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Sample records for model undergoing pitch

  1. Aerodynamics power consumption for mechanical flapping wings undergoing flapping and pitching motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, N. A.; Dimitriadis, G.; Razaami, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    Lately, due to the growing interest in Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV), interest in flapping flight has been rekindled. The reason lies in the improved performance of flapping wing flight at low Reynolds number regime. Many studies involving flapping wing flight focused on the generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces such as lift and thrust. There is one aspect of flapping wing flight that received less attention. The aspect is aerodynamic power consumption. Since most mechanical flapping wing aircraft ever designed are battery powered, power consumption is fundamental in improving flight endurance. This paper reports the results of experiments carried out on mechanical wings under going active root flapping and pitching in the wind tunnel. The objective of the work is to investigate the effect of the pitch angle oscillations and wing profile on the power consumption of flapping wings via generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces. The experiments were repeated for different airspeeds, flapping and pitching kinematics, geometric angle of attack and wing sections with symmetric and cambered airfoils. A specially designed mechanical flapper modelled on large migrating birds was used. It will be shown that, under pitch leading conditions, less power is required to overcome the unsteady aerodnamics forces. The study finds less power requirement for downstroke compared to upstroke motion. Overall results demonstrate power consumption depends directly on the unsteady lift force.

  2. Stochastic wind turbine modeling for individual pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    and a simplified description of the aerodynamics with sufficient detail to design model-based individual pitch controllers. Combined with a simplified model of the wind turbine, we exemplify how to use the model elements to systematically design an individual pitch controller. The design is investigated...

  3. Aerodynamic response of an airfoil section undergoing pitch motion and trailing edge flap deflection: a comparison of simulation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo; Riziotis, Vasilis A.; Gaunaa, Mac

    2015-01-01

    The study presents and compares aerodynamic simulations for an airfoil section with an adaptive trailing edge flap, which deflects following a smooth deformation shape. The simulations are carried out with three substantially different methods: a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes solver, a viscous...... to separated conditions and accounting for the effects of flap deflection; the steady results from the Navier–Stokes solver and the viscous–inviscid interaction method are used as input data for the simpler dynamic stall model. The paper characterizes then the dynamics of the unsteady forces and moments...... generated by the airfoil undergoing harmonic pitching motions and harmonic flap deflections. The unsteady aerodynamic coefficients exhibit significant variations over the corresponding steady-state values. The dynamic characteristics of the unsteady response are predicted with an excellent agreement among...

  4. A New Approach to Model Pitch Perception Using Sparse Coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Barzelay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our acoustical environment abounds with repetitive sounds, some of which are related to pitch perception. It is still unknown how the auditory system, in processing these sounds, relates a physical stimulus and its percept. Since, in mammals, all auditory stimuli are conveyed into the nervous system through the auditory nerve (AN fibers, a model should explain the perception of pitch as a function of this particular input. However, pitch perception is invariant to certain features of the physical stimulus. For example, a missing fundamental stimulus with resolved or unresolved harmonics, or a low and high-level amplitude stimulus with the same spectral content-these all give rise to the same percept of pitch. In contrast, the AN representations for these different stimuli are not invariant to these effects. In fact, due to saturation and non-linearity of both cochlear and inner hair cells responses, these differences are enhanced by the AN fibers. Thus there is a difficulty in explaining how pitch percept arises from the activity of the AN fibers. We introduce a novel approach for extracting pitch cues from the AN population activity for a given arbitrary stimulus. The method is based on a technique known as sparse coding (SC. It is the representation of pitch cues by a few spatiotemporal atoms (templates from among a large set of possible ones (a dictionary. The amount of activity of each atom is represented by a non-zero coefficient, analogous to an active neuron. Such a technique has been successfully applied to other modalities, particularly vision. The model is composed of a cochlear model, an SC processing unit, and a harmonic sieve. We show that the model copes with different pitch phenomena: extracting resolved and non-resolved harmonics, missing fundamental pitches, stimuli with both high and low amplitudes, iterated rippled noises, and recorded musical instruments.

  5. Modeling unsteady forces and pressures on a rapidly pitching airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Nicole K.; Dawson, Scott T. M.; Rowley, Clarence W.; Williams, David R.

    2014-11-01

    This work develops models to quantify and understand the unsteady aerodynamic forces arising from rapid pitching motion of a NACA0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 50 000. The system identification procedure applies a generalized DMD-type algorithm to time-resolved wind tunnel measurements of the lift and drag forces, as well as the pressure at six locations on the suction surface of the airfoil. Models are identified for 5-degree pitch-up and pitch-down maneuvers within the overall range of 0-20 degrees. The identified models can accurately capture the effects of flow separation and leading-edge vortex formation and convection. We demonstrate that switching between different linear models can give accurate prediction of the nonlinear behavior that is present in high-amplitude maneuvers. The models are accurate for a wide-range of motions, including pitch-and-hold, sinusoidal, and pseudo-random pitching maneuvers. Providing the models access to a subset of the measured data channels can allow for improved estimates of the remaining states via the use of a Kalman filter, suggesting that the modeling framework could be useful for aerodynamic control applications. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, under Award No. FA9550-12-1-0075.

  6. Learning Pitch with STDP: A Computational Model of Place and Temporal Pitch Perception Using Spiking Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafise Erfanian Saeedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pitch perception is important for understanding speech prosody, music perception, recognizing tones in tonal languages, and perceiving speech in noisy environments. The two principal pitch perception theories consider the place of maximum neural excitation along the auditory nerve and the temporal pattern of the auditory neurons' action potentials (spikes as pitch cues. This paper describes a biophysical mechanism by which fine-structure temporal information can be extracted from the spikes generated at the auditory periphery. Deriving meaningful pitch-related information from spike times requires neural structures specialized in capturing synchronous or correlated activity from amongst neural events. The emergence of such pitch-processing neural mechanisms is described through a computational model of auditory processing. Simulation results show that a correlation-based, unsupervised, spike-based form of Hebbian learning can explain the development of neural structures required for recognizing the pitch of simple and complex tones, with or without the fundamental frequency. The temporal code is robust to variations in the spectral shape of the signal and thus can explain the phenomenon of pitch constancy.

  7. Pitch Gestures in Generative Modeling of Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Generative models of music are in need of performance and gesture additions, i.e. inclusions of subtle temporal and dynamic alterations, and gestures so as to render the music musical. While much of the research regarding music generation is based on music theory, the work presented here is based...... on the temporal perception, which is divided into three parts, the immediate (subchunk), the short-term memory (chunk), and the superchunk. By review of the relevant temporal perception literature, the necessary performance elements to add in the metrical generative model, related to the chunk memory...

  8. A rule-based backchannel prediction model using pitch and pause information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    We manually designed rules for a backchannel (BC) prediction model based on pitch and pause information. In short, the model predicts a BC when there is a pause of a certain length that is preceded by a falling or rising pitch. This model was validated against the Dutch IFADV Corpus in a

  9. Discrete Element Method Modeling of the Rheological Properties of Coke/Pitch Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Majidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of pitch and pitch/coke mixtures at temperatures around 150 °C are of great interest for the carbon anode manufacturing process in the aluminum industry. In the present work, a cohesive viscoelastic contact model based on Burger’s model is developed using the discrete element method (DEM on the YADE, the open-source DEM software. A dynamic shear rheometer (DSR is used to measure the viscoelastic properties of pitch at 150 °C. The experimental data obtained is then used to estimate the Burger’s model parameters and calibrate the DEM model. The DSR tests were then simulated by a three-dimensional model. Very good agreement was observed between the experimental data and simulation results. Coke aggregates were modeled by overlapping spheres in the DEM model. Coke/pitch mixtures were numerically created by adding 5, 10, 20, and 30 percent of coke aggregates of the size range of 0.297–0.595 mm (−30 + 50 mesh to pitch. Adding up to 30% of coke aggregates to pitch can increase its complex shear modulus at 60 Hz from 273 Pa to 1557 Pa. Results also showed that adding coke particles increases both storage and loss moduli, while it does not have a meaningful effect on the phase angle of pitch.

  10. A Dynamical Model of Pitch Memory Provides an Improved Basis for Implied Harmony Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Chul

    2017-01-01

    Tonal melody can imply vertical harmony through a sequence of tones. Current methods for automatic chord estimation commonly use chroma-based features extracted from audio signals. However, the implied harmony of unaccompanied melodies can be difficult to estimate on the basis of chroma content in the presence of frequent nonchord tones. Here we present a novel approach to automatic chord estimation based on the human perception of pitch sequences. We use cohesion and inhibition between pitches in auditory short-term memory to differentiate chord tones and nonchord tones in tonal melodies. We model short-term pitch memory as a gradient frequency neural network, which is a biologically realistic model of auditory neural processing. The model is a dynamical system consisting of a network of tonotopically tuned nonlinear oscillators driven by audio signals. The oscillators interact with each other through nonlinear resonance and lateral inhibition, and the pattern of oscillatory traces emerging from the interactions is taken as a measure of pitch salience. We test the model with a collection of unaccompanied tonal melodies to evaluate it as a feature extractor for chord estimation. We show that chord tones are selectively enhanced in the response of the model, thereby increasing the accuracy of implied harmony estimation. We also find that, like other existing features for chord estimation, the performance of the model can be improved by using segmented input signals. We discuss possible ways to expand the present model into a full chord estimation system within the dynamical systems framework. PMID:28522983

  11. Experimental Study on Influence of Pitch Motion on the Wake of a Floating Wind Turbine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Rockel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind tunnel experiments were performed, where the development of the wake of a model wind turbine was measured using stereo Particle Image Velocimetry to observe the influence of platform pitch motion. The wakes of a classical bottom fixed turbine and a streamwise oscillating turbine are compared. Results indicate that platform pitch creates an upward shift in all components of the flow and their fluctuations. The vertical flow created by the pitch motion as well as the reduced entrainment of kinetic energy from undisturbed flows above the turbine result in potentially higher loads and less available kinetic energy for a downwind turbine. Experimental results are compared with four wake models. The wake models employed are consistent with experimental results in describing the shapes and magnitudes of the streamwise velocity component of the wake for a fixed turbine. Inconsistencies between the model predictions and experimental results arise in the floating case particularly regarding the vertical displacement of the velocity components of the flow. Furthermore, it is found that the additional degrees of freedom of a floating wind turbine add to the complexity of the wake aerodynamics and improved wake models are needed, considering vertical flows and displacements due to pitch motion.

  12. Adaptive control of a jet turboshaft engine driving a variable pitch propeller using multiple models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Narjes; Khosravi, Alireza; Sarhadi, Pouria

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a multiple model adaptive control (MMAC) method is proposed for a gas turbine engine. The model of a twin spool turbo-shaft engine driving a variable pitch propeller includes various operating points. Variations in fuel flow and propeller pitch inputs produce different operating conditions which force the controller to be adopted rapidly. Important operating points are three idle, cruise and full thrust cases for the entire flight envelope. A multi-input multi-output (MIMO) version of second level adaptation using multiple models is developed. Also, stability analysis using Lyapunov method is presented. The proposed method is compared with two conventional first level adaptation and model reference adaptive control techniques. Simulation results for JetCat SPT5 turbo-shaft engine demonstrate the performance and fidelity of the proposed method.

  13. Validation of Hydrodynamic Numerical Model of a Pitching Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Maria del Pilar Heras; Thomas, Sarah; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede

    2017-01-01

    Validation of numerical model is essential in the development of new technologies. Commercial software and codes available simulating wave energy converters (WECs) have not been proved to work for all the available and upcoming technologies yet. The present paper presents the first stages...... of the validation process of a hydrodynamic numerical model for a pitching wave energy converter. The development of dry tests, wave flume and wave basin experiments are going to be explained, lessons learned shared and results presented....

  14. Business Model Canvas & Elevator pitch : 29-10-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelco Bakker

    2013-01-01

    Presentatie bij de Workshop Business Model Canvas: de bouwstenen en het gebouw van de onderneming - workshopprogramma ViB050. In het kader van het programma Teach the Teacher. Gehouden op 29-10-2013..

  15. Repetitive model predictive approach to individual pitch control of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob; Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2011-01-01

    Wind turbines are inherently exposed to nonuniform wind fields with of wind shear, tower shadow, and possible wake contributions. Asymmetrical aerodynamic rotor loads are a consequence of such periodic, repetitive wind disturbances experienced by the blades. A controller may estimate and use this....... A simulation comparison betweeen the proposed controller and an industry-standard PID controller shows better mitigation of drive-train, blade and tower loads.......Wind turbines are inherently exposed to nonuniform wind fields with of wind shear, tower shadow, and possible wake contributions. Asymmetrical aerodynamic rotor loads are a consequence of such periodic, repetitive wind disturbances experienced by the blades. A controller may estimate and use...... this peculiar disturbance pattern to better attenuate loads and regulate power by controlling the blade pitch angles individually. A novel model predictive (MPC) approach for individual pitch control of wind turbines is proposed in this paper. A repetitive wind disturbance model is incorporated into the MPC...

  16. Perception and Modeling of Affective Qualities of Musical Instrument Sounds across Pitch Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Stephen; Douglas, Chelsea; Vempala, Naresh N

    2017-01-01

    Composers often pick specific instruments to convey a given emotional tone in their music, partly due to their expressive possibilities, but also due to their timbres in specific registers and at given dynamic markings. Of interest to both music psychology and music informatics from a computational point of view is the relation between the acoustic properties that give rise to the timbre at a given pitch and the perceived emotional quality of the tone. Musician and nonmusician listeners were presented with 137 tones produced at a fixed dynamic marking (forte) playing tones at pitch class D# across each instrument's entire pitch range and with different playing techniques for standard orchestral instruments drawn from the brass, woodwind, string, and pitched percussion families. They rated each tone on six analogical-categorical scales in terms of emotional valence (positive/negative and pleasant/unpleasant), energy arousal (awake/tired), tension arousal (excited/calm), preference (like/dislike), and familiarity. Linear mixed models revealed interactive effects of musical training, instrument family, and pitch register, with non-linear relations between pitch register and several dependent variables. Twenty-three audio descriptors from the Timbre Toolbox were computed for each sound and analyzed in two ways: linear partial least squares regression (PLSR) and nonlinear artificial neural net modeling. These two analyses converged in terms of the importance of various spectral, temporal, and spectrotemporal audio descriptors in explaining the emotion ratings, but some differences also emerged. Different combinations of audio descriptors make major contributions to the three emotion dimensions, suggesting that they are carried by distinct acoustic properties. Valence is more positive with lower spectral slopes, a greater emergence of strong partials, and an amplitude envelope with a sharper attack and earlier decay. Higher tension arousal is carried by brighter sounds

  17. Handling Qualities of Model Reference Adaptive Controllers with Varying Complexity for Pitch-Roll Coupled Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Hanson, Curt; Johnson, Marcus A.; Nguyen, Nhan

    2011-01-01

    Three model reference adaptive controllers (MRAC) with varying levels of complexity were evaluated on a high performance jet aircraft and compared along with a baseline nonlinear dynamic inversion controller. The handling qualities and performance of the controllers were examined during failure conditions that induce coupling between the pitch and roll axes. Results from flight tests showed with a roll to pitch input coupling failure, the handling qualities went from Level 2 with the baseline controller to Level 1 with the most complex MRAC tested. A failure scenario with the left stabilator frozen also showed improvement with the MRAC. Improvement in performance and handling qualities was generally seen as complexity was incrementally added; however, added complexity usually corresponds to increased verification and validation effort required for certification. The tradeoff between complexity and performance is thus important to a controls system designer when implementing an adaptive controller on an aircraft. This paper investigates this relation through flight testing of several controllers of vary complexity.

  18. Interference in memory for tonal pitch: implications for a working-memory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, T; Mohr, G

    1992-05-01

    The degree of interference caused by different kinds of stimuli on memory for tonal pitch was studied. Musically trained and untrained subjects heard a sequence of two tones separated by an interval of 5 sec. The tones were either identical in pitch or differed by a semitone. Subjects had to decide whether the tones were identical or not. The interval was filled with tonal, verbal, or visual material under attended and unattended conditions. The results revealed clear group differences. Musically trained subjects' retention of the first test tone was only affected by the interposition of other tones. In contrast, the performance of musically untrained subjects was also affected by verbal and visual items. The findings are discussed in the framework of Baddeley's (1986) working-memory model.

  19. Modeling of tangential synthetic jet actuators used for pitching control on an airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Omar; Moser, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Pitching moment control in an airfoil can be achieved by trapping concentrations of vorticity close to the trailing edge. Experimental work has shown that synthetic jet actuators can be used to manipulate and control this trapped vorticity. Two different approaches are used to model the action of tangential-blowing synthetic jet actuators mounted near the trailing edge of the airfoil: a detailed model and Reynolds stress synthetic jet (RSSJ) model. The detailed model resolves the synthetic jet dynamics in time while the RSSJ model tries to capture the major effects of the synthetic jet by modeling the changes in the Reynolds stress induced by the actuator, based on experimental PIV data and numerical results from the detailed model. Both models along with the CFD computations in which they are embedded are validated against experimental data. The synthetic jet models have been developed to simulate closed loop flow control of the pitching and plunging of the airfoil, and to this end the RSSJ model is particularly useful since it reduces (by an order of magnitude) the cost of simulating the long-term evolution of the system under control.

  20. A Pilot Model for the NASA Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) (Single-Axis Pitch Task)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Patrick Mark

    This thesis defines, tests, and validates a descriptive pilot model for a single-axis pitch control task of the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER). SAFER is a small propulsive jetpack used by astronauts for self-rescue. Pilot model research supports development of improved self-rescue strategies and technologies through insights into pilot behavior.This thesis defines a multi-loop pilot model. The innermost loop controls the hand controller, the middle loop controls pitch rate, and the outer loop controls pitch angle. A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to gather data from a human pilot. Quantitative and qualitative metrics both indicate that the model is an acceptable fit to the human data. Fuel consumption was nearly identical; time to task completion matched very well. There is some evidence that the model responds faster to initial pitch rates than the human, artificially decreasing the model's time to task completion. This pilot model is descriptive, not predictive, of the human pilot. Insights are made into pilot behavior from this research. Symmetry implies that the human responds to positive and negative initial conditions with the same strategy. The human pilot appears indifferent to pitch angles within 0.5 deg, coasts at a constant pitch rate 1.09 deg/s, and has a reaction delay of 0.1 s.

  1. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic...

  2. A Model Based Control methodology combining Blade Pitch and Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps in a common framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Bergami, Leonardo; Andersen, Peter Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates how adaptive trailing edge flaps and classical blade pitch can work in concert using a model-based state space control formulation. The trade-off between load reduction and actuator activity is decided by setting different weights in the objective function used by the model...

  3. A Model Based Control methodology combining Blade Pitch and Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps in a common framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work investigates how adaptive trailing edge flaps and classical blade pitch can work in concert using a model-based state space control formulation. The trade-off between load reduction and actuator activity is decided by setting different weights in the objective function used by the model...

  4. The Triple Spar Campaign: Implementation and Test of a Blade Pitch Controller on a Scaled Floating Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wenye; Lemmer, F.; Bredmose, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In this project by the University of Stuttgart, DTU Wind Energy and CENER, a real-time blade-pitch control system was implemented on a scaled model in a combined wind-and-wave tank. A simplified low-order simulation model including aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, mooring dynamics and structural dyna...

  5. The Triple Spar campaign: Model tests of a 10MW floating wind turbine with waves, wind and pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Lemmer, F.; Borg, Michael Borg

    2017-01-01

    Results of a test campaign for a floating wind turbine in simultaneous wind and wave forcing at scale 1:60 are presented. The floater is the Triple Spar floater, a hybrid between a spar buoy and a semi submersible tri-floater, tested here for the first time. The turbine is a model scale version...... of the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine, which, also for the first time, is tested with active blade pitch control. The tests focus on the effects of aerodynamic damping and interaction effects between the wind forcing, wave forcing and the blade pitch control algorithm. Special focus is devoted...... to the instability of the platform pitch natural mode, that can occur if a standard land-based controller is applied....

  6. A Development of reliability evaluation model for power plant fan pitch blade control actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Tae Ha; Huh, Jun Young

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the proceedings of creating countermeasures after analysis and maintenance to be able to conduct operation safely in a power plant. In order to operate the power plant in a stable and reliable way, the best condition of the governor system can be maintained through the response characteristic analysis of the control device for the pitch blade control hydraulic actuator. The fan pitch blade control hydraulic actuator of a 500MW large-scale boiler is frequently operated under normal operation conditions. Common problems or malfunctions of the pitch blade control hydraulic actuators leads to the decline of boiler thermal efficiency and unexpected power plant trip. The inlet and outlet gas can be controlled by using the fan pitch blade control hydraulic actuators in order to regulate the internal pressure of the furnace and control the frequency in the power plant facility which utilizes soft coals as a power sources

  7. Pitch control for ships with diesel mechanical and hybrid propulsion : Modelling, validation and performance quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma, R.D.; Negenborn, R.R.; Visser, K.; Loonstijn, M.A.; Hopman, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ships, in particular service vessels, need to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and cavitation noise while maintaining manoeuvrability and preventing engine overloading. Diesel mechanical propulsion with controllable pitch propellers can provide high fuel efficiency with good manoeuvrability.

  8. Mathematical modeling and design parameters of crushing machines with variable-pitch helix of the screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelenko V. V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of the effectiveness of the top cutting unit, the helix angle in the end portion of the screw is the most important and characteristic parameter, as it determines the pressure of the meat material in the zone of interaction of a knife and grate. The importance of solving the problem of mathematical modeling of geometry is due to the need to address the problem of minimizing the reverse flow of the food material when injecting into the cutting zone, as the specified effect of "locking" significantly reduces the performance of the transfer process, increases energy consumption of the equipment and entails the deterioration of the quality of the raw materials output. The problem of determining the length of the helix variable pitch for screw chopper food materials has been formulated and solved by methods of differential geometry. The task of correct description of the law of changing the angle of helix inclination along its length has been defined in this case as a key to provide the required dependence of this angle tangent on the angle of the radius-vector of the circle. It has been taken into account that the reduction in the pitch of the screw in the direction of the product delivery should occur at a decreasing rate. The parametric equation of the helix has been written in the form of three functional dependencies of the corresponding cylindrical coordinates. Based on the wide range analysis and significant number of models of tops from different manufacturers the boundaries of possible changes in the angles of inclination of the helical line of the first and last turns of the screw have been identified. The auger screw length is determined mathematically in the form of an analytical relationship and both as a function of the variable angle of its rise, and as a function of the rotation angle of the radius-vector of the circle generatrix, which makes it possible to expand the design possibilities of this node. Along

  9. Dynamic wake model with coordinated pitch and torque control of wind farms for power tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Carl; Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles; Gayme, Dennice

    2017-11-01

    Control of wind farm power production, where wind turbines within a wind farm coordinate to follow a time-varying power set point, is vital for increasing renewable energy participation in the power grid. Previous work developed a one-dimensional convection-diffusion equation describing the advection of the velocity deficit behind each turbine (wake) as well the turbulent mixing of the wake with the surrounding fluid. Proof-of-concept simulations demonstrated that a receding horizon controller built around this time-dependent model can effectively provide power tracking services by modulating the thrust coefficients of individual wind turbines. In this work, we extend this model-based controller to include pitch angle and generator torque control and the first-order dynamics of the drive train. Including these dynamics allows us to investigate control strategies for providing kinetic energy reserves to the grid, i.e. storing kinetic energy from the wind in the rotating mass of the wind turbine rotor for later use. CS, CM, and DG are supported by NSF (ECCS-1230788, CMMI 1635430, and OISE-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project). JM is supported by ERC (ActiveWindFarms, 306471). This research was conducted using computational resources at MARCC.

  10. Pitch Fork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Peter Leslie; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Pitch Fork is a prototype of an alternate, actuated digital musical instrument (DMI). It uses 5 infra-red and 4 piezoelectric sensors to control an additive synthesis engine. Iron bars are used as the physical point of contact in interaction with the aim of using this materials natural acoustic...

  11. Stress modeling in colloidal dispersions undergoing non-viscometric flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolata, Benjamin; Zia, Roseanna

    2017-11-01

    We present a theoretical study of the stress tensor for a colloidal dispersion undergoing non-viscometric flow. In such flows, the non-homogeneous suspension stress depends on not only the local average total stresslet-the sum of symmetric first moments of both the hydrodynamic traction and the interparticle force-but also on the average quadrupole, octupole, and higher-order moments. To compute the average moments, we formulate a six dimensional Smoluchowski equation governing the microstructural evolution of a suspension in an arbitrary fluid velocity field. Under the conditions of rheologically slow flow, where the Brownian relaxation of the particles is much faster than the spatiotemporal evolution of the flow, the Smoluchowski equation permits asymptotic solution, revealing a suspension stress that follows a second-order fluid constitutive model. We obtain a reciprocal theorem and utilize it to show that all constitutive parameters of the second-order fluid model may be obtained from two simpler linear-response problems: a suspension undergoing simple shear and a suspension undergoing isotropic expansion. The consequences of relaxing the assumption of rheologically slow flow, including the appearance of memory and microcontinuum behaviors, are discussed.

  12. Hydraulic pitch control system for wind turbines: Advanced modeling and verification of an hydraulic accumulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irizar, Victor; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic pitch systems provide robust and reliable control of power and speed of modern wind turbines. During emergency stops, where the pitch of the blades has to be taken to a full stop position to avoid over speed situations, hydraulic accumulators play a crucial role. Their efficiency...... and capability of providing enough energy to rotate the blades is affected by thermal processes due to the compression and decompression of the gas chamber. This paper presents an in depth study of the thermodynamical processes involved in an hydraulic accumulator during operation, and how they affect the energy...

  13. Wind turbine pitch optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Juelsgaard, Morten; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    We consider a static wind model for a three-bladed, horizontal-axis, pitch-controlled wind turbine. When placed in a wind field, the turbine experiences several mechanical loads, which generate power but also create structural fatigue. We address the problem of finding blade pitch profiles......% compared to any constant pitch profile while sacrificing at most 7% of the maximum attainable output power. Using iterative learning, we show that very similar performance can be achieved by using only load measurements, with no knowledge of the wind field or wind turbine model....... for maximizing power production while simultaneously minimizing fatigue loads. In this paper, we show how this problem can be approximately solved using convex optimization. When there is full knowledge of the wind field, numerical simulations show that force and torque RMS variation can be reduced by over 96...

  14. Pitch the niche - taking responsibility for the concepts we use in ecology and species distribution modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInerny, Greg J.; Etienne, Rampal S.

    2012-01-01

    In a discussion it is often easier to staunchly reject or offer resolute support for an idea. This third paper on the niche concept aims to develop a balanced argument by exploring general principles for determining an appropriate level for pitching the niche concept that will guide better use and

  15. Simulation model of a wind turbine pitch controller for grid frequency stabilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, Clemens; Cronin, Tom

    2005-06-15

    This paper describes a pitch angle controller that enables an active-stall wind turbine to dampen actively grid frequency oscillations. This builds on previous work in the area of the transient stability control of active-stall turbines. The phenomenon of grid frequency oscillations is explained briefly and then the task for the wind turbine controller defined. The pitch controller that acts as a grid frequency stabiliser is explained in terms of its layout, control sequence and parameters. Finally, a transient fault situation with subsequent grid frequency oscillations is simulated and it is shown how the grid frequency stabiliser works. The performance of the controller is discussed and the conclusion is drawn that grid frequency stabilisation with an active-stall turbine is possible under certain conditions. (Author)

  16. Objective models of compressed breast shapes undergoing mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve Si Jia; Patel, Bhavika; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop models of compressed breasts undergoing mammography based on objective analysis, that are capable of accurately representing breast shapes in acquired clinical images and generating new, clinically realistic shapes. Methods: An automated edge detection algorithm was used to catalogue the breast shapes of clinically acquired cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) view mammograms from a large database of digital mammography images. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on these shapes to reduce the information contained within the shapes to a small number of linearly independent variables. The breast shape models, one of each view, were developed from the identified principal components, and their ability to reproduce the shape of breasts from an independent set of mammograms not used in the PCA, was assessed both visually and quantitatively by calculating the average distance error (ADE). Results: The PCA breast shape models of the CC and MLO mammographic views based on six principal components, in which 99.2% and 98.0%, respectively, of the total variance of the dataset is contained, were found to be able to reproduce breast shapes with strong fidelity (CC view mean ADE = 0.90 mm, MLO view mean ADE = 1.43 mm) and to generate new clinically realistic shapes. The PCA models based on fewer principal components were also successful, but to a lesser degree, as the two-component model exhibited a mean ADE = 2.99 mm for the CC view, and a mean ADE = 4.63 mm for the MLO view. The four-component models exhibited a mean ADE = 1.47 mm for the CC view and a mean ADE = 2.14 mm for the MLO view. Paired t-tests of the ADE values of each image between models showed that these differences were statistically significant (max p-value = 0.0247). Visual examination of modeled breast shapes confirmed these results. Histograms of the PCA parameters associated with the six principal components were fitted with Gaussian distributions. The six

  17. Objective models of compressed breast shapes undergoing mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Steve Si Jia [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University and Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Patel, Bhavika [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Sechopoulos, Ioannis [Departments of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Hematology and Medical Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To develop models of compressed breasts undergoing mammography based on objective analysis, that are capable of accurately representing breast shapes in acquired clinical images and generating new, clinically realistic shapes. Methods: An automated edge detection algorithm was used to catalogue the breast shapes of clinically acquired cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) view mammograms from a large database of digital mammography images. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on these shapes to reduce the information contained within the shapes to a small number of linearly independent variables. The breast shape models, one of each view, were developed from the identified principal components, and their ability to reproduce the shape of breasts from an independent set of mammograms not used in the PCA, was assessed both visually and quantitatively by calculating the average distance error (ADE). Results: The PCA breast shape models of the CC and MLO mammographic views based on six principal components, in which 99.2% and 98.0%, respectively, of the total variance of the dataset is contained, were found to be able to reproduce breast shapes with strong fidelity (CC view mean ADE = 0.90 mm, MLO view mean ADE = 1.43 mm) and to generate new clinically realistic shapes. The PCA models based on fewer principal components were also successful, but to a lesser degree, as the two-component model exhibited a mean ADE = 2.99 mm for the CC view, and a mean ADE = 4.63 mm for the MLO view. The four-component models exhibited a mean ADE = 1.47 mm for the CC view and a mean ADE = 2.14 mm for the MLO view. Paired t-tests of the ADE values of each image between models showed that these differences were statistically significant (max p-value = 0.0247). Visual examination of modeled breast shapes confirmed these results. Histograms of the PCA parameters associated with the six principal components were fitted with Gaussian distributions. The six

  18. Objective models of compressed breast shapes undergoing mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Steve Si Jia; Patel, Bhavika; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop models of compressed breasts undergoing mammography based on objective analysis, that are capable of accurately representing breast shapes in acquired clinical images and generating new, clinically realistic shapes. Methods: An automated edge detection algorithm was used to catalogue the breast shapes of clinically acquired cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) view mammograms from a large database of digital mammography images. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on these shapes to reduce the information contained within the shapes to a small number of linearly independent variables. The breast shape models, one of each view, were developed from the identified principal components, and their ability to reproduce the shape of breasts from an independent set of mammograms not used in the PCA, was assessed both visually and quantitatively by calculating the average distance error (ADE). Results: The PCA breast shape models of the CC and MLO mammographic views based on six principal components, in which 99.2% and 98.0%, respectively, of the total variance of the dataset is contained, were found to be able to reproduce breast shapes with strong fidelity (CC view mean ADE = 0.90 mm, MLO view mean ADE = 1.43 mm) and to generate new clinically realistic shapes. The PCA models based on fewer principal components were also successful, but to a lesser degree, as the two-component model exhibited a mean ADE = 2.99 mm for the CC view, and a mean ADE = 4.63 mm for the MLO view. The four-component models exhibited a mean ADE = 1.47 mm for the CC view and a mean ADE = 2.14 mm for the MLO view. Paired t-tests of the ADE values of each image between models showed that these differences were statistically significant (max p-value = 0.0247). Visual examination of modeled breast shapes confirmed these results. Histograms of the PCA parameters associated with the six principal components were fitted with Gaussian distributions. The six

  19. Analysis of the distribution of pitch angles in model galactic disks - Numerical methods and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William S.; Roberts, William W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    An automated mathematical method capable of successfully isolating the many different features in prototype and observed spiral galaxies and of accurately measuring the pitch angles and lengths of these individual features is developed. The method is applied to analyze the evolution of specific features in a prototype galaxy exhibiting flocculent spiral structure. The mathematical-computational method was separated into two components. Initially, the galaxy was partitioned into dense regions constituting features using two different methods. The results obtained using these two partitioning algorithms were very similar, from which it is inferred that no numerical biasing was evident and that capturing of the features was consistent. Standard least-squares methods underestimated the true slope of the cloud distribution and were incapable of approximating an orientation of 45 deg. The problems were overcome by introducing a superior fit least-squares method, developed with the intention of calculating true orientation rather than a regression line.

  20. Handling Qualities Evaluations of Low Complexity Model Reference Adaptive Controllers for Reduced Pitch and Roll Damping Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Johnson, Marcus; Nguyen, Nhan

    2011-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) researchers have conducted a series of flight experiments designed to study the effects of varying levels of adaptive controller complexity on the performance and handling qualities of an aircraft under various simulated failure or damage conditions. A baseline, nonlinear dynamic inversion controller was augmented with three variations of a model reference adaptive control design. The simplest design consisted of a single adaptive parameter in each of the pitch and roll axes computed using a basic gradient-based update law. A second design was built upon the first by increasing the complexity of the update law. The third and most complex design added an additional adaptive parameter to each axis. Flight tests were conducted using NASA s Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed, a highly modified F-18 aircraft that contains a research flight control system capable of housing advanced flight controls experiments. Each controller was evaluated against a suite of simulated failures and damage ranging from destabilization of the pitch and roll axes to significant coupling between the axes. Two pilots evaluated the three adaptive controllers as well as the non-adaptive baseline controller in a variety of dynamic maneuvers and precision flying tasks designed to uncover potential deficiencies in the handling qualities of the aircraft, and adverse interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controllers. The work was completed as part of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program.

  1. Pitch and Plasticity: Insights from the Pitch Matching of Chords by Musicians with Absolute and Relative Pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. McLachlan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch (AP is a form of sound recognition in which musical note names are associated with discrete musical pitch categories. The accuracy of pitch matching by non-AP musicians for chords has recently been shown to depend on stimulus familiarity, pointing to a role of spectral recognition mechanisms in the early stages of pitch processing. Here we show that pitch matching accuracy by AP musicians was also dependent on their familiarity with the chord stimulus. This suggests that the pitch matching abilities of both AP and non-AP musicians for concurrently presented pitches are dependent on initial recognition of the chord. The dual mechanism model of pitch perception previously proposed by the authors suggests that spectral processing associated with sound recognition primes waveform processing to extract stimulus periodicity and refine pitch perception. The findings presented in this paper are consistent with the dual mechanism model of pitch, and in the case of AP musicians, the formation of nominal pitch categories based on both spectral and periodicity information.

  2. Harmonic Training and the Formation of Pitch Representation in a Neural Network Model of the Auditory Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nasir; Higgins, Irina; Walker, Kerry M M; Stringer, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Attempting to explain the perceptual qualities of pitch has proven to be, and remains, a difficult problem. The wide range of sounds which elicit pitch and a lack of agreement across neurophysiological studies on how pitch is encoded by the brain have made this attempt more difficult. In describing the potential neural mechanisms by which pitch may be processed, a number of neural networks have been proposed and implemented. However, no unsupervised neural networks with biologically accurate cochlear inputs have yet been demonstrated. This paper proposes a simple system in which pitch representing neurons are produced in a biologically plausible setting. Purely unsupervised regimes of neural network learning are implemented and these prove to be sufficient in identifying the pitch of sounds with a variety of spectral profiles, including sounds with missing fundamental frequencies and iterated rippled noises.

  3. Harmonic Training and the formation of pitch representation in a neural network model of the auditory brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir eAhmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to explain the perceptual qualities of pitch has proven to be, and remains, a difficult problem. The wide range of sounds which illicit pitch and a lack of agreement across neurophysiological studies on how pitch is encoded by the brain have made this attempt more difficult. In describing the potential neural mechanisms by which pitch may be processed, a number of neural networks have been proposed and implemented. However, no unsupervised neural networks with biologically accurate cochlear inputs have yet been demonstrated. This paper proposes a simplified system in which pitch representing neurons are easily produced under a highly biological setting. Purely unsupervised regimes of neural network learning are implemented and these prove to be sufficient in identifying the pitch of sounds with a variety of spectral profiles, including missing fundamental sounds.

  4. d = 2 transverse-field Ising model under the screw-boundary condition: an optimization of the screw pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    A length-N spin chain with the √N(=v)th neighbor interaction is identical to a two-dimensional (d = 2) model under the screw-boundary (SB) condition. The SB condition provides a flexible scheme to construct a d ≥ 2 cluster from an arbitrary number of spins; the numerical diagonalization combined with the SB condition admits a potential applicability to a class of systems intractable with the quantum Monte Carlo method due to the negative-sign problem. However, the simulation results suffer from characteristic finite-size corrections inherent in SB. In order to suppress these corrections, we adjust the screw pitch v(N) so as to minimize the excitation gap for each N. This idea is adapted to the transverse-field Ising model on the triangular lattice with N ≤ 32 spins. As a demonstration, the correlation-length critical exponent ν is analyzed in some detail

  5. Comparative Study on Impacts of Power Curve Model on Capacity Factor Estimation of Pitch-Regulated Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Albadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The amount of energy produced by a turbine depends on the characteristics of both wind speed at the site under investigation and the turbine's power performance curve. The capacity factor (CF of a wind turbine is commonly used to estimate the turbine's average energy production. This paper investigates the effect of the accuracy of the power curve model on CF estimation. The study considers three CF models. The first CF model is based on a power curve model that underestimates the turbine output throughout the ascending segment of the power curve. To compensate for the aforementioned discrepancy, the Weibull parameters, c and k, which are used to describe wind profile, are calculated based on cubic mean wind speed (CMWS. The second CF model is based on the most accurate generic power curve model available in open literature. The third CF model is based on a new model of power performance curve which mimics the behavior of a typical pitch-regulated turbine curve. As the coefficients of this power curve model are based on a general estimation of the turbine output at different wind speeds, they can be further tuned to provide a more accurate fit with turbine data from a certain manufacturer.

  6. Adaptive back-stepping pitch angle control for wind turbine based on a new electro-hydraulic pitch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiu-xing; Lin, Yong-gang; Li, Wei; Gu, Ya-jing; Lei, Peng-fei; Liu, Hong-wei

    2015-11-01

    A new electro-hydraulic pitch system is proposed to smooth the output power and drive-train torque fluctuations for wind turbine. This new pitch system employs a servo-valve-controlled hydraulic motor to enhance pitch control performances. This pitch system is represented by a state-space model with parametric uncertainties and nonlinearities. An adaptive back-stepping pitch angle controller is synthesised based on this state-space model to accurately achieve the desired pitch angle control regardless of such uncertainties and nonlinearities. This pitch angle controller includes a back-stepping procedure and an adaption law to deal with such uncertainties and nonlinearities and hence to improve the final pitch control performances. The proposed pitch system and the designed pitch angle controller have been validated for achievable and efficient power and torque regulation performances by comparative experimental results under various operating conditions.

  7. Fuzzy Model-based Pitch Stabilization and Wing Vibration Suppression of Flexible Wing Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Mohammad A.; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy nonlinear controller to regulate the longitudinal dynamics of an aircraft and suppress the bending and torsional vibrations of its flexible wings. The fuzzy controller utilizes full-state feedback with input constraint. First, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy linear model is developed which approximates the coupled aeroelastic aircraft model. Then, based on the fuzzy linear model, a fuzzy controller is developed to utilize a full-state feedback and stabilize the system while it satisfies the control input constraint. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques are employed to solve the fuzzy control problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed controller is demonstrated on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM).

  8. Implementation of internal model based control and individual pitch control to reduce fatigue loads and tower vibrations in wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Fadaeinedjad, Roohollah; Moschopoulos, Gerry

    2018-05-01

    Vibration control and fatigue loads reduction are important issues in large-scale wind turbines. Identifying the vibration frequencies and tuning dampers and controllers at these frequencies are major concerns in many control methods. In this paper, an internal model control (IMC) method with an adaptive algorithm is implemented to first identify the vibration frequency of the wind turbine tower and then to cancel the vibration signal. Standard individual pitch control (IPC) is also implemented to compare the performance of the controllers in term of fatigue loads reduction. Finally, the performance of the system when both controllers are implemented together is evaluated. Simulation results demonstrate that using only IMC or IPC alone has advantages and can reduce fatigue loads on specific components. IMC can identify and suppress tower vibrations in both fore-aft and side-to-side directions, whereas, IPC can reduce fatigue loads on blades, shaft and yaw bearings. When both IMC and IPC are implemented together, the advantages of both controllers can be used. The aforementioned analysis and comparisons were not studied in literature and this study fills this gap. FAST, AreoDyn and Simulink are used to simulate the mechanical, aerodynamic and electrical aspects of wind turbine.

  9. Modeling of a pitching and plunging airfoil using experimental flow field and load measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troshin, Victor; Seifert, Avraham

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of the current paper is to outline a low-order modeling procedure of a heaving airfoil in a still fluid using experimental measurements. Due to its relative simplicity, the proposed procedure is applicable for the analysis of flow fields within complex and unsteady geometries and it is suitable for analyzing the data obtained by experimentation. Currently, this procedure is used to model and predict the flow field evolution using a small number of low profile load sensors and flow field measurements. A time delay neural network is used to estimate the flow field. The neural network estimates the amplitudes of the most energetic modes using four sensory inputs. The modes are calculated using proper orthogonal decomposition of the flow field data obtained experimentally by time-resolved, phase-locked particle imaging velocimetry. To permit the use of proper orthogonal decomposition, the measured flow field is mapped onto a stationary domain using volume preserving transformation. The analysis performed by the model showed good estimation quality within the parameter range used in the training procedure. However, the performance deteriorates for cases out of this range. This situation indicates that, to improve the robustness of the model, both the decomposition and the training data sets must be diverse in terms of input parameter space. In addition, the results suggest that the property of volume preservation of the mapping does not affect the model quality as long as the model is not based on the Galerkin approximation. Thus, it may be relaxed for cases with more complex geometry and kinematics.

  10. Asphalt Volcanism as a Model to Understand the Geochemical Nature of Pitch Lake, a Planetary Analog for Titan and the Implications towards Methane Flux into Earth's Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Pitch Lake is located in the southwest peninsula of the island near La Brea in Trinidad and Tobago, covering an area of approximately 46 hectares. It was discovered in the year 1595 and is the largest of three natural asphalt lakes that exist on Earth. Pitch Lake is a large oval shaped reservoir composed of dominantly hydrocarbon compounds, but also includes minor amounts of clay and muddy water. It is a natural liquid asphalt desert, which is nourished by a form of petroleum consisting of mostly asphaltines from the surrounding oil-rich region. The hydrocarbons mix with mud and gases under high pressure during upward seepage, and the lighter portion evaporates or is volatilized, which produces a high-viscosity liquid asphalt residue. The residue on and near the surface is a hydrocarbon matrix, which poses extremely challenging environmental conditions to microorganisms characterized by an average low water activity in the range of 0.49 to 0.75, recalcitrant carbon substrates, and toxic chemical compounds. Nevertheless, an active microbial community of archaea and bacteria, many of them novel strains, was found to inhabit the liquid hydrocarbon matrix of Pitch Lake. Geochemical analyses of minerals, done by our team, which revealed sulfates, sulfides, silicates, and metals, normally associated with deep-water hydrothermal vents leads to our new hypothetical model to describe the origins of Pitch Lake and its importance to atmospheric and earth sciences. Pitch Lake is likely the terrestrial equivalent of an offshore submarine asphalt volcano just as La Brea Tar Pits are in some ways an on-land version of the asphalt volcanoes discovered off shore of Santa Barbara by Valentine et al. in 2010. Asphalt volcanism possibly also creates the habitat for chemosynthetic life that is widespread in this lake, as reported by Schulze-Makuch et al. in 2011 and Meckenstock et al. in 2014.

  11. Individual Pitch Control Using LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    In this work the problem of individual pitch control of a variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbine in the full load region is considered. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the problem. However as the plant is nonlinear and time varying, a new approach is proposed to simplify...

  12. An Analytical Model of Thermal Conductivity for Carbon/Carbon Composites with Pitch-Based Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hai Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon/carbon (C/C composites are composed of carbon fibers, carbon matrix, and pores and cracks, which have been successfully used in various aerospace applications. In this paper, nanoscale submodel is proposed to describe the thermal conductivity of the matrix based on its microscopic structure, and then the submodel is incorporated into a microscale model to analytically predict the equivalent thermal conductivities of the composites by equivalent circuit approach. The results predicted by the present model agree well with those from the experimental measurements. Based on the model, the effects of the composite porosity as well as the thickness and porosity of the interface phase on the thermal performance of five composites are studied. It is found that the thermal conductivities show decreasing trends in responding to an increase in each of the three parameters. The composite porosity has a significant effect on the thermal conductivities both parallel and transverse to the fiber axis, while the thickness and the porosity of the interface phase remarkably affect the thermal conductivity only transverse to the fiber axis.

  13. 78 FR 14005 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Pitch and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR... with pitch and roll limiting functions, specifically an electronic flight control system which contains fly-by-wire control laws, including envelope protections. The applicable airworthiness regulations do...

  14. High coking value pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  15. Modelling a tethered mammalian sperm cell undergoing hyperactivation

    KAUST Repository

    Curtis, M.P.

    2012-09-01

    The beat patterns of mammalian sperm flagella can be categorised into two different types. The first involves symmetric waves propagating down the flagellum with a net linear propulsion of the sperm cell. The second, hyperactive, waveform is classified by vigorous asymmetric waves of higher amplitude, lower wavenumber and frequency propagating down the flagellum resulting in highly curved trajectories. The latter beat pattern is part of the capacitation process whereby sperm prepare for the prospective penetration of the zona pellucida and fusion with the egg. Hyperactivation is often observed to initiate as sperm escape from epithelial and ciliary bindings formed within the isthmic regions of the female oviducts, leading to a conjecture in the literature that this waveform is mechanically important for sperm escape. Hence, we explore the mechanical effects of hyperactivation on a tethered sperm, focussing on a Newtonian fluid. Using a resistive force theory model we demonstrate that hyperactivation can indeed generate forces that pull the sperm away from a tethering point and consequently a hyperactivated sperm cell bound to an epithelial surface need not always be pushed by its flagellum. More generally, directions of the forces generated by tethered flagella are insensitive to reductions in beat frequency and the detailed flagellar responses depend on the nature of the binding at the tethering point. Furthermore, waveform asymmetry and amplitude increases enhance the tendency for a tethered flagellum to start tugging on its binding. The same is generally predicted to be true for reductions in the wavenumber of the flagellum beat, but not universally so, emphasising the dynamical complexity of flagellar force generation. Finally, qualitative observations drawn from experimental data of human sperm bound to excised female reproductive tract are also presented and are found to be consistent with the theoretical predictions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S809 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, R.F.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    An S809 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, and also with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was developed to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20, to +40 {degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {plus_minus} 5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord. In general, the unsteady maximum lift coefficient was from 4% to 86% higher than the steady state maximum lift coefficient, and variation in the quarter chord pitching moment coefficient magnitude was from {minus}83% to 195% relative to steady state values at high angles of attack. These findings indicate the importance of considering the unsteady flow behavior occurring in wind turbine operation to obtain accurate load estimates.

  17. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the LS(1)-0421MOD airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss, R.L.; HOffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    An LS(1)-0421 MOD airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, and also with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. In order to study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a leading edge grit roughness (LEGR) pattern was developed to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, and 1.25 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}10{degrees} to +40{degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data was acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {plus_minus} 5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For this report, unsteady conditions refer to the model in pitch oscillation. In general, the maximum unsteady lift coefficient was from 10% to 50% higher than the steady state maximum lift coefficient. Variation in the quarter chord pitching moment coefficient was nearly two times greater than steady state values at high angles of attack. These findings indicate the importance of considering the unsteady flow behavior occurring in wind turbine operation for accurate load estimates.

  18. Parameter estimation in six numerical models of transperitoneal transport of potassium in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Fugleberg, S; Joffe, P

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms of transperitoneal potassium transport during peritoneal dialysis were evaluated by validation of different mathematical models. The models were designed to elucidate the presence or absence of diffusive, non-lymphatic convective and lymphatic convective solute transport....... Experimental results were obtained from 26 non-diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The validation procedure demonstrated that models including both diffusive and non-lymphatic convective solute transport were superior to the other models. Lymphatic convective solute transport was not identifiable...

  19. Consonance and pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Neil; Marco, David; Light, Maria; Wilson, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    To date, no consensus exists in the literature as to theories of consonance and dissonance. Experimental data collected over the last century have raised questions about the dominant theories that are based on frequency relationships between the harmonics of music chords. This study provides experimental evidence that strongly challenges these theories and suggests a new theory of dissonance based on relationships between pitch perception and recognition. Experiment 1 shows that dissonance does not increase with increasing numbers of harmonics in chords as predicted by Helmholtz's (1863/1954) roughness theory, nor does it increase with fewer pitch-matching errors as predicted by Stumpf's (1898) tonal fusion theory. Dissonance was strongly correlated with pitch-matching error for chords, which in turn was reduced by chord familiarity and greater music training. This led to the proposition that long-term memory templates for common chords assist the perception of pitches in chords by providing an estimate of the chord intervals from spectral information. When recognition mechanisms based on these templates fail, the spectral pitch estimate is inconsistent with the period of the waveform, leading to cognitive incongruence and the negative affect of dissonance. The cognitive incongruence theory of dissonance was rigorously tested in Experiment 2, in which nonmusicians were trained to match the pitches of a random selection of 2-pitch chords. After 10 training sessions, they rated the chords they had learned to pitch match as less dissonant than the unlearned chords, irrespective of their tuning, providing strong support for a cognitive mechanism of dissonance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Improvements of an objective model of compressed breasts undergoing mammography: Generation and characterization of breast shapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Ruiz, A.; Feng, S.S.J.; Zelst, J.C.M. van; Vreemann, S.; Mann, J.R.; D'Orsi, C.J.; Sechopoulos, I.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a set of accurate 2D models of compressed breasts undergoing mammography or breast tomosynthesis, based on objective analysis, to accurately characterize mammograms with few linearly independent parameters, and to generate novel clinically realistic paired cranio-caudal (CC) and

  1. Interpreting English Pitch Contours in Context

    OpenAIRE

    Schloeder, Julian; Lascarides, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model of how pitch contours influence the illocutionary and perlocutionary effects of utterances in conversation. Our account is grounded in several insights from the prior literature. Our distinctive contribution is to replace earlier informal claims about the implicatures arising from intonation with logical derivations: we validate inferences in the SDRT framework that resolve the partial meaning we associate with a pitch contour to different specific interpretations ...

  2. Analysis of pitch system data for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; van de Pieterman, René P.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of pitch motor torque and current give indirect information about the condition of the pitch system and can therefore potentially be used for condition-based maintenance. This paper presents an analysis of these measurements for a wind turbine, and the measurements are compared...... at a constant pitch velocity, but the 10 min maximum values are only approximately proportional, because the maximum values occur during acceleration and not simultaneously. These findings are important to consider, if using the pitch motor current or torque as an indicator for the pitch system health...... with a theoretical model based on aeroelastic simulations. The blade moment is found to have only minor influence on the friction in the blade bearing. The main factors affecting the static friction are the temperature and time after the latest pitch movement. Pitch motor current and torque are proportional...

  3. Modeling of gas-liquid mass transfer in a stirred tank bioreactor agitated by a Rushton turbine or a new pitched blade impeller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelves, Ricardo; Dietrich, A; Takors, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    A combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and population balance model (PBM) approach has been applied to simulate hydrodynamics and mass transfer in a 0.18 m(3) gas-liquid stirred bioreactor agitated by (1) a Rushton turbine, and (2) a new pitched blade geometry with rotating cartridges. The operating conditions chosen were motivated by typical settings used for culturing mammalian cells. The effects of turbulence, rotating flow, bubbles breakage and coalescence were simulated using the k-ε, multiple reference frame (MRF), Sliding mesh (SM) and PBM approaches, respectively. Considering the new pitched blade geometry with rotating aeration microspargers, [Formula: see text] mass transfer was estimated to be 34 times higher than the conventional Rushton turbine set-up. Notably, the impeller power consumption was modeled to be about 50 % lower. Independent [Formula: see text] measurements applying the same operational conditions confirmed this finding. Motivated by these simulated and experimental results, the new aeration and stirring device is qualified as a very promising tool especially useful for cell culture applications which are characterized by the challenging problem of achieving relatively high mass transfer conditions while inserting only low stirrer energy.

  4. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the LS(1)-0417MOD airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Horizontal axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics due to wind shear when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the calculations of rotor performance and loads. The rotors also experience performance degradation caused by surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can be used to validate analytical computer codes. An LS(l)-0417MOD airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, as well as with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used, {plus_minus} 5.5%{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions foil model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord.

  5. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S801 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Horizontal axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics due to wind shear when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the calculation of rotor performance and loads. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can be used to validate analytical computer codes. A S801 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3x5 subsonic wind tunnel (3x5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, as well as with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers used for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used, {plus_minus} 5.5 {degrees}and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees} 14{degrees} and 20{degrees} For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means that the airfoil model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord.

  6. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S815 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss Ramsay, R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Horizontal axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics due to wind shear when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the calculation of rotor performance and loads. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are cause by the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can be used to validate analytical computer codes. A S815 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3 x 5 subsonic wind tunnel (3 x 5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, as well as with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers used for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20{degree} to +40{degree}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {+-}5.5{degree} and {+-}10{degree}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degree}, 14{degree}, and 20{degree}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means that the model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord.

  7. Pitch features of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A number of soundscape studies have suggested the need for suitable parameters for soundscape measurement, in addition to the conventional acoustic parameters. This paper explores the applicability of pitch features that are often used in music analysis and their algorithms to environmental sounds. Based on the existing alternative pitch algorithms for simulating the perception of the auditory system and simplified algorithms for practical applications in the areas of music and speech, the applicable algorithms have been determined, considering common types of sound in everyday soundscapes. Considering a number of pitch parameters, including pitch value, pitch strength, and percentage of audible pitches over time, different pitch characteristics of various environmental sounds have been shown. Among the four sound categories, i.e. water, wind, birdsongs, and urban sounds, generally speaking, both water and wind sounds have low pitch values and pitch strengths; birdsongs have high pitch values and pitch strengths; and urban sounds have low pitch values and a relatively wide range of pitch strengths.

  8. Pitch memory and exposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Eitan, Zohar; Chajut, Eran

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that the ability to represent absolute pitch values in long-term memory, long believed to be the possession of a small minority of trained musicians endowed with "absolute pitch," is in fact shared to some extent by a considerable proportion of the population. The current study examined whether this newly discovered ability affects aspects of music and auditory cognition, particularly pitch learning and evaluation. Our starting points are two well-established premises: (1) frequency of occurrence has an influence on the way we process stimuli; (2) in Western music, some pitches and musical keys are much more frequent than others. Based on these premises, we hypothesize that if absolute pitch values are indeed represented in long-term memory, pitch frequency of occurrence in music would significantly affect cognitive processes, in particular pitch learning and evaluation. Two experiments were designed to test this hypothesis in participants with no absolute pitch, most with little or no musical training. Experiment 1 demonstrated a faster response and a learning advantage for frequent pitches over infrequent pitches in an identification task. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated infrequent pitches as more pleasing than frequent pitches when presented in isolation. These results suggest that absolute pitch representation in memory may play a substantial, hitherto unacknowledged role in auditory (and specifically musical) cognition. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Vocal Pitch Shift in Congenital Amusia (Pitch Deafness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25…

  10. Algorithmically-generated Corpora that use Serial Compositional Principles Can Contribute to the Modeling of Sequential Pitch Structure in Non-tonal Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Thornton Dean

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether pitch sequences in non-tonal music can be modeled by an information-theoretic approach using algorithmically-generated melodic sequences, made according to 12-tone serial principles, as the training corpus. This is potentially useful, because symbolic corpora of non-tonal music are not readily available. A non-tonal corpus of serially-composed melodies was constructed algorithmically using classic principles of 12-tone music, including prime, inversion, retrograde and retrograde inversion transforms. A similar algorithm generated a tonal melodic corpus of tonal transformations, in each case based on a novel tonal melody and expressed in alternating major keys. A cognitive model of auditory expectation (IDyOM was used first to analyze the sequential pitch structure of the corpora, in some cases with pre-training on established tonal folk-song corpora (Essen, Schaffrath, 1995. The two algorithmic corpora can be distinguished in terms of their information content, and they were quite different from random corpora and from the folk-song corpus. We then demonstrate that the algorithmic serial corpora can assist modeling of canonical non-tonal compositions by Webern and Schoenberg, and also non-tonal segments of improvisations by skilled musicians. Separately, we developed the process of algorithmic melody composition into a software system (the Serial Collaborator capable of generating multi-stranded serial keyboard music. Corpora of such keyboard compositions based either on the non-tonal or the tonal melodic corpora were generated and assessed for their information-theoretic modeling properties.

  11. The neurocognitive components of pitch processing: insights from absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Lusher, Dean; Wan, Catherine Y; Dudgeon, Paul; Reutens, David C

    2009-03-01

    The natural variability of pitch naming ability in the population (known as absolute pitch or AP) provides an ideal method for investigating individual differences in pitch processing and auditory knowledge formation and representation. We have demonstrated the involvement of different cognitive processes in AP ability that reflects varying skill expertise in the presence of similar early age of onset of music tuition. These processes were related to different regions of brain activity, including those involved in pitch working memory (right prefrontal cortex) and the long-term representation of pitch (superior temporal gyrus). They reflected expertise through the use of context dependent pitch cues and the level of automaticity of pitch naming. They impart functional significance to structural asymmetry differences in the planum temporale of musicians and establish a neurobiological basis for an AP template. More generally, they indicate variability of knowledge representation in the presence of environmental fostering of early cognitive development that translates to differences in cognitive ability.

  12. Major League pitching workload after primary ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction and risk for revision surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Mehran, Nima; Marshall, Nathan E; Okoroha, Kelechi R; Khalil, Lafi; Tibone, James E; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2017-02-01

    Literature has attempted to correlate pitching workload with risk of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury; however, limited data are available in evaluating workload and its relationship with the need for revision reconstruction in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. We identified 29 MLB pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction surgery and subsequently required revision reconstruction and compared them with 121 MLB pitchers who underwent primary reconstruction but did not later require revision surgery. Games pitched, pitch counts, and innings pitched were evaluated and compared for the seasons after returning from primary reconstruction and for the last season pitched before undergoing revision surgery. The difference in workload between pitchers who did and did not require revision reconstruction was not statistically significant in games pitched, innings pitched, and MLB-only pitch counts. The one significant difference in workload was in total pitch counts (combined MLB and minor league), with the pitchers who required revision surgery pitching less than those who did not (primary: 1413.6 pitches vs. revision: 959.0 pitches, P = .04). In addition, pitchers who required revision surgery underwent primary reconstruction at an early age (22.9 years vs. 27.3 years, P risk for injury after primary UCL reconstruction. However, correlations of risk may be younger age and less MLB experience at the time of the primary reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Modelling a sector undergoing structural change: The case of Danish energy supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    for the demand of the produced goods. Environmental priorities and targets for emission reductions are important for defining energy policy in Denmark. As the energy supply sector at present is a major contributor to emissions of CO2 and SO2, knowledge of this sector is vital for reducing these emissions......This paper examines structural change in the power and heat producing sector (energy supply) and its implications for the economy. An integrated approach is used to describe the interactions between this sector and the rest of the economy. Thus, a very detailed model of the sector for Denmark has...... been linked to a macroeconometric model of the Danish economy. It is argued that analysing sectors that undergo radical changes, for example, the energy supply sector should be undertaken by using a model that describes the technological and organisational changes in production along with implications...

  14. Formulation and Validation of an Efficient Computational Model for a Dilute, Settling Suspension Undergoing Rotational Mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprague, Michael A.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Crawford, Nathan C.; Fischer, Paul F.

    2017-04-11

    Designing processing equipment for the mixing of settling suspensions is a challenging problem. Achieving low-cost mixing is especially difficult for the application of slowly reacting suspended solids because the cost of impeller power consumption becomes quite high due to the long reaction times (batch mode) or due to large-volume reactors (continuous mode). Further, the usual scale-up metrics for mixing, e.g., constant tip speed and constant power per volume, do not apply well for mixing of suspensions. As an alternative, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be useful for analyzing mixing at multiple scales and determining appropriate mixer designs and operating parameters. We developed a mixture model to describe the hydrodynamics of a settling cellulose suspension. The suspension motion is represented as a single velocity field in a computationally efficient Eulerian framework. The solids are represented by a scalar volume-fraction field that undergoes transport due to particle diffusion, settling, fluid advection, and shear stress. A settling model and a viscosity model, both functions of volume fraction, were selected to fit experimental settling and viscosity data, respectively. Simulations were performed with the open-source Nek5000 CFD program, which is based on the high-order spectral-finite-element method. Simulations were performed for the cellulose suspension undergoing mixing in a laboratory-scale vane mixer. The settled-bed heights predicted by the simulations were in semi-quantitative agreement with experimental observations. Further, the simulation results were in quantitative agreement with experimentally obtained torque and mixing-rate data, including a characteristic torque bifurcation. In future work, we plan to couple this CFD model with a reaction-kinetics model for the enzymatic digestion of cellulose, allowing us to predict enzymatic digestion performance for various mixing intensities and novel reactor designs.

  15. Lung studies with spiral CT. pitch 1 versus pitch 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartoni Galloni, S.; Miceli, M.; Lipparino, M.; Burzi, M.; Gigli, F.; Rossi, M.S.; Santoli, G.; Guidarelli, G.

    1999-01-01

    In Spiral CT, the pitch is the ratio of the distance to tabletop travels per 360 degrees rotation to nominal slice width, expressed in mm. Performing Spiral CT examination with pitch 2 allows to reduce examination time, exposure and contrast dose, and X-ray tube overload. The authors investigated the yield of pitch 2 in lung parenchyma studies, particular relative to diagnostic image quality [it

  16. Pitch memory and exposure effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Eitan, Zohar; Chajut, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the ability to represent absolute pitch values in long-term memory (LTM), long believed to be the possession of a small minority of trained musicians endowed with "absolute pitch" (AP), is in fact shared to some extent by a considerable proportion of the population. The current study examined whether this newly-discovered ability affects aspects of music and auditory cognition, particularly pitch learning and evaluation. Our starting points are two well establishe...

  17. H-Darrieus Wind Turbine with Blade Pitch Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paraschivoiu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for computing the optimal variation of the blades' pitch angle of an H-Darrieus wind turbine that maximizes its torque at given operational conditions is proposed and presented along with the results obtained on a 7 kW prototype. The CARDAAV code, based on the “Double-Multiple Streamtube” model developed by the first author, is used to determine the performances of the straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine. This was coupled with a genetic algorithm optimizer. The azimuthal variation of the blades' pitch angle is modeled with an analytical function whose coefficients are used as variables in the optimization process. Two types of variations were considered for the pitch angle: a simple sinusoidal one and one which is more general, relating closely the blades' pitch to the local flow conditions along their circular path. A gain of almost 30% in the annual energy production was obtained with the polynomial optimal pitch control.

  18. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  19. Airfoil Pitch Control Using Trapped Vorticity Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Daniel; Culp, John; Glezer, Ari

    2007-11-01

    Closed-loop feedback control of the attitude of a free pitching airfoil is effected without moving control surfaces by alternate actuation of nominally-symmetric trapped vorticity concentrations on the suction and pressure surfaces near the trailing edge. The pitching moment is varied with minimal lift and drag penalties over a broad range of angles of attack when the baseline flow is fully attached. Accumulation (trapping) and regulation of vorticity is managed by integrated hybrid actuators (each comprised of a miniature [O(0.01c)] obstruction and a synthetic jet actuator). In the present work, the model is trimmed using a position feedback loop and a servo motor actuator. Once the model is trimmed, the position feedback loop is opened and the servo motor acts like an inner loop control to alter the model's dynamic characteristics. Position control of the model is achieved using a reference model-based outer loop controller.

  20. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica

    ) listeners and the effect of musical training for pitch discrimination of complex tones with resolved and unresolved harmonics. Concerning the first topic, behavioral and modeling results in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) indicated that temporal envelope cues of complex tones...... discrimination to that of NH listeners. In the second part of this work, behavioral and objective measures of pitch discrimination were carried out in musicians and non-musicians. Musicians showed an increased pitch-discrimination performance relative to non-musicians for both resolved and unresolved harmonics...... for the individual pitch-discrimination abilities, the musically trained listeners still allocated lower processing effort than did the non-musicians to perform the task at the same performance level. This finding suggests an enhanced pitch representation along the auditory system in musicians, possibly as a result...

  1. Improvements of an objective model of compressed breasts undergoing mammography: Generation and characterization of breast shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Alejandro; Feng, Steve Si Jia; van Zelst, Jan; Vreemann, Suzan; Mann, Jessica Rice; D'Orsi, Carl Joseph; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2017-06-01

    To develop a set of accurate 2D models of compressed breasts undergoing mammography or breast tomosynthesis, based on objective analysis, to accurately characterize mammograms with few linearly independent parameters, and to generate novel clinically realistic paired cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views of the breast. We seek to improve on an existing model of compressed breasts by overcoming detector size bias, removing the nipple and non-mammary tissue, pairing the CC and MLO views from a single breast, and incorporating the pectoralis major muscle contour into the model. The outer breast shapes in 931 paired CC and MLO mammograms were automatically detected with an in-house developed segmentation algorithm. From these shapes three generic models (CC-only, MLO-only, and joint CC/MLO) with linearly independent components were constructed via principal component analysis (PCA). The ability of the models to represent mammograms not used for PCA was tested via leave-one-out cross-validation, by measuring the average distance error (ADE). The individual models based on six components were found to depict breast shapes with accuracy (mean ADE-CC = 0.81 mm, ADE-MLO = 1.64 mm, ADE-Pectoralis = 1.61 mm), outperforming the joint CC/MLO model (P ≤ 0.001). The joint model based on 12 principal components contains 99.5% of the total variance of the data, and can be used to generate new clinically realistic paired CC and MLO breast shapes. This is achieved by generating random sets of 12 principal components, following the Gaussian distributions of the histograms of each component, which were obtained from the component values determined from the images in the mammography database used. Our joint CC/MLO model can successfully generate paired CC and MLO view shapes of the same simulated breast, while the individual models can be used to represent with high accuracy clinical acquired mammograms with a small set of parameters. This is the first

  2. 77 FR 69569 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: Pitch and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... owner operations. The aircraft has a conventional configuration with a low wing and T-tail empennage. The primary structure is metal with composite empennage and control surfaces. The Model EMB-550..., Aircraft Certification Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington 98057-3356; telephone 425-227-2011...

  3. A study of the surfacing bubbles speed in a physical model representing a layer of liquid coal pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begunov, A.I.; Yakovleva, A.A. [Irkutsk State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    The authors investigated the motion characteristics of the gas bubbles originating in the baked part of Soderberg anodes and barbotating through the liquid layer of the anodic paste. This study was conducted sing a physical model with paraffin representing the column of anodic paste. The column height of the model liquid was changed from 0.2 to 0.5 m, which corresponds to the liquid layer heights in a real anode. The dependence of the vertical gas bubble speed on the liquid layer height above the level on which the bubble was formed was studied and an empirical equation was found to describe this dependence in terms of mathematical powers. The numerical values of the hydrodynamic resistance coefficients for surfacing bubbles were determined, which vary from 1 {center_dot} 10{sup {minus}5} to 6 {center_dot} 10{sup {minus}5}.

  4. The pitch-heave dynamics of transportation vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, L. M.; Richardson, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis and design of suspensions for vehicles of finite length using pitch-heave models is presented. Dynamic models for the finite length vehicle include the spatial distribution of the guideway input disturbance over the vehicle length, as well as both pitch and heave degrees-of-freedom. Analytical results relate the vehicle front and rear accelerations to the pitch and heave natural frequencies, which are functions of vehicle suspension geometry and mass distribution. The effects of vehicle asymmetry and suspension contact area are evaluated. Design guidelines are presented for the modification of vehicle and suspension parameters to meet alternative ride quality criteria.

  5. Fault Detection and Isolation for Wind Turbine Electric Pitch System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiangsheng; Ma, Kuichao; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based fault detection and isolation scheme applied on electric pitch system of wind turbines. Pitch system is one of the most critical components due to its effect on the operational safety and the dynamics of wind turbines. Faults in this system should be precisely...... detected to prevent failures and decrease downtime. To detect faults of electric pitch actuators and sensors, an extended kalman filter (EKF) based multiple model adaptive estimation (MMAE) designed to estimate the states of the system. The proposed method is demonstrated in case studies. The simulation...... results show that the proposed method detects different fault scenarios of wind turbines under the stochastic external condition....

  6. Pitch perception beyond the traditional existence region of pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenham, Andrew J.; Micheyl, Christophe; Keebler, Michael V.

    2011-01-01

    Humans’ ability to recognize musical melodies is generally limited to pure-tone frequencies below 4 or 5 kHz. This limit coincides with the highest notes on modern musical instruments and is widely believed to reflect the upper limit of precise stimulusdriven spike timing in the auditory nerve. We...... tested the upper limits of pitch and melody perception in humans using pure and harmonic complex tones, such as those produced by the human voice and musical instruments, in melody recognition and pitchmatching tasks. We found that robust pitch perception can be elicited by harmonic complex tones...... with fundamental frequencies below 2 kHz, even when all of the individual harmonics are above 6 kHz—well above the currently accepted existence region of pitch and above the currently accepted limits of neural phase locking. The results suggest that the perception of musical pitch at high frequencies...

  7. Lagrangian-based investigation of the transient flow structures around a pitching hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Huang, Biao; Wang, Guoyu

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to address the transient flow structures around a pitching hydrofoil by combining physical and numerical studies. In order to predict the dynamic behavior of the flow structure effectively, the Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) defined by the ridges of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) are utilized under the framework of Navier-Stokes flow computations. In the numerical simulations, the k-ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model, coupled with a two-equation γ {-Re}_θ transition model, is used for the turbulence closure. Results are presented for a NACA66 hydrofoil undergoing slowly and rapidly pitching motions from 0° to 15° then back to 0° at a moderate Reynolds number Re=7.5× 105. The results reveal that the transient flow structures can be observed by the LCS method. For the slowly pitching case, it consists of five stages: quasi-steady and laminar, transition from laminar to turbulent, vortex development, large-scale vortex shedding, and reverting to laminar. The observation of LCS and Lagrangian particle tracers elucidates that the trailing edge vortex is nearly attached and stable during the vortex development stage and the interaction between the leading and trailing edge vortex caused by the adverse pressure gradient forces the vortexes to shed downstream during the large-scale vortex shedding stage, which corresponds to obvious fluctuations of the hydrodynamic response. For the rapidly pitching case, the inflection is hardly to be observed and the stall is delayed. The vortex formation, interaction, and shedding occurred once instead of being repeated three times, which is responsible for just one fluctuation in the hydrodynamic characteristics. The numerical results also show that the FTLE field has the potential to identify the transient flows, and the LCS can represent the divergence extent of infinite neighboring particles and capture the interface of the vortex region.

  8. Energy and pitch-angle dispersions of LLBL/cusp ions seen at middle altitudes: predictions by the open magnetosphere model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are presented of the ion distribution functions seen by middle-altitude spacecraft in the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL and cusp regions when reconnection is, or has recently been, taking place at the equatorial magnetopause. From the evolution of the distribution function with time elapsed since the field line was opened, both the observed energy/observation-time and pitch-angle/energy dispersions are well reproduced. Distribution functions showing a mixture of magnetosheath and magnetospheric ions, often thought to be a signature of the LLBL, are found on newly opened field lines as a natural consequence of the magnetopause effects on the ions and their flight times. In addition, it is shown that the extent of the source region of the magnetosheath ions that are detected by a satellite is a function of the sensitivity of the ion instrument . If the instrument one-count level is high (and/or solar-wind densities are low, the cusp ion precipitation detected comes from a localised region of the mid-latitude magnetopause (around the magnetic cusp, even though the reconnection takes place at the equatorial magnetopause. However, if the instrument sensitivity is high enough, then ions injected from a large segment of the dayside magnetosphere (in the relevant hemisphere will be detected in the cusp. Ion precipitation classed as LLBL is shown to arise from the low-latitude magnetopause, irrespective of the instrument sensitivity. Adoption of threshold flux definitions has the same effect as instrument sensitivity in artificially restricting the apparent source regionKey words. Low-latitude boundary layer · Cusp regions · Open magnetosphere model · Mid-altitudes

  9. Pitch Sequence Complexity and Long-Term Pitcher Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Bock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Winning one or two games during a Major League Baseball (MLB season is often the difference between a team advancing to post-season play, or “waiting until next year”. Technology advances have made it feasible to augment historical data with in-game contextual data to provide managers immediate insights regarding an opponent’s next move, thereby providing a competitive edge. We developed statistical models of pitcher behavior using pitch sequences thrown during three recent MLB seasons (2011–2013. The purpose of these models was to predict the next pitch type, for each pitcher, based on data available at the immediate moment, in each at-bat. Independent models were developed for each player’s most frequent four pitches. The overall predictability of next pitch type is 74:5%. Additional analyses on pitcher predictability within specific game situations are discussed. Finally, using linear regression analysis, we show that an index of pitch sequence predictability may be used to project player performance in terms of Earned Run Average (ERA and Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP over a longer term. On a restricted range of the independent variable, reducing complexity in selection of pitches is correlated with higher values of both FIP and ERA for the players represented in the sample. Both models were significant at the α = 0.05 level (ERA: p = 0.022; FIP: p = 0.0114. With further development, such models may reduce risk faced by management in evaluation of potential trades, or to scouts assessing unproven emerging talent. Pitchers themselves might benefit from awareness of their individual statistical tendencies, and adapt their behavior on the mound accordingly. To our knowledge, the predictive model relating pitch-wise complexity and long-term performance appears to be novel.

  10. The effect of an integrated education model on anxiety and uncertainty in patients undergoing cervical disc herniation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Mei-Fang; Tung, Heng-Hsin; Clinciu, Daniel L; Huang, Jing-Shan; Iqbal, Usman; Chang, Chih-Ju; Su, I-Chang; Lai, Fu-Chih; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2016-09-01

    Educating patients about receiving surgical procedures is becoming an important issue, as it can reduce anxiety and uncertainty while helping to hasten decisions for undergoing time sensitive surgeries. We evaluated a new integrated education model for patients undergoing cervical disc herniation surgery using a quasi-experimental design. The participants were grouped into either the new integrated educational model (n = 32) or the standard group (n = 32) on the basis of their ward numbers assigned at admission. Anxiety, uncertainty, and patient satisfaction were measured before (pre-test) and after the educational intervention (post-test-1) and post-surgery (post-test-2) to assess the effectiveness of the model in this intervention. We found that the generalized estimating equation modeling demonstrated this new integrated education model was more effective than the conventional model in reducing patients' anxiety and uncertainty (p approach to individual health. This novel systemic educational model enhances patient's understanding of the medical condition and surgery while promoting patient-caregiver interaction for optimal patient health outcomes. We present a comprehensive and consistent platform for educational purposes in patients undergoing surgery as well as reducing the psychological burden from anxiety and uncertainty. Integrating medicine, nursing, and new technologies into an e-practice and e-learning platform offers the potential of easier understanding and usage. It could revolutionize patient education in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Series pid pitch controller of large wind turbines generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micić Aleksandar D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For this stable process with oscillatory dynamics, characterized with small damping ratio and dominant transport delay, design of the series PID pitch controller is based on the model obtained from the open-loop process step response, filtered with the second-order Butterworth filter Fbw. Performance of the series PID pitch controller, with the filter Fbw, is analyzed by simulations of the set-point and input/output disturbance responses, including simulations with a colored noise added to the control variable. Excellent performance/robustness tradeoff is obtained, compared to the recently proposed PI pitch controllers and to the modified internal model pitch controller, developed here, which has a natural mechanism to compensate effect of dominant transport delay. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47016

  12. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  13. Spectral Envelope Transformation in Singing Voice for Advanced Pitch Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Santacruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to perform a step towards more natural pitch shifting techniques in singing voice for its application in music production and entertainment systems. In this paper, we present an advanced method to achieve natural modifications when applying a pitch shifting process to singing voice by modifying the spectral envelope of the audio excerpt. To this end, an all-pole model has been selected to model the spectral envelope, which is estimated using a constrained non-linear optimization. The analysis of the global variations of the spectral envelope was carried out by identifying changes of the parameters of the model along with the changes of the pitch. With the obtained spectral envelope transformation functions, we applied our pitch shifting scheme to some sustained vowels in order to compare results with the same transformation made by using the Flex Pitch plugin of Logic Pro X and pitch synchronous overlap and add technique (PSOLA. This comparison has been carried out by means of both an objective and a subjective evaluation. The latter was done with a survey open to volunteers on our website.

  14. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eDalla Bella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15% are inaccurate singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as tone deafness, has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that pitch production (or imitation is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory on poor-pitch singing suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  15. Difficulties with Pitch Discrimination Influences Pitch Memory Performance: Evidence from Congenital Amusia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K.; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P.

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to crea...

  16. Time-lapse seismic waveform modelling and attribute analysis using hydromechanical models for a deep reservoir undergoing depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y.-X.; Angus, D. A.; Blanchard, T. D.; Wang, G.-L.; Yuan, S.-Y.; Garcia, A.

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of fluids from subsurface reservoirs induces changes in pore pressure, leading not only to geomechanical changes, but also perturbations in seismic velocities and hence observable seismic attributes. Time-lapse seismic analysis can be used to estimate changes in subsurface hydromechanical properties and thus act as a monitoring tool for geological reservoirs. The ability to observe and quantify changes in fluid, stress and strain using seismic techniques has important implications for monitoring risk not only for petroleum applications but also for geological storage of CO2 and nuclear waste scenarios. In this paper, we integrate hydromechanical simulation results with rock physics models and full-waveform seismic modelling to assess time-lapse seismic attribute resolution for dynamic reservoir characterization and hydromechanical model calibration. The time-lapse seismic simulations use a dynamic elastic reservoir model based on a North Sea deep reservoir undergoing large pressure changes. The time-lapse seismic traveltime shifts and time strains calculated from the modelled and processed synthetic data sets (i.e. pre-stack and post-stack data) are in a reasonable agreement with the true earth models, indicating the feasibility of using 1-D strain rock physics transform and time-lapse seismic processing methodology. Estimated vertical traveltime shifts for the overburden and the majority of the reservoir are within ±1 ms of the true earth model values, indicating that the time-lapse technique is sufficiently accurate for predicting overburden velocity changes and hence geomechanical effects. Characterization of deeper structure below the overburden becomes less accurate, where more advanced time-lapse seismic processing and migration is needed to handle the complex geometry and strong lateral induced velocity changes. Nevertheless, both migrated full-offset pre-stack and near-offset post-stack data image the general features of both the overburden and

  17. Reliable Fluid Power Pitch Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The key objectives of wind turbine manufactures and buyers are to reduce the Total Cost of Ownership and Total Cost of Energy. Among others, low downtime of a wind turbine is important to increase the amount of energy produced during its lifetime. Historical data indicate that pitch systems...... accounts for a substantial part of the downtime of wind turbines. With a focus on fluid power pitch systems; this paper presents an overview of methods relevant to assessing and increasing the reliability and availability of such systems. Four major areas are identified and covered; failure analysis...

  18. Identify source location and release time for pollutants undergoing super-diffusion and decay: Parameter analysis and model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, HongGuang; Lu, Bingqing; Garrard, Rhiannon; Neupauer, Roseanna M.

    2017-09-01

    Backward models have been applied for four decades by hydrologists to identify the source of pollutants undergoing Fickian diffusion, while analytical tools are not available for source identification of super-diffusive pollutants undergoing decay. This technical note evaluates analytical solutions for the source location and release time of a decaying contaminant undergoing super-diffusion using backward probability density functions (PDFs), where the forward model is the space fractional advection-dispersion equation with decay. Revisit of the well-known MADE-2 tracer test using parameter analysis shows that the peak backward location PDF can predict the tritium source location, while the peak backward travel time PDF underestimates the tracer release time due to the early arrival of tracer particles at the detection well in the maximally skewed, super-diffusive transport. In addition, the first-order decay adds additional skewness toward earlier arrival times in backward travel time PDFs, resulting in a younger release time, although this impact is minimized at the MADE-2 site due to tritium's half-life being relatively longer than the monitoring period. The main conclusion is that, while non-trivial backward techniques are required to identify pollutant source location, the pollutant release time can and should be directly estimated given the speed of the peak resident concentration for super-diffusive pollutants with or without decay.

  19. Pitch and roll hydrodynamics of a pericell hovercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, David D.

    1986-12-01

    Pitch and roll responses of hovercraft have been extremely difficult to predict due to the complexity of hydrodynamic analyses on one hand and the difficulties of appropriate cushion scale modeling on the other. The paper presents comparisons of pitch and roll stiffness coefficients for overwater and overland operations. Data are presented from model-scale and full-scale trials and analytic-numerical modeling. The effects of model-scale on the cushion dynamics relative to rotational responses are presented and the important characteristics of overwater and overland responses are discussed.

  20. Absolute pitch--electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, A; Granot, R; Pratt, H

    1994-02-01

    People who have the ability to label or to produce notes without any reference are considered to possess Absolute Pitch (AP). Others, who need a reference in order to identify the notes, possess Relative Pitch (RP). The AP ability is assumed to reflect a unique, language-like representation of non-lexical musical notes in memory. The purpose of this study was to examine this assumption by comparing Event Related Potentials (ERP) of musicians with and without AP, to lexical and non-lexical representation of musical material. Subjects were eighteen young adult musicians. Seven were AP and eleven RP. Auditory stimuli, presented through earphones, were piano notes (non-lexical) or a voice saying the note's name (lexical). Visual stimuli, presented on a computer display were note symbols (non-lexical) or letters (lexical). Subjects performed a number of tasks, combining the two modalities (visual and auditory) and stimulus types (lexical and non-lexical), and reaction times (RT), performance accuracy and evoked potentials were recorded. The tasks forced the subjects to transfer mental representations of musical material from one mode to another. Our most important findings were the differences, between groups, in the scalp distribution of P300 amplitudes. We conclude that absolute pitch possessors use the same internal language as relative pitch possessors, when possible, but the distribution of the underlying brain activity is different between AP and RP subjects.

  1. A Different Pitch to Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbert, William

    2017-01-01

    The query "When are we ever going to use this?" is easily answered when discussing the slope of a line. The pitch of a roof, the grade of a road, and stair stringers are three applications of slope that are used extensively. The concept of slope, which is introduced fairly early in the mathematics curriculum has hands-on applications…

  2. Development of a Mechanical Passive Pitch System for a 500W Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poryzala, Tomek; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Kim, Taeseong

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, manufacture, and test a mechanical passive pitch mechanism for a small horizontal axis wind turbine. Several pitching concepts were investigated in the wind industry and related fields before ultimately deciding on a centrifugal governor design concept...... in a pitch-to-stall configuration. Inertial and aerodynamic models were developed in order to predict steady-state performance and an optimization routine was created to optimize the pitch mechanism configuration subject to manufacturing constraints. Dynamic modeling in HAWC2 validated the steady......-state design code, aeroelastic simulations were performed in turbulent wind conditions to simulate the pitch system dynamics. Physical testing of the full turbine was not completed, however the hub sub-assembly was tested on its own to validate the passive pitch characteristics and showed good agreement...

  3. Dynamics of fluidic devices with applications to rotor pitch links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Lloyd H., III

    Coupling a Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composite (F2MC) to an air-pressurized fluid port produces a fundamentally new class of tunable vibration isolator. This fluidlastic device provides significant vibration reduction at an isolation frequency that can be tuned over a broad frequency range. The material properties and geometry of the F2MC element, as well as the port inertance, determine the isolation frequency. A unique feature of this device is that the port inertance depends on pressure so the isolation frequency can be adjusted by changing the air pressure. For constant port inertance, the isolation frequency is largely independent of the isolated mass so the device is robust to changes in load. A nonlinear model is developed to predict isolator length and port inertance. The model is linearized and the frequency response calculated. Experiments agree with theory, demonstrating a tunable isolation range from 9 Hz to 36 Hz and transmitted force reductions of up to 60 dB at the isolation frequency. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with coupled fluidic devices has the potential to reduce the aerodynamic blade loads transmitted through the pitch links to the swashplate. Analytical models of two fluidic devices coupled with three different fluidic circuits are derived. These passive fluidlastic systems are tuned, by varying the fluid inertances and capacitances of each fluidic circuit, to reduce the transmitted pitch-link loads. The different circuit designs result in transmitted pitch link loads reduction at up to three main rotor harmonics. The simulation results show loads reduction at the targeted out-of-phase and in-phase harmonics of up to 88% and 93%, respectively. Experimental validation of two of the fluidic circuits demonstrates loads reduction of up to 89% at the out-of-phase isolation frequencies and up to 81% at the in-phase isolation frequencies. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with fluidic pitch links changes the blade torsional

  4. Analysis of Pitch Gear Deterioration using Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    of the damage, and can be used for Bayesian updating of a damage model used for risk-based decision making. For this decision problem, the risk of failure should be compared to the cost of preventive maintenance. The hypothesis that the maximum pitch motor torque is an indicator of the damage size is supported...... by results from a measurement campaign where measurements are available both before and after maintenance was performed. The loads dramatically decreased after the maintenance. However, after a few more months of measurements, and by including data from the SCADA system, it became obvious that seasonal...

  5. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Pitch Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of age and culture on children's memory for the pitch level of familiar music. Canadian 9- and 10-year-olds distinguished the original pitch level of familiar television theme songs from foils that were pitch-shifted by one semitone, whereas 5- to 8-year-olds failed to do so (Experiment 1). In contrast, Japanese 5- and…

  6. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  7. Global distribution of the pitch canker fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. David Dwinell

    1998-01-01

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, causes diseases of pines in the United States, Haiti, Japan, Mexico, Spain, and South Africa. Pitch canker was first reported in Virginia pine in North Carolina in 1946. Although the disease was reported in Haitian pine in 1953, pitch canker was generally considered a...

  8. Application of a new combined model including radiological indicators to predict difficult airway in patients undergoing surgery for cervical spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mao; Li, Xiaoxi; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Airway management is crucial in clinical anesthesia. Many complications associated with airway management result from unexpected difficult airway, but predicting a difficult airway is a major challenge. We investigated the efficacy of a new combined model including radiological indicators to predict difficult airway in patients undergoing surgery for cervical spondylosis, a population with a high incidence of difficult airway. We randomly enrolled 303 patients scheduled for elective surgery for cervical spondylosis at Peking University Third Hospital between August 2012 and March 2013. Preoperatively, patients were evaluated for difficult airway according to a clinical index and parameters on lateral cervical radiographs and magnetic resonance images. Difficult airway was defined as Cormack-Lehane grades III-IV. Logistic regression was used to identify a combined (clinical and radiological) model for difficult airway. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to describe the effectiveness of prediction. We identified three clinical predictive factors using the ROC curve: mouth opening, sternomental distance, and neck mobility. We created a clinical model using three factors: gender, age, and mouth opening, with odds ratios (OR) of 0.370, 1.034, and 0.358, respectively. Using the clinical and radiological parameters, we formulated a combined model with five risk factors: gender, mouth opening, atlanto-occipital gap, the angle from the second to sixth cervical vertebraes in the neutral position, and the angle difference of d (the angle between the laryngeal axis and the epiglottic axis) from the neutral position to extension (OR: 0.107, 0.355, 0.846, 1.057, and 0.952, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of the combined model were 80.0% and 65.7%, respectively, and the ROC curve confirmed that the combined model was better than any single clinical predictor and the clinical model. The efficacy of the combined model including both clinical and

  9. Carbon fibers from SRC pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greskovich, Eugene J.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved method of manufacturing carbon fibers from a coal derived pitch. The improvement resides in the use of a solvent refined coal which has been hydrotreated and subjected to solvent extraction whereby the hetero atom content in the resulting product is less than 4.0% by weight and the softening point is between about 100.degree.-250.degree. F.

  10. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  11. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15%) are poor singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as "tone deafness," has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that speech production (or imitation) is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  12. An application of structural equation modeling to detect response shifts and true change in quality of life data from cancer patients undergoing invasive surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, Frans J.; Visser, Mechteld R. M.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to show how structural equation modeling can be used to detect reconceptualization, reprioritization, and recalibration response shifts in quality of life data from cancer patients undergoing invasive surgery. A consecutive series of 170 newly diagnosed cancer patients,

  13. Can Mathematical Models Predict the Outcomes of Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Intermittent Androgen Deprivation Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, R. A.; Packer, A. M.; Kuang, Y.

    Androgen deprivation therapy is a common treatment for advanced or metastatic prostate cancer. Like the normal prostate, most tumors depend on androgens for proliferation and survival but often develop treatment resistance. Hormonal treatment causes many undesirable side effects which significantly decrease the quality of life for patients. Intermittently applying androgen deprivation in cycles reduces the total duration with these negative effects and may reduce selective pressure for resistance. We extend an existing model which used measurements of patient testosterone levels to accurately fit measured serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. We test the model's predictive accuracy, using only a subset of the data to find parameter values. The results are compared with those of an existing piecewise linear model which does not use testosterone as an input. Since actual treatment protocol is to re-apply therapy when PSA levels recover beyond some threshold value, we develop a second method for predicting the PSA levels. Based on a small set of data from seven patients, our results showed that the piecewise linear model produced slightly more accurate results while the two predictive methods are comparable. This suggests that a simpler model may be more beneficial for a predictive use compared to a more biologically insightful model, although further research is needed in this field prior to implementing mathematical models as a predictive method in a clinical setting. Nevertheless, both models are an important step in this direction.

  14. Ball Speed and Release Consistency Predict Pitching Success in Major League Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, David; Martini, Douglas N; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goulet, Grant C

    2016-07-01

    Whiteside, D, Martini, DN, Zernicke, RF, and Goulet, GC. Ball speed and release consistency predict pitching success in Major League Baseball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-This study aimed to quantify how ball flight kinematics (i.e., ball speed and movement), release location, and variations therein relate to pitching success in Major League Baseball (MLB). One hundred ninety starting MLB pitchers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Ball trajectory information was collected for 76,000 pitches and inserted into a forward stepwise multiple regression model, which examined how (a) pitch selection, (b) ball speed, (c) ball movement (horizontal and lateral), (d) release location (horizontal and lateral), (e) variation in pitch speed, (f) variation in ball movement, and (g) variation in release location related to pitching success (as measured by fielding independent pitching-FIP). Pitch speed, release location variability, variation in pitch speed, and horizontal release location were significant predictors of FIP and, collectively, accounted for 24% of the variance in FIP. These findings suggest that (a) maximizing ball speed, (b) refining a consistent spatial release location, and (c) using varied pitch speeds should be primary foci for the pitching coach. However, between-pitcher variations underline how training interventions should be administered at the individual level, with consideration given to the pitcher's injury history. Finally, despite offering significant predictors of success, these three factors explained only 22% of the variance in FIP and should not be considered the only, or preeminent, indicators of a pitcher's effectiveness. Evidently, traditional pitching metrics only partly account for a pitcher's effectiveness, and future research is necessary to uncover the remaining contributors to success.

  15. Heroes and Villains: The Relationship between Pitch Tessitura and Sociability of Operatic Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shanahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in speech prosody and ethology suggests that pitch height indexes positive and negative social affects, in the sense that higher pitched voices are used to convey friendliness, whereas lower pitched voices are used to convey aggression (Bolinger, 1964. Research concerning animal calls suggests that this association generalizes to many species. In a study of the calls for 56 species, Morton (1977, 1994 proposed a sound-size model in which large size (and low pitch is associated with aggression, whereas small size (and high pitch is associated with friendliness, fear, or appeasement. We examine whether this association can be observed in music. Specifically, the results of three studies are reported in which the pitch-height of various voices is related to estimates of the sociability of the corresponding operatic characters. Results indeed indicate an association between lower-pitched voices and less sociable characters, in contrast to higher-pitched voices being associated with more sociable characters. In addition, older male characters tend to exhibit lower-pitched voices, consistent with known physiological changes (Linville, 2004; Reubold, Harrington & Kleber, 2010.

  16. Formulation and Validation of a Computational Model for a Dilute Biomass Slurry Undergoing Rotational Mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprague, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stickel, Jonathan J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sitaraman, Hariswaran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Crawford, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-17

    In this paper we develop a computational model for the mixing and transport of a dilute biomass slurry. The objective was to create a sufficiently simple and efficient model for biomass transport that can be coupled with reaction models for the study of conversion of cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Our target system is 5%-by-mass ..alpha..-cellulose, which is our proxy for more complex lignocellulosic biomass. In the authors' previous work, an experimental investigation with ..alpha..-cellulose under two vane-mixer configurations showed a bifurcation between a settling regime, for which settling effects dominate, and a suspended regime, for which solids are mostly suspended. Here, a mixed-fluid model was chosen, for which the model for the mixture-velocity field is the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations under the Boussinesq approximation for buoyancy. Solids transport includes solids motion due to diffusion, settling, advection, and shear. Comparison of simulated and experimental results show good agreement in the suspended regime, and in capturing the bifurcation rate. While the model captured well the distribution of solids in the settling regime, the model was incapable of capturing the high torque values seen in experiments with vanishing mixer rotation rate.

  17. Pitch Correlogram Clustering for Fast Speaker Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jhanwar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian mixture models (GMMs are commonly used in text-independent speaker identification systems. However, for large speaker databases, their high computational run-time limits their use in online or real-time speaker identification situations. Two-stage identification systems, in which the database is partitioned into clusters based on some proximity criteria and only a single-cluster GMM is run in every test, have been suggested in literature to speed up the identification process. However, most clustering algorithms used have shown limited success, apparently because the clustering and GMM feature spaces used are derived from similar speech characteristics. This paper presents a new clustering approach based on the concept of a pitch correlogram that captures frame-to-frame pitch variations of a speaker rather than short-time spectral characteristics like cepstral coefficient, spectral slopes, and so forth. The effectiveness of this two-stage identification process is demonstrated on the IVIE corpus of 110 speakers. The overall system achieves a run-time advantage of 500% as well as a 10% reduction of error in overall speaker identification.

  18. Numerical Prediction of Hydromechanical Behaviour of Controllable Pitch Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Tarbiat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research described in this paper was carried out to predict hydrodynamic and frictional forces of controllable pitch propeller (CPP that bring about fretting problems in a blade bearing. The governing equations are Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS and are solved by OpenFOAM solver for hydrodynamic forces behind the ship’s wake. Frictional forces are calculated by practical mechanical formulae. Different advance velocities with constant rotational speed for blades are used to achieve hydrodynamic coefficients in open water and the wake behind the propeller. Results are compared at four different pitches. Detailed numerical results of 3D modelling of the propeller, hydrodynamic characteristics, and probability of the fretting motion in the propeller are presented. Results show that the probability of the fretting movement is related to the pitch.

  19. Modelling of the mechanical behaviour of porcine carotid artery undergoing inflation-deflation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vychytil J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of porcine carotid artery are examined using Tissue bath MAYFLOWER, Perfusion of tubular organs Version, Type 813/6. Pressure-diameter diagrams are obtained for fixed axial extension and volumetric flow rate. Finite element analysis of the experiment, performed using COMSOL software, indicates a negligible effect of given flow rate on the mechanical response of the tested sample. Also the effect of clamped ends is shown to be local only. Hence, static analysis in MATLAB software is performed considering the arterial segment as an incompressible hyperelastic axisymmetric tube. Residual stress at the load-free configuration is taken into account resulting in the overall stiffening of the model. Comparison of theoretical and experimental pressure-diameter curves results in the identification of material parameters using the least square method. In addition to classical hyperelastic models, such as the neo-Hookean and the Fung’s exponential, two-scale model mimicking arrangement of soft tissue is considered.

  20. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones) differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.

  1. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmei Jiang

    Full Text Available Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.

  2. Formulation and validation of a computational model for a dilute biomass slurry undergoing rotational mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Michael; Stickel, Jonathan; Sitaraman, Hariswaran

    2017-11-01

    In this work we focus on development and validation of a computational fluid dynamics model of a dilute biomass slurry, which is a highly viscous particle-laden fluid for which settling effects can dominate. We model the biomass slurry as a generalized Newtonian fluid that includes biomass-concentration-dependent viscosity and solids transport due to settling and shear. We solve the model with the Nek5000 spectral-finite-element code in a simple vane mixer and calculate the torque as a function of various rotation rates. We compare simulation results against those from experiments for a suspension of 5% wt alpha-cellulose in water. Excellent agreement is demonstrated in the well-mixed regime, and the model satisfactorily captures the transition from the well-mixed regime (at higher rotation rates) to the settled regime (at low rotation rates), but is unable to capture the yield-stress behavior evident in experiments as the rotation rate goes to zero. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Funding was provided by U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  3. Joint Pitch and DOA Estimation Using the ESPRIT method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yuntao; Amir, Leshem; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of joint multi-pitch and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for multi-channel harmonic sinusoidal signals is considered. A spatio-temporal matrix signal model for a uniform linear array is defined, and then the ESPRIT method based on subspace techniques that exploits...

  4. The musical environment and auditory plasticity: Hearing the pitch of percussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M Mclachlan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although musical skills clearly improve with training, pitch processing has generally been believed to be biologically determined by the behavior of brain stem neural mechanisms. Two main classes of pitch models have emerged over the last 50 years. Harmonic template models have been used to explain cross-channel integration of frequency information, and waveform periodicity models have been used to explain pitch discrimination that is much finer than the resolution of the auditory nerve. It has been proposed that harmonic templates are learnt from repeated exposure to voice, and so it may also be possible to learn inharmonic templates from repeated exposure to inharmonic music instruments. This study investigated whether pitch-matching accuracy for inharmonic percussion instruments was better in people who have trained on these instruments and could reliably recognize their timbre. We found that adults who had trained with Indonesian gamelan instruments were better at recognizing and pitch-matching gamelan instruments than people with similar levels of music training, but no prior exposure to these instruments. These findings suggest that gamelan musicians were able to use inharmonic templates to support accurate pitch processing for these instruments. We suggest that recognition mechanisms based on spectrotemporal patterns of afferent auditory excitation in the early stages of pitch processing allow rapid priming of the lowest frequency partial of inharmonic timbres, explaining how music training can adapt pitch processing to different musical genres and instruments.

  5. The musical environment and auditory plasticity: hearing the pitch of percussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Neil M; Marco, David J T; Wilson, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    Although musical skills clearly improve with training, pitch processing has generally been believed to be biologically determined by the behavior of brain stem neural mechanisms. Two main classes of pitch models have emerged over the last 50 years. Harmonic template models have been used to explain cross-channel integration of frequency information, and waveform periodicity models have been used to explain pitch discrimination that is much finer than the resolution of the auditory nerve. It has been proposed that harmonic templates are learnt from repeated exposure to voice, and so it may also be possible to learn inharmonic templates from repeated exposure to inharmonic music instruments. This study investigated whether pitch-matching accuracy for inharmonic percussion instruments was better in people who have trained on these instruments and could reliably recognize their timbre. We found that adults who had trained with Indonesian gamelan instruments were better at recognizing and pitch-matching gamelan instruments than people with similar levels of music training, but no prior exposure to these instruments. These findings suggest that gamelan musicians were able to use inharmonic templates to support accurate pitch processing for these instruments. We suggest that recognition mechanisms based on spectrotemporal patterns of afferent auditory excitation in the early stages of pitch processing allow rapid priming of the lowest frequency partial of inharmonic timbres, explaining how music training can adapt pitch processing to different musical genres and instruments.

  6. Estudio piloto del modelo técnico de ejecución del pitch a captura de pies en gimnasia acrobática. (A pilot study of technical model during a simulated toe pitch to catch in gymnastics acrobatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio León-Prados

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En Gimnasia Acrobática (GA el Toe Pitch to Catch (TPC es una acción técnica muy usual, lo que motiva la necesidad de proporcionar un modelo técnico del movimiento que permita facilitar la compresión de los factores relacionados con su ejecución. Se analizaron 12 ejecuciones sin penalizaciones técnicas realizadas por una pareja mixta de GA utilizando técnicas de fotogrametría y dinamometría. Para el análisis se dividió el movimiento en tres fases: Impulsión, Vuelo y Recepción. Los resultados indicaron que el valor máximo de fuerza en la Fase de Impulsión fue de 2,67 ± 0,06 BW (PC: Peso Corporal, BW: Body Weigth mientras que en la de Recepción fue de 2,78 ± 0,30 PC: Peso Corporal. En el modelo técnico individual analizado se destaca cómo en la Fase de Impulsión es más importante optimizar el impulso aplicado que la fuerza máxima. Durante la Fase de Vuelo, sobresale la alta reproducibilidad en los intentos satisfactorios de la altura alcanzada por el Top para facilitar su posterior recepción. Finalmente durante la Fase de Recepción, se destaca la acción de frenado del Base con el fin de minimizar las fuerzas de reacción verticales del suelo en los movimientos de recepción del Top.AbstractIn acrobatic gymnastics Toe Pitch to Catch (TPC is one of the most traditional skill. The aim of the study was to provide a technical model of the skill to facilitate the understanding of the principal factors associated with the execution. In order to elaborate the model, 12 tryouts without technical deductions performed by a mixed pair of gymnasts were analyzed using techniques of photogrammetric and dynamometry. The movement was divided into three different phases for analysing purposes: Propulsion, Flight and Reception. Results indicated that maximum value of the force during the Propulsion Phase was 2,67 ± 0,06 BW, whereas during the Reception Phase the value obtained was 2,78 ± 0,30 BW. In the technical model analyzed highlights

  7. Overview and Design of self-acting pitch control mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine using multi body simulation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2014-01-01

    mechanism is given. A pitch control linkage mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine is modeled by multi-body approach using MSC Software. Aerodynamic loads are predicted from a mathematical model based on double multiple stream tube method. An appropriate airfoil which works at low Reynolds number...... is selected for blade design. It is also focused on commercialization of the vertical axis wind turbine which incorporates the self-acting pitch control system. These aerodynamic load model will be coupled with the multi-body model in future work for optimization of the pitch control linkage mechanism. A 500...... problem of self-start inability and has low power coefficient as compare to the horizontal axis wind turbine. These two problems can be eliminated by incorporating the blade pitching mechanism. So, in this paper overview of various pitch control systems is discussed and design of self-acting pitch...

  8. Pitch perception in the first year of life: A comparison of lexical tones and musical pitch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Stevens, Catherine; Kager, R.W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Pitch variation is pervasive in speech, regardless of the language to which infants are exposed. Lexical tone is influenced by general sensitivity to pitch. We examined whether the development in lexical tone perception may develop in parallel with perception of pitch in other cognitive domains

  9. Parasites pitched against nature: Pitch Lake water protects guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from microbial and gyrodactylid infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Mohammed, Ryan S; Coogan, Michael P; McMullan, Mark; Gillingham, Emma L; VAN Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2012-11-01

    SUMMARY The enemy release hypothesis proposes that in parasite depleted habitats, populations will experience relaxed selection and become more susceptible (or less tolerant) to pathogenic infections. Here, we focus on a population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that are found in an extreme environment (the Pitch Lake, Trinidad) and examine whether this habitat represents a refuge from parasites. We investigated the efficacy of pitch in preventing microbial infections in Pitch Lake guppies, by exposing them to dechlorinated water, and reducing gyrodactylid infections on non-Pitch Lake guppies by transferring them to Pitch Lake water. We show that (i) natural prevalence of ectoparasites in the Pitch Lake is low compared to reference populations, (ii) Pitch Lake guppies transferred into aquarium water develop microbial infections, and (iii) experimentally infected guppies are cured of their gyrodactylid infections both by natural Pitch Lake water and by dechlorinated water containing solid pitch. These results indicate a role for Pitch Lake water in the defence of guppies from their parasites and suggest that Pitch Lake guppies might have undergone enemy release in this extreme environment. The Pitch Lake provides an ideal ecosystem for studies on immune gene evolution in the absence of parasites and long-term evolutionary implications of hydrocarbon pollution for vertebrates.

  10. Numeric aspects in pitch identification: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenzer Michael

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pitch identification had yielded unique response patterns compared to other auditory skills. Selecting one out of numerous pitches distinguished this task from detecting a pitch ascent. Encoding of numerous stimuli had activated the intraparietal sulcus in the visual domain. Therefore, we hypothesized that numerosity encoding during pitch identification activates the intraparietal sulcus as well. Methods To assess pitch identification, the participants had to recognize a single pitch from a set of four possible pitches in each trial. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI disentangled neural activation during this four-pitch-choice task from activation during pitch contour perception, tone localization, and pitch discrimination. Results Pitch identification induced bilateral activation in the intraparietal sulcus compared to pitch discrimination. Correct responses in pitch identification correlated with activation in the left intraparietal sulcus. Pitch contour perception activated the superior temporal gyrus conceivably due to the larger range of presented tones. The differentiation between pitch identification and tone localization failed. Activation in an ACC-hippocampus network distinguished pitch discrimination from pitch identification. Conclusion Pitch identification is distinguishable from pitch discrimination on the base of activation in the IPS. IPS activity during pitch identification may be the auditory counterpart of numerosity encoding in the visual domain.

  11. Application of a diffusion model to measure ion leakage of resurrection plant leaves undergoing desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailova, Gergana; Kocheva, Konstantina; Goltsev, Vasilij; Kalaji, Hazem M; Georgieva, Katya

    2018-04-01

    Haberlea rhodopensis is a chlorophyll-retaining resurrection plant, which can survive desiccation to air dry state under both low light and sunny environments. Maintaining the integrity of the membrane during dehydration of resurrection plants is extremely important. In the present study, the diffusion model was improved and used for a first time to evaluate the changes in ion leakage through different cellular compartments upon desiccation of H. rhodopensis and to clarify the reasons for significant increase of electrolyte leakage from dry leaves. The applied diffusion approach allowed us to distinguish the performance of plants subjected to dehydration and subsequent rehydration under different light intensities. Well-hydrated (control) shade plants had lower and slower electrolyte leakage compared to control sun plants as revealed by lower values of phase amplitudes, lower rate constants and ion concentration. In well-hydrated and moderately dehydrated plants (50% relative water content, RWC) ion efflux was mainly due to leakage from apoplast. The electrolyte leakage sharply increased in severely desiccated leaves (8% RWC) from both sun and shade plants mainly due to ion efflux from symplast. After 1 day of rehydration the electrolyte leakage was close to control values, indicating fast recovery of plants. We suggest that the enhanced leakage in air-dried leaves should not be considered as damage but rather as a survival mechanism based on a reversible modification in the structure of cell wall, plasma membrane and alterations in vacuolar system of the cells. However, further studies should be conducted to investigate the changes in cell wall/plasma membrane to support this conclusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-optimizing Pitch Control for Large Scale Wind Turbine Based on ADRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Anjun; Hu, Guoqing; Li, Zheng; Huang, Dongxiao; Wang, Fengxiang

    2018-01-01

    Since wind turbine is a complex nonlinear and strong coupling system, traditional PI control method can hardly achieve good control performance. A self-optimizing pitch control method based on the active-disturbance-rejection control theory is proposed in this paper. A linear model of the wind turbine is derived by linearizing the aerodynamic torque equation and the dynamic response of wind turbine is transformed into a first-order linear system. An expert system is designed to optimize the amplification coefficient according to the pitch rate and the speed deviation. The purpose of the proposed control method is to regulate the amplification coefficient automatically and keep the variations of pitch rate and rotor speed in proper ranges. Simulation results show that the proposed pitch control method has the ability to modify the amplification coefficient effectively, when it is not suitable, and keep the variations of pitch rate and rotor speed in proper ranges

  13. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Performance in pitch discrimination tasks is limited by variability intrinsic to listeners which may arise from peripheral auditory coding limitations or more central noise sources. Perceptual limitations may be characterized by measuring an observer’s change in performance when introducting...... external noise in the physical stimulus (Lu and Dosher, 2008). The present study used this approach to attempt to quantify the “internal noise” involved in pitch coding of harmonic complex tones by estimating the amount of harmonic roving required to impair pitch discrimination performance. It remains...... a matter of debate whether pitch perception of natural complex sounds mostly relies on either spectral excitation-based information or temporal periodicity information. Comparing the way internal noise affects the internal representations of such information to how it affects pitch discrimination...

  14. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)) and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces) on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p lower limbs during baseball pitching. Key pointsHigh-ball-velocity pitchers are characterized by greater momentum of the lower limbs during pitching motion.For high-pitched-ball velocity, stabilizing lower limbs during pitching plays an important role in order to increase the rotation and forward motion of the trunk.Computation of the lower-extremity kinetics and measurement of lower-extremity strength may help clarify the role of muscle strength in determining knee and hip function in baseball pitching.

  15. Melanoma cells undergo aggressive coalescence in a 3D Matrigel model that is repressed by anti-CD44.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Wessels

    Full Text Available Using unique computer-assisted 3D reconstruction software, it was previously demonstrated that tumorigenic cell lines derived from breast tumors, when seeded in a 3D Matrigel model, grew as clonal aggregates which, after approximately 100 hours, underwent coalescence mediated by specialized cells, eventually forming a highly structured large spheroid. Non-tumorigenic cells did not undergo coalescence. Because histological sections of melanomas forming in patients suggest that melanoma cells migrate and coalesce to form tumors, we tested whether they also underwent coalescence in a 3D Matrigel model. Melanoma cells exiting fragments of three independent melanomas or from secondary cultures derived from them, and cells from the melanoma line HTB-66, all underwent coalescence mediated by specialized cells in the 3D model. Normal melanocytes did not. However, coalescence of melanoma cells differed from that of breast-derived tumorigenic cell lines in that they 1 coalesced immediately, 2 underwent coalescence as individual cells as well as aggregates, 3 underwent coalescence far faster and 4 ultimately formed long, flat, fenestrated aggregates that were extremely dynamic. A screen of 51 purified monoclonal antibodies (mAbs targeting cell surface-associated molecules revealed that two mAbs, anti-beta 1 integrin/(CD29 and anti-CD44, blocked melanoma cell coalescence. They also blocked coalescence of tumorigenic cells derived from a breast tumor. These results add weight to the commonality of coalescence as a characteristic of tumorigenic cells, as well as the usefulness of the 3D Matrigel model and software for both investigating the mechanisms regulating tumorigenesis and screening for potential anti-tumorigenesis mAbs.

  16. Model of oronasal rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome undergoing rapid maxillary expansion: Research review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Luca; Lorusso, Paola; Caprioglio, Alberto; Magnani, Augusta; Diaféria, Giovana; Bittencourt, Lia; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is a widely used practice in orthodontics. Scientific evidence shows that RME can be helpful in modifying the breathing pattern in mouth-breathing patients. In order to promote the restoration of physiological breathing we have developed a rehabilitation program associated with RME in children. The aim of the study was a literature review and a model of orofacial rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing treatment with rapid maxillary expansion. Muscular training (local exercises and general ones) is the key factor of the program. It also includes hygienic and behavior instructions as well as other therapeutic procedures such as rhinosinusal washes, a postural re-education (Alexander technique) and, if necessary, a pharmacological treatment aimed to improve nasal obstruction. The program should be customized for each patient. If RME is supported by an adequate functional rehabilitation, the possibility to change the breathing pattern is considerably amplified. Awareness, motivation and collaboration of the child and their parents, as well as the cooperation among specialists, such as orthodontist, speech therapist, pediatrician and otolaryngologist, are necessary conditions to achieve the goal. PMID:26483933

  17. Model of oronasal rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome undergoing rapid maxillary expansion: Research review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Levrini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid maxillary expansion (RME is a widely used practice in orthodontics. Scientific evidence shows that RME can be helpful in modifying the breathing pattern in mouth-breathing patients. In order to promote the restoration of physiological breathing we have developed a rehabilitation program associated with RME in children. The aim of the study was a literature review and a model of orofacial rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing treatment with rapid maxillary expansion. Muscular training (local exercises and general ones is the key factor of the program. It also includes hygienic and behavior instructions as well as other therapeutic procedures such as rhinosinusal washes, a postural re-education (Alexander technique and, if necessary, a pharmacological treatment aimed to improve nasal obstruction. The program should be customized for each patient. If RME is supported by an adequate functional rehabilitation, the possibility to change the breathing pattern is considerably amplified. Awareness, motivation and collaboration of the child and their parents, as well as the cooperation among specialists, such as orthodontist, speech therapist, pediatrician and otolaryngologist, are necessary conditions to achieve the goal.

  18. Pitch memory, labelling and disembedding in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela

    2003-05-01

    Autistic musical savants invariably possess absolute pitch ability and are able to disembed individual musical tones from chords. Enhanced pitch discrimination and memory has been found in non-savant individuals with autism who also show superior performance on visual disembedding tasks. These experiments investigate the extent that enhanced disembedding ability will be found within the musical domain in autism. High-functioning children with autism, together with age- and intelligence-matched controls, participated in three experiments testing pitch memory, labelling and chord disembedding. The findings from experiment 1 showed enhanced pitch memory and labelling in the autism group. In experiment 2, when subjects were pre-exposed to labelled individual tones, superior chord segmentation was also found. However, in experiment 3, when disembedding performance was less reliant on pitch memory, no group differences emerged and the children with autism, like controls, perceived musical chords holistically. These findings indicate that pitch memory and labelling is superior in autism and can facilitate performance on musical disembedding tasks. However, when task performance does not rely on long-term pitch memory, autistic children, like controls, succumb to the Gestalt qualities of chords.

  19. Timing matters: The processing of pitch relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin eWeise

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms, impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone of a pair higher than pitch of 1st tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs. We measured the Mismatch Negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations to 2nd tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone lower. A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms. In the Long Gap condition the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms, but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms. Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing.

  20. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.

    2004-05-01

    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  1. Development of carbon-carbon composites from solvent extracted pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-24

    There are several methods used to fabricate carbon-carbon composites. One used extensively in the fabrication of aerospace components such as rocket nozzles and reentry vehicle nosetips, as well as commercial components for furnace fixturing and glass manufacturing, is the densification of a woven preform with molten pitch, and the subsequent conversion of the pitch to graphite through heat treatment. Two types of pitch are used in this process; coal tar pitch and petroleum pitch. The objective of this program was to determine if a pitch produced by the direct extraction of coal could be used as a substitute for these pitches in the fabrication of carbon-carbon composites. The program involved comparing solvent extracted pitch with currently accepted pitches and rigidizing a carbon-carbon preform with solvent extracted pitch for comparison with carbon-carbon fabricated with currently available pitch.

  2. Pitch Synchronous Segmentation of Speech Signals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pitch Synchronous Segmentation (PSS) that accelerates speech without changing its fundamental frequency method could be applied and evaluated for use at NASA....

  3. Objective correlates of pitch salience using pupillometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Santurette, Sébastien; Wendt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    the frequency region and F 0 , were considered. Pupil size was measured for each condition, while the subjects’ task was to detect the deviants by pressing a response button. The expected trend was that pupil size would increase with decreasing salience. Results for musically trained listeners showed......Although objective correlates of pitch salience have been investigated in several neuroimaging studies, the results remain controversial. In the present study, a novel approach to objectively estimate pitch salience was used. Pupil dilation was measured as an indicator of the required effort...... in performing a pitch discrimination task for complex tones of varying pitch salience. It has been shown that cognitive processing demands of the task can be reflected in the pupil response, whereby pupil size dilates when cognitive load increases. The hypothesis was that pupil size would increase...

  4. Major League Baseball pitch velocity and pitch type associated with risk of ulnar collateral ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Marshall, Nathan E; Guest, John-Michael; Okoroha, Kelechi R; Jung, Edward K; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2016-04-01

    The number of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers requiring ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions is increasing. Recent literature has attempted to correlate specific stresses placed on the throwing arm to risk for UCL injury, with limited results. Eighty-three MLB pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction were evaluated. Pitching velocity and percent of pitch type thrown (fastball, curve ball, slider, and change-up) were evaluated 2 years before and after surgery. Data were compared with control pitchers matched for age, position, size, innings pitched, and experience. The evaluation of pitch velocity compared with matched controls found no differences in pre-UCL reconstruction pitch velocities for fastballs (91.5 vs. 91.2 miles per hour [mph], P = .69), curveballs (78.2 vs. 77.9 mph, P = .92), sliders (83.3 vs. 83.5 mph, P = .88), or change-ups (83.9 vs. 83.8 mph, P = .96). When the percentage of pitches thrown was evaluated, UCL reconstructed pitchers pitch significantly more fastballs than controls (46.7% vs. 39.4%, P = .035). This correlated to a 2% increase in risk for UCL injury for every 1% increase in fastballs thrown. Pitching more than 48% fastballs was a significant predictor of UCL injury, because pitchers over this threshold required reconstruction (P = .006). MLB pitchers requiring UCL reconstruction do not pitch at higher velocities than matched controls, and pitch velocity does not appear to be a risk factor for UCL reconstruction. However, MLB pitchers who pitch a high percentage of fastballs may be at increased risk for UCL injury because pitching a higher percent of fastballs appears to be a risk factor for UCL reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Wavelet Scattering on the Pitch Spiral

    OpenAIRE

    Lostanlen, Vincent; Mallat, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    We present a new representation of harmonic sounds that linearizes the dynamics of pitch and spectral envelope, while remaining stable to deformations in the time-frequency plane. It is an instance of the scattering transform, a generic operator which cascades wavelet convolutions and modulus nonlinearities. It is derived from the pitch spiral, in that convolutions are successively performed in time, log-frequency, and octave index. We give a closed-form approximation of spiral scattering coe...

  6. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively. Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages. This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population, we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of

  7. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H D; Ha, Louisa Y Y; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture

  8. Improved Methods for Pitch Synchronous Linear Prediction Analysis of Speech

    OpenAIRE

    劉, 麗清

    2015-01-01

    Linear prediction (LP) analysis has been applied to speech system over the last few decades. LP technique is well-suited for speech analysis due to its ability to model speech production process approximately. Hence LP analysis has been widely used for speech enhancement, low-bit-rate speech coding in cellular telephony, speech recognition, characteristic parameter extraction (vocal tract resonances frequencies, fundamental frequency called pitch) and so on. However, the performance of the co...

  9. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-Ting; Zhang, Cheng-Xiang; Nan, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  10. Determination of football pitch locations from video footage and official pitch markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Alison; Hunter, Adam; Brown, Nicholas

    2009-06-01

    The ability to determine a specific location on a football (soccer) pitch from television footage would provide a cost-effective method of obtaining competition-specific information on many professional and international teams. This study presents the accuracy and reliability of a new method of calculating ball location from simulated television coverage and known pitch markings. The coordinates of 99 markers of known location on a football pitch were digitized from video. An intersection point was determined from the equations of two lines that form pitch markings and the relationship from this point to other known pitch coordinates was calculated using a curve-fitting based method. Average error between known and reconstructed measures was 0.21 m for pitch width and 0.11 m for pitch length from a view simulating television coverage. Inter- and intra-rater reliability analyses showed researchers could consistently reconstruct pitch locations to within less than half a metre. The accuracy and reliability of this method will be sufficient for most practical uses in an applied sport environment, although the level of accuracy required will depend on the specific application. This method could be applied to other sports to determine specific locations on a pitch or court or to improve current competition analysis systems.

  11. Perceptual Pitch Deficits Coexist with Pitch Production Difficulties in Music but Not Mandarin Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-xia eYang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics. To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, 8 amusics, 8 tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  12. Familiarity and preference for pitch probability profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Anja-Xiaoxing; Collett, Meghan J; Troje, Niko F; Cuddy, Lola L

    2015-05-01

    We investigated familiarity and preference judgments of participants toward a novel musical system. We exposed participants to tone sequences generated from a novel pitch probability profile. Afterward, we either asked participants to identify more familiar or we asked participants to identify preferred tone sequences in a two-alternative forced-choice task. The task paired a tone sequence generated from the pitch probability profile they had been exposed to and a tone sequence generated from another pitch probability profile at three levels of distinctiveness. We found that participants identified tone sequences as more familiar if they were generated from the same pitch probability profile which they had been exposed to. However, participants did not prefer these tone sequences. We interpret this relationship between familiarity and preference to be consistent with an inverted U-shaped relationship between knowledge and affect. The fact that participants identified tone sequences as even more familiar if they were generated from the more distinctive (caricatured) version of the pitch probability profile which they had been exposed to suggests that the statistical learning of the pitch probability profile is involved in gaining of musical knowledge.

  13. Characterization of pitches by liquid chromatography using cellulose 3,5-dinitrobenzoate as the packing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, K.; Judo, R.; Ota, E. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-08-01

    Characterization of coal tar, petroleum and PVC pitches by a liquid chromatography using cellulose 3,5-dinitrobenzoate (DNB-cellulose) as the packing material was investigated. Separation mechanism based on charge-transfer interaction between the dinitrobenzoyl group and polyaromatic compounds was expected to be useful for separation of the constituents of the pitches. First, 26 model polyaromatic compounds were tested to examine the characteristic feature of the packing material by liquid chromatography. The compounds were found to be classified roughly into four groups with different retention volume, principally according to the number of condensed rings. The nonplanar structure and aliphatic side chain of the polyaromatic compounds also affected the separation behavior. Both benzene soluble-hexane soluble and benzene soluble-hexane insoluble fractions of the three pitches were separated on DNB-cellulose. It was found that coal tar pitch contains relatively large amounts of some highly condensed polyaromatic compounds with condensed rings of 4 to 5; petroleum pitch has small amounts of such specific highly condensed polyaromatic compounds, while PVC pitch has large amounts of less condensed polyaromatic compounds and there is no significant amount of highly condensed compound in it. Thus DNB-cellulose was useful as the convenient packing material for liquid chromatography to characterize pitches.

  14. Control and Optimization of a Variable-Pitch Quadrotor with Minimum Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a rapid growth of interest in quadrotors with electric variable-pitch propellers. The control and optimization of such propellers are important factors for improving the flight performance of the vehicles. Therefore, the steady-state identification method to estimate the parameters of the mathematical model of the electric variable-pitch propeller is developed. The steady-state control and optimization scheme with minimum power consumption and the adaptive compensation scheme for the variable-pitch propeller are then proposed, based on which the response performance of the lift force produced by the variable-pitch propeller can be greatly improved by using a cascade compensation scheme. Furthermore, the direct lift-based flight control strategy is presented, which can significantly contribute to the improvement of the flight performance, precisely because the roll, pitch, yaw and vertical channels of the variable-pitch quadrotor are approximately linearized and completely decoupled from each other in this case. The experimental results demonstrate that both the endurance performance and the positioning accuracy of the variable-pitch quadrotor are improved simultaneously by using the proposed method with minimum power consumption.

  15. Study on transient stability of wind turbine with induction generator based on variable pitch control strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, B.; Li, H.; Han, L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to enhance and improve the transient stability of a grid-connected wind turbine generator system under the power grid fault, based on typical pitch control strategy of wind turbine, considering the wind turbine system oscillation caused by the drive-train shaft flexibility, Based on Matlab....../Simulink, electromagnetic transient state models of the wind tubine generator system and the pitch control models were presented, and the transient behaviors of the wind turbine genarator system using the typical and the proposed pitch control strategies were analyzed and compared when the power grid was subjected...... to a three-phase short-circuit fault. Also the results were compared with using reactive compensation device. The simulation results show that the proposed pitch control strategy can effectively improve the transient stability of wind turbine generator system....

  16. Study on transient stability of wind turbine with induction generator based on variable pitch control strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, B.; Li, H.; Han, L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to enhance and improve the transient stability of a grid-connected wind turbine generator system under the power grid fault, based on typical pitch control strategy of wind turbine, considering the wind turbine system oscillation caused by the drive-train shaft flexibility, Based on Matlab...... to a three-phase short-circuit fault. Also the results were compared with using reactive compensation device. The simulation results show that the proposed pitch control strategy can effectively improve the transient stability of wind turbine generator system......./Simulink, electromagnetic transient state models of the wind tubine generator system and the pitch control models were presented, and the transient behaviors of the wind turbine genarator system using the typical and the proposed pitch control strategies were analyzed and compared when the power grid was subjected...

  17. Compliance effects on dynamically pitching wind turbine airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magstadt, Andrew S.

    The effects of elastic compliance in dynamically pitching wind turbine blades have been investigated. A numerical model guided wind tunnel testing, which used unsteady surface pressure measurements and phase-locked Particle Imaging Velocimetry to gather aerodynamic information. Using a torsionally compliant member, aeroelastic effects on the unsteady aerodynamics were compared against the results from a corresponding rigidly pitching airfoil to isolate the effects of compliance. The novel experimental apparatus and data acquisition techniques developed at the University of Wyoming showed that the presence of compliance can alter flow-field structures and increase dynamic loading. The high sensitivity of this nonlinear system suggests the formation of fluid-structure instabilities in large-scale turbines and demonstrates the potential for aerodynamic control as a means to mitigate adverse loading effects and improve wind turbine efficiency.

  18. Cosmetic Surgery Makeover Programs and Intentions to Undergo Cosmetic Enhancements: A Consideration of Three Models of Media Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L.

    2009-01-01

    The recent proliferation of reality-based television programs highlighting cosmetic surgery has raised concerns that such programming promotes unrealistic expectations of plastic surgery and increases the desire of viewers to undergo such procedures. In Study 1, a survey of 170 young adults indicated little relationship between cosmetic surgery…

  19. Spatial Rack Drives Pitch Configurations: Essence and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadjieva, Emilia; Abadjiev, Valentin; Naganawa, Akihiro

    2018-03-01

    The practical realization of all types of mechanical motions converters is preceded by solving the task of their kinematic synthesis. In this way, the determination of the optimal values of the constant geometrical parameters of the chosen structure of the created mechanical system is achieved. The searched result is a guarantee of the preliminary defined kinematic characteristics of the synthesized transmission and in the first place, to guarantee the law of motions transformation. The kinematic synthesis of mechanical transmissions is based on adequate mathematical modelling of the process of motions transformation and on the object, realizing this transformation. Basic primitives of the mathematical models for synthesis upon a pitch contact point are geometric and kinematic pitch configurations. Their dimensions and mutual position in space are the input parameters for the processes of design and elaboration of the synthesized mechanical device. The study presented here is a brief review of the theory of pitch configurations. It is an independent scientific branch of the spatial gearing theory (theory of hyperboloid gears). On this basis, the essence and content of the corresponding primitives, applicable to the synthesis of spatial rack drives, are defined.

  20. Polyphonic pitch detection and instrument separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Mert; Beauchamp, James W.

    2005-09-01

    An algorithm for polyphonic pitch detection and musical instrument separation is presented. Each instrument is represented as a time-varying harmonic series. Spectral information is obtained from a monaural input signal using a spectral peak tracking method. Fundamental frequencies (F0s) for each time frame are estimated from the spectral data using an Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm with a Gaussian mixture model representing the harmonic series. The method first estimates the most predominant F0, suppresses its series in the input, and then the EM algorithm is run iteratively to estimate each next F0. Collisions between instrument harmonics, which frequently occur, are predicted from the estimated F0s, and the resulting corrupted harmonics are ignored. The amplitudes of these corrupted harmonics are replaced by harmonics taken from a library of spectral envelopes for different instruments, where the spectrum which most closely matches the important characteristics of each extracted spectrum is chosen. Finally, each voice is separately resynthesized by additive synthesis. This algorithm is demonstrated for a trio piece that consists of 3 different instruments.

  1. Ulinastatin Protects against Acute Kidney Injury in Infant Piglets Model Undergoing Surgery on Hypothermic Low-Flow Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocou Wang

    Full Text Available Infants are more vulnerable to kidney injuries induced by inflammatory response syndrome and ischemia-reperfusion injury following cardiopulmonary bypass especially with prolonged hypothermic low-flow (HLF. This study aims to evaluate the protective role of ulinastatin, an anti-inflammatory agent, against acute kidney injuries in infant piglets model undergoing surgery on HLF cardiopulmonary bypass.Eighteen general-type infant piglets were randomly separated into the ulinastatin group (Group U, n = 6, the control group (Group C, n = 6, and the sham operation group (Group S, n = 6, and anaesthetized. The groups U and C received following experimental procedure: median thoracotomy, routine CPB and HLF, and finally weaned from CPB. The group S only underwent sham median thoracotomy. Ulinastatin at a dose of 5,000 units/kg body weight and a certain volume of saline were administrated to animals of the groups U and C at the beginning of CPB and at aortic declamping, respectively. Venous blood samples were collected at 3 different time points: after anesthesia induction in all experimental groups, 5 minutes, and 120 minutes after CPB in the Groups U and C. Markers for inflammation and acute kidney injury were tested in the collected plasma. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG from urine, markers of oxidative stress injury and TUNEL-positive cells in kidney tissues were also detected.The expressions of plasma inflammatory markers and acute kidney injury markers increased both in Group U and Group C at 5 min and 120 min after CPB. Also, numbers of TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney rose in both groups. At the time point of 120-min after CPB, compared with the Group C, some plasma inflammatory and acute kidney injury markers as well as TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney were significantly reduced in the Group U. Histologic analyses showed that HLF promoted acute tubular necrosis and dilatation

  2. Changes of oscillatory activity in pitch processing network and related tinnitus relief induced by acoustic CR neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya eAdamchic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic subjective tinnitus is characterized by abnormal neuronal synchronization in the central auditory system. As shown in a controlled clinical trial, acoustic coordinated reset (CR neuromodulation causes a significant relief of tinnitus symptoms along with a significant decrease of pathological oscillatory activity in a network comprising auditory and non-auditory brain areas, which is often accompanied with a significant tinnitus pitch change. Here, we studied if the tinnitus pitch change correlates with a reduction of tinnitus loudness and/or annoyance as assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS scores. Furthermore, we studied if the changes of the pattern of brain synchrony in tinnitus patients induced by 12 weeks of CR-therapy depend on whether or not the patients undergo a pronounced tinnitus pitch change. For this, we applied standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA to EEG recordings from two groups of patients with a sustained CR-induced relief of tinnitus symptoms with and without tinnitus pitch change. We found that absolute changes of VAS loudness and VAS annoyance scores significantly correlate with the modulus of the tinnitus pitch change. Moreover, as opposed to patients with weak or no pitch change we found a significantly stronger decrease in gamma power in patients with pronounced tinnitus pitch change in right parietal cortex (BA 1, 40, right frontal cortex (BA 8, 9, 46, and left frontal cortex (BA 4, 6, combined with a significantly stronger increase of alpha (10-12 Hz activity in the right anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32, 24. In addition, we revealed a significantly lower functional connectivity in the gamma band between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9 and the right anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32 after 12 weeks of CR-therapy in patients with pronounced pitch change. Our results indicate a substantial, CR-induced reduction of tinnitus-related auditory binding in a pitch

  3. Pitch-verticality and pitch-size cross-modal interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted on cross-modal matching between pitch and sound source localization on the vertical axis, and pitch and size. In the first study 100 Hz, 200 Hz, 600 Hz, and 800 Hz tones were emitted by a loudspeaker positioned 60 cm above or below to the participant’s ear level. Using...

  4. Processing of pitch and location in human auditory cortex during visual and auditory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Suvi; Ovaska, Noora; Rinne, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between stimulus-dependent and task-dependent activations in human auditory cortex (AC) during pitch and location processing is not well understood. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the processing of task-irrelevant and task-relevant pitch and location during discrimination, n-back, and visual tasks. We tested three hypotheses: (1) According to prevailing auditory models, stimulus-dependent processing of pitch and location should be associated with enhanced activations in distinct areas of the anterior and posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG), respectively. (2) Based on our previous studies, task-dependent activation patterns during discrimination and n-back tasks should be similar when these tasks are performed on sounds varying in pitch or location. (3) Previous studies in humans and animals suggest that pitch and location tasks should enhance activations especially in those areas that also show activation enhancements associated with stimulus-dependent pitch and location processing, respectively. Consistent with our hypotheses, we found stimulus-dependent sensitivity to pitch and location in anterolateral STG and anterior planum temporale (PT), respectively, in line with the view that these features are processed in separate parallel pathways. Further, task-dependent activations during discrimination and n-back tasks were associated with enhanced activations in anterior/posterior STG and posterior STG/inferior parietal lobule (IPL) irrespective of stimulus features. However, direct comparisons between pitch and location tasks performed on identical sounds revealed no significant activation differences. These results suggest that activations during pitch and location tasks are not strongly affected by enhanced stimulus-dependent activations to pitch or location. We also found that activations in PT were strongly modulated by task requirements and that areas in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) showed

  5. Memory for pitch in congenital amusia: beyond a fine-grained pitch discrimination problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria Jane; Stewart, Lauren

    2010-08-01

    Congenital amusia is a disorder that affects the perception and production of music. While amusia has been associated with deficits in pitch discrimination, several reports suggest that memory deficits also play a role. The present study investigated short-term memory span for pitch-based and verbal information in 14 individuals with amusia and matched controls. Analogous adaptive-tracking procedures were used to generate tone and digit spans using stimuli that exceeded psychophysically measured pitch perception thresholds. Individuals with amusia had significantly smaller tone spans, whereas their digits spans were a similar size to those of controls. An automated operation span task was used to determine working memory capacity. Working memory deficits were seen in only a small subgroup of individuals with amusia. These findings support the existence of a pitch-specific component within short-term memory and suggest that congenital amusia is more than a disorder of fine-grained pitch discrimination.

  6. Method of producing pitch (distillation residue)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, M.A.; Belkina, T.V.; Krysin, V.P.

    1979-08-15

    A method is proposed for producing pitch by mixing hard coal pitch with anthracene fraction and thermal treatment of the mixture. The method is distinguished in that in order to increase the quality of the pitch, the anthracene fraction is subjected to thermal treatment at 250-300/sup 0/ for 10-13 hours in the presence of air. This duration of heat treatment allows one to build up in the anthracene fraction up to 20-24% of material which is not soluble and toluene, without the formation of products which are not soluble in quinoline. The fraction prepared in this manner is inserted into the initial pitch in the ratio 1:2 up to 1:9, the mixture is subject to heat treatment at temperature 360-380/sup 0/ and air consumption 7-91/kgX hours until the production of pitch with softening temperature of 85-90/sup 0/. As the initial raw material we used pitch with softening temperature of 60/sup 0/, content of substances which are not soluble in quinoline, 2.0% which are not soluble and toluene 20.6% and coking residue of 49.2%. Example. 80 grams of anthracene fraction is added to 320 grams of pitch. The anthracene fraction is subjected previously to heat treatment at 300/sup 0/ for 13 hours in the presence of air, supplied in the amount of 9 liters per hour. As a result of the heat treatment of the content of materials which are not soluble in toluence in the anthracene fraction is 24.0%, in quinoline it is 0.1%. The ratio of a pitch and thermally treated anthracene fraction in the mixture was 4:l. The produced mixture was subjected to heat treatment at 360/sup 0/ for 1.5 hours with air supply in the amount of 7 liters/ kilograms/hours. Pitch is produced with the following characteristics: softening temperature 88/sup 0/, content of substances which are not soluble in toluene 32.5%, in quinilone, 6.0%, coking residue, 56.7%. The invention can be used in the chemical coking and petrochemical industry.

  7. Pitch perception deficits in nonverbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Prieto, I; Caprile, C; Tinoco-González, D; Ristol-Orriols, B; López-Sala, A; Póo-Argüelles, P; Pons, F; Navarra, J

    2016-12-01

    The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness. Participants performed four speeded tests: a stimulus detection test and three perceptual categorization tests based on colour, spatial position and pitch. Results revealed that both groups were equally fast at detecting visual targets and categorizing visual stimuli according to their colour. In contrast, the NLD group showed slower responses than the control group when categorizing space (direction of a visual object) and pitch (direction of a change in sound frequency). This pattern of results suggests the presence of a subtle deficit at judging pitch in NLD along with the traditionally-described difficulties in spatial processing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The relationship between tinnitus pitch and parameters of audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, H; Degeest, S; Dhooge, I

    2017-11-01

    Chronic tinnitus is associated with reduced auditory input, which results in changes in the central auditory system. This study aimed to examine the relationship between tinnitus pitch and parameters of audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. For audiometry, the parameters represented the edge frequency of hearing loss, the frequency of maximum hearing loss and the frequency range of hearing loss. For distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the parameters were the frequency of lowest distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes and the frequency range of reduced distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Sixty-seven patients (45 males, 22 females) with subjective chronic tinnitus, aged 18 to 73 years, were included. No correlation was found between tinnitus pitch and parameters of audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. However, tinnitus pitch fell mostly within the frequency range of hearing loss. The current study seems to confirm the relationship between tinnitus pitch and the frequency range of hearing loss, thus supporting the homeostatic plasticity model.

  9. Pitching effects of buoyancy during four competitive swimming strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raymond C Z; Cleary, Paul W; Harrison, Simon M; Mason, Bruce R; Pease, David L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pitching effects of buoyancy during all competitive swimming strokes--freestyle, backstroke, butterfly, and breaststroke. Laser body scans of national-level athletes and synchronized multiangle swimming footage were used in a novel markerless motion capture process to produce three-dimensional biomechanical models of the swimming athletes. The deforming surface meshes were then used to calculate swimmer center-of-mass (CoM) positions, center-of-buoyancy (CoB) positions, pitch buoyancy torques, and sagittal plane moments of inertia (MoI) throughout each stroke cycle. In all cases the mean buoyancy torque tended to raise the legs and lower the head; however, during part of the butterfly stroke the instantaneous buoyancy torque had the opposite effect. The swimming strokes that use opposing arm and leg strokes (freestyle and backstroke) had smaller variations in CoM positions, CoB positions, and buoyancy torques. Strokes with synchronized left-right arm and leg movement (butterfly and breaststroke) had larger variations in buoyancy torques, which impacts the swimmer's ability to maintain a horizontal body pitch for these strokes. The methodology outlined in this paper enables the rotational effects of buoyancy to be better understood by swimmers, allowing better control of streamlined horizontal body positioning during swimming to improve performance.

  10. Pitch modelling for the Nguni languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available , French and isiZulu. In the French and English databases, each (acoustic) utterance is accompanied by a laryngograph trace. The laryngograph measures the electrical resis- tance between electrodes on either side of the throat, and therefore provides a... fairly accurate measurement of the fundamental frequency that was actually pro- duced by the speaker. Hence, F0 as determined from the laryngograph data is used as ground truth when comparing the algorithms on the French and English databases. Both...

  11. Pitch-class distribution modulates the statistical learning of atonal chord sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Tatsuya; Yatomi, Yutaka; Yumoto, Masato

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated whether neural responses could demonstrate the statistical learning of chord sequences and how the perception underlying a pitch class can affect the statistical learning of chord sequences. Neuromagnetic responses to two chord sequences of augmented triads that were presented every 0.5s were recorded from fourteen right-handed participants. One sequence was a series of 360 chord triplets, each of which consisted of three chords in the same pitch class (clustered pitch-classes sequences). The other sequence was a series of 360 chord triplets, each of which consisted of three chords in different pitch classes (dispersed pitch-classes sequences). The order of the triplets was constrained by a first-order Markov stochastic model such that a forthcoming triplet was statistically defined by the most recent triplet (80% for one; 20% for the other two). We performed a repeated-measures ANOVA with the peak amplitude and latency of the P1m, N1m and P2m. In the clustered pitch-classes sequences, the P1m responses to the triplets that appeared with higher transitional probability were significantly reduced compared with those with lower transitional probability, whereas no significant result was detected in the dispersed pitch-classes sequences. Neuromagnetic significance was concordant with the results of familiarity interviews conducted after each learning session. The P1m response is a useful index for the statistical learning of chord sequences. Domain-specific perception based on the pitch class may facilitate the domain-general statistical learning of chord sequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Asymptotic Behavior of Particle Size Distribution Undergoing Brownian Coagulation Based on the Spline-Based Method and TEMOM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the particle size distribution is reconstructed using finite moments based on a converted spline-based method, in which the number of linear system of equations to be solved reduced from 4m × 4m to (m + 3 × (m + 3 for (m + 1 nodes by using cubic spline compared to the original method. The results are verified by comparing with the reference firstly. Then coupling with the Taylor-series expansion moment method, the evolution of particle size distribution undergoing Brownian coagulation and its asymptotic behavior are investigated.

  13. The Effect of Pitching Phase on the Vortex Circulation for a Flapping Wing During Stroke Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Matthew; Ringuette, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    We study the effect of pitching-phase on the circulation behavior for the 3D flow structures produced during stroke reversal for a 2-degree-of-freedom flapping wing executing hovering kinematics. Previous research has related the choice in pitching-phase with respect to the wing rotation during stroke reversal (advanced vs. symmetric pitch-timing) to a lift peak preceding stroke reversal. However, results from experiments on the time-varying circulation contributions from the 3D vortex structures across the span produced by both rotation and pitching are lacking. The objective of this research is to quantitatively examine how the spanwise circulation of these structures is affected by the pitching-phase for several reduced pitching frequencies. We employ a scaled wing model in a glycerin-water mixture and measure the time-varying velocity using multiple planes of stereo digital particle image velocimetry. Data-plane positions along the wing span are informed by the unsteady behavior of the 3D vortex structures found in our prior flow visualization movies. Individual vortices are identified to calculate their circulation. This work is aimed at understanding how the behavior of the vortex structures created during stroke reversal vary with key motion parameters. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation, Award Number 1336548, supervised by Dr. Ronald Joslin.

  14. Auditory-nerve responses predict pitch attributes related to musical consonance-dissonance for normal and impaired hearinga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M.; Heinz, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Human listeners prefer consonant over dissonant musical intervals and the perceived contrast between these classes is reduced with cochlear hearing loss. Population-level activity of normal and impaired model auditory-nerve (AN) fibers was examined to determine (1) if peripheral auditory neurons exhibit correlates of consonance and dissonance and (2) if the reduced perceptual difference between these qualities observed for hearing-impaired listeners can be explained by impaired AN responses. In addition, acoustical correlates of consonance-dissonance were also explored including periodicity and roughness. Among the chromatic pitch combinations of music, consonant intervals∕chords yielded more robust neural pitch-salience magnitudes (determined by harmonicity∕periodicity) than dissonant intervals∕chords. In addition, AN pitch-salience magnitudes correctly predicted the ordering of hierarchical pitch and chordal sonorities described by Western music theory. Cochlear hearing impairment compressed pitch salience estimates between consonant and dissonant pitch relationships. The reduction in contrast of neural responses following cochlear hearing loss may explain the inability of hearing-impaired listeners to distinguish musical qualia as clearly as normal-hearing individuals. Of the neural and acoustic correlates explored, AN pitch salience was the best predictor of behavioral data. Results ultimately show that basic pitch relationships governing music are already present in initial stages of neural processing at the AN level. PMID:21895089

  15. Auditory-nerve responses predict pitch attributes related to musical consonance-dissonance for normal and impaired hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Heinz, Michael G

    2011-09-01

    Human listeners prefer consonant over dissonant musical intervals and the perceived contrast between these classes is reduced with cochlear hearing loss. Population-level activity of normal and impaired model auditory-nerve (AN) fibers was examined to determine (1) if peripheral auditory neurons exhibit correlates of consonance and dissonance and (2) if the reduced perceptual difference between these qualities observed for hearing-impaired listeners can be explained by impaired AN responses. In addition, acoustical correlates of consonance-dissonance were also explored including periodicity and roughness. Among the chromatic pitch combinations of music, consonant intervals/chords yielded more robust neural pitch-salience magnitudes (determined by harmonicity/periodicity) than dissonant intervals/chords. In addition, AN pitch-salience magnitudes correctly predicted the ordering of hierarchical pitch and chordal sonorities described by Western music theory. Cochlear hearing impairment compressed pitch salience estimates between consonant and dissonant pitch relationships. The reduction in contrast of neural responses following cochlear hearing loss may explain the inability of hearing-impaired listeners to distinguish musical qualia as clearly as normal-hearing individuals. Of the neural and acoustic correlates explored, AN pitch salience was the best predictor of behavioral data. Results ultimately show that basic pitch relationships governing music are already present in initial stages of neural processing at the AN level. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  16. Pitch Angle Scattering of Energetic Electrons by Plasmaspheric Hiss Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobita, M.; Omura, Y.; Summers, D.

    2017-12-01

    We study scattering of energetic electrons in pitch angles and kinetic energies through their resonance with plasmaspheric hiss emissions consisting of many coherent discrete whistler-mode wave packets with rising and falling frequencies [1,2,3]. Using test particle simulations, we evaluate the efficiency of scattering, which depends on the inhomogeneity ratio S of whistler mode wave-particle interaction [4]. The value of S is determined by the wave amplitude, frequency sweep rate, and the gradient of the background magnetic field. We first modulate those parameters and observe variations of pitch angles and kinetic energies of electrons with a single wave under various S values so as to obtain basic understanding. We then include many waves into the system to simulate plasmaspheric hiss emissions. As the wave packets propagate away from the magnetic equator, the nonlinear trapping potential at the resonance velocity is deformed, making a channel of gyrophase for untrapped electrons to cross the resonance velocity, and causing modulations in their pitch angles and kinetic energies. We find efficient scattering of pitch angles and kinetic energies because of coherent nonlinear wave-particle interaction, resulting in electron precipitations into the polar atmosphere. We compare the results with the bounce averaged pitch angle diffusion coefficient based on quasi-linear theory, and show that the nonlinear wave model with many coherent packets can cause scattering of resonant electrons much faster than the quasi-linear diffusion process. [1] Summers, D., Omura, Y., Nakamura, S., and C. A. Kletzing (2014), Fine structure of plasmaspheric hiss, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 9134-9149. [2] Omura, Y., Y. Miyashita, M. Yoshikawa, D. Summers, M. Hikishima, Y. Ebihara, and Y. Kubota (2015), Formation process of relativistic electron flux through interaction with chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9545-9562. [3] Nakamura, S., Y

  17. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    to impair pitch discrimination performance. Fundamental-frequency difference limens (F0DLs) were obtained in normal-hearing listeners with and without musical training for complex tones filtered between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz with F0s of 300 Hz (resolved harmonics) and 75 Hz (unresolved harmonics). The harmonicity...

  18. Control Engineering Analysis of Mechanical Pitch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernicke, Olaf; Gauterin, Eckhard; Schulte, Horst; Zajac, Michal

    2014-12-01

    With the help of a local stability analysis the coefficient range of a discrete damper, used for centrifugal forced, mechanical pitch system of small wind turbines (SWT), is gained for equilibrium points. - By a global stability analysis the gained coefficient range can be validated. An appropriate approach by Takagi-Sugeno is presented in the paper.

  19. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  20. Adaptive pitch control for variable speed wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathryn E [Boulder, CO; Fingersh, Lee Jay [Westminster, CO

    2012-05-08

    An adaptive method for adjusting blade pitch angle, and controllers implementing such a method, for achieving higher power coefficients. Average power coefficients are determined for first and second periods of operation for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is larger than for the first, a pitch increment, which may be generated based on the power coefficients, is added (or the sign is retained) to the nominal pitch angle value for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is less than for the first, the pitch increment is subtracted (or the sign is changed). A control signal is generated based on the adapted pitch angle value and sent to blade pitch actuators that act to change the pitch angle of the wind turbine to the new or modified pitch angle setting, and this process is iteratively performed.

  1. Contour identification with pitch and loudness cues using cochlear implants

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xin; Masterson, Megan E.; Wu, Ching-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Different from speech, pitch and loudness cues may or may not co-vary in music. Cochlear implant (CI) users with poor pitch perception may use loudness contour cues more than normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Contour identification was tested in CI users and NH listeners; the five-note contours contained either pitch cues alone, loudness cues alone, or both. Results showed that NH listeners' contour identification was better with pitch cues than with loudness cues; CI users performed similarly w...

  2. Fuzzy maintenance costs of a wind turbine pitch control device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of estimation maintenance costs for the case of the pitch controls system of wind farms turbines. Previous investigations have estimated these costs as (traditional “crisp” values, simply ignoring the uncertainty nature of data and information available. This paper purposes an extended version of the estimation model by making use of the Fuzzy Set Theory. The results alert decision-makers to consequent uncertainty of the estimations along with their overall level, thus improving the information given to the mainte-nance support system.

  3. Unsteady Surface Pressure Measurements on a Pitching Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-12

    through 8 Dynamics 7512B amplifiers. The pitching motions of the airfoil were generated by 6°jN\\! 920O/_ a PDP 11/03 computer controlling a Control...acquisition system. The pressure data were used to calculate pressure 2 coefficients which were in turn integrated to compute lift coefficients. Both...Airfoils," AIAA J., Vol. 13, No. 1, 17. Gormont, R.E., "A Mathenatical Model pp 71-79, Jan 1975. of Unsteady Aerodynamics and Radial 4. McAlister, K.W

  4. Dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV. II - Pitching motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.; Maeda, H.

    The dynamic pitching characteristics of peripheral jet ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) which have a stability curtain are investigated analytically and experimentally. The measured values of moment, lift and cushion pressure are compared with numerical results noting applicability to the pitching motion. The response of ACV to the sinusoidal pitching oscillation of the ground is also studied.

  5. Characterization of Graphitization in Coal Tar and Petroleum Pitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    oven gas," composed mainly of hydrogen and methane. Some organic material still remains in the coal after the coke - oven gas is - driven off. Further...we will be concentrating on coal -tar and petroleum pitch sources (1). Pyrolysis Pyrolyzation, or pitch-to- coke transformation, takes place very...4 Pitch...........................6 Pyrolysis ..................................... 7 Coke ..........................................17 Carbonization

  6. Projected Effects of Radiation-Induced Cancers on Life Expectancy in Patients Undergoing CT Surveillance for Limited-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Markov Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Kathryn P; Turan, Ekin A; Eisenberg, Jonathan; Kong, Chung Y; Barnes, Jeffrey A; Pandharipande, Pari Vijay

    2015-06-01

    Patients with limited-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) undergo frequent posttreatment surveillance CT examinations, raising concerns about the cumulative magnitude of radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to project radiation-induced cancer risks relative to competing risks of HL and account for the differential timing of each. We adapted a previously developed Markov model to project lifetime mortality risks and life expectancy losses due to HL versus radiation-induced cancers in HL patients undergoing surveillance CT. In the base case, we modeled 35-year-old men and women undergoing seven CT examinations of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis over 5 years. Radiation-induced cancer risks and deaths for 17 organ systems were modeled using an organ-specific approach, accounting for specific anatomy exposed at CT. Cohorts of 20-, 50-, and 65-year-old men and women were evaluated in secondary analyses. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to estimate the uncertainty of radiation risk projections. For 35-year-old adults, we projected 3324/100,000 (men) and 3345/100,000 (women) deaths from recurrent lymphoma and 245/100,000 (men, 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 121-369) and 317/100,000 (women, 95% UI: 202-432) radiation-induced cancer deaths. Discrepancies in life expectancy losses between HL (428 days in men, 482 days in women) and radiation-induced cancers (11.6 days in men, [95% UI: 5.7-17.5], 15.6 days in women [95% UI: 9.8-21.4]) were proportionately greater because of the delayed timing of radiation-induced cancers relative to recurrent HL. Deaths and life expectancy losses from radiation-induced cancers were highest in the youngest cohorts. Given the low rate of radiation-induced cancer deaths associated with CT surveillance, modest CT benefits would justify its use in patients with limited-stage HL.

  7. A random forest based risk model for reliable and accurate prediction of receipt of transfusion in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitinder S Gurm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfusion is a common complication of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI and is associated with adverse short and long term outcomes. There is no risk model for identifying patients most likely to receive transfusion after PCI. The objective of our study was to develop and validate a tool for predicting receipt of blood transfusion in patients undergoing contemporary PCI. METHODS: Random forest models were developed utilizing 45 pre-procedural clinical and laboratory variables to estimate the receipt of transfusion in patients undergoing PCI. The most influential variables were selected for inclusion in an abbreviated model. Model performance estimating transfusion was evaluated in an independent validation dataset using area under the ROC curve (AUC, with net reclassification improvement (NRI used to compare full and reduced model prediction after grouping in low, intermediate, and high risk categories. The impact of procedural anticoagulation on observed versus predicted transfusion rates were assessed for the different risk categories. RESULTS: Our study cohort was comprised of 103,294 PCI procedures performed at 46 hospitals between July 2009 through December 2012 in Michigan of which 72,328 (70% were randomly selected for training the models, and 30,966 (30% for validation. The models demonstrated excellent calibration and discrimination (AUC: full model  = 0.888 (95% CI 0.877-0.899, reduced model AUC = 0.880 (95% CI, 0.868-0.892, p for difference 0.003, NRI = 2.77%, p = 0.007. Procedural anticoagulation and radial access significantly influenced transfusion rates in the intermediate and high risk patients but no clinically relevant impact was noted in low risk patients, who made up 70% of the total cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of transfusion among patients undergoing PCI can be reliably calculated using a novel easy to use computational tool (https://bmc2.org/calculators/transfusion. This risk prediction

  8. Early processing of pitch in the human auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Kimmo; Grimm, Sabine; Mateo-León, Sabina; Costa-Faidella, Jordi; Escera, Carles

    2012-10-01

    Middle-latency auditory evoked potentials, indicating early cortical processing, elicited by pitch changes and repetitions in pure tones and by complex tones with a missing-fundamental pitch were recorded in healthy adults ignoring the sounds while watching a silenced movie. Both for the pure and for the missing-fundamental tones, the Nb middle-latency response was larger for pitch changes (tones preceded by tones of different pitch) than for pitch repetitions (tones preceded by tones of the same pitch). This Nb enhancement was observed even for missing-fundamental tones preceded by repeated tones that had a different missing-fundamental pitch but included all harmonics of the subsequent tone with another missing-fundamental pitch. This finding rules out the possibility that the Nb enhancement in response to a change in missing-fundamental pitch was simply attributable to the activity of auditory cortex neurons responding specifically to the harmonics of missing-fundamental tones. The Nb effect presumably indicates pitch processing at or near the primary auditory cortex, and it was followed by a change-related enhancement of the N1 response, presumably generated in the secondary auditory cortex. This N1 enhancement might have been caused by a mismatch negativity response overlapping with the N1 response. Processing of missing-fundamental pitch was also reflected by the distribution of Nb responses. Tones with a higher missing-fundamental pitch elicited more frontally dominant Nb responses than tones with a lower missing-fundamental pitch. This effect of pitch, not seen for the pure tones, might indicate that the exact location of the Nb generator source in the auditory cortex depends on the missing-fundamental pitch of the eliciting tone. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Attending to pitch information inhibits processing of pitch information: the curious case of amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Robitaille, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-03-04

    In normal listeners, the tonal rules of music guide musical expectancy. In a minority of individuals, known as amusics, the processing of tonality is disordered, which results in severe musical deficits. It has been shown that the tonal rules of music are neurally encoded, but not consciously available in amusics. Previous neurophysiological studies have not explicitly controlled the level of attention in tasks where participants ignored the tonal structure of the stimuli. Here, we test whether access to tonal knowledge can be demonstrated in congenital amusia when attention is controlled. Electric brain responses were recorded while asking participants to detect an individually adjusted near-threshold click in a melody. In half the melodies, a note was inserted that violated the tonal rules of music. In a second task, participants were presented with the same melodies but were required to detect the tonal deviation. Both tasks required sustained attention, thus conscious access to the rules of tonality was manipulated. In the click-detection task, the pitch deviants evoked an early right anterior negativity (ERAN) in both groups. In the pitch-detection task, the pitch deviants evoked an ERAN and P600 in controls but not in amusics. These results indicate that pitch regularities are represented in the cortex of amusics, but are not consciously available. Moreover, performing a pitch-judgment task eliminated the ERAN in amusics, suggesting that attending to pitch information interferes with perception of pitch. We propose that an impaired top-down frontotemporal projection is responsible for this disorder. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353815-10$15.00/0.

  10. Estimation of Multiple Pitches in Stereophonic Mixtures using a Codebook-based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Weiss; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2017-01-01

    on the extended invariance principle (EXIP), and a codebook of realistic amplitude vectors. For each fundamental frequency candidate in each of the sources, the amplitude estimates are mapped to entries in the codebook, and the pitch and model order are estimated jointly. The performance of the proposed method......In this paper, a method for multi-pitch estimation of stereophonic mixtures of multiple harmonic signals is presented. The method is based on a signal model which takes the amplitude and delay panning parameters of the sources in a stereophonic mixture into account. Furthermore, the method is based...

  11. Voice pitch influences perceptions of sexual infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Re, Daniel E; Feinberg, David R

    2011-02-28

    Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  12. Voice Pitch Influences Perceptions of Sexual Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian J.M. O'Connor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  13. A perceptual pitch boundary in a non-human primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pitch is an auditory percept critical to the perception of music and speech, and for these harmonic sounds, pitch is closely related to the repetition rate of the acoustic wave. This paper reports a test of the assumption that non-human primates and especially rhesus monkeys perceive the pitch of these harmonic sounds much as humans do. A new procedure was developed to train macaques to discriminate the pitch of harmonic sounds and thereby demonstrate that the lower limit for pitch perception in macaques is close to 30 Hz, as it is in humans. Moreover, when the phases of successive harmonics are alternated to cause a pseudo-doubling of the repetition rate, the lower pitch boundary in macaques decreases substantially, as it does in humans. The results suggest that both species use neural firing times to discriminate pitch, at least for sounds with relatively low repetition rates.

  14. A New Model for Predicting Acute Mucosal Toxicity in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy With Altered Schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strigari, Lidia; Pedicini, Piernicola; D’Andrea, Marco; Pinnarò, Paola; Marucci, Laura; Giordano, Carolina; Benassi, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: One of the worst radiation-induced acute effects in treating head-and-neck (HN) cancer is grade 3 or higher acute (oral and pharyngeal) mucosal toxicity (AMT), caused by the killing/depletion of mucosa cells. Here we aim to testing a predictive model of the AMT in HN cancer patients receiving different radiotherapy schedules. Methods and Materials: Various radiotherapeutic schedules have been reviewed and classified as tolerable or intolerable based on AMT severity. A modified normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model has been investigated to describe AMT data in radiotherapy regimens, both conventional and altered in dose and overall treatment time (OTT). We tested the hypothesis that such a model could also be applied to identify intolerable treatment and to predict AMT. This AMT NTCP model has been compared with other published predictive models to identify schedules that are either tolerable or intolerable. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for all models, assuming treatment tolerance as the gold standard. The correlation between AMT and the predicted toxicity rate was assessed by a Pearson correlation test. Results: The AMT NTCP model was able to distinguish between acceptable and intolerable schedules among the data available for the study (AUC = 0.84, 95% confidence interval = 0.75-0.92). In the equivalent dose at 2 Gy/fraction (EQD2) vs OTT space, the proposed model shows a trend similar to that of models proposed by other authors, but was superior in detecting some intolerable schedules. Moreover, it was able to predict the incidence of ≥G3 AMT. Conclusion: The proposed model is able to predict ≥G3 AMT after HN cancer radiotherapy, and could be useful for designing altered/hypofractionated schedules to reduce the incidence of AMT.

  15. From the Cover: Correct tonotopic representation is necessary for complex pitch perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Andrew J.; Bernstein, Joshua G. W.; Penagos, Hector

    2004-02-01

    The ability to extract a pitch from complex harmonic sounds, such as human speech, animal vocalizations, and musical instruments, is a fundamental attribute of hearing. Some theories of pitch rely on the frequency-to-place mapping, or tonotopy, in the inner ear (cochlea), but most current models are based solely on the relative timing of spikes in the auditory nerve. So far, it has proved to be difficult to distinguish between these two possible representations, primarily because temporal and place information usually covary in the cochlea. In this study, "transposed stimuli" were used to dissociate temporal from place information. By presenting the temporal information of low-frequency sinusoids to locations in the cochlea tuned to high frequencies, we found that human subjects displayed poor pitch perception for single tones. More importantly, none of the subjects was able to extract the fundamental frequency from multiple low-frequency harmonics presented to high-frequency regions of the cochlea. The experiments demonstrate that tonotopic representation is crucial to complex pitch perception and provide a new tool in the search for the neural basis of pitch.

  16. Control of Pitching Airfoil Aerodynamics by Vorticity Flux Modification using Active Bleed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, John; Glezer, Ari

    2014-11-01

    Distributed active bleed driven by pressure differences across a pitching airfoil is used to regulate the vorticity flux over the airfoil's surface and thereby to control aerodynamic loads in wind tunnel experiments. The range of pitch angles is varied beyond the static stall margin of the 2-D VR-7 airfoil at reduced pitching rates up to k = 0.42. Bleed is regulated dynamically using piezoelectric louvers between the model's pressure side near the trailing edge and the suction surface near the leading edge. The time-dependent evolution of vorticity concentrations over the airfoil and in the wake during the pitch cycle is investigated using high-speed PIV and the aerodynamic forces and moments are measured using integrated load cells. The timing of the dynamic stall vorticity flux into the near wake and its effect on the flow field are analyzed in the presence and absence of bleed using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). It is shown that bleed actuation alters the production, accumulation, and advection of vorticity concentrations near the surface with significant effects on the evolution, and, in particular, the timing of dynamic stall vortices. These changes are manifested by alteration of the lift hysteresis and improvement of pitch stability during the cycle, while maintaining cycle-averaged lift to within 5% of the base flow level with significant implications for improvement of the stability of flexible wings and rotor blades. This work is supported by the Rotorcraft Center (VLRCOE) at Georgia Tech.

  17. A subspace thermodynamic model for shape memory alloy wire elements undergoing combined thermo-mechanical axial and torsional loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanth, D.; Preetish, K. L.; Srinivasan, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Given that most applications of shape memory alloys (SMA) are in the wire form, a reduced order model and analysis has been attempted in this paper. It takes into account the fact that the predominant actions are axial (bending inclusive) and torsional. A thermodynamic framework is first developed to simulate the behaviour of the SMA material under thermo-mechanical loading that is a combination of axial and shear stresses arising at a point in a wire due to axial and torsional loads applied to the wire. Since only a few variants relevant to axial-torsion are going to be active in transformation under this kind of loading, a reduced order model that tracks the evolution of four martensite variants and an austenite variant is proposed. It is shown through simulations that these five model parameters amply form a minimal set of model parameters sufficient for simulating response under tension-torsion loading excursions. The model is further applied to the structural member, in this case, a wire of circular cross-section subject to a twist and an axial extension and the capability of the model to simulate the kind of response expected in wires. Incorporation of this model into a large deformation space frame nonlinear analysis will help in the design and analysis of several applications where SMA wire forms are used.

  18. A subspace thermodynamic model for shape memory alloy wire elements undergoing combined thermo-mechanical axial and torsional loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumanth, D; Preetish, K L; Srinivasan, S M

    2014-01-01

    Given that most applications of shape memory alloys (SMA) are in the wire form, a reduced order model and analysis has been attempted in this paper. It takes into account the fact that the predominant actions are axial (bending inclusive) and torsional. A thermodynamic framework is first developed to simulate the behaviour of the SMA material under thermo-mechanical loading that is a combination of axial and shear stresses arising at a point in a wire due to axial and torsional loads applied to the wire. Since only a few variants relevant to axial-torsion are going to be active in transformation under this kind of loading, a reduced order model that tracks the evolution of four martensite variants and an austenite variant is proposed. It is shown through simulations that these five model parameters amply form a minimal set of model parameters sufficient for simulating response under tension–torsion loading excursions. The model is further applied to the structural member, in this case, a wire of circular cross-section subject to a twist and an axial extension and the capability of the model to simulate the kind of response expected in wires. Incorporation of this model into a large deformation space frame nonlinear analysis will help in the design and analysis of several applications where SMA wire forms are used. (paper)

  19. Association between abciximab and length of stay in intensive care for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A 2-stage econometric model in a naturalistic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, M J; Barber, B L; Bala, M; McCollam, P L; Ball, D E

    2000-12-01

    To examine the effect of abciximab treatment on intensive care length of stay for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A retrospective study conducted in a naturalistic setting. A 2-stage econometric model was used to control for the influence of possible selection bias across categories of patients and for both observable and unobservable factors correlated with each patient's treatment selection and length of stay in intensive care. Multivariate analysis was applied to control for a wide range of factors (patient demographics, insurance provider, health conditions, admission and discharge information, and hospital characteristics) that may influence intensive care length of stay. Retrospective data were obtained from HCIA's Clinical Pathways Database. Patients (n = 13,364) who were hospitalised in any of 87 hospitals across the US over the period from October 1, 1995 to December 1, 1996. After controlling for high-risk indications and selection bias, results indicated that administration of abciximab was associated with a significantly shorter length of stay in intensive care compared with not administering a GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor (0.45 fewer days; p < or = 0.0001). In a subgroup analysis of patients having an acute myocardial infarction (n = 4793), administration of abciximab was also associated with a significantly shorter intensive care stay (0.27 fewer days; p < 0.0001). Results of this study indicate that the administration of abciximab is associated with a reduction in the length of stay in intensive care. This reduction implies potential cost offsets for patients undergoing PCI who receive abciximab.

  20. The effects of simulating a realistic eye model on the eye dose of an adult male undergoing head computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Ebrahimi-Khankook, Atiyeh; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    In head computed tomography, radiation upon the eye lens (as an organ with high radiosensitivity) may cause lenticular opacity and cataracts. Therefore, quantitative dose assessment due to exposure of the eye lens and surrounding tissue is a matter of concern. For this purpose, an accurate eye model with realistic geometry and shape, in which different eye substructures are considered, is needed. To calculate the absorbed radiation dose of visual organs during head computed tomography scans, in this study, an existing sophisticated eye model was inserted at the related location in the head of the reference adult male phantom recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Then absorbed doses and distributions of energy deposition in different parts of this eye model were calculated and compared with those based on a previous simple eye model. All calculations were done using the Monte Carlo code MCNP4C for tube voltages of 80, 100, 120 and 140 kVp. In spite of the similarity of total dose to the eye lens for both eye models, the dose delivered to the sensitive zone, which plays an important role in the induction of cataracts, was on average 3% higher for the sophisticated model as compared to the simple model. By increasing the tube voltage, differences between the total dose to the eye lens between the two phantoms decrease to 1%. Due to this level of agreement, use of the sophisticated eye model for patient dosimetry is not necessary. However, it still helps for an estimation of doses received by different eye substructures separately.

  1. [Factors influencing the pitch and loudness of tinnitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, S; Asoh, S; Watanabe, Y

    1992-11-01

    Pitch match and loudness balance tests were given to 397 cases with tinnitus. The factors which influenced tinnitus pitch and loudness were analyzed statistically from the clinical point of view. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Onomatopoeia of tinnitus, either [Keeeen] or [Jeeeen], were observed in a majority of cases. 2) Significantly sharp sounding onomatopoeia such as [Keeeen] or [Meeeen] had high pitches, over 4kHz, and dull sounds like [Gooooh] or [Buuuun] had low pitches, below 500Hz. 3) Acute stage tinnitus, within one month of onset, had a significantly depressed pitch and walked loudness, above 6dB. 4) The pitches observed in cases with Meniere's disease and chronic otitis media were distributed evenly from low frequencies to high. In other cases, especially presbyacusis and noise deafness, high pitch tinnitus (above 4kHz) was frequently noted. The loudness of tinnitus without hearing loss was significantly greater than in other diseases. 5) As a rule the more deteriorated the hearing level was, the lower the frequency of the pitch, and the smaller the loudness in tinnitus. 6) A high pitch of tinnitus nearly corresponded with hearing type, that is, the pitch of tinnitus was also in accordance with the disturbed frequency in the hearing threshold.

  2. DAC with LQR Control Design for Pitch Regulated Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Raja Muhammad; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    and 5MW National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) wind turbine is used in this research. We have shown comparison of results relating to pitch angle, drive train torsion and generator speed obtained by a PID controller and DAC. Simulations are performed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results are compared...... with PID controller for a step wind and also for turbulent wind disturbance. DAC method shows better regulation in output power and less fatigue of drive train in the presence of pitch actuator limits. Proposed controller tested on wind turbine shows better robustness and stability as compared to PID......Disturbance Accommodation Control (DAC) is used to model and simulate a system with known disturbance waveform. This paper presents a control scheme to mitigate the effect of disturbances by using collective pitch control for the aboverated wind speed (Region III) for a variable speed wind turbine...

  3. Absolute Pitch in Oral Transmission of Folk Tunes as Constrained Random Walks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Frieler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this commentary, I would like to add a few of our own, still unpublished, empirical observations concerning the possible role of absolute pitch memory (APM in the oral transmission of folksongs. This empirical data poses some questions about the likelihood of the observed inter-recording tonic pitch consistency of Olthof, Janssen & Honing (2015 and how these observations could come about. Based on simulations of absolute pitch class of tonics during oral transmission of folk songs, I argue that the interplay of melodic range and vocal range might actually be the main reason for the observed non-uniformity, in contrast to the conclusions presented in Olthof et al. (2015. However, this does not invalidate the therein-presented evidence, but makes the case more puzzling, consequently calling for more empirical research on the interaction of melodic and vocal range and latent APM as well as for more detailed modeling of oral transmission of folk songs.

  4. Individual Pitch Control for Mitigation of Power Fluctuation of Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    the rated wind speed conditions. Three pitch angles are adjusted separately according to the generator output power and the azimuth angle of the wind turbine. The IPC strategy scheme is proposed and the individual pitch controller is designed. The simulations are performed on the NREL (National Renewable......Grid connected wind turbines are the sources of power fluctuations during continuous operation due to wind speed variation, wind shear and tower shadow effects. This paper presents an individual pitch control (IPC) strategy to mitigate the wind turbine power fluctuation at both above and below...... Energy Laboratory) 1.5MW upwind reference wind turbine model. The simulation results are presented and discussed to show the validity of the proposed control method....

  5. Tuning the pitch of a wine glass by playing with the liquid inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Matthieu; Guirao, Boris; Fort, Emmanuel

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that the pitch of the sound produced by an excited glass shell can be tuned by adding some liquid in it. In this paper, it will be proved that the distribution of the liquid inside the shell plays a crucial role in this frequency shift. Thus it provides another way to tune the pitch of the sound by modifying the liquid distribution inside the glass. Both adding a cylinder in the liquid or rotating it results in a pitch lowering. A simple model based on energy conservation is in good agreement with the measured experimental results. This paper assumes some basic knowledge about mechanics and hydrodynamics. It addresses instructors of physics at the undergraduate and advanced secondary school level as well as their students.

  6. Pitch angle resolved measurements of escaping charged fusion products in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the flux of charged fusion products escaping from the TFTR plasma have been made with a new type of detector which can resolve the particle flux vs. pitch angle, energy, and time. The design of this detector is described, and results from the 1987 TFTR run are presented. These results are roughly consistent with predictions from a simple first-orbit particle loss model with respect to the pitch angle, energy, time, and plasma current dependence of the signals. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Kinematics of a vertical axis wind turbine with a variable pitch angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Mateusz; Starosta, Roman; Fritzkowski, Pawel

    2018-01-01

    A computational model for the kinematics of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is presented. A H-type rotor turbine with a controlled pitch angle is considered. The aim of this solution is to improve the VAWT productivity. The discussed method is related to a narrow computational branch based on the Blade Element Momentum theory (BEM theory). The paper can be regarded as a theoretical basis and an introduction to further studies with the application of BEM. The obtained torque values show the main advantage of using the variable pitch angle.

  8. Estimating temporal trend in the presence of spatial complexity: a Bayesian hierarchical model for a wetland plant population undergoing restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Rodhouse

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs that evaluate restoration and inform adaptive management are important for addressing environmental degradation. These efforts may be well served by spatially explicit hierarchical approaches to modeling because of unavoidable spatial structure inherited from past land use patterns and other factors. We developed bayesian hierarchical models to estimate trends from annual density counts observed in a spatially structured wetland forb (Camassia quamash [camas] population following the cessation of grazing and mowing on the study area, and in a separate reference population of camas. The restoration site was bisected by roads and drainage ditches, resulting in distinct subpopulations ("zones" with different land use histories. We modeled this spatial structure by fitting zone-specific intercepts and slopes. We allowed spatial covariance parameters in the model to vary by zone, as in stratified kriging, accommodating anisotropy and improving computation and biological interpretation. Trend estimates provided evidence of a positive effect of passive restoration, and the strength of evidence was influenced by the amount of spatial structure in the model. Allowing trends to vary among zones and accounting for topographic heterogeneity increased precision of trend estimates. Accounting for spatial autocorrelation shifted parameter coefficients in ways that varied among zones depending on strength of statistical shrinkage, autocorrelation and topographic heterogeneity--a phenomenon not widely described. Spatially explicit estimates of trend from hierarchical models will generally be more useful to land managers than pooled regional estimates and provide more realistic assessments of uncertainty. The ability to grapple with historical contingency is an appealing benefit of this approach.

  9. Finger forces in fastball baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Obata, Satoshi; Nasu, Daiki; Kadota, Koji; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2017-08-01

    Forces imparted by the fingers onto a baseball are the final, critical aspects for pitching, however these forces have not been quantified previously as no biomechanical technology was available. In this study, an instrumented baseball was developed for direct measurement of ball reaction force by individual fingers and used to provide fundamental information on the forces during a fastball pitch. A tri-axial force transducer with a cable having an easily-detachable connector were installed in an official baseball. Data were collected from 11 pitchers who placed the fingertip of their index, middle, ring, or thumb on the transducer, and threw four-seam fastballs to a target cage from a flat mound. For the index and middle fingers, resultant ball reaction force exhibited a bimodal pattern with initial and second peaks at 38-39ms and 6-7ms before ball release, and their amplitudes were around 97N each. The ring finger and thumb produced single-peak forces of approximately 50 and 83N, respectively. Shear forces for the index and middle fingers formed distinct peak at 4-5ms before release, and the peaks summed to 102N; a kinetic source for backspin on the ball. An additional experiment with submaximal pitching effort showed a linear relationship of peak forces with ball velocity. The peak ball reaction force for fastballs exceeded 80% of maximum finger strength measured, suggesting that strengthening of the distal muscles is important both for enhancing performance and for avoiding injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. How to pitch a brilliant idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsbach, Kimberly D

    2003-09-01

    Coming up with creative ideas is easy; selling them to strangers is hard. Entrepreneurs, sales executives, and marketing managers often go to great lengths to demonstrate how their new concepts are practical and profitable--only to be rejected by corporate decision makers who don't seem to understand the value of the ideas. Why does this happen? Having studied Hollywood executives who assess screenplay pitches, the author says the person on the receiving end--the "catcher"--tends to gauge the pitcher's creativity as well as the proposal itself. An impression of the pitcher's ability to come up with workable ideas can quickly and permanently overshadow the catcher's feelings about an idea's worth. To determine whether these observations apply to business settings beyond Hollywood, the author attended product design, marketing, and venture-capital pitch sessions and conducted interviews with executives responsible for judging new ideas. The results in those environments were similar to her observations in Hollywood, she says. Catchers subconsciously categorize successful pitchers as showrunners (smooth and professional), artists (quirky and unpolished), or neophytes (inexperienced and naive). The research also reveals that catchers tend to respond well when they believe they are participating in an idea's development. As Oscar-winning writer, director, and producer Oliver Stone puts it, screen-writers pitching an idea should "pull back and project what he needs onto your idea in order to make the story whole for him." To become a successful pitcher, portray yourself as one of the three creative types and engage your catchers in the creative process. By finding ways to give your catchers a chance to shine, you sell yourself as a likable collaborator.

  11. Tiles CMUT dies with pitch uniformity

    OpenAIRE

    Sudol, W.; Dirksen, P.; Henneken, V.A.; Dekker, R.; Louwerse, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    A large aperture CMUT transducer array is formed of a plurality of adjacently located tiles of CMUT cells. The adjacent edges of the tiles are formed by an anisotropic etch process, preferably a deep reactive ion etching process which is capable of cutting through the die and its substrate while maintaining vertical edges in close proximity to the CMUT cells at the edge of the tile. This enables the CMUT cells of continuous rows or columns to exhibit a constant pitch over multiple CMUT cell t...

  12. Left-hemisphere activation is associated with enhanced vocal pitch error detection in musicians with absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Robin, Donald A; Larson, Charles R

    2014-02-01

    The ability to process auditory feedback for vocal pitch control is crucial during speaking and singing. Previous studies have suggested that musicians with absolute pitch (AP) develop specialized left-hemisphere mechanisms for pitch processing. The present study adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm combined with ERP recordings to test the hypothesis whether the neural mechanisms of the left-hemisphere enhance vocal pitch error detection and control in AP musicians compared with relative pitch (RP) musicians and non-musicians (NM). Results showed a stronger N1 response to pitch-shifted voice feedback in the right-hemisphere for both AP and RP musicians compared with the NM group. However, the left-hemisphere P2 component activation was greater in AP and RP musicians compared with NMs and also for the AP compared with RP musicians. The NM group was slower in generating compensatory vocal reactions to feedback pitch perturbation compared with musicians, and they failed to re-adjust their vocal pitch after the feedback perturbation was removed. These findings suggest that in the earlier stages of cortical neural processing, the right hemisphere is more active in musicians for detecting pitch changes in voice feedback. In the later stages, the left-hemisphere is more active during the processing of auditory feedback for vocal motor control and seems to involve specialized mechanisms that facilitate pitch processing in the AP compared with RP musicians. These findings indicate that the left hemisphere mechanisms of AP ability are associated with improved auditory feedback pitch processing during vocal pitch control in tasks such as speaking or singing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  14. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch perception...... was linked to a specific deficit, the auditory profiles of the individual listeners were characterized using measures of loudness perception, cognitive ability, binaural processing, temporal fine structure processing, and frequency selectivity, in addition to common audiometric measures. Two of the listeners...... sensation coexisted with a loss of a binaural signal-detection advantage in noise, without implying reduced cognitive function. Auditory filter bandwidths did not correlate with the difference in pitch identification scores between binaural and monaural pitches. However, subjects with impaired binaural...

  15. Robust Pitch Estimation Using an Optimal Filter on Frequency Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    In many scenarios, a periodic signal of interest is often contaminated by different types of noise that may render many existing pitch estimation methods suboptimal, e.g., due to an incorrect white Gaussian noise assumption. In this paper, a method is established to estimate the pitch of such sig......In many scenarios, a periodic signal of interest is often contaminated by different types of noise that may render many existing pitch estimation methods suboptimal, e.g., due to an incorrect white Gaussian noise assumption. In this paper, a method is established to estimate the pitch...... against different noise situations. The simulation results confirm that the proposed MVDR method outperforms the state-of-the-art weighted least squares (WLS) pitch estimator in colored noise and has robust pitch estimates against missing harmonics in some time-frames....

  16. Target pitch angle for the microburst escape maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    Recovery performance of a commuter-type aircraft in a microburst encounter is studied using a constant-pitch-attitude strategy and flight path optimization. Results obtained indicate that the pitch attitude which maximized climb rate in a wind shear condition is strongly dependent on whether the aircraft is subjected to a horizontal shear or a downdraft. The pitch attitude which maximizes ground clearance depends on the altitude of the encounter, the strength of the microburst, and the initial position of the aircraft with respect to the downburst core. Best results are obtained at relatively low target pitch angles, in severe wind shear encounters at very low altitudes. A technique for maximizing ground clearance involves maintaining a low pitch attitude early in the encounter, followed by a gradual pitch-up that ceases when the wind shear has been excited.

  17. An analytical model for shape memory alloy fiber-reinforced composite thin-walled beam undergoing large deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The structural model of the thin-walled laminated beams with integral shape memory alloy active fibers and accounting for geometrically nonlinear is presented in this article. The structural modeling is split into two parts: a two-dimensional analysis over the cross section and a geometrically nonlinear analysis of a beam along the beam span. The variational asymptotic method is used to formulate the force–deformation relationship equations taking into account the presence of active shape memory alloy fibers distributed along the cross section of the beam. The geometrically nonlinear governing equations are derived using variational principle and based on the von Kármán-type nonlinear strain–displacement relations. The equations are then solved using Galerkin’s method and an incremental Newton–Raphson method. The validation for the proposed model has been carried out by comparison of the present results with those available in the literature. The results show that significant extension, bending, and twisting coupled nonlinear deflections occur during the phase transformation due to shape memory alloy actuation. The effects of the volume fraction of the shape memory alloy fiber and ply angle are also addressed.

  18. Macrophages Undergo M1-to-M2 Transition in Adipose Tissue Regeneration in a Rat Tissue Engineering Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijin; Xu, Fangfang; Wang, Zhifa; Dai, Taiqiang; Ma, Chao; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yanpu

    2016-10-01

    Macrophages are involved in the full processes of tissue healing or regeneration and play an important role in the regeneration of a variety of tissues. Although recent evidence suggests the role of different macrophage phenotypes in adipose tissue expansion, metabolism, and remodeling, the spectrum of macrophage phenotype in the adipose tissue engineering field remains unknown. The present study established a rat model of adipose tissue regeneration using a tissue engineering chamber. Macrophage phenotypes were assessed during the regenerative process in the model. Neo-adipose tissue was generated 6 weeks after implantation. Macrophages were obvious in the chamber constructs 3 days after implantation, peaked at day 7, and significantly decreased thereafter. At day 3, macrophages were predominantly M1 macrophages (CCR7+), and there were few M2 macrophages (CD206+). At day 7, the percentage of M2 macrophages significantly increased and remained stable at day 14. M2 macrophages became the predominant macrophage population at 42 days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated transition of cytokines from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory, which was consistent with the transition of macrophage phenotype from M1 to M2. These results showed distinct transition of macrophage phenotypes from a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to an anti-inflammatory M2 in adipose tissue regeneration in our tissue engineering model. This study provides new insight into macrophage phenotype transition in the regeneration of adipose tissue. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV. III - Coupling motion of heaving and pitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.; Maeda, H.

    The paper presents the dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) which has two degrees of freedom, i.e., heaving and pitching motion. The experiments are carried out for an ACV model, noting that the experimental results agree considerably with the analytical values. Furthermore, the response characteristics of ACV induced by the ground board oscillations of various modes are also investigated.

  20. Wake visualization of a heaving and pitching foil in a soap film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijres, F.T.; Lentink, D.

    2007-01-01

    Many fish depend primarily on their tail beat for propulsion. Such a tail is commonly modeled as a two-dimensional flapping foil. Here we demonstrate a novel experimental setup of such a foil that heaves and pitches in a soap film. The vortical flow field generated by the foil correlates with

  1. Pitch Motion Stabilization by Propeller Speed Control Using Statistical Controller Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakatani, Toshihiko; Blanke, Mogens; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes dynamics analysis of a small training boat and a possibility of ship pitch stabilization by control of propeller speed. After upgrading the navigational system of an actual small training boat, in order to identify the model of the ship, the real data collected by sea trials...

  2. Analysis of the Pendular and Pitch Motions of a Driven Three-Dimensional Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, T.; Yoshida, S.; Norwood, D. P.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional pendulum, modelled after the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory's suspended optics, was constructed to investigate the pendulum's dynamics due to suspension point motion. In particular, we were interested in studying the pendular-pitch energy coupling. Determination of the pendular's Q value (the quality factor…

  3. Teaching of Intonation Patterns to the Deaf Using the Instantaneous Pitch-Period Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolansky, Ladislav; And Others

    The research was concerned with the experimental use of Model II of the Instantaneous Pitch-Period Indicator (IPPI) with deaf subjects, and with the design and construction of a portable unit. Deaf adults and deaf children participated in training programs designed to develop more effective patterns of speech using the IPPI for visual monitoring…

  4. Cyclic pitch for the control of wind turbine noise amplitude modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    that can model the different aerodynamic and aeroacoustic aspects of the study is presented. Parameters controlling the cyclic pitch are optimized in order to reduce amplitude modulation and/or fatigue load to a minimum. It is shown that such a minimum can be found and that benefit may be achieved...

  5. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzella, Patr?cia; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP poss...

  6. Pitch-Responsive Cortical Regions in Congenital Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman-Haignere, Sam V; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne; McDermott, Josh H; Kanwisher, Nancy G; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-03-09

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong deficit in music perception thought to reflect an underlying impairment in the perception and memory of pitch. The neural basis of amusic impairments is actively debated. Some prior studies have suggested that amusia stems from impaired connectivity between auditory and frontal cortex. However, it remains possible that impairments in pitch coding within auditory cortex also contribute to the disorder, in part because prior studies have not measured responses from the cortical regions most implicated in pitch perception in normal individuals. We addressed this question by measuring fMRI responses in 11 subjects with amusia and 11 age- and education-matched controls to a stimulus contrast that reliably identifies pitch-responsive regions in normal individuals: harmonic tones versus frequency-matched noise. Our findings demonstrate that amusic individuals with a substantial pitch perception deficit exhibit clusters of pitch-responsive voxels that are comparable in extent, selectivity, and anatomical location to those of control participants. We discuss possible explanations for why amusics might be impaired at perceiving pitch relations despite exhibiting normal fMRI responses to pitch in their auditory cortex: (1) individual neurons within the pitch-responsive region might exhibit abnormal tuning or temporal coding not detectable with fMRI, (2) anatomical tracts that link pitch-responsive regions to other brain areas (e.g., frontal cortex) might be altered, and (3) cortical regions outside of pitch-responsive cortex might be abnormal. The ability to identify pitch-responsive regions in individual amusic subjects will make it possible to ask more precise questions about their role in amusia in future work. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362986-09$15.00/0.

  7. A multi-physics modelling framework to describe the behaviour of nano-scale multilayer systems undergoing irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    Radiation damage is known to lead to material failure and thus is of critical importance to lifetime and safety within nuclear reactors. While mechanical behaviour of materials under irradiation has been the subject of numerous studies, the current predictive capabilities of such phenomena appear limited. The clustering of point defects such as vacancies and self interstitial atoms gives rise to creep, void swelling and material embrittlement. Nano-scale metallic multilayer systems have be shown to have the ability to evacuate such point defects, hence delaying the occurrence of critical damage. In addition, they exhibit outstanding mechanical properties. The objective of this work is to develop a thermodynamically consistent continuum framework at the meso and nano-scales, which accounts for the major physical processes encountered in such metallic multilayer systems and is able to predict their microstructural evolution and behavior under irradiation. Mainly three physical phenomena are addressed in the present work: stress-diffusion coupling and diffusion induced creep, the void nucleation and growth in multilayer systems under irradiation, and the interaction of dislocations with the multilayer interfaces. In this framework, the microstructure is explicitly modeled, in order to account accurately for their effects on the system behavior. The diffusion creep strain rate is related to the gradient of the vacancy flux. A Cahn-Hilliard approach is used to model void nucleation and growth, and the diffusion equations for vacancies and self interstitial atoms are complemented to take into account the production of point defects due to irradiation cascades, the mutual recombination of defects and their evacuation through grain boundaries. In metallic multilayers, an interface affected zone is defined, with an additional slip plane to model the interface shearable character, and where dislocations cores are able to spread. The model is then implemented numerically

  8. Perception of words and pitch patterns in song and speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMerrill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This fMRI study examines shared and distinct cortical areas involved in the auditory perception of song and speech at the level of their underlying constituents: words, pitch and rhythm. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the brain activity patterns of six conditions, arranged in a subtractive hierarchy: sung sentences including words, pitch and rhythm; hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; as well as the pure musical or speech rhythm.Systematic contrasts between these balanced conditions following their hierarchical organization showed a great overlap between song and speech at all levels in the bilateral temporal lobe, but suggested a differential role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and intraparietal sulcus (IPS in processing song and speech. The left IFG was involved in word- and pitch-related processing in speech, the right IFG in processing pitch in song.Furthermore, the IPS showed sensitivity to discrete pitch relations in song as opposed to the gliding pitch in speech. Finally, the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex coded for general differences between words and pitch patterns, irrespective of whether they were sung or spoken. Thus, song and speech share many features which are reflected in a fundamental similarity of brain areas involved in their perception. However, fine-grained acoustic differences on word and pitch level are reflected in the activity of IFG and IPS.

  9. Context effects on pitch perception in musicians and nonmusicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattico, E; Naatanen, R; Tervaniemi, M

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that musical context facilitates pitch discrimination. In the present study, we sought to determine whether pitch context and its familiarity might affect brain responses to pitch change even at the preattentive level. Ten musicians and 10 nonmusicians, while...... concentrating on reading a book, were presented with sound stimuli that had an infrequent (p = 15 %) pitch shift of 144 Hz. In the familiar condition, the infrequent third-position deviant changed the mode (major vs. minor) of the five-tone pattern. In the unfamiliar condition, patterns were formed from five...

  10. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pitch discrimination associated with phonological awareness: Evidence from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao Tam; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-03-13

    Research suggests that musical skills are associated with phonological abilities. To further investigate this association, we examined whether phonological impairments are evident in individuals with poor music abilities. Twenty individuals with congenital amusia and 20 matched controls were assessed on a pure-tone pitch discrimination task, a rhythm discrimination task, and four phonological tests. Amusic participants showed deficits in discriminating pitch and discriminating rhythmic patterns that involve a regular beat. At a group level, these individuals performed similarly to controls on all phonological tests. However, eight amusics with severe pitch impairment, as identified by the pitch discrimination task, exhibited significantly worse performance than all other participants in phonological awareness. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that pitch discrimination thresholds predicted phonological awareness beyond that predicted by phonological short-term memory and rhythm discrimination. In contrast, our rhythm discrimination task did not predict phonological awareness beyond that predicted by pitch discrimination thresholds. These findings suggest that accurate pitch discrimination is critical for phonological processing. We propose that deficits in early-stage pitch discrimination may be associated with impaired phonological awareness and we discuss the shared role of pitch discrimination for processing music and speech.

  12. Endoscopic laryngeal web formation for pitch elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer

    2007-02-01

    Endoscopic laryngeal web formation has been used to elevate the speaking voice, primarily in male to female transsexuals as part of gender reassignment intervention. The goal of this article is to review the literature regarding surgical treatment for pitch elevation and to describe a novel method of laryngeal web formation. The results of this technique are also reported in a series of six patients. All patients were assessed and treated at the St. Michael's Hospital Voice Disorders Clinic, a tertiary referral centre for voice disorders. Pre- and postoperative voice recordings, acoustic analysis, and videostroboscopic examinations were performed in this series. The acoustic data collected included isolated vowel samples, a reading task, and a modified voice range profile. The patients all underwent successful endoscopic web formation with a Gelfoam augmentation technique. The voice results collected at least 6 months after vocal fold web formation demonstrate a dramatic increase in the habitual speaking fundamental frequency. This new modification for endoscopic web formation has been shown to be a successful procedure for permanent elevation of pitch with little or no morbidity.

  13. Representational momentum in memory for pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyd, J J; Kelly, M H; DeKay, M L

    1990-11-01

    When a visual pattern is displayed at successively different orientations such that a rotation or translation is implied, an observer's memory for the final position is displaced forward. This phenomenon of representational momentum shares some similarities with physical momentum. For instance, the amount of memory shift is proportional to the implied velocity of the inducing display; representational momentum is specifically proportional to the final, not the average, velocity; representational momentum follows a continuous stopping function for the first 250 ms or so of the retention interval. In a previous paper (Kelly & Freyd, 1987) we demonstrated a forward memory asymmetry using implied changes in pitch, for subjects without formal musical training. In the current paper we replicate our earlier finding and show that the forward memory asymmetry occurs for subjects with formal musical training as well (Experiment 1). We then show the structural similarity between representational momentum in memory for pitch with previous reports of parametric effects using visual stimuli. We report a velocity effect for auditory momentum (Experiment 2), we demonstrate specifically that the velocity effect depends on the implied acceleration (Experiment 3), and we show that the stopping function for auditory momentum is qualitatively the same as that for visual momentum (Experiment 4). We consider the implications of these results for theories of mental representation.

  14. The influence of music-elicited emotions and relative pitch on absolute pitch memory for familiar melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Levitin's findings that nonmusicians could produce from memory the absolute pitches of self-selected pop songs have been widely cited in the music psychology literature. These findings suggest that latent absolute pitch (AP) memory may be a more widespread trait within the population than traditional AP labelling ability. However, it has been left unclear what factors may facilitate absolute pitch retention for familiar pieces of music. The aim of the present paper was to investigate factors that may contribute to latent AP memory using Levitin's sung production paradigm for AP memory and comparing results to the outcomes of a pitch labelling task, a relative pitch memory test, measures of music-induced emotions, and various measures of participants' musical backgrounds. Our results suggest that relative pitch memory and the quality and degree of music-elicited emotions impact on latent AP memory.

  15. Modulation of auditory cortex response to pitch variation following training with microtonal melodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Zatorre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested changes in cortical functional response to auditory configural learning by training ten human listeners to discriminate micromelodies (consisting of smaller pitch intervals than normally used in Western music. We measured covariation in blood oxygenation signal to increasing pitch-interval size in order to dissociate global changes in activity from those specifically associated with the stimulus feature of interest. A psychophysical staircase procedure with feedback was used for training over a two-week period. Behavioral tests of discrimination ability performed before and after training showed significant learning on the trained stimuli, and generalization to other frequencies and tasks; no learning occurred in an untrained control group. Before training the functional MRI data showed the expected systematic increase in activity in auditory cortices as a function of increasing micromelody pitch-interval size. This function became shallower after training, with the maximal change observed in the right posterior auditory cortex. Global decreases in activity in auditory regions, along with global increases in frontal cortices also occurred after training. Individual variation in learning rate was related to the hemodynamic slope to pitch-interval size, such that those who had a higher sensitivity to pitch-interval variation prior to learning achieved the fastest learning. We conclude that configural auditory learning entails modulation in the response of auditory cortex specifically to the trained stimulus feature. Reduction in blood oxygenation response to increasing pitch-interval size suggests that fewer computational resources, and hence lower neural recruitment, is associated with learning, in accord with models of auditory cortex function, and with data from other modalities.

  16. Enhancement of micro-grid performance during islanding mode using storage batteries and new fuzzy logic pitch angle controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, Rashad M.; Chaouachi, A.; Nagasaka, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Novel fuzzy pitch angle controller is proposed for smoothing wind fluctuation. → Storage batteries are used for performance improve of MG in islanding mode. → Those new techniques are compared with conventional PI pitch angle controller. -- Abstract: Power system deregulation, shortage of transmission capacities and needing to reduce green house gas have led to increase interesting in distributed generations (DGs) especially renewable sources. This study developed a complete model able to analysis and simulates in details the transient dynamic performance of the Micro-Grid (MG) during and subsequent islanding process. Wind speed fluctuations cause high fluctuations in output power of wind turbine which lead to fluctuations of frequency and voltages of the MG during the islanding mode. In this paper a new fuzzy logic pitch angle controller is proposed to smooth the output power of wind turbine to reduce MG frequency and voltage fluctuations during the islanding mode. The proposed fuzzy logic pitch controller is compared with the conventional PI pitch angle controller which usually used for wind turbine power control. Results proved the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy controller in improvement of the MG performance. Also, this paper proposed using storage batteries technique to reduce the frequency deviation and fluctuations originated from wind power solar power fluctuations. Results indicate that the storage batteries technique is superior than fuzzy logic pitch controller in reducing frequency deviation, but with more expensive than the fuzzy controller. All models and controllers are built using Matlab (registered) Simulink (registered) environment.

  17. Dynamic Stability Analysis of Blunt Body Entry Vehicles Using Time-Lagged Aftbody Pitching Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemba, Cole D.; Braun, Robert D.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Clark, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis defines an analytic model for the pitching motion of blunt bodies during atmospheric entry. The proposed model is independent of the pitch damping sum coefficient present in the standard formulation of the equations of motion describing pitch oscillations of a decelerating blunt body, instead using the principle of a time-lagged aftbody moment as the forcing function for oscillation divergence. Four parameters, all with intuitive physical relevance, are introduced to fully define the aftbody moment and the associated time delay. It is shown that the dynamic oscillation responses typical to blunt bodies can be produced using hysteresis of the aftbody moment in place of the pitch damping coefficient. The approach used in this investigation is shown to be useful in understanding the governing physical mechanisms for blunt body dynamic stability and in guiding vehicle and mission design requirements. A validation case study using simulated ballistic range test data is conducted. From this, parameter identification is carried out through the use of a least squares optimizing routine. Results show good agreement with the limited existing literature for the parameters identified, suggesting that the model proposed could be validated by an experimental ballistic range test series. The trajectories produced by the identified parameters were found to match closely those from the MER ballistic range tests for a wide array of initial conditions and can be identified with a reasonable number of ballistic range shots and computational effort.

  18. Pitch link loads reduction of variable speed rotors by variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the pitch link loads of variable speed rotors, variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators are proposed. This isolator utilizes the variation of centrifugal force due to the change of rotor speed to change the tuning port area ratio, which can change the tuning frequency of the isolator. A rotor model including the model of fluidlastic isolator is coupled with a fuselage model to predict the steady responses of the rotor system in forward flight. The aeroelastic analyses indicate that distinct performance improvement in pitch link load control can be achieved by the utilization of variable frequency isolators compared with the constant tuning frequency isolators. The 4/rev (per revolution pitch link load is observed to be reduced by 87.6% compared with the increase of 56.3% by the constant frequency isolator, when the rotor speed is reduced by 16.7%. The isolation ability at different rotor speeds in different flight states is investigated. To achieve overall load reduction within the whole range of rotor speed, the strategy of the variation of tuning frequency is adjusted. The results indicate that the 4/rev pitch link load within the whole rotor speed range is decreased.

  19. Quantitative Modeling of the Mitral Valve by Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography in Patients Undergoing Mitral Valve Repair: Correlation with Intraoperative Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Anna; Poulin, Frédéric; Woo, Anna; Meineri, Massimiliano; Jedrzkiewicz, Sean; Vannan, Mani A; Rakowski, Harry; David, Tirone; Tsang, Wendy; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh

    2015-09-01

    Mitral valve (MV) repair is the procedure of choice for patients with degenerative MV disease (DMVD) with severe mitral regurgitation. The aim of this study was to identify specific quantitative MV parameters from preoperative three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography that are associated with the length of the mitral annuloplasty band implanted and the performance of leaflet resection in patients with DMVD undergoing MV repair. Ninety-four patients (mean age, 60 ± 11 years; 68% men) referred for MV surgery with adequate-quality preoperative 3D transesophageal echocardiographic studies were retrospectively identified. Parametric maps of the MV were generated using semiautomated MV modeling software. Annular and valvular parameters were measured and indexed to body surface area. The implanted annuloplasty band size and leaflet resection were determined on the basis of surgical reports. Three-dimensional annular circumference correlated best (r = 0.74) with the implanted annuloplasty band length and remained an independent predictor on multivariate linear regression analysis. A third of our cohort (n = 33) had posterior leaflet resection. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, P2 segment length ≥ 20 mm (area under the curve, 0.86; sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 74%) and P2 leaflet area ≥ 3.4 cm(2) (area under the curve, 0.84; sensitivity, 85%; specificity, 74%) best discriminated the need for leaflet resection. In DMVD, quantitative 3D annular circumference obtained from semiautomatically generated parametric maps of the MV from 3D transesophageal echocardiographic data was associated with the surgically implanted annuloplasty band length, while P2 leaflet length ≥ 20 mm and area ≥ 3.4 cm(2) were associated with the performance of leaflet resection. These parameters should be further investigated for preoperative planning in patients with DMVD undergoing MV repair. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography

  20. A cytogenetic model predicts relapse risk and survival in patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in morphologic complete remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Armin; Cashen, Amanda F

    2015-01-01

    Up to 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and abnormal cytogenetics have persistent cytogenetic abnormalities (pCytAbnl) at morphologic complete remission (mCR). We hypothesized that the prognostic significance of pCytAbnl in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in mCR varies with cytogenetic risk group. We analyzed the data on 118 patients with AML and abnormal cytogenetics who underwent HSCT in mCR, and developed a risk stratification model based on pCytAbnl and cytogenetic risk group. The model distinguished three groups of patients (Pcytogenetics (n=25) had the shortest median time to relapse (TTR; 5 months), relapse-free survival (RFS; 3 months), and overall survival (OS; 7 months). The group with favorable/intermediate risk cytogenetics and without pCytAbnl (n=43) had the longest median TTR (not reached), RFS (57 months), and OS (57 months). The group with pCytAbnl and favorable/intermediate risk cytogenetics, or, without pCytAbnl but with unfavorable risk cytogenetics (n=50) experienced intermediate TTR (18 months), RFS (9 months), and OS (18 months). In conclusion, a cytogenetic risk model identifies patients with AML in mCR with distinct rates of relapse and survival following HSCT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Native experience with a tone language enhances pitch discrimination and the timing of neural responses to pitch change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Giuliano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Native tone language experience has been linked with alterations in the production and perception of pitch in language, as well as with the brain response to linguistic and non-linguistic tones. Here we use two experiments to address whether these changes apply to the discrimination of simple pitch changes and pitch intervals. ERPs were recorded from native Mandarin speakers and a control group during a same/different task with pairs of pure tones differing only in pitch height, and with pure tone pairs differing only in interval distance. Behaviorally, Mandarin speakers were more accurate than controls at detecting both pitch and interval changes, showing a sensitivity to small pitch changes and interval distances that was absent in the control group. Converging evidence from ERPs obtained during the same tasks revealed an earlier response to change relative to no-change trials in Mandarin speakers, as well as earlier differentiation of trials by change direction relative to controls. These findings illustrate the cross-domain influence of language experience on the perception of pitch, suggesting that the native use of tonal pitch contours in language leads to a general enhancement in the acuity of pitch representations.

  2. Auditory deficits in amusia extend beyond poor pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Kelly L; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia is a music perception disorder believed to reflect a deficit in fine-grained pitch perception and/or short-term or working memory for pitch. Because most measures of pitch perception include memory and segmentation components, it has been difficult to determine the true extent of pitch processing deficits in amusia. It is also unclear whether pitch deficits persist at frequencies beyond the range of musical pitch. To address these questions, experiments were conducted with amusics and matched controls, manipulating both the stimuli and the task demands. First, we assessed pitch discrimination at low (500Hz and 2000Hz) and high (8000Hz) frequencies using a three-interval forced-choice task. Amusics exhibited deficits even at the highest frequency, which lies beyond the existence region of musical pitch. Next, we assessed the extent to which frequency coding deficits persist in one- and two-interval frequency-modulation (FM) and amplitude-modulation (AM) detection tasks at 500Hz at slow (f m =4Hz) and fast (f m =20Hz) modulation rates. Amusics still exhibited deficits in one-interval FM detection tasks that should not involve memory or segmentation. Surprisingly, amusics were also impaired on AM detection, which should not involve pitch processing. Finally, direct comparisons between the detection of continuous and discrete FM demonstrated that amusics suffer deficits in both coding and segmenting pitch information. Our results reveal auditory deficits in amusia extending beyond pitch perception that are subtle when controlling for memory and segmentation, and are likely exacerbated in more complex contexts such as musical listening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptive pitch control for load mitigation of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Tang, J.

    2015-04-01

    In this research, model reference adaptive control is examined for the pitch control of wind turbines that may suffer from reduced life owing to extreme loads and fatigue when operated under a high wind speed. Specifically, we aim at making a trade-off between the maximum energy captured and the load induced. The adaptive controller is designed to track the optimal generator speed and at the same time to mitigate component loads under turbulent wind field and other uncertainties. The proposed algorithm is tested on the NREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine, and its performance is compared with that those of the gain scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) control and the disturbance accommodating control (DAC). The results show that the blade root flapwise load can be reduced at a slight expense of optimal power output. The generator speed regulation under adaptive controller is better than DAC.

  4. Relativistic Electron Pitch Angle Distributions in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Reiner; Zhao, Hong; Reeves, Geoff; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Mike; Kanekal, Shri; Baker, Dan; Jaynes, Allison

    2017-04-01

    Relativistic electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) in the trapped inner region of the magnetosphere are a sensitive measure of many processes that govern the dynamics of these particles. We report here on statistical observations of relativistic electron PADs from the REPT (Relativistic Electron/Proton Telescope) instrument aboard the Van Allen Probes mission, which show an unexpected dawn/dusk asymmetry that seems to be a persistent feature during quiet times of Dst > -20 nT. The observed PADs show a more peaked pancake distribution at dusk compared to dawn for energies above 1.8 MeV only. Energies from a few 100 KeV to 1 m,eV do NOT show these asymmetries, ruling out magnetic field model effects. These observations hint at persistent processes that can act on relativistic electrons on timescales on the order of the outer radiation belt drift period (10 minutes).

  5. Overview and Design of self-acting pitch control mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine using multi body simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Awareness about wind energy is constantly growing in the world. Especially a demand for small scale wind turbine is increasing and various products are available in market. There are mainly two types of wind turbines, horizontal axis wind turbine and vertical axis wind turbines. Horizontal axis wind turbines are suitable for high wind speed whereas vertical axis wind turbines operate relatively low wind speed area. Vertical axis wind turbines are cost effective and simple in construction as compared to the horizontal axis wind turbine. However, vertical axis wind turbines have inherent problem of self-start inability and has low power coefficient as compare to the horizontal axis wind turbine. These two problems can be eliminated by incorporating the blade pitching mechanism. So, in this paper overview of various pitch control systems is discussed and design of self-acting pitch mechanism is given. A pitch control linkage mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine is modeled by multi-body approach using MSC Software. Aerodynamic loads are predicted from a mathematical model based on double multiple stream tube method. An appropriate airfoil which works at low Reynolds number is selected for blade design. It is also focused on commercialization of the vertical axis wind turbine which incorporates the self-acting pitch control system. These aerodynamic load model will be coupled with the multi-body model in future work for optimization of the pitch control linkage mechanism. A 500 Watt vertical axis wind turbine is designed and it is planned to implement the self-acting pitch control mechanism in real model

  6. Smart pitch control strategy for wind generation system using doubly fed induction generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Syed Ahmed

    A smart pitch control strategy for a variable speed doubly fed wind generation system is presented in this thesis. A complete dynamic model of DFIG system is developed. The model consists of the generator, wind turbine, aerodynamic and the converter system. The strategy proposed includes the use of adaptive neural network to generate optimized controller gains for pitch control. This involves the generation of controller parameters of pitch controller making use of differential evolution intelligent technique. Training of the back propagation neural network has been carried out for the development of an adaptive neural network. This tunes the weights of the network according to the system states in a variable wind speed environment. Four cases have been taken to test the pitch controller which includes step and sinusoidal changes in wind speeds. The step change is composed of both step up and step down changes in wind speeds. The last case makes use of scaled wind data collected from the wind turbine installed at King Fahd University beach front. Simulation studies show that the differential evolution based adaptive neural network is capable of generating the appropriate control to deliver the maximum possible aerodynamic power available from wind to the generator in an efficient manner by minimizing the transients.

  7. Decoding the dynamic representation of musical pitch from human brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, N; Thompson, W F; Carlile, S; Carlson, T A

    2018-01-16

    In music, the perception of pitch is governed largely by its tonal function given the preceding harmonic structure of the music. While behavioral research has advanced our understanding of the perceptual representation of musical pitch, relatively little is known about its representational structure in the brain. Using Magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded evoked neural responses to different tones presented within a tonal context. Multivariate Pattern Analysis (MVPA) was applied to "decode" the stimulus that listeners heard based on the underlying neural activity. We then characterized the structure of the brain's representation using decoding accuracy as a proxy for representational distance, and compared this structure to several well established perceptual and acoustic models. The observed neural representation was best accounted for by a model based on the Standard Tonal Hierarchy, whereby differences in the neural encoding of musical pitches correspond to their differences in perceived stability. By confirming that perceptual differences honor those in the underlying neuronal population coding, our results provide a crucial link in understanding the cognitive foundations of musical pitch across psychological and neural domains.

  8. Numerical study of effect of pitch angle on performance characteristics of a HAWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhamshu A.R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the clean renewable forms of energy that can handle the existing global fossil fuel crisis. Although it contributes to 2.5% of the global electricity demand, with diminishing fossil fuel sources, it is important that wind energy is harnessed to a greater extent to meet the energy crisis and problem of pollution. The present work involves study of effect of pitch angle on the performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT, NREL Phase VI. The wind velocities considered for the study are 7, 15.1 and 25.1 m/s. The simulations are performed using a commercial CFD code Fluent. A frozen rotor model is used for simulation, wherein the governing equations are solved in the moving frame of reference rotating with the rotor speed. The SST k-ω turbulence model has been used. It is seen that the thrust increases with increase in wind velocity, and decreases with increase in pitch angle. For a given wind velocity, there is an optimum pitch angle where the power generated by the turbine is maximum. The observed effect of pitch angle on the power produced has been correlated to the stall characteristics of the airfoil blade.

  9. Modeling of Transistor's Tracking Behavior in Compact Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method to model the tracking behavior of semiconductor transistors undergoing across-chip variations in a compact Monte Carlo model for SPICE simulations and show an enablement of simultaneous (−1/2 tracking relations among transistors on a chip at any poly density, any gate pitch, and any physical location for the first time. At smaller separations, our modeled tracking relation versus physical location reduces to Pelgrom's characterization on device's distance-dependent mismatch. Our method is very compact, since we do not use a matrix or a set of eigen solutions to represent correlations among transistors.

  10. Determination of 13C CSA Tensors: Extension of the Model-independent Approach to an RNA Kissing Complex Undergoing Anisotropic Rotational Diffusion in Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindranathan, Sapna; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    Chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensor parameters have been determined for the protonated carbons of the purine bases in an RNA kissing complex in solution by extending the model-independent approach [Fushman, D., Cowburn, D. (1998) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 7109-7110]. A strategy for determining CSA tensor parameters of heteronuclei in isolated X-H two-spin systems (X = 13 C or 15 N) in molecules undergoing anisotropic rotational diffusion is presented. The original method relies on the fact that the ratio κ 2 =R 2 auto /R 2 cross of the transverse auto- and cross-correlated relaxation rates involving the X CSA and the X-H dipolar interaction is independent of parameters related to molecular motion, provided rotational diffusion is isotropic. However, if the overall motion is anisotropic κ 2 depends on the anisotropy D parallel /D -perpendicular of rotational diffusion. In this paper, the field dependence of both κ 2 and its longitudinal counterpart κ 1 =R 1 auto /R 1 cross are determined. For anisotropic rotational diffusion, our calculations show that the average κ av = 1/2 (κ 1 +κ 2 ), of the ratios is largely independent of the anisotropy parameter D parallel /D -perpendicular . The field dependence of the average ratio κ av may thus be utilized to determine CSA tensor parameters by a generalized model-independent approach in the case of molecules with an overall motion described by an axially symmetric rotational diffusion tensor

  11. The Association Between Pitch Conditions and the Incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Environmental conditions have been shown to influence incidence of rugby injuries. Harsh weather conditions and detrimental effect on poor Kenyan rugby pitches create a unique environment for injury exposure. We conducted a whole population prospective cohort study to determine the association of pitch ...

  12. Pixel size and pitch measurements of liquid crystal spatial light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 65; Issue 2. Pixel size and pitch ... Liquid crystal displays; spatial light modulator; optical diffraction. Abstract. We present a simple technique for the determination of pixel size and pitch of liquid crystal (LC) based spatial light modulator (SLM). The proposed method is ...

  13. Global and Local Pitch Perception in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; George, Florence; Foxton, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated global versus local pitch pattern perception in children with dyslexia aged between 8 and 11 years. Children listened to two consecutive 4-tone pitch sequences while performing a same/different task. On the different trials, sequences either preserved the contour (local condition) or they violated the contour (global…

  14. The Association Between Pitch Conditions and the Incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shown to influence incidence of rugby injuries. Harsh weather conditions and detrimental effect on poor Kenyan rugby pitches create a unique environment for injury exposure. We conducted a whole population prospective cohort study to determine the association of pitch conditions with injury incidence and severity.

  15. Pitch Systems and Curwen Hand Signs: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey-Clark, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Learning to sing from notation is a complex task, and accurately performing pitches without an external reference can be particularly challenging. As such, the use of mnemonic devices to reinforce tonal relationships is a long-standing practice among musicians. Chief among these mnemonic devices are pitch syllable systems and Curwen hand signs.…

  16. Pitch Perception, Working Memory, and Second-Language Phonological Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posedel, James; Emery, Lisa; Souza, Benjamin; Fountain, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that training on a musical instrument is associated with improvements in working memory and musical pitch perception ability. Good working memory and musical pitch perception ability, in turn, have been linked to certain aspects of language production. The current study examines whether working memory and/or pitch…

  17. Thrust generation and wake structure for flow across a pitching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, we present detailed particle image velocimetry (PIV) based investigation of wake structure of a pitching airfoil. PIV measurements have been carried out for NACA0015 airfoil at Re = 2900 with reduced frequency range of 1.82–10.92 and pitching angle of 5°. Two different wake structures (reverse Kármán ...

  18. Shoulder joint velocity during fastball pitching in baseball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasparutto, X.; van der Graaff, E; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Colloud, F.; Domalain, M.; Monnet, T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the rotation and translation velocity of the shoulder complex during fastball pitching in baseball. 8 pitchers from the Dutch AAA team performed each 3 fastball pitches. Their motion was recorded by an opto-electronic device. Kinematic computation was

  19. Mathematical Precision of Pitch Gaps in Tribal Tonal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOCIAL PATHOLOGY OF CLEFT PALATE IN THE AFRICAN: MATHEMATICAL PRECISION OF PITCH GAPS IN TRIBAL TONAL ... with Tonic Solfa precision. I have done this both in tribal tonal linguistics and in ... in English. My native ear enables me to hear 4 pitches in the word “Agriculture” in Queen's English [high.

  20. Contamination of Pine Seeds by the Pitch Canker Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. David Dwinell; S.W. Fraedrich

    1999-01-01

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, has been identified as a significant problem in man pine seed orchards and nursuries in the South. THe fungus causes strobilus mortality, seed deterioation, and cankers on the main stem, branches, and shoots of pines Dwinell and others 1985). The pitche canker fungus...

  1. Pitch height modulates visual and haptic bisection performance in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta eLega

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent evidence suggests that pitch height may be represented in a spatial format, having both a vertical and an horizontal representation. The spatial representation of pitch height results into response compatibility effects for which high pitch tones are preferentially associated to up-right responses, and low pitch tones are preferentially associated to down-left responses (i.e., the SMARC effect, with the strength of these associations depending on individuals’ musical skills. In this study we investigated whether listening to tones of different pitch affects the representation of external space, as assessed in a visual and haptic line bisection paradigm, in musicians and non musicians. Low and high pitch tones affected the bisection performance in musicians differently, both when pitch was relevant and irrelevant for the task, and in both the visual and the haptic modality. No effect of pitch height was observed on the bisection performance of non musicians. Moreover, our data also show that musicians present a (supramodal rightward bisection bias in both the visual and the haptic modality, extending previous findings limited to the visual modality, and consistent with the idea that intense practice with musical notation and bimanual instrument training affects hemispheric lateralization.

  2. Estimates of pitch strength for musicians and nonmusicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Marsha G.; Zettler, Cynthia M.; Follmer, Michelle J.; Faulk, Margaret; Takagi, Michael J.

    2003-04-01

    To measure the strength of the pitch of iterated rippled noise (IRN), 19 adults were tested in an operant conditioning procedure. Seven adults had music training and currently played an instrument; 12 adults had no training and did not currently play an instrument. To generate IRN, a 500-ms Gaussian noise stimulus was delayed by 5 or 6 ms (pitches of 200 or 166 Hz) and added to the original for 16 iterations. IRN stimuli having one delay were presented repeatedly. On signal trials the delay changed for 6 s. Stimulus level roved from 63-67 dBA (background of 28 dBA). Adults learned to press a button when the stimulus changed. Testing started with IRN stimuli having 0-dB attenuation (i.e., maximal pitch strength). Stimuli having weaker pitches (i.e., progressively greater attenuation applied to the delayed noise) followed. Strength of pitch was quantified as the maximum attenuation for which pitch was discerned. For each subject, threshold attenuation for pitch strength was extrapolated as the 71% point on a psychometric function depicting percent correct performance as a function of attenuation. Mean thresholds revealed that the pitch percept was similar for both nonmusically trained (18.70 dB) and musically trained adults (18.73 dB).

  3. Pitch Ability as an Aptitude for Tone Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Anita R.; Chang, Charles B.; Karuzis, Valerie P.

    2016-01-01

    Tone languages such as Mandarin use voice pitch to signal lexical contrasts, presenting a challenge for second/foreign language (L2) learners whose native languages do not use pitch in this manner. The present study examined components of an aptitude for mastering L2 lexical tone. Native English speakers with no previous tone language experience…

  4. Autistic Traits and Enhanced Perceptual Representation of Pitch and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mary E.; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Grube, Manon

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced basic perceptual discrimination has been reported for pitch in individuals with autism spectrum conditions. We test whether there is a correlational pattern of enhancement across the broader autism phenotype and whether this correlation occurs for the discrimination of pitch, time and loudness. Scores on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient…

  5. Wing-pitching mechanism of hovering Ruby-throated hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-19

    In hovering flight, hummingbirds reverse the angle of attack of their wings through pitch reversal in order to generate aerodynamic lift during both downstroke and upstroke. In addition, the wings may pitch during translation to further enhance lift production. It is not yet clear whether these pitching motions are caused by the wing inertia or actuated through the musculoskeletal system. Here we perform a computational analysis of the pitching dynamics by incorporating the realistic wing kinematics to determine the inertial effects. The aerodynamic effect is also included using the pressure data from a previous three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation of a hovering hummingbird. The results show that like many insects, pitch reversal of the hummingbird is, to a large degree, caused by the wing inertia. However, actuation power input at the root is needed in the beginning of pronation to initiate a fast pitch reversal and also in mid-downstroke to enable a nose-up pitching motion for lift enhancement. The muscles on the wing may not necessarily be activated for pitching of the distal section. Finally, power analysis of the flapping motion shows that there is no requirement for substantial elastic energy storage or energy absorption at the shoulder joint.

  6. Wing-pitching mechanism of hovering Ruby-throated hummingbirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-01

    In hovering flight, hummingbirds reverse the angle of attack of their wings through pitch reversal in order to generate aerodynamic lift during both downstroke and upstroke. In addition, the wings may pitch during translation to further enhance lift production. It is not yet clear whether these pitching motions are caused by the wing inertia or actuated through the musculoskeletal system. Here we perform a computational analysis of the pitching dynamics by incorporating the realistic wing kinematics to determine the inertial effects. The aerodynamic effect is also included using the pressure data from a previous three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation of a hovering hummingbird. The results show that like many insects, pitch reversal of the hummingbird is, to a large degree, caused by the wing inertia. However, actuation power input at the root is needed in the beginning of pronation to initiate a fast pitch reversal and also in mid-downstroke to enable a nose-up pitching motion for lift enhancement. The muscles on the wing may not necessarily be activated for pitching of the distal section. Finally, power analysis of the flapping motion shows that there is no requirement for substantial elastic energy storage or energy absorption at the shoulder joint. (paper)

  7. Pulping Variables, Storage Time and Pitch Deposit | Ogunwusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulp resin is also influenced by effective alkali concentration of the pulping medium. With increase in effective alkali concentration from 13% to 15%, pulp pitch is reduced. The interaction effect of storage and effective alkali concentration was not significant indicating that reduction in pulp pitch caused by effective alkali ...

  8. Sparse Multi-Pitch and Panning Estimation of Stereophonic Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronvall, Ted; Jakobsson, Andreas; Hansen, Martin Weiss

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel multi-pitch estimator for stereophonic mixtures, allowing for pitch estimation on multi-channel audio even if the amplitude and delay panning parameters are unknown. The presented method does not require prior knowledge of the number of sources present in the mix...

  9. Population Pharmacokinetics and Optimal Sampling Strategy for Model-Based Precision Dosing of Melphalan in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kana; Dong, Min; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Chandra, Sharat; Mehta, Parinda A; McConnell, Scott; Anaissie, Elias J; Vinks, Alexander A

    2018-05-01

    High-dose melphalan is an important component of conditioning regimens for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The current dosing strategy based on body surface area results in a high incidence of oral mucositis and gastrointestinal and liver toxicity. Pharmacokinetically guided dosing will individualize exposure and help minimize overexposure-related toxicity. The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and optimal sampling strategy. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with NONMEM using 98 observations collected from 15 adult patients given the standard dose of 140 or 200 mg/m 2 by intravenous infusion. The determinant-optimal sampling strategy was explored with PopED software. Individual area under the curve estimates were generated by Bayesian estimation using full and the proposed sparse sampling data. The predictive performance of the optimal sampling strategy was evaluated based on bias and precision estimates. The feasibility of the optimal sampling strategy was tested using pharmacokinetic data from five pediatric patients. A two-compartment model best described the data. The final model included body weight and creatinine clearance as predictors of clearance. The determinant-optimal sampling strategies (and windows) were identified at 0.08 (0.08-0.19), 0.61 (0.33-0.90), 2.0 (1.3-2.7), and 4.0 (3.6-4.0) h post-infusion. An excellent correlation was observed between area under the curve estimates obtained with the full and the proposed four-sample strategy (R 2  = 0.98; p strategy promises to achieve the target area under the curve as part of precision dosing.

  10. Wind turbine pitch control using ICPSO-PID algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Tian, Qiangqiang; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2013-01-01

    , a pitch controller was designed based on power and wind speed and by considering the inertia and delay characteristics of a pitch-control system to achieve a constant power output when a wind speed was beyond the rated one. A novel ICPSO-PID control algorithm was proposed based on a combination...... of improved cooperative particle swarm optimization (ICPSO) and PID, subsequently, it was used to tune the pitch controller parameters; thus the difficulty in PID tuning was removed when a wind speed was above the rated speed. It was indicated that the proposed optimization algorithm can tune the pitch...... controller parameters quickly; and the feed-forward controller for wind speed can improve dynamics of a pitch-control system; additionally the power controller can allow a wind turbine to have a constant power output as a wind speed is over the rated one. Compared with a conventional PID, the controller...

  11. Two LQRI based Blade Pitch Controls for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonsu Nam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As the wind turbine size has been increasing and their mechanical components are built lighter, the reduction of the structural loads becomes a very important task of wind turbine control in addition to maximum wind power capture. In this paper, we present a separate set of collective and individual pitch control algorithms. Both pitch control algorithms use the LQR control technique with integral action (LQRI, and utilize Kalman filters to estimate system states and wind speed. Compared to previous works in this area, our pitch control algorithms can control rotor speed and blade bending moments at the same time to improve the trade-off between rotor speed regulation and load reduction, while both collective and individual pitch controls can be designed separately. Simulation results show that the proposed collective and individual pitch controllers achieve very good rotor speed regulation and significant reduction of blade bending moments.

  12. Task-dependent activations of human auditory cortex during pitch discrimination and pitch memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Teemu; Koistinen, Sonja; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2009-10-21

    The functional organization of auditory cortex (AC) is still poorly understood. Previous studies suggest segregation of auditory processing streams for spatial and nonspatial information located in the posterior and anterior AC, respectively (Rauschecker and Tian, 2000; Arnott et al., 2004; Lomber and Malhotra, 2008). Furthermore, previous studies have shown that active listening tasks strongly modulate AC activations (Petkov et al., 2004; Fritz et al., 2005; Polley et al., 2006). However, the task dependence of AC activations has not been systematically investigated. In the present study, we applied high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging of the AC and adjacent areas to compare activations during pitch discrimination and n-back pitch memory tasks that were varied parametrically in difficulty. We found that anterior AC activations were increased during discrimination but not during memory tasks, while activations in the inferior parietal lobule posterior to the AC were enhanced during memory tasks but not during discrimination. We also found that wide areas of the anterior AC and anterior insula were strongly deactivated during the pitch memory tasks. While these results are consistent with the proposition that the anterior and posterior AC belong to functionally separate auditory processing streams, our results show that this division is present also between tasks using spatially invariant sounds. Together, our results indicate that activations of human AC are strongly dependent on the characteristics of the behavioral task.

  13. Coupled Rolling and Pitching Oscillation Effects on Transonic Shock-Induced Vortex-Breakdown Flow of a Delta Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Menzies, Margaret A.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady, transonic vortex dominated flow over a 65 deg. sharp edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced coupled pitching and rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The wing mean angle of attack is 20 deg. and the free stream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.85 and 3.23 x 10(exp 6), respectively. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock and vortex breakdown of the leading edge vortex cores. The computational investigation uses the time-accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux-difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The main focus is to analyze the effects of coupled motion on the wing response and vortex breakdown flow by varying oscillation frequency and phase angle while the maximum pitch and roll amplitude is kept constant at 4.0 deg. Four cases demonstrate the following: simultaneous motion at a frequency of 1(pi), motion with a 90 deg. phase lead in pitch, motion with a rolling frequency of twice the pitching frequency, and simultaneous motion at a frequency of 2(pi). Comparisons with single mode motion at these frequencies complete this study and illustrate the effects of coupling the oscillations.

  14. Rolling and pitching oscillating foil propulsion in ground effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matthew D; Elles, Dane; Badlissi, George; Mivehchi, Amin; Dahl, Jason; Licht, Stephen

    2017-09-04

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of operating near a solid boundary on the forces produced by harmonically oscillating thrust generating foils. A rolling and pitching foil was towed in a freshwater tank in a series of experiments with varying kinematics. Hydrodynamic forces and torques were measured in the free stream and at varying distances from a solid boundary, and changes in mean lift and thrust were found when the foil approached the boundary. The magnitude of this ground effect exhibited a strong nonlinear dependence on the distance between the foil and the boundary. Significant effects were found within three chord lengths of the boundary, and ground effect can be induced at greater distances from the boundary by biasing the tip of the foil toward the boundary. Lift coefficients changed by as much as 0.2 at the closest approach to the ground, with changes ≥0.05 for all cases across Strouhal number ranging from 0.3 to 0.6, and nominal maximum angle of attack ranging from 20° to 40°. The ubiquity of the ground effect in high thrust kinematics suggests that the ground effect can provide a passive obstacle avoidance capability for foil propelled vehicles. By comparison to previous experimental work, we find that the ground effect experienced by a high-aspect ratio rolling and pitching foil is a fully three-dimensional phenomenon, as it is not accurately predicted when two-dimensional flow and/or two-dimensional kinematics are enforced. While two dimensional foil kinematics are more easily modeled for numerical studies, three-dimensional foil kinematics may be more practical for real world implementation in underwater vehicles. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Cross-linguistic comparison of frequency-following responses to voice pitch in American and Chinese neonates and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Fuh-Cherng; Hu, Jiong; Dickman, Brenda; Montgomery-Reagan, Karen; Tong, Meiling; Wu, Guangqiang; Lin, Chia-Der

    2011-01-01

    Cross-language studies, as reflected by the scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch, have shown the influence of dominant linguistic environments on the encoding of voice pitch at the brainstem level in normal-hearing adults. Research questions that remained unanswered included the characteristics of the FFR to voice pitch in neonates during their immediate postnatal period and the relative contributions of the biological capacities present at birth versus the influence of the listener's postnatal linguistic experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of FFR to voice pitch in neonates during their first few days of life and to examine the relative contributions of the "biological capacity" versus "linguistic experience" influences on pitch processing in the human brainstem. Twelve American neonates (five males, 1-3 days old) and 12 Chinese neonates (seven males, 1-3 days old) were recruited to examine the characteristics of the FFRs during their immediate postnatal days of life. Twelve American adults (three males; age: mean ± SD = 24.6 ± 3.0 yr) and 12 Chinese adults (six males; age: mean ± SD = 25.3 ± 2.6 yr) were also recruited to determine the relative contributions of biological and linguistic influences. A Chinese monosyllable that mimics the English vowel /i/ with a rising pitch (117-166 Hz) was used to elicit the FFR to voice pitch in all participants. Two-way analysis of variance (i.e., the language [English versus Chinese] and age [neonate versus adult] factors) showed a significant difference in Pitch Strength for language (p = 0.035, F = 4.716). A post hoc Tukey-Kramer analysis further demonstrated that Chinese adults had significantly larger Pitch Strength values than Chinese neonates (p = 0.024). This finding, coupled with the fact that American neonates and American adults had comparable Pitch Strength values, supported the linguistic experience model. On the other hand, Pitch Strength

  16. Discriminating male and female voices: differentiating pitch and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Taylor, Margot J

    2012-04-01

    Gender is salient, socially critical information obtained from faces and voices, yet the brain processes underlying gender discrimination have not been well studied. We investigated neural correlates of gender processing of voices in two ERP studies. In the first, ERP differences were seen between female and male voices starting at 87 ms, in both spatial-temporal and peak analyses, particularly the fronto-central N1 and P2. As pitch differences may drive gender differences, the second study used normal, high- and low-pitch voices. The results of these studies suggested that differences in pitch produced early effects (27-63 ms). Gender effects were seen on N1 (120 ms) with implicit pitch processing (study 1), but were not seen with manipulations of pitch (study 2), demonstrating that N1 was modulated by attention. P2 (between 170 and 230 ms) discriminated male from female voices, independent of pitch. Thus, these data show that there are two stages in voice gender processing; a very early pitch or frequency discrimination and a later more accurate determination of gender at the P2 latency.

  17. Propulsive performance of pitching foils with variable chordwise flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith; Lehigh University Team

    2017-11-01

    Many swimming and flying animals propel themselves efficiently through water by oscillating flexible fins. These fins are not homogeneously flexible, but instead their flexural stiffness varies along their chord and span. Here we seek to evaluate the effect stiffness profile on the propulsive performance of pitching foils. Stiffness profile characterizes the variation in the local fin stiffness along the chord. To this aim, we developed a low order model of a functionally-graded material where the chordwise flexibility is modeled by two torsional springs along the chordline and the stiffness and location of the springs can be varied arbitrarily. The torsional spring structural model is then strongly coupled to a boundary element fluid model to simulate the fluid-structure interactions. Keeping the leading edge kinematics unchanged, we alter the stiffness profile of the foil and allow it to swim freely in response to the resulting hydrodynamic forces. We then detail the dependency of the hydrodynamic performance and the wake structure to the variations in the local structural properties of the foil.

  18. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  19. Mismatch negativity to pitch pattern deviants in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Sarah M; Matteis, Mario De; Coffman, Brian A; Murphy, Timothy K; Butera, Christiana D; Ward, Kayla L; Leiter-McBeth, Justin R; Salisbury, Dean F

    2017-09-01

    Simple mismatch negativity (MMN) to infrequent pitch deviants is impaired in individuals with long-term schizophrenia (Sz). The complex MMN elicited by pattern deviance often manifes is cut from here]->ts later after deviant onset than simple MMN and can ascertain deficits in abstracting relationships between stimuli. Sz exhibit reduced complex MMN, but so far this has only been measured when deviance detection relies on a grouping rule. We measured MMN to deviants in pitch-based rules to see whether MMN is also abnormal in Sz under these conditions. Three experiments were conducted. Twenty-seven Sz and 28 healthy matched controls (HC) participated in Experiments 1 and 2, and 24 Sz and 26 HC participated in Experiment 3. Experiment 1 was a standard pitch MMN task, and Sz showed the expected MMN reduction (~ 115 ms) in the simple pitch deviant compared to HC. Experiment 2 comprised standard groups of six tones that ascended in pitch, and deviant groups where the last tone descended in pitch. Complex MMN was late (~ 510 ms) and significantly blunted in Sz. Experiment 3 comprised standard groups of 12 tones (six tones ascending in pitch followed by six tones descending in pitch, like a scale), and deviant groups containing two repetitions of six ascending tones (the scale restarted midstream). Complex MMN was also late (~ 460 ms) and significantly blunted in Sz. These results identify a late pitch pattern deviance-related MMN that is deficient in schizophrenia. This suggests specific deficits in later more complex deviance detection in schizophrenia for abstract patterns. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Classification and Detection of Wind Turbine Pitch Faults Through SCADA Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of wind turbine pitch faults leads to increased mechanical component degradation, severe reduction of asset performance, and a direct increase in annual maintenance costs for the operator. This paper presents a highly accurate data driven classification system for the diagnosis of wind turbine pitch faults. Early diagnosis of these faults can enable operators to move from traditional corrective or time based maintenance towards a predictive or proactive maintenance strategy, whilst simultaneously mitigating risks and requiring no further capital expenditure. Our approach provides transparent, human-readable rules for maintenance operators which have been validated by an independent domain expert. Data from 8 wind turbines was collected every 10 minutes over a period of 28 months with 10 attributes utilised to diagnose pitch faults. Three fault classes are identified, each represented by 6000 instances in each of the testing and training sets. Of the turbines, 4 are used to train the system with a further 4 for validation. Repeated random sampling of the majority fault class was used to reduce computational overheads whilst retaining information content and balancing the training and validation sets to remove majority class bias. A classification accuracy of 85.50% was achieved with 14 human readable rules generated via the RIPPER inductive rule learner. Of these, 11 were described as “useful and intuitive” by an independent domain-expert. An expert system was developed utilising the model along with domain knowledge, resulting in a pitch fault diagnostic accuracy of 87.05% along with a 42.12% reduction in pitch fault alarms.

  1. Processing of Binaural Pitch Stimuli in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Binaural pitch is a tonal sensation produced by introducing a frequency-dependent interaural phase shift in binaurally presented white noise. As no spectral cues are present in the physical stimulus, binaural pitch perception is assumed to rely on accurate temporal fine structure coding and intact...... level differences and binaural intelligibility level differences than subjects from group 1, but did not necessarily show reduced scores in a lexical decision task and a reading span test. Overall, these findings confirm that binaural pitch perception is either immediate or absent in hearing...

  2. Context effects on pitch perception in musicians and nonmusicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattico, E; Naatanen, R; Tervaniemi, M

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that musical context facilitates pitch discrimination. In the present study, we sought to determine whether pitch context and its familiarity might affect brain responses to pitch change even at the preattentive level. Ten musicians and 10 nonmusicians, while...... is generally enhanced in a familiar context. Moreover, the latency of the mismatch negativity was shorter for musicians than for nonmusicians in both the familiar and unfamiliar conditions, whereas no difference between groups was observed in the no-context condition. This finding indicates that, in response...

  3. Tonal Scales and Minimal Simple Pitch Class Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have explored the special mathematical properties of the diatonic set. However, much less attention has been paid to the sets associated with the other scales that play an important rôle in Western tonal music, such as the harmonic minor scale and ascending melodic minor scale....... This paper focuses on the special properties of the class, T, of sets associated with the major and minor scales (including the harmonic major scale). It is observed that T is the set of pitch class sets associated with the shortest simple pitch class cycles in which every interval between consecutive pitch...

  4. Effects of Coupled Rolling and Pitching Oscillations on Transonic Shock-Induced Vortex-Breakdown Flow of a Delta Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Menzies, Margaret A.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady, transonic vortex-breakdown flow over a 65 deg. sharp edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced coupled pitching and rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock which induces of the leading edge vortex cores to breakdown. The computational investigation uses the time-accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. The main focus is to analyze the effects of coupled motion on the wing response and vortex-breakdown flow by varying oscillation frequency and phase angle while keeping the maximum pitch and roll amplitude equal.

  5. Individual differences in the perception of melodic contours and pitch-accent timing in speech: Support for domain-generality of pitch processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin; Dilley, Laura C; Hambrick, David Z

    2015-08-01

    Do the same mechanisms underlie processing of music and language? Recent investigations of this question have yielded inconsistent results. Likely factors contributing to discrepant findings are use of small samples and failure to control for individual differences in cognitive ability. We investigated the relationship between music and speech prosody processing, while controlling for cognitive ability. Participants (n = 179) completed a battery of cognitive ability tests, the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) to assess music perception, and a prosody test of pitch peak timing discrimination (early, as in insight vs. late, incite). Structural equation modeling revealed that only music perception was a significant predictor of prosody test performance. Music perception accounted for 34.5% of variance on prosody test performance; cognitive abilities and music training added only about 8%. These results indicate musical pitch and temporal processing are highly predictive of pitch discrimination in speech processing, even after controlling for other possible predictors of this aspect of language processing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S814 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Horizontal-axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the design of new rotor airfoils. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can also be used to validate analytical computer codes. An S814 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3 X 5 subsonic wind tunnel (3 X 5) under steady flow with both stationary model conditions and pitch oscillations. To study the extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a leading edge grit roughness pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. While the model underwent pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions {+-}5.5{degrees} and {+-}10{degrees}, were used; at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation.

  7. Do Musicians with Perfect Pitch Have More Autism Traits than Musicians without Perfect Pitch? An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Heaton, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased...... (APs), 18 musicians without AP (non-APs), and 16 non-musicians. In addition, we measured AP ability by a pitch identification test with sine wave tones and piano tones. We found a significantly higher degree of autism traits in APs than in non-APs and non-musicians, and autism scores were significantly...

  8. Design of a wind turbine pitch angle controller for power system stabilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, Clemens; Soerensen, Poul [Risoe National Laboratory, Wind Energy Department, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Islam, Syed M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Bak Jensen, Birgitte [Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Pontoppidanstraede 101, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    The design of a PID pitch angle controller for a fixed speed active-stall wind turbine, using the root locus method is described in this paper. The purpose of this controller is to enable an active-stall wind turbine to perform power system stabilisation. For the purpose of controller design, the transfer function of the wind turbine is derived from the wind turbine's step response. The performance of this controller is tested by simulation, where the wind turbine model with its pitch angle controller is connected to a power system model. The power system model employed here is a realistic model of the North European power system. A short circuit fault on a busbar close to the wind turbine generator is simulated, and the dynamic responses of the system with and without the power system stabilisation of the wind turbines are presented. Simulations show that in most operating points the pitch controller can effectively contribute to power system stabilisation. (author)

  9. Flicker Mitigation by Individual Pitch Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines With DFIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe; Hu, Weihao

    2014-01-01

    Due to the wind speed variation, wind shear and tower shadow effects, grid connected wind turbines are the sources of power fluctuations which may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a model of an MW-level variable-speed wind turbine with a doubly fed induction...... generatorto investigate the flicker emission and mitigation issues. An individual pitch control (IPC) strategy is proposed to reduce the flicker emission at different wind speed conditions. The IPC scheme is proposed and the individual pitch controller is designed according to the generator active power...... and the azimuth angle of the wind turbine. The simulations are performed on the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 1.5-MW upwind reference wind turbine model. Simulation results show that damping the generator active power by IPC is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind...

  10. A Computationally Efficient Method for Polyphonic Pitch Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohua Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computationally efficient method for polyphonic pitch estimation. The method employs the Fast Resonator Time-Frequency Image (RTFI as the basic time-frequency analysis tool. The approach is composed of two main stages. First, a preliminary pitch estimation is obtained by means of a simple peak-picking procedure in the pitch energy spectrum. Such spectrum is calculated from the original RTFI energy spectrum according to harmonic grouping principles. Then the incorrect estimations are removed according to spectral irregularity and knowledge of the harmonic structures of the music notes played on commonly used music instruments. The new approach is compared with a variety of other frame-based polyphonic pitch estimation methods, and results demonstrate the high performance and computational efficiency of the approach.

  11. Investors prefer entrepreneurial ventures pitched by attractive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Alison Wood; Huang, Laura; Kearney, Sarah Wood; Murray, Fiona E

    2014-03-25

    Entrepreneurship is a central path to job creation, economic growth, and prosperity. In the earliest stages of start-up business creation, the matching of entrepreneurial ventures to investors is critically important. The entrepreneur's business proposition and previous experience are regarded as the main criteria for investment decisions. Our research, however, documents other critical criteria that investors use to make these decisions: the gender and physical attractiveness of the entrepreneurs themselves. Across a field setting (three entrepreneurial pitch competitions in the United States) and two experiments, we identify a profound and consistent gender gap in entrepreneur persuasiveness. Investors prefer pitches presented by male entrepreneurs compared with pitches made by female entrepreneurs, even when the content of the pitch is the same. This effect is moderated by male physical attractiveness: attractive males were particularly persuasive, whereas physical attractiveness did not matter among female entrepreneurs.

  12. Determination of pitch rotation in a spherical birefringent microparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Basudev; Ramaiya, Avin; Schäffer, Erik

    2018-03-01

    Rotational motion of a three dimensional spherical microscopic object can happen either in pitch, yaw or roll fashion. Among these, the yaw motion has been conventionally studied using the intensity of scattered light from birefringent microspheres through crossed polarizers. Up until now, however, there is no way to study the pitch motion in spherical microspheres. Here, we suggest a new method to study the pitch motion of birefringent microspheres under crossed polarizers by measuring the 2-fold asymmetry in the scattered signal either using video microscopy or with optical tweezers. We show a couple of simple examples of pitch rotation determination using video microscopy for a microsphere attached with a kinesin molecule while moving along a microtubule and of a particle diffusing freely in water.

  13. Thermal transformations of pitch and its compositions with thermoanthracite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Ulanovskii, M.L.; Krysin, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatogrphy is used to investigate the character of thermal transformations of hard coal pitch in compositions with thermoanthracite. It was shown that losses in mass during thermal transformations of hard coal pitch in the temperature interval 200-1000 C occur in two stages, at a varying rate in the 200-600 C range and at a constant rate in the 600-1000 C range. The rate of loss in the 200-600 C range is determined primarily by the rate of diffusion of volatile components and products of pitch conversion and in the 600-1000 C range mainly by the rate of the elemental chemical event. The thermal transformation is essentially unchanged in the presence of thermoanthracite. Silica intensifies the synthesis and increases the solid residue yield. Increasing the rate of heating of the pitch-thermoanthracite brings about incomplete separation of volatile products and a corresponding increase in the solid residue yield. (9 refs.)

  14. Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with grass hosts in commercial pine production areas of South Africa. Cassandra L Swett, Bernice Porter, Gerda Fourie, Emma T Steenkamp, Thomas R Gordon, Michael J Wingfield ...

  15. Meet you in the elevator! Pitching yourself and your research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Maren; Börner, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Scheffel, M., & Börner, D. (2013, 31 May). Meet you in the elevator! Pitching yourself and your research. Workshop presentation at the 9th Joint European Summer School on Technology Enhanced Learning, Limassol, Cyprus.

  16. A Method for Low-Delay Pitch Tracking and Smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    . In the second step, a Kalman filter is used to smooth the estimates and separate the pitch into a slowly varying component and a rapidly varying component. The former represents the mean pitch while the latter represents vibrato, slides and other fast changes. The method is intended for use in applica- tions...... that require fast and sample-by-sample estimates, like tuners for musical instruments, transcription tasks requiring details like vi- brato, and real-time tracking of voiced speech....

  17. Pitch perception in musical chords for cochlear implant users

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    Many people with severe or profound hearing loss are able to benefit from electronic hearing provided by a cochlear implant (CI); however, perception of music is often reported to be unsatisfactory. Due to the sound processing restrictions and current spread, CI users do not always perceive accurate pitch information, which adversely affects their ability to perceive and enjoy music. This thesis examines the factors affecting pitch perception in musical contexts for CI recipients. A questionn...

  18. Accent phrase segmentation using transition probabilities between pitch pattern templates.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimodaira, Hiroshi; Nakai, Mitsuru

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for segmenting continuous speech into accent phrases by using a prosodic feature 'pitch pattern'. The pitch pattern extracted from input speech signals is divided into the accent segments automatically by using the One-Stage DP algorithm, in which reference templates representing various types of accent patterns and connectivity between them are used to find out the optimum sequence of accent segments. In case of making the reference templates from a large n...

  19. Penentuan Added Mass Hycat Akibat Gerakan Couple Heaving Pitching Pada Gelombang Reguler

    OpenAIRE

    Murtedjo, Mas

    2003-01-01

    . An experimental study has been performed at the Indonesia Hydrodynamics Laboratory to measure the added mass of a HYCAT model due to couple heave-pitch mode of motion. A series of tests were conducted by settingthe model draft at 0,278 m, in the 0,1 m wave height, three different model speed of 4.432 m/sec, 4.77 m/sec, and 5.144 m/sec, with variation in wave period ranging from 0.8 to 1.4 sec, for each model speed. Results of the experiment show that at 4.432 m/sec model speed, the added ma...

  20. A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Dan Christian

    2007-01-01

    on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE) flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model of Gaunaa [4], which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed......The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. [7]. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments...

  1. Intelligent Control for the Variable-Speed Variable-Pitch Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heidari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new type of multi-variable compensation control method for the wind energy conversion systems (WECS is presented. Based on wind energy conversion systems, combining artificial neural network (ANN control and PID, a new type of PID NN intelligent controller for steady state torque of the wind generator is designed, by which the steady state torque output is regulated to track the optimal curve of wind power factor and the blade pitch angle is regulated to keep the stable power output. Also, the LPV model of the WECS, LPV compensator for the wind generator is designed to effectively compensate output of the wind generator torque and the blade pitch angle. Finally, simulation models of the control system based on a realistic model of a 8kw wind turbines are built up based on the Dspace platform. The results show that the proposed method can reduce interferences caused by disturbed parameters of the WECS, mechanical shocks of the wind generator speed are reduced while capturing the largest wind energyfluctuation range of wind generator power output is reduced, and the working efficiency of the variable pitch servo system is improved.

  2. Enhancing propulsive efficiency through proper design of bending patterns of a flexible pitching foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyghami, Samane; Akoz, Emre; Moored, Keith

    2016-11-01

    Many aquatic animals propel themselves efficiently through water by oscillating flexible fins. These fins are, however, not homogeneously flexible, but instead their flexural rigidity varies along their chord and span. To detail the flow structures and propulsive performance of these functionally-graded propulsors a simple model of an unsteady pitching airfoil with a flexible hinge of varying location is examined. This acts as a first-order model of a functionally-graded fin by varying both the flexibility and bending pattern of the propulsor. Recent experiments have shown that adding a flexible 'tail' with the proper stiffness to a rigid pitching foil can effectively delay/suppress the formation of a deflected wake thereby enhancing the cycle-averaged wake momentum in the swimming direction. To extend these observations, we investigate the dependency of the wake pattern of a hinged pitching airfoil to the location and flexibility of the hinge by employing a fast boundary element method solver that is strongly coupled with a torsional spring structural model. The observed wake patterns are further connected to the thrust production and propulsive efficiency with the goal of determining the proper combinations of parameters that yields the maximum gain in efficiency. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  3. Optimal pitching axis location of flapping wings for efficient hovering flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Q.; Goosen, J.F.L.; van Keulen, A.

    2017-01-01

    Flapping wings can pitch passively about their pitching axes due to their flexibility, inertia, and aerodynamic loads. A shift in the pitching axis location can dynamically alter the aerodynamic loads, which in turn changes the passive pitching motion and the flight efficiency. Therefore, it is of

  4. Spirality: A Noval Way to Measure Spiral Arm Pitch Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Henderson, Casey L.; Hartley, Matthew; Davis, Benjamin L.; Pour Imani, Hamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the MATLAB code Spirality, a novel method for measuring spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. For a given pitch angle template, the mean pixel value is found along each of typically 1000 spiral axes. The fitting function, which shows a local maximum at the best-fit pitch angle, is the variance of these means. Error bars are found by varying the inner radius of the measurement annulus and finding the standard deviation of the best-fit pitches. Computation time is typically on the order of 2 minutes per galaxy, assuming at least 8 GB of working memory. We tested the code using 128 synthetic spiral images of known pitch. These spirals varied in the number of spiral arms, pitch angle, degree of logarithmicity, radius, SNR, inclination angle, bar length, and bulge radius. A correct result is defined as a result that matches the true pitch within the error bars, with error bars no greater than ±7°. For the non-logarithmic spiral sample, the correct answer is similarly defined, with the mean pitch as function of radius in place of the true pitch. For all synthetic spirals, correct results were obtained so long as SNR > 0.25, the bar length was no more than 60% of the spiral's diameter (when the bar was included in the measurement), the input center of the spiral was no more than 6% of the spiral radius away from the true center, and the inclination angle was no more than 30°. The synthetic spirals were not deprojected prior to measurement. The code produced the correct result for all barred spirals when the measurement annulus was placed outside the bar. Additionally, we compared the code's results against 2DFFT results for 203 visually selected spiral galaxies in GOODS North and South. Among the entire sample, Spirality's error bars overlapped 2DFFT's error bars 64% of the time. For those galaxies in which Source code is available by email request from the primary author.

  5. Effects of fin pitch and array of the frost layer growth on extended surface of a heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong Keun; Lee, Kwan Soo [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the effects of the fin array and pitch on the frost layer growth of a heat exchanger. The numerical results are compared with experimental data of a cold plate to validate the present model, and agree well with experimental data within a maximum error of 8%. The characteristics of the frost formation on staggered fin array are somewhat different from those of in-line array. For fin pitch below 10 mm, the frost layer growth of second fin in the staggered array is affected by that of first fin. The heat transfer of single fin deteriorate with decreasing fin pitch regardless of fin array, however, the thermal performance of a heat exchanger, considering increase of heat surface area, becomes better.

  6. Optimal Tuning of Multivariable Disturbance-Observer-Based Control for Flicker Mitigation Using Individual Pitch Control of Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Multivariable disturbance accommodated observer based control (DOBC) scheme is presented to mitigate loads generated due to wind shear and tower shadow using individual blade pitch for above-rated wind speed condition of wind turbine. Wind shear and tower shadow add flickers as 1p, 3p, 6p and so on......, (p is the rotor rotational frequency) for three-bladed wind turbine. Novel DOBC with individual pitch control (IPC) to mitigate the flickers is presented and linear state-space model of wind turbine with tower dynamics is developed. The proposed controller is tuned using optimal control theory...... density of generator speed, drive-train torsion and tower fore-aft moment shows better mitigation to the flickers by proposed controller as compared with proportional–integral (PI) and disturbance accommodation control (DAC) with collective pitch control. Furthermore, it shows less degradation...

  7. Output Power Control of Wind Turbine Generator by Pitch Angle Control using Minimum Variance Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Sakamoto, Ryosei; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Higa, Hiroki; Uezato, Katsumi; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    In recent years, there have been problems such as exhaustion of fossil fuels, e. g., coal and oil, and environmental pollution resulting from consumption. Effective utilization of renewable energies such as wind energy is expected instead of the fossil fuel. Wind energy is not constant and windmill output is proportional to the cube of wind speed, which cause the generated power of wind turbine generators (WTGs) to fluctuate. In order to reduce fluctuating components, there is a method to control pitch angle of blades of the windmill. In this paper, output power leveling of wind turbine generator by pitch angle control using an adaptive control is proposed. A self-tuning regulator is used in adaptive control. The control input is determined by the minimum variance control. It is possible to compensate control input to alleviate generating power fluctuation with using proposed controller. The simulation results with using actual detailed model for wind power system show effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  8. Particle pitch angle diffusion due to nonadiabatic effects in the plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.C.; Lee, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    In order to understand certain aspects of the plasma sheet dynamics, a numerical study of the nonadiabatic behavior of particles in a model field geometry is performed. The particle's magnetic moment as a function of time is calculated for various initial parameters, corresponding to various particle energies and degrees of field curvature. It is shown that the magnetic moment changes as the particle passes through the plasma sheet and that the magnitude of the change is related to the curvature of the field at the middle of the plasma sheet. The relation of the magnitude of the change in magnetic moment to the particle's pitch and phase angles as it passes through the sheet is numerically resolved. The nature of the change may be considered as a mechanism for pitch angle diffusion, and the diffusion coefficient is calculated. This scattering mechanism is significant for plasma sheet ions (1--10 keV) as well as energetic electrons (>100 keV)

  9. Control design for a pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.H.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Larsen, Torben J.

    2005-01-01

    The three different controller designs presented herein are similar and all based on PI-regulation of rotor speed and power through the collective blade pitch angle and generator moment. The aeroelastic and electrical modelling used for the time-domainanalysis of these controllers are however...... different, which makes a directly quantitative comparison difficult. But there are some observations of similar behaviours should be mentioned: • Very similar step responses in rotor speed, pitch angle, and powerare seen for simulations with steps in wind speed. • All controllers show a peak in power...... for wind speed step-up over rated wind speed, which can be almost removed by changing the parameters of the frequency converter. • Responses of rotor speed, pitchangle, and power for different simulations with turbulent inflow are similar for all three controllers. Again, there seems to be an advantage...

  10. Material and fin pitch effect on frosting CO2 in a fin-and-tube heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassila, Joseph; Toubassy, Joseph; Danlos, Amélie; Descombes, Georges; Clodic, Denis

    2017-02-01

    Cryo Pur technology uses cryogenic separation to remove water vapor and carbon dioxide from biogas, in order to obtain bio-methane. To cool down the biogas at a very low temperature, a fin-and-tube heat exchanger is designed. In order to improve the fin-and-tube heat exchanger performance, a model is developed to investigate the material and fin pitch on frosting carbon dioxide. This paper will study the effect of the tubes and the fins material, and the fin pitch effect. The purpose is to extend the duration of a frosting cycle.

  11. Transient analysis of variable-speed wind turbines at wind speed disturbances and a pitch control malfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicio, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2011-01-01

    As wind power generation undergoes rapid growth, new technical challenges emerge: dynamic stability and power quality. The influence of wind speed disturbances and a pitch control malfunction on the quality of the energy injected into the electric grid is studied for variable-speed wind turbines with different power-electronic converter topologies. Additionally, a new control strategy is proposed for the variable-speed operation of wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators. The performance of disturbance attenuation and system robustness is ascertained. Simulation results are presented and conclusions are duly drawn.

  12. Facial expression and vocal pitch height: Evidence of an intermodal association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, David; Dahl, Sofia; Johnson, Randolph

    2009-01-01

    region, judges still rated the high-pitch faces friendlier than the low-pitch faces. These results are consistent with prior research showing that vocal pitch height is used to signal aggression (low pitch) or appeasement (high pitch). An analysis of the facial features shows a strong correlation between...... eyebrow position and sung pitch—consistent with the role of eyebrows in signaling aggression and appeasement. Overall, the results are consistent with an inter-modal linkage between vocal and facial expressions....

  13. Influence of Pitch Height on the Perception of Submissiveness and Threat in Musical Passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Bolinger, Ohala, Morton and others have established that vocal pitch height is perceived to be associated with social signals of dominance and submissiveness: higher vocal pitch is associated with submissiveness, whereas lower vocal pitch is associated with social dominance. An experiment was carried out to test this relationship in the perception of non-vocal melodies. Results show a parallel situation in music: higher-pitched melodies sound more submissive (less threatening than lower-pitched melodies.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Transient Flows around a 3D Pitching Hydrofoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Wu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of the transient flows around a 3D pitching hydrofoil via numerical studies, where the effects of tunnel wall boundary layer and gap flows are considered. Simulations are performed using an unsteady Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes solver and the k-ω SST turbulence model, coupled with a two-equation γ-Reθ transition model. Hydrodynamic forces and flow structures are compared to the results with the equivalent 2D computations. During the upward pitching stage, the transition phenomenon is accurately captured by both the 2D and 3D simulations. The slightly lower lift and suction side loading coefficients predicted by the 3D simulation are due to the pressure effects caused by the tip gap flow. During the dynamic stall stage, the 2D case exhibits a clear overshoot on the hydrodynamic force coefficients and the 3D simulation results better agree with the experimental results. During the downward pitching stage, the flow transitions back to laminar. As for the effect of gap flow and the wall boundary condition, the gap flow causes disturbances to the formation and development of the vortex structures, resulting in the complex distribution of the three-dimensional streamlines and the particle path.

  15. Pre- and Postseason Dynamic Ultrasound Evaluation of the Pitching Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Marshall, Nathan E; Bey, Michael J; Ahmed, Hafeez; Scher, Courtney E; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2015-09-01

    To use ultrasound imaging to document changes over time (i.e., preseason v postseason) in the pitching elbow of high school baseball pitchers. Twenty-two high school pitchers were prospectively followed. Pitchers were evaluated after a 2-month period of relative arm rest via preseason physical exams, dynamic ultrasound imaging of their throwing elbow, and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) assessment. Players were reevaluated within 1 week of their last game. Dynamic ultrasound images were then randomized, blinded to testing time point, and evaluated by 2 fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. Average pitcher age was 16.9 years. Average pitches thrown was 456.5, maximum velocity 77.7 mph, games pitched 7.3, and days off between starts 6.6. From preseason to postseason, there were significant increases in ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) thickness (P = .02), ulnar nerve cross-sectional area (P = .001), UCL substance heterogeneity (P = .001), and QuickDASH scores (P = .03). In addition, there was a nonsignificant increase in loaded ulnohumeral joint space (P = .10). No pitchers had loose bodies on preseason exam, while 3 demonstrated loose bodies postseason. The increase in UCL thickness was significantly associated with the number of bullpen sessions per week (P = .01). The increase in ulnar nerve cross-sectional area was significantly associated with the number of pitches (P = .04), innings pitched (P = .01), and games pitched (P = .04). The stresses placed on the elbow during only one season of pitching create adaptive changes to multiple structures about the elbow including UCL heterogeneity and thickening, increased ulnohumeral joint space laxity, and enlarged ulnar nerve cross-sectional area. Level II prospective observational study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural mechanisms underlying melodic perception and memory for pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, R J; Evans, A C; Meyer, E

    1994-04-01

    The neural correlates of music perception were studied by measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes with positron emission tomography (PET). Twelve volunteers were scanned using the bolus water method under four separate conditions: (1) listening to a sequence of noise bursts, (2) listening to unfamiliar tonal melodies, (3) comparing the pitch of the first two notes of the same set of melodies, and (4) comparing the pitch of the first and last notes of the melodies. The latter two conditions were designed to investigate short-term pitch retention under low or high memory load, respectively. Subtraction of the obtained PET images, superimposed on matched MRI scans, provides anatomical localization of CBF changes associated with specific cognitive functions. Listening to melodies, relative to acoustically matched noise sequences, resulted in CBF increases in the right superior temporal and right occipital cortices. Pitch judgments of the first two notes of each melody, relative to passive listening to the same stimuli, resulted in right frontal-lobe activation. Analysis of the high memory load condition relative to passive listening revealed the participation of a number of cortical and subcortical regions, notably in the right frontal and right temporal lobes, as well as in parietal and insular cortex. Both pitch judgment conditions also revealed CBF decreases within the left primary auditory cortex. We conclude that specialized neural systems in the right superior temporal cortex participate in perceptual analysis of melodies; pitch comparisons are effected via a neural network that includes right prefrontal cortex, but active retention of pitch involves the interaction of right temporal and frontal cortices.

  17. Learning for pitch and melody discrimination in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Kelly L; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2018-03-23

    Congenital amusia is currently thought to be a life-long neurogenetic disorder in music perception, impervious to training in pitch or melody discrimination. This study provides an explicit test of whether amusic deficits can be reduced with training. Twenty amusics and 20 matched controls participated in four sessions of psychophysical training involving either pure-tone (500 Hz) pitch discrimination or a control task of lateralization (interaural level differences for bandpass white noise). Pure-tone pitch discrimination at low, medium, and high frequencies (500, 2000, and 8000 Hz) was measured before and after training (pretest and posttest) to determine the specificity of learning. Melody discrimination was also assessed before and after training using the full Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia, the most widely used standardized test to diagnose amusia. Amusics performed more poorly than controls in pitch but not localization discrimination, but both groups improved with practice on the trained stimuli. Learning was broad, occurring across all three frequencies and melody discrimination for all groups, including those who trained on the non-pitch control task. Following training, 11 of 20 amusics no longer met the global diagnostic criteria for amusia. A separate group of untrained controls (n = 20), who also completed melody discrimination and pretest, improved by an equal amount as trained controls on all measures, suggesting that the bulk of learning for the control group occurred very rapidly from the pretest. Thirty-one trained participants (13 amusics) returned one year later to assess long-term maintenance of pitch and melody discrimination. On average, there was no change in performance between posttest and one-year follow-up, demonstrating that improvements on pitch- and melody-related tasks in amusics and controls can be maintained. The findings indicate that amusia is not always a life-long deficit when using the current standard

  18. Faster decline of pitch memory over time in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J; McDonald, Claire; Deutsch, Diana; Griffiths, Timothy D; Stewart, Lauren

    2010-04-26

    Congenital amusia (amusia, hereafter) is a developmental disorder that impacts negatively on the perception of music. Psychophysical testing suggests that individuals with amusia have above average thresholds for detection of pitch change and pitch direction discrimination; however, a low-level auditory perceptual problem cannot completely explain the disorder, since discrimination of melodies is also impaired when the constituent intervals are suprathreshold for perception. The aim of the present study was to test pitch memory as a function of (a) time and (b) tonal interference, in order to determine whether pitch traces are inherently weaker in amusic individuals. Memory for the pitch of single tones was compared using two versions of a paradigm developed by Deutsch (1970a). In both tasks, participants compared the pitch of a standard (S) versus a comparison (C) tone. In the time task, the S and C tones were presented, separated in time by 0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 s (blocked presentation). In the interference task, the S and C tones were presented with a fixed time interval (5 s) but with a variable number of irrelevant tones in between 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 tones (blocked presentation). In the time task, control performance remained high for all time intervals, but amusics showed a performance decrement over time. In the interference task, controls and amusics showed a similar performance decrement with increasing number of irrelevant tones. Overall, the results suggest that the pitch representations of amusic individuals are less stable and more prone to decay than those of matched non-amusic individuals.

  19. The Significance of the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for Pitch Memory in Non-musicians Depends on Baseline Pitch Memory Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Schaal, Nora K.; Kretschmer, Marina; Keitel, Ariane; Krause, Vanessa; Pfeifer, Jasmin; Pollok, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Pitch memory is a resource which is shared by music and language. Neuroimaging studies have shown that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is activated during pitch memory processes. The present study investigated the causal significance of this brain area for pitch memory in non-musicians by applying cathodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right DLPFC and examining the impact on offline pitch and visual memory span performances. On the overall s...

  20. Pitch contour identification with combined place and temporal cues using cochlear implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Padilla, Monica; Landsberger, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the integration of place- and temporal-pitch cues in pitch contour identification (PCI), in which cochlear implant (CI) users were asked to judge the overall pitch-change direction of stimuli. Falling and rising pitch contours were created either by continuously steering current between adjacent electrodes (place pitch), by continuously changing amplitude modulation (AM) frequency (temporal pitch), or both. The percentage of rising responses was recorded as a function of current steering or AM frequency change, with single or combined pitch cues. A significant correlation was found between subjects’ sensitivity to current steering and AM frequency change. The integration of place- and temporal-pitch cues was most effective when the two cues were similarly discriminable in isolation. Adding the other (place or temporal) pitch cues shifted the temporal- or place-pitch psychometric functions horizontally without changing the slopes. PCI was significantly better with consistent place- and temporal-pitch cues than with inconsistent cues. PCI with single cues and integration of pitch cues were similar on different electrodes. The results suggest that CI users effectively integrate place- and temporal-pitch cues in relative pitch perception tasks. Current steering and AM frequency change should be coordinated to better transmit dynamic pitch information to CI users. PMID:22352506

  1. Study of Pumping Capacity of Pitched Blade Impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fořt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the pumping capacity of pitched blade impellers in a cylindrical pilot plant vessel with four standard radial baffles at the wall under a turbulent regime of flow. The pumping capacity was calculated from the radial profile of the axial flow, under the assumption of axial symmetry of the discharge flow. The mean velocity was measured using laser Doppler anemometry in a transparent vessel of diameter T = 400 mm, provided with a standard dished bottom. Three and six blade pitched blade impellers (the pitch angle varied within the interval a Îá24°; 45°ń of impeller/vessel diameter ratio D/T = 0.36, as well as a three blade pitched blade impeller with folded blades of the same diameter, were tested. The calculated results were compared with the results of experiments mentioned in the literature, above all in cylindrical vessels with a flat bottom. Both arrangements of the agitated system were described by the impeller energetic efficiency, i.e, a criterion including in dimensionless form both the impeller energy consumption (impeller power input and the impeller pumping effect (impeller pumping capacity. It follows from the results obtained with various geometrical configurations that the energetic efficiency of pitched blade impellers is significantly lower for configurations suitable for mixing solid-liquid suspensions (low impeller off bottom clearances than for blending miscible liquids in mixing (higher impeller off bottom clearances.

  2. Theoretical analysis of Sloshing effect on Pitch Angel to optimize quick dive on litoral submarine 22 M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, L. T. P.

    2016-11-01

    This study considers the analytic theoretical model. The Submarine was considered to be rigid body are free sailing model with various angle of attack to be quick dive as pitching motion. By using Floating Body Mechanism supported by analytic model to describe the theoretical model analisys test. For the case of fluid level on 30% of the front balast tank and various angle of pitch. The paper describes a study on Analytic theoretical and modeling in CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). For Analyzing at special care of sloshing on free surce ballast tank after peak and fore peak were taken into consideration. In general, both methods (analytic model and CFD model) demonstrated such a good agreement, particularly in the consistent trend of RAO.

  3. Vortex wake interactions and energy harvesting from tandem pitching and heaving hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yunxing; Cardona, Jennifer; Miller, Michael; Mandre, Shreyas; Breuer, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of flow structure and power extraction by tandem pitching and heaving hydrofoils are conducted in a flume. The leading and trailing hydrofoils are synchronized and aligned parallel to the oncoming flow. Force measurements and time-resolved PIV are used to characterize the system. The system efficiency of tandem foils with the same kinematics is quantified as a function of the phase difference between the foils and there exist favorable and unfavorable phase angles and that system efficiencies can be as large as 0.45. For unfavorable phase angles, PIV indicates that the leading edge vortex generated by the trailing foil, which is critical to good energy harvesting, is weakened by the oncoming wake from the leading foil. Conversely, at a favorable phase, the vortex shed from the leading foil enhances the performance of the trailing foil, compensating for the otherwise negative aspects of operating in the wake. A model, combining frequency, separation distance and a characteristic convection velocity, is introduced to predict the optimal phase region and is validated over a range of parameters. By changing the pitching amplitude and phase angle in trailing foil we show that relatively larger pitching amplitudes can further improve the system efficiency. ARPA-e.

  4. Control of Variable Speed Variable Pitch Wind Turbine at Above and Below Rated Wind Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanakumar Rajendran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a nonlinear approach to wind turbine (WT using two-mass model. The main aim of the controller in the WT is to maximize the energy output at varying wind speed. In this work, a combination of linear and nonlinear controllers is adapted to variable speed variable pitch wind turbines (VSVPWT system. The major operating regions of the WT are below (region 2 and above rated (region 3 wind speed. In these regions, generator torque control (region 2 and pitch control (region 3 are used. The controllers in WT are tested for below and above rated wind speed for step and vertical wind speed profile. The performances of the controllers are analyzed with nonlinear FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence WT dynamic simulation. In this paper, two nonlinear controllers, that is, sliding mode control (SMC and integral sliding mode control (ISMC, have been applied for region 2, whereas for pitch control in region 3 conventional PI control is used. In ISMC, the sliding manifold makes use of an integral action to show effective qualities of control in terms of the control level reduction and sliding mode switching control minimization.

  5. Bridging the gap between perceptual and cognitive perspectives on absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Rogenmoser, Lars; Kühnis, Jürg; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-01-07

    Absolute pitch (AP) refers to the rare ability to identify the chroma of a tone or to produce a specific pitch without reference to keyality (e.g., G or C). Previously, AP has been proposed to rely on the distinctive functional-anatomical architecture of the left auditory-related cortex (ARC), this specific trait possibly enabling an optimized early "categorical perception". In contrast, currently prevailing models of AP postulate that cognitive rather than perceptual processes, namely "pitch labeling" mechanisms, more likely constitute the bearing skeleton of AP. This associative memory component has previously been proposed to be dependent, among other mechanisms, on the recruitment of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as well as on the integrity of the left arcuate fasciculus, a fiber bundle linking the posterior supratemporal plane with the DLPFC. Here, we attempted to integrate these two apparently conflicting perspectives on AP, namely early "categorical perception" and "pitch labeling". We used electroencephalography and evaluated resting-state intracranial functional connectivity between the left ARC and DLPFC in a sample of musicians with and without AP. Results demonstrate significantly increased left-hemispheric theta phase synchronization in AP compared with non-AP musicians. Within the AP group, this specific electrophysiological marker was predictive of absolute-hearing behavior and explained ∼30% of variance. Thus, we propose that in AP subjects the tonal inputs and the corresponding mnemonic representations are tightly coupled in such a manner that the distinctive electrophysiological signature of AP can saliently be detected in only 3 min of resting-state measurements. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/350366-06$15.00/0.

  6. Wing-pitch modulation in maneuvering fruit flies is explained by an interplay between aerodynamics and a torsional spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2015-08-01

    While the wing kinematics of many flapping insects have been well characterized, understanding the underlying sensory, neural, and physiological mechanisms that determine these kinematics is still a challenge. Two main difficulties in understanding the physiological mechanisms arise from the complexity of the interaction between a flapping wing and its own unsteady flow, as well as the intricate mechanics of the insect wing hinge, which is among the most complicated joints in the animal kingdom. These difficulties call for the application of reduced-order approaches. Here this strategy is used to model the torques exerted by the wing hinge along the wing-pitch axis of maneuvering fruit flies as a damped torsional spring with elastic and damping coefficients as well as a rest angle. Furthermore, we model the air flows using simplified quasistatic aerodynamics. Our findings suggest that flies take advantage of the passive coupling between aerodynamics and the damped torsional spring to indirectly control their wing-pitch kinematics by modulating the spring parameters. The damped torsional-spring model explains the changes measured in wing-pitch kinematics during roll correction maneuvers through modulation of the spring damping and elastic coefficients. These results, in conjunction with the previous literature, indicate that flies can accurately control their wing-pitch kinematics on a sub-wing-beat time scale by modulating all three effective spring parameters on longer time scales.

  7. Electrically tuned photoluminescence in large pitch cholesteric liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middha, Manju; Kumar, Rishi; Raina, K. K.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals are known as 1-D photonic band gap materials due to their periodic helical supramolecular structure and larger birefringence. Depending upon the helical twisted pitch length, they give the characteristic contrast due to selective Bragg reflections when viewed through the polarizing optical microscope and hence affect the electro-optic properties. So the optimization of chiral dopant concentration in nematic liquid crystal leads to control the transmission of polarized light through the microscope. Hence transmission based polarizing optical microscope is used for the characterization of helical pitch length in the optical texture. The unwinding of helical pitch was observed with the application of electric field which affects the intensity of photoluminescence

  8. Demonstration of partial pitch 2-bladed wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Zahle, Frederik; Troldborg, Niels

    This is the final report for the EUDP project performed from January 2012 to December 2015. The main objective for the project was to demonstrate the potential of the partial pitch two-bladed (PP-2B) technology. DTU Wind Energy took a responsibility for three workpackages (WPs) among 6 WPs which...... were aerodynamic evaluation of partial pitch technology (WP2), aeroelastic analysis of two-bladed turbine (WP3) and On-site testing (WP4). For the WP2, a comprehensive set of 3D CFD simulations including the gap between inner and outer part of the blade and vortex generators (VGs) of both cross...... pitch concept and detailed load analyses were performed. Also the comparison studies between numerical results and experimental results were performed. Moreover stability analyses for the PP- 2B turbine have been performed with HAWC2 and modal analysis using Hill’s method was performed to calculate...

  9. Pitching stability analysis of half-rotating wing air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Wu, Yang; Li, Qian; Li, Congmin; Qiu, Zhizhen

    2017-06-01

    Half-Rotating Wing (HRW) is a new power wing which had been developed by our work team using rotating-type flapping instead of oscillating-type flapping. Half-Rotating Wing Air Vehicle (HRWAV) is similar as Bionic Flapping Wing Air Vehicle (BFWAV). It is necessary to guarantee pitching stability of HRWAV to maintain flight stability. The working principle of HRW was firstly introduced in this paper. The rule of motion indicated that the fuselage of HRWAV without empennage would overturn forward as it generated increased pitching movement. Therefore, the empennage was added on the tail of HRWAV to balance the additional moment generated by aerodynamic force during flight. The stability analysis further shows that empennage could weaken rapidly the pitching disturbance on HRWAV and a new balance of fuselage could be achieved in a short time. Case study using numerical analysis verified correctness and validity of research results mentioned above, which could provide theoretical guidance to design and control HRWAV.

  10. Interaural bimodal pitch matching with two-formant vowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerit, Francois Marie Louis Paul; Chalupper, Josef; Santurette, Sébastien

    practice. Behavioral pitch matching between the two ears has also been suggested, but has been shown to be tedious and unreliable. Here, an alternative method using two-formant vowels was developed and tested with a vocoder system simulating different CI insertion depths. The hypothesis was that patients...... may more easily identify vowels than perform a classical pitch-matching task. A spectral shift is inferred by comparing vowel spaces, measured by presenting the first formant in the HA and the second either in the HA or the CI. Preliminary results suggest that pitch mismatches can be derived from...... such vowel spaces. In order to take auditory adaptation in individual patients into account, the method will be tested with CI patients with contralateral residual hearing....

  11. Boosting pitch encoding with audiovisual interactions in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Lévêque, Yohana; Hyde, Krista L; Bouchet, Patrick; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The combination of information across senses can enhance perception, as revealed for example by decreased reaction times or improved stimulus detection. Interestingly, these facilitatory effects have been shown to be maximal when responses to unisensory modalities are weak. The present study investigated whether audiovisual facilitation can be observed in congenital amusia, a music-specific disorder primarily ascribed to impairments of pitch processing. Amusic individuals and their matched controls performed two tasks. In Task 1, they were required to detect auditory, visual, or audiovisual stimuli as rapidly as possible. In Task 2, they were required to detect as accurately and as rapidly as possible a pitch change within an otherwise monotonic 5-tone sequence that was presented either only auditorily (A condition), or simultaneously with a temporally congruent, but otherwise uninformative visual stimulus (AV condition). Results of Task 1 showed that amusics exhibit typical auditory and visual detection, and typical audiovisual integration capacities: both amusics and controls exhibited shorter response times for audiovisual stimuli than for either auditory stimuli or visual stimuli. Results of Task 2 revealed that both groups benefited from simultaneous uninformative visual stimuli to detect pitch changes: accuracy was higher and response times shorter in the AV condition than in the A condition. The audiovisual improvements of response times were observed for different pitch interval sizes depending on the group. These results suggest that both typical listeners and amusic individuals can benefit from multisensory integration to improve their pitch processing abilities and that this benefit varies as a function of task difficulty. These findings constitute the first step towards the perspective to exploit multisensory paradigms to reduce pitch-related deficits in congenital amusia, notably by suggesting that audiovisual paradigms are effective in an appropriate

  12. Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J

    2012-01-04

    In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots.

  13. Flare evaluation for 32-nm half pitch using SFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Hajime; Tanaka, Yuusuke; Kamo, Takashi; Iriki, Nobuyuki; Arisawa, Yukiyasu; Tanaka, Toshihiko

    2008-03-01

    Flare degrades critical-dimension (CD) control in EUVL, a promising technology for the 32-nm half-pitch node. To deal with flare, high-quality projection optics in the exposure tool and flare variation compensation (FVC) technology with proper mask resizing are needed. Selete has installed a small-field exposure tool (SFET) with the goal of assessing resist performance. Due to the high-quality optics, the SFET allowed us to determine the required flare specification to be 6.1% or 6.6%, as calculated from the residual part of the low- or middle-frequency region, respectively. The flare level was confirmed through experimental results and from calculations using the power spectral density (PSD) obtained from the mirror roughness by the disappearing-resist method. The lithographic performance was evaluated using 32-nm-halfpitch patterns in a new resist. The resist characteristics can be explained by modeling blur as a Gaussian function with a σ of 8.8 nm and using a very accurate CD variation (area or not, there was no difference in CD as a function of distance up to a distance of 20 µm. In addition, CD degradation was observed at distances not far (area. In a 60-nm neighborhood of the open area, an 8-nm variation in CD appeared up to the distance at which the CD leveled off. When the influences of resist blur and flare on patterns was taken into account in the calculation, it was found that aerial simulations based on a rigorous 3D model of a mask structure matched the experimental results. These results yield the appropriate mask resizing and the range in which flare has an influence, which is needed for FVC. This research was supported in part by NEDO.

  14. Automatic pitch detection for a computer game interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Solis, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    A software able to recognize notes played by musical instruments is created through automatic pitch recognition. A pitch recognition algorithm is embedded into a software project, using the C implementation of SWIPEP. A memory game is chosen for project. A sequence of notes is listened and played by user to the computer, using a soprano recorder flute. The basic concepts to understand the acoustic phenomena involved are explained. The paper is aimed for all students with basic programming knowledge and want to incorporate sound processing to their projects. (author) [es

  15. Electric Control Substituting Pitch Control for Large Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Kjellin

    2013-01-01

    turbine has fixed pitch and is only controlled electrically accommodated by passive stall of the blades. By electrically controlling the generator rotational speed with the inverter, passive stall regulation is enabled. The first results on experimental verification of stall regulation in gusty wind speeds are presented. The experiments show that the control system can keep the turbine rotational speed constant even at very gusty winds. It is concluded that electrical control accommodated by passive stall is sufficient as control of the wind turbine even at high wind speeds and can substitute mechanical control such as blade pitch.

  16. Adaptive sliding mode back-stepping pitch angle control of a variable-displacement pump controlled pitch system for wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiu-xing; Lin, Yong-gang; Li, Wei; Liu, Hong-wei; Gu, Ya-jing

    2015-09-01

    A variable-displacement pump controlled pitch system is proposed to mitigate generator power and flap-wise load fluctuations for wind turbines. The pitch system mainly consists of a variable-displacement hydraulic pump, a fixed-displacement hydraulic motor and a gear set. The hydraulic motor can be accurately regulated by controlling the pump displacement and fluid flows to change the pitch angle through the gear set. The detailed mathematical representation and dynamic characteristics of the proposed pitch system are thoroughly analyzed. An adaptive sliding mode pump displacement controller and a back-stepping stroke piston controller are designed for the proposed pitch system such that the resulting pitch angle tracks its desired value regardless of external disturbances and uncertainties. The effectiveness and control efficiency of the proposed pitch system and controllers have been verified by using realistic dataset of a 750 kW research wind turbine. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of Nano-Grating Pitch Evaluation Method Based on Line Edge Roughness Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pitch uncertainty and line edge roughness are among the critical quality attributes of a pitch standard and normally the analyses of these two parameters are separate. The analysis of self-traceable Cr atom lithography nano-gratings shows a positive relevance and sensitivity between LER and evaluated standard deviation of pitch. Therefore, LER can be used as an aided pre-evaluation parameter for the pitch calculation method, such as the gravity center method or the zero-crossing points method. The optimization of the nano-grating evaluation method helps to obtain the accurate pitch value with fewer measurements and provide a comprehensive characterization of pitch standards.

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Experiencing Platform Pitching Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanhtoan Tran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to illustrate the unsteady aerodynamic effects of a floating offshore wind turbine experiencing the prescribed pitching motion of a supporting floating platform as a sine function. The three-dimensional, unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear-stress transport (SST k-ω turbulence model were applied. Moreover, an overset grid approach was used to model the rigid body motion of a wind turbine blade. The current simulation results are compared to various approaches from previous studies. The unsteady aerodynamic loads of the blade were demonstrated to change drastically with respect to the frequency and amplitude of platform motion.

  19. Changes in pitch height elicit both language-universal and language-dependent changes in neural representation of pitch in the brainstem and auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Suresh, Chandan H; Gandour, Jackson T

    2017-03-27

    Language experience shapes encoding of pitch-relevant information at both brainstem and cortical levels of processing. Pitch height is a salient dimension that orders pitch from low to high. Herein we investigate the effects of language experience (Chinese, English) in the brainstem and cortex on (i) neural responses to variations in pitch height, (ii) presence of asymmetry in cortical pitch representation, and (iii) patterns of relative changes in magnitude of pitch height between these two levels of brain structure. Stimuli were three nonspeech homologs of Mandarin Tone 2 varying in pitch height only. The frequency-following response (FFR) and the cortical pitch-specific response (CPR) were recorded concurrently. At the Fz-linked T7/T8 site, peak latency of Na, Pb, and Nb decreased with increasing pitch height for both groups. Peak-to-peak amplitude of Na-Pb and Pb-Nb increased with increasing pitch height across groups. A language-dependent effect was restricted to Na-Pb; the Chinese had larger amplitude than the English group. At temporal sites (T7/T8), the Chinese group had larger amplitude, as compared to English, across stimuli, but also limited to the Na-Pb component and right temporal site. In the brainstem, F0 magnitude decreased with increasing pitch height; Chinese had larger magnitude across stimuli. A comparison of CPR and FFR responses revealed distinct patterns of relative changes in magnitude common to both groups. CPR amplitude increased and FFR amplitude decreased with increasing pitch height. Experience-dependent effects on CPR components vary as a function of neural sensitivity to pitch height within a particular temporal window (Na-Pb). Differences between the auditory brainstem and cortex imply distinct neural mechanisms for pitch extraction at both levels of brain structure. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in pitch height elicit both language universal and language dependent changes in neural representation of pitch in the brainstem and auditory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Suresh, Chandan H.; Gandour, Jackson T.

    2017-01-01

    Language experience shapes encoding of pitch-relevant information at both brainstem and cortical levels of processing. Pitch height is a salient dimension that orders pitch from low to high. Herein we investigate the effects of language experience (Chinese, English) in the brainstem and cortex on i) neural responses to variations in pitch height, ii) presence of asymmetry in cortical pitch representation, and iii) patterns of relative changes in magnitude of pitch height between these two levels of brain structure. Stimuli were three nonspeech homologs of Mandarin Tone 2 varying in pitch height only. The frequency-following response (FFR) and the cortical pitch-specific response (CPR) were recorded concurrently. At the Fz-linked T7/T8 site, peak latency of Na, Pb, and Nb decreased with increasing pitch height for both groups. Peak-to-peak amplitude of Na–Pb and Pb–Nb increased with increasing pitch height across groups. A language-dependent effect was restricted to Na-Pb; the Chinese had larger amplitude than the English group. At temporal sites (T7/T8), the Chinese group had larger amplitude, as compared to English, across stimuli, but also limited to the Na-Pb component and right temporal site. In the brainstem, F0 magnitude decreased with increasing pitch height; Chinese had larger magnitude across stimuli. A comparison of CPR and FFR responses revealed distinct patterns of relative changes in magnitude common to both groups. CPR amplitude increased and FFR amplitude decreased with increasing pitch height. Experience-dependent effects on CPR components vary as a function of neural sensitivity to pitch height within a particular temporal window (Na–Pb). Differences between the auditory brainstem and cortex imply distinct neural mechanisms for pitch extraction at both levels of brain structure. PMID:28108254

  1. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    . This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...

  2. The Effects of Lexical Pitch Accent on Infant Word Recognition in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiko Ota

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learners of lexical tone languages (e.g., Mandarin develop sensitivity to tonal contrasts and recognize pitch-matched, but not pitch-mismatched, familiar words by 11 months. Learners of non-tone languages (e.g., English also show a tendency to treat pitch patterns as lexically contrastive up to about 18 months. In this study, we examined if this early-developing capacity to lexically encode pitch variations enables infants to acquire a pitch accent system, in which pitch-based lexical contrasts are obscured by the interaction of lexical and non-lexical (i.e., intonational features. Eighteen 17-month-olds learning Tokyo Japanese were tested on their recognition of familiar words with the expected pitch or the lexically opposite pitch pattern. In early trials, infants were faster in shifting their eyegaze from the distractor object to the target object than in shifting from the target to distractor in the pitch-matched condition. In later trials, however, infants showed faster distractor-to-target than target-to-distractor shifts in both the pitch-matched and pitch-mismatched conditions. We interpret these results to mean that, in a pitch-accent system, the ability to use pitch variations to recognize words is still in a nascent state at 17 months.

  3. Long-term pitch memory for music recordings is related to auditory working memory precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon Lm; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2018-04-01

    Most individuals have reliable long-term memories for the pitch of familiar music recordings. This pitch memory (1) appears to be normally distributed in the population, (2) does not depend on explicit musical training and (3) only seems to be weakly related to differences in listening frequency estimates. The present experiment was designed to assess whether individual differences in auditory working memory could explain variance in long-term pitch memory for music recordings. In Experiment 1, participants first completed a musical note adjustment task that has been previously used to assess working memory of musical pitch. Afterward, participants were asked to judge the pitch of well-known music recordings, which either had or had not been shifted in pitch. We found that performance on the pitch working memory task was significantly related to performance in the pitch memory task using well-known recordings, even when controlling for overall musical experience and familiarity with each recording. In Experiment 2, we replicated these findings in a separate group of participants while additionally controlling for fluid intelligence and non-pitch-based components of auditory working memory. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that participants could not accurately judge the pitch of unfamiliar recordings, suggesting that our method of pitch shifting did not result in unwanted acoustic cues that could have aided participants in Experiments 1 and 2. These results, taken together, suggest that the ability to maintain pitch information in working memory might lead to more accurate long-term pitch memory.

  4. A theoretical analysis of pitch stability during gliding in flying snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Farid; Ross, Shane D; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Socha, John J

    2014-06-01

    Flying snakes use their entire body as a continuously morphing 'wing' to produce lift and shallow their glide trajectory. Their dominant behavior during gliding is aerial undulation, in which lateral waves are sent posteriorly down the body. This highly dynamic behavior, which is unique among animal gliders, should have substantial effects on the flight dynamics and stability of the snakes, resulting from the continuous redistribution of mass and aerodynamic forces. In this study, we develop two-dimensional theoretical models to assess the stability characteristics of snakes in the pitch direction. Previously measured force coefficients are used to simulate aerodynamic forces acting on the models, and undulation is simulated by varying mass. Model 1 is a simple three-airfoil representation of the snake's body that possesses a passively stable equilibrium solution, whose basin of stability contains initial conditions observed in experimental gliding trajectories. Model 2 is more sophisticated, with more degrees of freedom allowing for postural changes to better represent the snake's real kinematics; in addition, a restoring moment is added to simulate potential active control. The application of static and dynamic stability criteria show that Model 2 is passively unstable, but can be stabilized with a restoring moment. Overall, these models suggest that undulation does not contribute to stability in pitch, and that flying snakes require a closed-loop control system formed around a passively stable dynamical framework.

  5. A theoretical analysis of pitch stability during gliding in flying snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, Farid; Ross, Shane D; Socha, John J; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2014-01-01

    Flying snakes use their entire body as a continuously morphing ‘wing’ to produce lift and shallow their glide trajectory. Their dominant behavior during gliding is aerial undulation, in which lateral waves are sent posteriorly down the body. This highly dynamic behavior, which is unique among animal gliders, should have substantial effects on the flight dynamics and stability of the snakes, resulting from the continuous redistribution of mass and aerodynamic forces. In this study, we develop two-dimensional theoretical models to assess the stability characteristics of snakes in the pitch direction. Previously measured force coefficients are used to simulate aerodynamic forces acting on the models, and undulation is simulated by varying mass. Model 1 is a simple three-airfoil representation of the snake’s body that possesses a passively stable equilibrium solution, whose basin of stability contains initial conditions observed in experimental gliding trajectories. Model 2 is more sophisticated, with more degrees of freedom allowing for postural changes to better represent the snake’s real kinematics; in addition, a restoring moment is added to simulate potential active control. The application of static and dynamic stability criteria show that Model 2 is passively unstable, but can be stabilized with a restoring moment. Overall, these models suggest that undulation does not contribute to stability in pitch, and that flying snakes require a closed-loop control system formed around a passively stable dynamical framework. (papers)

  6. Interaural bimodal pitch matching with two-formant vowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guérit, François; Chalupper, Josef; Santurette, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    For bimodal patients, with a hearing aid (HA) in one ear and a cochlear implant (CI) in the opposite ear, usually a default frequency-to-electrode map is used in the CI. This assumes that the human brain can adapt to interaural place-pitch mismatches. This “one-size-fits-all” method might be part...

  7. Children's Identification of Questions from Rising Terminal Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saindon, Mathieu R.; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Young children are slow to master conventional intonation patterns in their "yes/no" questions, which may stem from imperfect understanding of the links between terminal pitch contours and pragmatic intentions. In Experiment 1, five to ten-year-old children and adults were required to judge utterances as questions or statements on the…

  8. Distraction by novel and pitch-deviant sounds in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Wetzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of attention is an important part of our executive functions and enables us to focus on relevant information and to ignore irrelevant information. The ability to shield against distraction by task-irrelevant sounds is suggested to mature during school age. The present study investigated the developmental time course of distraction in three groups of children aged 7 – 10 years. Two different types of distractor sounds that have been frequently used in auditory attention research – novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds – were presented within an oddball paradigm while children performed a visual categorization task. Reaction time measurements revealed decreasing distractor-related impairment with age. Novel environmental sounds impaired performance in the categorization task more than pitch-deviant sounds. The youngest children showed a pronounced decline of novel-related distraction effects throughout the experimental session. Such a significant decline as a result of practice was not observed in the pitch-deviant condition and not in older children. We observed no correlation between cross-modal distraction effects and performance in standardized tests of concentration and visual distraction. Results of the cross-modal distraction paradigm indicate that separate mechanisms underlying the processing of novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds develop with different time courses and that these mechanisms develop considerably within a few years in middle childhood.

  9. Periodic Burning In Table Mountain-Pitch Pine Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell B. Randles; David H. van Lear; Thomas A. Waldrop; Dean M. Simon

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - The effects of multiple, low intensity burns on vegetation and wildlife habitat in Table Mountain (Pinus pungens Lamb.)-pitch (Pinus rigida Mill.) pine communities were studied in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Treatments consisted of areas burned from one to four times at 3-4 year...

  10. Wear and Friction in a Controllable Pitch Propeller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godjevac, M.

    2010-01-01

    The author is a naval architect and this book is his PhD thesis. In this research the author focuses on friction in a controllable pitch propeller (CPP), formation of wear in a CPP system, and their mutual dependence. Instead of going deeply only in tribology aspects, the author tries to get an

  11. Pitch organisation in Hendrik Hofmeyr's Alleenstryd | May | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hendrik Hofmeyr's Alleenstryd is of seminal importance in the evolution of the composer's musical language. Emerging ideas of types of pitch organisation in earlier works are here for the first time organised into a fully integrated system and the principles applied here later became some of the most important hallmarks of ...

  12. Shoulder muscle firing patterns during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffet, M W; Jobe, F W; Pink, M M; Brault, J; Mathiyakom, W

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the activity of eight shoulder muscles during the windmill fast-pitch softball throw. Ten collegiate female pitchers were analyzed with intramuscular electromyography, high-speed cinematography, and motion analysis. The supraspinatus muscle fired maximally during arm elevation from the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, centralizing the humeral head within the glenoid. The posterior deltoid and teres minor muscles acted maximally from the 3 to 12 o'clock position phase to continue arm elevation and externally rotate the humerus. The pectoralis major muscle accelerated the arm from the 12 o'clock position to ball release phase. The serratus anterior muscle characteristically acted to position the scapula for optimal glenohumeral congruency, and the subscapularis muscle functioned as an internal rotator and to protect the anterior capsule. Although the windmill softball pitch is overtly different from the baseball pitch, several surprising similarities were revealed. The serratus anterior and pectoralis major muscles work in synchrony and seem to have similar functions in both pitches. Although the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles are both posterior cuff muscles, they are characteristically uncoupled during the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, with the infraspinatus muscle acting more independently below 90 degrees. Subscapularis muscle activity seems important in dynamic anterior glenohumeral stabilization and as an internal rotator in both the baseball and softball throws.

  13. Pitch perception in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altgassen, A.M.; Kliegel, M.; Williams, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of musical pitch detection in children with autistic spectrum disorders as compared with typically developing children. Seventeen children on the autistic spectrum (Mage=9.34, SDage=1.12) and 13 typically developing, chronological age-matched children (Mage=9.13,

  14. Singing Video Games May Help Improve Pitch-Matching Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paney, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of singing video games on the pitch-matching skills of undergraduate students. Popular games like "Rock Band" and "Karaoke Revolutions" rate players' singing based on the correctness of the frequency of their sung response. Players are motivated to improve their…

  15. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  16. Multilingual evaluation of voice disability index using pitch rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Shinohara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose the use of the pitch rate of free-form speech recorded by smartphones as an index of voice disability. This research compares the effectiveness of pitch rate, jitter, shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR as indices of voice disability in English, German, and Japanese. Normally, the evaluation of these indices is performed using long-vowel sounds; however, this study included the recitation of a set passage, which is more similar to free-form speech. The results showed that for English, the jitter, shimmer, and HNR were very effective indices for long-vowel sounds, but the shimmer and HNR for read speech were considerably worse. Although the effectiveness of jitter as an index was maintained for read speech, the pitch rate was better in distinguishing between healthy individuals and patients with illnesses affecting their voice. The read speech results in German, Japanese, and English were similar, and the pitch rate showed the greatest efficiency for identification. Nevertheless, compared to English, the identification efficiency for the other two languages was lower.

  17. The thermal transformations of pitch and its compositions with thermoanthracite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Krysin, V.P.; Ulanovskii, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The loss of mass in the thermal transformations of a hard-coal pitch and its compositions with thermoanthracite in the temperature interval of 200-1000/sup 0/C takes place in two main stages: with a variable rate in the 200-600/sup 0/C interval and at a constant rate in the 600-1000/sup 0/C interval. The rate of the mass loss process in the 200-600/sup 0/C interval is determined mainly by the rate of diffusion of the volatile components and also of the light products of the thermal transformations of the pitch from the bulk to the phase separation boundary, and in the 600-1000/sup 0/C interval predominantly by the rate of the actual elementary chemical reaction. In the presence of thermoanthracite, the nature of the thermal transformations of the pitch does not change appreciably, while in the presence of silica synthetic reactions are intensified, which leads to an increase in the yield of solid residue by approximately 4 mass %. (A rise in the rate of heating of pitch-thermoanthracite compositions leads to the incomplete elimination of volatile products in the first stage, which has a favorable action on the increase in the yield of solid residue.)

  18. Diseases of pines caused by the pitch canker fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. David Dwinell; Stephen W. Fraedrich; D. Adams

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, the pitch canker fungus, causes a number of serious diseases of Pinus species. The pathogen infects a variety of vegetative and reproductive pine structures at different stages of maturity and produces a diversity of symptoms. When the pathogen infects the woody vegetative...

  19. Pitch, Tempo, and Timbral Preferences in Recorded Piano Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnick, Joel

    1980-01-01

    Subjects (96 undergraduate music students) were given freedom to alter pitch levels, tempos, and timbral qualities of tape recordings of 12 familiar and unfamiliar piano solos. Subject responses were analyzed for accuracy, as well as for preference directions. (Author/SJL)

  20. Pitch and Loudness Tinnitus in Individuals with Presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, Bruna Macangnin; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Leticia Petersen Schmidt; Flores, Leticia Sousa; Pappen, Carlos Henrique; Dall'igna, Celso

    2016-10-01

    Introduction  Tinnitus is a symptom that is often associated with presbycusis. Objective  This study aims to analyze the existence of association among hearing thresholds, pitch, and loudness of tinnitus in individuals with presbycusis, considering the gender variable. Methods  Cross-sectional, descriptive, and prospective study, whose sample consisted of individuals with tinnitus and diagnosis of presbycusis. For the evaluation, we performed anamnesis along with otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, and acuphenometry to analyze the psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus individuals. Results  The sample consisted of 49 subjects, with a mean age of 69.57 ± 6.53 years, who presented unilateral and bilateral tinnitus, therefore, a sample of 80 ears. In analyzing the results, as for acuphenometry, the loudness of tinnitus was more present at 0dB and the pitch was 6HKz and 8HKz. Regarding the analysis of the association between the frequency of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus pitch, no statistical significance ( p  = 0.862) was found. As for the association between the intensity of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus loudness, no statistical significance ( p  = 0.115) was found. Conclusion  There is no significant association between the hearing loss of patients with presbycusis and the pitch and loudness of tinnitus.

  1. Pitch and Loudness Tinnitus in Individuals with Presbycusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seimetz, Bruna Macangnin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tinnitus is a symptom that is often associated with presbycusis. Objective This study aims to analyze the existence of association among hearing thresholds, pitch, and loudness of tinnitus in individuals with presbycusis, considering the gender variable. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and prospective study, whose sample consisted of individuals with tinnitus and diagnosis of presbycusis. For the evaluation, we performed anamnesis along with otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, and acuphenometry to analyze the psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus individuals. Results The sample consisted of 49 subjects, with a mean age of 69.57 ± 6.53 years, who presented unilateral and bilateral tinnitus, therefore, a sample of 80 ears. In analyzing the results, as for acuphenometry, the loudness of tinnitus was more present at 0dB and the pitch was 6HKz and 8HKz. Regarding the analysis of the association between the frequency of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus pitch, no statistical significance (p = 0.862 was found. As for the association between the intensity of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus loudness, no statistical significance (p = 0.115 was found. Conclusion There is no significant association between the hearing loss of patients with presbycusis and the pitch and loudness of tinnitus.

  2. The Relationship between Pitch and Space in Congenital Amusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Cocchini, Gianna; Stewart, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Congenital amusia manifests as a lifelong difficulty in making sense of musical sound. The extent to which this disorder is accompanied by deficits in visuo-spatial processing is an important question, bearing on the issue of whether pitch processing draws on supramodal spatial representations. The present study assessed different aspects of…

  3. LQG Controller Design for Pitch Regulated Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Raja Muhammed; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Variable speed wind turbine is a complex and nonlinear system, a sophisticated control is required to meet the challenges posed by these systems. This paper is presenting a pitch regulation strategy based on LQG (Linear Quadratic Gaussian) to regulate turbine at its rated power and to reject...

  4. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable and reversible pitch propellers. 35.21 Section 35.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.21 Variable and...

  5. Pitch jnd and the tritone paradox: The linguistic nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Kourosh

    2002-11-01

    Previous research has shown a connection between absolute pitch (the ability to name a specific pitch in the absence of any reference) and native competence in a tone language (Deutsch, 1990). In tone languages, tone is one of the features which determines the lexical meaning of a word. This study investigates the relationship between native competence in a tone language and the just noticeable difference of pitch. Furthermore, the tritone paradox studies have shown that subjects hear two tritones (with bell-shaped spectral envelopes) as either ascending or descending depending on their linguistic backgrounds (Deutsch, 1987). It is hypothesized that the native speakers of tone languages have a higher JND for pitch, and hear the two tones of the tritone paradox as ascending, whereas, native speakers of nontone languages hear them as descending. This study will indicate the importance of early musical training for the development of acute tone sensitivity. It will also underline the importance of language and culture in the way it shapes our musical understanding. The significance of this study will be in the areas of music education and pedagogy.

  6. Thrust generation and wake structure for flow across a pitching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... not a sufficient condition for the generation of thrust. The vortex strength is found to be invariant of the pitching frequency. Certain differences from the reported results are noted, which may be because of difference in the airfoil shape. These results can help improve understanding of the flow behavior as the low Reynolds ...

  7. Pitch, roll, and yaw variations in patient positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Adeel; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.; Smith, David D.; Han, Chunhui; Vora, Nayana L.; Pezner, Richard D.; Chen Yijen; Radany, Eric H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To use pretreatment megavoltage-computed tomography (MVCT) scans to evaluate positioning variations in pitch, roll, and yaw for patients treated with helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate and 15 head-and-neck cancer patients were selected. Pretreatment MVCT scans were performed before every treatment fraction and automatically registered to planning kilovoltage CT (KVCT) scans by bony landmarks. Image registration data were used to adjust patient setups before treatment. Corrections for pitch, roll, and yaw were recorded after bone registration, and data from fractions 1-5 and 16-20 were used to analyze mean rotational corrections. Results: For prostate patients, the means and standard deviations (in degrees) for pitch, roll, and yaw corrections were -0.60 ± 1.42, 0.66 ± 1.22, and -0.33 ± 0.83. In head-and-neck patients, the means and standard deviations (in degrees) were -0.24 ± 1.19, -0.12 ± 1.53, and 0.25 ± 1.42 for pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. No significant difference in rotational variations was observed between Weeks 1 and 4 of treatment. Head-and-neck patients had significantly smaller pitch variation, but significantly larger yaw variation, than prostate patients. No difference was found in roll corrections between the two groups. Overall, 96.6% of the rotational corrections were less than 4 deg. Conclusions: The initial rotational setup errors for prostate and head-and-neck patients were all small in magnitude, statistically significant, but did not vary considerably during the course of radiotherapy. The data are relevant to couch hardware design for correcting rotational setup variations. There should be no theoretical difference between these data and data collected using cone beam KVCT on conventional linacs

  8. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vanzella

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch (AP is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names, it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP.A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation, which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age.Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.

  9. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella, Patrícia; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2010-11-11

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung) voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones) than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices) test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation), which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.

  10. Neural coding and perception of pitch in the normal and impaired human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    investigated using psychophysical methods. First, hearing loss was found to affect the perception of binaural pitch, a pitch sensation created by the binaural interaction of noise stimuli. Specifically, listeners without binaural pitch sensation showed signs of retrocochlear disorders. Despite adverse effects......Pitch is an important attribute of hearing that allows us to perceive the musical quality of sounds. Besides music perception, pitch contributes to speech communication, auditory grouping, and perceptual segregation of sound sources. In this work, several aspects of pitch perception in humans were...... of reduced frequency selectivity on binaural pitch perception, the ability to accurately process the temporal fine structure (TFS) of sounds at the output of the cochlear filters was found to be essential for perceiving binaural pitch. Monaural TFS processing also played a major and independent role...

  11. Facial Expression and Vocal Pitch Height: Evidence of an Intermodal Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Forty-four participants were asked to sing moderate, high, and low pitches while their faces were photographed. In a two-alternative forced choice task, independent judges selected the high-pitch faces as more friendly than the low-pitch faces. When photographs were cropped to show only the eye region, judges still rated the high-pitch faces friendlier than the low-pitch faces. These results are consistent with prior research showing that vocal pitch height is used to signal aggression (low pitch or appeasement (high pitch. An analysis of the facial features shows a strong correlation between eyebrow position and sung pitch—consistent with the role of eyebrows in signaling aggression and appeasement. Overall, the results are consistent with an inter-modal linkage between vocal and facial expressions.

  12. West African languages enrich the frequency code: Multi-functional pitch and multi-dimensional prosody in Ikaan polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Salffner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linguistically, statements tend to be pronounced with low or falling pitch and questions with high or rising pitch, a form–meaning pairing which has been attributed to the frequency code (Ohala, 1984. In many West African languages, however, questions are marked with a ‘lax’ prosody comprising falling intonation, low tones, lengthening, breathy termination, and open vowels (Rialland, 2007. This paper presents prosody findings from Ikaan (Niger-Congo; ISO 639-3: kcf and proposes a re-analysis of the West African lax question prosody to integrate it with the frequency code model. The paper shows that the pragmatic functions of statement and polar question are expressed prosodically in Ikaan. Audio recordings of statements and morphosyntactically identical polar questions by six speakers were annotated segmentally, tonally, and for the presence of prosodic question markers. Speakers mark questions by using higher onset pitch, wider drops to final low tones, final breathy voice and voicelessness, final vowel lengthening, vowel insertion, and increased intensity. Breathiness may further contrast with creaky voice and glottal stops in statements. Phonation mode, and the accompanying vowel lengthening and insertion, are argued to indicate friendliness and appeals for collaboration, linking phonation mode to similar functions of higher pitch in the frequency code.

  13. Do musicians with perfect pitch have more autism traits than musicians without perfect pitch? An empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Heaton, Pamela; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased prevalence of AP in individuals with sensory and developmental disorders. Here, we determine whether individual autistic traits are present in people with AP. We quantified subclinical levels of autism traits using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in three matched groups of subjects: 16 musicians with AP (APs), 18 musicians without AP (non-APs), and 16 non-musicians. In addition, we measured AP ability by a pitch identification test with sine wave tones and piano tones. We found a significantly higher degree of autism traits in APs than in non-APs and non-musicians, and autism scores were significantly correlated with pitch identification scores (r = .46, p = .003). However, our results showed that APs did not differ from non-APs on diagnostically crucial social and communicative domain scores and their total AQ scores were well below clinical thresholds for autism. Group differences emerged on the imagination and attention switching subscales of the AQ. Thus, whilst these findings do link AP with autism, they also show that AP ability is most strongly associated with personality traits that vary widely within the normal population.

  14. Two Studies of Pitch in String Instrument Vibrato: Perception and Pitch Matching Responses of University and High School String Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Ellis, Julia C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated pitch perception of string vibrato tones among string players in two separate studies. In both studies we used tones of acoustic instruments (violin and cello) as stimuli. In the first, we asked 192 high school and university string players to listen to a series of tonal pairs: one tone of each pair was performed with vibrato and…

  15. Effects of a Simulated Game on Upper Extremity Pitching Mechanics and Muscle Activations Among Various Pitch Types in Youth Baseball Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Plummer, Hillary; Henning, Lisa; Saper, Michael; Glimer, Gabrielle; Brambeck, Allison; Andrews, James R

    2017-03-21

    Throwing requires proper stability and orientation of the pelvis and scapula for efficient energy transfer during pitching. Fatigue of the pelvis and scapular musculature throughout the course of a game can impair pitching performance, and place excessive demands on the throwing arm leading to injury. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in pelvis, torso, and upper extremity pitching mechanics and muscle activations between the fastball, change-up, and curveball pitches in youth baseball pitchers following a simulated game. Fourteen youth baseball pitchers with no history of injury participated. Pitching mechanics were collected using an electromagnetic tracking system. Surface electromyography data were collected on the bilateral gluteus medius and maximus; and throwing arm side latissimus dorsi, lower trapezius, upper trapezius, and serratus anterior. Participants were instructed to throw maximum effort pitches during a simulated game that provided random game situations similar to those that occur in competition. Participants were limited to 85 pitches based on age-restricted pitch counts. Data from 3 fastballs, curveballs, and change-ups thrown in the first and last innings were selected for analysis. Repeated measures multivariate analyses of variance revealed that neither pitch type nor the effect of a simulated game resulted in statistically significant changes in pitching mechanics (F(10,600)=0.55, P=0.85), or muscle activations (pelvic: F(4,195)=0.07, P=0.85; scapular: F(4,118)=0.09, P=0.52). The principle findings of this study revealed that pitching to the age-restricted pitch count limit did not result in altered pitching mechanics or muscle activations, and no differences occurred between the 3 pitches. These results support previous research that indicate the curveball pitch is no more dangerous for youth than the other pitches commonly thrown. This is supported by the pitcher's ability to maintain a proper arm slot during all 3

  16. Negative magnetoresistance of pitch-based carbon fibers Temperature and pressure dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambourger, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    The negative transverse magnetoresistance of high-modulus pitch-based carbon fibers has been measured over the temperature range 1.3-4.2 K at ambient pressure and at 4.2 K under hydrostatic pressure up to 16 kbar. At low fields (less than 0.5 torr) the magnitude of the magnetoresistance increases markedly as the temperature is lowered from 4.2 K to 1.3 K, in disagreement with Bright's theoretical model, and decreases with pressure at the rate -0.6 percent/kbar.

  17. Efficiency of application of special exercises and exercises with the use of baseball pitching machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapov D.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the approach on making up coordination capabilities and technical tactical performances in baseball is confirmed. 100 boys (age 12-14 years take part in experiment. Relative analysis of a level of development of coordination capabilities and technical tactical readiness of baseball players is carried out. The level of development of technical readiness after experiment under the program «pitch, hit and run» is taped. The frame of special exercises with usage of colour balls is featured. Dynamics of hits for baseball players on a flying ball is presented. The approach in modelling of requirements of competitive activity is developed.

  18. Parameter identification of the testbed of a novel gearless pitch-roll wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Vikram; Hajzargarbashi, Seyedhossein; Angeles, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    The work reported here pertains to the low-frequency dynamic analysis of the testbed for a novel gearless pitch-roll wrist (PRW). The testbed is excited with harmonic inputs that produce periodic responses of the multiple-input multiple-output system. The input-output data measured are then processed to identify damping and stiffness values of the flexible components of the testbed. The inertial parameters are computed from the 3D CAD model of the mechanism. The paper highlights a novel approach of averaging the response data in order to obtain the best parameter estimates of the linear mechanical system under test.

  19. Local and global pitch perception in L1 and L2 readers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Chiara; Postma, Marie; Mos, Maria; Vedder, Kayleigh; Hendriks, Danielle; Maggiore, G.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research showed a relationship between reading skills and pitch perception, however the exact nature remained unclear. By means of reading tests and a pitch perception test, we examined the relation between reading abilities and local and global pitch perception for 92 native Dutch children

  20. Pitch and Time Processing in Speech and Tones: The Effects of Musical Training and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sares, Anastasia G.; Foster, Nicholas E. V.; Allen, Kachina; Hyde, Krista L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Musical training is often linked to enhanced auditory discrimination, but the relative roles of pitch and time in music and speech are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether pitch and time processing are correlated across individuals and how they may be affected by attention. This study aimed to examine pitch and time processing in…

  1. Congenital Amusia in linguistic and non-linguistic pitch perception - What behavior and reaction times reveal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, J.; Hamann, S.; Exter, M.; Campbell, N.; Gibbon, D.; Hirst, D.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital Amusia is a developmental disorder that has a negative influence on pitch perception. While it used to be described as a disorder of musical pitch perception, recent studies indicate that congenital amusics also show deficits in linguistic pitch perception. This study investigates the

  2. Pitch Discrimination and Melodic Memory in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanutz, Sandy; Wapnick, Joel; Burack, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pitch perception is enhanced among persons with autism. We extended this finding to memory for pitch and melody among school-aged children. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate pitch memory in musically untrained children with autism spectrum disorders, aged 7-13 years, and to compare it to that of age- and…

  3. Independent Blade Pitch Controller Design for a Three-Bladed Turbine Using Disturbance Accommodating Control: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Wright, Alan D.; Johnson, Kathryn E.

    2016-07-29

    Two independent pitch controllers (IPCs) based on the disturbance accommodating control (DAC) algorithm are designed for the three-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine to regulate rotor speed and to mitigate blade root flapwise bending loads in above-rated wind speed. One of the DAC-based IPCs is designed based on a transformed symmetrical-asymmetrical (TSA) turbine model, with wind disturbances being modeled as a collective horizontal component and an asymmetrical linear shear component. Another DAC-based IPC is designed based on a multiblade coordinate (MBC) transformed turbine model, with a horizontal component and a vertical shear component being modeled as step waveform disturbance. Both of the DAC-based IPCs are found via a regulation equation solved by Kronecker product. Actuator dynamics are considered in the design processes to compensate for actuator phase delay. The simulation study shows the effectiveness of the proposed DAC-based IPCs compared to a proportional-integral (PI) collective pitch controller (CPC). Improvement on rotor speed regulation and once-per-revolution and twice-per-revolution load reductions has been observed in the proposed IPC designs.

  4. An updated bleeding model to predict the risk of post-procedure bleeding among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a report using an expanded bleeding definition from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sunil V; McCoy, Lisa A; Spertus, John A; Krone, Ronald J; Singh, Mandeep; Fitzgerald, Susan; Peterson, Eric D

    2013-09-01

    This study sought to develop a model that predicts bleeding complications using an expanded bleeding definition among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in contemporary clinical practice. New knowledge about the importance of periprocedural bleeding combined with techniques to mitigate its occurrence and the inclusion of new data in the updated CathPCI Registry data collection forms encouraged us to develop a new bleeding definition and risk model to improve the monitoring and safety of PCI. Detailed clinical data from 1,043,759 PCI procedures at 1,142 centers from February 2008 through April 2011 participating in the CathPCI Registry were used to identify factors associated with major bleeding complications occurring within 72 h post-PCI. Risk models (full and simplified risk scores) were developed in 80% of the cohort and validated in the remaining 20%. Model discrimination and calibration were assessed in the overall population and among the following pre-specified patient subgroups: females, those older than 70 years of age, those with diabetes mellitus, those with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and those who did not undergo in-hospital coronary artery bypass grafting. Using the updated definition, the rate of bleeding was 5.8%. The full model included 31 variables, and the risk score had 10. The full model had similar discriminatory value across pre-specified subgroups and was well calibrated across the PCI risk spectrum. The updated bleeding definition identifies important post-PCI bleeding events. Risk models that use this expanded definition provide accurate estimates of post-PCI bleeding risk, thereby better informing clinical decision making and facilitating risk-adjusted provider feedback to support quality improvement. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the NACA 4415 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, M.J.; Reuss Ramsay, R.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A NACA 4415 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory 3 x 5 subsonic wind tunnel under steady state and unsteady conditions. The test defined baseline conditions for steady state angles of attack from {minus}10{degree} to +40{degree} and examined unsteady behavior by oscillating the model about its pitch axis for three mean angles, three frequencies, and two amplitudes. For all cases, Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million were used. In addition, these were repeated after the application of leading edge grit roughness (LEGR) to determine contamination effects on the airfoil performance. Steady state results of the NACA 4415 testing at Reynolds number of 1.25 million showed a baseline maximum lift coefficient of 1.30 at 12.3{degree} angle of attack. The application of LEGR reduced the maximum lift coefficient by 20% and increased the 0.0090 minimum drag coefficient value by 62%. The zero lift pitching moment of {minus}0.0967 showed a 13% reduction in magnitude to {minus}0.0842 with LEGR applied. Data were also obtained for two pitch oscillation amplitudes: {+-}5.5{degree} and {+-}10{degree}. The larger amplitude consistently gave a higher maximum lift coefficient than the smaller amplitude, and both unsteady maximum lift coefficients were greater than the steady state values. Stall is delayed on the airfoil while the angle of attack is increasing, thereby causing an increase in maximum lift coefficient. A hysteresis behavior was exhibited for all the unsteady test cases. The hysteresis loops were larger for the higher reduced frequencies and for the larger amplitude oscillations. As in the steady case, the effect of LEGR in the unsteady case was to reduce the lift coefficient at high angles of attack. In addition, with LEGR, the hysteresis behavior persisted into lower angles of attack than for the clean case.

  6. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S810 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-01-01

    An S810 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory 3 x 5 subsonic wind tunnel under steady state and unsteady conditions. The test defined baseline conditions for steady state angles of attack from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees} and examined unsteady behavior by oscillating the model about its pitch axis for three mean angles, three frequencies, and two amplitudes. For all cases, Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million were used. In addition, the above conditions were repeated after the application of leading edge grit roughness (LEGR) to determine contamination effects on the airfoil performance. Baseline steady state results of the S810 testing showed a maximum lift coefficient of 1.15 at 15.2{degrees}angle of attack. The application of LEGR reduced the maximum lift coefficient by 12% and increased the 0.0085 minimum drag coefficient value by 88%. The zero lift pitching moment of -0.0286 showed a 16% reduction in magnitude to -0.0241 with LEGR applied. Data were also obtained for two pitch oscillation amplitudes: {plus_minus}5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus}10{degrees}. The larger amplitude consistently gave a higher maximum lift coefficient than the smaller amplitude and both sets of unsteady maximum lift coefficients were greater than the steady state values. Stall was delayed on the airfoil while the angle of attack was increasing, thereby causing an increase in maximum lift coefficient. A hysteresis behavior was exhibited for all the unsteady test cases. The hysteresis loops were larger for the higher reduced frequencies and for the larger amplitude oscillations. In addition to the hysteresis behavior, an unusual feature of these data were a sudden increase in the lift coefficient where the onset of stall was expected. As in the steady case, the effect of LEGR in the unsteady case was to reduce the lift coefficient at high angles of attack.

  7. Maximizing the clinical benefit of high-pitch, single-heartbeat CT coronary angiography in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Noble, V; Douraghi-Zadeh, D; Padley, S P G; Rubens, M B; Nicol, E D

    2014-07-01

    To prospectively analyse the occurrence of right coronary artery (RCA) artefact and assess its relationship with patient heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) in order to determine the most appropriate parameters for high-pitch cardiovascular computed tomography (CT) acquisition, minimize the likelihood of artefact, and maximize the clinical benefit in consecutive clinical high-pitch CT coronary angiography (CA) examinations. One hundred and seventy-three patients undergoing high-pitch CTCA were prospectively assessed for the presence of RCA artefact. Median and maximum HR and the difference in predicted and actual acquisition HR (HR difference, HRD) were correlated from the electrocardiograms recorded at the time of acquisition. Sixty-six percent of the cohort was male, with a median age of 54 (range 16-84 years). There were 53 cases of RCA artefact (30.6%); 26 (49.1%) of these required further imaging to fully delineate the RCA. Of the 53 cases with artefact, 81.1% affected the distal RCA and 18.9% were more proximal. Gender was not associated with an increased likelihood of the artefact (p = 0.14). RCA artefact decreased by 2% with each year of increasing age (p = 0.04). When compared with a reference HR of >70 beats/min, univariate analysis demonstrated RCA artefact significantly increased with both increasing median and maximum HR, whilst the incidence of RCA artefact increased for all HRD >1, with a greater likelihood of artefact with increasing HRD. The present results highlight the importance of optimizing patient HR in order to reduce the likelihood of RCA artefact. In addition to aggressive HR control to a median HR of ≤60 beats/min, the present results suggest limiting high-pitch acquisition to patients with HR variability of <3 beats/min. Therefore, use of beta-blockers is of crucial importance to both reduce HR and HR variability to optimize use of high-pitch single-heartbeat CTCA. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists

  8. Comparative Analysis of Local Control Prediction Using Different Biophysical Models for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Tian Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The consistency for predicting local control (LC data using biophysical models for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT treatment of lung cancer is unclear. This study aims to compare the results calculated from different models using the treatment planning data. Materials and Methods. Treatment plans were designed for 17 patients diagnosed with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC using 5 different fraction schemes. The Martel model, Ohri model, and the Tai model were used to predict the 2-year LC value. The Gucken model, Santiago model, and the Tai model were employed to estimate the 3-year LC data. Results. We found that the employed models resulted in completely different LC prediction except for the Gucken and the Santiago models which exhibited quite similar 3-year LC data. The predicted 2-year and 3-year LC values in different models were not only associated with the dose normalization but also associated with the employed fraction schemes. The greatest difference predicted by different models was up to 15.0%. Conclusions. Our results show that different biophysical models influence the LC prediction and the difference is not only correlated to the dose normalization but also correlated to the employed fraction schemes.

  9. The Significance of the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for Pitch Memory in Non-musicians Depends on Baseline Pitch Memory Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Nora K; Kretschmer, Marina; Keitel, Ariane; Krause, Vanessa; Pfeifer, Jasmin; Pollok, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Pitch memory is a resource which is shared by music and language. Neuroimaging studies have shown that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is activated during pitch memory processes. The present study investigated the causal significance of this brain area for pitch memory in non-musicians by applying cathodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right DLPFC and examining the impact on offline pitch and visual memory span performances. On the overall sample ( N = 22) no significant modulation effect of cathodal stimulation on the pitch span task was found. However, when dividing the sample by means of a median split of pre-test pitch memory abilities into a high and low performing group, a selective effect of significantly impaired pitch memory after cathodal tDCS in good performers was revealed. The visual control task was not affected by the stimulation in either group. The results support previous neuroimaging studies that the right DLPFC is involved in pitch memory processes in non-musicians and highlights the importance of baseline pitch memory abilities for the modulatory effect of tDCS.

  10. The Significance of the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for Pitch Memory in Non-musicians Depends on Baseline Pitch Memory Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora K. Schaal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pitch memory is a resource which is shared by music and language. Neuroimaging studies have shown that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC is activated during pitch memory processes. The present study investigated the causal significance of this brain area for pitch memory in non-musicians by applying cathodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the right DLPFC and examining the impact on offline pitch and visual memory span performances. On the overall sample (N = 22 no significant modulation effect of cathodal stimulation on the pitch span task was found. However, when dividing the sample by means of a median split of pre-test pitch memory abilities into a high and low performing group, a selective effect of significantly impaired pitch memory after cathodal tDCS in good performers was revealed. The visual control task was not affected by the stimulation in either group. The results support previous neuroimaging studies that the right DLPFC is involved in pitch memory processes in non-musicians and highlights the importance of baseline pitch memory abilities for the modulatory effect of tDCS.

  11. Crash Testing and Simulation of a Cessna 172 Aircraft: Pitch Down Impact Onto Soft Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 2015, NASA Langley Research Center conducted three full-scale crash tests of Cessna 172 (C-172) aircraft at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility. The first test represented a flare-to-stall emergency or hard landing onto a rigid surface. The second test, which is the focus of this paper, represented a controlled-flight-into-terrain (CFIT) with a nose-down pitch attitude of the aircraft, which impacted onto soft soil. The third test, also conducted onto soil, represented a CFIT with a nose-up pitch attitude of the aircraft, which resulted in a tail strike condition. These three crash tests were performed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and to generate impact test data for model validation. LS-DYNA finite element models were generated to simulate the three test conditions. This paper describes the model development and presents test-analysis comparisons of acceleration and velocity time-histories, as well as a comparison of the time sequence of events for Test 2 onto soft soil.

  12. Effects of musical training and hearing loss on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Bianchi, Federica; Dau, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Our ability to perceive the pitch of complex sounds is essential for melody perception and for our enjoyment of music. It also plays an important role in speech perception to convey intonation and sometimes meaning, e.g., in tonal languages, and greatly helps segregation of competing sound sources...... content of the sound and whether the harmonics are resolved by the auditory frequency analysis operated by cochlear processing. F0DLs are also heavily influenced by the amount of musical training received by the listener and by the spectrotemporal auditory processing deficits that often accompany...... sensorineural hearing loss. This paper reviews the latest evidence for how musical training and hearing loss affect pitch discrimination performance, based on behavioral F0DL experiments with complex tones containing either resolved or unresolved harmonics, carried out in listeners with different degrees...

  13. Neurological and developmental approaches to poor pitch perception and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Psyche; Demorest, Steven M; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Iyer, Janani

    2015-03-01

    Whereas much of research in music and neuroscience is aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which the human brain facilitates music, emerging interest in the neuromusic community aims to translate basic music research into clinical and educational applications. In the present paper, we explore the problems of poor pitch perception and production from both neurological and developmental/educational perspectives. We begin by reviewing previous and novel findings on the neural regulation of pitch perception and production. We then discuss issues in measuring singing accuracy consistently between the laboratory and educational settings. We review the Seattle Singing Accuracy Protocol--a new assessment tool that we hope can be adopted by cognitive psychologists as well as music educators-and we conclude with some suggestions that the present interdisciplinary approach might offer for future research. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. The Norma spiral arm: large-scale pitch angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Jacques P.

    2017-09-01

    In the inner Galaxy, we statistically find the mean pitch angle of the recently mapped Norma arm in two galactic quadrants (observed tangentially at galactic longitudes near l=328° and near l=20°), using the twin-tangent method, and obtain -13.7°± 1.4°. We compared with other measurements in the literature. Also, using the latest published data on pitch angle and the latest published data on the radial starting point of the four arms (R_{Gal} = 2.2 kpc) in each galactic quadrant, a revised velocity plot of the Norma spiral arm is made, along with other spiral arms in the Milky Way, in each Galactic quadrant.

  15. Torque- and Speed Control of a Pitch Regulated Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasila, Mika

    2003-07-01

    Variable speed operated wind turbines has the potential to reduce fatigue loads, compared to fixed speed wind turbines. With pitch controllable rotor blades limitation of the power at high wind speeds is obtained. The thesis describes different controlling aspects concerning wind turbines and how these together can be used to optimize the system's performance. Torque control is used in order to achieve reduction on the mechanical loads on the drive-train for low wind speeds and limitation of power output for high wind speeds. In the high wind speed interval torque control is effective in order to limit the output power if a sufficiently fast pitch actuator is used. In the middle wind speed interval filter utilization can be used to give a reference signal to the controller in order to reduce speed and torque variations.

  16. Application of fin system to reduce pitch motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rajesh Reguram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Container ships are prone to move at a greater speed compared to other merchant ships. The slenderness of the hull of container vessel is for better speed, but it leads to unfavorable motions. The pitch and roll are related and sometimes the vessel might be forced to parametric roll condition which is very dangerous. A fin attached to the ship hull proves to be more efficient in controlling the pitch. The fin is fitted at a lowest possible location of the hull surface and it is at the bow part of the ship. Simulations are done using proven software package ANSYS AQWA and the results are compared. Simulations are done for both regular and irregular seas and the effect of fin on ship motion is studied. P-M spectrum is considered for various sea states.

  17. Amusia for pitch caused by right middle cerebral artery infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, M Seth; Abrams, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old right-handed man with hypertension and dyslipidemia noted that he was singing along to classic rock songs on his car radio, but his voice was off pitch. Six days later, a magnetic resonance imaging scan of his brain revealed a cerebral infarct of the right temporal parietal cortex and insula. Case reports of the precise anatomic correlates of disordered pitch musical processing have been few and fragmentary. The anatomic involvement of our case coincides with the areas of involvement in 3 previously reported cases. Increased awareness of amusia as a rare clinical presentation of stroke should lead to earlier stroke intervention. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Congenital amusia: a disorder of fine-grained pitch discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Ayotte, Julie; Zatorre, Robert J; Mehler, Jacques; Ahad, Pierre; Penhune, Virginia B; Jutras, Benoît

    2002-01-17

    We report the first documented case of congenital amusia. This disorder refers to a musical disability that cannot be explained by prior brain lesion, hearing loss, cognitive deficits, socioaffective disturbance, or lack of environmental stimulation. This musical impairment is diagnosed in a middle-aged woman, hereafter referred to as Monica, who lacks most basic musical abilities, including melodic discrimination and recognition, despite normal audiometry and above-average intellectual, memory, and language skills. The results of psychophysical tests show that Monica has severe difficulties with detecting pitch changes. The data suggest that music-processing difficulties may result from problems in fine-grained discrimination of pitch, much in the same way as many language-processing difficulties arise from deficiencies in auditory temporal resolution.

  19. Light airplane crash tests at three pitch angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, V. L., Jr.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1979-01-01

    Three similar twin-engine general aviation airplane specimens were crash tested at an impact dynamics research facility at 27 m/sec, a flight path angle of -15 deg, and pitch angles of -15 deg, 0 deg, and 15 deg. Other crash parameters were held constant. The test facility, instrumentation, test specimens, and test method are briefly described. Structural damage and accelerometer data for each of the three impact conditions are presented and discussed.

  20. Engaging Design Pitches: Storytelling Approaches and their Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a doctoral research study that builds an understanding of the relationship between storytelling approaches and their impacts at the design pitch. Determined through a literature review, the following desirable impacts were used to focus conversation during a series of semi-structured interviews conducted with employees from Unilever and Accenture: ‘Delivering Understanding’, ‘Demonstrating Value’, ‘Stimulating Critique’, and ‘Encouraging more Holistic Thin...

  1. Pitch Fork: A Novel tactile Digital Musical Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Peter; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Pitch Fork is a prototype of an alternate, actuated digital musical instrument (DMI). It uses 5 infra-red and 4 piezoelectric sensors to control an additive synthesis engine. Iron bars are used as the physical point of contact in interaction with the aim of using material computation to control aspects of the digitally produced sound. This choice of material was also chosen to affect player experience. Sensor readings are relayed to a Macbook via an Arduino Mega. Mappings and audio output sig...

  2. Baseball pitching biomechanics in relation to injury risk and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenbaugh, Dave; Fleisig, Glenn S; Andrews, James R

    2009-07-01

    Baseball pitching kinematics, kinetics, ball velocity, and injuries at the shoulder and elbow are related. PubMed and Sport Discus were searched for original studies published between 1994 and 2008. Relevant references in these studies were retrieved. Inferential studies that tested relationships between kinematics and kinetics were included, as were studies that tested relationships between kinematics and ball velocity. Descriptive studies that simply quantified kinematics and/or kinetics were excluded. SEVERAL KINEMATIC PARAMETERS AT THE INSTANT OF FOOT CONTACT WERE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED UPPER EXTREMITY KINETICS: front foot position, front foot orientation, shoulder abduction, and shoulder horizontal adduction. The timing of shoulder external rotation, pelvis rotation, and upper trunk rotation was associated with increased kinetics and decreased ball velocity. Low braking force of the lead leg and a short stride were associated with decreased ball velocity. Decreased maximum shoulder external rotation, shoulder abduction, knee extension, and trunk tilt were also associated with decreased ball velocity. As pitchers develop, kinematic values remain similar, their variability reduces, and kinetic values gradually increase. Slight kinematic variations were seen among pitch types, although the kinetics of fastballs and curveballs were relatively the same; changeup kinetics were the lowest. As pitchers fatigued, kinetic values remained constant, but increases in arm pain were reported. Several kinematic parameters were related to joint kinetics and ball velocity. To enhance performance and reduce injury risk, pitchers need to learn proper fastball mechanics at an early age. A changeup is recommended as a safe secondary pitch to complement the fastball; the curveball can be added after fastball and changeup mechanics are mastered. Avoiding overuse and pitching while fatigued is necessary to minimize the risk of arm injury.

  3. Buds enable pitch and shortleaf pines to recover from injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; H. A. Somes

    1956-01-01

    Pitch and shortleaf pines often survive severe damage by fires, cutting, rabbits, or deer. Deer may take all but 2 inches of the 6- to 8-inch shoots of seedlings, and still these seedlings may live and develop new shoots. Fires may kill all the foliage and terminal shoots on sapling or pole-size stems, but still these trees may green up and develop new leaders. Many of...

  4. Magnetosheath distortion of pitch angle distributions of solar protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, I.D.; Higbie, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    The propagation of energetic solar protons of 9 or approx. =1 MeV into the magnetosheath is investigated through three-dimensional pitch angle distributions measured on Vela satellites. Distortions are observed in the magnetosheath, as compared with isotropic or unidirectional distributions normally expected in interplanetary space. Two types of distortions are observed which are characterized by breaks in the distributions at μ/sub o/ O, where μ is the cosine of the pitch angle. The distributions in the magnetosheath are explained by a Liouville transformation, if particle motion across the bow shock and through the magnetosheath is assumed to be adiabatic. Whether μ/sub o/ is positive or negative is determined by whether the satellite in the magnetosheath lies beyond or in front of the region of maximum magnetic field compression (or neck) in the magnetosheath, relative to the direction of the net flow of particles. The magnitude of μ/sub o/ is a measure of the field ratio between neck and satellite. Scattering effects, which must occur at the bow shock and in the magnetosheath, only perturb the adiabatic propagation of the particles. The results show that one must be cautious in inferring the true interplanetary anisotropy from measurements in the magnetosheath. While the maxima and minima of the corresponding pitch angle distributions will be the same, the distributions can be vastly different, and both anisotropy and omnidirectional intensities significantly different, too. By corollary, the pitch angle distribution and anisotropy measured in the solar wind on field line that intercepts the bow shock sunward of the earth will in general be different from that which would be measured in interplanetary space on a field line not connected to the bow shock; to first order the effect of the bow shock can be computed by treating the motion as adiabatic

  5. An investigation of spatial representation of pitch in individuals with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejing; Sun, Yanan; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-09-01

    Spatial representation of pitch plays a central role in auditory processing. However, it is unknown whether impaired auditory processing is associated with impaired pitch-space mapping. Experiment 1 examined spatial representation of pitch in individuals with congenital amusia using a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task. For amusic and non-amusic participants, pitch classification was faster and more accurate when correct responses involved a physical action that was spatially congruent with the pitch height of the stimulus than when it was incongruent. However, this spatial representation of pitch was not as stable in amusic individuals, revealed by slower response times when compared with control individuals. One explanation is that the SRC effect in amusics reflects a linguistic association, requiring additional time to link pitch height and spatial location. To test this possibility, Experiment 2 employed a colour-classification task. Participants judged colour while ignoring a concurrent pitch by pressing one of two response keys positioned vertically to be congruent or incongruent with the pitch. The association between pitch and space was found in both groups, with comparable response times in the two groups, suggesting that amusic individuals are only slower to respond to tasks involving explicit judgments of pitch.

  6. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik eCheshin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from MLB World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports.

  7. Do individuals with Williams syndrome possess absolute pitch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Sotillo, María; Campos, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Although absolute pitch (AP) is a rare skill in typical development, individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) are often referred to as possessing this musical ability. However, there is paucity of research on the topic. In this article, 2 studies were conducted to evaluate AP in WS. In Study 1, seven musically trained individuals with WS, 14 musically trained typically developing controls matched for chronological age, and 2 experienced musicians with AP completed a pitch-identification task. Although the task was a classical assessment of AP, it required participants to have musical knowledge, and the availability and accessibility of musically trained individuals with WS is very low. In Study 2, a paradigm suitable for evaluating AP in individuals without musical training was used, which made it possible to evaluate a larger group of participants with WS. A pitch memory test for isolated tones was presented to 27 individuals with WS, 54 typically developing peers matched for chronological age, and the 2 musicians with AP. Both individuals with WS and their controls obtained low results in the two studies. They showed an arbitrary pattern of response, and their performance was far from that of musicians with AP. Therefore, participants with WS did not appear to possess AP. Unlike what is usually claimed, results suggest that AP is not a remarkable ability in WS and that, as in the typically developing population, this musical ability is also rare in individuals with WS.

  8. Physics of pitch angle scattering and velocity diffusion. I - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, H.; Krauss-Varban, D.; Terasawa, T.

    1992-01-01

    A general theory for the pitch angle scattering and velocity diffusion of particles in the field of a spectrum of waves in a magnetized plasma is presented. The test particle theory is used to analyze the particle motion. The form of diffusion surfaces is examined, and analytical expressions are given for the resonance width and bounce frequency. The resonance widths are found to vary strongly as a function of harmonic number. The resulting diffusion can be quite asymmetric with respect to pitch angle of 90 deg. The conditions for the onset of pitch angle scattering and energy diffusion are explained in detail. Some of the known shortcomings of the standard quasi-linear theory are also addressed, and ways to overcome them are shown. In particular, the often stated quasi-linear gap at 90 deg is found to exist only under very special cases. For instance, oblique wave propagation can easily remove the gap. The conditions for the existence of the gap are described in great detail. A new diffusion equation which takes into account the finite resonance widths is also discussed. The differences between this new theory and the standard resonance broadening theory is explained.

  9. A Fröhlich effect and representational gravity in memory for auditory pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Ruppel, Susan E

    2013-08-01

    Memory for the initial pitch of an auditory target that increased or decreased in auditory frequency was examined. Memory was displaced forward in the direction of pitch motion, and this is consistent with the Fröhlich effect previously observed for visual targets moving in visual physical space. The Fröhlich effect for pitch increased with faster target velocity and decreased if an auditory cue with the same pitch as the initial pitch of the target was presented before the target was presented. The Fröhlich effect was larger for descending pitch motion than for ascending pitch motion, and this is consistent with an influence of representational gravity. The data suggest that representation of auditory frequency space exhibits some of the same biases as representation of visual physical space, and implications for theories of attention in displacement and for crossmodal and multisensory representation of space are discussed. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Fine-grained pitch processing of music and speech in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Rusconi, Elena; Traube, Caroline; Butterworth, Brian; Umiltà, Carlo; Peretz, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong disorder of music processing that has been ascribed to impaired pitch perception and memory. The present study tested a large group of amusics (n=17) and provided evidence that their pitch deficit affects pitch processing in speech to a lesser extent: Fine-grained pitch discrimination was better in spoken syllables than in acoustically matched tones. Unlike amusics, control participants performed fine-grained pitch discrimination better for musical material than for verbal material. These findings suggest that pitch extraction can be influenced by the nature of the material (music vs speech), and that amusics' pitch deficit is not restricted to musical material, but extends to segmented speech events. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  11. Binaural pitch perception in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    The effects of hearing impairment on the perception of binaural-pitch stimuli were investigated. Several experiments were performed with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners, including detection and discrimination of binaural pitch, and melody recognition using different types of binaural...... pitches. For the normal-hearing listeners, all types of binaural pitches could be perceived immediately and were musical. The hearing-impaired listeners could be divided into three groups based on their results: (a) some perceived all types of binaural pitches, but with decreased salience or musicality...... compared to normal-hearing listeners; (b) some could only perceive the strongest pitch types; (c) some were unable to perceive any binaural pitch at all. The performance of the listeners was not correlated with audibility. Additional experiments investigated the correlation between performance in binaural...

  12. Impaired pitch perception and memory in congenital amusia: the deficit starts in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Mattout, Jérémie; Bouet, Romain; Maby, Emmanuel; Sanchez, Gaëtan; Aguera, Pierre-Emmanuel; Daligault, Sébastien; Delpuech, Claude; Bertrand, Olivier; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-05-01

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong disorder of music perception and production. The present study investigated the cerebral bases of impaired pitch perception and memory in congenital amusia using behavioural measures, magnetoencephalography and voxel-based morphometry. Congenital amusics and matched control subjects performed two melodic tasks (a melodic contour task and an easier transposition task); they had to indicate whether sequences of six tones (presented in pairs) were the same or different. Behavioural data indicated that in comparison with control participants, amusics' short-term memory was impaired for the melodic contour task, but not for the transposition task. The major finding was that pitch processing and short-term memory deficits can be traced down to amusics' early brain responses during encoding of the melodic information. Temporal and frontal generators of the N100m evoked by each note of the melody were abnormally recruited in the amusic brain. Dynamic causal modelling of the N100m further revealed decreased intrinsic connectivity in both auditory cortices, increased lateral connectivity between auditory cortices as well as a decreased right fronto-temporal backward connectivity in amusics relative to control subjects. Abnormal functioning of this fronto-temporal network was also shown during the retention interval and the retrieval of melodic information. In particular, induced gamma oscillations in right frontal areas were decreased in amusics during the retention interval. Using voxel-based morphometry, we confirmed morphological brain anomalies in terms of white and grey matter concentration in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the right superior temporal gyrus in the amusic brain. The convergence between functional and structural brain differences strengthens the hypothesis of abnormalities in the fronto-temporal pathway of the amusic brain. Our data provide first evidence of altered functioning of the auditory cortices during pitch

  13. Resting state functional connectivity of the ventral auditory pathway in musicians with absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R

    2017-08-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to recognize pitch chroma of tonal sound without external references, providing a unique model of the human auditory system (Zatorre: Nat Neurosci 6 () 692-695). In a previous study (Kim and Knösche: Hum Brain Mapp () 3486-3501), we identified enhanced intracortical myelination in the right planum polare (PP) in musicians with AP, which could be a potential site for perceptional processing of pitch chroma information. We speculated that this area, which initiates the ventral auditory pathway, might be crucially involved in the perceptual stage of the AP process in the context of the "dual pathway hypothesis" that suggests the role of the ventral pathway in processing nonspatial information related to the identity of an auditory object (Rauschecker: Eur J Neurosci 41 () 579-585). To test our conjecture on the ventral pathway, we investigated resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from musicians with varying degrees of AP. Should our hypothesis be correct, RSFC via the ventral pathway is expected to be stronger in musicians with AP, whereas such group effect is not predicted in the RSFC via the dorsal pathway. In the current data, we found greater RSFC between the right PP and bilateral anteroventral auditory cortices in musicians with AP. In contrast, we did not find any group difference in the RSFC of the planum temporale (PT) between musicians with and without AP. We believe that these findings support our conjecture on the critical role of the ventral pathway in AP recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3899-3916, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Canadian firms hear pitch from Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-12-11

    A high Pakistani government official recently paid a visit to Canadian resource exploration and investment companies to assure them that Pakistan is open for business. The government is carrying through a massive privatization campaign and is about to finalize a Canadian government-sponsored regulatory agency modeled on Alberta's Energy and Utilities Board; a further indication of a more secure environment for private sector investment. The Pakistani government intends to privatize all formerly government-owned exploration and production companies and sell up to 51 per cent of each company. The delegation hopes to entice Husky Oil, Talisman Energy, Bow Valley Industries, Enbridge Pipelines and BC Gas to look closely at the potential in Pakistan. With a domestic market of 142 million and energy-hungry neighbours on all sides who are willing to buy any oil or gas that Pakistan can produce, and total proven recoverable reserves estimated at 643 million barrels, with remaining recoverable reserves of 240 million barrels, the prospects for a healthy oil and natural gas industry in Pakistan are very good, indeed. On the gas side, about 24 Tcf of gas remains of the 40 Tcf discovered. Pakistan currently exports 10,000 barrels of waxy crude each day which their refineries can't handle. The remainder of domestic production is consumed locally, but it satisfies only about 20 per cent of the nation's current needs. The balance is imported from Saudi Arabia, Iran and the United Arab Emirates. All natural gas produced within Pakistan is consumed domestically, but currently only 16 per cent of the population has access to natural gas. Since October 1999, 33 new wells have been drilled resulting in some excellent discoveries. These will add about one bcf of gas to the current average daily production of 2.3 bcf. Despite the good prospects and the appeal of the privatization plan, Pakistan remains a hard sell. The risk of political unrest and deadly violence is high

  15. Parameter Estimation of a Reliability Model of Demand-Caused and Standby-Related Failures of Safety Components Exposed to Degradation by Demand Stress and Ageing That Undergo Imperfect Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Martorell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One can find many reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM models proposed in the literature. However, such models become more complex day after day, as there is an attempt to capture equipment performance in a more realistic way, such as, explicitly addressing the effect of component ageing and degradation, surveillance activities, and corrective and preventive maintenance policies. Then, there is a need to fit the best model to real data by estimating the model parameters using an appropriate tool. This problem is not easy to solve in some cases since the number of parameters is large and the available data is scarce. This paper considers two main failure models commonly adopted to represent the probability of failure on demand (PFD of safety equipment: (1 by demand-caused and (2 standby-related failures. It proposes a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE approach for parameter estimation of a reliability model of demand-caused and standby-related failures of safety components exposed to degradation by demand stress and ageing that undergo imperfect maintenance. The case study considers real failure, test, and maintenance data for a typical motor-operated valve in a nuclear power plant. The results of the parameters estimation and the adoption of the best model are discussed.

  16. Generation Mechanism of Linear and Angular Ball Velocity in Baseball Pitching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiya Koike

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the functional roles of the whole-body’s joint torques including fingers’ joints in the generation of ball speed and spin during baseball fast-ball pitching motion. The dynamic contributions of joint torque term, gravitational term, and motion-dependent term (MDT consisting of centrifugal force and Coriolis force, to the generation of the ball variables were calculated using two types of models. Motion and ground reaction forces of a baseball pitcher, who was instructed to throw a fastball into the target, were measured with a motion capture system with two force platforms. The results showed (1 the MDT is the largest contributor to ball speed (e.g., about 31 m/s prior to ball release when using 16-segment model, and (2 the horizontal adduction torque of pitching-side shoulder joint plays a crucial role in generating ball speed with conversion of the MDT into other terms using a recurrence formula.

  17. Pitch Channel Control of a REMUS AUV with Input Saturation and Coupling Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nailong Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The motion of an underwater vehicle is prone to be affected by time-varying model parameters and the actuator limitation in control practice. Adaptive control is an effective method to deal with the general system dynamic uncertainties and disturbances. However, the effect of disturbances control on transient dynamics is not prominent. In this paper, we redesign the L 1 adaptive control architecture (L1AC with anti-windup (AW compensator to guarantee robust and fast adaption of the underwater vehicle with input saturation and coupling disturbances. To reduce the fluctuation of vehicle states, the Riccati-based AW compensator is utilized to compensate the output signal from L1AC controller via taking proper modification. The proposed method is applied to the pitch channel of REMUS vehicle’s six Degrees Of Freedom (DOF model with strong nonlinearities and compared with L1AC baseline controller. Simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy compared to the original L1AC. Besides, the fluctuation in roll channel coupled with pitch channel is suppressed according to the performances of control tests.

  18. Speed control at low wind speeds for a variable speed fixed pitch wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmin, N.; Watson, S.J.; Tompson, M. [Loughborough Univ., Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-09

    The maximum power regulation below rated wind speed is regulated by changing the rotor/generator speed at large frequency range in a fixed pitch, variable speed, stall-regulated wind turbine. In order to capture the power at a maximum value the power coefficient is kept at maximum peak point by maintaining the tip speed ratio at its optimum value. The wind industry is moving from stall regulated fixed speed wind turbines to newer improved innovative versions with better reliability. While a stall regulated fixed pitch wind turbine is among the most cost-effective wind turbine on the market, its problems include noise, severe vibrations, high thrust loads and low power efficiency. Therefore, in order to improve such drawbacks, the rotation of the generator speed is made flexible where the rotation can be controlled in variable speed. This paper discussed the development of a simulation model which represented the behaviour of a stall regulated variable speed wind turbine at low wind speed control region by using the closed loop scalar control with adjustable speed drive. The paper provided a description of each sub-model in the wind turbine system and described the scalar control of the induction machine. It was concluded that by using a constant voltage/frequency ratio of the generator's stator side control, the generator speed could be regulated and the generator torque could be controlled to ensure the power coefficient could be maintained close to its maximum value. 38 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  19. Multicenter external validation of two malignancy risk prediction models in patients undergoing 18F-FDG-PET for solitary pulmonary nodule evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, G.A.; Signorini, M.; Motton, M.; Montemezzi, S. [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata di Verona, UOC Radiologia, Ospedale Maggiore di Borgo Trento, Verona (Italy); Larici, A.R.; Del Ciello, A. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Roma (Italy); Rizzardi, G. [Ospedale Humanitas Gavazzeni, UO Chirurgia Toracica, Bergamo (Italy); Solazzo, A. [Ospedale Humanitas Gavazzeni, UO Radiologia, Bergamo (Italy); Mancino, L.; Zeraj, F. [Ospedale dell' Angelo di Mestre, UO Pneumologia, Venezia (Italy); Bernhart, M. [Ospedale dell' Angelo di Mestre, UO Radiologia, Venezia (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    To achieve multicentre external validation of the Herder and Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) models. Two hundred and fifty-nine solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) collected from four major hospitals which underwent 18-FDG-PET characterization were included in this multicentre retrospective study. The Herder model was tested on all available lesions (group A). A subgroup of 180 SPNs (group B) was used to provide unbiased comparison between the Herder and BIMC models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) analysis was performed to assess diagnostic accuracy. Decision analysis was performed by adopting the risk threshold stated in British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines. Unbiased comparison performed In Group B showed a ROC AUC for the Herder model of 0.807 (95 % CI 0.742-0.862) and for the BIMC model of 0.822 (95 % CI 0.758-0.875). Both the Herder and the BIMC models were proven to accurately predict the risk of malignancy when tested on a large multicentre external case series. The BIMC model seems advantageous on the basis of a more favourable decision analysis. (orig.)

  20. Differential Recognition of Pitch Patterns in Discrete and Gliding Stimuli in Congenital Amusia: Evidence from Mandarin Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Francart, Tom; Jiang, Cunmei

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether "melodic contour deafness" (insensitivity to the direction of pitch movement) in congenital amusia is associated with specific types of pitch patterns (discrete versus gliding pitches) or stimulus types (speech syllables versus complex tones). Thresholds for identification of pitch direction were obtained using discrete…

  1. Testbed of a novel robotic pitch-roll wrist parameter identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiao Qing; Chopra, Vikram; Angeles, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports work in progress on the development of an innovative gearless pitch-roll wrist (PRW)for robotic applications. The PRW bears the morphology of a bevel-gear differential, its novelty lying in the absence of gears. Indeed, the PRW motivating this study is based on cams and rollers......, intended to overcome the drawbacks of their bevel-gear counterparts- backlash, Coulomb friction and low stiffness. A testbed designed for parameter identification is introduced here. The paper discusses the mathematical modeling of the testbed, starting from its iconic model. The mathematical model is used...... and damping, as yet unknown, were estimated from a similar testbed reported elsewhere. The work ahead targets the experimental derivation of the Bode plots of the testbed, from which the numerical values of its inertia, stiffness and damping parameters are to be estimated. Moreover, having computed...

  2. External validation and clinical utility of a prediction model for 6-month mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis for end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzley, Brian; Er, Lee; Chiu, Helen Hl; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Martinusen, Dan; Carson, Rachel C; Hargrove, Gaylene; Levin, Adeera; Karim, Mohamud

    2018-02-01

    End-stage kidney disease is associated with poor prognosis. Health care professionals must be prepared to address end-of-life issues and identify those at high risk for dying. A 6-month mortality prediction model for patients on dialysis derived in the United States is used but has not been externally validated. We aimed to assess the external validity and clinical utility in an independent cohort in Canada. We examined the performance of the published 6-month mortality prediction model, using discrimination, calibration, and decision curve analyses. Data were derived from a cohort of 374 prevalent dialysis patients in two regions of British Columbia, Canada, which included serum albumin, age, peripheral vascular disease, dementia, and answers to the "the surprise question" ("Would I be surprised if this patient died within the next year?"). The observed mortality in the validation cohort was 11.5% at 6 months. The prediction model had reasonable discrimination (c-stat = 0.70) but poor calibration (calibration-in-the-large = -0.53 (95% confidence interval: -0.88, -0.18); calibration slope = 0.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.83)) in our data. Decision curve analysis showed the model only has added value in guiding clinical decision in a small range of threshold probabilities: 8%-20%. Despite reasonable discrimination, the prediction model has poor calibration in this external study cohort; thus, it may have limited clinical utility in settings outside of where it was derived. Decision curve analysis clarifies limitations in clinical utility not apparent by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. This study highlights the importance of external validation of prediction models prior to routine use in clinical practice.

  3. The role of recalibration response shift in explaining bodily pain in cancer patients undergoing invasive surgery: an empirical investigation of the Sprangers and Schwartz model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Mechteld R M; Oort, Frans J; van Lanschot, J Jan B; van der Velden, Jacobus; Kloek, Jaap J; Gouma, Dirk J; Schwartz, Carolyn E; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to explain bodily pain using the Sprangers and Schwartz theoretical model (1999) on quality of life (QL) and response shift in its entirety. Response shift refers to the phenomenon that the meaning of a person's self-evaluation changes over time. In this model, response shift mediates effects of changes in health status (catalysts), stable characteristics of the person (antecedents), and coping mechanisms (mechanisms) on QL. Cancer patients (202) were assessed prior to and 3 months following surgery. Measures were for catalysts: type of operation and possibility of tumor resection; for antecedents: age, duration of pain, optimism, and rigidity; for mechanisms: post-traumatic growth, social comparisons, social support, denial, and acceptance; and for QL: bodily pain; for response shift: the pretest-minus-thentest bodily pain score, further referred to as recalibration response shift. Structural equation modeling and sequential regression analyses were used. The final model reached close fit (RMSEA = 0.03; 90% CI = 0.000-0.071; χ2 (18) = 21.13; p = 0.27). Significant effects were found for catalysts on mechanisms, antecedents on mechanisms, mechanisms on response shift, and response shift on bodily pain. Four extra model effects had to be permitted. Using sequential regression analysis, recalibration response shift added 4.4% to the total amount of 29.8% explained variance of bodily pain. Many effects as hypothesized by the model were found. Recalibration response shift had a unique albeit small contribution to the explanation of bodily pain. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Normal-Hearing Listeners’ and Cochlear Implant Users’ Perception of Pitch Cues in Emotional Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Gilbers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In cochlear implants (CIs, acoustic speech cues, especially for pitch, are delivered in a degraded form. This study’s aim is to assess whether due to degraded pitch cues, normal-hearing listeners and CI users employ different perceptual strategies to recognize vocal emotions, and, if so, how these differ. Voice actors were recorded pronouncing a nonce word in four different emotions: anger, sadness, joy, and relief. These recordings’ pitch cues were phonetically analyzed. The recordings were used to test 20 normal-hearing listeners’ and 20 CI users’ emotion recognition. In congruence with previous studies, high-arousal emotions had a higher mean pitch, wider pitch range, and more dominant pitches than low-arousal emotions. Regarding pitch, speakers did not differentiate emotions based on valence but on arousal. Normal-hearing listeners outperformed CI users in emotion recognition, even when presented with CI simulated stimuli. However, only normal-hearing listeners recognized one particular actor’s emotions worse than the other actors’. The groups behaved differently when presented with similar input, showing that they had to employ differing strategies. Considering the respective speaker’s deviating pronunciation, it appears that for normal-hearing listeners, mean pitch is a more salient cue than pitch range, whereas CI users are biased toward pitch range cues.

  5. TRUNK LEAN DURING A SINGLE-LEG SQUAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH TRUNK LEAN DURING PITCHING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Hillary A; Oliver, Gretchen D; Powers, Christopher M; Michener, Lori A

    2018-02-01

    Impaired trunk motion during pitching may be a risk factor for upper extremity injuries. Specifically, increased forces about the shoulder and elbow have been observed in pitchers with excessive contralateral trunk lean during pitching. Because of the difficulty in identifying abnormal trunk motions during a high-speed task such as pitching, a clinical screening test is needed to identify pitchers who have impaired trunk motion during pitching. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the degree of lateral trunk lean during the single-leg squat and amount of trunk lean during pitching and if trunk lean during pitching can be predicted from lean during the single-leg squat. Controlled Laboratory Study; Cross-sectional. Seventy-three young baseball pitchers (11.4 ± 1.7 years; 156.3 ± 11.9 cm; 50.5 ± 8.8 kg) participated. An electromagnetic tracking system was used to obtain trunk kinematic data during a single-leg squat task (lead leg) and at maximum shoulder external rotation of a fastball pitch. Pearson correlation coefficients for trunk lean during the single-leg squat and pitching were calculated. A linear regression analysis was performed to determine if trunk lean during pitching can be predicted from lean during the single-leg squat. There was a positive correlation between trunk lean during the single-leg squat and trunk lean during pitching (r = 0.53; plean during the single-leg squat predicted the amount of lateral trunk lean during pitching (R 2 = 0.28; p lean during an SLS and pitching. Trunk lean during the single-leg squat explained 28% of the variance in trunk lean during pitching. Diagnosis, level 3.

  6. Model-based, semiquantitative and time intensity curve shape analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: a comparison in patients undergoing antiangiogenic treatment for recurrent glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavini, Cristina; Verhoeff, Joost J. C.; Majoie, Charles B.; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Richel, Dick J.; Maas, Mario

    2011-01-01

    To compare time intensity curve (TIC)-shape analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data with model-based analysis and semiquantitative analysis in patients with high-grade glioma treated with the antiangiogenic drug bevacizumab. Fifteen patients had a pretreatment

  7. Load consequences when sweeping blades - A case study of a 5 MW pitch controlled wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verelst, D.R.S.; Larsen, Torben J.

    2010-08-15

    The generic 5 MW NREL wind turbine model is used in Risoe's aeroelastic simulator HAWC2 to investigate 120 different swept blade configurations (forward and backward sweep). Sensitivity for 2 different controllers is considered as well. Backward sweep results in a pitch to feather torsional moment of the blade, effectively reducing blade twist angles under increased loading. This behaviour results in decreased flap-wise fatigue and extreme loads, an increase for edge-wise fatigue loading and status quo or slight decrease in extreme loads (depending on the controller). Tower base and shaft-end bending moments are reduced as well. Forward sweep leads to an increase in angle of attack under loading. For a pitch controlled turbine this leads to an increase in fatigue and extreme loading in all cases. A controller inflicted instability is present for the more extreme forward swept cases. Due to the shape of considered sweep curves, an inherent and significant increase in torsional blade root bending moment is noted. A boomerang shaped sweep curve is proposed to counteract this problematic increased loading. Controller sensitivity shows that adding sweep affects some loadings differently. Power output is reduced for backward sweep since the blade twist is optimized as a rigid structure, ignoring the torsional deformations which for a swept blade can be significant. (author)

  8. The Practicability of a Novel Prognostic Index (PI) Model and Comparison with Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) in Stage I-III Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiahuai; Ye, Feng; Li, Shuaijie; Huang, Xiaojia; Yang, Lu; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Xie, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated the prognostic value of various laboratory parameters in cancer patients. This study was to establish a prognostic index (PI) model for breast cancer patients based on the potential prognostic factors. A retrospective study of 1661 breast cancer patients who underwent surgical treatment between January 2002 and December 2008 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center was conducted. Multivariate analysis (Cox regression model) was performed to determine the independent prognostic factors and a prognostic index (PI) model was devised based on these factors. Survival analyses were used to estimate the prognostic value of PI, and the discriminatory ability of PI was compared with Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) by evaluating the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC). The mean survival time of all participants was 123.6 months. The preoperative globulin >30.0g/L, triglyceride >1.10mmol/L and fibrinogen >2.83g/L were identified as risk factors for shorter cancer-specific survival. The novel prognostic index model was established and enrolled patients were classified as low- (1168 patients, 70.3%), moderate- (410 patients, 24.7%) and high-risk groups (83 patients, 5.0%), respectively. Compared with the low-risk group, higher risks of poor clinical outcome were indicated in the moderate-risk group [Hazard ratio (HR): 1.513, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.169-1.959, p = 0.002] and high-risk group (HR: 2.481, 95%CI: 1.653-3.724, p< 0.001). The prognostic index based on three laboratory parameters was a novel and practicable prognostic tool. It may serve as complement to help predict postoperative survival in breast cancer patients.

  9. The speech signal segmentation algorithm using pitch synchronous analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirgaliyev Yedilkhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Parameterization of the speech signal using the algorithms of analysis synchronized with the pitch frequency is discussed. Speech parameterization is performed by the average number of zero transitions function and the signal energy function. Parameterization results are used to segment the speech signal and to isolate the segments with stable spectral characteristics. Segmentation results can be used to generate a digital voice pattern of a person or be applied in the automatic speech recognition. Stages needed for continuous speech segmentation are described.

  10. Automatic cortical representation of auditory pitch changes in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxe, John J; Burke, Kelly M; Andrade, Gizely N; Djukic, Aleksandra; Frey, Hans-Peter; Molholm, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Over the typical course of Rett syndrome, initial language and communication abilities deteriorate dramatically between the ages of 1 and 4 years, and a majority of these children go on to lose all oral communication abilities. It becomes extremely difficult for clinicians and caretakers to accurately assess the level of preserved auditory functioning in these children, an issue of obvious clinical import. Non-invasive electrophysiological techniques allow for the interrogation of auditory cortical processing without the need for overt behavioral responses. In particular, the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) provides an excellent and robust dependent measure of change detection and auditory sensory memory. Here, we asked whether females with Rett syndrome would produce the MMN to occasional changes in pitch in a regularly occurring stream of auditory tones. Fourteen girls with genetically confirmed Rett syndrome and 22 age-matched neurotypical controls participated (ages 3.9-21.1 years). High-density electrophysiological recordings from 64 scalp electrodes were made while participants passively listened to a regularly occurring stream of 503-Hz auditory tone pips that was occasionally (15 % of presentations) interrupted by a higher-pitched deviant tone of 996 Hz. The MMN was derived by subtracting the AEP to these deviants from the AEP produced to the standard. Despite clearly anomalous morphology and latency of the AEP to simple pure-tone inputs in Rett syndrome, the MMN response was evident in both neurotypicals and Rett patients. However, we found that the pitch-evoked MMN was both delayed and protracted in duration in Rett, pointing to slowing of auditory responsiveness. The presence of the MMN in Rett patients suggests preserved abilities to process pitch changes in auditory sensory memory. This work represents a beginning step in an effort to comprehensively map the extent of auditory cortical functioning in Rett

  11. Crackle and fizz essential communication and pitching skills for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Brul, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This is a book for scientists and other experts who need to explain the significance and potential of their work to colleagues, committees, funding bodies or the general public. It details how to harness story-telling principles to make complex or technical content easier to communicate and fulfilling for audiences. Eight narrative ingredients, Audience, Change and Affect, Lure, World, Character, Big Hook, Plot and Structure, are illustrated with examples and exercises to demonstrate how to build a presentation, how to pitch for funds or resources, how to make a persuasive argument, or simply how to explain ideas so they CRACKLE and FIZZ for the Audience.

  12. Binaural pitch perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Santurette, Sébastien; Strelcyk, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    When two white noises differing only in phase in a particular frequency range are presented simultaneously each to one of our ears, a pitch sensation may be perceived inside the head. This phenomenon, called ’binaural pitch’ or ’dichotic pitch’, can be produced by frequency-dependent interaural...... phasedifference patterns. The evaluation of these interaural phase differences depends on the functionality of the binaural auditory system and the spectro-temporal information at its input. A melody recognition task was performed in the present study using pure-tone stimuli and six different types of noises...

  13. Relating the absence of binaural pitch percept to retro-cochlear impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    that the salience of binaural pitch was affected by hearing impairment. Specifically, for subjects with a sensorineural impairment, binaural pitch perception was weaker than the normal-hearing average but the pitch sensation was immediately present. In contrast, no binaural pitch sensation at all was found...... for the (only) two subjects with damage at central stages. The aim of the present study is to clarify whether such a sharp distinction between levels of impairment can be made using binaural pitch stimuli. A pitch detection test was performed by three groups of subjects with: 1) normal hearing; 2) a cochlear...... be an interesting indicator of retro-cochlear deficit and useful for characterising the auditory profile of individual hearing-impaired listeners....

  14. Congenital amusics use a secondary pitch mechanism to identify lexical tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, Oliver; Wong, Patrick C M

    2017-09-01

    Amusia is a pitch perception disorder associated with deficits in processing and production of both musical and lexical tones, which previous reports have suggested may be constrained to fine-grained pitch judgements. In the present study speakers of tone-languages, in which lexical tones are used to convey meaning, identified words present in chimera stimuli containing conflicting pitch-cues in the temporal fine-structure and temporal envelope, and which therefore conveyed two distinct utterances. Amusics were found to be more likely than controls to judge the word according to the envelope pitch-cues. This demonstrates that amusia is not associated with fine-grained pitch judgements alone, and is consistent with there being two distinct pitch mechanisms and with amusics having an atypical reliance on a secondary mechanism based upon envelope cues. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Control of variable speed variable pitch wind turbine based on a disturbance observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haijun; Lei, Xin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a novel sliding mode controller based on disturbance observer (DOB) to optimize the efficiency of variable speed variable pitch (VSVP) wind turbine is developed and analyzed. Due to the highly nonlinearity of the VSVP system, the model is linearly processed to obtain the state space model of the system. Then, a conventional sliding mode controller is designed and a DOB is added to estimate wind speed. The proposed control strategy can successfully deal with the random nature of wind speed, the nonlinearity of VSVP system, the uncertainty of parameters and external disturbance. Via adding the observer to the sliding mode controller, it can greatly reduce the chattering produced by the sliding mode switching gain. The simulation results show that the proposed control system has the effectiveness and robustness.

  16. Voltage harmonic variation in three-phase induction motors with different coil pitches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Ram; Moses, Anthony John; Anayi, Fatih

    2006-01-01

    A pulse-width modulation (PWM) inverter feeding four different chorded three-phase induction motors was tested for low-order odd harmonic voltage component and efficiency at different loads. Total harmonic distortion (THD) due to 3rd, 5th and 9th harmonics was less in a motor with 160 o coil pitch. Particular harmonic order for each coil pitch was suppressed and the efficiency of a 120 o coil pitch motor was increased by 7.5%

  17. THE BEHAVIOR OF THE PITCH ANGLE OF SPIRAL ARMS DEPENDING ON OPTICAL WAVELENGTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; Puerari, Ivânio; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Luna, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); González-Lópezlira, Rosa A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacán, México, C.P. 58089 (Mexico); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura, E-mail: ericmartinez@inaoep.mx [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, U. P. Adolfo López Mateos, Zacatenco, 07730 México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-20

    Based on integral field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey, we investigate the possible dependence of spiral arm pitch angle with optical wavelength. For three of the five studied objects, the pitch angle gradually increases at longer wavelengths. This is not the case for two objects where the pitch angle remains constant. This result is confirmed by the analysis of SDSS data. We discuss the possible physical mechanisms to explain this phenomenon, as well as the implications of the results.

  18. Study on the structure of pitch-polymer compositions by fluorescence microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Makomaski, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the results of studies on the evaluation of colloidal structure of coal-tar pitch compositions with selected waste polymers by fluorescence microscope. For pitch-polymer compositions containing 10?50?wt% waste polymer, softening point, coking value and content of components insoluble in toluene and quinoline were carried out. The results indicate that pitch-polymer compositions can be treated as microheterogeneous systems, colloidal and biphase, generally exhibiting uniform disp...

  19. Low vocal pitch preference drives first impressions of trustworthiness and dominance in non- contextual scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Tsantani, Maria,; Belin, Pascal; Mcaleer, Phil,

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Vocal pitch has been found to influence judgments of perceived trustworthiness and dominance from a novel voice. However, the majority of findings arise from using only male voices and in context-specific scenarios. In two experiments, we first explore the influence of average vocal pitch on first-impression judgments of perceived trustworthiness and dominance, before establishing the existence of an overall preference for high or low pitch across genders. In Experimen...

  20. Pitch perception and production in congenital amusia: Evidence from Cantonese speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fang; Chan, Alice H. D.; Ciocca, Valter; Roquet, Catherine; Peretz, Isabelle; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated pitch perception and production in speech and music in individuals with congenital amusia (a disorder of musical pitch processing) who are native speakers of Cantonese, a tone language with a highly complex tonal system. Sixteen Cantonese-speaking congenital amusics and 16 controls performed a set of lexical tone perception, production, singing, and psychophysical pitch threshold tasks. Their tone production accuracy and singing proficiency were subsequently judged by ...

  1. Congenital Amusia (or Tone-Deafness) Interferes with Pitch Processing in Tone Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tillmann, Barbara; Burnham, Denis; Nguyen, Sebastien; Grimault, Nicolas; Gosselin, Nathalie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1) and in Thai (Experiment 2). Tones were presented in pairs an...

  2. Radiation dose considerations by intra-individual Monte Carlo simulations in dual source spiral coronary computed tomography angiography with electrocardiogram-triggered tube current modulation and adaptive pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Matthias S.; Kuettner, Axel; Lell, Michael M.; Wuest, Wolfgang; Scharf, Michael; Uder, Michael [University of Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Deak, Paul; Kalender, Willi A. [University of Erlangen, Department of Medical Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Keller, Andrea K.; Haeberle, Lothar [University of Erlangen, Department of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Erlangen (Germany); Achenbach, Stephan; Seltmann, Martin [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate radiation dose levels in patients undergoing spiral coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) on a dual-source system in clinical routine. Coronary CTA was performed for 56 patients with electrocardiogram-triggered tube current modulation (TCM) and heart-rate (HR) dependent pitch adaptation. Individual Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed for dose assessment. Retrospective simulations with constant tube current (CTC) served as reference. Lung tissue was segmented and used for organ and effective dose (ED) calculation. Estimates for mean relative ED was 7.1 {+-} 2.1 mSv/100 mAs for TCM and 12.5 {+-} 5.3 mSv/100 mAs for CTC (P < 0.001). Relative dose reduction at low HR ({<=}60 bpm) was highest (49 {+-} 5%) compared to intermediate (60-70 bpm, 33 {+-} 12%) and high HR (>70 bpm, 29 {+-} 12%). However lowest ED is achieved at high HR (5.2 {+-} 1.5 mSv/100 mAs), compared with intermediate (6.7 {+-} 1.6 mSv/100 mAs) and low (8.3 {+-} 2.1 mSv/100 mAs) HR when automated pitch adaptation is applied. Radiation dose savings up to 52% are achievable by TCM at low and regular HR. However lowest ED is attained at high HR by pitch adaptation despite inferior radiation dose reduction by TCM. circle Monte Carlo simulations allow for individual radiation dose calculations. (orig.)

  3. Children’s identification of familiar songs from pitch and timing cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eVolkova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether children with normal hearing and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants could use pitch or timing cues alone or in combination to identify familiar songs. Children 4-7 years of age were required to identify the theme songs of familiar TV shows in a simple task with excerpts that preserved (1 the relative pitch and timing cues of the melody but not the original instrumentation, (2 the timing cues only (rhythm, meter, and tempo, and (3 the relative pitch cues only (pitch contour and intervals. Children with normal hearing performed at high levels and comparably across the three conditions. The performance of child implant users was well above chance levels when both pitch and timing cues were available, marginally above chance with timing cues only, and at chance with pitch cues only. This is the first demonstration that children can identify familiar songs from monotonic versions—timing cues but no pitch cues—and from isochronous versions—pitch cues but no timing cues. The study also indicates that, in the context of a very simple task, young implant users readily identify songs from melodic versions that preserve pitch and timing cues.

  4. arXiv Signal coupling to embedded pitch adapters in silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Artuso, M.; Bezshyiko, I.; Blusk, S.; Bruendler, R.; Bugiel, S.; Dasgupta, R.; Dendek, A.; Dey, B.; Ely, S.; Lionetto, F.; Petruzzo, M.; Polyakov, I.; Rudolph, M.; Schindler, H.; Steinkamp, O.; Stone, S.

    2018-01-01

    We have examined the effects of embedded pitch adapters on signal formation in n-substrate silicon microstrip sensors with data from beam tests and simulation. According to simulation, the presence of the pitch adapter metal layer changes the electric field inside the sensor, resulting in slowed signal formation on the nearby strips and a pick-up effect on the pitch adapter. This can result in an inefficiency to detect particles passing through the pitch adapter region. All these effects have been observed in the beam test data.

  5. Visuoauditory mappings between high luminance and high pitch are shared by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Vera U.; Adachi, Ikuma; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Humans share implicit preferences for certain cross-sensory combinations; for example, they consistently associate higher-pitched sounds with lighter colors, smaller size, and spikier shapes. In the condition of synesthesia, people may experience such cross-modal correspondences to a perceptual degree (e.g., literally seeing sounds). So far, no study has addressed the question whether nonhuman animals share cross-modal correspondences as well. To establish the evolutionary origins of cross-modal mappings, we tested whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) also associate higher pitch with higher luminance. Thirty-three humans and six chimpanzees were required to classify black and white squares according to their color while hearing irrelevant background sounds that were either high-pitched or low-pitched. Both species performed better when the background sound was congruent (high-pitched for white, low-pitched for black) than when it was incongruent (low-pitched for white, high-pitched for black). An inherent tendency to pair high pitch with high luminance hence evolved before the human lineage split from that of chimpanzees. Rather than being a culturally learned or a linguistic phenomenon, this mapping constitutes a basic feature of the primate sensory system. PMID:22143791

  6. Toward a quantitative account of pitch distribution in spontaneous narrative: method and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Samuel E; Olness, Gloria Streit; Caplow, Nancy J

    2013-05-01

    Pitch is well-known both to animate human discourse and to convey meaning in communication. The study of the statistical population distributions of pitch in discourse will undoubtedly benefit from methodological improvements. The current investigation examines a method that parameterizes pitch in discourse as musical pitch interval H measured in units of cents and that disaggregates the sequence of peak word-pitches using tools employed in time-series analysis and digital signal processing. The investigators test the proposed methodology by its application to distributions in pitch interval of the peak word-pitch (collectively called the discourse gamut) that occur in simulated and actual spontaneous emotive narratives obtained from 17 middle-aged African-American adults. The analysis, in rigorous tests, not only faithfully reproduced simulated distributions imbedded in realistic time series that drift and include pitch breaks, but the protocol also reveals that the empirical distributions exhibit a common hidden structure when normalized to a slowly varying mode (called the gamut root) of their respective probability density functions. Quantitative differences between narratives reveal the speakers' relative propensity for the use of pitch levels corresponding to elevated degrees of a discourse gamut (the "e-la") superimposed upon a continuum that conforms systematically to an asymmetric Laplace distribution.

  7. Musicians demonstrate experience-dependent brainstem enhancement of musical scale features within continuously gliding pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Gandour, Jackson T; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2011-10-10

    In contrast to language, where pitch patterns consist of continuous and curvilinear contours, musical pitch consists of relatively discrete, stair-stepped sequences of notes. Behavioral and neurophysiological studies suggest that both tone-language and music experience enhance the representation of pitch cues associated with a listener's domain of expertise, e.g., curvilinear pitch in language, discrete scale steps in music. We compared brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs) of English-speaking musicians (musical pitch experience) and native speakers of Mandarin Chinese (linguistic pitch experience) elicited by rising and falling tonal sweeps that are exemplary of Mandarin tonal contours but uncharacteristic of the pitch patterns typically found in music. In spite of musicians' unfamiliarity with such glides, we find that their brainstem FFRs show enhancement of the stimulus where the curvilinear sweep traverses discrete notes along the diatonic musical scale. This enhancement was note specific in that it was not observed immediately preceding or following the scale tone of interest (passing note). No such enhancements were observed in Chinese listeners. These findings suggest that the musician's brainstem may be differentially tuned by long-term exposure to the pitch patterns inherent to music, extracting pitch in relation to a fixed, hierarchical scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the supramarginal gyrus facilitates pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Nora K; Williamson, Victoria J; Banissy, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have shown activation of the supramarginal gyrus during pitch memory tasks. A previous transcranial direct current stimulation study using cathodal stimulation over the left supramarginal gyrus reported a detrimental effect on short-term pitch memory performance, indicating an important role of the supramarginal gyrus in pitch memory. The current study aimed to determine whether pitch memory could be improved following anodal stimulation of the left supramarginal gyrus. The performances of non-musicians on two pitch memory tasks (pitch recognition and recall) and a visual memory control task following anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation were compared. The results show that, post-stimulation, the anodal group but not the control group performed significantly better on both pitch memory tasks; performance did not differ on the face memory task. These findings provide strong support for the causal involvement of the left supramarginal gyrus in the pitch memory process, and highlight the potential efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation as a tool to improve pitch memory. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Voice pitch alters mate-choice-relevant perception in hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, Coren L; Feinberg, David R

    2009-03-22

    In humans, voice pitch is thought to be a cue of underlying quality and an important criterion for mate choice, but data from non-Western cultures have not been provided. Here we test attributions to and preferences for voices with raised and lowered pitch in hunter-gatherers. Using a forced-choice playback experiment, we found that both men and women viewed lower pitched voices in the opposite sex as being better at acquiring resources (e.g. hunting and gathering). While men preferred higher pitched women's voices as marriage partners, women showed no overall preference for voice pitch in men. However, women who were currently breastfeeding had stronger preferences for higher pitched male voices whereas women not currently breastfeeding preferred lower pitched voices. As testosterone is considered a costly signal associated with dominance, heritable immunity to infection and low paternal investment, women's preferences potentially reflect a trade-off between securing good genes and paternal investment. Men's preferences for higher pitched female voices are probably due to an evolved preference for markers of fecundity, reflected in voice pitch.

  10. From amusic to musical?--Improving pitch memory in congenital amusia with transcranial alternating current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Nora K; Pfeifer, Jasmin; Krause, Vanessa; Pollok, Bettina

    2015-11-01

    Brain imaging studies highlighted structural differences in congenital amusia, a life-long perceptual disorder that is associated with pitch perception and pitch memory deficits. A functional anomaly characterized by decreased low gamma oscillations (30-40 Hz range) in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during pitch memory has been revealed recently. Thus, the present study investigates whether applying transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) at 35 Hz to the right DLPFC would improve pitch memory. Nine amusics took part in two tACS sessions (either 35 Hz or 90 Hz) and completed a pitch and visual memory task before and during stimulation. 35 Hz stimulation facilitated pitch memory significantly. No modulation effects were found with 90 Hz stimulation or on the visual task. While amusics showed a selective impairment of pitch memory before stimulation, the performance during 35 Hz stimulation was not significantly different to healthy controls anymore. Taken together, the study shows that modulating the right DLPFC with 35 Hz tACS in congenital amusia selectively improves pitch memory performance supporting the hypothesis that decreased gamma oscillations within the DLPFC are causally involved in disturbed pitch memory and highlight the potential use of tACS to interact with cognitive processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pitch perception and production in congenital amusia: Evidence from Cantonese speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Chan, Alice H D; Ciocca, Valter; Roquet, Catherine; Peretz, Isabelle; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated pitch perception and production in speech and music in individuals with congenital amusia (a disorder of musical pitch processing) who are native speakers of Cantonese, a tone language with a highly complex tonal system. Sixteen Cantonese-speaking congenital amusics and 16 controls performed a set of lexical tone perception, production, singing, and psychophysical pitch threshold tasks. Their tone production accuracy and singing proficiency were subsequently judged by independent listeners, and subjected to acoustic analyses. Relative to controls, amusics showed impaired discrimination of lexical tones in both speech and non-speech conditions. They also received lower ratings for singing proficiency, producing larger pitch interval deviations and making more pitch interval errors compared to controls. Demonstrating higher pitch direction identification thresholds than controls for both speech syllables and piano tones, amusics nevertheless produced native lexical tones with comparable pitch trajectories and intelligibility as controls. Significant correlations were found between pitch threshold and lexical tone perception, music perception and production, but not between lexical tone perception and production for amusics. These findings provide further evidence that congenital amusia is a domain-general language-independent pitch-processing deficit that is associated with severely impaired music perception and production, mildly impaired speech perception, and largely intact speech production.

  12. Effects of Music and Tonal Language Experience on Relative Pitch Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Strybel, Thomas Z

    2016-01-01

    We examined the interaction between music and tone language experience as related to relative pitch processing by having participants judge the direction and magnitude of pitch changes in a relative pitch task. Participants' performance on this relative pitch task was assessed using the Cochran-Weiss-Shanteau (CWS) index of expertise, based on a ratio of discrimination over consistency in participants' relative pitch judgments. Testing took place in 2 separate sessions on different days to assess the effects of practice on participants' performance. Participants also completed the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA), an existing measure comprising subtests aimed at evaluating relative pitch processing abilities. Musicians outperformed nonmusicians on both the relative pitch task, as measured by the CWS index, and the MBEA, but tonal language speakers outperformed non-tonal language speakers only on the MBEA. A closer look at the discrimination and consistency component scores of the CWS index revealed that musicians were better at discriminating different pitches and more consistent in their assessments of the direction and magnitude of relative pitch change.

  13. Determining Pitch-angle Diffusion Coefficients from Test Particle Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivascenko, Alex; Lange, Sebastian; Spanier, Felix; Vainio, Rami

    2016-12-01

    The transport and acceleration of charged particles in turbulent media are topics of great interest in space physics and interstellar astrophysics. These processes are dominated by the scattering of particles off magnetic irregularities. The scattering process itself is usually described by small-angle scattering, with the pitch-angle coefficient {D}μ μ playing a major role. Since the diffusion coefficient {D}μ μ can be determined analytically only for the approximation of quasilinear theory, the determination of this coefficient from numerical simulations has become more important. So far these simulations have yielded particle tracks for small-scale scattering, which can then be interpreted using the running diffusion coefficients. This method has a limited range of validity. This paper presents two new methods that allow for the calculation of the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient from numerical simulations. These methods no longer analyze particle trajectories and instead examine the change of particle distribution functions. It is shown that these methods provide better resolved results and allow for the analysis of strong turbulence. The application of these methods to Monte Carlo simulations of particle scattering and hybrid MHD-particle simulations is presented. Both analysis methods are able to recover the diffusion coefficients used as input for the Monte Carlo simulations and provide better results in MHD simulations, especially for stronger turbulence.

  14. Unsteady Flow Interactions Between Pitching Wings In Schooling Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Melike; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    In nature, many fish aggregate into large groups or schools for protection against predators, for social interactions and to save energy during migrations. Regardless of their prime motivation, fish experience three-dimensional flow interactions amongst themselves that can improve or hamper swimming performance and give rise to fluid-mediated forces between individuals. To date, the unsteady, three-dimensional flow interactions among schooling fish remains relatively unexplored. In order to study these interactions, the caudal fins of two interacting fish are idealized as two finite span pitching wings arranged in mixtures of canonical in-line and side-by-side arrangements. The forces and moments acting on the wings in the streamwise and cross-stream directions are quantified as the arrangement and the phase delay between the wings is altered. Particle image velocimetry is employed to characterize the flow physics during high efficiency locomotion. Finally, the forces and flowfields of two-dimensional pitching wings are compared with three-dimensional wings to distinguish how three-dimensionality alters the flow interactions in schools of fish.

  15. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  16. Relationship between Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Biochemical and Bone Histomorphometric Alterations in a Chronic Kidney Disease Rat Model Undergoing Parathyroidectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Wei Liao

    Full Text Available Phosphate burden in chronic kidney disease (CKD leads to elevated serum fibroblast factor-23 (FGF-23 levels, secondary hyperparathyroidism and chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD. However dissociated hyperphosphatemia and low serum FGF-23 concentrations have been observed in experimentally parathyoridectomized rats. The relationships between serum mineral, hormone, and bone metabolism may be altered in the presence of CKD. The aim of our study was to investigate whether a consistent relationship existed between serum FGF-23 levels, specific serum biochemical markers, and histomorphometric parameters of bone metabolism in a parathyroidectomized CKD animal model.Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: parathyroidectomy (PTX and CKD (PTX+CKD, 9 rats, CKD without PTX (CKD, 9 rats, and neither PTX nor CKD (sham-operated control, 8 rats; CKD was induced by partial nephrectomy. At 8 weeks after partial nephrectomy, serum biomarkers were measured. Bone histomorphometries of the distal femoral metaphyseal bone were analyzed. The mean serum FGF-23 levels and mean bone formation rate were the highest in the CKD group and the lowest in the PTX+CKD group. Bone volume parameters increased significantly in the PTX+CKD group. Pearson's correlation revealed that serum FGF-23 levels associated with those of intact parathyroid hormone, phosphate, collagen type I C-telopeptide, and calcium. Univariate linear regression showed that serum FGF-23 values correlated with bone formation rate, bone volume, and osteoid parameters. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis revealed that circulating FGF-23 values were independently associated with bone volume and thickness (β = -0.737; p < 0.001 and β = -0.526; p = 0.006, respectively. Serum parathyroid hormone levels independently correlated with bone formation rate (β = 0.714; p < 0.001 while collagen type I C-telopeptide levels correlated with osteoid parameter.Serum FGF-23 levels

  17. Differential recognition of pitch patterns in discrete and gliding stimuli in congenital amusia: evidence from Mandarin speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi; Patel, Aniruddh D; Francart, Tom; Jiang, Cunmei

    2012-08-01

    This study examined whether "melodic contour deafness" (insensitivity to the direction of pitch movement) in congenital amusia is associated with specific types of pitch patterns (discrete versus gliding pitches) or stimulus types (speech syllables versus complex tones). Thresholds for identification of pitch direction were obtained using discrete or gliding pitches in the syllable /ma/ or its complex tone analog, from nineteen amusics and nineteen controls, all healthy university students with Mandarin Chinese as their native language. Amusics, unlike controls, had more difficulty recognizing pitch direction in discrete than in gliding pitches, for both speech and non-speech stimuli. Also, amusic thresholds were not significantly affected by stimulus types (speech versus non-speech), whereas controls showed lower thresholds for tones than for speech. These findings help explain why amusics have greater difficulty with discrete musical pitch perception than with speech perception, in which continuously changing pitch movements are prevalent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of slip system combination models on crystal plasticity finite element simulation of NiTi shape memory alloy undergoing uniaxial compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various slip system combination models on crystal plasticity finite element simulation of NiTi shape memory alloy subjected to uniaxial compression deformation is investigated according to three combinations of slip systems, including combination of {010}〈100〉 and {110}〈111〉 slip modes, combination of {110}〈100〉 and {110}〈111〉 slip modes and combination of {110}〈100〉, {010}〈100〉 and {110}〈111〉 slip modes, which consist of 18, 18 and 24 slip systems, respectively. By means of simulating mechanical response, strain distribution, stress distribution and Schmid factor, it can be found that in terms of simulation accuracy, combination of {110}〈100〉 and {110}〈111〉 slip modes is in good agreement with combination of {110}〈100〉, {010}〈100〉 and {110}〈111〉 slip modes. The contribution of {110}〈100〉 slip mode to plastic strain is primary in plastic deformation of NiTi shape memory alloy, whereas {010}〈100〉 slip mode, which makes small contribution to plastic deformation, can be regarded as the unfavorable slip mode. In the case of large plastic strain, the {010}〈100〉 slip mode contributes to the formation of (001 [01¯0] texture component, while {110}〈100〉 and {110}〈111〉 slip modes facilitate the formation of γ-fibre (〈111〉 texture. Keywords: Shape memory alloy, Plastic deformation, Crystal plasticity, Finite element method, Texture

  19. Pitch and loudness matching of unmodulated and modulated stimuli in cochlear implantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandali, Andrew; Sly, David; Cowan, Robert; van Hoesel, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The pitch elicited by unmodulated and amplitude modulated electrical pulse trains was examined with six adult cochlear implantees. In addition, for three of those subjects who had some hearing in their contralateral ear, the pitch of unmodulated electrical pulse trains was compared to that of complex harmonic acoustic tones. In the first experiment, pulse rate discrimination and the effects of place and level differences on pitch were examined for unmodulated pulse trains. General results were consistent with previous studies showing that variations in pulse rate, while holding loudness fixed, elicit changes in pitch at low rates, but become progressively harder to discriminate as rates approach approximately 300 pulses-per-second. Variations in place or level of stimulation generally produced changes in pitch consistent with tonotopic place and spread of excitation. In the second experiment, pitch and loudness of unmodulated pulse trains were compared with those of amplitude modulated stimuli as a function of modulation depth, rate, and shape, and presentation level. The pitch elicited by an amplitude modulated pulse train was generally higher than that of an unmodulated pulse train with a pulse rate equal to the modulation rate, and generally decreased toward that of the unmodulated pulse train as modulation depth or rate increased, or as presentation level decreased. Sharper/narrower modulation produced lower pitch. In the final experiment, the pitch heights of acoustic complex harmonic tones and unmodulated pulse trains were compared. When electrical pulse rate was equal to the fundamental frequency of the acoustic tone, similar pitch heights were elicited. The results from these experiments indicate that F0 rate pitch derived from the temporal envelope in existing clinical cochlear implant strategies may often be higher than that of acoustic harmonic tones at the same F0 in normal hearing, and that pitch growth with increasing F0 may be shallower. The

  20. Meta-analytic evidence for the non-modularity of pitch processing in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuvan, Dominique T; Nunes-Silva, Marilia; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    A major theme driving research in congenital amusia is related to the modularity of this musical disorder, with two possible sources of the amusic pitch perception deficit. The first possibility is that the amusic deficit is due to a broad disorder of acoustic pitch processing that has the effect of disrupting downstream musical pitch processing, and the second is that amusia is specific to a musical pitch processing module. To interrogate these hypotheses, we performed a meta-analysis on two types of effect sizes contained within 42 studies in the amusia literature: the performance gap between amusics and controls on tasks of pitch discrimination, broadly defined, and the correlation between specifically acoustic pitch perception and musical pitch perception. To augment the correlation database, we also calculated this correlation using data from 106 participants tested by our own research group. We found strong evidence for the acoustic account of amusia. The magnitude of the performance gap was moderated by the size of pitch change, but not by whether the stimuli were composed of tones or speech. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between an individual's acoustic and musical pitch perception. However, individual cases show a double dissociation between acoustic and musical processing, which suggests that although most amusic cases are probably explainable by an acoustic deficit, there is heterogeneity within the disorder. Finally, we found that tonal language fluency does not influence the performance gap between amusics and controls, and that there was no evidence that amusics fare worse with pitch direction tasks than pitch discrimination tasks. These results constitute a quantitative review of the current literature of congenital amusia, and suggest several new directions for research, including the experimental induction of amusic behaviour through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and the systematic exploration of the developmental

  1. Review on polymer-stabilized short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Guanjun; Lee, Yun-Han; Gou, Fangwang; Chen, Haiwei; Huang, Yuge; Wu, Shin-Tson; Lan, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Submillisecond response times and low operation voltage are critical to next generation liquid crystal display and photonic devices. In this paper, we review the recent progress of three fast-response short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal modes: blue phase (BP), uniform standing helix (USH), and uniform lying helix (ULH). This review starts with a brief introduction of device structures and working principles, and then highlights two competing electro-optical effects: dielectric effect and flexoelectric effect. Next, we compare their electro-optical behaviors, response time, temperature dependence, and contrast ratio. Based on our established simulation model, we are able to optimize the phase compensation scheme for improving the viewing angle and gamma shift of USH and ULH modes. Finally, we analyze some major challenges, which remain to be overcome before the widespread applications of these liquid crystal devices can be realized. (topical review)

  2. Review on polymer-stabilized short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guanjun; Lee, Yun-Han; Gou, Fangwang; Chen, Haiwei; Huang, Yuge; Lan, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2017-12-01

    Submillisecond response times and low operation voltage are critical to next generation liquid crystal display and photonic devices. In this paper, we review the recent progress of three fast-response short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal modes: blue phase (BP), uniform standing helix (USH), and uniform lying helix (ULH). This review starts with a brief introduction of device structures and working principles, and then highlights two competing electro-optical effects: dielectric effect and flexoelectric effect. Next, we compare their electro-optical behaviors, response time, temperature dependence, and contrast ratio. Based on our established simulation model, we are able to optimize the phase compensation scheme for improving the viewing angle and gamma shift of USH and ULH modes. Finally, we analyze some major challenges, which remain to be overcome before the widespread applications of these liquid crystal devices can be realized.

  3. Linear and nonlinear schemes applied to pitch control of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hua; Yang, Geng

    2014-01-01

    Linear controllers have been employed in industrial applications for many years, but sometimes they are noneffective on the system with nonlinear characteristics. This paper discusses the structure, performance, implementation cost, advantages, and disadvantages of different linear and nonlinear schemes applied to the pitch control of the wind energy conversion systems (WECSs). The linear controller has the simplest structure and is easily understood by the engineers and thus is widely accepted by the industry. In contrast, nonlinear schemes are more complicated, but they can provide better performance. Although nonlinear algorithms can be implemented in a powerful digital processor nowadays, they need time to be accepted by the industry and their reliability needs to be verified in the commercial products. More information about the system nonlinear feature is helpful to simplify the controller design. However, nonlinear schemes independent of the system model are more robust to the uncertainties or deviations of the system parameters.

  4. Internal magnetic pitch angle measurements at KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, J.; Chung, J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Messmer, M. C. C. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-05-15

    Specification of the hardware for photo-detecting and digitizing electronics has almost complete as well and many of them are ready for procurement. The main collaboration party is Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands, whose main responsibilities include the development of filter module design and off-line and real-time analysis schemes along with overall consultations. The following sections describe some major parts of the design progress. 3D MSE stokes-vector simulations have been tuned to match the MSE spectra measured in KSTAR and used to design the band-pass filters. From these simulations, 0.4-nm 2-cavity interference filters have been chosen to minimize pitch angle errors. Figure 4 shows an example of the MSE spectrum calculated from the simulation that is compared with the measured spectrum. Also shown in Figure 4 are the possible passband (shaded in green) of the spectrum where the redmost shifted polarization component (+4π) is chosen, the pitch angles and their errors. Due to the overlap of the spectra among ion sources, the second ion source of NBI1 (NBI1-2) should operate at about 15% lower voltage than that of the first ion source (NBI1-1). An example of this overlap in the spectrum and the large error in pitch angle it causes is shown in Figure 5. Pass-band control by the filter-angle tuning is under development to fully cover most of the KSTAR plasmas which include Ip = 0.5 - 1 MA, Bt = 1.5 - 3.5 T, and the beam energy (for the ion source 1 from NBI1) = 70 - 100 keV. The accuracy obtained is in the order of 0.5 % and compatible with the MSE requirement. The software also allows sequences creation, which consists of executing a series of a predefined central wavelength and a corresponding time delay. One PC can control 5 controller hubs each of which can accommodate up to 6 rotational stage/controller sets, resulting in the maximum 30 sets.

  5. A cross-cultural comparison of tonal synchrony and pitch imitation in the vocal dialogs of Belgian Flemish-speaking and Mexican Spanish-speaking mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Puyvelde, Martine; Loots, Gerrit; Gillisjans, Lobcke; Pattyn, Nathalie; Quintana, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    This study reports a cross-cultural comparison of the vocal pitch patterns of 15 Mexican Spanish-speaking and 15 Belgian Flemish-speaking dyads, recorded during 5min of free-play in a laboratory setting. Both cultures have a tradition of dyadic face-to-face interaction but differ in language origins (i.e., Romanic versus Germanic). In total, 374 Mexican and 558 Flemish vocal exchanges were identified, analyzed and compared for their incidence of tonal synchrony (harmonic/pentatonic series), non-tonal synchrony (with/without imitations) and pitch and/or interval imitations. The main findings revealed that dyads in both cultures rely on tonal synchrony using similar pitch ratios and timing patterns. However, there were significant differences in the infants' vocal pitch imitation behavior. Additional video-analyzes on the contingency patterns involved in pitch imitation showed a cross-cultural difference in the maternal selective reinforcement of pitch imitation. The results are interpreted with regard to linguistic, developmental and cultural aspects and the 'musilanguage' model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pitch Range in the Production of Saudi and English Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Omar Maghrabi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present small-scale preliminary study, we sampled four groups of younger and older female Arabic and English speakers to examine if speaking fundamental frequency (SFF could show any systematic variations across languages and different age groups performing different tasks.  All groups of  speakers were recorded reading the North Wind and the Sun twice in their native language, and speaking spontaneously about themselves for around two minutes. Mean SFF values for each speaker and speaking task were obtained using Praat’s autocorrelation algorithm with a pitch range of 100-500Hz, with manual correction to remove spurious F0 values caused by doubling or halving the first harmonic. As well as presenting SFF results for all groups, mean values will be given for each group and speaking task.

  7. Fire resistance of single pitched-roof steel portal frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ferrán Gozálvez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The standard procedure of structural fire design is based on the simplified analysis of single members. This method leads to conservative results in the case of structures able to redistribution of forces. The failure mechanism affecting both life safety and fire propagation is unknown. This work proposes a methodology for the advanced fire calculation of single pitched-roof portal frame for an agroindustrial building according to the Spanish Specifications with the structural software SAP2000. A non-linear dynamic and plastic, geometric (P-Delta and large-displacements calculation method has been developed. The different failure mechanisms and their influence are studied in terms of fire time resistance, human hazard and good safety. Also, parametric analyses were conducted: load level, rotational stiffness of the base and finally, support fire protection.

  8. Vision and Visual-Motor Coordination in Pitched Visual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Robert B.

    1999-01-01

    The everyday perception of one's bodily orientation is determined by two classes of sensory cues: Vision and gravity. Because these cues typically agree, as when one is standing in a lighted room, it is difficult if not impossible to determine the degree to which each contributes to spatial perception. Therefore, in order to make this judgment it is necessary to introduce a conflict between vision and gravity and note the resulting perceptual experience. One simple way to do this is to expose the observer to a visual framework that has been rolled or pitched relative to the gravitational vector. The underlying assumption is that the separate contributions of vision and gravity to the perception of bodily orientation that are measured in such a situation of intersensory conflict are the same as those that operate under normal (i.e., non-conflicting) circumstances.

  9. Computationally Efficient and Noise Robust DOA and Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    signals are often contaminated by different types of noise, which challenges the assumption of white Gaussian noise in most state-of-the-art methods. We establish filtering methods based on noise statistics to apply to nonparametric spectral and spatial parameter estimates of the harmonics. We design...... a joint DOA and pitch estimator. In white Gaussian noise, we derive even more computationally efficient solutions which are designed using the narrowband power spectrum of the harmonics. Numerical results reveal the performance of the estimators in colored noise compared with the Cram\\'{e}r-Rao lower...... bound. Experiments on real-life signals indicate the applicability of the methods in practical low local signal-to-noise ratios....

  10. A Cultural Paradigm--Learning by Observing and Pitching In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoff, Barbara; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca; Correa-Chávez, Maricela

    2015-01-01

    We discuss Learning by Observing and Pitching In (LOPI) as a cultural paradigm that provides an interesting alternative to Assembly-Line Instruction for supporting children's learning. Although LOPI may occur in all communities, it appears to be especially prevalent in many Indigenous and Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. We explain key features of this paradigm, previewing the chapters of this volume, which examine LOPI as it occurs in the lives of families and communities. In this introductory chapter, we focus especially on one feature of the paradigm that plays an important role in its uptake and maintenance in families, institutions, and communities-the nature of assessment. We consider the power of the dominant paradigm and the challenges in making paradigm shifts. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. HYDRODYNAMICS OF OSCILLATING WING ON THE PITCH ANGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Korobov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: research of the hydrodynamic characteristics of a wing in a nonstationary stream. Methods: The experimental studies of the hydrodynamic load acting on the wing of 1.5 elongation, wich harmonically oscillated respect to the transversal axis in the frequency range of 0.2-2.5 Hz. The flow speed in the hydrodynamic tunnel ranged of 0.2-1.5 m/s. Results: The instantaneous values of the coefficients of lift and drag / thrust on the pitch angle at unsteady flow depends on the Strouhal number.Discussion: with increasing oscillation frequency coefficients of hydrodynamic force components significantly higher than the data for the stationary blowing out of the wing.

  12. Brief Report: Discrimination of Foreign Speech Pitch and Autistic Traits in Non-Clinical Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Wippich, Anna; Lam, Yu Hin

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are widely suggested to show enhanced perceptual discrimination but inconsistent findings have been reported for pitch discrimination. Given the high variability in ASC, this study investigated whether ASC traits were correlated with pitch discrimination in an undergraduate sample when musical and…

  13. Effortful Pitch Glide: A Potential New Exercise Evaluated by Dynamic MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloro, Keri Vasquez; Pearson, William G., Jr.; Langmore, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanics of the effortful pitch glide (EPG) with swallowing using dynamic MRI. The EPG is a combination of a pitch glide and a pharyngeal squeeze maneuver for targeting laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles. The authors hypothesized that the EPG would elicit significantly greater structural…

  14. Training English Listeners to Identify Pitch-Accent Patterns in Tokyo Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shport, Irina A.

    2016-01-01

    The high-variability training paradigm (multiple words, phonetic contexts, and talkers) has been successful for perceptual learning of tone contrasts. Here, it is extended to training native English listeners on Tokyo Japanese pitch-accent contrasts. Participants had no previous experience with lexically contrastive pitch patterns. They learned to…

  15. Perceived Pitch of Violin and Cello Vibrato Tones among Music Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Allen, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived pitch of string vibrato tones. The authors used recordings of acoustic instruments (cello and violin) to provide both vibrato stimulus tones and the nonvibrato tones that listeners adjusted to match the perceived pitch of the vibrato stimuli. We were interested especially in whether there…

  16. Evaluation of health risks of playing sports on synthetic turf pitches with rubber granulate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; de Groot GM; CPV; M&V

    2017-01-01

    New research by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) indicates that the health risk of playing sports on synthetic turf pitches with an infill of rubber granulate is virtually negligible. Therefore, it is considered safe for people to play sports on such pitches.

  17. Solid state 13 C NMR quantitative study of wood tar pitches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prauchner, Marcos Juliano; Pasa, Vanya Marcia Duarte; Menezes, Sonia Maria Cabral de

    1999-01-01

    In this work, solid-state 13 C NMR is used with other techniques to characterize Eucalyptus tar pitches and to follow their polymerization reactions. The pitches are the residues of distillation (about 50% m;m) of the tar generated in Eucalyptus slow pyrolysis for charcoal production in metal industry

  18. Ball flight kinematics, release variability and in-season performance in elite baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, D; McGinnis, R S; Deneweth, J M; Zernicke, R F; Goulet, G C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify ball flight kinematics (ball speed, spin rate, spin axis orientation, seam orientation) and release location variability in the four most common pitch types in baseball and relate them to in-season pitching performance. Nine NCAA Division I pitchers threw four pitching variations (fastball, changeup, curveball, and slider) while a radar gun measured ball speed and a 600-Hz video camera recorded the ball trajectory. Marks on the ball were digitized to measure ball flight kinematics and release location. Ball speed was highest in the fastball, though spin rate was similar in the fastball and breaking pitches. Two distinct spin axis orientations were noted: one characterizing the fastball and changeup, and another, the curveball and slider. The horizontal release location was significantly more variable than the vertical release location. In-season pitching success was not correlated to any of the measured variables. These findings are instructive for inferring appropriate hand mechanics and spin types in each of the four pitches. Coaches should also be aware that ball flight kinematics might not directly relate to pitching success at the collegiate level. Therefore, talent identification and pitching evaluations should encompass other (e.g., cognitive, psychological, and physiological) factors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Automatic and Data Driven Pitch Contour Manipulation with Functional Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubian, M.; Cangemi, F.; Boves, L.W.J.; Hasegawa-Johnson, M.

    2010-01-01

    Creating stimuli for perceptual experiments in intonation research involves manipulation of pitch contours extracted from spoken utterances. Difficulties arise when changes in the contour shape need to be applied globally and smoothly in the whole pitch curve. Moreover, it is hard to relate a

  20. Relative Influence of Musical and Linguistic Experience on Early Cortical Processing of Pitch Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.

    2009-01-01

    To assess domain specificity of experience-dependent pitch representation we evaluated the mismatch negativity (MMN) and discrimination judgments of English musicians, English nonmusicians, and native Chinese for pitch contours presented in a nonspeech context using a passive oddball paradigm. Stimuli consisted of homologues of Mandarin high…

  1. The thermal transformations of pitch and its compositions with thermo-anthracite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Ulanovskii, M.L.; Krysin, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    The derivatographic method was used to examine the nature of thermal treatment of pitch in a mixture with heat-treated anthracite. The basic effect of anthracite on the thermal conversion of pitch was established, as well as the stages of mass loss and the processes that limit such losses. (9 refs.)

  2. Equations of motion for a rotor blade, including gravity, pitch action and rotor speed variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    in the equations is discussed. The partial differential equations of motion are approximated by ordinary differential equations of motion using an assumed mode method. The ordinary differential equations are used to simulate a sudden pitch change of a rotating blade. This work is a part of a project on pitch blade...

  3. The effects of medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction on Major League pitching performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Steffes, Matthew J; Zhuo, David; Bey, Michael J; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2014-11-01

    Medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) reconstruction is commonly performed on Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. Previous studies have reported that most pitchers return to presurgical statistical performance levels after MUCL reconstruction. Pitching performance data--specifically, earned run average (ERA), walks and hits per inning pitched (WHIP), winning percentage, and innings pitched--were acquired for 168 MLB pitchers who had undergone MUCL reconstruction. These data were averaged over the 3 years before surgery and the 3 years after surgery and also acquired from 178 age-matched, uninjured MLB pitchers. Of the pitchers who had MUCL reconstruction surgery, 87% returned to MLB pitching. However, compared with presurgical data, pitching performance declined in terms of ERA (P = .001), WHIP (P = .011), and innings pitched (P = .026). Pitching performance also declined in the season before the surgery compared with previous years (ERA, P = .014; WHIP, P = .036; innings pitched, P risk factor for requiring surgery. In addition, there is an increased risk of MUCL reconstruction for pitchers who enter the major leagues at a younger age. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceiving differences in linguistic and non-linguistic pitch: A pilot study with German congenital amusics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamann, S.; Exter, M.; Pfeifer, J.; Krause-Burmester, M.; Cambouropoulos, F.; Tsougras, C.; Mavromatis, P.; Pastiadis, K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the perception of pitch differences by seven German congenital amusics in speech and two types of non-speech material (sinusoidal waves and pulse trains). Congenital amusia is defined by a deficit in musical pitch perception, and recent studies indicate that at least a

  5. Pitch Discrimination without Awareness in Congenital Amusia: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Patricia; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong disorder characterized by a difficulty in perceiving and producing music despite normal intelligence and hearing. Behavioral data have indicated that it originates from a deficit in fine-grained pitch discrimination, and is expressed by the absence of a P3b event-related brain response for pitch differences smaller…

  6. Impaired Pitch Production and Preserved Rhythm Production in a Right Brain-Damaged Patient with Amusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Junko; Kashiwagi, Toshihiro; Kashiwagi, Asako; Mimura, Masaru

    2004-01-01

    Pre- and postmorbid singing of a patient with amusia due to a right-hemispheric infarction was analyzed acoustically. This particular patient had a premorbid tape recording of her own singing without accompaniment. Appropriateness of pitch interval and rhythm was evaluated based on ratios of pitch and duration between neighboring notes. The…

  7. Investigation on pitch system loads by means of an integral multi body simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berroth, J.; Jacobs, G.; Kroll, T.; Schelenz, R.

    2016-09-01

    In modern horizontal axis wind turbines the rotor blades are adjusted by three individual pitch systems to control power output. The pitch system consists of either a hydraulic or an electrical actuator, the blade bearing, the rotor blade itself and the control. In case of an electrical drive a gearbox is used to transmit the high torques that are required for blade pitch angle adjustment. In this contribution a new integral multi body simulation approach is presented that enables detailed assessment of dynamic pitch system loads. The simulation results presented are compared and evaluated with measurement data of a 2 MW-class reference wind turbine. Major focus of this contribution is on the assessment of non linear tooth contact behaviour incorporating tooth backlash for the single gear stages and the impact on dynamic pitch system loads.

  8. The Low Pitch of High-Frequency Complex Tones Relies on Temporal Fine Structure Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    High-frequency complex tones containing only unresolved harmonic components with a frequency spacing Δf usually evoke a low pitch equal to Δf. However, for inharmonic components, the low pitch is often found to deviate slightly from Δf. Whether this pitch shift relies exclusively on temporal fine...... structure (TFS) cues has been a matter of debate. It is also controversial up to which frequency TFS information remains available, and to what extent envelope cues become dominant as frequency increases. Using a pitch-matching paradigm, this study investigated whether the pitch of transposed tones...... with unresolved inharmonic components is determined by (A) the time intervals between the most prominent TFS peaks in their waveform (multimodal distribution of matches around subharmonics of the carrier frequency fc), (B) the timing between peaks in their envelope (unimodal distribution of matches around...

  9. Evidence for shared cognitive processing of pitch in music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Fedorenko, Evelina G; Vinke, Louis; Gibson, Edward; Dilley, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Language and music epitomize the complex representational and computational capacities of the human mind. Strikingly similar in their structural and expressive features, a longstanding question is whether the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying these abilities are shared or distinct--either from each other or from other mental processes. One prominent feature shared between language and music is signal encoding using pitch, conveying pragmatics and semantics in language and melody in music. We investigated how pitch processing is shared between language and music by measuring consistency in individual differences in pitch perception across language, music, and three control conditions intended to assess basic sensory and domain-general cognitive processes. Individuals' pitch perception abilities in language and music were most strongly related, even after accounting for performance in all control conditions. These results provide behavioral evidence, based on patterns of individual differences, that is consistent with the hypothesis that cognitive mechanisms for pitch processing may be shared between language and music.

  10. Perceptions of Competence, Strength, and Age Influence Voters to Select Leaders with Lower-Pitched Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofstad, Casey A; Anderson, Rindy C; Nowicki, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Voters prefer leaders with lower-pitched voices because they are perceived as stronger, having greater physical prowess, more competent, and having greater integrity. An alternative hypothesis that has yet to be tested is that lower-pitched voices are perceived as older and thus wiser and more experienced. Here the relationships between candidate voice pitch, candidate age, and electoral success are examined with two experiments. Study 1 tests whether voters discriminate on candidate age. The results show that male and female candidates in their 40s and 50s, the time in the lifecycle when voice pitch is at its lowest, are preferred over candidates in their 30s, 60s, and 70s. Study 2 shows that the preference for leaders with lower-pitched voices correlates with the perception that speakers with lower voices are stronger, more competent, and older, but the influence of perception of age on vote choice is the weakest of the three.

  11. ERP Correlates of Pitch Error Detection in Complex Tone and Voice Auditory Feedback with Missing Fundamental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pitch of a sound is perceived in the absence of its fundamental frequency (F0), suggesting that a distinct mechanism may resolve pitch based on a pattern that exists between harmonic frequencies. The present study investigated whether such a mechanism is active during voice pitch control. ERPs were recorded in response to +200 cents pitch shifts in the auditory feedback of self-vocalizations and complex tones with and without the F0. The absence of the fundamental induced no difference in ERP latencies. However, a right-hemisphere difference was found in the N1 amplitudes with larger responses to complex tones that included the fundamental compared to when it was missing. The P1 and N1 latencies were shorter in the left hemisphere, and the N1 and P2 amplitudes were larger bilaterally for pitch shifts in voice and complex tones compared with pure tones. These findings suggest hemispheric differences in neural encoding of pitch in sounds with missing fundamental. Data from the present study suggest that the right cortical auditory areas, thought to be specialized for spectral processing, may utilize different mechanisms to resolve pitch in sounds with missing fundamental. The left hemisphere seems to perform faster processing to resolve pitch based on the rate of temporal variations in complex sounds compared with pure tones. These effects indicate that the differential neural processing of pitch in the left and right hemispheres may enable the audio-vocal system to detect temporal and spectral variations in the auditory feedback for vocal pitch control. PMID:22386045

  12. Audio-visual interactions uniquely contribute to resolution of visual conflict in people possessing absolute pitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Kim

    Full Text Available Individuals possessing absolute pitch (AP are able to identify a given musical tone or to reproduce it without reference to another tone. The present study sought to learn whether this exceptional auditory ability impacts visual perception under stimulus conditions that provoke visual competition in the form of binocular rivalry. Nineteen adult participants with 3-19 years of musical training were divided into two groups according to their performance on a task involving identification of the specific note associated with hearing a given musical pitch. During test trials lasting just over half a minute, participants dichoptically viewed a scrolling musical score presented to one eye and a drifting sinusoidal grating presented to the other eye; throughout the trial they pressed buttons to track the alternations in visual awareness produced by these dissimilar monocular stimuli. On "pitch-congruent" trials, participants heard an auditory melody that was congruent in pitch with the visual score, on "pitch-incongruent" trials they heard a transposed auditory melody that was congruent with the score in melody but not in pitch, and on "melody-incongruent" trials they heard an auditory melody completely different from the visual score. For both groups, the visual musical scores predominated over the gratings when the auditory melody was congruent compared to when it was incongruent. Moreover, the AP participants experienced greater predominance of the visual score when it was accompanied by the pitch-congruent melody compared to the same melody transposed in pitch; for non-AP musicians, pitch-congruent and pitch-incongruent trials yielded equivalent predominance. Analysis of individual durations of dominance revealed differential effects on dominance and suppression durations for AP and non-AP participants. These results reveal that AP is accompanied by a robust form of bisensory interaction between tonal frequencies and musical notation that boosts

  13. Low is large: spatial location and pitch interact in voice-based body size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Isenstein, Sari G E; Montano, Kelyn J; O'Connor, Jillian J M; Feinberg, David R

    2017-05-01

    The binding of incongruent cues poses a challenge for multimodal perception. Indeed, although taller objects emit sounds from higher elevations, low-pitched sounds are perceptually mapped both to large size and to low elevation. In the present study, we examined how these incongruent vertical spatial cues (up is more) and pitch cues (low is large) to size interact, and whether similar biases influence size perception along the horizontal axis. In Experiment 1, we measured listeners' voice-based judgments of human body size using pitch-manipulated voices projected from a high versus a low, and a right versus a left, spatial location. Listeners associated low spatial locations with largeness for lowered-pitch but not for raised-pitch voices, demonstrating that pitch overrode vertical-elevation cues. Listeners associated rightward spatial locations with largeness, regardless of voice pitch. In Experiment 2, listeners performed the task while sitting or standing, allowing us to examine self-referential cues to elevation in size estimation. Listeners associated vertically low and rightward spatial cues with largeness more for lowered- than for raised-pitch voices. These correspondences were robust to sex (of both the voice and the listener) and head elevation (standing or sitting); however, horizontal correspondences were amplified when participants stood. Moreover, when participants were standing, their judgments of how much larger men's voices sounded than women's increased when the voices were projected from the low speaker. Our results provide novel evidence for a multidimensional spatial mapping of pitch that is generalizable to human voices and that affects performance in an indirect, ecologically relevant spatial task (body size estimation). These findings suggest that crossmodal pitch correspondences evoke both low-level and higher-level cognitive processes.

  14. Relativistic electron dropouts by pitch angle scattering in the geomagnetic tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Lee

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic electron dropout (RED events are characterized by fast electron flux decrease at the geostationary orbit. It is known that the main loss process is non adiabatic and more effective for the high energy particles. RED events generally start to occur at midnight sector and propagate to noon sector and are correlated with magnetic field stretching. In this paper, we discuss this kind of event can be caused from pitch angle diffusion induced when the gyro radius of the electrons is comparable to the radius of curvature of the magnetic field and the magnetic moment is not conserved any more. While this process has been studied theoretically, the question is whether electron precipitation could be explained with this process for the real field configuration. This paper will show that this process can successfully explain the precipitation that occurred on 14 June 2004 observed by the low-altitude (680 km polar orbiting Korean satellite, STSAT-1. In this precipitation event, the energy dispersion showed higher energy electron precipitation occurred at lower L values. This feature is a good indicator that precipitation was caused by the magnetic moment scattering in the geomagnetic tail. This interpretation is supported by the geosynchronous satellite GOES observations that showed significant magnetic field distortion occurred on the night side accompanying the electron flux depletion. Tsyganenko-01 model also shows the magnetic moment scattering could occur under the geomagnetic conditions existing at that time. We suggest the pitch angle scattering by field curvature violating the first adiabatic invariant as a possible candidate for loss mechanism of relativistic electrons in radiation belt.

  15. Fiber Strength Utilization in Carbon/Carbon Composites: Part 2. Extended Studies With Pitch- and PAN-Based Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaldivar, R

    1998-01-01

    ...) composites as a function of heat treatment temperature (HTT) have been extended beyond the original group of DuPont pitch-based E-series fibers to include additional pitch and PAN-based fibers...

  16. Incorporating exposure to pitch canker disease to support management decisions of Pinus pinaster Ait. in the face of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Varela, María Jesús; Alía, Ricardo; Pórtoles, Javier; Gonzalo, Julián; Soliño, Mario; Grivet, Delphine; Raposo, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is gravely affecting forest ecosystems, resulting in large distribution shifts as well as in increasing infection diseases and biological invasions. Accordingly, forest management requires an evaluation of exposure to climate change that should integrate both its abiotic and biotic components. Here we address the implications of climate change in an emerging disease by analysing both the host species (Pinus pinaster, Maritime pine) and the pathogen’s (Fusarium circinatum, pitch canker) environmental suitability i.e. estimating the host’s risk of habitat loss and the disease`s future environmental range. We constrained our study area to the Spanish Iberian Peninsula, where accurate climate and pitch canker occurrence databases were available. While P. pinaster is widely distributed across the study area, the disease has only been detected in its north-central and north-western edges. We fitted species distribution models for the current distribution of the conifer and the disease. Then, these models were projected into nine Global Climate Models and two different climatic scenarios which totalled to 18 different future climate predictions representative of 2050. Based on the level of agreement among them, we created future suitability maps for the pine and for the disease independently, which were then used to assess exposure of current populations of P. pinaster to abiotic and biotic effects of climate change. Almost the entire distribution of P. pinaster in the Spanish Iberian Peninsula will be subjected to abiotic exposure likely to be driven by the predicted increase in drought events in the future. Furthermore, we detected a reduction in exposure to pitch canker that will be concentrated along the north-western edge of the study area. Setting up breeding programs is recommended in highly exposed and productive populations, while silvicultural methods and monitoring should be applied in those less productive, but still exposed, populations

  17. Politeness, emotion, and gender: A sociophonetic study of voice pitch modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Ikuko

    The present dissertation is a cross-gender and cross-cultural sociophonetic exploration of voice pitch characteristics utilizing speech data derived from Japanese and American speakers in natural conversations. The roles of voice pitch modulation in terms of the concepts of politeness and emotion as they pertain to culture and gender will be investigated herein. The research interprets the significance of my findings based on the acoustic measurements of speech data as they are presented in the ERB-rate scale (the most appropriate scale for human speech perception). The investigation reveals that pitch range modulation displayed by Japanese informants in two types of conversations is closely linked to types of politeness adopted by those informants. The degree of the informants' emotional involvement and expressions reflected in differing pitch range widths plays an important role in determining the relationship between pitch range modulation and politeness. The study further correlates the Japanese cultural concept of enryo ("self-restraint") with this phenomenon. When median values were examined, male and female pitch ranges across cultures did not conspicuously differ. However, sporadically occurring women's pitch characteristics which culturally differ in width and height of pitch ranges may create an 'emotional' perception of women's speech style. The salience of these pitch characteristics appears to be the source of the stereotypically linked sound of women's speech being identified as 'swoopy' or 'shrill' and thus 'emotional'. Such women's salient voice characteristics are interpreted in light of camaraderie/positive politeness. Women's use of conspicuous paralinguistic features helps to create an atmosphere of camaraderie. These voice pitch characteristics promote the establishment of a sense of camaraderie since they act to emphasize such feelings as concern, support, and comfort towards addressees, Moreover, men's wide pitch ranges are discussed in view

  18. Short-Term Memory Performance in 7- and 8-Year-Old Children: The Relationship between Phonological and Pitch Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagge, Ashley Gaal; Estis, Julie M.; Moore, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between short-term memory for phonology and pitch was explored by examining accuracy scores for typically developing children for 5 experimental tasks: immediate nonword repetition (NWR), nonword repetition with an 8-s silent interference (NWRS), pitch discrimination (PD), pitch discrimination with an 8-s silent…

  19. Beethoven's Last Piano Sonata and Those Who Follow Crocodiles: Cross-Domain Mappings of Auditory Pitch in a Musical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitan, Zohar; Timmers, Renee

    2010-01-01

    Though auditory pitch is customarily mapped in Western cultures onto spatial verticality (high-low), both anthropological reports and cognitive studies suggest that pitch may be mapped onto a wide variety of other domains. We collected a total number of 35 pitch mappings and investigated in four experiments how these mappings are used and…

  20. Experience-Dependent Enhancement of Linguistic Pitch Representation in the Brainstem Is Not Specific to a Speech Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Gandour, Jackson T.

    2009-01-01

    Neural representation of pitch is influenced by lifelong experiences with music and language at both cortical and subcortical levels of processing. The aim of this article is to determine whether neural plasticity for pitch representation at the level of the brainstem is dependent upon specific "dimensions" of pitch contours that commonly occur as…