reduction's (SAFRR) HayWired scenario has addressed the challenge of explaining to engineers the differences between the two maps, and why, in a disaster planning scenario, one might want to use the less-familiar 3-D map.

  4. A geospatial model of ambient sound pressure levels in the contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennitt, Daniel; Sherrill, Kirk; Fristrup, Kurt

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a model that predicts measured sound pressure levels using geospatial features such as topography, climate, hydrology, and anthropogenic activity. The model utilizes random forest, a tree-based machine learning algorithm, which does not incorporate a priori knowledge of source characteristics or propagation mechanics. The response data encompasses 270 000 h of acoustical measurements from 190 sites located in National Parks across the contiguous United States. The explanatory variables were derived from national geospatial data layers and cross validation procedures were used to evaluate model performance and identify variables with predictive power. Using the model, the effects of individual explanatory variables on sound pressure level were isolated and quantified to reveal systematic trends across environmental gradients. Model performance varies by the acoustical metric of interest; the seasonal L50 can be predicted with a median absolute deviation of approximately 3 dB. The primary application for this model is to generalize point measurements to maps expressing spatial variation in ambient sound levels. An example of this mapping capability is presented for Zion National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument in southwestern Utah.

  5. Assssment and Mapping of the Riverine Hydrokinetic Resource in the Continental United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Paul T. [Electric Power Research Institute; Ravens, Thomas M. [University of Alaska Anchorage; Cunningham, Keith W. [University of Alaska Fairbanks; Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2012-12-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded the Electric Power Research Institute and its collaborative partners, University of Alaska ? Anchorage, University of Alaska ? Fairbanks, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, to provide an assessment of the riverine hydrokinetic resource in the continental United States. The assessment benefited from input obtained during two workshops attended by individuals with relevant expertise and from a National Research Council panel commissioned by DOE to provide guidance to this and other concurrent, DOE-funded assessments of water based renewable energy. These sources of expertise provided valuable advice regarding data sources and assessment methodology. The assessment of the hydrokinetic resource in the 48 contiguous states is derived from spatially-explicit data contained in NHDPlus ?a GIS-based database containing river segment-specific information on discharge characteristics and channel slope. 71,398 river segments with mean annual flow greater than 1,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) mean discharge were included in the assessment. Segments with discharge less than 1,000 cfs were dropped from the assessment, as were river segments with hydroelectric dams. The results for the theoretical and technical resource in the 48 contiguous states were found to be relatively insensitive to the cutoff chosen. Raising the cutoff to 1,500 cfs had no effect on estimate of the technically recoverable resource, and the theoretical resource was reduced by 5.3%. The segment-specific theoretical resource was estimated from these data using the standard hydrological engineering equation that relates theoretical hydraulic power (Pth, Watts) to discharge (Q, m3 s-1) and hydraulic head or change in elevation (??, m) over the length of the segment, where ? is the specific weight of water (9800 N m-3): ??? = ? ? ?? For Alaska, which is not encompassed by NPDPlus, hydraulic head and discharge data were manually obtained from Idaho National

  6. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 2 - Energy consumption and density mapping. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The second task in the overall project was the mapping of regional energy consumption density. Combined with the findings from task one, this enables comparison of energy consumption density per area unit with the renewable energy resource availability. In addition, it provides an energy baseline against which future energy planning activities can be evaluated. The mapping of the energy consumption density was divided into categories to correspond with local British Columbia Assessment Authority (BCAA) reporting. The residential sub-categories were comprised of single family detached dwellings, single family attached dwellings, apartments, and moveable dwellings. For commercial and industrial end-users the 14 sub-categories are also in line with BCAA as well as the on-going provincial TaNDM project of which the CVRD is a partner. The results of task two are documented in this report. (LN)

  7. Mapping CORINE Land Cover from Sentinel-1A SAR and SRTM Digital Elevation Model Data using Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Balzter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European CORINE land cover mapping scheme is a standardized classification system with 44 land cover and land use classes. It is used by the European Environment Agency to report large-scale land cover change with a minimum mapping unit of 5 ha every six years and operationally mapped by its member states. The most commonly applied method to map CORINE land cover change is by visual interpretation of optical/near-infrared satellite imagery. The Sentinel-1A satellite carries a C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR and was launched in 2014 by the European Space Agency as the first operational Copernicus mission. This study is the first investigation of Sentinel-1A for CORINE land cover mapping. Two of the first Sentinel-1A images acquired during its ramp-up phase in May and December 2014 over Thuringia in Germany are analysed. 27 hybrid level 2/3 CORINE classes are defined. 17 of these were present at the study site and classified based on a stratified random sample of training pixels from the polygon-eroded CORINE 2006 map. Sentinel-1A logarithmic radar backscatter at HH and HV polarisation (May acquisition, VV and VH polarisation (December acquisition, and the HH image texture are used as input bands to the classification. In addition, a Digital Terrain Model (DTM, a Canopy Height Model (CHM and slope and aspect maps from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM are used as input bands to account for geomorphological features of the landscape. In future, elevation data will be delivered for areas with sufficiently high coherence from the Sentinel-1A Interferometric Wide-Swath Mode itself. When augmented by elevation data from radar interferometry, Sentinel-1A is able to discriminate several CORINE land cover classes, making it useful for monitoring of cloud-covered regions. A bistatic Sentinel-1 Convoy mission would enable single-pass interferometric acquisitions without temporal decorrelation.

  8. Risk-Targeted versus Current Seismic Design Maps for the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luco, Nicolas; Ellingwood, Bruce R.; Hamburger, Ronald O.; Hooper, John D.; Kimball, Jeffrey K.; Kircher, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    The probabilistic portions of the seismic design maps in the NEHRP Provisions (FEMA, 2003/2000/1997), and in the International Building Code (ICC, 2006/2003/2000) and ASCE Standard 7-05 (ASCE, 2005a), provide ground motion values from the USGS that have a 2% probability of being exceeded in 50 years. Under the assumption that the capacity against collapse of structures designed for these "uniformhazard" ground motions is equal to, without uncertainty, the corresponding mapped value at the location of the structure, the probability of its collapse in 50 years is also uniform. This is not the case however, when it is recognized that there is, in fact, uncertainty in the structural capacity. In that case, siteto-site variability in the shape of ground motion hazard curves results in a lack of uniformity. This paper explains the basis for proposed adjustments to the uniform-hazard portions of the seismic design maps currently in the NEHRP Provisions that result in uniform estimated collapse probability. For seismic design of nuclear facilities, analogous but specialized adjustments have recently been defined in ASCE Standard 43-05 (ASCE, 2005b). In support of the 2009 update of the NEHRP Provisions currently being conducted by the Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC), herein we provide examples of the adjusted ground motions for a selected target collapse probability (or target risk). Relative to the probabilistic MCE ground motions currently in the NEHRP Provisions, the risk-targeted ground motions for design are smaller (by as much as about 30%) in the New Madrid Seismic Zone, near Charleston, South Carolina, and in the coastal region of Oregon, with relatively little (<15%) change almost everywhere else in the conterminous U.S.

  9. Forest resources of the United States, 2002: mapping the renewable resource planning act data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra M. Kurtz; Daniel J. Kaisershot; Dale D. Gormanson; Jeffery S. Wazenegger

    2009-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA), a national program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture conducts and maintains comprehensive inventories of the forest resources in the United States. The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974 mandates a comprehensive assessment of past trends, current status, and the future potential...

  10. A cognitive map model based on spatial and goal-oriented mental exploration in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Wang, Rubin; Wang, Ziyin

    2013-11-01

    The rodent hippocampus has been used to represent the spatial environment as a cognitive map. Classical theories suggest that the cognitive map is a consequence of assignment of different spatial regions to variant cell populations in the framework of rate coding. The current study constructs a novel computational neural model of the cognitive map based on firing rate coding, as widely appears in associative memory, thus providing an explanation for formation and function of the two types of cognitive maps: the spatial vector map, responsible for self localization and simultaneous updating of detailed information; and the goal-oriented vector map, important in route finding. A proposed intermediate between these two map types was constructed by combining the spatial vector and goal-orientation maps to form an effective and efficient path finding mechanism. Application of such novel cognitive map based path finding methods to a mental exploration model was explored. With adaptation as a driving force, the basic knowledge of the location relationships in the spatial cognitive map was reformed and sent to the goal-oriented cognitive map, thus solving a series of new path problems through mental exploration. This method allows for rapid identification of suitable paths under variant conditions, thus providing a simpler and safer resource for path finding. Additionally, this method also provides an improved basis for potential robotic path finding applications.

  11. The influence of mapped hazards on risk beliefs: a proximity-based modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Dolores J; Burt, James E

    2012-02-01

    Interview findings suggest perceived proximity to mapped hazards influences risk beliefs when people view environmental hazard maps. For dot maps, four attributes of mapped hazards influenced beliefs: hazard value, proximity, prevalence, and dot patterns. In order to quantify the collective influence of these attributes for viewers' perceived or actual map locations, we present a model to estimate proximity-based hazard or risk (PBH) and share study results that indicate how modeled PBH and map attributes influenced risk beliefs. The randomized survey study among 447 university students assessed risk beliefs for 24 dot maps that systematically varied by the four attributes. Maps depicted water test results for a fictitious hazardous substance in private residential wells and included a designated "you live here" location. Of the nine variables that assessed risk beliefs, the numerical susceptibility variable was most consistently and strongly related to map attributes and PBH. Hazard value, location in or out of a clustered dot pattern, and distance had the largest effects on susceptibility. Sometimes, hazard value interacted with other attributes, for example, distance had stronger effects on susceptibility for larger than smaller hazard values. For all combined maps, PBH explained about the same amount of variance in susceptibility as did attributes. Modeled PBH may have utility for studying the influence of proximity to mapped hazards on risk beliefs, protective behavior, and other dependent variables. Further work is needed to examine these influences for more realistic maps and representative study samples.

  12. Hierarchical Object-Based Mapping of Riverscape Units and in-Stream Mesohabitats Using LiDAR and VHR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Demarchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new, semi-automated methodology for mapping hydromorphological indicators of rivers at a regional scale using multisource remote sensing (RS data. This novel approach is based on the integration of spectral and topographic information within a multilevel, geographic, object-based image analysis (GEOBIA. Different segmentation levels were generated based on the two sources of Remote Sensing (RS data, namely very-high spatial resolution, near-infrared imagery (VHR and high-resolution LiDAR topography. At each level, different input object features were tested with Machine Learning classifiers for mapping riverscape units and in-stream mesohabitats. The GEOBIA approach proved to be a powerful tool for analyzing the river system at different levels of detail and for coupling spectral and topographic datasets, allowing for the delineation of the natural fluvial corridor with its primary riverscape units (e.g., water channel, unvegetated sediment bars, riparian densely-vegetated units, etc. and in-stream mesohabitats with a high level of accuracy, respectively of K = 0.91 and K = 0.83. This method is flexible and can be adapted to different sources of data, with the potential to be implemented at regional scales in the future. The analyzed dataset, composed of VHR imagery and LiDAR data, is nowadays increasingly available at larger scales, notably through European Member States. At the same time, this methodology provides a tool for monitoring and characterizing the hydromorphological status of river systems continuously along the entire channel network and coherently through time, opening novel and significant perspectives to river science and management, notably for planning and targeting actions.

  13. Geologic map of Oldonyo Lengai (Oldoinyo Lengai) Volcano and surroundings, Arusha Region, United Republic of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Magigita, Masota M.; Kwelwa, Shimba

    2013-01-01

    The geology of Oldonyo Lengai volcano and the southernmost Lake Natron basin, Tanzania, is presented on this geologic map at scale 1:50,000. The map sheet can be downloaded in pdf format for online viewing or ready to print (48 inches by 36 inches). A 65-page explanatory pamphlet describes the geologic history of the area. Its goal is to place the new findings into the framework of previous investigations while highlighting gaps in knowledge. In this way questions are raised and challenges proposed to future workers. The southernmost Lake Natron basin is located along the East African rift zone in northern Tanzania. Exposed strata provide a history of volcanism, sedimentation, and faulting that spans 2 million years. It is here where Oldonyo Lengai, Tanzania’s most active volcano of the past several thousand years, built its edifice. Six new radiometric ages, by the 40Ar/39Ar method, and 48 new geochemical analyses from Oldonyo Lengai and surrounding volcanic features deepen our understanding of the area. Those who prefer the convenience and access offered by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) may download an electronic database, suitable for most GIS software applications. The GIS database is in a Transverse Mercator projection, zone 36, New (1960) Arc datum. The database includes layers for hypsography (topography), hydrography, and infrastructure such as roads and trails.

  14. Modeling, Designing, and Implementing an Avatar-based Interactive Map

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stefan Andrei; Milin Joshi; Chandrakant Rudani; Ankur Shah; Bharatkumar Tejwani

    2016-01-01

    ...), has probably the highest level of interaction with the user. This article describes an innovative technique for designing an avatar-based virtual interactive map for the Lamar University Campus, which will entail the buildings...

  15. The vineyard yeast microbiome, a mixed model microbial map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathabatha Evodia Setati

    Full Text Available Vineyards harbour a wide variety of microorganisms that play a pivotal role in pre- and post-harvest grape quality and will contribute significantly to the final aromatic properties of wine. The aim of the current study was to investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities within and between individual vineyard management units. For the first time in such a study, we applied the Theory of Sampling (TOS to sample gapes from adjacent and well established commercial vineyards within the same terroir unit and from several sampling points within each individual vineyard. Cultivation-based and molecular data sets were generated to capture the spatial heterogeneity in microbial populations within and between vineyards and analysed with novel mixed-model networks, which combine sample correlations and microbial community distribution probabilities. The data demonstrate that farming systems have a significant impact on fungal diversity but more importantly that there is significant species heterogeneity between samples in the same vineyard. Cultivation-based methods confirmed that while the same oxidative yeast species dominated in all vineyards, the least treated vineyard displayed significantly higher species richness, including many yeasts with biocontrol potential. The cultivatable yeast population was not fully representative of the more complex populations seen with molecular methods, and only the molecular data allowed discrimination amongst farming practices with multivariate and network analysis methods. Importantly, yeast species distribution is subject to significant intra-vineyard spatial fluctuations and the frequently reported heterogeneity of tank samples of grapes harvested from single vineyards at the same stage of ripeness might therefore, at least in part, be due to the differing microbiota in different sections of the vineyard.

  16. The vineyard yeast microbiome, a mixed model microbial map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setati, Mathabatha Evodia; Jacobson, Daniel; Andong, Ursula-Claire; Bauer, Florian Franz; Bauer, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Vineyards harbour a wide variety of microorganisms that play a pivotal role in pre- and post-harvest grape quality and will contribute significantly to the final aromatic properties of wine. The aim of the current study was to investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities within and between individual vineyard management units. For the first time in such a study, we applied the Theory of Sampling (TOS) to sample gapes from adjacent and well established commercial vineyards within the same terroir unit and from several sampling points within each individual vineyard. Cultivation-based and molecular data sets were generated to capture the spatial heterogeneity in microbial populations within and between vineyards and analysed with novel mixed-model networks, which combine sample correlations and microbial community distribution probabilities. The data demonstrate that farming systems have a significant impact on fungal diversity but more importantly that there is significant species heterogeneity between samples in the same vineyard. Cultivation-based methods confirmed that while the same oxidative yeast species dominated in all vineyards, the least treated vineyard displayed significantly higher species richness, including many yeasts with biocontrol potential. The cultivatable yeast population was not fully representative of the more complex populations seen with molecular methods, and only the molecular data allowed discrimination amongst farming practices with multivariate and network analysis methods. Importantly, yeast species distribution is subject to significant intra-vineyard spatial fluctuations and the frequently reported heterogeneity of tank samples of grapes harvested from single vineyards at the same stage of ripeness might therefore, at least in part, be due to the differing microbiota in different sections of the vineyard.

  17. Integrating satellite imagery with simulation modeling to improve burn severity mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karau, Eva C; Sikkink, Pamela G; Keane, Robert E; Dillon, Gregory K

    2014-07-01

    Both satellite imagery and spatial fire effects models are valuable tools for generating burn severity maps that are useful to fire scientists and resource managers. The purpose of this study was to test a new mapping approach that integrates imagery and modeling to create more accurate burn severity maps. We developed and assessed a statistical model that combines the Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, a satellite image-based change detection procedure commonly used to map burn severity, with output from the Fire Hazard and Risk Model, a simulation model that estimates fire effects at a landscape scale. Using 285 Composite Burn Index (CBI) plots in Washington and Montana as ground reference, we found that an integrated model explained more variability in CBI (R (2) = 0.47) and had lower mean squared error (MSE = 0.28) than image (R (2) = 0.42 and MSE = 0.30) or simulation-based models (R (2) = 0.07 and MSE = 0.49) alone. Overall map accuracy was also highest for maps created with the Integrated Model (63 %). We suspect that Simulation Model performance would greatly improve with higher quality and more accurate spatial input data. Results of this study indicate the potential benefit of combining satellite image-based methods with a fire effects simulation model to create improved burn severity maps.

  18. A MELCOR model of Fukushima Daiichi Unit 3 accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevón, Tuomo, E-mail: tuomo.sevon@vtt.fi

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • A MELCOR model of the Fukushima Unit 3 accident was developed. • The MELCOR input file is published as electronic supplementary data with this paper. • Reactor pressure vessel lower head failed about 53 h after the earthquake. • 70% of fuel was discharged from reactor to containment. • 0.95% of cesium inventory was released to the environment. - Abstract: A MELCOR model of the Fukushima Daiichi Unit 3 accident was developed. The model is based on publicly available information, and the MELCOR input file is published as electronic supplementary data with this paper. According to the calculation, the reactor pressure vessel lower head failed about 53 h after the earthquake. At the end of the calculation, 30% of the fuel was still inside the reactor and 70% had been discharged to the containment. Almost all of the radioactive noble gases and 0.95% of the cesium inventory were released to the environment during the accident.

  19. Modeling, Designing, and Implementing an Avatar-based Interactive Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing interactive maps has always been a challenge due to the geographical complexity of the earth’s landscape and the difficulty of resolving details to a high resolution. In the past decade or so, one of the most impressive map-based software application, the Global Positioning System (GPS, has probably the highest level of interaction with the user. This article describes an innovative technique for designing an avatar-based virtual interactive map for the Lamar University Campus, which will entail the buildings’ exterior as well as their interiors. Many universities provide 2D or 3D maps and even interactive maps. However, these maps do not provide a complete interaction with the user. To the best of our knowledge, this project is the first avatar-based interaction game that allows 100% interaction with the user. This work provides tremendous help to the freshman students and visitors of Lamar University. As an important marketing tool, the main objective is to get better visibility of the campus worldwide and to increase the number of students attending Lamar University.

  20. ESTIMAP: A GIS-BASED MODEL TO MAP ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zulian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Policies of the European Union which affect the use or protection of natural resources increasingly need spatial data on the supply, the flow and the demand of ecosystem services. The model ESTIMAP was developed to this purpose. ESTIMAP departs from land cover and land use maps to which it adds other spatial information with the objective to map various ecosystem services. This study introduces the ESTIMAP map as tool to support the mapping and modelling of ecosystem services at European scale. Examples are provided for three regulating ecosystem services, air quality regulation, coastal protection, and pollination and one cultural ecosystem services, recreation. 

  1. Modeling the Performance of MapReduce Applications for the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Carrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In thelastyears,CloudComputinghasbecomea keytechnologythatmadepossibletorunapplicationswithout needing todeployaphysicalinfrastructure.Thechallengewith deploying distributedapplicationsinCloudComputingenvi- ronmentsisthatthevirtualmachineinfrastructureshouldbe planned inatimeandcost-effectiveway. This workisasummaryofapreviousworkpresentedbythe authors asaMaster’sthesis,withthegoalofshowingthatthe execution timeofadistributedMapReduceapplication,running in aCloudcomputingenvironment,canbepredictedusinga mathematical modelbasedontheoreticalspecifications.This predictionismadetohelptheusersoftheCloudComputing environmenttoplantheirdeployments,i.e.,quantifythenumber of virtualmachinesanditscharacteristics.Aftermeasuringthe application executiontimeandvaryingparametersstatedinthe mathematical model,andafterthat,usingalinearregression technique, thegoalisachievedfindingamodeloftheexecution time whichwasthenappliedtopredicttheexecutiontimeof MapReduce applications.Experimentswereconductedinseveral configurations andshowedaclearrelationwiththetheoretical model, revealingthatthemodelisinfactabletopredictthe execution timeofMapReduceapplications.Thedevelopedmodel is generic,meaningthatitusestheoreticalabstractionsforthe computing capacityoftheenvironmentandthecomputingcost of theMapReduceapplication.

  2. Development of Wolsong Unit 2 Containment Analysis Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoon, Choi [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Ko Bong; Chan, Park Young [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    To be prepared for the full scope safety analysis of Wolsong unit 2 with modified fuel, input decks for the various objectives, which can be read by GOTHIC 7.2b(QA), are developed and tested for the steady state simulation. A detailed nodalization of 39 control volumes and 92 flow paths is constructed to determine the differential pressure across internal walls or hydrogen concentration and distribution inside containment. A lumped model with 15 control volumes and 74 flow paths has also been developed to reduce the computer run time for the assessments in which the analysis results are not sensitive to detailed thermal hydraulic distribution inside containment such as peak pressure, pressure dependent signal and radionuclide release. The input data files provide simplified representations of the geometric layout of the containment building (volumes, dimensions, flow paths, doors, panels, etc.) and the performance characteristics of the various containment subsystems. The parameter values are based on best estimate or design values for that parameter. The analysis values are determined by conservatism depending on the analysis objective and may be different for various analysis objectives. Basic input decks of Wolsong unit 2 were developed for the various analysis purposes with GOTHIC 7.2b(QA). Depend on the analysis objective, two types of models are prepared. Detailed model models each confined room in the containment as a separate node. All of the geometric data are based on the drawings of Wolsong unit 2. Developed containment models are simulating the steady state well to the designated initial condition. These base models will be used for Wolsong unit 2 in case of safety analysis of full scope is needed.

  3. Hydrogeologic unit map of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Payne, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The numerous geologic formations and rock types in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina have been grouped into 21 hydrogeologic units on the basis of their water-bearing potential as determined from rock origin, composition, and texture. All major classes of rocks--metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary--are present, although metamorphic rocks are the most abundant. The origin of the hydrogeologic units is indicated by the rock class or subclass (metaigneous, metavolanic, or metasedimentary). The composition of the igneous, metaigneous, and metavolcanic rocks is designated as felsic, intermediate, or mafic except for the addition in the metavolcanic group of epiclastic rocks and compositionally undifferentiated rocks. Composition is the controlling attribute in the classification of the metasedimentary units of gneiss (mafic or felsic), marble, quartzite. The other metasediments are designated primarily on the basis of texture (grain size, degree of metamorphism, and development of foliation). Sedimentary rocks occur in the Piedmont in several downfaulted basins. A computerized data file containing records from more than 6,200 wells was analyzed to determine average well yields in each of the 21 units. The well yields were adjusted to an average well depth of 154 feet and an average diameter of 6 inches, the average of all wells in the data set, to remove the variation in well yield attributed to differences in depth and diameter. Average yields range from a high of 23.6 gallons per minute for schist to a low 11.6 gallons per minute for sedimentary rocks of Triassic age.

  4. In situ chemical sensing for hydrothermal plume mapping and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuba, T.; Kusunoki, T.; Maeda, Y.; Shitashima, K.; Kyo, M.; Fujii, T.; Noguchi, T.; Sunamura, M.

    2012-12-01

    Detection, monitoring, and mapping of biogeochemical anomalies in seawater such as temperature, salinity, turbidity, oxidation-reduction potential, and pH are essential missions to explore undiscovered hydrothermal sites and to understand distribution and behavior of hydrothermal plumes. Utilization of reliable and useful in situ sensors has been widely accepted as a promised approach to realize a spatiotemporally resolved mapping of anomalies without water sampling operations. Due to remarkable progresses of sensor technologies and its relatives, a number of highly miniaturized and robust chemical sensors have been proposed and developed. We have been developed, evaluated, and operated a compact ISFET (Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor)-based chemical sensors for ocean environmental sensing purposes. An ISFET has advantages against conventional glass-based electrodes on its faster response, robustness, and potential on miniaturization, and thus variety of chemical sensors has been already on the market. In this study, ISFET-based standalone pH sensors with a solid-state Cl-ISE as a reference electrode were mounted on various platforms and operated to monitor the pH anomalies in deep-sea environment at the Kairei, Edmond, and surrounding hydrothermal sites in the southern Central Indian Ridge area during KH10-06 scientific cruise (Nov. 2010), supported by project TAIGA (Trans-crustal Advection and In situ biogeochemical processes of Global sub-seafloor Aquifer). Up to three pH sensors were mounted on a wire-lined CTD/RMS (Rosette Multiple Sampler), dredge sampler, a series of MTD plankton nets, and VMPS (Vertical Multiple-operating Plankton Sampler). A standalone temperature sensor was bundled and operated with the pH sensor when they were mounted on the dredge sampler, MTD plankton nets, and VMPS. An AUV equipped with the pH sensor was also operated for hydrothermal activity survey operations. As a result of Tow-Yo intersect operations of the CTD

  5. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  6. Comparison of Four Different Energy Balance Models for Estimating Evapotranspiration in the Midwestern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of different energy balance models has allowed users to choose a model based on its suitability in a region. We compared four commonly used models—Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC model, Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL model, Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS model, and the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop model—using Landsat images to estimate evapotranspiration (ET in the Midwestern United States. Our models validation using three AmeriFlux cropland sites at Mead, Nebraska, showed that all four models captured the spatial and temporal variation of ET reasonably well with an R2 of more than 0.81. Both the METRIC and SSEBop models showed a low root mean square error (<0.93 mm·day−1 and a high Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (>0.80, whereas the SEBAL and SEBS models resulted in relatively higher bias for estimating daily ET. The empirical equation of daily average net radiation used in the SEBAL and SEBS models for upscaling instantaneous ET to daily ET resulted in underestimation of daily ET, particularly when the daily average net radiation was more than 100 W·m−2. Estimated daily ET for both cropland and grassland had some degree of linearity with METRIC, SEBAL, and SEBS, but linearity was stronger for evaporative fraction. Thus, these ET models have strengths and limitations for applications in water resource management.

  7. Comparison of four different energy balance models for estimating evapotranspiration in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2016-01-01

    The development of different energy balance models has allowed users to choose a model based on its suitability in a region. We compared four commonly used models—Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) model, Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model, Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model, and the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model—using Landsat images to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) in the Midwestern United States. Our models validation using three AmeriFlux cropland sites at Mead, Nebraska, showed that all four models captured the spatial and temporal variation of ET reasonably well with an R2 of more than 0.81. Both the METRIC and SSEBop models showed a low root mean square error (0.80), whereas the SEBAL and SEBS models resulted in relatively higher bias for estimating daily ET. The empirical equation of daily average net radiation used in the SEBAL and SEBS models for upscaling instantaneous ET to daily ET resulted in underestimation of daily ET, particularly when the daily average net radiation was more than 100 W·m−2. Estimated daily ET for both cropland and grassland had some degree of linearity with METRIC, SEBAL, and SEBS, but linearity was stronger for evaporative fraction. Thus, these ET models have strengths and limitations for applications in water resource management.

  8. Assssment and Mapping of the Riverine Hydrokinetic Resource in the Continental United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Paul T. [Electric Power Research Institute; Ravens, Thomas M. [University of Alaska Anchorage; Cunningham, Keith W. [University of Alaska Fairbanks; Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2012-12-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded the Electric Power Research Institute and its collaborative partners, University of Alaska ? Anchorage, University of Alaska ? Fairbanks, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, to provide an assessment of the riverine hydrokinetic resource in the continental United States. The assessment benefited from input obtained during two workshops attended by individuals with relevant expertise and from a National Research Council panel commissioned by DOE to provide guidance to this and other concurrent, DOE-funded assessments of water based renewable energy. These sources of expertise provided valuable advice regarding data sources and assessment methodology. The assessment of the hydrokinetic resource in the 48 contiguous states is derived from spatially-explicit data contained in NHDPlus ?a GIS-based database containing river segment-specific information on discharge characteristics and channel slope. 71,398 river segments with mean annual flow greater than 1,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) mean discharge were included in the assessment. Segments with discharge less than 1,000 cfs were dropped from the assessment, as were river segments with hydroelectric dams. The results for the theoretical and technical resource in the 48 contiguous states were found to be relatively insensitive to the cutoff chosen. Raising the cutoff to 1,500 cfs had no effect on estimate of the technically recoverable resource, and the theoretical resource was reduced by 5.3%. The segment-specific theoretical resource was estimated from these data using the standard hydrological engineering equation that relates theoretical hydraulic power (Pth, Watts) to discharge (Q, m3 s-1) and hydraulic head or change in elevation (??, m) over the length of the segment, where ? is the specific weight of water (9800 N m-3): ??? = ? ? ?? For Alaska, which is not encompassed by NPDPlus, hydraulic head and discharge data were manually obtained from Idaho National

  9. Mapping marginal croplands suitable for cellulosic feedstock crops in the Great Plains, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2016-01-01

    Growing cellulosic feedstock crops (e.g., switchgrass) for biofuel is more environmentally sustainable than corn-based ethanol. Specifically, this practice can reduce soil erosion and water quality impairment from pesticides and fertilizer, improve ecosystem services and sustainability (e.g., serve as carbon sinks), and minimize impacts on global food supplies. The main goal of this study was to identify high-risk marginal croplands that are potentially suitable for growing cellulosic feedstock crops (e.g., switchgrass) in the US Great Plains (GP). Satellite-derived growing season Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, a switchgrass biomass productivity map obtained from a previous study, US Geological Survey (USGS) irrigation and crop masks, and US Department of Agriculture (USDA) crop indemnity maps for the GP were used in this study. Our hypothesis was that croplands with relatively low crop yield but high productivity potential for switchgrass may be suitable for converting to switchgrass. Areas with relatively low crop indemnity (crop indemnity failures. Results show that approximately 650 000 ha of marginal croplands in the GP are potentially suitable for switchgrass development. The total estimated switchgrass biomass productivity gain from these suitable areas is about 5.9 million metric tons. Switchgrass can be cultivated in either lowland or upland regions in the GP depending on the local soil and environmental conditions. This study improves our understanding of ecosystem services and the sustainability of cropland systems in the GP. Results from this study provide useful information to land managers for making informed decisions regarding switchgrass development in the GP.

  10. Macrobenthos habitat potential mapping using GIS-based artificial neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Saro; Park, Inhye; Koo, Bon Joo; Ryu, Joo-Hyung; Choi, Jong-Kuk; Woo, Han Jun

    2013-02-15

    This paper proposes and tests a method of producing macrobenthos habitat potential maps in Hwangdo tidal flat, Korea based on an artificial neural network. Samples of macrobenthos were collected during field work, and eight control factors were compiled as a spatial database from remotely sensed data and GIS analysis. The macrobenthos habitat potential maps were produced using an artificial neural network model. Macrobenthos habitat potential maps were made for Macrophthalmus dilatatus, Cerithideopsilla cingulata, and Armandia lanceolata. The maps were validated by compared with the surveyed habitat locations. A strong correlation between the potential maps and species locations was revealed. The validation result showed average accuracies of 74.9%, 78.32%, and 73.27% for M. dilatatus, C. cingulata, and A. lanceolata, respectively. A GIS-based artificial neural network model combined with remote sensing techniques is an effective tool for mapping the areas of macrobenthos habitat potential in tidal flats.

  11. Technical note: Evaluation of three machine learning models for surface ocean CO2 mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiye; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saigusa, Nobuko; Shirai, Tomoko; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Tan, Zheng-Hong

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing surface ocean CO2 from scarce measurements plays an important role in estimating oceanic CO2 uptake. There are varying degrees of differences among the 14 models included in the Surface Ocean CO2 Mapping (SOCOM) inter-comparison initiative, in which five models used neural networks. This investigation evaluates two neural networks used in SOCOM, self-organizing maps and feedforward neural networks, and introduces a machine learning model called a support vector machine for ocean CO2 mapping. The technique note provides a practical guide to selecting the models.

  12. Experimental development based on mapping rule between requirements analysis model and web framework specific design model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Hirotaka; Ogata, Shinpei; Matsuura, Saeko

    2013-12-01

    Model Driven Development is a promising approach to develop high quality software systems. We have proposed a method of model-driven requirements analysis using Unified Modeling Language (UML). The main feature of our method is to automatically generate a Web user interface prototype from UML requirements analysis model so that we can confirm validity of input/output data for each page and page transition on the system by directly operating the prototype. We proposes a mapping rule in which design information independent of each web application framework implementation is defined based on the requirements analysis model, so as to improve the traceability to the final product from the valid requirements analysis model. This paper discusses the result of applying our method to the development of a Group Work Support System that is currently running in our department.

  13. Development of base maps' role in soil mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brad; Brevik, Eric

    2014-05-01

    One of the ultimate goals of soil science is the production of accurate soil maps, but historically these thematic maps have relied upon base maps for positional reference and later for parameters that help predict soil properties. This presentation reviews the history of base maps and the dependence of soil mapping on them. The availability of geographic technology for producing these base maps has constrained and directed the geographic study of soil. A lack of accurate methods for determining location limited early geographic description of soils to narratives. The availability of accurate topographic maps in the late 18th century, fueled by governments' interests in documenting national boundaries and popular interest in world atlases, provided the first base maps for soil geographers. These soil maps primarily used the topographic maps as a spatial reference onto which the thematic details were drawn. Due to the late start of a systematic topographic survey in the United States, early Soil Survey maps depended upon plat maps for spatial reference. The adoption of aerial photographs in the process of soil mapping increased the role of base maps as predictive parameters. In the current geospatial revolution, global positioning systems and geographic information systems have nearly replaced the need for base maps to provide spatial reference. Today, base maps are more likely to be used as parameters in landscape models for predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties and classes. As model parameters for digital soil maps, base maps constitute the library of predictive variables and constrain the supported resolution of the soil map. This change in the relationship between base maps and the soil map is a paradigm shift that affects fundamental definitions of geography, such as scale, resolution, and detectable features. These concepts are the essential tools used to study the spatial characteristics of Earth Systems.

  14. A simple model of trees for unicellular maps

    CERN Document Server

    Chapuy, Guillaume; Fusy, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We consider unicellular maps, or polygon gluings, of fixed genus. A few years ago the first author gave a recursive bijection transforming unicellular maps into trees, explaining the presence of Catalan numbers in counting formulas for these objects. In this paper, we give another bijection that explicitly describes the "recursive part" of the first bijection. As a result we obtain a very simple description of unicellular maps as pairs made by a plane tree and a permutation-like structure. All the previously known formulas follow as an immediate corollary or easy exercise, thus giving a bijective proof for each of them, in a unified way. For some of these formulas, this is the first bijective proof, e.g. the Harer-Zagier recurrence formula, or the Lehman-Walsh/Goupil-Schaeffer formulas. Thanks to previous work of the second author this also leads us to a new expression for Stanley character polynomials, which evaluate irreducible characters of the symmetric group.

  15. Mapping grasslands suitable for cellulosic biofuels in the Greater Platte River Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Gu, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are an important component in the development of alternative energy supplies, which is needed to achieve national energy independence and security in the United States. The most common biofuel product today in the United States is corn-based ethanol; however, its development is limited because of concerns about global food shortages, livestock and food price increases, and water demand increases for irrigation and ethanol production. Corn-based ethanol also potentially contributes to soil erosion, and pesticides and fertilizers affect water quality. Studies indicate that future potential production of cellulosic ethanol is likely to be much greater than grain- or starch-based ethanol. As a result, economics and policy incentives could, in the near future, encourage expansion of cellulosic biofuels production from grasses, forest woody biomass, and agricultural and municipal wastes. If production expands, cultivation of cellulosic feedstock crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus species), is expected to increase dramatically. The main objective of this study is to identify grasslands in the Great Plains that are potentially suitable for cellulosic feedstock (such as switchgrass) production. Producing ethanol from noncropland holdings (such as grassland) will minimize the effects of biofuel developments on global food supplies. Our pilot study area is the Greater Platte River Basin, which includes a broad range of plant productivity from semiarid grasslands in the west to the fertile corn belt in the east. The Greater Platte River Basin was the subject of related U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated research projects.

  16. Modeled historical land use and land cover for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan; Bouchard, Michelle A.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Dornbierer, Jordan; Wika, Steve; Quenzer, Robert; Friesz, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    The landscape of the conterminous United States has changed dramatically over the last 200 years, with agricultural land use, urban expansion, forestry, and other anthropogenic activities altering land cover across vast swaths of the country. While land use and land cover (LULC) models have been developed to model potential future LULC change, few efforts have focused on recreating historical landscapes. Researchers at the US Geological Survey have used a wide range of historical data sources and a spatially explicit modeling framework to model spatially explicit historical LULC change in the conterminous United States from 1992 back to 1938. Annual LULC maps were produced at 250-m resolution, with 14 LULC classes. Assessment of model results showed good agreement with trends and spatial patterns in historical data sources such as the Census of Agriculture and historical housing density data, although comparison with historical data is complicated by definitional and methodological differences. The completion of this dataset allows researchers to assess historical LULC impacts on a range of ecological processes.

  17. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  18. Modeling of Flood Risk for the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, D.; Li, S.; Katz, B.; Goteti, G.; Kaheil, Y. H.; Vojjala, R.

    2011-12-01

    The science of catastrophic risk modeling helps people to understand the physical and financial implications of natural catastrophes (hurricanes, flood, earthquakes, etc.), terrorism, and the risks associated with changes in life expectancy. As such it depends on simulation techniques that integrate multiple disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, structural engineering, statistics, computer science, financial engineering, actuarial science, and more in virtually every field of technology. In this talk we will explain the techniques and underlying assumptions of building the RMS US flood risk model. We especially will pay attention to correlation (spatial and temporal), simulation and uncertainty in each of the various components in the development process. Recent extreme floods (e.g. US Midwest flood 2008, US Northeast flood, 2010) have increased the concern of flood risk. Consequently, there are growing needs to adequately assess the flood risk. The RMS flood hazard model is mainly comprised of three major components. (1) Stochastic precipitation simulation module based on a Monte-Carlo analogue technique, which is capable of producing correlated rainfall events for the continental US. (2) Rainfall-runoff and routing module. A semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model was developed to properly assess the antecedent conditions, determine the saturation area and runoff. The runoff is further routed downstream along the rivers by a routing model. Combined with the precipitation model, it allows us to correlate the streamflow and hence flooding from different rivers, as well as low and high return-periods across the continental US. (3) Flood inundation module. It transforms the discharge (output from the flow routing) into water level, which is further combined with a two-dimensional off-floodplain inundation model to produce comprehensive flood hazard map. The performance of the model is demonstrated by comparing to the observation and published data. Output from

  19. Nonlinear mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis of hydraulic drive unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangdong; Yu, Bin; Quan, Lingxiao; Ba, Kaixian; Wu, Liujie

    2015-09-01

    The previous sensitivity analysis researches are not accurate enough and also have the limited reference value, because those mathematical models are relatively simple and the change of the load and the initial displacement changes of the piston are ignored, even experiment verification is not conducted. Therefore, in view of deficiencies above, a nonlinear mathematical model is established in this paper, including dynamic characteristics of servo valve, nonlinear characteristics of pressure-flow, initial displacement of servo cylinder piston and friction nonlinearity. The transfer function block diagram is built for the hydraulic drive unit closed loop position control, as well as the state equations. Through deriving the time-varying coefficient items matrix and time-varying free items matrix of sensitivity equations respectively, the expression of sensitivity equations based on the nonlinear mathematical model are obtained. According to structure parameters of hydraulic drive unit, working parameters, fluid transmission characteristics and measured friction-velocity curves, the simulation analysis of hydraulic drive unit is completed on the MATLAB/Simulink simulation platform with the displacement step 2 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm, respectively. The simulation results indicate that the developed nonlinear mathematical model is sufficient by comparing the characteristic curves of experimental step response and simulation step response under different constant load. Then, the sensitivity function time-history curves of seventeen parameters are obtained, basing on each state vector time-history curve of step response characteristic. The maximum value of displacement variation percentage and the sum of displacement variation absolute values in the sampling time are both taken as sensitivity indexes. The sensitivity indexes values above are calculated and shown visually in histograms under different working conditions, and change rules are analyzed. Then the sensitivity

  20. The RCCM 2009 Survey: Mapping Doctoral and Postdoctoral CAM Research in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM is widely available in the UK and used frequently by the public, but there is little high quality research to sustain its continued use and potential integration into the NHS. There is, therefore, a need to develop rigorous research in this area. One essential way forward is to train and develop more CAM researchers so that we can enhance academic capacity and provide the evidence upon which to base strategic healthcare decisions. This UK survey identified 80 research active postgraduates registered for MPhils/PhDs in 21 universities and were either current students or had completed their postgraduate degree during the recent UK Research Assessment Exercise (RAE 2001–2008. The single largest postgraduate degree funder was the university where the students registered (26/80. Thirty-two projects involved randomized controlled trials and 33 used qualitative research methods. The UK RAE also indicates a significant growth of postdoctoral and tenured research activity over this period (in 2001 there were three full time equivalents; in 2008 there were 15.5 with a considerable improvement in research quality. This mapping exercise suggests that considerable effort is currently being invested in developing UK CAM research capacity and thus inform decision making in this area. However, in comparative international terms UK funding is very limited. As in the USA and Australia, a centralized and strategic approach by the National Institute of Health Research to this currently uncoordinated and underfunded activity may benefit CAM research in the UK.

  1. Updated global soil map for the Weather Research and Forecasting model and soil moisture initialization for the Noah land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    DY, C. Y.; Fung, J. C. H.

    2016-08-01

    A meteorological model requires accurate initial conditions and boundary conditions to obtain realistic numerical weather predictions. The land surface controls the surface heat and moisture exchanges, which can be determined by the physical properties of the soil and soil state variables, subsequently exerting an effect on the boundary layer meteorology. The initial and boundary conditions of soil moisture are currently obtained via National Centers for Environmental Prediction FNL (Final) Operational Global Analysis data, which are collected operationally in 1° by 1° resolutions every 6 h. Another input to the model is the soil map generated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (FAO-UNESCO) soil database, which combines several soil surveys from around the world. Both soil moisture from the FNL analysis data and the default soil map lack accuracy and feature coarse resolutions, particularly for certain areas of China. In this study, we update the global soil map with data from Beijing Normal University in 1 km by 1 km grids and propose an alternative method of soil moisture initialization. Simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting model show that spinning-up the soil moisture improves near-surface temperature and relative humidity prediction using different types of soil moisture initialization. Explanations of that improvement and improvement of the planetary boundary layer height in performing process analysis are provided.

  2. Application of the Lean Office philosophy and mapping of the value stream in the process of designing the banking units of a financial company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Antônio Calsavara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to conduct a critical analysis of the effects of Lean Office on the design process of the banking units of a financial company and how the implementation of this philosophy may contribute to productivity, thus reducing implementation time. A literature review of the Toyota Production System was conducted, as well as studies on its methods, with advancement to lean thinking and consistent application of Lean philosophies in services and Office. A bibliographic and documentary survey of the Lean processes and procedures for opening bank branches was taken. A Current State Map was developed, modeling the current operating procedures. Soon after the identification and analysis of waste, proposals were presented for reducing deadlines and eliminating and grouping stages, with consequent development of the Future State Map, implementation and monitoring of stages, and the measurement of estimated time gains in operation, demonstrating an estimated 45% reduction, in days, from start to end of the process, concluding that the implementation of the Lean Office philosophy contributed to the process.

  3. Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Paul T; Hagerman, George; Scott, George

    2011-12-01

    This project estimates the naturally available and technically recoverable U.S. wave energy resources, using a 51-month Wavewatch III hindcast database developed especially for this study by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Centers for Environmental Prediction. For total resource estimation, wave power density in terms of kilowatts per meter is aggregated across a unit diameter circle. This approach is fully consistent with accepted global practice and includes the resource made available by the lateral transfer of wave energy along wave crests, which enables wave diffraction to substantially reestablish wave power densities within a few kilometers of a linear array, even for fixed terminator devices. The total available wave energy resource along the U.S. continental shelf edge, based on accumulating unit circle wave power densities, is estimated to be 2,640 TWh/yr, broken down as follows: 590 TWh/yr for the West Coast, 240 TWh/yr for the East Coast, 80 TWh/yr for the Gulf of Mexico, 1570 TWh/yr for Alaska, 130 TWh/yr for Hawaii, and 30 TWh/yr for Puerto Rico. The total recoverable wave energy resource, as constrained by an array capacity packing density of 15 megawatts per kilometer of coastline, with a 100-fold operating range between threshold and maximum operating conditions in terms of input wave power density available to such arrays, yields a total recoverable resource along the U.S. continental shelf edge of 1,170 TWh/yr, broken down as follows: 250 TWh/yr for the West Coast, 160 TWh/yr for the East Coast, 60 TWh/yr for the Gulf of Mexico, 620 TWh/yr for Alaska, 80 TWh/yr for Hawaii, and 20 TWh/yr for Puerto Rico.

  4. Comparison of Four Different Energy Balance Models for Estimating Evapotranspiration in the Midwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.; Senay, G. B.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Availability of no-cost satellite images helped in development and utilization of remotely sensed images for water use estimation. Remotely sensed images are increasingly used for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) at different temporal and spatial scales. However, selecting any particular model from a plethora of energy balance models for estimating ET is challenging as each different model has its strengths and limitations. We compared four commonly used ET models, namely, Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) model, Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model, Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model, and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model using Landsat images for estimating ET in the Midwest United States. We validated our model results using three AmeriFlux cropland sites at Mead, Nebraska. Our results showed that the METRIC and the SSEBop model worked very well at these sites with a root mean square error (RMSE) of less than 1 mm/day and an R2 of 0.96 (N=24). The mean bias error (MBE) was less than 10% for both the METRIC and the SSEBop models. In contrast, the SEBAL and the SEBS models have relatively higher RMSE (> 1.7 mm/day) and MBE (> 27%). However, all four models captured the spatial and temporal variation of ET reasonably well (R2 > 0.80). We found that the model simplification of the SSEBop for operational capability was not at the expense of model accuracy. Since the SSEBop model is relatively less data intensive and independent of user/automatic selection of anchor (hot/dry and cold/wet) pixels, it is more user friendly and operationally efficient. The SSEBop model can be reliably used for estimating water use using Landsat and MODIS images at daily, weekly, monthly, or annual time scale even in data scarce regions for sustainable use of limited water resources.

  5. Chaotic dynamics in the Volterra predator-prey model via linked twist maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pireddu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of infinitely many periodic solutions and complicated dynamics, due to the presence of a topological horseshoe, for the classical Volterra predator-prey model with a periodic harvesting. The proof relies on some recent results about chaotic planar maps combined with the study of geometric features which are typical of linked twist maps.

  6. The Facebook influence model: a concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Kota, Rajitha; Schoohs, Shari; Whitehill, Jennifer M

    2013-07-01

    Facebook is a popular social media Web site that has been hypothesized to exert potential influence over users' attitudes, intentions, or behaviors. The purpose of this study was to develop a conceptual framework to explain influential aspects of Facebook. This mixed methods study applied concept mapping methodology, a validated five-step method to visually represent complex topics. The five steps comprise preparation, brainstorming, sort and rank, analysis, and interpretation. College student participants were identified using purposeful sampling. The 80 participants had a mean age of 20.5 years, and included 36% males. A total of 169 statements were generated during brainstorming, and sorted into between 6 and 22 groups. The final concept map included 13 clusters. Interpretation data led to grouping of clusters into four final domains, including connection, comparison, identification, and Facebook as an experience. The Facebook Influence Concept Map illustrates key constructs that contribute to influence, incorporating perspectives of older adolescent Facebook users. While Facebook provides a novel lens through which to consider behavioral influence, it can best be considered in the context of existing behavioral theory. The concept map may be used toward development of potential future intervention efforts.

  7. Linguini Models of Molecular Genetic Mapping and Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James N., Jr.; Gray, Stanton B.; Hellack, Jenna J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an exercise using linguini noodles to demonstrate an aspect of DNA fingerprinting. DNA maps that show genetic differences can be produced by digesting a certain piece of DNA with two or more restriction enzymes both individually and in combination. By rearranging and matching linguini fragments, students can recreate the original pattern…

  8. Resonating, Rejecting, Reinterpreting: Mapping the Stabilization Discourse in the United Nations Security Council, 2000–14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Curran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article charts the evolution of the conceptualisation of stabilization in the UN Security Council (UNSC during the period 2001–2014. UNSC open meetings provide an important dataset for a critical review of stabilization discourse and an opportunity to chart the positions of permanent Members, rotating Members and the UN Secretariat towards this concept. This article is the first to conduct an analysis of this material to map the evolution of stabilization in this critical chamber of the UN. This dataset of official statements will be complemented by a review of open source reporting on UNSC meetings and national stabilization doctrines of the ‘P3’ – France, the UK and the US. These countries have developed national stabilization doctrines predominantly to deal with cross-governmental approaches to counterinsurgency operations conducted during the 2000s. The article therefore presents a genealogy of the concept of stabilization in the UNSC to help understand implications for its future development in this multilateral setting. This article begins by examining efforts by the P3 to ‘upload’ their conceptualisations of stabilization into UN intervention frameworks. Secondly, the article uses a content analysis of UNSC debates during 2000–2014 to explore the extent to which the conceptualisation of stabilization resonated with other Council members, were rejected in specific contexts or in general, or were re-interpreted by member states to suit alternative security agendas and interests. Therefore, the article not only examines the UNSC debates surrounding existing UN ‘stabilization operations’ (MONUSCO, MINUSTAH, MINUSCA, MINUSMA, which could be regarded as evidence that this ‘western’ concept has resonated with other UNSC members and relevant UN agencies, but also documents the appearance of stabilization in other contexts too. The article opens new avenues of research into concepts of stabilization within the UN, and

  9. Path integration and cognitive mapping in a continuous attractor neural network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonovich, A; McNaughton, B L

    1997-08-01

    A minimal synaptic architecture is proposed for how the brain might perform path integration by computing the next internal representation of self-location from the current representation and from the perceived velocity of motion. In the model, a place-cell assembly called a "chart" contains a two-dimensional attractor set called an "attractor map" that can be used to represent coordinates in any arbitrary environment, once associative binding has occurred between chart locations and sensory inputs. In hippocampus, there are different spatial relations among place fields in different environments and behavioral contexts. Thus, the same units may participate in many charts, and it is shown that the number of uncorrelated charts that can be encoded in the same recurrent network is potentially quite large. According to this theory, the firing of a given place cell is primarily a cooperative effect of the activity of its neighbors on the currently active chart. Therefore, it is not particularly useful to think of place cells as encoding any particular external object or event. Because of its recurrent connections, hippocampal field CA3 is proposed as a possible location for this "multichart" architecture; however, other implementations in anatomy would not invalidate the main concepts. The model is implemented numerically both as a network of integrate-and-fire units and as a "macroscopic" (with respect to the space of states) description of the system, based on a continuous approximation defined by a system of stochastic differential equations. It provides an explanation for a number of hitherto perplexing observations on hippocampal place fields, including doubling, vanishing, reshaping in distorted environments, acquiring directionality in a two-goal shuttling task, rapid formation in a novel environment, and slow rotation after disorientation. The model makes several new predictions about the expected properties of hippocampal place cells and other cells of the

  10. Mapping vulnerability of multiple aquifers using multiple models and fuzzy logic to objectively derive model structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiri, Ata Allah; Sedghi, Zahra; Khatibi, Rahman; Gharekhani, Maryam

    2017-09-01

    Driven by contamination risks, mapping Vulnerability Indices (VI) of multiple aquifers (both unconfined and confined) is investigated by integrating the basic DRASTIC framework with multiple models overarched by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The DRASTIC framework is a proactive tool to assess VI values using the data from the hydrosphere, lithosphere and anthroposphere. However, a research case arises for the application of multiple models on the ground of poor determination coefficients between the VI values and non-point anthropogenic contaminants. The paper formulates SCFL models, which are derived from the multiple model philosophy of Supervised Committee (SC) machines and Fuzzy Logic (FL) and hence SCFL as their integration. The Fuzzy Logic-based (FL) models include: Sugeno Fuzzy Logic (SFL), Mamdani Fuzzy Logic (MFL), Larsen Fuzzy Logic (LFL) models. The basic DRASTIC framework uses prescribed rating and weighting values based on expert judgment but the four FL-based models (SFL, MFL, LFL and SCFL) derive their values as per internal strategy within these models. The paper reports that FL and multiple models improve considerably on the correlation between the modeled vulnerability indices and observed nitrate-N values and as such it provides evidence that the SCFL multiple models can be an alternative to the basic framework even for multiple aquifers. The study area with multiple aquifers is in Varzeqan plain, East Azerbaijan, northwest Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A 30m resolution hydrodynamic model of the entire conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, P. D.; Neal, J. C.; Smith, A.; Sampson, C.; Johnson, K.; Wing, O.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we describe the development and validation of a 30m resolution hydrodynamic model covering the entire conterminous United States. The model can be used to simulate inundation and water depths resulting from either return period flows (so equivalent to FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps), hindcasts of historic events or forecasts of future river flow from a rainfall-runoff or land surface model. As topographic data the model uses the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset or NED, and return period flows are generated using a regional flood frequency analysis methodology (Smith et al., 2015. Worldwide flood frequency estimation. Water Resources Research, 51, 539-553). Flood defences nationwide are represented using data from the US Army Corps of Engineers. Using these data flows are simulated using an explicit and highly efficient finite difference solution of the local inertial form of the Shallow Water equations identical to that implemented in the LISFLOOD-FP model. Even with this efficient numerical solution a simulation at this resolution over a whole continent is a huge undertaking, and a variety of High Performance Computing technologies therefore need to be employed to make these simulations possible. The size of the output datasets is also challenging, and to solve this we use the GIS and graphical display functions of Google Earth Engine to facilitate easy visualisation and interrogation of the results. The model is validated against the return period flood extents contained in FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps and real flood event data from the Texas 2015 flood event which was hindcast using the model. Finally, we present an application of the model to the Upper Mississippi river basin where simulations both with and without flood defences are used to determine floodplain areas benefitting from protection in order to quantify the benefits of flood defence spending.

  12. Automatic 3D City Modeling Using a Digital Map and Panoramic Images from a Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungki Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional city models are becoming a valuable resource because of their close geospatial, geometrical, and visual relationship with the physical world. However, ground-oriented applications in virtual reality, 3D navigation, and civil engineering require a novel modeling approach, because the existing large-scale 3D city modeling methods do not provide rich visual information at ground level. This paper proposes a new framework for generating 3D city models that satisfy both the visual and the physical requirements for ground-oriented virtual reality applications. To ensure its usability, the framework must be cost-effective and allow for automated creation. To achieve these goals, we leverage a mobile mapping system that automatically gathers high-resolution images and supplements sensor information such as the position and direction of the captured images. To resolve problems stemming from sensor noise and occlusions, we develop a fusion technique to incorporate digital map data. This paper describes the major processes of the overall framework and the proposed techniques for each step and presents experimental results from a comparison with an existing 3D city model.

  13. Experimentation of cooperative learning model Numbered Heads Together (NHT) type by concept maps and Teams Games Tournament (TGT) by concept maps in terms of students logical mathematics intellegences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irawan, Adi; Mardiyana; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi

    2017-06-01

    This research is aimed to find out the effect of learning model towards learning achievement in terms of students’ logical mathematics intelligences. The learning models that were compared were NHT by Concept Maps, TGT by Concept Maps, and Direct Learning model. This research was pseudo experimental by factorial design 3×3. The population of this research was all of the students of class XI Natural Sciences of Senior High School in all regency of Karanganyar in academic year 2016/2017. The conclusions of this research were: 1) the students’ achievements with NHT learning model by Concept Maps were better than students’ achievements with TGT model by Concept Maps and Direct Learning model. The students’ achievements with TGT model by Concept Maps were better than the students’ achievements with Direct Learning model. 2) The students’ achievements that exposed high logical mathematics intelligences were better than students’ medium and low logical mathematics intelligences. The students’ achievements that exposed medium logical mathematics intelligences were better than the students’ low logical mathematics intelligences. 3) Each of student logical mathematics intelligences with NHT learning model by Concept Maps has better achievement than students with TGT learning model by Concept Maps, students with NHT learning model by Concept Maps have better achievement than students with the direct learning model, and the students with TGT by Concept Maps learning model have better achievement than students with Direct Learning model. 4) Each of learning model, students who have logical mathematics intelligences have better achievement then students who have medium logical mathematics intelligences, and students who have medium logical mathematics intelligences have better achievement than students who have low logical mathematics intelligences.

  14. Mapping Antimicrobial Stewardship in Undergraduate Medical, Dental, Pharmacy, Nursing and Veterinary Education in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castro-Sánchez

    Full Text Available To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK.Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning.80% (112/140 of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%. 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%, followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9% and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%. The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3% programmes included all recommended principles.Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.

  15. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2000 - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  16. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  17. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  18. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  19. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  20. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  1. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  2. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  3. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  4. Automated soil resources mapping based on decision tree and Bayesian predictive modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌; 张新刚; 王人潮

    2004-01-01

    This article presents two approaches for automated building of knowledge bases of soil resources mapping.These methods used decision tree and Bayesian predictive modeling,respectively to generate knowledge from training data.With these methods,building a knowledge base for automated soil mapping is easier than using the conventional knowledge acquisition approach.The knowledge bases built by these two methods were used by the knowledge classifier for soil type classification of the Longyou area,Zhejiang Province,China using TM bi-temporal imageries and GIS data.To evaluate the performance of the resultant knowledge bases,the classification results were compared to existing soil map based on field survey.The accuracy assessment and analysis of the resultant soil maps suggested that the knowledge bases built by these two methods were of good quality for mapping distribution model of soil classes over the study area.

  5. Automated soil resources mapping based on decision tree and Bayesian predictive modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌; 张新刚; 王人潮

    2004-01-01

    This article presents two approaches for automated building of knowledge bases of soil resources mapping.These methods used decision tree and Bayesian predictive modeling, respectively to generate knowledge from training data.With these methods, building a knowledge base for automated soil mapping is easier than using the conventional knowledge acquisition approach. The knowledge bases built by these two methods were used by the knowledge classifier for soil type classification of the Longyou area, Zhejiang Province, China using TM hi-temporal imageries and GIS data. To evaluate the performance of the resultant knowledge bases, the classification results were compared to existing soil map based on field survey. The accuracy assessment and analysis of the resultant soil maps suggested that the knowledge bases built by these two methods were of good quality for mapping distribution model of soil classes over the study area.

  6. Mapping Tamarix: New techniques for field measurements, spatial modeling and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Paul H.

    Native riparian ecosystems throughout the southwestern United States are being altered by the rapid invasion of Tamarix species, commonly known as tamarisk. The effects that tamarisk has on ecosystem processes have been poorly quantified largely due to inadequate survey methods. I tested new approaches for field measurements, spatial models and remote sensing to improve our ability measure and to map tamarisk occurrence, and provide new methods that will assist in management and control efforts. Examining allometric relationships between basal cover and height measurements collected in the field, I was able to produce several models to accurately estimate aboveground biomass. The best two models were explained 97% of the variance (R 2 = 0.97). Next, I tested five commonly used predictive spatial models to identify which methods performed best for tamarisk using different types of data collected in the field. Most spatial models performed well for tamarisk, with logistic regression performing best with an Area Under the receiver-operating characteristic Curve (AUC) of 0.89 and overall accuracy of 85%. The results of this study also suggested that models may not perform equally with different invasive species, and that results may be influenced by species traits and their interaction with environmental factors. Lastly, I tested several approaches to improve the ability to remotely sense tamarisk occurrence. Using Landsat7 ETM+ satellite scenes and derived vegetation indices for six different months of the growing season, I examined their ability to detect tamarisk individually (single-scene analyses) and collectively (time-series). My results showed that time-series analyses were best suited to distinguish tamarisk from other vegetation and landscape features (AUC = 0.96, overall accuracy = 90%). June, August and September were the best months to detect unique phenological attributes that are likely related to the species' extended growing season and green-up during

  7. The Facebook Influence Model: A Concept Mapping Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Megan A.; Kota, Rajitha; Schoohs, Shari; Whitehill, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Facebook is a popular social media Web site that has been hypothesized to exert potential influence over users' attitudes, intentions, or behaviors. The purpose of this study was to develop a conceptual framework to explain influential aspects of Facebook. This mixed methods study applied concept mapping methodology, a validated five-step method to visually represent complex topics. The five steps comprise preparation, brainstorming, sort and rank, analysis, and interpretation. College studen...

  8. On growth and covering theorems of quasi-convex mappings in the unit ball of a complex Banach space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文俊; 刘太顺

    2002-01-01

    A class of biholomorphic mappings named "quasi-convex mapping" is introduced in the unitball of a complex Banach space. It is proved that this class of mappings is a proper subset of the class ofstarlike mappings and contains the class of convex mappings properly, and it has the same growth and coveringtheorems as the convex mappings. Furthermore, when the Banach space is confined to Cn, the "quasi-convexmapping" is exactly the "quasi-convex mapping of type A" introduced by K. A. Roper and T. J. Suffridge.

  9. Site investigation SFR. Rock type coding, overview geological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from the construction of SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This report presents the rock type coding, overview lithological mapping and identification of rock units and possible deformation zones in drill cores from 32 boreholes associated with the construction of SFR. This work can be seen as complementary to single-hole interpretations of other older SFR boreholes earlier reported in /Petersson and Andersson 2010/: KFR04, KFR08, KFR09, KFR13, KFR35, KFR36, KFR54, KFR55, KFR7A, KFR7B and KFR7C. Due to deficiencies in the available material, the necessary activities have deviated somewhat from the established methodologies used during the recent Forsmark site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim of the current work has been, wherever possible, to allow the incorporation of all relevant material from older boreholes in the ongoing SFR geological modelling work in spite of the deficiencies. The activities include: - Rock type coding of the original geological mapping according to the nomenclature used during the preceding Forsmark site investigation. As part of the Forsmark site investigation such rock type coding has already been performed on most of the old SFR boreholes if the original geological mapping results were available. This earlier work has been complemented by rock type coding on two further boreholes: KFR01 and KFR02. - Lithological overview mapping, including documentation of (1) rock types, (2) ductile and brittle-ductile deformation and (3) alteration for drill cores from eleven of the boreholes for which no original geological borehole mapping was available (KFR31, KFR32, KFR34, KFR37,KFR38, KFR51, KFR69, KFR70, KFR71, KFR72 and KFR89). - Identification of possible deformation zones and merging of similar rock types into rock units. This follows SKB's established criteria and methodology of the geological Single-hole interpretation (SHI) process wherever possible. Deviations from the standard SHI process are associated with the lack of data, for example BIPS images

  10. MODFLOW-NWT model of a hypothetical stream-aquifer system to assess capture map bias

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A MODFLOW-NWT (version 1.0.9) model of a hypothetical stream-aquifer system is presented for the evaluation and characterization of capture map bias. The...

  11. Four-component united-atom model of bitumen

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jesper S; Nielsen, Erik; Dyre, Jeppe C; Schrøder, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-component molecular model of bitumen. The model includes realistic chemical constituents and introduces a coarse-graining level that suppresses the highest frequency modes. Molecular dynamics simulations of the model are being carried out using Graphic-Processor-Units based software in time spans in order of microseconds, and this enables the study of slow relaxation processes characterizing bitumen. This paper focuses on the high-temperature dynamics as expressed through the mean-square displacement, the stress autocorrelation function, and rotational relaxation. The diffusivity of the individual molecules changes little as a function of temperature and reveals distinct dynamical time scales as a result of the different constituents in the system. Different time scales are also observed for the rotational relaxation. The stress autocorrelation function features a slow non-exponential decay for all temperatures studied. From the stress autocorrelation function, the shear viscosity and shear ...

  12. 3D geological modelling and geothermal mapping - the first results of the transboundary Polish - Saxon project "TransGeoTherm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozdrój, Wiesław; Kłonowski, Maciej; Mydłowski, Adam; Ziółkowska-Kozdrój, Małgorzata; Badura, Janusz; Przybylski, Bogusław; Russ, Dorota; Zawistowski, Karol; Domańska, Urszula; Karamański, Paweł; Krentz, Ottomar; Hofmann, Karina; Riedel, Peter; Reinhardt, Silke; Bretschneider, Mario

    2014-05-01

    TransGeoTherm is a common project of the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute Lower Silesian Branch (Lead Partner) and the Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, co-financed by the European Union (EU) under the framework of the Operational Programme for Transboundary Co-operation Poland-Saxony 2007-2013. It started in October 2012 and will last until June 2014. The main goal of the project is to introduce and establish the use of low temperature geothermal energy as a low emission energy source in the Saxon-Polish transboundary project area. The numerous geological, hydrogeological and geothermal data have been gathered, analysed, combined and interpreted with respect to 3D numerical modelling and subsequently processed with use of the GOCAD software. The resulting geological model covers the transboundary project area exceeding 1.000 km2 and comprises around 70 units up to the depth of about 200 metres (locally deeper) below the terrain. The division of the above units has been based on their litho-stratigraphy as well as geological, hydrogeological and geothermal settings. The model includes two lignite deposits: Berzdorf deposit in Saxony-mined out and already recultivated and Radomierzyce deposit in Poland - documented but still not excavated. At the end of the modelling procedure the raster data sets of the top, bottom and thickness of every unit will be deduced from the 3D geological model with a gridsize of 25 by 25 metres. Based on the geothermal properties of the rocks and their groundwater content a specific value of geothermal conductivity will be allocated to each layer of every borehole. Thereafter for every section of a borehole, belonging to a certain unit of the 3D geological model, a weighted mean value will be calculated. Next the horizontal distribution of these values within every unit will be interpolated. This step / procedure has to be done for all units. As a result of further calculations a series

  13. Evaluation of mesh morphing and mapping techniques in patient specific modelling of the human pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Zoryana; Beek, Maarten; Whyne, Cari Marisa

    2012-08-01

    Robust generation of pelvic finite element models is necessary to understand variation in mechanical behaviour resulting from differences in gender, aging, disease and injury. The objective of this study was to apply and evaluate mesh morphing and mapping techniques to facilitate the creation and structural analysis of specimen-specific finite element (FE) models of the pelvis. A specimen-specific pelvic FE model (source mesh) was generated following a traditional user-intensive meshing scheme. The source mesh was morphed onto a computed tomography scan generated target surface of a second pelvis using a landmarked-based approach, in which exterior source nodes were shifted to target surface vertices, while constrained along a normal. A second copy of the morphed model was further refined through mesh mapping, in which surface nodes of the initial morphed model were selected in patches and remapped onto the surfaces of the target model. Computed tomography intensity-based material properties were assigned to each model. The source, target, morphed and mapped models were analyzed under axial compression using linear static FE analysis, and their strain distributions were evaluated. Morphing and mapping techniques were effectively applied to generate good quality and geometrically complex specimen-specific pelvic FE models. Mapping significantly improved strain concurrence with the target pelvis FE model.

  14. Stakeholder approach, Stakeholders mental model: A visualization test with cognitive mapping technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garoui Nassreddine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the firm with respect to the stakeholder approach of corporate governance. The use of the cognitive map to view these diagrams to show the ways of thinking and conceptualization of the stakeholder approach. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses stakeholder model. It takes also a cognitive mapping technique.

  15. Deriving global flood hazard maps of fluvial floods through a physical model cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Pappenberger, F.; E. Dutra; Wetterhall, F.; Cloke, H

    2012-01-01

    Global flood hazard maps can be used in the assessment of flood risk in a number of different applications, including (re)insurance and large scale flood preparedness. Such global hazard maps can be generated using large scale physically based models of rainfall-runoff and river routing, when used in conjunction with a number of post-processing methods. In this study, the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) land surface model is coupled to ERA-Interim reanalysis meteoro...

  16. Color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Hsuan; Yang, Chih-Yuan

    2000-06-01

    By the progress of computer, computer peripherals such as color monitor and printer are often used to generate color image. However, cross media color reproduction by human perception is usually different. Basically, the influence factors are device calibration and characterization, viewing condition, device gamut and human psychology. In this thesis, a color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping is proposed. It consists of four parts; device characterization, color management technique, color appearance model and gamut mapping.

  17. Groundwater potentiality mapping of hard-rock terrain in arid regions using geospatial modelling: example from Wadi Feiran basin, South Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnous, Mohamed O.

    2016-09-01

    Identifying a good site for groundwater exploitation in hard-rock terrains is a challenging task. In Sinai, Egypt, groundwater is the only source of water for local inhabitants. Interpretation of satellite data for delineation of lithological units and weathered zones, and for mapping of lineament density and their trends, provides a valuable aid for the location of groundwater promising areas. Complex deformational histories of the wide range of lithological formations add to the difficulty. Groundwater prospect mapping is a systematic approach that considers the major controlling factors which influence the aquifer and quality of groundwater. The presented study aims to delineate, identify, model and map groundwater potential zones in arid South Sinai using remote sensing data and a geographic information system (GIS) to prepare various hydromorphogeological thematic maps such as maps of slope, drainage density, lithology, landforms, structural lineaments, rainfall intensity and plan curvature. The controlling-factor thematic maps are each allocated a fixed score and weight, computed by using a linear equation approach. Furthermore, each weighted thematic map is statistically computed to yield a groundwater potential zone map of the study area. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into five categories (very poor, poor, moderate, good and very good) and were validated using the relation between the zone and the spatial distribution of productive wells and of previous geophysical investigations from a literature review. The results show the groundwater potential zones in the study area, and create awareness for better planning and management of groundwater resources.

  18. Matrix Model Maps and Reconstruction of AdS SUGRA Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cremonini, Sera; Jevicki, Antal

    2007-01-01

    We consider the question of reconstructing (cubic) SUGRA interactions in AdS/CFT. The method we introduce is based on the matrix model maps (MMP) which were previously successfully employed at the linearized level. The strategy is to start with the map for 1/2 BPS configurations which is exactly known (to all orders) in the hamiltonian framework. We then use the extension of the matrix model map with the corresponding Ward identities to completely specify the interaction. A central point in this construction is the non-vanishing of off-shell interactions (even for highest-weight states).

  19. Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdettin Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flood hazard maps were prepared for the Mert River Basin, Samsun, Turkey, by using GIS and Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS. In this river basin, human life losses and a significant amount of property damages were experienced in 2012 flood. The preparation of flood risk maps employed in the study includes the following steps: (1 digitization of topographical data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS, (2 simulation of flood lows of different return periods using a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS, and (3 preparation of flood risk maps by integrating the results of (1 and (2.

  20. Modeling Forest Succession among Ecological Land Units in Northern Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Host

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Field and modeling studies were used to quantify potential successional pathways among fine-scale ecological classification units within two geomorphic regions of north-central Minnesota. Soil and overstory data were collected on plots stratified across low-relief ground moraines and undulating sand dunes. Each geomorphic feature was sampled across gradients of topography or soil texture. Overstory conditions were sampled using five variable-radius point samples per plot; soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen content. Climatic, forest composition, and soil data were used to parameterize the sample plots for use with LINKAGES, a forest growth model that simulates changes in composition and soil characteristics over time. Forest composition and soil properties varied within and among geomorphic features. LINKAGES simulations were using "bare ground" and the current overstory as starting conditions. Northern hardwoods or pines dominated the late-successional communities of morainal and dune landforms, respectively. The morainal landforms were dominated by yellow birch and sugar maple; yellow birch reached its maximum abundance in intermediate landscape positions. On the dune sites, pine was most abundant in drier landscape positions, with white spruce increasing in abundance with increasing soil moisture and N content. The differences in measured soil properties and predicted late-successional composition indicate that ecological land units incorporate some of the key variables that govern forest composition and structure. They further show the value of ecological classification and modeling for developing forest management strategies that incorporate the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest ecosystems.

  1. Modeling reverberation mapping data II: dynamical modeling of the Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2008 dataset

    CERN Document Server

    Pancoast, Anna; Treu, Tommaso; Park, Daeseong; Barth, Aaron J; Bentz, Misty C; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2013-01-01

    We present dynamical modeling of the broad line region (BLR) for a sample of five Seyfert 1 galaxies using reverberation mapping data taken by the Lick AGN Monitoring Project (LAMP) in 2008. The sample includes Arp 151, Mrk 1310, NGC 5548, NGC 6814, and SBS 1116+583A. By modeling the continuum light curve and H$\\beta$ line profiles directly we are able to constrain the geometry and kinematics of the BLR. Modeling the kinematics also allows us to make a measurement of the black hole mass that does not depend upon the virial coefficient or normalizing factor needed in traditional reverberation mapping analysis. We find that the geometry of the BLR is generally a thick disk viewed close to face-on, but a more spherical geometry is not ruled out for two of the five AGNs. While the H$\\beta$ is found to come preferentially from the far side of the BLR, the mean size of the BLR is consistent with the lags measured with cross-correlation analysis. The BLR kinematics are generally found to be consistent with either in...

  2. Mapping the Environmental Boundaries for Methanogenesis in Serpentinizing Systems using a Cell-scale Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, M. J.; Hoehler, T. M.; McCollom, T.

    2011-12-01

    Serpentinizing systems occur where liquid water reacts with ultramafic minerals. The reaction releases heat and produces an alkaline fluid that is rich in H2. The abundant H2 suggests that the energetics of methane production by CO2 reduction is highly favorable (ΔG ~ -102 kJ/mol CH4 for [H2] ~ 10-2 M). Given the possibility of subsurface water and ultramafic minerals on Mars, methanogenesis in serpentinizing systems has been considered as a possible model for photosynthesis-independent, extraterrestrial life. However, the high pH (9 - 11) and possibly elevated temperature have a negative impact on the overall cellular energy balance by increasing the cell's maintenance energy and reducing the concentration of CO2 substrate. We developed a reaction-transport model on the scale of a methanogen cell to investigate how the overall bioenergetics of methane production is influenced by the interplay between pH, temperature, and H2 and CO2 concentration. The model differentiates the cell into three basic structural units (cell wall, cell membrane with gated ion channels, and cytoplasm) and employs both thermodynamic and kinetic controls to estimate an upper-limit energy yield as a function of environmental conditions. The model provides a map of the range of environmental extremes for which the energy balance for microbial methane production is positive. The model also provides a tool for exploring the energetics of different metabolic strategies that methanogens could use to cope with stresses associated with life in an alkaline, low-CO2 environment.

  3. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Sarah K; Zou, Li; Miller, Scott N

    2012-11-01

    A degree-day (DD) model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates "compound risk" maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  4. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A degree-day (DD model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10- km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates “compound risk” maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  5. Lumped Parameter Modeling for Rapid Vibration Response Prototyping and Test Correlation for Electronic Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Present preliminary work using lumped parameter models to approximate dynamic response of electronic units to random vibration; Derive a general N-DOF model for application to electronic units; Illustrate parametric influence of model parameters; Implication of coupled dynamics for unit/board design; Demonstrate use of model to infer printed wiring board (PWB) dynamics from external chassis test measurement.

  6. Modeling of the positioning system and visual mark-up of historical cadastral maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jakopec

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present of the possibilities of positioning and visual markup of historical cadastral maps onto Google maps using open source software. The corpus is stored in the Croatian State Archives in Zagreb, in the Maps Archive for Croatia and Slavonia. It is part of cadastral documentation that consists of cadastral material from the period of first cadastral survey conducted in the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia from 1847 to 1877, and which is used extensively according to the data provided by the customer service of the Croatian State Archives. User needs on the one side and the possibilities of innovative implementation of ICT on the other have motivated the development of the system which would use digital copies of original cadastral maps and connect them with systems like Google maps, and thus both protect the original materials and open up new avenues of research related to the use of originals. With this aim in mind, two cadastral map presentation models have been created. Firstly, there is a detailed display of the original, which enables its viewing using dynamic zooming. Secondly, the interactive display is facilitated through blending the cadastral maps with Google maps, which resulted in establishing links between the coordinates of the digital and original plans through transformation. The transparency of the original can be changed, and the user can intensify the visibility of the underlying layer (Google map or the top layer (cadastral map, which enables direct insight into parcel dynamics over a longer time-span. The system also allows for the mark-up of cadastral maps, which can lead to the development of the cumulative index of all terms found on cadastral maps. The paper is an example of the implementation of ICT for providing new services, strengthening cooperation with the interested public and related institutions, familiarizing the public with the archival material, and offering new possibilities for

  7. Operational snow mapping with simplified data assimilation using the seNorge snow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloranta, Tuomo M.

    2016-07-01

    Frequently updated maps of snow conditions are useful for many applications, e.g., for avalanche and flood forecasting services, hydropower energy situation analysis, as well as for the general public. Numerical snow models are often applied in snow map production for operational hydrological services. However, inaccuracies in the simulated snow maps due to model uncertainties and the lack of suitable data assimilation techniques to correct them in near-real time may often reduce the usefulness of the snow maps in operational use. In this paper the revised seNorge snow model (v.1.1.1) for snow mapping is described, and a simplified data assimilation procedure is introduced to correct detected snow model biases in near real-time. The data assimilation procedure is theoretically based on the Bayesian updating paradigm and is meant to be pragmatic with modest computational and input data requirements. Moreover, it is flexible and can utilize both point-based snow depth and satellite-based areal snow-covered area observations, which are generally the most common data-sources of snow observations. The model and analysis codes as well as the "R" statistical software are freely available. All these features should help to lower the challenges and hurdles hampering the application of data-assimilation techniques in operational hydrological modeling. The steps of the data assimilation procedure (evaluation, sensitivity analysis, optimization) and their contribution to significantly increased accuracy of the snow maps are demonstrated with a case from eastern Norway in winter 2013/2014.

  8. Mapping trapped atomic gas with spin-orbit coupling to quantum Rabi-like model

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Haiping; Chen, Shu

    2013-01-01

    We construct a connection of the ultracold atomic system in a harmonic trap with Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling to the quantum Rabi-like model. By mapping the trapped atomic system to a Rabi-like model, we can get the exact solution of the Rabi-like model following the methods to solve the quantum Rabi model. The existence of such a mapping implies that we can study the basic model in quantum optics by using trapped atomic gases with spin-orbit coupling.

  9. A Road Map to Commercialization of Cartilage Therapy in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, BanuPriya; Sharma, Blanka; Detamore, Michael S

    2015-11-05

    Despite numerous efforts in cartilage regeneration, few products see the light of clinical translation as the commercialization process is opaque, financially demanding, and requires collaboration with people of varied skill sets. The aim of this review is to introduce, to an academic audience, the different paradigms involved in the commercialization of cartilage regeneration technology, elucidate the different hurdles associated with the use of cells and materials in developing new technologies, discuss potential commercialization strategies, and inform the reader about the current trends observed in both the clinical and laboratory setting for establishing clinical trials. Although there are review articles on articular cartilage tissue engineering, independent reports provided by the Food and Drug Administration, and separate review articles on animal models, this is the first review that encompasses all of these facets and is presented in a format favorable to the academic investigator interested in clinical translation from bench to bedside.

  10. Self-Organizing Map Models of Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eLi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic PDP architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development.

  11. A case study on point process modelling in disease mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge; Benes, Viktor

    2005-01-01

    We consider a data set of locations where people in Central Bohemia have been infected by tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), and where population census data and covariates concerning vegetation and altitude are available. The aims are to estimate the risk map of the disease and to study the dependence...... of the risk on the covariates. Instead of using the common areal level approaches we base the analysis on a Bayesian approach for a log Gaussian Cox point process with covariates. Posterior characteristics for a discretized version of the log Gaussian Cox process are computed using Markov chain Monte Carlo...

  12. Approximate Robotic Mapping from sonar data by modeling Perceptions with Antonyms

    CERN Document Server

    Guadarrama, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This work, inspired by the idea of "Computing with Words and Perceptions" proposed by Zadeh in 2001, focuses on how to transform measurements into perceptions for the problem of map building by Autonomous Mobile Robots. We propose to model the perceptions obtained from sonar-sensors as two grid maps: one for obstacles and another for empty spaces. The rules used to build and integrate these maps are expressed by linguistic descriptions and modeled by fuzzy rules. The main difference of this approach from other studies reported in the literature is that the method presented here is based on the hypothesis that the concepts "occupied" and "empty" are antonyms rather than complementary (as it happens in probabilistic approaches), or independent (as it happens in the previous fuzzy models). Controlled experimentation with a real robot in three representative indoor environments has been performed and the results presented. We offer a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the estimated maps obtained by the pr...

  13. Nesting statistics in the $O(n)$ loop model on random maps of arbitrary topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Borot, Gaëtan

    2016-01-01

    We pursue the analysis of nesting statistics in the $O(n)$ loop model on random maps, initiated for maps with the topology of disks and cylinders in math-ph/1605.02239, here for arbitrary topologies. For this purpose we rely on the topological recursion results of math-ph/0910.5896 and math-ph/1303.5808 for the enumeration of maps in the $O(n)$ model. We characterize the generating series of maps of genus $g$ with $k'$ marked points and $k$ boundaries and realizing a fixed nesting graph. These generating series are amenable to explicit computations in the loop model with bending energy on triangulations, and we characterize their behavior at criticality in the dense and in the dilute phase.

  14. Models for identification of erroneous atom-to-atom mapping of reactions performed by automated algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Christophe; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Aires-de-Sousa, João; Varnek, Alexandre

    2012-12-21

    Machine learning (SVM and JRip rule learner) methods have been used in conjunction with the Condensed Graph of Reaction (CGR) approach to identify errors in the atom-to-atom mapping of chemical reactions produced by an automated mapping tool by ChemAxon. The modeling has been performed on the three first enzymatic classes of metabolic reactions from the KEGG database. Each reaction has been converted into a CGR representing a pseudomolecule with conventional (single, double, aromatic, etc.) bonds and dynamic bonds characterizing chemical transformations. The ChemAxon tool was used to automatically detect the matching atom pairs in reagents and products. These automated mappings were analyzed by the human expert and classified as "correct" or "wrong". ISIDA fragment descriptors generated for CGRs for both correct and wrong mappings were used as attributes in machine learning. The learned models have been validated in n-fold cross-validation on the training set followed by a challenge to detect correct and wrong mappings within an external test set of reactions, never used for learning. Results show that both SVM and JRip models detect most of the wrongly mapped reactions. We believe that this approach could be used to identify erroneous atom-to-atom mapping performed by any automated algorithm.

  15. A convolution model of rock bed thermal storage units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, E. F.; Curry, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A method is presented whereby a packed-bed thermal storage unit is dynamically modeled for bi-directional flow and arbitrary input flow stream temperature variations. The method is based on the principle of calculating the output temperature as the sum of earlier input temperatures, each multiplied by a predetermined 'response factor', i.e., discrete convolution. A computer implementation of the scheme, in the form of a subroutine for a widely used solar simulation program (TRNSYS) is described and numerical results compared with other models. Also, a method for efficient computation of the required response factors is described; this solution is for a triangular input pulse, previously unreported, although the solution method is also applicable for other input functions. This solution requires a single integration of a known function which is easily carried out numerically to the required precision.

  16. Simulating Lattice Spin Models on Graphics Processing Units

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Tal; Rabani, Eran; 10.1021/ct100385b

    2012-01-01

    Lattice spin models are useful for studying critical phenomena and allow the extraction of equilibrium and dynamical properties. Simulations of such systems are usually based on Monte Carlo (MC) techniques, and the main difficulty is often the large computational effort needed when approaching critical points. In this work, it is shown how such simulations can be accelerated with the use of NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs) using the CUDA programming architecture. We have developed two different algorithms for lattice spin models, the first useful for equilibrium properties near a second-order phase transition point and the second for dynamical slowing down near a glass transition. The algorithms are based on parallel MC techniques, and speedups from 70- to 150-fold over conventional single-threaded computer codes are obtained using consumer-grade hardware.

  17. Modelling reverberation mapping data - II. Dynamical modelling of the Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2008 data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancoast, Anna; Brewer, Brendon J.; Treu, Tommaso; Park, Daeseong; Barth, Aaron J.; Bentz, Misty C.; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2014-12-01

    We present dynamical modelling of the broad-line region (BLR) for a sample of five Seyfert 1 galaxies using reverberation mapping data taken by the Lick AGN Monitoring Project in 2008. By modelling the AGN continuum light curve and Hβ line profiles directly, we are able to constrain the geometry and kinematics of the BLR and make a measurement of the black hole mass that does not depend upon the virial factor, f, needed in traditional reverberation mapping analysis. We find that the geometry of the BLR is generally a thick disc viewed close to face-on. While the Hβ emission is found to come preferentially from the far side of the BLR, the mean size of the BLR is consistent with the lags measured with cross-correlation analysis. The BLR kinematics are found to be consistent with either inflowing motions or elliptical orbits, often with some combination of the two. We measure black hole masses of log _{10}(M_ BH/M_{odot })=6.62^{+0.10}_{-0.13} for Arp 151, 7.42^{+0.26}_{-0.27} for Mrk 1310, 7.59^{+0.24}_{-0.21} for NGC 5548, 6.37^{+0.21}_{-0.16} for NGC 6814, and 6.99^{+0.32}_{-0.25} for SBS 1116+583A. The f factors measured individually for each AGN are found to correlate with inclination angle, although not with M BH, L5100, or FWHM/σ of the emission line profile.

  18. Soil mapping and processes modelling for sustainable land management: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Bradley; Smetanova, Anna; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Novara, Agata; Cerda, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil maps and models are fundamental for a correct and sustainable land management (Pereira et al., 2017). They are an important in the assessment of the territory and implementation of sustainable measures in urban areas, agriculture, forests, ecosystem services, among others. Soil maps represent an important basis for the evaluation and restoration of degraded areas, an important issue for our society, as consequence of climate change and the increasing pressure of humans on the ecosystems (Brevik et al. 2016; Depellegrin et al., 2016). The understanding of soil spatial variability and the phenomena that influence this dynamic is crucial to the implementation of sustainable practices that prevent degradation, and decrease the economic costs of soil restoration. In this context, soil maps and models are important to identify areas affected by degradation and optimize the resources available to restore them. Overall, soil data alone or integrated with data from other sciences, is an important part of sustainable land management. This information is extremely important land managers and decision maker's implements sustainable land management policies. The objective of this work is to present a review about the advantages of soil mapping and process modeling for sustainable land management. References Brevik, E., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Baumgarten, A., Jordán, A. (2016) Historical perspectives and future needs in soil mapping, classification and pedological modelling, Geoderma, 264, Part B, 256-274. Depellegrin, D.A., Pereira, P., Misiune, I., Egarter-Vigl, L. (2016) Mapping Ecosystem Services in Lithuania. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 23, 441-455. Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Munoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B., Smetanova, A., Depellegrin, D., Misiune, I., Novara, A., Cerda, A. (2017) Soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land management. In: Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Munoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B

  19. Vegetation Cover Mapping Based on Remote Sensing and Digital Elevation Model Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korets, M. A.; Ryzhkova, V. A.; Danilova, I. V.; Prokushkin, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    An algorithm of forest cover mapping based on combined GIS-based analysis of multi-band satellite imagery, digital elevation model, and ground truth data was developed. Using the classification principles and an approach of Russian forest scientist Kolesnikov, maps of forest types and forest growing conditions (FGC) were build. The first map is based on RS-composite classification, while the second map is constructed on the basis of DEM-composite classification. The spatial combination of this two layers were also used for extrapolation and mapping of ecosystem carbon stock values (kgC/m2). The proposed approach was applied for the test site area (~3600 km2), located in the Northern Siberia boreal forests of Evenkia near Tura settlement.

  20. Kinematic modelling of disc galaxies using graphics processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiaris, G.; Glazebrook, K.; Fluke, C. J.; Abraham, R.

    2016-01-01

    With large-scale integral field spectroscopy (IFS) surveys of thousands of galaxies currently under-way or planned, the astronomical community is in need of methods, techniques and tools that will allow the analysis of huge amounts of data. We focus on the kinematic modelling of disc galaxies and investigate the potential use of massively parallel architectures, such as the graphics processing unit (GPU), as an accelerator for the computationally expensive model-fitting procedure. We review the algorithms involved in model-fitting and evaluate their suitability for GPU implementation. We employ different optimization techniques, including the Levenberg-Marquardt and nested sampling algorithms, but also a naive brute-force approach based on nested grids. We find that the GPU can accelerate the model-fitting procedure up to a factor of ˜100 when compared to a single-threaded CPU, and up to a factor of ˜10 when compared to a multithreaded dual CPU configuration. Our method's accuracy, precision and robustness are assessed by successfully recovering the kinematic properties of simulated data, and also by verifying the kinematic modelling results of galaxies from the GHASP and DYNAMO surveys as found in the literature. The resulting GBKFIT code is available for download from: http://supercomputing.swin.edu.au/gbkfit.

  1. Parallelizing the Cellular Potts Model on graphics processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, José Juan; D'Souza, Roshan M.

    2011-04-01

    The Cellular Potts Model (CPM) is a lattice based modeling technique used for simulating cellular structures in computational biology. The computational complexity of the model means that current serial implementations restrict the size of simulation to a level well below biological relevance. Parallelization on computing clusters enables scaling the size of the simulation but marginally addresses computational speed due to the limited memory bandwidth between nodes. In this paper we present new data-parallel algorithms and data structures for simulating the Cellular Potts Model on graphics processing units. Our implementations handle most terms in the Hamiltonian, including cell-cell adhesion constraint, cell volume constraint, cell surface area constraint, and cell haptotaxis. We use fine level checkerboards with lock mechanisms using atomic operations to enable consistent updates while maintaining a high level of parallelism. A new data-parallel memory allocation algorithm has been developed to handle cell division. Tests show that our implementation enables simulations of >10 cells with lattice sizes of up to 256 3 on a single graphics card. Benchmarks show that our implementation runs ˜80× faster than serial implementations, and ˜5× faster than previous parallel implementations on computing clusters consisting of 25 nodes. The wide availability and economy of graphics cards mean that our techniques will enable simulation of realistically sized models at a fraction of the time and cost of previous implementations and are expected to greatly broaden the scope of CPM applications.

  2. A Hydrostrat Model and Alternatives for Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainer Mesa-Shoshone Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Geotechnical Sciences Group

    2007-03-01

    The three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit was completed in Fiscal Year 2006. The model extends from eastern Pahute Mesa in the north to Mid Valley in the south and centers on the former nuclear testing areas at Rainier Mesa, Aqueduct Mesa, and Shoshone Mountain. The model area also includes an overlap with the existing Underground Test Area Corrective Action Unit models for Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa. The model area is geologically diverse and includes un-extended yet highly deformed Paleozoic terrain and high volcanic mesas between the Yucca Flat extensional basin on the east and caldera complexes of the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field on the west. The area also includes a hydrologic divide between two groundwater sub-basins of the Death Valley regional flow system. A diverse set of geological and geophysical data collected over the past 50 years was used to develop a structural model and hydrostratigraphic system for the model area. Three deep characterization wells, a magnetotelluric survey, and reprocessed gravity data were acquired specifically for this modeling initiative. These data and associated interpretive products were integrated using EarthVision{reg_sign} software to develop the three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model. Crucial steps in the model building process included establishing a fault model, developing a hydrostratigraphic scheme, compiling a drill-hole database, and constructing detailed geologic and hydrostratigraphic cross sections and subsurface maps. The more than 100 stratigraphic units in the model area were grouped into 43 hydrostratigraphic units based on each unit's propensity toward aquifer or aquitard characteristics. The authors organized the volcanic units in the model area into 35 hydrostratigraphic units that include 16 aquifers, 12 confining units, 2 composite units (a mixture of aquifer and confining units), and 5 intrusive

  3. Clastic reservoir porosity mapping using seismic data and geostatistics: Callovian unit, West Lulu field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejbaek, O.V.

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this report was to demonstrate possible uses of seismic impedances as soft data for reservoir characterization. To illustrate the impact of the results and attempt to calculate oil in place was also carried out. It must, however, be emphasized that these results only apply to the Callovian portion of the Middle Jurassic West Lulu reservoir, and thus do not provide estimates of the entire Middle Jurassic West Lulu accumulation. It is important to realise that stochastic simulations does not provide exact predictions in areas outside the control of hard data. It is, however, offering possibilities to exploit every known or surmised property about the desired (target) data population. These properties include f.ex., mean, spread, spatial continuity (measured by variograms), horixontal and vertical trends, correlation to supporting soft data (e.g. seismic impedances) etc. Neither are predictions exact even through the term `narrowed solution space` is applied. This term merely implies that the error in prediction at any point may be less than the full range of the parameter. The quality of the predictions mainly depend on meticulous handling of data, avoiding errors like bad stratigraphic alignment of the data, obtaining good variograms, avoiding errors in the construction of the target populations and including every pertinent attribute about the data. The result is thus also depending on a full geological understanding of the problem (and moral of the modeller). The most important quality is the ability to provide a great number of equi-probable realisation that equally well satisfies any known or surmised property about the target data population. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of inversion derived seismic impedances for geostatistical reservoir characterisation in a complex clastic reservoir exemplified with the West Lulu reservoir of the Harald Field. The well database is rather modest, so substantial support has been gained from the

  4. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories. PMID:24312061

  5. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-11-19

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories.

  6. Disrupted bandcount doubling in an AC-DC boost PFC circuit modeled by a time varying map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avrutin, Viktor; Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Aroudi, Abdelali El;

    2016-01-01

    averaged models. In this paper, we derive a time varying discretetime map modeling the behavior of a power factor correction AC-DC boost converter. This map is derived in closed-form and is able to faithfully reproduce the system behavior under realistic conditions. In the chaotic regime the map exhibits...

  7. Improving predictive mapping of deep-water habitats: Considering multiple model outputs and ensemble techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Katleen; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Roberts, J. Murray; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2016-07-01

    In the deep sea, biological data are often sparse; hence models capturing relationships between observed fauna and environmental variables (acquired via acoustic mapping techniques) are often used to produce full coverage species assemblage maps. Many statistical modelling techniques are being developed, but there remains a need to determine the most appropriate mapping techniques. Predictive habitat modelling approaches (redundancy analysis, maximum entropy and random forest) were applied to a heterogeneous section of seabed on Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic, for which landscape indices describing the spatial arrangement of habitat patches were calculated. The predictive maps were based on remotely operated vehicle (ROV) imagery transects high-resolution autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) sidescan backscatter maps. Area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy indicated similar performances for the three models tested, but performance varied by species assemblage, with the transitional species assemblage showing the weakest predictive performances. Spatial predictions of habitat suitability differed between statistical approaches, but niche similarity metrics showed redundancy analysis and random forest predictions to be most similar. As one statistical technique could not be found to outperform the others when all assemblages were considered, ensemble mapping techniques, where the outputs of many models are combined, were applied. They showed higher accuracy than any single model. Different statistical approaches for predictive habitat modelling possess varied strengths and weaknesses and by examining the outputs of a range of modelling techniques and their differences, more robust predictions, with better described variation and areas of uncertainties, can be achieved. As improvements to prediction outputs can be achieved without additional costly data collection, ensemble mapping approaches have clear value for spatial management.

  8. Quantum Programs as Kleisli Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Westerbaan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Furber and Jacobs have shown in their study of quantum computation that the category of commutative C*-algebras and PU-maps (positive linear maps which preserve the unit is isomorphic to the Kleisli category of a comonad on the category of commutative C*-algebras with MIU-maps (linear maps which preserve multiplication, involution and unit. [Furber and Jacobs, 2013] In this paper, we prove a non-commutative variant of this result: the category of C*-algebras and PU-maps is isomorphic to the Kleisli category of a comonad on the subcategory of MIU-maps. A variation on this result has been used to construct a model of Selinger and Valiron's quantum lambda calculus using von Neumann algebras. [Cho and Westerbaan, 2016

  9. From representing to modelling knowledge: Proposing a two-step training for excellence in concept mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana G. Aguiar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Training users in the concept mapping technique is critical for ensuring a high-quality concept map in terms of graphical structure and content accuracy. However, assessing excellence in concept mapping through structural and content features is a complex task. This paper proposes a two-step sequential training in concept mapping. The first step requires the fulfilment of low-order cognitive objectives (remember, understand and apply to facilitate novices’ development into good Cmappers by honing their knowledge representation skills. The second step requires the fulfilment of high-order cognitive objectives (analyse, evaluate and create to grow good Cmappers into excellent ones through the development of knowledge modelling skills. Based on Bloom’s revised taxonomy and cognitive load theory, this paper presents theoretical accounts to (1 identify the criteria distinguishing good and excellent concept maps, (2 inform instructional tasks for concept map elaboration and (3 propose a prototype for training users on concept mapping combining online and face-to-face activities. The proposed training application and the institutional certification are the next steps for the mature use of concept maps for educational as well as business purposes.

  10. Open Source Software for Mapping Human Impacts on Marine Ecosystems with an Additive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Stock

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an easy-to-use open source software tool implementing a commonly used additive model (Halpern et al., 'Science', 2008 for mapping human impacts on marine ecosystems. The tool has been used to map the potential for cumulative human impacts in Arctic marine waters and can support future human impact mapping projects by 1 making the model easier to use; 2 making updates of model results straightforward when better input data become available; 3 storing input data and information about processing steps in a defined format and thus facilitating data sharing and reproduction of modeling results; 4 supporting basic visualization of model inputs and outputs without the need for advanced technical skills. The tool, called EcoImpactMapper, was implemented in Java and is thus platform-independent. A tutorial, example data, the tool and the source code are available online.

  11. Joint Sparse Sub-Pixel Mapping Model with Endmember Variability for Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectral unmixing and sub-pixel mapping have been used to estimate the proportion and spatial distribution of the different land-cover classes in mixed pixels at a sub-pixel scale. In the past decades, several algorithms were proposed in both categories; however, these two techniques are generally regarded as independent procedures, with most sub-pixel mapping methods using abundance maps generated by spectral unmixing techniques. It should be noted that the utilized abundance map has a strong impact on the performance of the subsequent sub-pixel mapping process. Recently, we built a novel sub-pixel mapping model in combination with the linear spectral mixture model. Therefore, a joint sub-pixel mapping model was established that connects an original (coarser resolution remotely sensed image with the final sub-pixel result directly. However, this approach focuses on incorporating the spectral information contained in the original image without addressing the spectral endmember variability resulting from variable illumination and environmental conditions. To address this important issue, in this paper we designed a new joint sparse sub-pixel mapping method under the assumption that various representative spectra for each endmember are known a priori and available in a library. In addition, the total variation (TV regularization was also adopted to exploit the spatial information. The proposed approach was experimentally evaluated using both synthetic and real hyperspectral images, and the obtained results demonstrate that the method can achieve better results by considering the impact of endmember variability when compared with other sub-pixel mapping methods.

  12. Construction of an E. Coli genome-scale atom mapping model for MFA calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikirthi, Prabhasa; Suthers, Patrick F; Maranas, Costas D

    2011-06-01

    Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) has so far been restricted to lumped networks lacking many important pathways, partly due to the difficulty in automatically generating isotope mapping matrices for genome-scale metabolic networks. Here we introduce a procedure that uses a compound matching algorithm based on the graph theoretical concept of pattern recognition along with relevant reaction information to automatically generate genome-scale atom mappings which trace the path of atoms from reactants to products for every reaction. The procedure is applied to the iAF1260 metabolic reconstruction of Escherichia coli yielding the genome-scale isotope mapping model imPR90068. This model maps 90,068 non-hydrogen atoms that span all 2,077 reactions present in iAF1260 (previous largest mapping model included 238 reactions). The expanded scope of the isotope mapping model allows the complete tracking of labeled atoms through pathways such as cofactor and prosthetic group biosynthesis and histidine metabolism. An EMU representation of imPR90068 is also constructed and made available.

  13. Meta-model Based Model Organization and Transformation of Design Pattern Units in MDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-chun YANG; Zi-yi ZHAO; Jing Sun

    2010-01-01

    Tb achieve the purpose of applying design patterns which are various in kind and constant in changing in MDA from idea and application,one way is used to solve the problem of pattern disappearance which occurs at the process of pattern instantiation,to guarantee the independenceJpatterns,and at the same time,to apply this process to miltiple design patterns.Ib solve these two problems,the modeling method of design pattern units based on seta-models is adopted,I.e.,to divide the basic operations into atones in the metamodel tier and then combine the atones to complete design pattern units seta-models without business logic.After one process of conversion,the kxupose of making up various pattern units seta-model and dividing business logic and pattern logic is achieved.

  14. Transport of Pathogen Surrogates in Soil Treatment Units: Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Morales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Segmented mesocosms (n = 3 packed with sand, sandy loam or clay loam soil were used to determine the effect of soil texture and depth on transport of two septic tank effluent (STE-borne microbial pathogen surrogates—green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli (GFPE and MS-2 coliphage—in soil treatment units. HYDRUS 2D/3D software was used to model the transport of these microbes from the infiltrative surface. Mesocosms were spiked with GFPE and MS-2 coliphage at 105 cfu/mL STE and 105–106 pfu/mL STE, respectively. In all soils, removal rates were >99.99% at 25 cm. The transport simulation compared (1 optimization; and (2 trial-and-error modeling approaches. Only slight differences between the transport parameters were observed between these approaches. Treating both the die-off rates and attachment/detachment rates as variables resulted in an overall better model fit, particularly for the tailing phase of the experiments. Independent of the fitting procedure, attachment rates computed by the model were higher in sandy and sandy loam soils than clay, which was attributed to unsaturated flow conditions at lower water content in the coarser-textured soils. Early breakthrough of the bacteria and virus indicated the presence of preferential flow in the system in the structured clay loam soil, resulting in faster movement of water and microbes through the soil relative to a conservative tracer (bromide.

  15. Kinematic Modelling of Disc Galaxies using Graphics Processing Units

    CERN Document Server

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Fluke, Christopher J; Abraham, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    With large-scale Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) surveys of thousands of galaxies currently under-way or planned, the astronomical community is in need of methods, techniques and tools that will allow the analysis of huge amounts of data. We focus on the kinematic modelling of disc galaxies and investigate the potential use of massively parallel architectures, such as the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), as an accelerator for the computationally expensive model-fitting procedure. We review the algorithms involved in model-fitting and evaluate their suitability for GPU implementation. We employ different optimization techniques, including the Levenberg-Marquardt and Nested Sampling algorithms, but also a naive brute-force approach based on Nested Grids. We find that the GPU can accelerate the model-fitting procedure up to a factor of ~100 when compared to a single-threaded CPU, and up to a factor of ~10 when compared to a multi-threaded dual CPU configuration. Our method's accuracy, precision and robustness a...

  16. Total variation regularization of geodetically and geologically constrained block models for the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eileen L.; Loveless, John P.; Meade, Brendan J.

    2015-08-01

    Geodetic observations of interseismic deformation in the Western United States provide constraints on microplate rotations, earthquake cycle processes, and slip partitioning across the Pacific-North America Plate boundary. These measurements may be interpreted using block models, in which the upper crust is divided into microplates bounded by faults that accumulate strain in a first-order approximation of earthquake cycle processes. The number and geometry of microplates are typically defined with boundaries representing a limited subset of the large number of potentially seismogenic faults. An alternative approach is to include a large number of potentially active faults bounding a dense array of microplates, and then algorithmically estimate the boundaries at which strain is localized. This approach is possible through the application of a total variation regularization (TVR) optimization algorithm, which simultaneously minimizes the L2 norm of data residuals and the L1 norm of the variation in the differential block motions. Applied to 3-D spherical block models, the TVR algorithm can be used to reduce the total variation between estimated rotation vectors, effectively grouping microplates that rotate together as larger blocks, and localizing fault slip on the boundaries of these larger block clusters. Here we develop a block model comprised of 137 microplates derived from published fault maps, and apply the TVR algorithm to identify the kinematically most important faults in the western United States. This approach reveals that of the 137 microplates considered, only 30 unique blocks are required to approximate deformation in the western United States at a residual level of <2 mm yr-1.

  17. Composite annotations: requirements for mapping multiscale data and models to biomedical ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Daniel L.; Mejino, Jose L. V.; Neal, Maxwell L.; Gennari, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Current methods for annotating biomedical data resources rely on simple mappings between data elements and the contents of a variety of biomedical ontologies and controlled vocabularies. Here we point out that such simple mappings are inadequate for large-scale multiscale, multidomain integrative “virtual human” projects. For such integrative challenges, we describe a “composite annotation” schema that is simple yet sufficiently extensible for mapping the biomedical content of a variety of data sources and biosimulation models to available biomedical ontologies. PMID:19964601

  18. Interpreting predictive maps of disease: highlighting the pitfalls of distribution models in epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A. Wardrop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of spatial modelling to epidemiology has increased significantly over the past decade, delivering enhanced understanding of the environmental and climatic factors affecting disease distributions and providing spatially continuous representations of disease risk (predictive maps. These outputs provide significant information for disease control programmes, allowing spatial targeting and tailored interventions. However, several factors (e.g. sampling protocols or temporal disease spread can influence predictive mapping outputs. This paper proposes a conceptual framework which defines several scenarios and their potential impact on resulting predictive outputs, using simulated data to provide an exemplar. It is vital that researchers recognise these scenarios and their influence on predictive models and their outputs, as a failure to do so may lead to inaccurate interpretation of predictive maps. As long as these considerations are kept in mind, predictive mapping will continue to contribute significantly to epidemiological research and disease control planning.

  19. A mathematical space mapping model for ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamifar, Farnousha; Yousefi, Reza

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a mathematical model is presented based on mathematical space mapping for ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. This model is generalized from another model that was based on the concept of neural space mapping to calculate the three parameters of a coarse model. These parameters were the threshold voltage, the Early voltage, and assumed constant k of a modified "level 1" MOSFET model in simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE). In this work, three analytical relations are introduced to replace the neural networks of the main model. The comparisons between the proposed model and a well-known reference model, named FETToy, show that the proposed model had reasonable accuracy in terms of different biases and physical parameters.

  20. A computational model of dendrite elongation and branching based on MAP2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hely, T A; Graham, B; Ooyen, A V

    2001-06-07

    We introduce a new computational model of dendritic development in neurons. In contrast to previous models, our model explicitly includes cellular mechanisms involved in dendritic development. It is based on recent experimental data which indicates that the phosphorylation state of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) may play a key role in controlling dendritic elongation and branching (Audesirk et al., 1997). Dephosphorylated MAP2 favours elongation by promoting microtubule polymerization and bundling, whilst branching is more likely to occur when MAP2 is phosphorylated and microtubules are spaced apart. In the model, the rate of elongation and branching is directly determined by the ratio of phosphorylated to dephosphorylated MAP2. This is regulated by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin, which are both dependent on the intracellular calcium concentration. Results from computer simulations of the model suggest that the wide variety of branching patterns observed among different cell types may be generated by the same underlying mechanisms and that elongation and branching are not necessarily independent processes. The model predicts how the branching pattern will change following manipulations with calcium, CaMKII and MAP2 phosphorylation.

  1. United polarizable multipole water model for molecular mechanics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Rui; Wang, Qiantao; Ren, Pengyu, E-mail: pren@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Wang, Lee-Ping; Pande, Vijay S. [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    We report the development of a united AMOEBA (uAMOEBA) polarizable water model, which is computationally 3–5 times more efficient than the three-site AMOEBA03 model in molecular dynamics simulations while providing comparable accuracy for gas-phase and liquid properties. In this coarse-grained polarizable water model, both electrostatic (permanent and induced) and van der Waals representations have been reduced to a single site located at the oxygen atom. The permanent charge distribution is described via the molecular dipole and quadrupole moments and the many-body polarization via an isotropic molecular polarizability, all located at the oxygen center. Similarly, a single van der Waals interaction site is used for each water molecule. Hydrogen atoms are retained only for the purpose of defining local frames for the molecular multipole moments and intramolecular vibrational modes. The parameters have been derived based on a combination of ab initio quantum mechanical and experimental data set containing gas-phase cluster structures and energies, and liquid thermodynamic properties. For validation, additional properties including dimer interaction energy, liquid structures, self-diffusion coefficient, and shear viscosity have been evaluated. The results demonstrate good transferability from the gas to the liquid phase over a wide range of temperatures, and from nonpolar to polar environments, due to the presence of molecular polarizability. The water coordination, hydrogen-bonding structure, and dynamic properties given by uAMOEBA are similar to those derived from the all-atom AMOEBA03 model and experiments. Thus, the current model is an accurate and efficient alternative for modeling water.

  2. A probabilistic graphical model approach in 30 m land cover mapping with multiple data sources

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jie; Ji, Luyan; Huang, Xiaomeng; Fu, Haohuan; Xu, Shiming; Li, Congcong

    2016-01-01

    There is a trend to acquire high accuracy land-cover maps using multi-source classification methods, most of which are based on data fusion, especially pixel- or feature-level fusions. A probabilistic graphical model (PGM) approach is proposed in this research for 30 m resolution land-cover mapping with multi-temporal Landsat and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Independent classifiers were applied to two single-date Landsat 8 scenes and the MODIS time-series data, ...

  3. Multiscale modeling of spring phenology across Deciduous Forests in the Eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaas, Eli K; Friedl, Mark A; Richardson, Andrew D

    2016-02-01

    Phenological events, such as bud burst, are strongly linked to ecosystem processes in temperate deciduous forests. However, the exact nature and magnitude of how seasonal and interannual variation in air temperatures influence phenology is poorly understood, and model-based phenology representations fail to capture local- to regional-scale variability arising from differences in species composition. In this paper, we use a combination of surface meteorological data, species composition maps, remote sensing, and ground-based observations to estimate models that better represent how community-level species composition affects the phenological response of deciduous broadleaf forests to climate forcing at spatial scales that are typically used in ecosystem models. Using time series of canopy greenness from repeat digital photography, citizen science data from the USA National Phenology Network, and satellite remote sensing-based observations of phenology, we estimated and tested models that predict the timing of spring leaf emergence across five different deciduous broadleaf forest types in the eastern United States. Specifically, we evaluated two different approaches: (i) using species-specific models in combination with species composition information to 'upscale' model predictions and (ii) using repeat digital photography of forest canopies that observe and integrate the phenological behavior of multiple representative species at each camera site to calibrate a single model for all deciduous broadleaf forests. Our results demonstrate variability in cumulative forcing requirements and photoperiod cues across species and forest types, and show how community composition influences phenological dynamics over large areas. At the same time, the response of different species to spatial and interannual variation in weather is, under the current climate regime, sufficiently similar that the generic deciduous forest model based on repeat digital photography performed

  4. Modeling Small Scale Solar Powered ORC Unit for Standalone Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bocci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When the electricity from the grid is not available, the generation of electricity in remote areas is an essential challenge to satisfy important needs. In many developing countries the power generation from Diesel engines is the applied technical solution. However the cost and supply of fuel make a strong dependency of the communities on the external support. Alternatives to fuel combustion can be found in photovoltaic generators, and, with suitable conditions, small wind turbines or microhydroplants. The aim of the paper is to simulate the power generation of a generating unit using the Rankine Cycle and using refrigerant R245fa as a working fluid. The generation unit has thermal solar panels as heat source and photovoltaic modules for the needs of the auxiliary items (pumps, electronics, etc.. The paper illustrates the modeling of the system using TRNSYS platform, highlighting standard and “ad hoc” developed components as well as the global system efficiency. In the future the results of the simulation will be compared with the data collected from the 3 kW prototype under construction in the Tuscia University in Italy.

  5. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units - A model partnership program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-04-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) program is a unique model of cooperative partnership among the USGS, other U.S. Department of the Interior and Federal agencies, universities, State fish and wildlife agencies, and the Wildlife Management Institute. These partnerships are maintained as one of the USGS’s strongest links to Federal and State land and natural resource management agencies.Established in 1935 to meet the need for trained professionals in the growing field of wildlife management, the program currently consists of 40 Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units located on university campuses in 38 States and supports 119 research scientist positions when fully funded. The threefold mission of the CRU program is to (1) conduct scientific research for the management of fish, wildlife, and other natural resources; (2) provide technical assistance to natural resource managers in the application of scientific information to natural resource policy and management; and (3) train future natural resource professionals.

  6. Malaria in Africa: vector species' niche models and relative risk maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Moffett

    Full Text Available A central theoretical goal of epidemiology is the construction of spatial models of disease prevalence and risk, including maps for the potential spread of infectious disease. We provide three continent-wide maps representing the relative risk of malaria in Africa based on ecological niche models of vector species and risk analysis at a spatial resolution of 1 arc-minute (9 185 275 cells of approximately 4 sq km. Using a maximum entropy method we construct niche models for 10 malaria vector species based on species occurrence records since 1980, 19 climatic variables, altitude, and land cover data (in 14 classes. For seven vectors (Anopheles coustani, A. funestus, A. melas, A. merus, A. moucheti, A. nili, and A. paludis these are the first published niche models. We predict that Central Africa has poor habitat for both A. arabiensis and A. gambiae, and that A. quadriannulatus and A. arabiensis have restricted habitats in Southern Africa as claimed by field experts in criticism of previous models. The results of the niche models are incorporated into three relative risk models which assume different ecological interactions between vector species. The "additive" model assumes no interaction; the "minimax" model assumes maximum relative risk due to any vector in a cell; and the "competitive exclusion" model assumes the relative risk that arises from the most suitable vector for a cell. All models include variable anthrophilicity of vectors and spatial variation in human population density. Relative risk maps are produced from these models. All models predict that human population density is the critical factor determining malaria risk. Our method of constructing relative risk maps is equally general. We discuss the limits of the relative risk maps reported here, and the additional data that are required for their improvement. The protocol developed here can be used for any other vector-borne disease.

  7. Boundary States of the Potts Model on Random Planar Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Atkin, Max; Wheater, John

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the 3-states Potts model on random planar triangulations as a Hermitian matrix model. As a novelty, we obtain an algebraic curve which encodes the partition function on the disc with both fixed and mixed spin boundary conditions. We investigate the critical behaviour of this model and find scaling exponents consistent with previous literature. We argue that the conformal field theory that describes the double scaling limit is Liouville quantum gravity coupled to the $(A_4,D_4)$ minimal model with extended $\\mathcal{W}_3$-symmetry.

  8. Malaria Disease Mapping in Malaysia based on Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azah Samat, Nor; Mey, Liew Wan

    2017-09-01

    Disease mapping is the visual representation of the geographical distribution which give an overview info about the incidence of disease within a population through spatial epidemiology data. Based on the result of map, it helps in monitoring and planning resource needs at all levels of health care and designing appropriate interventions, tailored towards areas that deserve closer scrutiny or communities that lead to further investigations to identify important risk factors. Therefore, the choice of statistical model used for relative risk estimation is important because production of disease risk map relies on the model used. This paper proposes Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) model to estimate the relative risk for Malaria in Malaysia. The analysis involved using the number of Malaria cases that obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia. The outcomes of analysis are displayed through graph and map, including Malaria disease risk map that constructed according to the estimation of relative risk. The distribution of high and low risk areas of Malaria disease occurrences for all states in Malaysia can be identified in the risk map.

  9. Texture mapping 3D models of indoor environments with noisy camera poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peter; Anderson, Michael; He, Stewart; Zakhor, Avideh

    2013-03-01

    Automated 3D modeling of building interiors is used in applications such as virtual reality and environment mapping. Texturing these models allows for photo-realistic visualizations of the data collected by such modeling systems. While data acquisition times for mobile mapping systems are considerably shorter than for static ones, their recovered camera poses often suffer from inaccuracies, resulting in visible discontinuities when successive images are projected onto a surface for texturing. We present a method for texture mapping models of indoor environments that starts by selecting images whose camera poses are well-aligned in two dimensions. We then align images to geometry as well as to each other, producing visually consistent textures even in the presence of inaccurate surface geometry and noisy camera poses. Images are then composited into a final texture mosaic and projected onto surface geometry for visualization. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a number of different indoor environments.

  10. An Atlas of ShakeMaps and population exposure catalog for earthquake loss modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, T.I.; Wald, D.J.; Earle, P.S.; Marano, K.D.; Hotovec, A.J.; Lin, K.; Hearne, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    We present an Atlas of ShakeMaps and a catalog of human population exposures to moderate-to-strong ground shaking (EXPO-CAT) for recent historical earthquakes (1973-2007). The common purpose of the Atlas and exposure catalog is to calibrate earthquake loss models to be used in the US Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER). The full ShakeMap Atlas currently comprises over 5,600 earthquakes from January 1973 through December 2007, with almost 500 of these maps constrained-to varying degrees-by instrumental ground motions, macroseismic intensity data, community internet intensity observations, and published earthquake rupture models. The catalog of human exposures is derived using current PAGER methodologies. Exposure to discrete levels of shaking intensity is obtained by correlating Atlas ShakeMaps with a global population database. Combining this population exposure dataset with historical earthquake loss data, such as PAGER-CAT, provides a useful resource for calibrating loss methodologies against a systematically-derived set of ShakeMap hazard outputs. We illustrate two example uses for EXPO-CAT; (1) simple objective ranking of country vulnerability to earthquakes, and; (2) the influence of time-of-day on earthquake mortality. In general, we observe that countries in similar geographic regions with similar construction practices tend to cluster spatially in terms of relative vulnerability. We also find little quantitative evidence to suggest that time-of-day is a significant factor in earthquake mortality. Moreover, earthquake mortality appears to be more systematically linked to the population exposed to severe ground shaking (Modified Mercalli Intensity VIII+). Finally, equipped with the full Atlas of ShakeMaps, we merge each of these maps and find the maximum estimated peak ground acceleration at any grid point in the world for the past 35 years. We subsequently compare this "composite ShakeMap" with existing global

  11. Modeling of the CTEx subcritical unit using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Avelino [Divisao de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear. Centro Tecnologico do Exercito - CTEx, Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X. da, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ Centro de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rebello, Wilson F. [Secao de Engenharia Nuclear - SE/7 Instituto Militar de Engenharia - IME Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, Victor L. Lassance [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The present work aims at simulating the subcritical unit of Army Technology Center (CTEx) namely ARGUS pile (subcritical uranium-graphite arrangement) by using the computational code MCNPX. Once such modeling is finished, it could be used in k-effective calculations for systems using natural uranium as fuel, for instance. ARGUS is a subcritical assembly which uses reactor-grade graphite as moderator of fission neutrons and metallic uranium fuel rods with aluminum cladding. The pile is driven by an Am-Be spontaneous neutron source. In order to achieve a higher value for k{sub eff}, a higher concentration of U235 can be proposed, provided it safely remains below one. (author)

  12. Air pollution modelling using a graphics processing unit with CUDA

    CERN Document Server

    Molnar, Ferenc; Meszaros, Robert; Lagzi, Istvan; 10.1016/j.cpc.2009.09.008

    2010-01-01

    The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a powerful tool for parallel computing. In the past years the performance and capabilities of GPUs have increased, and the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) - a parallel computing architecture - has been developed by NVIDIA to utilize this performance in general purpose computations. Here we show for the first time a possible application of GPU for environmental studies serving as a basement for decision making strategies. A stochastic Lagrangian particle model has been developed on CUDA to estimate the transport and the transformation of the radionuclides from a single point source during an accidental release. Our results show that parallel implementation achieves typical acceleration values in the order of 80-120 times compared to CPU using a single-threaded implementation on a 2.33 GHz desktop computer. Only very small differences have been found between the results obtained from GPU and CPU simulations, which are comparable with the effect of stochastic tran...

  13. Parameter estimation in a spatial unit root autoregressive model

    CERN Document Server

    Baran, Sándor

    2011-01-01

    Spatial autoregressive model $X_{k,\\ell}=\\alpha X_{k-1,\\ell}+\\beta X_{k,\\ell-1}+\\gamma X_{k-1,\\ell-1}+\\epsilon_{k,\\ell}$ is investigated in the unit root case, that is when the parameters are on the boundary of the domain of stability that forms a tetrahedron with vertices $(1,1,-1), \\ (1,-1,1),\\ (-1,1,1)$ and $(-1,-1,-1)$. It is shown that the limiting distribution of the least squares estimator of the parameters is normal and the rate of convergence is $n$ when the parameters are in the faces or on the edges of the tetrahedron, while on the vertices the rate is $n^{3/2}$.

  14. Quality assessment of coarse models and surrogates for space mapping optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    in lack of convergence. Although similarity requirements can be expressed with proper analytical conditions, it is difficult to verify such conditions beforehand for real-world engineering optimization problems. In this paper, we provide methods of assessing the quality of coarse/surrogate models....... These methods can be used to predict whether a given model might be successfully used in space mapping optimization, to compare the quality of different coarse models, or to choose the proper type of space mapping which would be suitable to a given engineering design problem. Our quality estimation methods...

  15. Modeling low impact development potential with hydrological response units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric, Marija; Fan, Celia; Joksimovic, Darko; Li, James Y

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations of benefits of implementing low impact development (LID) stormwater management techniques can extend up to a watershed scale. This presents a challenge for representing them in watershed models, since they are typically orders of magnitude smaller in size. This paper presents an approach that is focused on trying to evaluate the benefits of implementing LIDs on a lot level. The methodology uses the concept of urban hydrological response Unit and results in developing and applying performance curves that are a function of lot properties to estimate the potential benefit of large-scale LID implementation. Lot properties are determined using a municipal geographic information system database and processed to determine groups of lots with similar properties. A representative lot from each group is modeled over a typical rainfall year using USEPA Stormwater Management Model to develop performance functions that relate the lot properties and the change in annual runoff volume and corresponding phosphorus loading with different LIDs implemented. The results of applying performance functions on all urban areas provide the potential locations, benefit and cost of implementation of all LID techniques, guiding future decisions for LID implementation by watershed area municipalities.

  16. CHARMM36 united atom chain model for lipids and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sarah; Tran, Alan; Allsopp, Matthew; Lim, Joseph B; Hénin, Jérôme; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2014-01-16

    Molecular simulations of lipids and surfactants require accurate parameters to reproduce and predict experimental properties. Previously, a united atom (UA) chain model was developed for the CHARMM27/27r lipids (Hénin, J., et al. J. Phys. Chem. B. 2008, 112, 7008-7015) but suffers from the flaw that bilayer simulations using the model require an imposed surface area ensemble, which limits its use to pure bilayer systems. A UA-chain model has been developed based on the CHARMM36 (C36) all-atom lipid parameters, termed C36-UA, and agreed well with bulk, lipid membrane, and micelle formation of a surfactant. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of alkanes (heptane and pentadecane) were used to test the validity of C36-UA on density, heat of vaporization, and liquid self-diffusion constants. Then, simulations using C36-UA resulted in accurate properties (surface area per lipid, X-ray and neutron form factors, and chain order parameters) of various saturated- and unsaturated-chain bilayers. When mixed with the all-atom cholesterol model and tested with a series of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)/cholesterol mixtures, the C36-UA model performed well. Simulations of self-assembly of a surfactant (dodecylphosphocholine, DPC) using C36-UA suggest an aggregation number of 53 ± 11 DPC molecules at 0.45 M of DPC, which agrees well with experimental estimates. Therefore, the C36-UA force field offers a useful alternative to the all-atom C36 lipid force field by requiring less computational cost while still maintaining the same level of accuracy, which may prove useful for large systems with proteins.

  17. Factors influencing QTL mapping accuracy under complicated genetic models by computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C F; Wang, W; Gong, S L; Zuo, J H; Li, S J

    2016-12-19

    The accuracy of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) identified using different sample sizes and marker densities was evaluated in different genetic models. Model I assumed one additive QTL; Model II assumed three additive QTLs plus one pair of epistatic QTLs; and Model III assumed two additive QTLs with opposite genetic effects plus two pairs of epistatic QTLs. Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (50-1500 samples) were simulated according to the Models to study the influence of different sample sizes under different genetic models on QTL mapping accuracy. RILs with 10-100 target chromosome markers were simulated according to Models I and II to evaluate the influence of marker density on QTL mapping accuracy. Different marker densities did not significantly influence accurate estimation of genetic effects with simple additive models, but influenced QTL mapping accuracy in the additive and epistatic models. The optimum marker density was approximately 20 markers when the recombination fraction between two adjacent markers was 0.056 in the additive and epistatic models. A sample size of 150 was sufficient for detecting simple additive QTLs. Thus, a sample size of approximately 450 is needed to detect QTLs with additive and epistatic models. Sample size must be approximately 750 to detect QTLs with additive, epistatic, and combined effects between QTLs. The sample size should be increased to >750 if the genetic models of the data set become more complicated than Model III. Our results provide a theoretical basis for marker-assisted selection breeding and molecular design breeding.

  18. A Note on Linearly Isometric Extension for 1-Lipschitz and Anti-1-Lipschitz Mappings between Unit Spheres of ALp(μ, H) Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zihou ZHANG; Chunyan LIU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we show that if V0 is a 1-Lipschitz mapping between unit spheres of Lp (μ,H) and Lp(v,H)(p > 2,H is a Hilbert space),and-Vo(S(Lp(μ,H))) (∪) Vo(S(Lp(μ,H))),then V0 can be extended to a linear isometry defined on the whole space.If 1 < p < 2 and V0 is an "anti-1-Lipschitz" mapping,then Vo can also be linearly and isometrically extended.

  19. SYNTHETIC SYNCHROTRON EMISSION MAPS FROM MHD MODELS FOR THE JET OF M87

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Agudo, I.; Tsinganos, K.; Bogovalov, S. V.

    2009-01-01

    We present self-consistent global steady state MHD models and synthetic optically thin synchrotron emission maps for the jet of M87. The model consists of two distinct zones: an inner relativistic outflow, which we identify with the observed jet, and an outer cold disk wind. While the former does no

  20. Techniques for Down-Sampling a Measured Surface Height Map for Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    This software allows one to down-sample a measured surface map for model validation, not only without introducing any re-sampling errors, but also eliminating the existing measurement noise and measurement errors. The software tool of the current two new techniques can be used in all optical model validation processes involving large space optical surfaces

  1. Mapping quantitative trait loci in a selectively genotyped outbred population using a mixture model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, David L.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Arendonk, Johan A.M. van

    1999-01-01

    A mixture model approach is employed for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the situation where individuals, in an outbred population, are selectively genotyped. Maximum likelihood estimation of model parameters is obtained from an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm facilitated by

  2. SYNTHETIC SYNCHROTRON EMISSION MAPS FROM MHD MODELS FOR THE JET OF M87

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Agudo, I.; Tsinganos, K.; Bogovalov, S. V.

    2009-01-01

    We present self-consistent global steady state MHD models and synthetic optically thin synchrotron emission maps for the jet of M87. The model consists of two distinct zones: an inner relativistic outflow, which we identify with the observed jet, and an outer cold disk wind. While the former does no

  3. Lakshmi Planum, Venus: Assessment of models using observations from geological mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, J. W.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: Lakshmi Planum is a highstanding plateau (3.5-4.5 km above MPR) surrounded by the highest mountain ranges on Venus [1-6]. Lakshmi represents a unique type of elevated region different from dome-shaped and rifted rises and tessera-bearing plateaus. The unique characteristics of Lakshmi suggest that it formed by an unusual combination of processes. Lakshmi was studied with Venera-15/16 [7-10, 5,11] and Magellan data [12-14], resulting in two classes of models, divergent and convergent, to explain its unusual characteristics. Divergent models explain Lakshmi as a site of mantle upwelling [10,15-18] due to rising and subsequent collapse of a mantle diapir; such models explain emplacement of a lava plateau inside Lakshmi and, in some circumstances, formation of the mountain ranges. The convergent models consider Lakshmi as a locus of mantle downwelling, convergence, underthrusting, and possible subduction [19,11,20-29]. Key features in these models are the mountain ranges, high topography of Lakshmi interior, and the large volcanic centers in the plateau center. These divergent and convergent models entail principally different mechanisms of formation and suggest different geodynamic regimes on Venus. Almost all models make either explicit or implicit predictions about the type and sequence of major events during formation and evolution of Lakshmi and thus detailed geological mapping can be used to test them. Here we present the results of such geological mapping (the V-7 quadrangle, 50- 75N, 300-360E; scale 1:5M) that allows testing the proposed models for Lakshmi. Material units: Eleven material units make up the V-7 quadrangle. (1) Tessera (t), exposed inside and outside Lakshmi appears to be the oldest material. (2) Densely lineated plains (pdl) postdate tessera and form one of the oldest units; patches occur outside Lakshmi Planum. (3) Ridged plains (pr) postdate pdl and occur outside Lakshmi. (4) Shield plains (psh) display abundant small shields

  4. Modeling Košice Green Roofs Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorova, Zuzana; Vranayova, Zuzana

    2017-06-01

    The need to house population in urban areas is expected to rise to 66% in 2050, according to United Nations. The replacement of natural permeable green areas with concrete constructions and hard surfaces will be noticed. The densification of existing built-up areas is responsible for the decreasing vegetation, which results in the lack of evapotranspiration cooling the air. Such decreasing vegetation causes urban heat islands. Since roofs and pavements have a very low albedo, they absorb a lot of sunlight. Several studies have shown that natural and permeable surfaces, as in the case of green roofs, can play crucial role in mitigating this negative climate phenomenon and providing higher efficiency for the building, leading to savings. Such as water saving, what is the main idea of this research.

  5. Translation of overlay models of student knowledge for relative domains based on domain ontology mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovsky, Sergey; Dolog, Peter; Henze, Nicola;

    2007-01-01

    argue that the implementation of underlying knowledge models in a sharable format, as domain ontologies - along with application of automatic ontology mapping techniques for model alignment - can help to overcome the "new-user" problem and will greatly widen opportunities for student model translation....... Moreover, it then becomes possible for systems from relevant domains to rely on knowledge transfer and reuse those portions of the student models that are related to overlapping concepts....

  6. Area-preserving maps models of gyroaveraged E×B chaotic transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, J. D. da, E-mail: jfonseca@if.usp.br; Caldas, I. L., E-mail: ibere@if.usp.br [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 5315-970 (Brazil); Castillo-Negrete, D. del, E-mail: delcastillod@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Discrete maps have been extensively used to model 2-dimensional chaotic transport in plasmas and fluids. Here we focus on area-preserving maps describing finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on E × B chaotic transport in magnetized plasmas with zonal flows perturbed by electrostatic drift waves. FLR effects are included by gyro-averaging the Hamiltonians of the maps which, depending on the zonal flow profile, can have monotonic or non-monotonic frequencies. In the limit of zero Larmor radius, the monotonic frequency map reduces to the standard Chirikov-Taylor map, and in the case of non-monotonic frequency, the map reduces to the standard nontwist map. We show that in both cases FLR leads to chaos suppression, changes in the stability of fixed points, and robustness of transport barriers. FLR effects are also responsible for changes in the phase space topology and zonal flow bifurcations. Dynamical systems methods based on the counting of recurrences times are used to quantify the dependence on the Larmor radius of the threshold for the destruction of transport barriers.

  7. Self-Organizing Maps for Fast LES Combustion Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tremendous advances have been made in the development of large and accurate detailed reaction chemistry models for hydrocarbon fuels. Comparable progress has also...

  8. Climate downscaling effects on predictive ecological models: a case study for threatened and endangered vertebrates in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, David N.; Watling, James I.; Speroterra, Carolina; Brandt, Laura A.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Romañach, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution (downscaled) projections of future climate conditions are critical inputs to a wide variety of ecological and socioeconomic models and are created using numerous different approaches. Here, we conduct a sensitivity analysis of spatial predictions from climate envelope models for threatened and endangered vertebrates in the southeastern United States to determine whether two different downscaling approaches (with and without the use of a regional climate model) affect climate envelope model predictions when all other sources of variation are held constant. We found that prediction maps differed spatially between downscaling approaches and that the variation attributable to downscaling technique was comparable to variation between maps generated using different general circulation models (GCMs). Precipitation variables tended to show greater discrepancies between downscaling techniques than temperature variables, and for one GCM, there was evidence that more poorly resolved precipitation variables contributed relatively more to model uncertainty than more well-resolved variables. Our work suggests that ecological modelers requiring high-resolution climate projections should carefully consider the type of downscaling applied to the climate projections prior to their use in predictive ecological modeling. The uncertainty associated with alternative downscaling methods may rival that of other, more widely appreciated sources of variation, such as the general circulation model or emissions scenario with which future climate projections are created.

  9. Index-based groundwater vulnerability mapping models using hydrogeological settings: A critical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Prashant, E-mail: prashantkumar@csio.res.in [CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research—CSIO, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Bansod, Baban K.S.; Debnath, Sanjit K. [CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research—CSIO, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Thakur, Praveen Kumar [Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (ISRO), Dehradun 248001 (India); Ghanshyam, C. [CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research—CSIO, Chandigarh 160030 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Groundwater vulnerability maps are useful for decision making in land use planning and water resource management. This paper reviews the various groundwater vulnerability assessment models developed across the world. Each model has been evaluated in terms of its pros and cons and the environmental conditions of its application. The paper further discusses the validation techniques used for the generated vulnerability maps by various models. Implicit challenges associated with the development of the groundwater vulnerability assessment models have also been identified with scientific considerations to the parameter relations and their selections. - Highlights: • Various index-based groundwater vulnerability assessment models have been discussed. • A comparative analysis of the models and its applicability in different hydrogeological settings has been discussed. • Research problems of underlying vulnerability assessment models are also reported in this review paper.

  10. MapMaker and PathTracer for tracking carbon in genome-scale metabolic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervo, Christopher J; Reed, Jennifer L

    2016-05-01

    Constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) modeling results can be difficult to interpret given the large numbers of reactions in genome-scale models. While paths in metabolic networks can be found, existing methods are not easily combined with constraint-based approaches. To address this limitation, two tools (MapMaker and PathTracer) were developed to find paths (including cycles) between metabolites, where each step transfers carbon from reactant to product. MapMaker predicts carbon transfer maps (CTMs) between metabolites using only information on molecular formulae and reaction stoichiometry, effectively determining which reactants and products share carbon atoms. MapMaker correctly assigned CTMs for over 97% of the 2,251 reactions in an Escherichia coli metabolic model (iJO1366). Using CTMs as inputs, PathTracer finds paths between two metabolites. PathTracer was applied to iJO1366 to investigate the importance of using CTMs and COBRA constraints when enumerating paths, to find active and high flux paths in flux balance analysis (FBA) solutions, to identify paths for putrescine utilization, and to elucidate a potential CO2 fixation pathway in E. coli. These results illustrate how MapMaker and PathTracer can be used in combination with constraint-based models to identify feasible, active, and high flux paths between metabolites.

  11. Object-Oriented Approach to Modeling Units of Pneumatic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Kyurdzhiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the relevance of the approaches to the object-oriented programming when modeling the pneumatic units (PU.Based on the analysis of the calculation schemes of aggregates pneumatic systems two basic objects, namely a cavity flow and a material point were highlighted.Basic interactions of objects are defined. Cavity-cavity interaction: ex-change of matter and energy with the flows of mass. Cavity-point interaction: force interaction, exchange of energy in the form of operation. Point-point in-teraction: force interaction, elastic interaction, inelastic interaction, and inter-vals of displacement.The authors have developed mathematical models of basic objects and interactions. Models and interaction of elements are implemented in the object-oriented programming.Mathematical models of elements of PU design scheme are implemented in derived from the base class. These classes implement the models of flow cavity, piston, diaphragm, short channel, diaphragm to be open by a given law, spring, bellows, elastic collision, inelastic collision, friction, PU stages with a limited movement, etc.A numerical integration of differential equations for the mathematical models of PU design scheme elements is based on the Runge-Kutta method of the fourth order. On request each class performs a tact of integration i.e. calcu-lation of the coefficient method.The paper presents an integration algorithm of the system of differential equations. All objects of the PU design scheme are placed in a unidirectional class list. Iterator loop cycle initiates the integration tact of all the objects in the list. One in four iteration makes a transition to the next step of integration. Calculation process stops when any object shows a shutdowns flag.The proposed approach was tested in the calculation of a number of PU designs. With regard to traditional approaches to modeling, the authors-proposed method features in easy enhancement, code reuse, high reliability

  12. Gamma Synchronization Influences Map Formation Time in a Topological Model of Spatial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Edward; Arai, Mamiko; Dabaghian, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian hippocampus plays a crucial role in producing a cognitive map of space—an internalized representation of the animal’s environment. We have previously shown that it is possible to model this map formation using a topological framework, in which information about the environment is transmitted through the temporal organization of neuronal spiking activity, particularly those occasions in which the firing of different place cells overlaps. In this paper, we discuss how gamma rhythm, one of the main components of the extracellular electrical field potential affects the efficiency of place cell map formation. Using methods of algebraic topology and the maximal entropy principle, we demonstrate that gamma modulation synchronizes the spiking of dynamical cell assemblies, which enables learning a spatial map at faster timescales. PMID:27636199

  13. Optimal oppor tunistic maintenance model of multi-unit systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun Cheng; Zheng Yang; Bo Guo

    2013-01-01

    An opportunistic maintenance model is presented for a continuously deteriorating series system with economical de-pendence. The system consists of two kinds of units, which are respectively subjected to the deterioration failure described by Gamma process and the random failure described by Poisson process. A two-level opportunistic policy defined by three decision parameters is proposed to coordinate the different maintenance actions and minimize the long-run maintenance cost rate of the system. A computable expression of the average cost rate is es-tablished by using the renewal property of the stochastic process of the maintained system state. The optimal values of three deci-sion parameters are derived by an iteration approach based on the characteristic of Gamma process. The behavior of the proposed policy is il ustrated through a numerical experiment. Comparative study with the widely used corrective maintenance policy demon-strates the advantage of the proposed opportunistic maintenance method in significantly reducing the maintenance cost. Simultane-ously, the applicable area of this opportunistic model is discussed by the sensitivity analysis of the set-up cost and random failure rate.

  14. A ranking efficiency unit by restrictions using DEA models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsad, Roslah; Abdullah, Mohammad Nasir; Alias, Suriana

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a comparison regarding the efficiency shares of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia was made, through the application of estimation method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). In this study, DEA is used to measure efficiency shares of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia in terms of the financial performance. It is believed that only good financial performer will give a good return to the investors in the long run. The main objectives were to compute the relative efficiency scores of the shares in Bursa Malaysia and rank the shares based on Balance Index with regard to relative efficiency. The methods of analysis using Alirezaee and Afsharian's model were employed to this study; where the originality of Charnes, Cooper and Rhode model (CCR) with assumption of constant return to scale (CRS) still holds. This method of ranking relative efficiency of decision making units (DMUs) was value-added by using Balance Index. From the result, the companies that were recommended for investors based on ranking were NATWIDE, YTL and MUDA. These companies were the top three efficient companies with good performance in 2011 whereas in 2012 the top three companies were NATWIDE, MUDA and BERNAS.

  15. Exploring links between juvenile offenders and social disorganization at a large map scale: a Bayesian spatial modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jane; Quick, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper adopts a Bayesian spatial modeling approach to investigate the distribution of young offender residences in York Region, Southern Ontario, Canada, at the census dissemination area level. Few geographic researches have analyzed offender (as opposed to offense) data at a large map scale (i.e., using a relatively small areal unit of analysis) to minimize aggregation effects. Providing context is the social disorganization theory, which hypothesizes that areas with economic deprivation, high population turnover, and high ethnic heterogeneity exhibit social disorganization and are expected to facilitate higher instances of young offenders. Non-spatial and spatial Poisson models indicate that spatial methods are superior to non-spatial models with respect to model fit and that index of ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility (1 year moving rate), and percentage of residents receiving government transfer payments are, respectively, the most significant explanatory variables related to young offender location. These findings provide overwhelming support for social disorganization theory as it applies to offender location in York Region, Ontario. Targeting areas where prevalence of young offenders could or could not be explained by social disorganization through decomposing the estimated risk map are helpful for dealing with juvenile offenders in the region. Results prompt discussion into geographically targeted police services and young offender placement pertaining to risk of recidivism. We discuss possible reasons for differences and similarities between the previous findings (that analyzed offense data and/or were conducted at a smaller map scale) and our findings, limitations of our study, and practical outcomes of this research from a law enforcement perspective.

  16. Two-Source Energy Balance Model Evaluation for Mapping Evapotranspiration on the Semi- arid Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, P. H.; Chavez, J. L.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Evett, S. R.; Howell, T. A.; Copeland, K.

    2007-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water balance and a major consumptive use of irrigation water and precipitation on cropland. In this study, we applied the Two-Source Energy Balance (T-SEB) model to estimate hourly ET from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data for the semi-arid Southern High Plains of the United States where more than 90 percent of the groundwater withdrawals are used for irrigation. For this purpose, a Landsat TM image covering a major portion of the Southern High Plains (parts of Texas Panhandle and northeastern New Mexico) was acquired for 23 July 2006 for the overpass at 11:26 AM CST. Atmospheric correction on the TM imagery was done using MODTRAN, an atmospheric radiative transfer model. Comprehensive ground-truth data were collected to develop a detailed land use map showing major crops grown in the region. Performance of the T SEB model was evaluated by comparing mapped ET data with measured hourly ET data on five weighing lysimeters at Bushland, TX [35 Deg. 11' N, 102 Deg. 06' W; 1,170 m elevation MSL] managed by the Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS. Lysimeter-measured ET rates varied from 0.24 to 0.71 mm/h. Comparison of estimated hourly mapped ET values with lysimetric measurements had an accuracy within 6% of the measured ET (r2=0.99), with a root mean squared error of 0.03 mm/h. These results support the use of the T-SEB model for the semi-arid Southern High Plains; however, more evaluation is needed for different agroclimatological conditions in the region.

  17. Soil Organic Matter Mapping by Decision Tree Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bin; ZHANG Xing-Gang; WANG Fan; WANG Ren-Chao

    2005-01-01

    Based on a case study of Longyou County, Zhejiang Province, the decision tree, a data mining method, was used to analyze the relationships between soil organic matter (SOM) and other environmental and satellite sensing spatial data.The decision tree associated SOM content with some extensive easily observable landscape attributes, such as landform,geology, land use, and remote sensing images, thus transforming the SOM-related information into a clear, quantitative,landscape factor-associated regular system. This system could be used to predict continuous SOM spatial distribution.By analyzing factors such as elevation, geological unit, soil type, land use, remotely sensed data, upslope contributing area, slope, aspect, planform curvature, and profile curvature, the decision tree could predict distribution of soil organic matter levels. Among these factors, elevation, land use, aspect, soil type, the first principle component of bitemporal Landsat TM, and upslope contributing area were considered the most important variables for predicting SOM. Results of the prediction between SOM content and landscape types sorted by the decision tree showed a close relationship with an accuracy of 81.1%.

  18. OBLIMAP 2.0 : A fast climate model-ice sheet model coupler including online embeddable mapping routines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reerink, Thomas J.; Jan Van De Berg, Willem; Van De Wal, Roderik S W

    2016-01-01

    This paper accompanies the second OBLIMAP open-source release. The package is developed to map climate fields between a general circulation model (GCM) and an ice sheet model (ISM) in both directions by using optimal aligned oblique projections, which minimize distortions. The curvature of the surfa

  19. Mapping the Business Model Canvas to ArchiMate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, Lucas Onno; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; Jonkers, H.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Quartel, D.; Quartel, Dick; Ossowski, S.; Lecca, P.

    2012-01-01

    Many IT projects fail to succeed in the market, as they start purely from technology. Much effort is therefore wasted, while the potential benefits are not realized. We argue that the design process should start with creating a business model, which is then translated to an architecture to ensure fi

  20. Mapping the Business Model Canvas to ArchiMate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, Lucas Onno; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; Jonkers, H.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Quartel, D.; Quartel, Dick; Ossowski, S.; Lecca, P.

    Many IT projects fail to succeed in the market, as they start purely from technology. Much effort is therefore wasted, while the potential benefits are not realized. We argue that the design process should start with creating a business model, which is then translated to an architecture to ensure

  1. BTA Magnet Field Map Archive and MAD Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn,J.W.

    2008-04-01

    This note publishes some and information that has resided in private files. The attached tables were provided by Joseph Skelly from his archives. They show magnetic field measurements versus excitation current for the Booster to AGS transfer line quadrupoles and dipoles based on field measurements [we believe] were done by the Magnet Division. Also given are Ed Blesser's fifth order fits of field versus current. The results are given in 'Tesla' or T-M/M. These tables are attached to provide an archive of this data. The MAD model of the BTA line does have the same values as shown in the attached fits so the transfer was correct. MAD uses as its 'gradient' for quads Tesla per meter normalized to rigidity [B-rho]. The model of the BTA line in use uses the T-M/M given in the tables divided by the length to give T M which is then normalized by Brho. Thus, the input to the model appears to be correct. The original model is also attached as part of a memo by Skelly describing it.

  2. Visualization of Nonlinear Classification Models in Neuroimaging - Signed Sensitivity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Schmah, Tanya; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2012-01-01

    Classification models are becoming increasing popular tools in the analysis of neuroimaging data sets. Besides obtaining good prediction accuracy, a competing goal is to interpret how the classifier works. From a neuroscientific perspective, we are interested in the brain pattern reflecting...

  3. Mapping the Territory: A Conceptual Model of Scholastic Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Mary

    1991-01-01

    Describes scholastic journalism as the teaching of secondary school students to gather, process, and present information to an audience. Offers a model focusing upon scholastic journalism's conceptual areas of law and ethics, history and cultural diversity, technology and financial support, media and content, pedagogy, and working context as a…

  4. Mapping the Business Model Canvas to ArchiMate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, L.O.; Iacob, M.E.; Jonkers, H.; Quartel, D.; Nieuwenhuis, L.J.M.; Sinderen, van M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Many IT projects fail to succeed in the market, as they start purely from technology. Much effort is therefore wasted, while the potential benefits are not realized. We argue that the design process should start with creating a business model, which is then translated to an architecture to ensure fi

  5. Handling geophysical flows: Numerical modelling using Graphical Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Navarro, Pilar; Lacasta, Asier; Juez, Carmelo; Morales-Hernandez, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Computational tools may help engineers in the assessment of sediment transport during the decision-making processes. The main requirements are that the numerical results have to be accurate and simulation models must be fast. The present work is based on the 2D shallow water equations in combination with the 2D Exner equation [1]. The resulting numerical model accuracy was already discussed in previous work. Regarding the speed of the computation, the Exner equation slows down the already costly 2D shallow water model as the number of variables to solve is increased and the numerical stability is more restrictive. On the other hand, the movement of poorly sorted material over steep areas constitutes a hazardous environmental problem. Computational tools help in the predictions of such landslides [2]. In order to overcome this problem, this work proposes the use of Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) for decreasing significantly the simulation time [3, 4]. The numerical scheme implemented in GPU is based on a finite volume scheme. The mathematical model and the numerical implementation are compared against experimental and field data. In addition, the computational times obtained with the Graphical Hardware technology are compared against Single-Core (sequential) and Multi-Core (parallel) CPU implementations. References [Juez et al.(2014)] Juez, C., Murillo, J., & Garca-Navarro, P. (2014) A 2D weakly-coupled and efficient numerical model for transient shallow flow and movable bed. Advances in Water Resources. 71 93-109. [Juez et al.(2013)] Juez, C., Murillo, J., & Garca-Navarro, P. (2013) . 2D simulation of granular flow over irregular steep slopes using global and local coordinates. Journal of Computational Physics. 225 166-204. [Lacasta et al.(2014)] Lacasta, A., Morales-Hernndez, M., Murillo, J., & Garca-Navarro, P. (2014) An optimized GPU implementation of a 2D free surface simulation model on unstructured meshes Advances in Engineering Software. 78 1-15. [Lacasta

  6. Application of geologic map information to water quality issues in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Maryland and Virginia, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, L.; Peper, J.D.; Bachman, L.J.; Horton, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Geologic map units contain much information about the mineralogy, chemistry, and physical attributes of the rocks mapped. This paper presents information from regional-scale geologic maps in Maryland and Virginia, which are in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed in the eastern United States. The geologic map information is discussed and analyzed in relation to water chemistry data from shallow wells and stream reaches in the area. Two environmental problems in the Chesapeake Bay watershed are used as test examples. The problems, high acidity and high nitrate concentrations in streams and rivers, tend to be mitigated by some rock and sediment types and not by others. Carbonate rocks (limestone, dolomite, and carbonate-cemented rocks) have the greatest capacity to neutralize acidic ground water and surface water in contact with them. Rocks and sediments having high carbon or sulfur contents (such as peat and black shale) potentially contribute the most toward denitrification of ground water and surface water in contact with them. Rocks and sediments that are composed mostly of quartz, feldspar, and light-colored clay (rocks such as granite and sandstone, sediments such as sand and gravel) tend not to alter the chemistry of waters that are in contact with them. The testing of relationships between regionally mapped geologic units and water chemistry is in a preliminary stage, and initial results are encouraging.Geologic map units contain much information about the mineralogy, chemistry, and physical attributes of the rocks mapped. This paper presents information from regional-scale geologic maps in Maryland and Virginia, which are in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed in the eastern United States. The geologic map information is discussed and analyzed in relation to water chemistry data from shallow wells and stream reaches in the area. Two environmental problems in the Chesapeake Bay watershed are used as test examples. The problems, high

  7. Models of asthma: density-equalizing mapping and output benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Tanja C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the large amount of experimental studies already conducted on bronchial asthma, further insights into the molecular basics of the disease are required to establish new therapeutic approaches. As a basis for this research different animal models of asthma have been developed in the past years. However, precise bibliometric data on the use of different models do not exist so far. Therefore the present study was conducted to establish a data base of the existing experimental approaches. Density-equalizing algorithms were used and data was retrieved from a Thomson Institute for Scientific Information database. During the period from 1900 to 2006 a number of 3489 filed items were connected to animal models of asthma, the first being published in the year 1968. The studies were published by 52 countries with the US, Japan and the UK being the most productive suppliers, participating in 55.8% of all published items. Analyzing the average citation per item as an indicator for research quality Switzerland ranked first (30.54/item and New Zealand ranked second for countries with more than 10 published studies. The 10 most productive journals included 4 with a main focus allergy and immunology and 4 with a main focus on the respiratory system. Two journals focussed on pharmacology or pharmacy. In all assigned subject categories examined for a relation to animal models of asthma, immunology ranked first. Assessing numbers of published items in relation to animal species it was found that mice were the preferred species followed by guinea pigs. In summary it can be concluded from density-equalizing calculations that the use of animal models of asthma is restricted to a relatively small number of countries. There are also differences in the use of species. These differences are based on variations in the research focus as assessed by subject category analysis.

  8. A Method for Creating a Three Dimensional Model from Published Geologic Maps and Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    This brief report presents a relatively inexpensive and rapid method for creating a 3D model of geology from published quadrangle-scale maps and cross sections using Google Earth and Google SketchUp software. An example from the Green Mountains of Vermont, USA, is used to illustrate the step by step methods used to create such a model. A second example is provided from the Jebel Saghro region of the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco. The report was published to help enhance the public?s ability to use and visualize geologic map data.

  9. Evaluation of statistical and geostatistical models of digital soil properties mapping in tropical mountain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir de Carvalho Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties have an enormous impact on economic and environmental aspects of agricultural production. Quantitative relationships between soil properties and the factors that influence their variability are the basis of digital soil mapping. The predictive models of soil properties evaluated in this work are statistical (multiple linear regression-MLR and geostatistical (ordinary kriging and co-kriging. The study was conducted in the municipality of Bom Jardim, RJ, using a soil database with 208 sampling points. Predictive models were evaluated for sand, silt and clay fractions, pH in water and organic carbon at six depths according to the specifications of the consortium of digital soil mapping at the global level (GlobalSoilMap. Continuous covariates and categorical predictors were used and their contributions to the model assessed. Only the environmental covariates elevation, aspect, stream power index (SPI, soil wetness index (SWI, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, and b3/b2 band ratio were significantly correlated with soil properties. The predictive models had a mean coefficient of determination of 0.21. Best results were obtained with the geostatistical predictive models, where the highest coefficient of determination 0.43 was associated with sand properties between 60 to 100 cm deep. The use of a sparse data set of soil properties for digital mapping can explain only part of the spatial variation of these properties. The results may be related to the sampling density and the quantity and quality of the environmental covariates and predictive models used.

  10. Accurate model annotation of a near-atomic resolution cryo-EM map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryc, Corey F; Chen, Dong-Hua; Afonine, Pavel V; Jakana, Joanita; Wang, Zhao; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Jiang, Wen; Adams, Paul D; King, Jonathan A; Schmid, Michael F; Chiu, Wah

    2017-03-21

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has been used to determine the atomic coordinates (models) from density maps of biological assemblies. These models can be assessed by their overall fit to the experimental data and stereochemical information. However, these models do not annotate the actual density values of the atoms nor their positional uncertainty. Here, we introduce a computational procedure to derive an atomic model from a cryo-EM map with annotated metadata. The accuracy of such a model is validated by a faithful replication of the experimental cryo-EM map computed using the coordinates and associated metadata. The functional interpretation of any structural features in the model and its utilization for future studies can be made in the context of its measure of uncertainty. We applied this protocol to the 3.3-Å map of the mature P22 bacteriophage capsid, a large and complex macromolecular assembly. With this protocol, we identify and annotate previously undescribed molecular interactions between capsid subunits that are crucial to maintain stability in the absence of cementing proteins or cross-linking, as occur in other bacteriophages.

  11. Collection Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Explains collection mapping for library media collections. Discusses purposes for creating collection maps, including helping with selection and weeding decisions, showing how the collection supports the curriculum, and making budget decisions; and methods of data collection, including evaluating a collaboratively taught unit with the classroom…

  12. Plant functional type mapping for earth system models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Poulter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of global carbon and water cycling to climate variability is coupled directly to land cover and the distribution of vegetation. To investigate biogeochemistry-climate interactions, earth system models require a representation of vegetation distributions that are either prescribed from remote sensing data or simulated via biogeography models. However, the abstraction of earth system state variables in models means that data products derived from remote sensing need to be post-processed for model-data assimilation. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM rely on the concept of plant functional types (PFT to group shared traits of thousands of plant species into usually only 10–20 classes. Available databases of observed PFT distributions must be relevant to existing satellite sensors and their derived products, and to the present day distribution of managed lands. Here, we develop four PFT datasets based on land-cover information from three satellite sensors (EOS-MODIS 1 km and 0.5 km, SPOT4-VEGETATION 1 km, and ENVISAT-MERIS 0.3 km spatial resolution that are merged with spatially-consistent Köppen-Geiger climate zones. Using a beta (ß diversity metric to assess reclassification similarity, we find that the greatest uncertainty in PFT classifications occur most frequently between cropland and grassland categories, and in dryland systems between shrubland, grassland and forest categories because of differences in the minimum threshold required for forest cover. The biogeography-biogeochemistry DGVM, LPJmL, is used in diagnostic mode with the four PFT datasets prescribed to quantify the effect of land-cover uncertainty on climatic sensitivity of gross primary productivity (GPP and transpiration fluxes. Our results show that land-cover uncertainty has large effects in arid regions, contributing up to 30% (20% uncertainty in the sensitivity of GPP (transpiration to precipitation. The availability of PFT datasets that are consistent

  13. Plant functional type mapping for earth system models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Poulter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of global carbon and water cycling to climate variability is coupled directly to land cover and the distribution of vegetation. To investigate biogeochemistry-climate interactions, earth system models require a representation of vegetation distributions that are either prescribed from remote sensing data or simulated via biogeography models. However, the abstraction of earth system state variables in models means that data products derived from remote sensing need to be post-processed for model-data assimilation. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM rely on the concept of plant functional types (PFT to group shared traits of thousands of plant species into just several classes. Available databases of observed PFT distributions must be relevant to existing satellite sensors and their derived products, and to the present day distribution of managed lands. Here, we develop four PFT datasets based on land-cover information from three satellite sensors (EOS-MODIS 1 km and 0.5 km, SPOT4-VEGETATION 1 km, and ENVISAT-MERIS 0.3 km spatial resolution that are merged with spatially-consistent Köppen-Geiger climate zones. Using a beta (β diversity metric to assess reclassification similarity, we find that the greatest uncertainty in PFT classifications occur most frequently between cropland and grassland categories, and in dryland systems between shrubland, grassland and forest categories because of differences in the minimum threshold required for forest cover. The biogeography-biogeochemistry DGVM, LPJmL, is used in diagnostic mode with the four PFT datasets prescribed to quantify the effect of land-cover uncertainty on climatic sensitivity of gross primary productivity (GPP and transpiration fluxes. Our results show that land-cover uncertainty has large effects in arid regions, contributing up to 30 % (20 % uncertainty in the sensitivity of GPP (transpiration to precipitation. The availability of plant functional type datasets that

  14. Functional connectivity mapping using the ferromagnetic Potts spin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanberry, Larissa; Murua, Alejandro; Cordes, Dietmar

    2008-04-01

    An unsupervised stochastic clustering method based on the ferromagnetic Potts spin model is introduced as a powerful tool to determine functionally connected regions. The method provides an intuitively simple approach to clustering and makes no assumptions of the number of clusters in the data or their underlying distribution. The performance of the method and its dependence on the intrinsic parameters (size of the neighborhood, form of the interaction term, etc.) is investigated on the simulated data and real fMRI data acquired during a conventional periodic finger tapping task. The merits of incorporating Euclidean information into the connectivity analysis are discussed. The ability of the Potts model clustering to uncover the hidden structure in the complex data is demonstrated through its application to the resting-state data to determine functional connectivity networks of the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices for the group of nine healthy male subjects. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Feature Specific Criminal Mapping using Data Mining Techniques and Generalized Gaussian Mixture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Mande

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lot of research is projected to map the criminal with that of crime and it is observed that there is still a huge increase in the crime rate due to the gap between the optimal usage of technologies and investigation. This has given scope for the development of new methodologies in the area of crime investigation using the techniques based on data mining, image processing, forensic, and social mining. In this paper, presents a model using new methodology for mapping the criminal with the crime. This model clusters the criminal data basing on the type crime. When a crime occurs, based on the eye witness specified features, the criminal is mapped. Here we propose a novel methodology that uses Generalized Gaussian Mixture Model to map the features specified by the eyewitness with that of the features of the criminal who have committed the same type of the crime, if the criminal is not mapped, the suspect table is checked and the reports are generated

  16. Collaborative Art Practices in HE: Mapping and Developing Pedagogical Models

    OpenAIRE

    Wilsmore, R; Alix, C; Dobson, E.; University of Huddersfield; University of Hull; University of York St John; The Higher Education Academy; Palatine

    2010-01-01

    This project asks ‘How is interdisciplinary collaboration "taught" in HE institutions?’ and ‘What pedagogical models can be identified and developed?’\\ud Performing and Creative Arts departments in HE institutions engage students in collaborative practice within a singular discipline or across disciplines, through interdisciplinary or hybridised art forms, as curricula or extra-curricula activity. Where students are engaged with interdisciplinary collaboration within the curriculum, tuition m...

  17. Geospatial compilation and digital map of centerpivot irrigated areas in the mid-Atlantic region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Jason S.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate water availability within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Delaware Agricultural Extension, created a dataset that maps the number of acres under center-pivot irrigation in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain study area. For this study, the extent of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain falls within areas of the States of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The irrigation dataset maps about 271,900 acres operated primarily under center-pivot irrigation in 57 counties. Manual digitizing was performed against aerial imagery in a process where operators used observable center-pivot irrigation signatures—such as irrigation arms, concentric wheel paths through cropped areas, and differential colors—to identify and map irrigated areas. The aerial imagery used for digitizing came from a variety of sources and seasons. The imagery contained a variety of spatial resolutions and included online imagery from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Imagery Program, Microsoft Bing Maps, and the Google Maps mapping service. The dates of the source images ranged from 2010 to 2012 for the U.S. Department of Agriculture imagery, whereas maps from the other mapping services were from 2013.

  18. Viscoelastic Finite Difference Modeling Using Graphics Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabien-Ouellet, G.; Gloaguen, E.; Giroux, B.

    2014-12-01

    Full waveform seismic modeling requires a huge amount of computing power that still challenges today's technology. This limits the applicability of powerful processing approaches in seismic exploration like full-waveform inversion. This paper explores the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPU) to compute a time based finite-difference solution to the viscoelastic wave equation. The aim is to investigate whether the adoption of the GPU technology is susceptible to reduce significantly the computing time of simulations. The code presented herein is based on the freely accessible software of Bohlen (2002) in 2D provided under a General Public License (GNU) licence. This implementation is based on a second order centred differences scheme to approximate time differences and staggered grid schemes with centred difference of order 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 for spatial derivatives. The code is fully parallel and is written using the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and it thus supports simulations of vast seismic models on a cluster of CPUs. To port the code from Bohlen (2002) on GPUs, the OpenCl framework was chosen for its ability to work on both CPUs and GPUs and its adoption by most of GPU manufacturers. In our implementation, OpenCL works in conjunction with MPI, which allows computations on a cluster of GPU for large-scale model simulations. We tested our code for model sizes between 1002 and 60002 elements. Comparison shows a decrease in computation time of more than two orders of magnitude between the GPU implementation run on a AMD Radeon HD 7950 and the CPU implementation run on a 2.26 GHz Intel Xeon Quad-Core. The speed-up varies depending on the order of the finite difference approximation and generally increases for higher orders. Increasing speed-ups are also obtained for increasing model size, which can be explained by kernel overheads and delays introduced by memory transfers to and from the GPU through the PCI-E bus. Those tests indicate that the GPU memory size

  19. Predictive Modeling and Mapping of Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) Distribution Using Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Nazeri; Kamaruzaman Jusoff; Nima Madani; Ahmad Rodzi Mahmud; Abdul Rani Bahman; Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    One of the available tools for mapping the geographical distribution and potential suitable habitats is species distribution models. These techniques are very helpful for finding poorly known distributions of species in poorly sampled areas, such as the tropics. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is a recently developed modeling method that can be successfully calibrated using a relatively small number of records. In this research, the MaxEnt model was applied to describe the distribution and identify ...

  20. Nonlinear Maps for Design of Discrete-Time Models of Neuronal Network Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    responsive tiring patterns . We propose to use modern DSP ideas to develop new efficient approaches to the design of such discrete-time models for...2016 Performance/Technic~ 03-01-2016- 03-31-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Nonlinear Maps for Design of Discrete-Time Models of...simulations is to design a neuronal model in the form of difference equations that generates neuronal states in discrete moments of time. In this