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Sample records for model twenty-one hypercholesterolemic

  1. Proteomic Analysis of a Noninvasive Human Model of Acute Inflammation and Its Resolution: The Twenty-one Day Gingivitis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The 21-day experimental gingivitis model, an established noninvasive model of inflammation in response to increasing bacterial accumulation in humans, is designed to enable the study of both the induction and resolution of inflammation. Here, we have analyzed gingival crevicular fluid, an oral fluid comprising a serum transudate and tissue exudates, by LC−MS/MS using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and iTRAQ isobaric mass tags, to establish meta-proteomic profiles of inflammation-induced changes in proteins in healthy young volunteers. Across the course of experimentally induced gingivitis, we identified 16 bacterial and 186 human proteins. Although abundances of the bacterial proteins identified did not vary temporally, Fusobacterium outer membrane proteins were detected. Fusobacterium species have previously been associated with periodontal health or disease. The human proteins identified spanned a wide range of compartments (both extracellular and intracellular) and functions, including serum proteins, proteins displaying antibacterial properties, and proteins with functions associated with cellular transcription, DNA binding, the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and cilia. PolySNAP3 clustering software was used in a multilayered analytical approach. Clusters of proteins that associated with changes to the clinical parameters included neuronal and synapse associated proteins. PMID:20662485

  2. 14 Days of supplementation with blueberry extract shows anti-atherogenic properties and improves oxidative parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströher, Deise Jaqueline; Escobar Piccoli, Jacqueline da Costa; Güllich, Angélica Aparecida da Costa; Pilar, Bruna Cocco; Coelho, Ritiéle Pinto; Bruno, Jamila Benvegnú; Faoro, Debora; Manfredini, Vanusa

    2015-01-01

    The effects of supplementation with blueberry (BE) extract (Vaccinium ashei Reade) for 14 consecutive days on biochemical, hematological, histopathological and oxidative parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats were investigated. After supplementation with lyophilized extract of BE, the levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased. Histopathological analysis showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) of aortic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rats. Oxidative parameters showed significant reductions (p < 0.05) in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and an increase in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The BE extract showed an important cardioprotective effect by the improvements in the serum lipid profile, antioxidant system, particularly in reducing oxidative stress associated with hypercholesterolemia and anti-atherogenic effect in rats.

  3. Twenty-One at TREC-8: using Language Technology for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, Wessel; Pohlmann, Renée; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of the Twenty-One group for TREC-8. The Twenty-One group participated in the Ad-hoc, CLIR, Adaptive Filtering and SDR tracks. The main focus of our experiments is the development and evaluation of retrieval methods that are motivated by natural language

  4. An investigation of twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints were thoroughly investigated with the aim of answering the question whether it is real physical sound or low-frequency tinnitus that causes the annoyance. Noise recordings were made in the homes of the complainants taking the spatial variation...

  5. Early prevention by L-Arginine attenuates coronary atherosclerosis in a model of hypercholesterolemic animals; no positive results for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematbakhsh Mehdi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial dysfunction (ED is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. ED is also a reversible disorder, and nitric oxide donors like L-arginine may promote this process. Despite the positive results from several studies, there are some studies that have shown that L-arginine administration did not improve endothelium-dependent dilation or the inflammatory state of patients. In this study the early and the late effects of L-arginine on coronary fatty streak formation and ED biomarkers were considered in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Methods 36 white male rabbits randomly assigned in 3 groups. Rabbits were fed 1% high-cholesterol diet (LP group, n = 15, or high-cholesterol diet with oral L-arginine (3% in drinking water (EP group, n = 15 or standard diet (control group, n = 6 for 4 weeks (phase I. Afterward, all animals were fed normal diet for 4 weeks (phase II. In the second phase, L-arginine was discontinued for EP group and was begun for LP group. The plasma levels of lipids, von Willebrand factor (vWF, and nitrite were compared before and after 4 and 8 weeks of experiment. Coronary fatty streak formation was measure after 4 and 8 weeks of experiment. Results The plasma levels of lipids were increased significantly in both groups of LP and EP after phase I. The hypercholesterolemia induced significant increased vWF release in LP group. The L-arginine supplementation led to significant plasma nitrite increment in EP group. The vWF in LP group was higher than other groups (p Conclusion Early prevention by L-arginine may be helpful to prevent the ED, but our study did not suggest the treatment. It seems reasonable to consider ED-aside from control the cardiovascular risk factors in primary prevention of atherosclerosis and its clinical outcomes before development of irreversible vascular damage.

  6. [Simultaneous determination of twenty-one organic acids in food by ion chromatography with eluent autogeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huaying; Lin, Fenghua; Sheng, Lina; Li, Yidan; Zhang, Qiong

    2007-01-01

    A novel ion chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of organic acids in food samples including quinic acid, acetic acid, pyruvic acid, ketosuccinic acid, mannitic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, fumaric acid, ascorbic acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, cinnamic acid, salicylic acid, citric acid, isocitric acid, ferulic acid, cis-aconitic acid, trans-aconitic acid, beta-coumaric acid. 5 - 34 mmol/L KOH produced by an EG40 eluent autogenerator could achieve a flat baseline and lower background conductance when performing gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.6 - 2.5 mL/min and the injection volume was 25 microL. The separation was performed on an IonPac AS11 column and detected by suppressed conductivity with self-regenerating suppressor mode. The samples were prepared through extraction, decoloration and filtration before analysis. Twenty-one organic acids showed good linear relationship between the mass concentration and the peak area in the measurement ranges. The correlation coefficients were above 0.999 and the detection limits were 0.011 - 0.188 mg/L, and the average recoveries were 91.5% - 101.8%. The method is simple and rapid with good accuracy and reproducibility, and has been applied to determine twenty-one organic acids in diversiform samples with satisfactory results.

  7. Twenty-One Year Trends and Correlates of Pressure to Change Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason; Kerr, William

    2011-01-01

    Background The vast majority of individuals with alcohol problems in the U.S. and elsewhere do not seek help. One policy response has been to encourage institutions such as criminal justice and social welfare systems to mandate treatment for individuals with alcohol problems (Speiglman, 1997). However, informal pressures to drink less from family and friends are far more common than institutional pressures mandating treatment (Room et al., 1996). The prevalence and correlates of these informal pressures have been minimally studied. Methods This analysis used data from five Alcohol Research Group National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) collected at approximately five-year intervals over a 21 year period (1984 to 2005, pooled N=16,241) to describe patterns of pressure that drinkers received during the past year from family, friends, physicians, police and the workplace. Results The overall trend of pressure combining all six sources across all five NAS surveys indicated a decline. Frequent heavy drinking and alcohol related harms also declined and both were strong predictors of receiving pressure. Trends among different sources varied. In multivariate regression models pressure from friends showed an increase. Pressure from spouse and family showed a relatively flat trajectory, with the exception of a spike in pressure from family in 1990. Conclusions The trajectory of decreasing of pressure over time is most likely the result of decreases in heavy drinking and alcohol related harm. Pressure was generally targeted toward higher risk drinkers, such as heavy drinkers and those reporting alcohol related harm. However, demographic findings suggest that the social context of drinking might also be a determinant of receiving pressure. Additional studies should identify when pressure is associated with decreased drinking and increased help-seeking. PMID:21913944

  8. Chapter Twenty One

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    In this instance one may pander to Abercrombie's view that “different groups can generate ideas which run counter to dominant ideologies.”4. Thus, Hunter noted that Dejeuner sur l'herbe which is a sharp deviation from the established style of the Salon immediately became a centre of dispute and the beginning of Manet's ...

  9. Quantitative assessment of the effects of beta-glucan consumption on serum lipid profile and glucose level in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Sun, X; Wang, M; Zhang, C; Cao, Y; Mo, G; Liang, J; Zhu, S

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that beta-glucan derived from oats or barley can reduce cardiovascular disease risk through reductions in serum lipids. However, the effects of beta-glucan on lipid changes in hypercholesterolemic patient groups are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the effect of beta-glucan, a marker of water-soluble fiber, on various lipid parameters and glucose level in hypercholesterolemic subjects. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify the relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of beta-glucan consumption in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for net changes in lipid concentrations by using fixed-effects or random-effects models according to heterogeneity. Publication bias, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analyses were also performed. Seventeen eligible RCTs with 916 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled result showed that beta-glucan consumption in hypercholesterolemic population significantly lowered the total cholesterol (TC) (MD, -0.26 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.33 to -0.18; P consumption significantly decreased TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations but did not affect TG, HDL-cholesterol, and glucose concentrations in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Probiotic Mixture on Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats

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    Shang-Jin Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence has indicated that supplementation with probiotics improves lipid metabolism. We aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of a probiotics mixture (PM of three strains belonging to the species Bifidobacterium (B. longum, B. lactis, and B. breve and two strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus (L. reuteri and L. plantarum on cholesterol-lowering efficacy in hypercholesterolemic rats. A hypercholesterolemic rat model was established by feeding a high-cholesterol diet for eight weeks. To test the effects of PM on hypercholesterolemia, hypercholesterolemic rats were assigned to four groups, which were treated daily with low (1.65 × 109 cfu/kg, medium (5.5 × 109 cfu/kg, or high (1.65 × 1010 cfu/kg doses of probiotic mixture or simvastatin for eight weeks. Significant reductions of serum total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol levels, but increases of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol were observed after supplementation of PM in hypercholesterolemic rats. In PM-supplemented hypercholesterolemic rats, hepatic tissue contents of TC and TG also significantly decreased. Notably, the histological evaluation of liver tissues demonstrated that PM dramatically decreased lipid accumulation. For their underlying mechanisms, we demonstrated that PM reduced expressions of cholesterol synthesis-related proteins such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1, fatty acid synthase (FAS, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC in the liver. Taken together, these findings suggest that PM has beneficial effects against hypercholesterolemia. Accordingly, our PM might be utilized as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of hypercholesterolemia.

  11. Twenty-One Genome Sequences from Pseudomonas Species and 19 Genome Sequences from Diverse Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere and Endosphere of Populus deltoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Utturkar, Sagar M [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Martin, Stanton [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lu, Tse-Yuan [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    To aid in the investigation of the Populus deltoides microbiome we generated draft genome sequences for twenty one Pseudomonas and twenty one other diverse bacteria isolated from Populus deltoides roots. Genome sequences for isolates similar to Acidovorax, Bradyrhizobium, Brevibacillus, Burkholderia, Caulobacter, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Novosphingobium, Pantoea, Phyllobacterium, Polaromonas, Rhizobium, Sphingobium and Variovorax were generated.

  12. Impact of Paclitaxel Dose on Tissue Pharmacokinetics and Vascular Healing: A Comparative Drug-Coated Balloon Study in the Familial Hypercholesterolemic Swine Model of Superficial Femoral In-Stent Restenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Carlos A; Shibuya, Masahiko; Wessler, Jeffrey D; McGregor, Jenn; Tellez, Armando; Cheng, Yanping; Conditt, Gerard B; Kaluza, Greg L; Granada, Juan F

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to compare the effect of paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) concentration on tissue levels and vascular healing using 3 different PCB technologies (In.Pact Pacific = 3 μg/mm(2), Lutonix = 2 μg/mm(2) and Ranger = 2 μg/mm(2)) in the experimental setting. The optimal therapeutic dose for PCB use has not been determined yet. Paclitaxel tissue levels were measured up to 60 days following PCB inflation (Ranger and In.Pact Pacific) in the superficial femoral artery of healthy swine (18 swine, 36 vessels). The familial hypercholesterolemic swine model of superficial femoral artery in-stent restenosis (6 swine, 24 vessels) was used in the efficacy study. Two weeks following bare-metal stent implantation, each in-stent restenosis site was randomly treated with a PCB or an uncoated control balloon (Sterling). Quantitative vascular analysis and histology evaluation was performed 28 days following PCB treatment. All PCB technologies displayed comparable paclitaxel tissue levels 4 h following balloon inflation. At 28 days, all PCB had achieved therapeutic tissue levels; however, the In.Pact PCB resulted in higher tissue concentrations than did the other PCB groups at all time points. Neointimal inhibition by histology was decreased in all PCB groups compared with the control group, with a greater decrease in the In.Pact group. However, the neointima was more mature and contained less peri-strut fibrin deposits in both 2-μg/mm(2) PCB groups. Compared with the clinically established PCB dose, lower-dose PCB technologies achieve lower long-term tissue levels but comparable degrees of neointimal inhibition and fewer fibrin deposits. The impact of these findings in restenosis reduction and clinical outcomes needs to be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Twenty-one-month follow-up study of school-age children exposed to Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J A; Applegate, B; Schorr, C

    1996-03-01

    To explore the 21-month course of posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) and psychological morbidity in 30 school-age children (7 to 13 years) after exposure to Hurricane Andrew. Pynoos' Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index and Achenbach's Teacher's Report Form were administered at 8 and 21 months after Hurricane Andrew. At 21 months 70% of the children endorsed moderate-severe PTSS. The reduction in PTSS was greater for boys than girls. Psychopathology as measured by the Teacher's Report Form increased over the 19-month period. Boys demonstrated significant increases in internalizing symptoms and in Withdrawn, Anxious/Depressed, Social Problems, and Attention Problems scales, and girls showed a significant increase in the Anxious/Depressed scale. Twenty-one months after exposure to Hurricane Andrew, there were continuing high levels of PTSS and evidence of increasing emotional and behavioral problems. While girls sustained higher levels of PTSS, boys demonstrated higher indices of other psychopathology. The enduring effects of disaster associated with secondary stressors and "traumatic reminders" continue to be etiologically important for continuing psychological morbidity.

  14. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

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    Eros Antonio de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. Objective: To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5: G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16th day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg; G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg; G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg; G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg. After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Results: Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Conclusion: Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  15. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eros Antonio de, E-mail: erosaa@cardiol.br; Ozaki, Michiko Regina [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5): G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16{sup th} day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg); G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg); G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg); G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg). After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  16. The prevention of endothelial dysfunction through endothelial cell apoptosis inhibition in a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model: the effect of L-arginine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghjooyjavanmard Shaghayegh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of L-arginine on atherogenesis and its ability to prevent endothelial dysfunction have been studied extensively during the past years. L-arginine is a substance for nitric oxide synthesis which involves in apoptosis. Hypercholesterolemia promotes endothelial dysfunction, and it is hypothesized that L-arginine prevents endothelial dysfunction through endothelial cells apoptosis inhibition. To test this hypothesis, thirty rabbits were assigned into two groups. The control group received 1% cholesterol diet for 4 weeks, and the L-arginine group received same diets plus 3% L-arginine in drinking water. Results No significant differences were observed in cholesterol level between two groups, but the nitrite concentration in L-arginine group was significantly higher than other group (control group: 11.8 ± 1; L-arginine group: 14.7 ± 0.5 μmol/l; (p p p Conclusion The inhibition of endothelial cells apoptosis by L-arginine restores endothelial function in a model of hypercholesterolemia.

  17. An Examination of Strategic Philanthropy and CSR Communication Patterns among the World’s Twenty-One Largest Oil Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brad Gatlin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fortune Magazine’s 2012 list of 100 largest companies included 21 oil companies. This paper seeks to discern patterns of those 21 companies’ philanthropic efforts and communication thereof. Specifically, the paper will consider issues such as ownership (all companies were either publicly-traded or state-owned, the economic development of the home country, and the citizens’ expectations of corporate citizens. The philanthropic efforts of all 21 companies are discussed in the context of Porter and Kramer’s (2001 framework of the competitive context It is concluded that the oil industry is particularly well-suited to affect factor and, to a lesser extent, demand conditions, through philanthropic efforts. A model for classifying the philanthropic based on ownership and country conditions is proposed, and suggestions for further research are made.

  18. The Association Study between Twenty One Polymorphisms in Seven Candidate Genes and Coronary Heart Diseases in Chinese Han Population.

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    Barrak F Alobeidy

    Full Text Available Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS in multiple populations identified several genetic loci for coronary heart diseases (CHD. Here we utilized a 2-stage candidate gene association strategy in Chinese Han population to shed light on the putative association between several metabolic-related candidate genes and CHD. At the 1(st stage, 190 patients with CHD and 190 controls were genotyped through the MassARRAY platform. At the 2(nd stage, a larger sample including 400 patients and 392 controls was genotyped by the High Resolution Melt (HRM method to confirm or rule out the associations with CHD. MLXIP expression level was quantified by the real time PCR in 65 peripheral blood samples. From the 21 studied single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of seven candidate genes: MLXIPL, MLXIP, MLX, ADIPOR1, VDR, SREBF1 and NR1H3, only one tag SNP rs4758685 (T→C was found to be statistically associated with CHD (P-value = 0.02, Odds ratio (OR of 0.83. After adjustment for the age, sex, lipid levels and diabetes, the association remained significant (P-value = 0.03. After adjustment for the hypertension, P-value became 0.20 although there was a significant difference in the allele distribution between the CHD patients with hypertension and the controls (P-value = 0.04, 406 vs 582. In conclusion, among the 21 tested SNPs, we identified a novel association between rs4758685 of MLXIP gene and CHD. The C allele of common variant rs4758685 interacted with hypertension, and was found to be protective against CHD in both allelic and genotypic models in Chinese Han population.

  19. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirardini, Maria Pia; Carli, Marco; del Vecchio, Nicola; Rovati, Ariele; Cova, Ottavia; Valigi, Francesco; Agnetti, Gaia; Macconi, Martina; Adamo, Daniela; Traina, Mario; Laudini, Francesco; Marcheselli, Ilaria; Caruso, Nicol?; Gedda, Tiziano; Donati, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in twenty-one local communities in Italy, fourteen of which were located in Northern Italy, one in Central Italy, one in Sardinia, and four in Southern Italy. 549 informants were asked to name and describe food uses of wild botanicals they currently gather and consume. Data showed that gathering, processing and consuming wild food plants are still important activities in all the selected areas. A few botanicals were quoted and c...

  20. Arginine restores cholinergic relaxation of hypercholesterolemic rabbit thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, J P; Andon, N A; Girerd, X J; Hirsch, A T; Creager, M A

    1991-03-01

    Reduced synthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) may explain impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemia. Accordingly, we designed studies to determine if endothelium-dependent relaxation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits may be restored by supplying L-arginine, the precursor of EDRF. Normal or hypercholesterolemic rabbits received intravenous L-arginine (10 mg/kg/min) or vehicle for 70 minutes. Subsequently, animals were killed, thoracic aortas were harvested, and vascular rings were studied in vitro. Rings were contracted by norepinephrine and relaxed by acetylcholine chloride or sodium nitroprusside. Vasorelaxation was quantified by determining the maximal response (expressed as percent relaxation of the contraction) and the ED50 (dose of drug inducing 50% relaxation; expressed as -log M). In vessels from hypercholesterolemic animals receiving vehicle, there was a fivefold rightward shift in sensitivity to acetylcholine compared with normal animals (p = 0.05, n = 5 in each group). In vessels from hypercholesterolemic animals, L-arginine augmented the maximal response to acetylcholine (83 +/- 16% versus 60 +/- 15%, p = 0.04 versus vehicle) and increased the sensitivity to acetylcholine (ED50 value: 6.7 +/- 0.2 versus 6.2 +/- 0.2, p less than 0.05 versus vehicle). Arginine did not affect maximal and EC50 responses to acetylcholine in vessels from normal animals. Arginine did not potentiate endothelium-independent responses in either group. We conclude that the endothelium-dependent relaxation is normalized in hypercholesterolemic rabbit thoracic aorta by in vivo exposure to L-arginine, the precursor for EDRF.

  1. A diet rich in dietary fiber from cocoa improves lipid profile and reduces malondialdehyde in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecumberri, Elena; Goya, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Alía, Mario; Ramos, Sonia; Izquierdo-Pulido, María; Bravo, Laura

    2007-04-01

    The potential hypolipidemic effect of a new cocoa product rich in dietary fiber (DF) naturally containing antioxidant polyphenols (cocoa fiber [CF]) was studied in a rat model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. For 3 wk animals were fed normal, cholesterol-free diets or diets supplemented with cholesterol to evoke hypercholesterolemia. Control diets contained 10% cellulose as DF, and test diets were supplemented with 165 g of CF per kilogram (providing 10% DF). Lipid profile, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde were measured in serum in addition to the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and concentrations of glutathione and malondialdehyde in the liver. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were established as a consequence of the cholesterol-rich diets. CF showed an important hypolipidemic action, returning triacylglycerol levels in hypercholesterolemic animals to normal values. The hypocholesterolemic effect was also patent, reducing total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, yet basal values were not attained. Decreased lipid peroxidation in serum and liver as a consequence of CF intake was patent not only in hypercholesterolemic but also in normocholesterolemic animals. No apparent effects on serum total antioxidant capacity or on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and hepatic levels of glutathione were observed. These effects might be attributed to the high DF content of CF and to the natural presence of antioxidant polyphenols. The consumption of CF with a hypercholesterolemic diet improved the lipidemic profile and reduced lipid peroxidation, suggesting that CF might contribute to a reduction of cardiovascular risk.

  2. Anti-Atherogenic Properties of Allium ursinum Liophylisate: Impact on Lipoprotein Homeostasis and Cardiac Biomarkers in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombicz, Mariann; Priksz, Daniel; Varga, Balazs; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Kertesz, Attila; Lengyel, Peter; Balogh, Peter; Csupor, Dezso; Hohmann, Judit; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Haines, David D; Juhasz, Bela

    2016-08-10

    The present investigation evaluates the capacity of Allium ursinum (wild garlic) leaf lyophilisate (WGLL; alliin content: 0.261%) to mitigate cardiovascular damage in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups: (i) cholesterol-free rabbit chow (control); (ii) rabbit chow containing 2% cholesterol (hypercholesterolemic, HC); (iii) rabbit chow containing 2% cholesterol + 2% WGLL (hypercholesterolemic treated, HCT); for eight weeks. At the zero- and eight-week time points, echocardiographic measurements were made, along with the determination of basic serum parameters. Following the treatment period, after ischemia-reperfusion injury, hemodynamic parameters were measured using an isolated working heart model. Western blot analyses of heart tissue followed for evaluating protein expression and histochemical study for the atheroma status determination. WGLL treatment mediated increases in fractional shortening; right ventricular function; peak systolic velocity; tricuspidal annular systolic velocity in live animals; along with improved aortic and coronary flow. Western blot analysis revealed WGLL-associated increases in HO-1 protein and decreases in SOD-1 protein production. WGLL-associated decreases were observed in aortic atherosclerotic plaque coverage, plasma ApoB and the activity of LDH and CK (creatine kinase) in plasma. Plasma LDL was also significantly reduced. The results clearly demonstrate that WGLL has complex cardioprotective effects, suggesting future strategies for its use in prevention and therapy for atherosclerotic disorders.

  3. Cardiac abnormalities in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A prospective study with a clinical-pathological correlation in twenty-one adult patients

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    Herdy Gesmar Volga Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the cardiac abnormalities and their evolution during the course of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, as well as to correlate clinical and pathological data. METHODS - Twenty-one patients, admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, were prospectively studied and followed until their death. Age ranged from 19 to 42 years (17 males. ECG and echocardiogram were also obtained every six months. After death, macro- and microscopic examinations were also performed. RESULTS - The most frequent causes of referral to the hospital were: diarrhea or repeated pneumonias, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis or Kaposi sarcoma. The most frequent findings were acute or chronic pericarditis (42% and dilated cardiomyopathy (19%. Four patients died of cardiac problems: infective endocarditis, pericarditis with pericardial effusion, bacterial myocarditis and infection by Toxoplasma gondii. CONCLUSION - Severe cardiac abnormalities were the cause of death in some patients. In the majority of the patients, a good correlation existed between clinical and anatomical-pathological data. Cardiac evaluation was important to detect early manifestations and treat them accordingly, even in asymptomatic patients.

  4. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binda Riccardo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in twenty-one local communities in Italy, fourteen of which were located in Northern Italy, one in Central Italy, one in Sardinia, and four in Southern Italy. 549 informants were asked to name and describe food uses of wild botanicals they currently gather and consume. Data showed that gathering, processing and consuming wild food plants are still important activities in all the selected areas. A few botanicals were quoted and cited in multiple areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Italian regions (Asparagus acutifolius, Reichardia picroides, Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, Silene vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Sonchus and Valerianella spp.. One taxon (Borago officinalis in particular was found to be among the most quoted taxa in both the Southern and the Northern Italian sites. However, when we took into account data regarding the fifteen most quoted taxa in each site and compared and statistically analysed these, we observed that there were a few differences in the gathering and consumption of wild food plants between Northern and Southern Italy. In the North, Rosaceae species prevailed, whereas in the South, taxa belonging to the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, and Liliaceae s.l. families were most frequently cited. We proposed the hypothesis that these differences may be due to the likelihood that in Southern Italy the erosion of TK on wild vegetables is taking place more slowly, and also to the likelihood that Southern Italians' have a higher appreciation of wild vegetables that have a strong and bitter taste. A correspondence analysis confirmed that the differences in the frequencies of quotation of wild plants within the Northern and the Southern Italian sites could be ascribed only partially to ethnic/cultural issues. An additional factor could be recent socio-economic shifts, which may be having

  5. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardini, Maria Pia; Carli, Marco; del Vecchio, Nicola; Rovati, Ariele; Cova, Ottavia; Valigi, Francesco; Agnetti, Gaia; Macconi, Martina; Adamo, Daniela; Traina, Mario; Laudini, Francesco; Marcheselli, Ilaria; Caruso, Nicolò; Gedda, Tiziano; Donati, Fabio; Marzadro, Alessandro; Russi, Paola; Spaggiari, Caterina; Bianco, Marcella; Binda, Riccardo; Barattieri, Elisa; Tognacci, Alice; Girardo, Martina; Vaschetti, Luca; Caprino, Piero; Sesti, Erika; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Coletto, Erika; Belzer, Gabriele; Pieroni, Andrea

    2007-05-04

    A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in twenty-one local communities in Italy, fourteen of which were located in Northern Italy, one in Central Italy, one in Sardinia, and four in Southern Italy. 549 informants were asked to name and describe food uses of wild botanicals they currently gather and consume. Data showed that gathering, processing and consuming wild food plants are still important activities in all the selected areas. A few botanicals were quoted and cited in multiple areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Italian regions (Asparagus acutifolius, Reichardia picroides, Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, Silene vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Sonchus and Valerianella spp.). One taxon (Borago officinalis) in particular was found to be among the most quoted taxa in both the Southern and the Northern Italian sites. However, when we took into account data regarding the fifteen most quoted taxa in each site and compared and statistically analysed these, we observed that there were a few differences in the gathering and consumption of wild food plants between Northern and Southern Italy. In the North, Rosaceae species prevailed, whereas in the South, taxa belonging to the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, and Liliaceae s.l. families were most frequently cited. We proposed the hypothesis that these differences may be due to the likelihood that in Southern Italy the erosion of TK on wild vegetables is taking place more slowly, and also to the likelihood that Southern Italians' have a higher appreciation of wild vegetables that have a strong and bitter taste. A correspondence analysis confirmed that the differences in the frequencies of quotation of wild plants within the Northern and the Southern Italian sites could be ascribed only partially to ethnic/cultural issues. An additional factor could be recent socio-economic shifts, which may be having a continued effort on

  6. Changing trend of viral hepatitis -- 'A twenty one year report from Pakistan medical research council research centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Qureshi, H.; Arif, A.; Alam, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of Hepatitis B and C over the past twenty one years, in a liver research unit of Karachi. Retrospective analysis of the records of PMRC, Research Centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from 1987 to 2007 were reviewed. A special flow sheet was made where information of all patients with viral liver disease was entered. Patients having complete information of viral markers were included in the analysis. Cases with HBsAg, Anti HBc IgM positive and raised ALT were considered as acute Hepatitis B. HBs Ag/ Anti HBc IgG positive were considered as chronic Hepatitis B. Delta antibody positive with or without HBsAg were considered as Delta Hepatitis. Anti HCV positive and raised ALT more than ten times for less than 6 months were considered as acute Hepatitis C, whereas Anti HCV and HCV-RNA positive with or without raised ALT for more than six months were considered as chronic Hepatitis C. Anti HEV IgM and Anti HAV IgM positive were considered as acute Hepatitis E and A respectively. A total of 5193 cases fulfilling all criteria of viral hepatitis were seen in the past 21 years. Of the total 3247 (62.5 %) were males and 1946 (37.5 %) females giving a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 Hepatitis C was the most common infection seen in 2896 cases (55.8 %), followed by Hepatitis B in 1691 cases (32.6 %). Seventy five percent cases of Hepatitis B were males and 25 % females while 55% Hepatitis C cases were males and 45 % females. Hepatitis B was seen a decade earlier in different age groups than hepatitis C. Overall, out of the total 5193 cases, 2294 (44.2%) were of chronic hepatitis, 1430 (27.5%) cirrhosis, 1083 (20.8%) carriers and 346 (6.7%) had acute hepatitis (hepatitis B; 214 (61.8%), hepatitis C; 21 (6.0%). While hepatitis B and hepatitis C both were present in 3 (1.3%). Hepatitis E was 70 (20.2%) hepatitis A 12 (3.5%) and all markers were negative in 26 (7.5%) cases). Forty cases (0.8%) were of Hepatocellular carcinoma

  7. Effect of opium addiction on lipid profile and atherosclerosis formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Darabi, Maryam; Nasry, Mohammad; Saabet-Jahromi, Mohammad-Javad; Malek-Pour-Afshar, Reza; Sheibani, Hassan

    2009-03-01

    In some Asian and Middle Eastern societies, opium consumption has traditionally been regarded as a way to lower blood lipids and to prevent heart diseases. This could eventually lead to addiction. In this study, the effect of oral opium consumption on serum lipids and atherogenesis in rabbits was investigated. Twenty-eight male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into control, hypercholesterolemic, addicted, and hypercholesterolemic-addicted groups and were studied for 3 months. Serum lipid profile was determined at the beginning of the study and at 1 month intervals thereafter. At the end of the study period, aortic plaque formation was assessed. Compared with control, in the hypercholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic-addicted groups, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased (Popium consumption can have aggravating effects in atherosclerosis formation related with hypercholesterolemia, mainly affecting lipid profile.

  8. Antihyperlipidemic effect of Trichilia connaroides in hypercholesterolemic rats and its possible mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Gurunath Subbarao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the antihyperlipidemic effect of the chloroform (CETC and methanol (METC extracts of leaves of Trichilia connaroides in hypercholesterolemic rats and, subsequently, to evaluate the possible mechanism of its antihyperlipidemic effect. Materials and Methods: The antihyperlipidemic activity of CETC and METC (100 mg/kg in hypercholesterolemic rats was investigated by recording the serum lipid profile after a month-long oral treatment of these extracts. Further, hypercholesterolemic regression test and hypercholesterolemic progression test were carried out to understand the possible mechanism of its antihypercholesterolemic effect. The data were analyzed for statistical significance by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnet′s test. Results and Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemic rats treated with CETC and METC produced a significant fall (P<0.05 in plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL -cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol and rise (P < 0.05 in high density lipoprotein (HDL -cholesterol. A significant reduction (P < 0.01 in atherogenic index, increase (P < 0.05 in body weight and an insignificant influence on food intake were also observed at the end of the study. A hypercholesterolemic regression test revealed a significant reduction (P < 0.05 in the serum cholesterol level in both CETC and METC extract-treated animals. During the hypercholesterolemic progression test, a similar reduction in the serum cholesterol level was observed only in the METC extract-treated animals. The antihyperlipidemic effect was similar to fenofibrate and ezitimibe. Significant changes in the lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic animals confirm a potential antihyperlipidemic activity of the extracts. The CETC and METC extracts influenced the absorption and metabolism of dietary cholesterol to elicit the antihyperlipidemic effect.

  9. The Effect of Chelidonium majus Extract on the Lipid Profile and Activity of Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

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    Saeed Changizi-Ashtiyani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past centuries, global population has increased at different rates and so has been the case with cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, given the importance of population and cholesterol control, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Chelidonium majus (C. majus aerial parts extract on the lipid profile and prolactin levels and the activity of pituitary-gonadal axis in hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 35 Wistar rats were selected and categorized into 5 groups. The control group had ordinary diet, the model group had high-fat diet, and experimental groups consisted of hypercholesterolemic rats that respectively received minimal dosages of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of C. majus extract. After 21 days, blood samples were taken and the factors of interest were measured. Then, the gathered data were analyzed using SPSS-11.5. Results: The amount of triglyceride and cholesterol were increased in the model group compared to the control group whereas the same items were decreased in the experimental group. C. majus extract also decreased testosterone and increased prolactin and gonadotropins. Conclusion: In this study, C. majus extract resulted in decreased fat and testosterone levels as well as increased prolactin level; however, since many sources have informed of the toxicity of this plant, cautious use of the plant is advised.

  10. Biochemical and functional abnormalities in hypercholesterolemic rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalal, K.B.; Ebbe, S.; Mazoyer, E.; Carpenter, D.; Yee, T.

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate changes in rabbit platelet lipids induced by a cholesterol rich diet and to explore the possible correlation of these lipid changes with platelet abnormalities. Pronounced biochemical alterations were observed when serum cholesterol levels of 700-1000 mg% were reached. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) platelets contained 37% more neutral lipids and 16% less phospholipids than the controls. Lysolecithin, cholesterol esters and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels were increased in HC platelets, and the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) were decreased. The cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of lipidemic platelets increased from 0.55 +/- 0.011 to 0.89 +/- 0.016 (P less than 0.01) in eight weeks. HC platelets had 90% more arachidonic acid (AA) in the PI than normal platelets. No significant changes in AA of PC were observed. Platelet function was monitored by the uptake and release of [14C]serotonin in platelet rich plasma (PRP), using varying concentrations of collagen as an aggregating agent. The uptake of [14C]serotonin in HC and normal platelets ranged from 78-94%. The percent of [14C]serotonin released from normal and HC platelets was proportional to the concentration of collagen. However, lipidemic platelets were hyperreactive to low concentrations of collagen. Incorporation of 50 microM acetylsalicylic acid into the aggregating medium suppressed the release of [14C]serotonin in normal PRP by more than 90%, but had only a partial effect on lipidemic PRP

  11. Dietary mucilage promotes regression of atheromatous lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boban, Puthenpura T; Nambisan, Bala; Sudhakaran, Perumana R

    2009-05-01

    The antihypercholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effect of the mucilage galactomannan isolated from fenugreek seeds was studied in experimental rabbits maintained on a high cholesterol diet for 3 months. Changes in the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum and tissues and aortic fatty lesions were analysed in animals receiving mucilage (40 mg/kg body weight) daily and compared with the control. A significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and cholesterol and triglycerides in liver and aorta and a decrease in Sudan IV staining of aorta indicated antihypercholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effects of the mucilage. Regression studies showed that administration of mucilage for 3 months caused a significant decrease in serum total and LDL cholesterol and aortic cholesterol. Mucilage accelerated the regression of atheromatous lesions in the aorta as evidenced by significantly low sudanophilic staining. Recovery from inflammation in hypercholesterolemic animals receiving mucilage was evidenced by a faster decrease in C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum to basal levels. The lipid lowering and antiatherogenic effects of mucilage from fenugreek which is used as a food flavoring spice highlights the importance of dietary intervention in the regression of atherosclerosis.

  12. Effects of Urtica dioica extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Zamansoltani, Farzaneh; Abbasi, Esmail; Daneshi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the effects of extract of Urtica dioica, a perennial herb in Iran, on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats. The effects of Urtica dioica extract were tested by using it as a supplement in a high-cholesterol diet. Male rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 mL/kg) for 4 weeks with Urtica dioica extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) or 10 mg/kg lovastatin supplementation to study the hypocholesterolemic effects of Urtica dioica on plasma lipid levels, hepatic enzymes activities, and liver histopathological changes. Urtica dioica extract at 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and also markedly decreased liver enzymes and weight in animals with a high cholesterol diet. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that in the 100 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, the appearance of the liver cells was similar to the control group, and steatosis and inflammation were not found. In the 300 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, mild steatosis was observed but mononuclear inflammatory infiltration was not found. The hepatic histopathological results reflect the correlation of Urtica dioica extract with both liver weight and the levels of plasma TC and LDL-C. These results indicate that Urtica dioica extract has hypocholesterolemic effects in the animal model.

  13. The Carrageenan Dietary Fiber Suplementation in Feed to Improving Blood Lipid Parameters of Hypercholesterolemic Mice

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    Hernawati Hernawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan is example of food with high content of fiber. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of carrageenan supplementations on blood lipid parameters of hypercholesterolemic male mice. The experiment were done at animal cages Departemen of Biology Education, Indonesia University of Education and Fisiology Laboratory Faculty of Veteriner Medicine, Bogor Agricultural Institute on August 2011 until March 2012. The experimental mice were assigned into a completely randomized design with 5 treatments i.e., negative control group; normocholesterolemic mice fed with a standard diet, positive control group; hypercholesterolemic mice fed with a standard diet without carrageenan supplementation, treatments group; hypercholesterolemic mice feds with supplemented with 15%, 30%, and 46% carrageenan. The nonsoluble content of dietary fiber in the experimental treatments were 6.92, 8.75, 10.48, 12.27, and 14.05%, respectively. The parameters measured were body weight, cholesterol levels of blood serum, liver and feces, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and glucose levels. Supplementation of carrageenan as a source of dietary fiber increased serum HDL concentrations, and decreased body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL concentrations of hypercholesterolemic male mice without a significant effect on serum glucose consentrations. Hypercholesterolemic mice fed with a supplemented with 46% carrageenan decreased body weight by 7.99%, total serum cholesterol by 18.78%, triglyceride by 17.53%, LDL by 71.33%, and increased HDL by 15.59−20.47%. Carrageenan supplementation reduce liver cholesterol levels by 38.46% and increased cholesterol excretion through feces by 57.07%. Supplementation of 46% carrageenan in hipercholesterolemic fed is effective in improving blood lipid parameters of hypercholesterolemic male mice.

  14. The Effects ofPiper GuineenseversusSesamum IndicumAqueous Extracts on Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidants in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwozo, Sarah O; Lewis, Yetunde T; Oyinloye, Babatunji E

    2017-09-01

    Piper guineense (PG) and Sesamum indicum (SI) have been shown to be rich sources of antioxidants and other health benefits; hence, we evaluated the impact of its consumption in hypercholesterolemic model on lipid metabolism. Forty-eight animals were divided into eight groups of six rats each. Rats were given cholesterol (40 mg/0.3ml), PG and SI extract (100 and 200 mg/kg), and Questran (0.26 g/kg) orally, five times a week for 28 days. Lipid profile, hepatic antioxidant status, biomarkers of liver toxicity, and tissue histopathology were examined. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Cholesterol feeding caused 100% gain in weight, significantly increased AST, LPO (P=0.41 and 0.002) but significantly decreased SOD (P=0.003) compared to control. CHPG(1)/(2) and CHSI(1)/(2) caused a significant decrease (P=0.01, 0.005, 0.003, and 0.023) in cholesterol-induced body-weight gain and decreased serum total cholesterol by 20-30% compared to untreated-hypercholesterolemic rats. Triglyceride and LDL-c decreased with extract administration and specifically HDL-c increased significantly (P<0.001) by CHSI(1) compared to untreated-hypercholesterol rats. Furthermore, an increase in HDL-c was higher (P=0.04 and 0.002) by SI compared to PG at both doses. These results indicate that PG and SI exerts a hypolipidemic effect, reduces cholesterol intake induced body weight gain, and increases the body's antioxidant defense system in experimental hypercholesterolemia.

  15. The Effects of Piper Guineense versus Sesamum Indicum Aqueous Extracts on Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidants in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwozo, Sarah O; Lewis, Yetunde T; Oyinloye, Babatunji E

    2017-01-01

    Background: Piper guineense (PG) and Sesamum indicum (SI) have been shown to be rich sources of antioxidants and other health benefits; hence, we evaluated the impact of its consumption in hypercholesterolemic model on lipid metabolism. Methods: Forty-eight animals were divided into eight groups of six rats each. Rats were given cholesterol (40 mg/0.3ml), PG and SI extract (100 and 200 mg/kg), and Questran (0.26 g/kg) orally, five times a week for 28 days. Lipid profile, hepatic antioxidant status, biomarkers of liver toxicity, and tissue histopathology were examined. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Cholesterol feeding caused 100% gain in weight, significantly increased AST, LPO (P=0.41 and 0.002) but significantly decreased SOD (P=0.003) compared to control. CHPG(1)/(2) and CHSI(1)/(2) caused a significant decrease (P=0.01, 0.005, 0.003, and 0.023) in cholesterol-induced body-weight gain and decreased serum total cholesterol by 20-30% compared to untreated-hypercholesterolemic rats. Triglyceride and LDL-c decreased with extract administration and specifically HDL-c increased significantly (P<0.001) by CHSI(1) compared to untreated-hypercholesterol rats. Furthermore, an increase in HDL-c was higher (P=0.04 and 0.002) by SI compared to PG at both doses. Conclusion: These results indicate that PG and SI exerts a hypolipidemic effect, reduces cholesterol intake induced body weight gain, and increases the body’s antioxidant defense system in experimental hypercholesterolemia. PMID:29234177

  16. Efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, A; Mas, R; Martinto, M; Boccanera, R; Robertis, A; Poudes, R; Fuster, A; Lastreto, E; Yañez, M; Irico, G; McCook, B; Farré, A

    2001-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, multicenter placebo-controlled study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol, a cholesterol-lowering drug purified from sugar cane wax, in women who had experienced menopause and showed elevated serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels despite a 6-week standard lipid-lowering diet. Thus, 56 eligible patients were randomized to receive placebo or policosanol 5 mg/day for 8 weeks and the dose was doubled to 10 mg/day during the next 8 weeks. Policosanol (5 and 10 mg/day) significantly decreased LDL-cholesterol (17.3% and 26.7%, respectively), total cholesterol (12.9% and 19.5%) as well as the ratios of LDL-cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (17.2% and 26.5%) and total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (16.3% and 21.0%) compared with baseline and placebo. HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly raised by 7.4% at study completion. No significant changes occurred in the lipid profile of the placebo group. The drug was safe and well tolerated. No drug-related adverse effects were observed. None of the patients administered policosanol but three of those administered placebo withdrew from the trial because of adverse effects: one due to a serious hypertensive status, one because of an allergic reaction (pruritus plus skin rash) and one due to gastrointestinal disturbances (nauseas plus vomiting). Eleven placebo patients reported 24 adverse effects compared with six policosanol patients who reported seven adverse effects (p < 0.05). In addition, five placebo (17.9%) and 13 policosanol patients (46.4%) (p < 0.05) reported improvements in habitual symptoms and health perception during the study. In conclusion, policosanol was effective and well tolerated in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women, showing additional benefits in the health perception of the study patients.

  17. Protective effect of exercise and alpha tocopherol on atherosclerosis promotion in hypercholesterolemic domestic rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekh, Mudhir S.; Mahmud, Almas M. R.

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to determine effects of exercise training (Moderate and severe) and alpha tocopherol on lipid profiles and organ weights in hypercholesterolemic domestic rabbits. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) and atherosclerotic lesions were induced by feeding the male rabbits the standard chow supplemented with 1% cholesterol (atherogenic diet) for 36 days. Experimental rabbits were divided into seven groups: normal (T1), HC control (T2), HC plus alpha tocopherol (0.5mg /animal/day) (T3), HC plus moderate exercise 40 minutes/day (0.5km/day) 5 days/week (T4), HC plus severe exercise 40 minutes/day (1km/day) 5 days/week (T5), HC plus alpha tocopherol plus moderate exercise (T6) and HC plus alpha tocopherol plus severe exercise (T7). After the treatment period of 36th day, blood samples were collected and total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol, High-density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, serum glucose, body and organ weights were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Combination of moderate exercise with alpha tocopherol produced significant reduction (Pgroup showed no significant change in all lipid profiles. However, the decrement in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic rabbits in combination of severe exercise with alpha tocopherol. The results suggest that the combination of moderate exercise with alpha tocopherol can be exploited for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  18. Antihyperlipidemic activities of Pleurotus ferulae on biochemical and histological function in hypercholesterolemic rats

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    Nuhu Alam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pleurotus ferulae is an edible mushroom has been widely used for nutritional and medicinal purposes. Irrespective of the medicinal importance or therapeutic potentials of P. ferulae, there have not been studies on anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of dietary P. ferulae fruiting bodies on plasma and feces biochemical and on the liver histological status in hypercholesterolemic rats. Methods: Six weeks old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Then biochemical and histological examinations were performed. Results: Feeding of a diet containing 5% P. ferulae fruiting bodies to hypercholesterolemic rat reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, total lipid, phospholipids, and LDL/high-density lipoprotein ratio by 30.02, 49.31, 71.15, 30.23, 21.93, and 65.31%, respectively. Mushroom also significantly reduced body weight in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, it had no adverse effects on plasma albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatinin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and enzyme profiles. Feeding mushroom increased total lipid and cholesterol excretion in feces. The plasma lipoprotein fraction, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, indicated that P. ferulae significantly reduced plasma β and pre-β-lipoprotein, while increased the α-lipoprotein. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O staining showed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats. Conclusions: The present study suggests that 5% P. ferulae diet supplement provides health benefits, at least partially, by acting on the atherogenic lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  19. Lagenaria siceraria ameliorates atheromatous lesions by modulating HMG–CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase enzymes activity in hypercholesterolemic rats

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    Mithun Singh Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of fruits of L. siceraria contains active components which ameliorates the atheromatous lesions in rat aorta and lowers the risk of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  20. Fish-oil esters of plant sterols differ from vegetable-oil sterol esters in triglycerides lowering, carotenoid bioavailability and impact on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 concentrations in hypercholesterolemic subjects

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    Chan Yen-Ming

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of plant sterol (PS esters lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol levels by suppressing intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Commercially available PS are mainly esterified to omega-6 fatty acid (FA, such as sunflower oil (SO FA. Emerging trends include using other sources such as olive oil (OO or omega-3 FA from fish oil (FO, known to exert potent hypotriglyceridemic effects. Our objective was to compare the actions of different FA esterified to PS on blood lipids, carotenoid bioavailability as well as inflammatory and coagulation markers. Methods Twenty-one moderately overweight, hypercholesterolemic subjects consumed experimental isoenergetic diets enriched with OO (70% of fat, each lasting 28-day and separated by 4-week washout periods, using a randomized crossover design. Diets were supplemented with three PS esters preparations, PS-FO, PS-SO, or PS-OO. All PS treatments contained an equivalent of 1.7 PS g/d, and the PS-FO provided a total of 5.4 g/d FO FA (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Results There were no differences between PS-containing diet effects on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, or high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol levels. However, PS-FO consumption resulted in markedly lower (P Conclusion Our findings suggest that, in hypercholesterolemic subjects consuming an OO-based diet, PS-FO results in lowered blood triglyceride and PAI-1 concentrations, and higher fat-soluble vitamin levels in comparison to the vegetable oil FA esters of PS (PS-SO and PS-OO. Thus, PS-FO may offer hyperlipidemic subjects a more comprehensive lipid lowering approach while reducing the potential risk of decreased plasma carotenoid concentrations.

  1. Protective effect of kombucha on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet is mediated by its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Ghrab, Ferdaws; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Ammar, Emna

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha (KT) is claimed to have various beneficial effects on human health, but there is very little scientific evidence available in the literature. The present study investigates the effects of Camellia sinensis (GT) Linn. (Theaceae) and KT, two natural drinks, on cholesterol and antioxidant status using a hypercholesterolemia rat model. The present study compared the free-radical scavenging abilities and polyphenol levels of GT and KT. Wistar rats fed cholesterol-rich diets were given KT or GT (5 mL/kg body weight per day, po) for 16 weeks, then fasted overnight and sacrificed. The plasma lipid levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) serum levels, antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and creatinine and urea rats were examined. KT had a phenolic compound of 955 ± 0.75 mg GAE/g) followed, by GT (788.92 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g). The free radical scavenging activity of KT was higher than GT. Compared with GT, KT induced lowered serum levels of TC, TG, VLDL-C, and LDL-C by 26, 27, 28, and 36%, respectively, and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). KT induced a 55% decrease of TBARS level in liver and 44% in kidney, compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet alone. Moreover, CAT and SOD activities were reduced by 29 and 33%, respectively, in liver and 31 and 35%, respectively, in kidney, after oral administration of KT, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The findings revealed that KT administration induced attractive curative effects on hypercholesterolemic, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions in rats. Its effect on humans needs to be studied further.

  2. Statin Treatment in Hypercholesterolemic Men Does Not Attenuate Angiotensin II-Induced Venoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Christoph; Guenther, Kristina; Hermann, Cosima; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Schroeder, Christoph; Haufe, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies suggested that statins attenuate vascular AT1 receptor responsiveness. Moreover, the augmented excessive pressor response to systemic angiotensin II infusions in hypercholesterolemic patients was normalized with statin treatment. In 12 hypercholesterolemic patients, we tested the hypothesis that statin treatment attenuates angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction in hand veins assessed by a linear variable differential transducer. Subjects ingested daily doses of either atorvastatin (40 mg) or positive control irbesartan (150 mg) for 30 days in a randomized and cross-over fashion. Ang II–induced venoconstriction at minute 4 averaged 59%±10% before and 28%±9% after irbesartan (mean ± SEM; Pblood pressure buffering reflexes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00154024 PMID:25264877

  3. Soybean glycinin improves HDL-C and suppresses the effects of rosuvastatin on hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Valdir A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was an investigation of the effects of ingesting a daily dose of isolated glycinin soy protein (11S globulin, in association with rosuvastatin, on the control of hypercholesterolemia in experimental animals. Methods Male Wistar rats were kept in individual cages under appropriate controlled conditions of temperature, light and humidity. The animals were divided into five groups (n = 9: 1 standard (STD: fed on casein as protein source; 2 hypercholesterolemic (HC: STD plus 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid; 3 HC+11S: hypercholesterolemic + glycinin (300 mg/kg/day; 4 HC+ROS: hypercholesterolemic + rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day; 5 HC+11S+ROS: HC diet, the 11S protein and the drug in the doses given in (3 and (4. The protein and the drug were administered by gavage for 28 days. The results indicated that the addition of 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid induced hypercholesterolemia in the animals without interfering with their weight gain. Results A single daily dose of glycinin contributed an additional 2.8% of dietary protein intake and demonstrated its functional role, particularly in raising HDL-C, decreasing triglycerides in the liver and improving the atherogenic index in animals exposed to a hypercholesterolemic diet. Conclusion Most of the beneficial effects of the isolated treatments disappeared when the drug (rosuvastatin and the protein (glycinin were taken simultaneously. The association was shown not to interact additively, as noted in the plasma levels of total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, and in the significant increase of cholesterol in the liver. Studies are in progress to identify the effects of peptides derived from the 11S globulin and their role in cholesterol metabolism.

  4. The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Hoving; Margreet R. de Vries; Rob C. M. de Jong; Saeed Katiraei; Amanda Pronk; Paul H. A. Quax; Vanessa van Harmelen; Ko Willems van Dijk

    2018-01-01

    The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L) mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce...

  5. Modulation of adhesion molecules by cholesterol-lowering therapy in mononuclear cells from hypercholesterolemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice Cristina; Alves, Camila; Genvigir, Fabiana Dalla Vecchia; Fajardo, Cristina Moreno; Dorea, Egidio Lima; Gusukuma, Maria Cecilia; Pinto, Gelba Almeida; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo

    2015-08-01

    Cholesterol-lowering therapy has been related with several pleiotropic effects including anti-inflammatory action in vascular endothelium; however, their influence on monocyte adhesion molecules is poorly described. To investigate the effect of inhibitors of synthesis (statins) and absorption (ezetimibe) of cholesterol on expression of adhesion molecules L-selectin, PSGL-1, VLA-4, LFA-1, and Mac-1 in mononuclear cells in vivo and in vitro using THP-1 cells. The influence of simvastatin (10 mg/day), ezetimibe (10 mg/day), and their combination (10 mg each/day) on mRNA expression of adhesion molecules was analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from hypercholesterolemics. The effects of atorvastatin, simvastatin, and ezetimibe on mRNA and protein expression of adhesion molecules were also evaluated in THP-1 cells. Simvastatin/ezetimibe combination, but not the monotherapies, reduced the mRNA expression of the PSGL-1, LFA-1, and Mac-1 genes in PBMC from hypercholesterolemics. Total and LDL cholesterol in serum correlated with PSGL-1 mRNA expression, whereas HDL cholesterol negatively correlated with mRNA levels of L-selectin and VLA-4 genes (P molecules in PBMC from hypercholesterolemics and THP-1 cells. Simvastatin/ezetimibe combination gives more benefits by reducing to a larger extent the expression of adhesion molecules in mononuclear cells. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Effect of Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii on Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Liver of Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTIK WRESDIYATI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD was reported decreased in the liver and kidney of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study was conducted to observe the effect of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii powder on the profile of blood cholesterol and the level of SOD in liver tissues of hypercholesterolemic rats by using immunohistochemical technique. Twenty male Wistar rats were used for this study. Those rats were divided into four groups; (i negative control group (A, (ii hypercholesterolemia group treated by 5% seaweed powder (B, (iii hypercholesterolemia group treated by 10% seaweed powder (C, and (iv Positive control group or hypercholesterolemia group (D. The experiment was carried out for 35 days. Hypercholesterolemia condition (> 130 mg/dl, except group A, was achieved by feeding the rats with commercial diet containing 1% cholesterol. Drinking water was given ad libitum for 40 days. The results showed that seaweed powder decreased the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride, and increased the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL and SOD status in the liver tissues of hypercholesterolemic rats. The treatment of 10% seaweed powder gave better results than that of 5%. These results suggested that dietary fiber such in the seaweed powder has antioxidant activity.

  7. The Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Anethum graveolens Seed on the Changes of Testis Tissue, Sperm Parameters in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: For treating hypercholesterolemic in traditional medicine, Anethum graveolens seeds are used that reduce blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed on the changes of testis tissue, sperm parameters in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6: control, hypercholesterolemic, hypercholesterolemic +alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed 500 mg/kg/day, hypercholesterolemic +alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed 300 mg/kg/day, healthy+alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed 500 mg/kg/day. After treatment for 45 days, rats were weighed and after the dissection, sperm samples were collected from the tail epididymal and sperm parameters were studied. The testicular specimens were transferred to formalin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Turkey's post- hoc tests and significant level (p<0.05 was considered. Results: In this research, in the hypercholesterolemic rats, the testicular weight was increased, but the diameter of the semnifer tubes, tubal differentiation and spermiogenese, and sperm viability were decreased compared to control (p<0.05, but in hypercholesterolemic treatment with Anethum graveolens seed these parameters were improved. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, Anethum graveolens seed has positive effects on testicular tissue and sperm parameters in hypercholesterolemic mice.

  8. The growing disconnect between food prices and wages in Europe: cross-national analysis of food deprivation and welfare regimes in twenty-one EU countries, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; Stuckler, David

    2017-06-01

    Food insecurity has been rising across Europe following the Great Recession, but to varying degrees across countries and over time. The reasons for this increase are not well understood, nor are what factors might protect people's access to food. Here we test the hypothesis that an emerging gap between food prices and wages can explain increases in reported inability to afford protein-rich foods and whether welfare regimes can mitigate its impact. We collected data in twenty-one countries from 2004 to 2012 using two databases: (i) on food prices and deprivation related to food (denoted by reported inability to afford to eat meat, chicken, fish or a vegetarian equivalent every second day) from EuroStat 2015 edition; and (ii) on wages from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 edition. After adjusting for macroeconomic factors, we found that each 1 % rise in the price of food over and above wages was associated with greater self-reported food deprivation (β=0·060, 95 % CI 0·030, 0·090), particularly among impoverished groups. However, this association also varied across welfare regimes. In Eastern European welfare regimes, a 1 % rise in the price of food over wages was associated with a 0·076 percentage point rise in food deprivation (95 % CI 0·047, 0·105) while in Social Democratic welfare regimes we found no clear association (P=0·864). Rising prices of food coupled with stagnating wages are a major factor driving food deprivation, especially in deprived groups; however, our evidence indicates that more generous welfare systems can mitigate this impact.

  9. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sumitra; Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-04-01

    Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student 't-' test. The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice with coconut oil and sunflower oil gave suboptimal benefits.

  10. Acute effects of vinegar intake on some biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rohani Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids induce proportional increases in oxidative stress, which acutely trigger impairment endothelial, inflammation and increased risk of future cardiovascular events. In this research, we have investigated acute effects of vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits to see if we can find a probable protective value for it. Methods The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5 ml vinegar (low dose, %1 cholesterol with 10 ml vinegar (high dose. After fasting for 12-15 hours, blood samples were taken to determine baseline values. Three hours after feeding, blood samples were collected again to investigate acute effects of vinegar intake on the measured factors. Results Using high-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused significant reduce in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, total cholesterol (TC and apolipoprotein B (ApoB in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Consumption low-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet induced a significant decrease in fibrinogen and glucose compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Level of serum nitrite, nitrate, triacylglycerol (TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, apolipoprotein A (ApoA, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT and C-reactive protein (CRP were not significantly difference in low and high doses vinegar with cholesterolemic diet compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A significant difference was observed for LDL-C, ApoB100 and TC between low and high doses vinegar. Conclusion This study suggest that vinegar, might have some acute effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and a probable protective value can be considered for its postprandial use.

  11. Osteoprotegerin inhibits aortic valve calcification and preserves valve function in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Weiss

    Full Text Available There are no rigorously confirmed effective medical therapies for calcific aortic stenosis. Hypercholesterolemic Ldlr (-/- Apob (100/100 mice develop calcific aortic stenosis and valvular cardiomyopathy in old age. Osteoprotegerin (OPG modulates calcification in bone and blood vessels, but its effect on valve calcification and valve function is not known.To determine the impact of pharmacologic treatment with OPG upon aortic valve calcification and valve function in aortic stenosis-prone hypercholesterolemic Ldlr (-/- Apob (100/100 mice.Young Ldlr (-/- Apob (100/100 mice (age 2 months were fed a Western diet and received exogenous OPG or vehicle (N = 12 each 3 times per week, until age 8 months. After echocardiographic evaluation of valve function, the aortic valve was evaluated histologically. Older Ldlr (-/- Apob (100/100 mice were fed a Western diet beginning at age 2 months. OPG or vehicle (N = 12 each was administered from 6 to 12 months of age, followed by echocardiographic evaluation of valve function, followed by histologic evaluation.In Young Ldlr (-/- Apob (100/100 mice, OPG significantly attenuated osteogenic transformation in the aortic valve, but did not affect lipid accumulation. In Older Ldlr (-/- Apob (100/100 mice, OPG attenuated accumulation of the osteoblast-specific matrix protein osteocalcin by ∼80%, and attenuated aortic valve calcification by ∼ 70%. OPG also attenuated impairment of aortic valve function.OPG attenuates pro-calcific processes in the aortic valve, and protects against impairment of aortic valve function in hypercholesterolemic aortic stenosis-prone Ldlr (-/- Apob (100/100 mice.

  12. Effects of atorvastatin and vitamin C on endothelial function of hypercholesterolemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perticone, F; Ceravolo, R; Maio, R; Cloro, C; Candigliota, M; Scozzafava, A; Mongiardo, A; Mastroroberto, P; Chello, M; Mattioli, P L

    2000-10-01

    We tested the effects of vitamin C and atorvastatin treatment on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation in 18 hypercholesterolemic patients (ten men and eight women, aged 20-46 years) in comparison with 12 normal volunteers (seven men and five women, aged 20-45 years). The responses of the forearm blood flow (FBF) to acetylcholine (ACh) (7.5, 15 and 30 microg/min), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (0.8, 1.6, 3.2 microg/min) and L-NMMA (2, 4, 8 micromol/min) were evaluated at baseline and after 1 month of atorvastatin (10 mg/day) treatment. Drugs were infused into the brachial artery and FBF was measured by strain-gauge plethysmography. At baseline, the response to ACh was significantly attenuated in hypercholesterolemics versus controls: at the highest dose (30 microg/min), FBF was 27.0+/-3.4 versus 11.5+/-1.9 ml.100 ml tissue(-1).min(-1) respectively (P<0.0001). No significant differences were found between groups during SNP infusion. The atorvastatin treatment significantly improved ACh-stimulated FBF: at highest dose the FBF increased to 14.9+/-1.5 ml.100 ml tissue(-1). min(-1) (P<0.0001). Similarly, the L-NMMA endothelial effects were significantly enhanced by lipid-lowering treatment, supporting the improvement of basal nitric oxide. Vitamin C increased ACh-vasodilation in the same way before and after atorvastatin treatment. In conclusion, the endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemics is due to an oxidative stress and atorvastatin rapidly improves both basal and stimulated endothelium-dependent vasodilation.

  13. Baru almond improves lipid profile in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized, controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, A P N; Cominetti, C; Simões Filho, A; Naves, M M V

    2014-12-01

    The usual consumption of nuts reduces cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk by improving serum lipids and oxidation status. Baru almonds (Dipteryxalata Vog.), a native species of Brazilian Savannah, have considerable contents of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), dietary fiber, vitamin E and zinc, which could exert positive effects in serum lipids and markers of oxidation. However, there is no study about the effect of their consumption on human health. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of baru almonds supplementation on lipid profile and oxidation of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. A randomized, crossover, placebo controlled study was performed with 20 mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects (total cholesterol (TC) mean ±SEM = 5.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L). The assay had 2 periods of 6 weeks each and a 4-week washout period between the treatments. Subjects were randomly allocated in alternated periods receiving the following treatments per period: supplementation with 20 g/day of baru almonds or placebo (1 corn starch capsule/day). Compared to placebo, supplementation of baru almonds reduced TC (-8.1 ± 2.4%, P = 0.007), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (-9.4 ± 2.4%, P = 0.006) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-c) (-8.1 ± 3.0%, P = 0.013). There were no significant changes on the oxidation biomarkers evaluated. Dietary supplementation of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects with baru almonds improved serum lipid parameters, so that this food might be included in diets for reducing the CVD risk. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC) (website: http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br). Register number: RBR-4zdy9p. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antihyperlipidemic effect of methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle seeds in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Esquivel, Obed; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Alvarez, Valente B; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of a methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle seeds fed to mice in a hypercholesterolemic diet. Acute toxicity of the methanolic extract was investigated by an established method. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and DPPH, respectively. The total phenolic content of Opuntia joconostle seeds was 47.85 ± 1.29 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The main phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin, rutin, and cafeic acid. Percent inhibition of DPPH⁺ was 49.76 ± 0.49 %. The oral LD₅₀ for the methanolic extract from the Opuntia joconostle seeds was >5,000 mg/kg BW. Mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for six days exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.001) higher plasma lipid levels than mice fed a normal diet. Remarkably, supplementation with methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle at doses of 1, 2, and 5 g/kg body weight significantly (P ≤ 0.001) prevented the increase in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides level, and atherogenic index. Similar concentrations of the HDL cholesterol were observed in both treated and control groups. A significant dose-dependent reduction in lipid levels was noted for treated groups compared to the hypercholesterolemic group. We attribute this result to the seeds' phenolic composition. This methanolic extract has potential to be included in short-term hypercholesterolemia treatment regimens as it exhibits hypolipidemic activity with no apparent toxic manifestations.

  15. Effect of Kluyveromyces marxianus YIT 8292 crude cell wall fraction on serum lipids in normocholesterolemic and mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yasuto; Naito, Eiichiro; Ohishi, Kenji; Okumura, Takekazu; Ito, Masahiko; Sato, Tadashi; Sawada, Haruji

    2007-04-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus YIT 8292 crude cell wall (KM-CW) were examined. In pilot studies, KM-CW tablets were administered to mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects at doses of 8.0, 4.0, 2.0, or 1.0 g/d for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased at doses above 2.0 and 4.0 g/d, respectively. Further, we examined the effect of intake of yogurt containing 3.0 or 4.0 g of KM-CW/d for 8 weeks in normal and hypercholesterolemic subjects in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. The intake of either of the KM-CW-containing yogurts was associated with significantly improved TC and LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic subjects, but had no effect on these levels in normal subjects. TC was significantly lower at week 8 in the hypercholesterolemic subjects who ingested yogurt containing 3.0 or 4.0 g of KM-CW than in those who consumed placebo yogurt. Intake of KM-CW might contribute to the prevention of hypercholesterolemia.

  16. Short-term dexamethasone treatment inhibits vein graft thickening in hypercholesterolemic ApoE3Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, A.; Pires, N.M.M.; Eefting, D.; Vries, M.R. de; Bokel, J.H. van; Quax, P.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone can inhibit vein graft thickening without the occurrence of serious side effects. Methods: Venous interposition grafting was performed in the common carotid artery of hypercholesterolemic ApoE3Leiden

  17. Comparative Effects of Oyster Mushrooms on Lipid Profile, Liver and Kidney Function in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nuhu; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Ara, Ismot; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, U Youn

    2009-01-01

    Comparative effects of oyster mushrooms on plasma and fecal lipid profiles and on liver and kidney function were evaluated in hyper and normocholesterolemic rats. Feeding of hypercholesterolemic rats a 5% powder of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju and P. florida) reduced the plasma total cholesterol level by 37%, 21% and 16%, respectively and reduced the triglyceride level by 45%, 24% and 14%, respectively. LDL/HDL ratio decreased by 64%, 45% and 41% for P. sajor-caju, P. ostreatus and P. florida fed rats, respectively. Mushroom feeding also reduced body weight in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, it had no adverse effect on plasma bilirubin, creatinin and urea nitrogen level. Mushroom feeding also increased the total lipid and cholesterol excretion in the feces. The present study reveals that feeding of 5% oyster mushroom powder does not have detrimental effects on the liver and kidneys rather may provide health benefits for the cardiovascular-related complication by decreasing the atherogenic lipid profiles. PMID:23983505

  18. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da

    2013-01-01

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats

  19. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da [Unidade de Aterosclerose, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-10

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats.

  20. The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Hoving

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1% diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce accelerated atherosclerosis. At week 5, vascular pathology was determined by lesion thickness, vascular remodeling, and lesion composition. Throughout the study, plasma lipids were measured and in week 5, blood monocyte subtypes were determined using flow cytometry analysis. In contrast to our hypothesis, inulin exacerbated atherosclerosis development, characterized by increased lesion formation and outward vascular remodeling. The lesions showed increased number of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and collagen content. No effects on blood monocyte composition were found. Inulin significantly increased plasma total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol exposure. In conclusion, inulin aggravated accelerated atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic E3L mice, accompanied by adverse lesion composition and outward remodeling. This process was not accompanied by differences in blood monocyte composition, suggesting that the aggravated atherosclerosis development was driven by increased plasma cholesterol.

  1. Effects of Giving Pedada Fruit Flour (PFF on Digesta Profile and SCFAs Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jariyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedada Fruit Flour (PFF contains 8.9% of pectin, it includes one type of soluble dietary fiber. It has hypocholesterelemic property. The effect of PFF to the digesta cholesterol profile, and production of SCFA (short chain fatty acids has not been done before. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of giving PFF on digesta profile and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs. Twenty-five Wistar rats were divided into 5 treatment groups consist of two normal control, hypercholesterolemic group, and 3 treatment of hypercholesterolemic groups feed were supplemented with 3, 6 and 9% PFF. Feeding was given for 28 days, on the 30th day surgery was done to take the digesta, then performed an analysis of digesta profile includes weight, water content, cholesterol and SCFAs levels. The results showed that supplementation of 6 and 9% PFF had significant effect on weight, water contents and cholesterol of digesta with the highest propionic: acetic acid ratio in the group treated with supplementation of 9% PFF (0.46 followed by supplementation group 6% and 3% i.e., 0.41 and 0.38, respectively. The ratio of propionic: acetic acid can reduce of serum cholesterol levels.

  2. The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, Lisa R; de Vries, Margreet R; de Jong, Rob C M; Katiraei, Saeed; Pronk, Amanda; Quax, Paul H A; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Willems van Dijk, Ko

    2018-02-03

    The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden ( E3L ) mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce accelerated atherosclerosis. At week 5, vascular pathology was determined by lesion thickness, vascular remodeling, and lesion composition. Throughout the study, plasma lipids were measured and in week 5, blood monocyte subtypes were determined using flow cytometry analysis. In contrast to our hypothesis, inulin exacerbated atherosclerosis development, characterized by increased lesion formation and outward vascular remodeling. The lesions showed increased number of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and collagen content. No effects on blood monocyte composition were found. Inulin significantly increased plasma total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol exposure. In conclusion, inulin aggravated accelerated atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic E3L mice, accompanied by adverse lesion composition and outward remodeling. This process was not accompanied by differences in blood monocyte composition, suggesting that the aggravated atherosclerosis development was driven by increased plasma cholesterol.

  3. Effects of red wine and vodka on collateral-dependent perfusion and cardiovascular function in hypercholesterolemic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Louis M; Lassaletta, Antonio D; Robich, Michael P; Liu, Yuhong; Burgess, Thomas; Laham, Roger J; Sweeney, Joseph D; Shen, Tun-Li; Sellke, Frank W

    2012-09-11

    Moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine, has been shown to decrease cardiac risk. We used a hypercholesterolemic swine model of chronic ischemia to examine the effects of 2 alcoholic beverages on the heart. Yorkshire swine fed a high-cholesterol diet underwent left circumflex ameroid constrictor placement to induce chronic ischemia at 8 weeks of age. One group (HCC, n=9) continued on the diet alone, the second (HCW, n=8) was supplemented with red wine (pinot noir, 12.5% alcohol, 375 mL daily), and the third (HCV, n=9) was supplemented with vodka (40% alcohol, 112 mL daily). After 7 weeks, cardiac function was measured, and ischemic myocardium was harvested for analysis of perfusion, myocardial fibrosis, vessel function, protein expression, oxidative stress, and capillary density. Platelet function was measured by aggregometry. Perfusion to the ischemic territory as measured by microsphere injection was significantly increased in both HCW and HCV compared with HCC at rest, but in only the HCW group under ventricular pacing. Microvessel relaxation response to adenosine 5'-diphosphate was improved in the HCW group alone as was regional contractility in the ischemic territory, although myocardial fibrosis was decreased in both HCW and HCV. Expression of proangiogenic proteins phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor was increased in both HCW and HCV, whereas phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin was increased only in the HCV group. Expression of Sirt-1 and downstream antioxidant phospho-FoxO1 was increased only in the HCW group. Protein oxidative stress was decreased in the HCW group alone, whereas capillary density was increased only in the HCV group. There was no significant difference in platelet function between groups. Moderate consumption of red wine and vodka may reduce cardiovascular risk by improving collateral-dependent perfusion through different mechanisms. Red wine may offer increased cardioprotection

  4. Resveratrol Protects and Restores Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit Corpus Cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, Nergiz; Korhan, Peyda; Kizer, Onur; Evcim, Sinem; Kefi, Aykut; Demir, Ömer; Gidener, Sedef; Atabey, Neşe; Esen, Ahmet Adil

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress dependent-decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays an integral role in hypercholesterolemia-induced erectile dysfunction (ED). Resveratrol has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects against oxidative stress and improve NO bioavailability. The protective and restorative potentials of resveratrol on endothelium-dependent relaxations were evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbit corpus cavernosum (CC). Hypercholesterolemia was induced by administering 2% cholesterol diet (CD) (w/w) to the rabbits for 6 weeks. Two different protocols were applied to test the effects of resveratrol on hypercholesterolemia-induced ED. In Protocol-1 (P1), resveratrol was administrated to the rabbits simultaneously with CD in order to evaluate the protective effect, and for Protocol-2 (P2), resveratrol was administrated for 6 weeks after termination of CD in order to evaluate the restorative effect. Endothelium-dependent relaxations of CC were evaluated by using organ bath studies. In order to elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms, we measured endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phosphovasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) expressions and activations, NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in cavernosal tissues obtained at the end of the study. Resveratrol showed an improvement in the endothelium-dependent relaxation responses in vitro. We demonstrated significantly increased activatory-phosphorylation (p[S1177]-eNOS) and activated phosphovasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (phospho-VASP) levels, but reduced phosphorylation (p[T495]-eNOS) of eNOS and NADPH oxidase activity in the resveratrol-administered HC animals compared with hypercholesterolemic control rabbits in the P1. In the P2, resveratrol exhibited an improvement in endothelium-dependent relaxation responses and more pronounced effects on eNOS activation. Resveratrol administration, either simultaneously with HC diet

  5. Hypocholesterolemic Efficacy of Quercetin Rich Onion Juice in Healthy Mild Hypercholesterolemic Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsong-Ming; Chiu, Hui-Fang; Shen, You-Cheng; Chung, Chia-Chun; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-12-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely employed as a food ingredient as well as traditional remedy to treat fever, burns, and scurvy. The present study focused on the modulator efficacy of the quercetin rich onion juice on lipid profile and antioxidant status in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Twenty-four healthy subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia (≧ 200 mg/dL) were recruited and divided into two groups, and they consumed 100 mL of onion juice or placebo every day for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at initial, 2nd, 6th, 8th, 10th week for estimating various biochemical assays, as well as anthropometric indices. After 8 weeks of intervention, onion juice greatly decreased (p onion juice could markedly suppress cholesterol level and elevate total antioxidation capacity. Hence, onion juice was probably recommended for combating various cardiovascular diseases.

  6. The effect of indigestible dextrin and phytosterol on serum LDL-cholesterol level on hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. Then

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the effects of indigestible dextrin 2x2.3g/day and phytosterol 2x0.6g/day provided for 6 weeks in lowering serum LDL-cholesterol levels amongs hypercholesterolemic subjects.Methods A randomized clinical trial, two pararel groups, double blinded and randomly assigned to each different group was done in 16 subjects per-group.Results Before the, intervention the level of LDL cholesterol of both ID and FS group were 158.81 ± 17.74 mg/dL and 176.18 ± 25.31 mg/dL, respectively. After the intervention there was a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol level in both groups, i.e. among the ID group by 20.93 ± 12.65 mg/dL (13.24% with p value of <0.001, while the reduction of LDL cholesterol level among the PS group was 21.87 ± 28.76 mg/dL (11.21% with p value of 0.008. However, the reduction of cholesterol level between the two groups did not show any significant difference.Conclusion Consuming indigestible dextrin 2x2.3g/day and 2x0.6g/day phytosterol (PS for 6 weeks will have the same ability to decrease the serum cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemic subjects. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 114-9Key words: indigestible dextrin, phytosterol, cholesterol

  7. Effects of alcohol on pericardial adhesion formation in hypercholesterolemic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, Antonio D; Chu, Louis M; Sellke, Frank W

    2012-04-01

    Reoperative cardiac surgery is complicated in part because of extensive adhesions encountered during the second operation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol with and without resveratrol (red wine vs vodka) on postoperative pericardial adhesion formation in a porcine model of hypercholesterolemia and chronic myocardial ischemia. Male Yorkshire swine were fed a high-cholesterol diet to simulate conditions of coronary artery disease followed by surgical placement of an ameroid constrictor to induce chronic ischemia. Postoperatively, control pigs continued their high-cholesterol diet alone, whereas the 2 experimental groups had diets supplemented with red wine or vodka. Seven weeks after ameroid placement, all animals underwent reoperative sternotomy. Compared with controls, pericardial adhesion grade was markedly reduced in the vodka group, whereas there was no difference in the wine group. Intramyocardial fibrosis was significantly reduced in the vodka group compared with controls. There was no difference in expression of proteins involved in focal adhesion formation between any groups (focal adhesion kinase, integrin alpha-5, integrin beta-1, paxillin, vinculin, protein tyrosine kinase 2, protein kinase C ε, and phosphorylated protein kinase C ε). The wine group exhibited elevated C-reactive protein levels versus the control and vodka groups. Postoperative vodka consumption markedly reduced the formation of pericardial adhesions and intramyocardial fibrosis, whereas red wine had no effect. Analysis of protein expression did not reveal any obvious explanation for this phenomenon, suggesting a post-translational effect of alcohol on fibrous tissue deposition. The difference in adhesion formation in the vodka versus wine groups may be due to increased inflammation in the wine group. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plant sterol-enriched fermented milk enhances the attainment of LDL-cholesterol goal in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Nuria; Nicolle, Catherine; Ferre, Raimon; Camps, Jordi; Cos, Rosa; Villoria, Jesus; Masana, Luis

    2008-02-01

    The number of hypercholesterolemic individuals who do not meet their cholesterol recommended targets is inappropriately high. The use of plant sterol-enriched foods could help in this clinical setting. To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of plant sterol-enriched fermented milk in reducing LDL-cholesterol and increasing the number of patients who attain their therapeutic targets. This was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel clinical trial. Eighty-three hypercholesterolemic patients that were not at therapeutic goals were studied. The patients received one 100 ml serving of either plain (control) low-fat or phytosterol enriched (1.6 g of free sterol equivalents) drinkable yogurt per day along with the main meal for 42 days. The principal variables were variation on LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration and the number of patients achieving therapeutic goals after intervention. Patients on phytosterols attained an average LDL-C reduction of more than 10% (12.2% after 3 weeks; 10.6% after 6 weeks) (P = 0.001; 95% CI: 4.03-19.00) regardless of statin therapy compared to the control group. About 50% of the subjects on phytosterols, as compared to 20% of controls, attained their LDL-C target values (cholesterol (HDL-C) did not change and triglycerides (TG) were decreased by 14% (P cholesterol ratio increased. Plant sterol-enriched fermented milk significantly reduced LDL-C and increased the number of moderately hypercholesterolemic patients achieving therapeutic targets.

  9. Anti-atherogenic properties of Deglet Noor Date seeds (Phoenix dactylifera) Methanol extract on Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saryono, S.; Eliyan, J.; Herdiati, D.; Khikmatullah, AA; Silvana, CP; Adi, HP

    2017-02-01

    This is the first study to investigate the completely anti-atherogenic effect of Deglet Noor Date seeds methanol extract administration on diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. About 24 male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. The normal control (NC) group, Hypercholesterolemic Control (HC) group was given high cholesterol diet, and Simvastatin Control (SC) group was given 0.18 mg/200g simvastatin after high cholesterol diet induction. The treatment groups of T0.25, T0.5 and T1 were given supplementation of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg of dates seed extract after high cholesterol diet induction, respectively for 21 days. Blood was collected from orbitals plexus vein for plasma lipid profile analysis. The levels of Total Cholesterol (TC), Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Atherogenic Index (AI) values were significantly decreased (p<0.05) on diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats after supplemented with date seeds extract (T0.25, T0.5 and T1) but not in Triglycerides (TG). Along with that, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly increased (p<0.05). However, the T1 group was the best anti-atherogenic activity in compared to other groups. Results showed that plasma lipid profile was significant to get better after supplemented with date seeds extract.

  10. Concentrated oat β-glucan, a fermentable fiber, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulcher R Gary

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soluble fibers lower serum lipids, but are difficult to incorporate into products acceptable to consumers. We investigated the physiological effects of a concentrated oat β-glucan on cardiovascular disease (CVD endpoints in human subjects. We also compared the fermentability of concentrated oat β-glucan with inulin and guar gum in a model intestinal fermentation system. Methods Seventy-five hypercholesterolemic men and women were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: 6 grams/day concentrated oat β-glucan or 6 grams/day dextrose (control. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, week 3, and week 6 and analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP. To estimate colonic fermentability, 0.5 g concentrated oat β-glucan was incubated in a batch model intestinal fermentation system, using human fecal inoculum to provide representative microflora. Fecal donors were not involved with the β-glucan feeding trial. Inulin and guar gum were also incubated in separate serum bottles for comparison. Results Oat β-glucan produced significant reduction from baseline in total cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L and LDL cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L, and the reduction in LDL cholesterol were significantly greater than in the control group (p = 0.03. Concentrated oat β-glucan was a fermentable fiber and produced total SCFA and acetate concentrations similar to inulin and guar gum. Concentrated oat β-glucan produced the highest concentrations of butyrate at 4, 8, and 12 hours. Conclusion Six grams concentrated oat β-glucan per day for six weeks significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol in subjects with elevated cholesterol, and the LDL cholesterol reduction was greater than the change in the control group. Based on a model intestinal fermentation, this oat β-glucan was fermentable, producing higher amounts of butyrate than other

  11. Effects of LY295427, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor up-regulator, on LDL receptor gene transcription and cholesterol metabolism in normal and hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, W R; Gadski, R A; Bean, J S; Beavers, L S; Schmidt, R J; Perry, D N; Murphy, A T; McClure, D B; Eacho, P I; Breau, A P; Archer, R A; Kauffman, R F

    1999-04-01

    The action of LY295427 [(3alpha,4alpha, 5alpha)-4-(2-propenylcholestan-3-ol)], a compound that derepresses low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) expression in a cell-based model, was examined in hamsters. It was found that the compound does not have an effect in normal chow-fed hamsters, in which LDL-R levels are not repressed, but exerts a marked hypocholesterolemic effect (>70% decrease) in cholesterol-coconut oil-fed hamsters, in which LDL-R is repressed. In this model, there is a dose-response for cholesterol lowering with an approximate ED50 value of 40 mg/kg/day and an inverse relationship between serum cholesterol and serum LY295427 levels. LDL-R mRNA is increased (2-fold) and liver cholesterol ester content is decreased (>90%). Unlike the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase inhibitor lovastatin, the decreased serum cholesterol is confined to the non-high-density lipoprotein fraction. Furthermore, LY295427 does not affect cholesterol biosynthesis, and it does not have a significant effect on cholesterol absorption. These data suggest that LY295427 acts in the hypercholesterolemic hamster by derepressing LDL-R transcription, thereby enhancing cholesterol clearance from the blood. The results with LY295427 suggest that compounds that act to increase LDL-R may represent a novel approach in the pharmacotherapy for hypercholesterolemia.

  12. Study of the inhibition effect of ethanolic extract of mangosteen pericarp on atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic rat

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    Titin Andri Wihastuti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of mangosteen pericarp (EEMP through lipid profile, H2O2, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS measurement in hypercholesterolemic rat. Methods: A total of 20 rats were used in true laboratory experiment which were divided into 5 groups (n = 4 using posttest-only design. There were a normal diet group, a hypercholesterol diet (HCD group, a group that was given HCD with EEMP 200 mg/kg body weight, a group that was given HCD with 400 mg/kg body weight and a group that was given HCD with 800 mg/kg body weight. The lipid profile was measured using Cobas Mira. On the other hand, H2O2 was analysed using colorimetric hydrogen peroxide kit. Double staining immunofluorescence was given to observe NF-κB, iNOS and eNOS by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The result was analyzed quantitatively using Olymphus Fluoview software (version 1.7a. Results: Lipid profile was significantly worsened in HCD and H2O2 level and expressions of NF-κB, iNOS and eNOS were also increased in HCD. EEMP 200 mg/kg body weight generally did not show significant results. However, high density lipoprotein level was affected by EEMP 400 mg/kg body weight, but not for other lipid profiles which reduced H2O2 level and NF-κB, iNOS and eNOS expressions significantly. EEMP 800 mg/kg body weight had been shown to be the most effective dose to improve lipid profile, decrease level of H2O2 and the expression of NF-κB and iNOS and maintain expression of eNOS. Conclusions: EEMP is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent to inhibit atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic rat.

  13. The intestinal absorption of dietary cholesterol by hypercholesterolemic (type II) and normocholesterolemic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, W E; Lin, D S

    1974-04-01

    The incomplete absorption of dietary cholesterol may represent an adaptive intestinal barrier that prevents hypercholesterolemia. To explore this mechanism, we compared cholesterol absorption in 15 normocholesterolemic and 6 hypercholesterolemic (type II) subjects fed background cholesterol-free formula diets with 40% of calories as fat. Each test meal consisted of a breakfast into which was incorporated scrambled egg yolk containing 300-500 mg of cholesterol and [4-(14)C]cholesterol (3-22 muCi), either naturally incorporated into the yolk cholesterol by previous isotope injection into the laying hen or added in peanut oil to the yolk of the test breakfast. In some instances [1alpha-(3)H]cholesterol was the radioactive marker. The radioactivity of the fecal neutral sterol fraction was determined in daily stool samples for the next 7 days to provide an estimate of unabsorbed dietary cholesterol. The amount of absorbed and reexcreted labeled cholesterol proved negligible. Most unabsorbed dietary cholesterol appeared in the stool on the second or third day after the meal, and 95% or more was recovered in the stool by 6 days. Plasma specific activity curves were usually maximal at 48 h. Normal subjects absorbed 44.5+/-9.3 (SD) of the administered cholesterol (range 25.9-60.3). Hypercholesterolemics absorbed the same percentage of cholesterol as normals: 47.6+/-12.6% (range 29.3-67.3). Absorption was similar whether the radiolabeled cholesterol was added to egg yolk or naturally incorporated in it (42.1+/-9.3 vs. 48.9+/-9.8%). Six normal subjects were fed a cholesterol-free formula for 4 wk, and then different amounts of cholesterol (110-610 mg/day) were added for another 4 wk. At the end of each period, single test meals containing either 110, 310, or 610 mg of cholesterol and [1alpha-(3)H]cholesterol were administered. Cholesterol absorption was 42.3+/-6.0% and 45.4+/-8.3% for the two dietary periods, respectively. The absolute cholesterol absorption was linearly

  14. SCM-198 attenuates early atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits via modulation of the inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Guo, Wei; Wen, Yadan; Xiong, Qinghui; Liu, Hongrui; Wu, Jian; Zou, Yunzeng; Zhu, Yizhun

    2012-09-01

    To investigate SCM-198 (also known as "leonurine"), a compound in Herba leonuri, as well as its effect on the progression of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits and underlying mechanisms. Thirty New Zealand male White rabbits (5 groups, n = 6) were fed either a normal diet or a high-cholesterol diet (1%). The rabbits on the high-cholesterol diet received treatments of low, moderate, and high doses of SCM-198 and placebo concurrently. Eight weeks later, the animals underwent ultrasonographic imaging. They were then sacrificed for further pathological and molecular biological analysis. SCM-198-treated rabbits showed a significant alleviation in the development of atherosclerosis in a dose-dependent manner. The lesions were smaller after the SCM-198 treatments. In addition, the elasticity of the arteries and hemodynamic status improved, accompanied with a decrease in smooth muscle cell migration and, macrophage infiltration, as well as the expression of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) in the aortas. Marginal changes in the lipid parameters were found in the SCM-198-treated rabbits, with high-density lipid cholesterol (HDL-C) elevation and triglyceride (TG) reduction at the high dose. SCM-198 treatment dose-dependently reduced levels of serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the mRNA levels of VCAM-1, IL-6, TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), iNOS and MMP-9 in the aorta. In addition, SCM-198 also dose-dependently increased the total antioxidant capacities and in parallel decreased the lipid peroxidation levels in the serum and liver. The antioxidant effects of SCM-198 were implicated by the enhanced activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and levels of glutathione (GSH) in the liver, as well as the mRNA levels of CAT, SOD-1 and

  15. Comparison of hesperetin and its metabolites for cholesterol-lowering and antioxidative efficacy in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Seon-Min; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Yun-Young; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Jin Hee; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2010-08-01

    This study was performed to compare the hypolipidemic and antioxidant efficacy of hesperetin and its metabolites in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. The hamsters were fed a high-fat (10% coconut oil and 0.2% cholesterol, wt/wt) diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with hesperetin (0.02%) or hesperetin metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (DHPP) (0.012%) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (ferulic acid) (0.013%), for 12 weeks. Dietary DHPP and ferulic acid were found to have significantly decreased the levels of the plasma total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein B, hepatic lipids, and cholesterol-regulating enzymes compared to the control group. In particular, ferulic acid was more potent with respect to raising HDL-C/total cholesterol ratio and paraoxonase levels while decreasing atherogenic index values. Hesperetin and its metabolites seemed to enhance antioxidant capacity by lowering the hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxide (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substrates) levels. Among the hesperetin metabolites tested, the relative potency of ferulic acid for reducing the risks of atherosclerosis in hamsters was found to be greater.

  16. Fish oil reduces cholesterol and arachidonic acid levels in plasma and lipoproteins from hypercholesterolemic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, M; Amalik, F; Linares, A; García-Peregrín, E

    2000-07-01

    The value of fish oil for prevention and/or treatment of human atherosclerosis has not been fully established. This study shows that replacement of saturated fat in young chick diet with menhaden oil produced a significant reversion of the hypercholesterolemia previously induced by coconut oil feeding. Fish oil also produced a clear decrease of plasma triacylglycerol levels. Coconut oil increased the percentages of 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids, while menhaden oil increased those of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3. Percentages of 20:4 n-6, 18:2 n-6 and 18:1 n-9 significantly decreased by fish oil addition to the diet. Total cholesterol, phospholipid and protein contents of high and low density lipoproteins increased by coconut oil feeding. When coconut oil was replaced by menhaden oil, total cholesterol was significantly reduced in high, low and very low density lipoproteins. All chemical components of VLDL were decreased by menhaden oil feeding. Our results show a strong hypocholesterolemic effect of menhaden oil when this fat was supplemented to hypercholesterolemic chicks. The clear decrease found in arachidonic acid content of chick plasma and lipoproteins may contribute to the beneficial effects of fish oil consumption by lowering the production of its derived eicosanoids.

  17. Serum lipid responses to psyllium fiber: differences between pre- and post-menopausal, hypercholesterolemic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Jennifer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women and men. Psyllium, a soluble fiber has been known to reduce serum lipids. In this pilot study, we evaluated whether menopausal status would affect the serum lipid responses to psyllium fiber in women. Methods Eleven post-menopausal and eight pre-menopausal women with serum total cholesterol >200 mg/dL were included in the study. Subjects consumed their habitual diet and 15 g psyllium/d for 6 weeks. Psyllium was incorporated into cookies. Each cookie contained ≈5 g of psyllium fiber. Subjects ate one cookie in each meal. Results With psyllium fiber, total cholesterol concentration was significantly lower (≈5.2%, P Conclusion In this pilot study, post- and pre-menopausal, hypercholesterolemic women responded differently to psyllium fiber supplementation. Post-menopausal women would benefit from addition of psyllium to their diets in reducing the risk for heart diseases. The results of this study should be used with caution because the study was based on a small sample size.

  18. Biochemical effects, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding of rats with high fat diet containing 3% cholesterol in olein oil, for 8 weeks. Feeding of rats with high fat diet for 8 weeks, leading to a significant increase in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and a significant decrease in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol level, liver hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and paraoxonase-1 activities as compared to the normal control group. Treatment of high fat diet rats with Artemisia vulgaris extract for 4 weeks at a dose of 100 mg/kg per day, resulted in normalized serum lipid profile, a significant increase in paraoxonase-1 activity and decrease in serum malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α level as compared to high fat diet-treated animals. Also the extract caused a significant decrease in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity as compared with both high fat diet-treated animals and control ones. In conclusion, Artemisia vulgaris extract has hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties; it may serve as a source for the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Effects of consuming diets containing Agave tequilana dietary fibre and jamaica calyces on body weight gain and redox status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Mateos, Raquel; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa I; Largo, Carlota; Serrano, José; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Sarriá, Beatriz; Bravo, Laura; Tabernero, María

    2014-04-01

    Dietary fibre (DF) obtained from Agave tequilana, which is rich in fructans and insoluble DF, and jamaica calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa), which is rich in DF and phenolic compounds, were assessed as new potential functional ingredients using the hypercholesterolemic animal model. Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 3 groups (n=8) and fed with cholesterol-rich diets supplemented with cellulose (CC, control), agave DF (ADF) or ADF with jamaica calyces (ADF-JC). After consuming the test diets for 5 weeks, weight gain in the ADF-JC group was significantly lower than in the other groups. The ADF and ADF-JC groups had a reduced concentration of cholesterol transporters in the caecum tissue, although no changes were observed in the plasma lipid profile. Both treatments improved the redox status by reducing the malondialdehyde serum levels and protein oxidative damage, compared to the CC group. DF from A. tequilana alone, or in combination with jamaica calyces, shows promising potential as a bioactive ingredient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and characterization of twenty-one polymorphic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of China, College of Fisheries,. Huazhong Agricultural ... 3Centre for Marine Environmental and Economic Research, School of Biological Sciences,. Victoria University of ... istics make it particularly susceptible to adverse effects of human activity.

  1. Isolation and characterization of twenty-one polymorphic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China. 2Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovation Center of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070, ..... Science Press, Beijing, China. Chen F. and Chen Y. F. 2010 Investigation and protection strategies of fishes of Lhasa River. Acta Hydrobiol. Sin.

  2. Twenty-one lectures on complex analysis a first course

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    Isaev, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    At its core, this concise textbook presents standard material for a first course in complex analysis at the advanced undergraduate level. This distinctive text will prove most rewarding for students who have a genuine passion for mathematics as well as certain mathematical maturity. Primarily aimed at undergraduates with working knowledge of real analysis and metric spaces, this book can also be used to instruct a graduate course. The text uses a conversational style with topics purposefully apportioned into 21 lectures, providing a suitable format for either independent study or lecture-based teaching. Instructors are invited to rearrange the order of topics according to their own vision. A clear and rigorous exposition is supported by engaging examples and exercises unique to each lecture; a large number of exercises contain useful calculation problems. Hints are given for a selection of the more difficult exercises. This text furnishes the reader with a means of learning complex analysis as well as a subtl...

  3. The Twenty-One Essential Readings in Population Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, David

    Educators interested in responding to the need for population awareness will find this generously annotated bibliography of readings a useful aid in sifting through a growing amount of material. The items include monographs, textbooks, journal articles, and government documents, most of which were published within the last two years. Price and…

  4. TWENTY-ONE-YEAR EXTENSION PROJECT PERFORMANCE "LET'S BREASTFEEDING, MOMMY?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete Argolo Teixeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research aiming to describe the actions that were developed by the Extension Project "Let's breastfeed, Mom?" During the 21 years of its performance in Jequié / Bahia and identify the difficulties, facilities and progress of the project. This is a descriptive, quantitative-qualitative study. The data were collected in the archived project documents, analyzed through descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results showed that 8,923 registered postpartum women with educational activities and 1,313 domiciliary visits were carried out, as the main actions carried out by the project. The difficulties were: lack of consumer / permanent materials and human resources; As facilities: responsibility and commitment of the members of the project, as well as the support of the transportation service of the institution. The advances were the elaboration of the research project, with insertion of research fellows, creation of the webpage and the logo. It is necessary to reflect on the difficulties and propose measures to remedy them and thus continue to contribute to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding in the Municipality, contributing to the reduction of infant morbidity and mortality

  5. Semen quality and sperm function loss by hypercholesterolemic diet was recovered by addition of olive oil to diet in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez Lancellotti, Tania E; Boarelli, Paola V; Romero, Aida A; Funes, Abi K; Cid-Barria, Macarena; Cabrillana, María E; Monclus, María A; Simón, Layla; Vicenti, Amanda E; Fornés, Miguel W

    2013-01-01

    Fat increment (0.05% cholesterol, chol) in standard diet promoted a significant increase in serum and sperm membrane chol, which ultimately altered membrane-coupled sperm specific functions: osmotic resistance, acrosomal reaction, and sperm capacitation in White New Zealand rabbits. These changes were also associated with a reduction in motility percentage and appearance of abnormal sperm morphology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary olive oil (OO, 7% v/w) administration to several male hypercholesterolemic rabbits (hypercholesterolemic rabbits, HCR) with altered fertility parameters. These HCR males were achieved by feeding normal rabbits with a high-fat diet (0.05% chol). HCR were associated with a modest non-significant increase in body weight (standard diet, 4.08±0.17 Kg, versus high-fat diet, 4.37±0.24 Kg). Hypercholesterolemic rabbits presented a marked decrease in semen volume, sperm cell count, and percentage of sperm motility, associated with a significant increase in sperm cell abnormalities. Moreover, sperm capacitation measured by the characteristic phosphorylated protein pattern in and induced acrosomal reaction were also altered suggesting sperm dysfunction. However, the administration of OO (for 16 weeks) to rabbits that were fed with 50% of the high-fat diet normalized serum chol. Curiously, OO supply succeeded to attenuate the seminal and sperm alterations observed in HCR group. Administration of OO alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters. These data suggest that OO administration to HCR male rabbits recovers the loss of semen quality and sperm functionality.

  6. Semen quality and sperm function loss by hypercholesterolemic diet was recovered by addition of olive oil to diet in rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania E Saez Lancellotti

    Full Text Available Fat increment (0.05% cholesterol, chol in standard diet promoted a significant increase in serum and sperm membrane chol, which ultimately altered membrane-coupled sperm specific functions: osmotic resistance, acrosomal reaction, and sperm capacitation in White New Zealand rabbits. These changes were also associated with a reduction in motility percentage and appearance of abnormal sperm morphology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary olive oil (OO, 7% v/w administration to several male hypercholesterolemic rabbits (hypercholesterolemic rabbits, HCR with altered fertility parameters. These HCR males were achieved by feeding normal rabbits with a high-fat diet (0.05% chol. HCR were associated with a modest non-significant increase in body weight (standard diet, 4.08±0.17 Kg, versus high-fat diet, 4.37±0.24 Kg. Hypercholesterolemic rabbits presented a marked decrease in semen volume, sperm cell count, and percentage of sperm motility, associated with a significant increase in sperm cell abnormalities. Moreover, sperm capacitation measured by the characteristic phosphorylated protein pattern in and induced acrosomal reaction were also altered suggesting sperm dysfunction. However, the administration of OO (for 16 weeks to rabbits that were fed with 50% of the high-fat diet normalized serum chol. Curiously, OO supply succeeded to attenuate the seminal and sperm alterations observed in HCR group. Administration of OO alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters. These data suggest that OO administration to HCR male rabbits recovers the loss of semen quality and sperm functionality.

  7. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol. To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies. Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control). Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed. Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics) produced changes in total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference -0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.07 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (mean difference -0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.13 mmol/L). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (> 4-week) probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤ 4-week) intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains. In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  8. Antioxidants attenuate atherosclerotic plaque development in a balloon-denuded and -radiated hypercholesterolemic rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leborgne, Laurent; Fournadjiev, Jana; Pakala, Rajbabu; Dilcher, Christian; Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Hellinga, David; Seaborn, Rufus; O'Tio, Fermin; Waksman, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Background: Oxidation of lipoproteins is considered to be a key contributor to atherogenesis. Antioxidants are potential antiatherogenic agents because they can inhibit lipoprotein oxidation. Radiation has been shown to increase oxidative stress leading to increased atherogenesis. This study is designed to test the potential of antioxidants to inhibit atherosclerotic plaque progression in balloon-denuded and -radiated rabbits. Methods and Results: Two groups of New Zealand white rabbits (n=36) were fed with 1% cholesterol diet (control diet) or with 1% cholesterol diet containing a mixture of various antioxidants for 1 week. Iliac arteries in all the animals were balloon denuded and continued to fed with 0.15% cholesterol diet or 0.15% cholesterol diet containing antioxidants (antioxidant diet). Four weeks after balloon denudation one iliac artery in 12 animals from each group was radiated and all the animals were continued to be fed with the same diet. Four weeks after radiation animals were sacrificed and morphometric analysis of iliac arteries (n=12) in nonradiated and radiated animals were performed. Plaque area (PA) in the rabbits that were fed with cholesterol diet is 0.2±0.12 mm 2 , and it is increased by 2.75-fold (P<.05) in the radiated arteries of animals fed with cholesterol diet. Plaque area in the animals fed with antioxidant diet is 50% less then the one in the animals fed with cholesterol diet. Similarly, plaque area in radiated arteries of the animals fed with antioxidant diet is 50% less then the animals fed with cholesterol diet. Conclusion: Antioxidants significantly attenuate atherosclerotic plaque progression in balloon-injured and -radiated hypercholesterolemic rabbits

  9. Vitamin D deficiency induces cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation in epicardial adipose tissue in hypercholesterolemic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav K; Agrawal, Tanupriya; DelCore, Michael G; Mohiuddin, Syed M; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2012-08-01

    Vitamin D is a sectosteroid that functions through Vitamin D receptor (VDR), a transcription factor, which controls the transcription of many targets genes. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure and coronary artery disease. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)3 regulates different biological processes such as inflammation and cellular differentiation and is an endogenous negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency causes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and increased proinflammatory profile in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), and this correlates with decreased expression of SOCS3 in cardiomyocytes and EAT. Eight female Yucatan miniswine were fed vitamin D-sufficient (900 IU/d) or vitamin D-deficient hypercholesterolemic diet. Lipid profile, metabolic panel, and serum 25(OH)D levels were regularly measured. After 12 months animals were euthanized and histological, immunohistochemical and qPCR studies were performed on myocardium and epicardial fat. Histological studies showed cardiac hypertrophy, as judged by cardiac myocyte cross sectional area, in the vitamin D-deficient group. Immunohistochemical and qPCR analyses showed significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of VDR and SOCS3 in cardiomyocytes of vitamin D-deficient animals. EAT from vitamin D-deficient group had significantly higher expression of TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and decreased adiponectin in association with increased inflammatory cellular infiltrate. Interestingly, EAT from vitamin D-deficient group had significantly decreased expression of SOCS3. These data suggest that vitamin D deficiency induces hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes which is associated with decreased expression of VDR and SOCS3. Vitamin D deficiency is also associated with increased inflammatory markers in EAT. Activity of VDR in the body is controlled through regulation of vitamin D metabolites. Therefore

  10. Antioxidant effect of sericin in brain and peripheral tissues of oxidative stress induced hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meetali Deori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of crude sericin extract (CSE from Antheraea assamenisis (Aa in high cholesterol fed rats. Investigation was conducted by administering graded oral dose of 0.25 and 0.5 gm/kg body weight (b.w./day of CSE for a period of 28 days. Experiments were conducted in 30 rats and were divided into five groups: normal control (NC, high cholesterol fed (HCF, HCF + 0.065 gm/kg b.w./day fenofibrate (FF, HCF + sericin 0.25 gm/kg b.w./day (LSD and HCF + sericin 0.5 gm/kg b.w./day (HSD. In brain, heart, liver, serum and kidney homogenates nitric oxide (NO, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, protein carbonyl content (PCC, superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH was measured. LSD treatment prevented the alterations in GSH and PCC levels in hypercholesterolemic (HyC brain tissue homogenates of rats. CSE lowers the serum total cholesterol level in HyC rats by promoting fecal cholesterol (FC excretion. CSE increases FC level by promoting inhibition of cholesterol absorption in intestine. The endogenous antioxidant reduced significantly and the oxidative stress (OS marker TBARS level increases significantly in the peripheral tissue of HCF rats. However, the administration of LSD and HSD exhibited a good antioxidant activity by reducing the TBARS level and increasing the endogenous antioxidant in peripheral tissue. In addition, a histological examination revealed loss of normal liver and kidney architecture in cholesterol fed rats which were retained in sericin treated groups. The findings of this study suggested that CSE improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed a HyC diet. Clinical relevance of this effect of CSE seems worthy of further studies.

  11. Humanin prevents intra-renal microvascular remodeling and inflammation in hypercholesterolemic ApoE deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Urbieta-Caceres, Victor H; Eirin, Alfonso; Bell, Caitlin C; Crane, John A; Tang, Hui; Jordan, Kyra L; Oh, Yun-Kyu; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Korsmo, Michael J; Bachar, Adi R; Cohen, Pinchas; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O

    2012-09-04

    Humanin (HN) is an endogenous mitochondrial-derived cytoprotective peptide that has shown protective effects against atherosclerosis and is expressed in human vessels. However, its effects on the progression of kidney disease are unknown. We hypothesized that HN would protect the kidney in the early phase of atherogenesis. Forty-eight mice were studied in four groups (n=12 each). Twenty-four ApoE deficient mice were fed a 16-week high-cholesterol diet supplemented with saline or HN (4mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal). C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet supplemented with saline or HN. Microvascular architecture was assessed with micro-CT and vascular wall remodeling by alpha-SMA staining. The effects of HN on angiogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis were evaluated in the kidney tissue by Western blotting and histology. Cortical microvascular spatial density and media/lumen area ratio were significantly increased in high-cholesterol diet fed ApoE deficient mice, but restored by HN. HN up-regulated the renal expressions of anti-angiogenic proteins angiostatin and TSP-1, and inhibited angiopoietin-1. HN attenuated inflammation by down-regulating MCP-1, TNF-alpha and osteopontin. HN also tended to restore pSTAT3 and attenuated Bax expression, suggesting blunted apoptosis. Kidney collagen IV expression was alleviated by HN treatment. HN attenuates renal microvascular remodeling, inflammation and apoptosis in the early stage of kidney disease in hypercholesterolemic ApoE(-/-) mice. HN may serve as a novel therapeutic target to mitigate kidney damage in early atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of fish oil and spirulina on oxidative stress and inflammation in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Chao, Jane C-J

    2014-12-06

    Altered plasma lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammation have been involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Fish oil has shown inconclusive effects on plasma lipids and oxidative stress. Spirulina has both cholesterol lowering and antioxidant properties. However, the effect of fish oil and spirulina on hypercholesterolemia has not been studied. We investigated the effects of fish oil, spirulina, and their combination on hypercholesterolemia. The hamsters were divided into 7 groups: control, high cholesterol (HF), fish oil (post FO), spirulina (post SP), and a combination of fish oil and spirulina (post SF, pre-SF, and HF + SF) groups. The HF and HF + SF groups were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The post FO, post SP, and post SF groups were given a high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks and then the treatment for 4 weeks. The pre-SF group was given the combined treatment for 4 weeks and then a high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks. The HF and HF + SF groups altered plasma lipids, increased oxidative stress, inhibited antioxidants, and increased inflammation. While the post FO group increased plasma lipids and was more atherogenic. The vice versa was observed in spirulina-treated group. Both the post SP and post SF groups inhibited oxidative stress and increased antioxidant status, and post FO and post SP diets regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines to near the control levels. Both single treatment of fish oil or spirulina inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation. Treatment with a combination of fish oil and spirulina (post SF) may be beneficial for diet-induced hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

  13. Cholesterol-lowering effect of beta-glucan from oat bran in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects may decrease when beta-glucan is incorporated into bread and cookies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, D.A.J.M.; Hornstra, G.; Mensink, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Cholesterol-lowering effect of beta-glucan from oat bran in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects may decrease when beta-glucan is incorporated into bread and cookies. Kerckhoffs DA, Hornstra G, Mensink RP. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND:

  14. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  15. Cholesterol-lowering effect of probiotic yogurt in comparison with ordinary yogurt in mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Larijani, Bagher; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Tahbaz, Farideh

    2009-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we compared the effect of consuming probiotic yogurt with that of ordinary yogurt on serum cholesterol level in mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. This randomized and crossover trial included 14 healthy subjects with serum total cholesterol 5.17-7.76 mmol/l. They did not consume yogurt for a 2-week prestudy period and added 300 g/day of milk to their diet. After this period, they were randomly allocated to 2 groups to receive either 300 g of ordinary yogurt or probiotic yogurt (fermented with a starter composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis in addition to bacteria in ordinary yogurt) for 6 weeks as a substitution for milk. After a 4-week washout period, the crossover was made and the study lasted for another 6 weeks. Blood lipid tests were done at the beginning and at the end of each period. Consumption of probiotic yogurt in comparison with ordinary yogurt caused a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol (p Yogurt containing two probiotic bacteria strains, L. acidophilus and B. lactis, had a cholesterol-lowering effect in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

  16. Effect on blood lipids of two daily servings of Camembert cheese. An intervention trial in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienger, Jean-Louis; Paillard, Francois; Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Romon, Monique; Bonhomme, Cécile; Schmitt, Bernard; Donazzolo, Yves; Defoort, Catherine; Mallmann, Cécilia; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Bresson, Jean-Louis

    2014-12-01

    As a concentrated source of saturated fat, cheese consumption is considered to be associated with increased cholesterolemia and generally forbidden in dietary guidelines for adults with hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of saturated fatty acids on lipid parameters and blood pressure with regards to different types of dairy products: Camembert and full-fat yoghurt. One-hundred and fifty-nine moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects without treatment were instructed to consume two full-fat yoghurts (2 × 125 g) per day for 3 weeks (run-in period) and then for a further period of 5 weeks, either two full-fat yoghurts or two 30 g servings of Camembert cheese per day. We observed that over the 5-week daily consumption of two servings of Camembert cheese, blood pressure and serum lipids did not change in moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects. These results suggest that fermented cheese such as Camembert could be consumed daily without affecting serum lipids or blood pressure.

  17. Effect of arginine:lysine and glycine:methionine intake ratios on dyslipidemia and selected biomarkers implicated in cardiovascular disease: A study with hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Ravula; Srinivasan, Krishnapura; Singh, Sridevi Annapurna

    2017-07-01

    The effect of intake ratios of arginine (Arg): lysine (Lys) and glycine (Gly): methionine (Met) on lipid profile and selected cardiovascular disease markers, was studied, in rats maintained on a hypercholesterolemic diet. The rise in blood cholesterol was countered by 32%, 24%, and 49%, respectively, through increased oral supplementation of Arg, Gly, and Arg+Gly; a corresponding increase in plasma phospholipids at the end of the 8-week study was observed. The elevated plasma cholesterol to phospholipids ratio was countered by 27, 40, and 57%, respectively, through oral supplementation of Arg, Gly, and Arg+Gly. The elevation in hepatic cholesterol was lowered by 18, 29, and 51%, respectively, while phospholipids concentration was concomitantly increased by these amino acids. The elevated cholesterol to phospholipids ratio was, thus, significantly countered in the hypercholesterolemic situation by orally supplemented Arg, Gly, and Arg+Gly. Increased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels, under hypercholesterolemic conditions, were lowered by 12, 15 and 34%, respectively, while plasma symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) levels were lowered by 14, 10 and 17%, respectively, with orally supplemented Arg, Gly and Arg+Gly. Only Gly and Arg+Gly decreased plasma homocysteine levels. Total nitric oxide (NO) concentration was considerably increased by Gly supplementation in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thus, altered ratios of Arg:Lys or Gly:Met offered beneficial influence on the lipid profile and plasma levels of ADMA, SDMA and homocysteine in hypercholesterolemic rats. Optimal beneficial effects, among ratios tested, was observed when Arg:Lys and Gly:Met ratios were maintained in ratios of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Amlodipine reduces AngII-induced aortic aneurysms and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Chen

    hypercholesterolemic mice.

  19. Effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Daniela C U; Abdalla, Dulcinéia S P; Vendramini, Regina C; Bedani, Raquel; Bomdespacho, Laura Q; Pauly-Silveira, Nadiége D; de Valdez, Graciela F; Rossi, Elizeu A

    2009-10-08

    There is increasing interest in natural treatments to control dyslipidemia and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of soy yogurt fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and of dietary isoflavones on the lipid profile. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt, fermented with E. faecium CRL183, on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia. Forty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to eight groups fed on the following diets for 60 days: C - control; IY - isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; H - hypercholesterolemic (1.0% cholesterol wt/wt diet); HY - hypercholesterolemic plus soy yogurt; HIY - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; HP - hypercholesterolemic plus placebo; HI - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone and HE - hypercholesterolemic plus pure culture of E. faecium CRL 183. Serum lipids and autoantibodies against oxLDL (oxLDL Ab) were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 60 of the treatment and the atherosclerotic lesions were quantified at the end of the experiment. Soy yogurt, soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones and placebo promoted significant reductions in total cholesterol level (38.1%, 27.0% and 26.6%, respectively). Significant increases in serum HDL-C concentration relative to group H were detected in animals that ingested soy yogurt, with or without the isoflavone supplement (55.2%), E. faecium culture (43.3%) or placebo (35.8%). Intake of soy yogurt and soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones prevented the rise of oxLDL Ab during the study period. The extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aortas was reduced in the HIY, HY and HP groups. However, when the whole aorta was analyzed, animals treated with soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones exhibited the greatest reduction (51.4%, P yogurt could be consumed as an alternative means of

  20. Effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: a randomized double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauly-Silveira Nadiége D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in natural treatments to control dyslipidemia and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of soy yogurt fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and of dietary isoflavones on the lipid profile. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt, fermented with E. faecium CRL183, on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia. Methods Forty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to eight groups fed on the following diets for 60 days: C - control; IY - isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; H - hypercholesterolemic (1.0% cholesterol wt/wt diet; HY - hypercholesterolemic plus soy yogurt; HIY - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; HP - hypercholesterolemic plus placebo; HI - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone and HE - hypercholesterolemic plus pure culture of E. faecium CRL 183. Serum lipids and autoantibodies against oxLDL (oxLDL Ab were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 60 of the treatment and the atherosclerotic lesions were quantified at the end of the experiment. Results Soy yogurt, soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones and placebo promoted significant reductions in total cholesterol level (38.1%, 27.0% and 26.6%, respectively. Significant increases in serum HDL-C concentration relative to group H were detected in animals that ingested soy yogurt, with or without the isoflavone supplement (55.2%, E. faecium culture (43.3% or placebo (35.8%. Intake of soy yogurt and soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones prevented the rise of oxLDL Ab during the study period. The extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aortas was reduced in the HIY, HY and HP groups. However, when the whole aorta was analyzed, animals treated with soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones exhibited the greatest reduction (51.4%, P

  1. NMR-based metabonomics reveals that plasma betaine increases upon intake of high-fiber rye buns in hypercholesterolemic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine S.; Malmendal, Anders; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2009-01-01

    fiber for 9-10 wk. Fasting plasma samples were collected 2 days before and after 8 and 12 days on the experimental diets, while postprandial samples taken after 58-67 days, and( 1)H NMR spectra were acquired on these. Principal component analysis on the obtained NMR spectra demonstrated clear effects...... in this region. The 3.29 ppm signal is ascribed to N(CH(3))(3) protons in betaine, which may be an important contributor to the health promoting effects of rye.......This study presents an NMR-based metabonomic approach to explore the overall endogenous biochemical effects of a rye versus wheat-based fiber-rich diet in hypercholesterolemic pigs. The pigs were fed high-fat, high-cholesterol rye- (n = 9) or wheat- (n = 8) based buns with similar levels of dietary...

  2. Effects of different forms of hazelnuts on blood lipids and α-tocopherol concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, S L; Brown, R C; Chisholm, A W; Delahunty, C M; Gray, A R; Williams, S M

    2011-01-01

    Diets high in nuts reduce cholesterol, probably due to their favorable lipid profile and other bioactive substances. However, the physical form of the nut may be important as the cell wall of intact nuts may limit the hypocholesterolemic effect of nuts by reducing lipid bioavailability. Therefore, we investigated the effects on blood lipids of incorporating three different forms of hazelnuts (ground, sliced and whole) into the usual diet. In a randomized crossover study with three phases, 48 mildly hypercholesterolemic participants were asked to consume 30 g of ground, sliced or whole hazelnuts for 4 weeks. Body weight, plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), apolipoprotein (apo) A1, apo B100 and α-tocopherol were measured at baseline and at the end of each dietary phase. There were no significant differences in any outcome variable between the different forms of nuts (all P ≥ 0.159). However, compared with baseline, mean values at the end of each hazelnut intervention were significantly higher for HDL-C (P = 0.023) and α-tocopherol (P = 0.005), and significantly lower for TC (P < 0.001), LDL-C (P < 0.001), TC:HDL-C ratio (P <0 .001), apo B100 (P = 0.002) and apo B100:apo A1 ratio (P < 0.001), with no significant difference in body weight (P = 0.813). The ingestion of three different forms of hazelnuts equally improved the lipoprotein profile and α-tocopherol concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals. Hazelnuts can therefore be incorporated into the usual diet as a means of reducing cardiovascular disease risk.

  3. Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes): A Species with Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory, and Hepatoprotective Activities in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Jaweria; Mustafa, Imtiaz; Anwar, Haseeb; Sohail, Muhammad Umar; Hussain, Ghulam; Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Faisal, Muhammad Naeem; Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Basit, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Lentinus edodes is a culinary-medicinal mushroom that has an established history of use in Asian therapies. The mushroom offers well-documented beneficial health effects such as antihypercholesterolemic, antitumor, and antibacterial activities. In this study, dried powder of L. edodes fruiting bodies was used to evaluate immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant effects in hypercholesterolemic rats. Albino rats (n = 24) were divided into 3 groups: the control (CON) group, the hypercholesterolemia-only group (HCG), and the L. edodes group (LEG). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rats in the HCG and LEG by feeding cholesterol and cholic acid in a chow maintenance diet (CMD) for 24 days. The CON group was fed the CMD throughout the experiment. The HCG continued on the high-cholesterol diet without any L. edodes supplement. The LEG was fed the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with L. edodes for an additional 42 days. Various biological health biomarkers, such as total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, arylesterase, paraoxonase activity, and liver enzymes in serum were studied to evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective responses. Cell-mediated immunity was evaluated in each group through a delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction. The total oxidant status decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) after administration of L. edodes in the diet. The cell-mediated immune response significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in the LEG. The significant decrease in liver enzymes supports the hepatoprotective effect of L. edodes. In conclusion, the results show the immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant activities of L. edodes supplementation in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  4. Regulatory efficacy of fermented plant extract on the intestinal microflora and lipid profile in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fang; Chen, Yen-Jung; Lu, Yan-Ying; Han, Yi-Chun; Shen, You-Cheng; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the use of fermented plant products to protect against various metabolic syndromes has been increasing enormously. The objective of this study was to check the regulatory efficacy of fermented plant extract (FPE) on intestinal microflora, lipid profile, and antioxidant status in mildly hypercholesterolemic volunteers. Forty-four mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals (cholesterol 180-220 mg/dL) were recruited and assigned to two groups: experimental or placebo. Volunteers were requested to drink either 60 mL of FPE or placebo for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were done in the initial, 4 th , 8 th , and 10 th weeks. The anthropometric parameters such as body weight, body fat, and body mass index were markedly lowered (p<0.05) on FPE intervention participants. Moreover, the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolics in plasma were considerably increased along with a reduction (p<0.05) in total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) after FPE supplementation. Participants who drank FPE showed a pronounced increase (p<0.05) in the number of beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp., whereas the number of harmful bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens (p<0.05) were concomitantly reduced. Furthermore, the lag time of LDL oxidation was substantially ameliorated in FPE-administered group, thus indicating its antioxidative and cardioprotective properties. Treatment with FPE substantially improved the intestinal microflora and thereby positively regulated various physiological functions by lowering the anthropometric parameters, TC, and LDL-c, and remarkably elevated the antioxidant capacity and lag time of LDL oxidation. Therefore, we recommended FPE beverage for combating hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Regulatory efficacy of fermented plant extract on the intestinal microflora and lipid profile in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals

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    Hui-Fang Chiu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of fermented plant products to protect against various metabolic syndromes has been increasing enormously. The objective of this study was to check the regulatory efficacy of fermented plant extract (FPE on intestinal microflora, lipid profile, and antioxidant status in mildly hypercholesterolemic volunteers. Forty-four mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals (cholesterol 180–220 mg/dL were recruited and assigned to two groups: experimental or placebo. Volunteers were requested to drink either 60 mL of FPE or placebo for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were done in the initial, 4th, 8th, and 10th weeks. The anthropometric parameters such as body weight, body fat, and body mass index were markedly lowered (p < 0.05 on FPE intervention participants. Moreover, the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolics in plasma were considerably increased along with a reduction (p < 0.05 in total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c after FPE supplementation. Participants who drank FPE showed a pronounced increase (p < 0.05 in the number of beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp., whereas the number of harmful bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens (p < 0.05 were concomitantly reduced. Furthermore, the lag time of LDL oxidation was substantially ameliorated in FPE-administered group, thus indicating its antioxidative and cardioprotective properties. Treatment with FPE substantially improved the intestinal microflora and thereby positively regulated various physiological functions by lowering the anthropometric parameters, TC, and LDL-c, and remarkably elevated the antioxidant capacity and lag time of LDL oxidation. Therefore, we recommended FPE beverage for combating hypercholesterolemia.

  6. Effects of lutein-enriched egg yolk in buttermilk or skimmed milk on serum lipids & lipoproteins of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severins, N; Mensink, R P; Plat, J

    2015-02-01

    Earlier studies in our group suggested that traditionally prepared buttermilk influences cholesterol metabolism. We therefore designed a study to evaluate whether traditionally prepared buttermilk lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or prevents the LDL-C raising effect of egg yolks. Mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly allocated to one of four diet groups consuming daily at lunch 80 ml skimmed milk with (n = 23) or without (n = 25) lutein-enriched egg yolk (28 g from 1.5 eggs providing 323 mg cholesterol) or traditionally prepared buttermilk with (n = 23) or without (n = 21) lutein-enriched egg yolk during a 12 week period. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure concentrations of serum lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, liver and kidney function markers, and plasma lutein, zeaxanthin and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Egg yolk consumption significantly increased serum total cholesterol (total-C) (p = 0.035) and LDL-C concentrations (p = 0.022). Buttermilk did not change the effects of egg yolk on serum lipids and (apo)lipoproteins. There was a trend towards significant lower total-C (p = 0.077), but not LDL-C (p = 0.204) concentrations in the buttermilk groups. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations increased significantly (p egg yolk groups. In mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, daily consumption of traditionally prepared buttermilk for 12 weeks did not lower serum total-C or LDL-C concentrations, nor did it prevent the serum total-C and LDL-C raising effect of daily egg yolk consumption. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01566305. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Probiotic Soy Product Supplemented with Isoflavones Improves the Lipid Profile of Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Daniela Cardoso Umbelino Cavallini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host’s metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an isoflavone-supplemented soy product fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 on cardiovascular risk markers in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial Setting: São Paulo State University in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Participants: 49 male healthy men with total cholesterol (TC >5.17 mmol/L and <6.21 mmol/L Intervention: The volunteers have consumed 200 mL of the probiotic soy product (group SP-1010 CFU/day, isoflavone-supplemented probiotic soy product (group ISP–probiotic plus 50 mg of total isoflavones/100 g or unfermented soy product (group USP-placebo for 42 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Main outcome measures: Lipid profile and additional cardiovascular biomarkers were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 42. Urine samples (24 h were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment so as to determine the isoflavones profile. Results: After 42 days, the ISP consumption led to improved total cholesterol, non-HDL-C (LDL + IDL + VLDL cholesterol fractions and electronegative LDL concentrations (reduction of 13.8%, 14.7% and 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.05. The ISP and SP have prevented the reduction of HDL-C level after 42 days. The C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were not improved. The equol production by the ISP group subjects was inversely correlated with electronegative LDL concentration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a regular consumption of this probiotic soy product, supplemented with isoflavones, could contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, through the an

  8. Assessment of Atorvastatin Effectiveness on Serum PSA Level in Hypercholesterolemic Males

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    Darya Khosropanah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previous large retrospective studies demonstrated that treatment with Statins reduces both the incidence of prostate cancer by 50% and serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA level up to 40%. However the main problem in those studies was the absence of control groups of men with hypercholesterolemia without Statin treatment. We performed a small prospective controlled clinical trial to assess the influence of the treatment with Atorvastatin on serum PSA in men with hypercholesterolemia referred to our educational and treatment center from October 2007 to March 2008. In this study, among the newly diagnosed males with hypercholesterolemia (LDL > 130 mg/dl, 40 patients with LDL more than 190 mg/dl were selected as a case group and were treated with Atorvastatin (20 mg/day. Among the same population and in the same period, another 40 patients with LDL between 130 and 190 mg/dl were selected as first control group and were treated only with low fat diet. Another 40 patients with normal serum cholesterol and without any treatment were selected as second control group. The lipid profile and serum PSA level of patients of all groups were tested at the first and third months after the therapy. After completion of data, the mean serum lipids and PSA level were measured in both visits and compared with each other by paired t-test. Also the mean PSA change in two visits between three groups was compared by ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. There was not any significant difference in mean baseline PSA between hypercholesterolemic and normocholesterolemic patients (P=0.547. In case group, mean PSA and LDL was reduced by 14.1% (P=0.0001 and 30% (P=0.0001 respectively by second visit. In first control group, mean PSA was not changed significantly (P=0.337, whereas mean LDL in this group was reduced by 9.6% (P= 0.0001. Similarly in the second control group mean PSA was not changed significantly (P=0.309 by second visit. In addition, mean change of PSA in case group

  9. Daily consumption of banana marginally improves blood glucose and lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic subjects and increases serum adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressey, Ratchada; Kumsaiyai, Warunee; Mangklabruks, Ampika

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of consumption of banana in thirty hypercholesterolemic and fifteen type 2 diabetic subjects. They were given a daily dose of 250 or 500 grams of banana for breakfast for 12 weeks. Fasting serum lipid, glucose and insulin levels were measured initially as well as every 4 weeks. Daily consumption of banana significantly lowered fasting blood glucose (from 99 ± 7.7 to 92 ± 6.9 and 102 ± 7.3 to 92 ± 5.7 mg x dL(-1) (p profile in diabetic patients were not statistically significant, but for plasma levels of adiponectin, there were significantly increased (from 37.5 ± 9.36 to 48.8 ± 7.38 ngnml1, p consumption of banana (@ 250 g/day) is harmless both in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic volunteers and marginally beneficial to the later.

  10. Effect of a plant sterol, fish oil and B vitamin combination on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Garaiova, Iveta; Muchov?, Jana; Nagyov?, Zuzana; Mi??anov?, Csilla; Oravec, Stanislav; Duk?t, Andrej; Wang, Duolao; Plummer, Sue F; ?ura?kov?, Zde?ka

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors can predict clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis in adulthood. In this pilot study with hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents, we investigated the effects of a combination of plant sterols, fish oil and B vitamins on the levels of four independent risk factors for CVD; LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein and homocysteine. Methods Twenty five participants (mean age 16 y, BMI 23 kg/m2) re...

  11. Anti-atherogenic effects of a phenol-rich fraction from Brazilian red wine (Vitis labrusca L.) in hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hort, Mariana Appel; Schuldt, Elke Zuleika; Bet, Angela Cristina; DalBó, Silvia; Siqueira, Jarbas Mota; Ianssen, Carla; Abatepaulo, Fátima; de Souza, Heraldo Possolo; Veleirinho, Beatriz; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    Moderate wine intake (i.e., 1-2 glasses of wine a day) is associated with a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-atherosclerotic effects of a nonalcoholic ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from a South Brazilian red wine obtained from Vitis labrusca grapes. Experiments were carried out on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout (LDLr⁻/⁻) mice, which were subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet and treated with doses of EAF (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the level of plasma lipids, the vascular reactivity, and the atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated. Our results demonstrated that the treatment with EAF at 3 mg/kg significantly decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL plus very low-density lipoprotein levels compared with control hypercholesterolemic mice. The treatment of mice with EAF at 3 mg/kg also preserved the vasodilatation induced by acetylcholine on isolated thoracic aorta from hypercholesterolemic LDLr⁻/⁻ mice. This result is in agreement with the degree of lipid deposit on arteries. Taken together, the results show for the first time that the lowest concentration of an EAF obtained from a red wine produced in southern Brazil significantly reduced the progression of atherosclerosis in mice.

  12. Study of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract containing anthocyanins on fatty streak formation in the renal arteries in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifiyan, Fatemeh; Movahedian-Attar, Ahmad; Nili, Nafiseh; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the supplementation of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins on atherosclerotic plaque formation induced by hypercholesterolemia was investigated in renal arteries in rabbits. After the determination of polyphenol and anthocyanin's content of P. granatum peel hydroalcoholic extract, 30 male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. They were fed basic diet, hypercholesterolemic diet and hypercholesterolemic diet along with P. granatum peel extract (polyphenolic content for each rabbit 1 g/kg diet) for 2 month. Blood samples were collected at the begging, middle and end of the study in order to measure lipid concentration and oxidative and antioxidative status variables, and renal arteries were taken for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques at the end of the study. The results reveal that P. granatum peel extract significantly increases serum antioxidant capacity in the extract recipient group in comparison with hypercholesterolemic control (P 0.05). The results of this study indicate that consumption of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins (polyphenol content 1 g/kg diet) despite of a significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity cannot protect the kidneys from hypercholesterolemia-induced damages during the treatment period.

  13. Whole Soy Flour Incorporated into a Muffin and Consumed at 2 Doses of Soy Protein Does Not Lower LDL Cholesterol in a Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial of Hypercholesterolemic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Emily Mt; Blewett, Heather J; Duncan, Alison M; Guzman, Randolph P; Hawke, Aileen; Seetharaman, Koushik; Tsao, Rong; Wolever, Thomas Ms; Ramdath, D Dan

    2015-12-01

    Soy protein may reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk by lowering LDL cholesterol, but few studies have assessed whether whole soy flour displays a similar effect. The aim of this study was to assess the dose effect of whole soy flour incorporated into muffins on plasma LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults. Adults aged 30-70 y (n = 243) with elevated LDL cholesterol (≥3.0 and ≤5.0 mmol/L) were stratified by LDL cholesterol and randomly assigned to consume 2 soy muffins containing 25 g soy protein [high-dose soy (HDS)], 1 soy and 1 wheat muffin containing 12.5 g soy protein and 12.5 g whey protein [low-dose soy (LDS)], or 2 wheat muffins containing 25 g whey protein (control) daily for 6 wk while consuming a self-selected diet. Fasting blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, and 6 for analysis of plasma lipids [total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs)], glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and isoflavones. Blood pressures also were measured. Dietary intake was assessed at weeks 0 and 4 with the use of 3 d food records. Treatment effects were assessed with the use of intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputation and LDL cholesterol as the primary outcome. In total, 213 (87.6%) participants completed the trial. Participants were primarily Caucasian (83%) and mostly female (63%), with a mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2) of 28.0 ± 4.6 and systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 122 ± 16 and 77 ± 11 mm Hg, respectively. Despite a dose-dependent increase in plasma isoflavones (P LDL cholesterol compared with control (mean ± SEM changes: control, -0.04 ± 0.05 mmol/L; HDS, 0.01 ± 0.05 mmol/L; and LDS, -0.04 ± 0.06 mmol/L). There were no significant treatment effects on total or HDL cholesterol, TGs, CRP, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, blood pressure, or the Framingham 10-y CHD risk score. Consuming 12.5 or 25 g protein from defatted soy flour incorporated into muffins does not reduce LDL

  14. Whole Soy Flour Incorporated into a Muffin and Consumed at 2 Doses of Soy Protein Does Not Lower LDL Cholesterol in a Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial of Hypercholesterolemic Adults12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Emily MT; Blewett, Heather J; Duncan, Alison M; Guzman, Randolph P; Hawke, Aileen; Seetharaman, Koushik; Tsao, Rong; Wolever, Thomas MS; Ramdath, D Dan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Soy protein may reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk by lowering LDL cholesterol, but few studies have assessed whether whole soy flour displays a similar effect. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the dose effect of whole soy flour incorporated into muffins on plasma LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults. Methods: Adults aged 30–70 y (n = 243) with elevated LDL cholesterol (≥3.0 and ≤5.0 mmol/L) were stratified by LDL cholesterol and randomly assigned to consume 2 soy muffins containing 25 g soy protein [high-dose soy (HDS)], 1 soy and 1 wheat muffin containing 12.5 g soy protein and 12.5 g whey protein [low-dose soy (LDS)], or 2 wheat muffins containing 25 g whey protein (control) daily for 6 wk while consuming a self-selected diet. Fasting blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, and 6 for analysis of plasma lipids [total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs)], glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and isoflavones. Blood pressures also were measured. Dietary intake was assessed at weeks 0 and 4 with the use of 3 d food records. Treatment effects were assessed with the use of intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputation and LDL cholesterol as the primary outcome. Results: In total, 213 (87.6%) participants completed the trial. Participants were primarily Caucasian (83%) and mostly female (63%), with a mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2) of 28.0 ± 4.6 and systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 122 ± 16 and 77 ± 11 mm Hg, respectively. Despite a dose-dependent increase in plasma isoflavones (P < 0.001), neither HDS nor LDS had a significant effect on LDL cholesterol compared with control (mean ± SEM changes: control, −0.04 ± 0.05 mmol/L; HDS, 0.01 ± 0.05 mmol/L; and LDS, −0.04 ± 0.06 mmol/L). There were no significant treatment effects on total or HDL cholesterol, TGs, CRP, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, blood pressure, or the Framingham 10-y CHD risk score

  15. INFLUENCE OF CHRONIC EXERCISE ON RED CELL ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE, PLASMA MALONDIALDEHYDE AND TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RABBITS

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    Mohsen Alipour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the knowledge on the antiatherogenic effects of exercise, the mechanism by which exercise reduces atherogenic risk remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that chronic exercise-induced oxidative stress may increase plasma total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant defense in the red cells. For 8 weeks, 60 male Dutch rabbits were fed rabbit chow with or without the addition of 2% cholesterol. The animals were further divided into rest and exercise groups (n = 15 for each group. Animals in exercise groups ran on a rodent treadmill at 15 m/min for 10 to 60 minutes gradually for 5 days per week for a total of 8 weeks. At the end of experiments, blood samples were collected and glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities were determined in red blood cells. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC, malondialdehyde (MDA and total thiol (T-SH levels were measured in plasma. Thoracic aorta and carotid arteries were isolated for histological examination to evaluate atherosclerosis. Eight weeks of chronic exercise reduced atherogenic diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions in all the arteries studied, along with positive changes in cholesterol profile, especially increase of serum HDL-C level. Plasma MDA, TAC and T-SH concentrations were enhanced by exercise in both control and hypercholesterolemic diet groups. Erythrocyte catalase activity was significantly increased by chronic exercise (p < 0.05, whereas total SOD activity rose with exercise only in the control group. Surprisingly, GPX activity was significantly reduced (P < 0.05 in response to exercise in the control group and also in the high cholesterol diet group. Exercise is a useful tool for the prevention and regression of atherosclerosis which is evident by our findings of the enhancement of plasma TAC and positive change in serum cholesterol profile. However, the effect of exercise on red cell antioxidant activities is limited in the

  16. PENGARUH KONSUMSI GEL DAN LARUTAN RUMPUT LAUT (Eucheuma cottonii TERHADAP HIPERKOLESTEROLEMIA DARAH TIKUS WISTAR [The Consumption Effect of Gel and Solution Types of Eucheuma cottonii Seaweeds on Hypercholesterolemic of Blood Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption effect of gel and solution of Eucheuma cottonii seaweed on blood lipid level were studied on hypercholesterolemic male wistar rat. The rat were made hypercholesterolemic by a ration that contained high lipid and cholesterol, and then they were given standard ration orally and 10, 15, and 20% (w/w feed of gel and solution seaweed parenterally. The results show that the standard ration could not reduce hypercholesterolemic to normal level while gel and solution of the seaweed could. The gel type of the seaweed has higher capacity decrease of cholesterol and triglyceride blood level. The consumption of seaweed gel 20% and 15% could reduce cholesterol to normal level in 9 and 15 days, respectively, while the solution type 20% needed 18 days. The seaweed gel 10%, solution 15% and 10% could reduce blood cholesterol level, but they could not reach to normal level in 18 days.

  17. Bioactive Constituents from “Triguero” Asparagus Improve the Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

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    Rafael Guillén-Bejarano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. “triguero” variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw/day and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day, saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF, the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA, fiber fraction (FF, and flavonoid fraction (FVF to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD. In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that “triguero” asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Bioactive Constituents from “Triguero” Asparagus Improve the Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Giménez, María Dolores García; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. “triguero” variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that “triguero” asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24284391

  19. Bioactive constituents from "triguero" asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-10-24

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  20. EFFECT OF UNRIPE GRAPE JUICE (VERJUICE ON PLASMA LIPID LEVELS IN RABBITS RENDERED HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC BY FEEDING EGG YOLK

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    A. Aminian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Since many years it has been a general belief in Iranian traditional medicine that unripe grape juice (verjuice has lipid-lowering effect. This study was designed to test this hypothesis. Fifty rabbits were selected and divided into 5 groups with 10 rabbits in each. Group 1 had no supplemental diet. Group 2 were fed 10 ml egg yolk daily and group 3 were fed 10 ml egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for six weeks. In the second part of study, 20 rabbits rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding egg yolk for six weeks, then they were divided into two groups: Group 4 received 10 ml of the egg yolk daily, and group 5 received 10 ml of the egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for the next 6 weeks. The plasma lipid profiles were measured at the beginning and then every two weeks. In the first part of study total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentrations in group 2 rose 10 times in comparison with group 1, but addition of verjuice in group 3 did not prevent rising of these values. In the second part of study, TC and LDL-C values rose in groups 4 and 5 in a parallel fashion. Changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglyceride (TG were not statistically significant throughout the study. In conclusion, this study did not support preventive or therapeutic effect of verjuice in hypercholesterolemia.

  1. The hypercholesterolemic effect of dietary coconut fat versus corn oil in hypo- or hyperresponsive rabbits is not exerted through influencing cholesterol absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, G W; Lemmens, A G; Versluis, A; Van Zutphen, L F; Beynen, A C

    1991-05-01

    In two inbred strains of rabbits with high or low response of plasma cholesterol to dietary saturated versus polyunsaturated fatty acids, the efficiency of intestinal cholesterol absorption was measured. The feeding of a cholesterol-free purified diet containing saturated fatty acids in the form of coconut fat, when compared with a diet containing corn oil as polyunsaturated fatty acids, did not influence the efficiency of cholesterol absorption in the two rabbit strains. Irrespective of the dietary fat source, the hyperresponsive rabbits absorbed cholesterol more efficiently. It is concluded that the hypercholesterolemic effect of dietary coconut fat versus corn oil is not exerted by influencing cholesterol absorption.

  2. The Efficiency of Irradiated Garlic Powder in Mitigation of Hypercholesterolemic Risk Factor in High cholesterol Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    -Neily and El-Shennawy, J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1272 4, No. 4(B)(2011) LDL/HDL ratio, AST and ALT activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. Irradiated dried garlic powder supplementation, also, increased HDL. In conclusion, irradiated dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy improved the plasma lipid levels in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets and increased the plasma HDL-C and reduced LDL/HDL ratio in groups of rats fed cholesterol-diets. The higher dose used (20 kGy) did not impair the bioactive compounds of dried garlic powder, and it can be used as an additive in cooking and as a protective pharmaceutical supplement for mitigation of hypercholesterolemic risk factor

  3. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of the Cauliflower Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Sparassis crispa (Higher Basidiomycetes), in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ki Bae; Hong, Sung-Yong; Joung, Eun Young; Kim, Byung Hee; Bae, Song-Hwan; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    The cauliflower culinary-medicinal mushroom, Sparassis crispa, possesses various biological activities that have been widely reported to have therapeutic applications. We examined the effects of S. crispa on serum cholesterol, hepatic enzymes related to cholesterol metabolism, and fecal sterol excretion in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet for 4 weeks. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 6 mice per group): normal diet (normal control [NC]), cholesterol-rich diet (cholesterol control [CC]), cholesterol-rich diet plus S. crispa fruiting body (SC), cholesterol-rich diet plus S. crispa extract (SCE), and cholesterol-rich diet plus S. crispa residue (SCR). SCE supplementation significantly enhanced hepatic cholesterol catabolism through the upregulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression (2.55-fold compared with that in the NC group; P < 0.05) and the downregulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase mRNA expression (0.57-fold compared with that in the NC group; P < 0.05). Additionally, the SCE diet resulted in the highest fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acid in hypercholesterolemic rats. In conclusion, mRNA expression of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoA reductase were significantly modulated by the absorption of SCE samples. Also, SCE samples had a significant effect on fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. These results suggest that SCE samples can induce hypocholesterolic effects through cholesterol metabolism and the reduction of circulating cholesterol levels.

  4. Evaluation of flaxseed effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in rabbits submitted to a hypercholesterolemic diet

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    Caroline Tatim Saad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of flaxseed in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as on the lipid profile in rabbits submitted to hypercholesterolemic diet. Subject and Methods: 32 male rabbits, weighing approximately 1.5kg and averaging four months of age, were distributed into three groups. Group 1 received standard food plus 0.5% of cholesterol from dried egg, during 8 weeks. Group 2 obtained the same diet in the first 4 weeks, and 8mg/kg of ground flaxseed was added in the remaining weeks. Lastly, group 3 was fed with the previous group’s increased diet throughout the entire period. In the follow-up, the animals were euthanized, and liver blades were prepared to evaluate the histopathologic study. The evaluation score of NAFLD (ESN, as well as plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDLcholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and body weight, were all determined. Results: Increased levels of total cholesterol were obtained in both groups, with the smallest variation found in G3 (p=0.002. This variation was also found when the levels of LDLcholesterol were assessed (p=0.001. There was a reduction of triglyceride levels at the end of the study in G3 (p=0.008. A variation was noticed between the ESN groups, but the induced reduction was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Further studies are necessary, in order to elucidate the effects of flaxseed in NAFLD as well as in diseases that have risk factors for the development of the disease

  5. Consuming functional foods enriched with plant sterol or stanol esters for 85 weeks does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in statin-treated hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepers, Olga J G; de Groot, Renate H M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Jolles, Jelle; de Jong, Ariënne; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P

    2009-07-01

    Recent animal and human studies have shown that plant sterols and stanols, which are used as functional food ingredients to lower increased LDL cholesterol concentrations, pass the blood-brain barrier. Whether this affects neurocognitive functioning and mental well-being in humans has, to our knowledge, never been investigated. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the effects of long-term plant sterol or stanol consumption on neurocognitive functioning and mood in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary intervention trial. To this end, hypercholesterolemic individuals, aged 43-69 y, receiving stable statin treatment were randomly assigned to an 85-wk supplementation with margarines enriched with plant sterol esters (2.5 g/d), plant stanol esters (2.5 g/d), or placebo. At baseline and at the end of the intervention period, all participants underwent a cognitive assessment. In addition, subjective cognitive functioning and mood were assessed by means of questionnaires (Cognitive Failure Questionnaire and depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90, respectively). Long-term supplementation with plant sterol or stanol esters did not affect cognitive performance (memory, simple information processing speed, complex information processing speed, Letter-Digit Substitution test performance), subjective cognitive functioning, or mood. In conclusion, the present results indicate that long-term use of plant sterols or stanols at recommended intakes of 2.5 g/d does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in hypercholesterolemic individuals receiving statin treatment.

  6. Effect of a plant sterol, fish oil and B vitamin combination on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents: a pilot study

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    Garaiova Iveta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors can predict clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis in adulthood. In this pilot study with hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents, we investigated the effects of a combination of plant sterols, fish oil and B vitamins on the levels of four independent risk factors for CVD; LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein and homocysteine. Methods Twenty five participants (mean age 16 y, BMI 23 kg/m2 received daily for a period of 16 weeks an emulsified preparation comprising plant sterols esters (1300 mg, fish oil (providing 1000 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and vitamins B12 (50 μg, B6 (2.5 mg, folic acid (800 μg and coenzyme Q10 (3 mg. Atherogenic and inflammatory risk factors, plasma lipophilic vitamins, provitamins and fatty acids were measured at baseline, week 8 and 16. Results The serum total cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, subfractions LDL-2, IDL-1, IDL-2 and plasma homocysteine levels were significantly reduced at the end of the intervention period (pp Conclusions Daily intake of a combination of plant sterols, fish oil and B vitamins may modulate the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89549017

  7. The effect of ingestion of egg and low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation on serum lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic women

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    Taweesak Techakriengkrai1

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Egg is a major source of dietary cholesterol. The serum lipid response to egg shows marked individual variation, beingpartly genetically determined, and influence by ethnic groups and the overall diet response. In the present investigation, weinvestigated the effect of ingestion of egg and low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation on serum lipid profile in hypercholesterolemicwomen. Forty hypercholesterolemic women volunteers on a cholesterol-lowering diet (CLD divided into 2 groups ina randomized controlled cross-over study of one egg per day (CLD + 1 egg for 4-week and three eggs per day (CLD + 3 eggsfor 4-week, separated by 4-week period egg-free. The body weight, blood pressure, serum lipid profiles and LDL oxidationwere measured at 4-week intervals. Cholesterol-lowering diet was applied throughout the study by a dietitian using a foodexchange program and 3-day dietary recall every 4 weeks. Compared to the values obtained at baseline, the mean serum totalcholesterol and LDL cholesterol of CLD + 3 eggs was not significantly different from baseline whereas of those of 4-week ofegg-free period and CLD + 1 egg were significantly decreased (238.3±2.9 mg/dL and 228.3±4.7 mg/dL compared to thebaseline (252.2±5.9 mg/dL as was LDL cholesterol (161.2±3.0 mg/dL and 155.7±4.8 mg/dL compared to the baseline (177.5±6.0 mg/dL (p<0.05. The study showed there were no significantly difference the body weight, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol,triglycerides or LDL oxidation during the study. However, serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol of 1 or 3 eggsper day after 4-week of egg consumption was not significantly higher than the egg-free period. The study suggests that inhypercholesterolemic women who are on cholesterol-lowering diet, consuming one or three eggs per day did not raise serumcholesterol or LDL cholesterol levels at 4 weeks or result in any change in LDL oxidation.

  8. Endothelial cell death and intimal foam cell accumulation in the coronary artery of infected hypercholesterolemic minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Saraste, Antti; Hyttel, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) has been suggested to play a role in atherosclerosis. We studied the synergism of hypercholesterolemia with Chlamydia pneumoniae and influenza virus infections on EC morphology and intimal changes in a minipig model. The coronary artery was excised at euthanasia...

  9. Diet-Induced Abdominal Obesity, Metabolic Changes, and Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic Minipigs

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    Ahmed Ludvigsen Al-Mashhadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS are major risk factors for atherosclerotic diseases; however, a causal link remains elusive. Animal models resembling human MetS and its complications, while important, are scarce. We aimed at developing a porcine model of human MetS. Methods. Forty pigs with familial hypercholesterolemia were fed a high fat + fructose diet for 30 weeks. Metabolic assessments and subcutaneous fat biopsies were obtained at 18 and 30 weeks, and fat distribution was assessed by CT-scans. Postmortem, macrophage density, and phenotype in fat tissues were quantified along with atherosclerotic burden. Results. During the experiment, we observed a >4-fold in body weight, a significant but small increase in fasting glucose (4.1 mmol/L, insulin (3.1 mU/L, triglycerides (0.5 mmol/L, and HDL cholesterol (2.6 mmol/L. Subcutaneous fat correlated with insulin resistance, but intra-abdominal fat correlated inversely with insulin resistance and LDL cholesterol. More inflammatory macrophages were found in visceral versus subcutaneous fat, and inflammation decreased in subcutaneous fat over time. Conclusions. MetS based on human criteria was not achieved. Surprisingly, visceral fat seemed part of a healthier metabolic and inflammatory profile. These results differ from human findings, and further research is needed to understand the relationship between obesity and MetS in porcine models.

  10. The Effect of Pumpkin on GLP-1 and HOMA-β in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

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    Sunarti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: High fat and fructose diet may impair β cell function through oxidative stress that is induced by subsequent hypercholesterolemia. The β cell function is usually quantified by homeostatic model assessment beta-cell function (HOMA-β. Oxidative stress may be decreased by β-carotene from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pumpkin powder on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 level and HOMA-β in rats with high fat and fructose diet.

  11. A Freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) extract reduces cholesterol level and hepatic lipids in normal rats and xenobiotics-induced hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chijimatsu, Takeshi; Tatsuguchi, Iwao; Oda, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2009-04-22

    We investigated whether a freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) extract (FCE) could improve cholesterol metabolism and hepatic lipids accumulation in rats fed xenobiotics such as chloretone. Feeding chloretone resulted in hypercholesterolemia and fatty liver. An increase in serum cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL) in particular, after intake of chloretone was observed. Serum cholesterol was decreased by supplementation with FCE. Accumulation of the hepatic lipids including triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and phospholipid was significantly suppressed by supplementation with FCE. The excretion of neutral and acidic sterols into the feces was enhanced by FCE. The hepatic gene expression of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase was enhanced in rats fed a FCE-containing diet. Apolipoprotein A-I gene expression in the liver, which is a major apolipoprotein of HDL, was suppressed by FCE. These results demonstrated that FCE reduced cholesterol level and hepatic lipids in normal rats and hypercholesterolemic rats fed chloretone.

  12. Multicompartmental nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics: explorative study on the metabolic responses of rye fiber versus refined wheat fiber intake in plasma and urine of hypercholesterolemic pigs

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    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    A multicompartmental nontargeted LC–MS metabolomics approach was used to study the metabolic responses on plasma and urine of hypercholesterolemic pigs after consumption of diets with contrasting dietary fiber composition (whole grain rye with added rye bran versus refined wheat). To study...... the metabolic responses, we performed a supervised multivariate data analyses used for pattern recognition, which revealed marked effects of the diets on both plasma and urine metabolic profiles. Diverse pools of metabolites were responsible for the discrimination between the diets. Elevated levels of phenolic...... compounds and dicarboxylic acids were detected in urine of pigs after rye consumption compared to refined wheat. Furthermore, consumption of rye was characterized by lower levels of linoleic acid derived oxylipins and cholesterol in the plasma metabolic profiles. These results indicate that higher...

  13. Additional consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein plus zeaxanthin concentration and lowers oxidized low-density lipoprotein in moderately hypercholesterolemic males.

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    Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Taguchi, Chie; Saita, Emi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Wang, Wei; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kondo, Kazuo

    2017-09-01

    The egg is a nutrient-dense food and contains antioxidative carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, but its impact on serum cholesterol levels has been a matter of concern, especially for individuals who have high serum cholesterol levels. We conducted this study to determine whether and how the daily additional consumption of one egg affects serum lipid profiles and parameters of LDL oxidation in moderately hypercholesterolemic males. Nineteen male Japanese adults (total cholesterol [TC]>5.2mmol/L) participated, consuming one soft boiled egg per day for 4weeks in addition to their habitual diet. Despite the significant increase in their intake of dietary cholesterol during the intervention period, the subjects' serum concentrations of TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) did not increase. Their serum malondialdehyde modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) concentrations were significantly decreased and their LDL oxidation lag times, reflecting the resistance of free-radical-induced LDL lipid peroxidation (ex vivo), was prolonged after 2 and 4weeks. At weeks 2 and 4, the subjects' serum lutein+zeaxanthin concentrations were significantly higher than their baseline values and showed both an inverse relation with MDA-LDL and a positive relationship with the LDL oxidation lag time. These data showed that in moderately hypercholesterolemic males, the additional consumption of one egg per day for 4weeks did not have adverse effects on serum TC or LDL-C, and it might reduce the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation through an increase in the serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of the Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii on Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Particles in Hypercholesterolemic Adults: A Single-Arm, Open-Label Pilot Study.

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    Ryan, Jennifer Joan; Hanes, Douglas Allen; Schafer, Morgan Beth; Mikolai, Jeremy; Zwickey, Heather

    2015-05-01

    Elevated blood cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Probiotics have been investigated as potential cholesterol-lowering therapies, but no previous studies have assessed the effect of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii on cholesterol levels in human volunteers. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of S. boulardii on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein particles in hypercholesterolemic adults. This study was a single-arm, open-label pilot study. Twelve hypercholesterolemic participants were recruited into the study; one dropped out. Participants took 5.6×10(10) colony forming unit (CFU) encapsulated S. boulardii (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii CNCM I-1079) twice daily for an 8-week period. Fasting concentrations of cholesterol (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], and triglycerides), lipoprotein particles (very-low-density lipoprotein-particle [VLDL-P], remnant lipoprotein particle [RLP-P], total LDL-P, LDL III-P, LDL IV-P, total HDL-P, and HDL 2b-P), and additional cardiovascular biomarkers (apo B-100, lipoprotein [a], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, fibrinogen, and insulin) were measured at baseline, after 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks. Remnant lipoprotein particles decreased by 15.5% (p=0.03) over the 8-week period. The remaining outcome measures were not significantly altered. In this pilot study, 8 weeks of daily supplementation with S. boulardii lowered remnant lipoprotein, a predictive biomarker and potential therapeutic target in the treatment and prevention of coronary artery disease.

  15. Impact of daily Chlorella consumption on serum lipid and carotenoid profiles in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

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    Ryu, Na Hee; Lim, Yeni; Park, Ji Eeun; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Sung Won; Kwon, Oran

    2014-06-11

    High level of serum cholesterol is considered to be a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed to test the hypothesis that a daily intake of Chlorella may improve serum lipid profile through enhancement of serum carotenoid concentration in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eligible subjects (n = 63) were randomized to either Chlorella (5 g/day) or placebo for a double-blinded trial with a 2-week lead-in period and a 4-week intervention period. Serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins and carotenoids were assessed at the beginning and the end of the trial. Compared with the control group, the Chlorella group exhibited remarkable changes in total cholesterol (Chlorella -1.6%; placebo 0.03%; P = 0.036), triglycerides (Chlorella -10.3%; placebo 11.9%; P = 0.002), lutein/zeaxanthin (Chlorella 89.6%; placebo -1.7%; P Chlorella 163.6%; placebo 15%; P Chlorella -11%; placebo 11.8%; P = 0.006), apolipoprotein B (Chlorella -1.5%; placebo 1.7%; P = 0.044), non high-density lipoprotein (Chlorella -2.6%; placebo -0.5%; P = 0.032), and high-density lipoprotein/triglycerides (Chlorella 4.0%; placebo -9.5%; P = 0.023), suggesting an inhibitory effect of Chlorella on the intestinal absorption of dietary and endogenous lipids. Further, the changes of serum lipids appeared to be associated with the changes of serum carotenoids. Daily consumption of Chlorella supplements provided the potential of health benefits reducing serum lipid risk factors, mainly triglycerides and total cholesterol, in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. The effect was related to carotenoid consumption. WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform KCT0000259.

  16. Effects of oat and wheat bread consumption on lipid profile, blood sugar, and endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic patients: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenizadeh, Amir; Heidari, Ramin; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Tabesh, Faezeh; Ekramzadeh, Maryam; Haghighatian, Zahra; Golshahi, Jafar; Baseri, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Increased lipid profile after each meal can disturb the endothelial function. The present study assessed the effects of bread supplemented with oat bran on serum lipids and endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypercholesterolemia. This clinical trial was conducted on 60 isolated hypercholesterolemic patients. The subjects were randomly allocated to either intervention (consuming at least five daily servings of oat bread with 6 g beta-glucan) or control (receiving at least five servings of wheat bread). Anthropometric indicators, fasting blood sugar and lipid profiles ere measured at baseline and after 6 weeks (in the end of the intervention). Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Within the group and between group differences were investigated using paired t-test and Student's t-test, respectively. Oat bread consumption could significantly reduce total cholesterol (P = 0.029). A significant increase in baseline and after ischemia brachial artery diameters at the end of the study was seen. However, it did not have a significant effect on FMD (P = 0.825). In the control group, none of the measured indices had changed significantly at the end of the study. Finally, only the mean change of brachial artery diameter after ischemia and baseline brachial artery diameter were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P = 0.036 and P = 0.012 respectively). Oat bread with beta-glucan could successfully reduce cholesterol levels. Furthermore, in this study oat bread did not reduce FMD more than wheat bread. Since hypercholesterolemia is a proven risk factor for endothelial dysfunction, hypercholesterolemic patients can hence be advised to eat oat bread.

  17. Efficiency of Barley Bran and Oat Bran in Ameliorating Blood Lipid Profile and the Adverse Histological Changes in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

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    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of oat bran and barley bran in lowering the induced hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia in blood of male Albino rats (Rattus rattus was studied. Twenty rats were divided into four groups each consisted of five rats and fed the specified test diets for eight weeks. The first group (G1 is the negative group which was fed basal diet, the second group (G2 was fed 1.0% cholesterol, was the third group (G3 fed 1.0% cholesterol and 10% oats bran, and the fourth group (G4 was fed 1.0% cholesterol and 10% barley bran. Feeding rats on 1% cholesterol significantly increased serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride and decreased serum high density lipoprotein. Furthermore, enzyme activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase was increased, and lipid peroxide was increased, whereas catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were decreased. Kidney functions parameters in the cholesterol supplemented group were elevated compared with the negative control. In addition, histological alteration in kidney, liver, heart, and testes was observed, compared with the negative control. Hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with oat bran and barley bran showed significant decrease in lipid parameters, significant increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, improved antioxidant enzyme, and improved histopathology of kidney, liver, heart, and testes. In conclusion, both oat bran and barley bran had protective effects against induced hyperlipidemia and improved histological alterations. Oat bran appeared more efficient than barley bran in lowering the lipid profile levels in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  18. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of ongoing statin plus ezetimibe versus doubling the ongoing statin dose in hypercholesterolemic Taiwanese patients: an open-label, randomized clinical trial

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    Yu Chih-Chieh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C is associated with reduced risk for major coronary events. Despite statin efficacy, a considerable proportion of statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients fail to reach therapeutic LDL-C targets as defined by guidelines. This study compared the efficacy of ezetimibe added to ongoing statins with doubling the dose of ongoing statin in a population of Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparison study of ezetimibe 10 mg added to ongoing statin compared with doubling the dose of ongoing statin. Adult Taiwanese hypercholesterolemic patients not at optimal LDL-C levels with previous statin treatment were randomized (N = 83 to ongoing statin + ezetimibe (simvastatin, atorvastatin or pravastatin + ezetimibe at doses of 20/10, 10/10 or 20/10 mg or doubling the dose of ongoing statin (simvastatin 40 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg or pravastatin 40 mg for 8 weeks. Percent change in total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides, and specified safety parameters were assessed at 4 and 8 weeks. Results At 8 weeks, patients treated with statin + ezetimibe experienced significantly greater reductions compared with doubling the statin dose in LDL-C (26.2% vs 17.9%, p = 0.0026 and total cholesterol (20.8% vs 12.2%, p = 0.0003. Percentage of patients achieving treatment goal was greater for statin + ezetimibe (58.6% vs doubling statin (41.2%, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.1675. The safety and tolerability profiles were similar between treatments. Conclusion Ezetimibe added to ongoing statin therapy resulted in significantly greater lipid-lowering compared with doubling the dose of statin in Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Studies to assess clinical outcome benefit are ongoing. Trial registration Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00652327

  19. The antiatherogenic effect of bixin in hypercholesterolemic rabbits is associated to the improvement of lipid profile and to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somacal, Sabrina; Figueiredo, Cassieli G; Quatrin, Andréia; Ruviaro, Amanda R; Conte, Lisiane; Augusti, Paula R; Roehrs, Miguel; Denardin, Ione T; Kasten, Jocieli; da Veiga, Marcelo L; Duarte, Marta M F; Emanuelli, Tatiana

    2015-05-01

    Hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. We investigated whether the carotenoid bixin (BIX) may reduce oxidative damage, inflammatory response, and the atherosclerotic lesion induced by hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. Rabbits received regular chow (control) or a hypercholesterolemic diet (0.5% cholesterol) alone or supplemented with BIX (10, 30 or 100 mg/kg body weight, b.w.) or simvastatin (15 mg/kg b.w.) for 60 days. Treatment with BIX or simvastatin reduced the atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol-fed rabbits (up to 55 and 96% reduction, respectively). This protective effect of BIX was accompanied by decrease in the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha by 15%, interleukin 6 by 19%, lipid peroxidation by 60%, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) by 37%, and triglycerides by 41%. BIX increased by 160% the HDL-C levels and decreased by 67% the atherogenic index of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. In atherosclerotic rabbits, the non-protein thiol groups content and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin reductase were increased in the aortic tissue, whereas paraoxonase activity was reduced in the serum. All these changes were completely prevented by BIX or simvastatin treatment. These results demonstrate that BIX reduces the extent of atherosclerotic lesions and this effect was associated with the decrease in oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and improvement of dyslipidemia, which were most effectively controlled after treatment with 10-30 mg BIX/kg b.w. BIX consumption may, therefore, be an adjuvant to prevent atherosclerosis reducing risk factors for coronary diseases.

  20. Effects of Olea europea var. oleaster leaves in hypercholesterolemic insulin-resistant sand rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennani-Kabchi, N; Fdhil, H; Cherrah, Y; Kehel, L; el Bouayadi, F; Amarti, A; Saïdi, M; Marquié, G

    1999-01-01

    Sand rats fed a hypercaloric diet manifest obesity and diabetes. We have used this model to develop hypercholesterolaemia and describe the beneficial action of Olea europea var. oleaster leaves. Twenty-eight sand rats submitted to a high cholesterol diet for four months were assigned to control and treated groups. Plant decoction at 10 per cent was given orally for two months. Results showed that the control group exhibited hyperglycaemia, glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and moderate hyperinsulinaemia. Light microscopic study showed thickening of capillary walls in skin, pancreas and kidney. The treatment produced hypoglycaemic (43 per cent, p < 0.001), antihyperglycaemic (48 per cent, p < 0.001) and hypoinsulinaemic (39 per cent, p < 0.01) activities. In addition, the plant presented a hypocholesterolaemic effect (47 per cent, p < 0.001) accompanied by lowering of oxidized LDL (30 per cent, p < 0.01). Accordingly, capillary wall thickening was reduced in skin and pancreas and completely prevented in kidney. The data demonstrate that oleaster leaves possess at least two active compounds to treat hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes.

  1. Different palm oil preparations reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol accumulation compared to coconut oil in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Kotyla, Timothy; Sundram, Kalyana; Kritchevsky, David

    2005-10-01

    Several studies have reported on the effect of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBD-PO) incorporation into the diet on blood cholesterol concentrations and on the development of atherosclerosis. However, very little work has been reported on the influence of red palm oil (RPO), which is higher in carotenoid and tocopherol content than RBD-PO. Thus, we studied the influence of RPO, RBD-PO and a RBD-PO plus red palm oil extract (reconstituted RBD-PO) on plasma cholesterol concentrations and aortic accumulation vs. hamsters fed coconut oil. Forty-eight F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three/cage) in hanging polystyrene cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks at which time they were bled after an overnight fast and segregated into four groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 continued on the HCD, Group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RPO in place of coconut oil, Group 3 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBD-PO in place of coconut oil and Group 4 was fed the HCD with 10% reconstituted RBD-PO for an additional 10 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the hamsters fed the RPO (-42% and -48%), RBD-PO (-32% and -36%) and the reconstituted RBD-PO (-37% and -41%) compared to the coconut oil-fed hamsters. Plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher by 14% and 31% in hamsters fed the RBD-PO and RPO compared to the coconut oil-fed hamsters. Plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations were significantly lower in hamsters fed RBD-PO (-32%) and the reconstituted RBD-PO (-31%) compared to the coconut oil-fed hamsters. The plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations were higher

  2. The effects of phytosterol in low fat milk on serum lipid levels among mild-moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sukmaniah

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important risk factors for CHD is dyslipidemia, among others hypercholesterolemia or high LDL-cholesterol. Plant-sterols or phytosterols (PS are among dietary factors known to lower blood cholesterol as part of therapeutic life-style changes diet. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of PS properly solubilized in a-partly vegetable oil-filled low fat milk, on serum lipid levels in mild-moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects. Randomized, two-arm parallel control group trial was conducted at Department of Nutrition-University of Indonesia in Jakarta from June to November 2006. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive dietary life-style changes counseling plus 1.2 g phytosterol/day in low-fat milk (PS-group or control group receiving the counseling alone for six weeks period. There were no significant changes of serum total and LDL-cholesterol of control group after a six week of dietary counseling (respectively 218.3 ± 18.6 mg/dL to 219.6 ± 24.3 mg/dL and 164.7±21.8 mg/dL to 160.0±26.4 mg/dL. There were a significant decreases of serum total and LDL-cholesterol (respectively p=0.01 and p=0.004 among subjects receiving PS after a six weeks observation period (respectively 233.5±24.6 mg/dL to 211.2±30.3 mg/dL and 176.9±24.7 mg/dL to 154.5±24.3 mg/dL. There was a significant difference in the LDL-lowering effects (p=0.024 among the PS-group after a six weeks (22.4±27.9 mg/dL as compared to the control group (4.7±17.2 mg/dL. No significant changes were found on serum HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in both groups. Although there was no significant difference found in daily nutrients intake between the-2 groups, however, significant reductions in body weight, body mass index and waist circumference were found only in the PS group (p=0.000; 0.000; 0.003, respectively. It is concluded that the lowering of total and LDL-cholesterol in those receiving life-style changes counseling plus 1.2 g PS daily for six

  3. Response of Microtermes mycophagus (Isoptera: Termitidae to twenty one wood species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Iqbal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The responses of termite species to bait depend upon the quality of the food used in the stations. Woods are the most common food sources for termites but different termite species behave differently to different wood species and types. The knowledge of the preference status of different wood species to a termite species helps in effective monitoring and baiting program. The current study was carried out to evaluate the preference of 21 wood species to the termite, Microtermes mycophagus in the field by no-choice and choice feeding tests. The results indicated silk cotton tree and sacred fig woods as the most preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 71.21 ± 5.09% and 68.38 ± 7.27% in no-choice test and 95.02 ± 1.65% and 91.69 ± 2.07% in choice tests, respectively. White cedar was the least preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 7.49 ± 1.64% and 13.92 ± 1.89% in no choice and choice feeding tests, respectively. Based on present studies, sapwood of silk cotton tree and sacred fig may be used in effective monitoring and baiting program against M. mycophagus.

  4. Proximal tibial varus osteotomy. Indications, technique, and five to twenty-one-year results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marti, R. K.; Verhagen, R. A.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Moojen, T. M.

    2001-01-01

    Although high tibial osteotomy has been proved effective for the treatment of painful osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee, the role of proximal tibial varus osteotomy for the treatment of painful osteoarthritis of the lateral compartment still remains controversial. From 1974 to

  5. A study of twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    -frequency tinnitus. Noise recordings were made in the homes of the complainants, and the complainants were exposed to these in blind test listening experiments. Furthermore, the low-frequency hearing function of the complainants was investigated, and characteristics of the annoying sound was matched. The results...... showed that some of the complainants are annoyed by a physical sound (20-180 Hz), while others suffer from low-frequency tinnitus (perceived frequency 40-100 Hz). Physical sound at frequencies below 20 Hz (infrasound) is not responsible for the annoyance - or at all audible - in any of the investigated...... cases, and none of the complainants has extraordinary hearing sensitivity at low frequencies. For comparable cases of low-frequency noise complaints in general, it is anticipated that physical sound is responsible in a substantial part of the cases, while lowfrequency tinnitus is responsible in another...

  6. Structure Matters: Twenty-One Teaching Strategies to Promote Student Engagement and Cultivate Classroom Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    The biology education community focuses a great deal of time and energy on issues of "what" students should be learning in the modern age of biology and then probing the extent to which students are learning these things. There has been increased focus over time on the "how" of teaching, with attention to questioning the…

  7. Acid Rain: A Selective Bibliography. Second Edition. Bibliography Series Twenty-One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Gertrudis, Comp.

    Acid rain is a term for rain, snow, or other precipitation produced from water vapor in the air reacting with emissions from automobiles, factories, power plants, and other oil and coal burning sources. When these chemical compounds, composed of sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide, react with water vapor, the result is sulfuric acid and nitric acid.…

  8. Progress report for the first twenty-one months of the contract period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    During the period of July 1, 1978, through March 31, 1980 in-depth research of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in all of the nineteen northeastern states was performed. Research into economic issues associated with the development of small scale hydroelectric power was undertaken by the project economist. Special research activities have been undertaken with respect to the federal dam safety programs, the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System requirements of the Federal Clean Water Act and the implications of those requirements to small scale hydroelectric power, riparian law on lake and reservoir fluctuation in the State of Maine, and the implications of Title II and IV of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 to the development of small scale hydroelectric power. The results of these studies are reported. (LCL)

  9. Twenty-One Leadership Responsibilities and Quality Management in the Context of Educational Baldrige Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibach, Kimberly L.

    2014-01-01

    This body of work presents the summary of findings; explanation of implications; discussion of conclusions; and recommendations about practice, policy and future research regarding principal leadership in school districts recognized as national Baldrige Award winners. This study widened the scope and definition of quality management in education…

  10. Karyotypic analyses of twenty-one species of molossid bats (Molossidae: Chiroptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J.W.; Patton, J.L.; Gardner, A.L.; Baker, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of 135 specimens representing 21 species from seven genera of the family Molossidae revealed diploid numbers ranging from 34 to 48. Seventeen species from six genera have diploid numbers of 48. Geographic variation and polymorphism were found only in Eumops glaucinus. Chromosomal variation within the family is presumed to be primarily due to changes in diploid number resulting from Robertsonian translocations.

  11. Twenty-one year old female with an iris tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettinig, G.; Kurtaran, A.; Dudczak, R.; Maca, S.; Barisani, T.; Horvat, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 21-year-old female with multiple granulomas an the right iris with concomitant therapy refractive panuveitis was referred to the Department of Ophthalmology to exclude an ocular malignancy. The patient had a history of minimal change glomerulonephritis and cutaneous granulomas at the age of six years that were successfully treated with cyclophosphamide. Her visual acuity initially already reduced to 30 % decreased rapidly to 'counting fingers'. A clinical work-up including chest x-ray, spiral computed tomography of the lungs and a detailed serological examination including angiotensin converting enzyme showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. Planar scintigraphy 24 hours after administration of 185 MBq Gallium-67 citrate demonstrated an intense tracer accumulation in both lacrimal glands. Salivary gland uptake was normal and there was only a faint accumulation in the mediastinum interpreted as normal. A biopsy of the right iris revealed a granulomatous non caseating inflammation diagnosed as sarcoidosis. A systemic combination treatment with prednisolone and methotrexate for 4 months could not control the inflammation. After therapy was changed to cyclosporine the inflammation decreased and visual acuity decreased to 60 %. Neither a 'lambda sign' (characteristic uptake of Ga-67 in intrathoracic lymph nodes resembling the Greek letter lambda) nor a typical 'panda sign' (bilateral salivary and lacrimal gland uptake of Ga-67) commonly present in sarcoidosis were seen in our patient. This case demonstrates that in individual patients with sarcoidosis, lacrimal gland uptake of Ga-67 may be the only significant noninvasive finding. (author)

  12. Drug-associated acute pancreatitis : twenty-one years of spontaneous reporting in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eland, I A; van Puijenbroek, E P; Sturkenboom, M J; Wilson, J H; Stricker, B H

    OBJECTIVE: Drugs are considered a rare cause of acute pancreatitis. We conducted a descriptive study to assess which drugs have been associated with acute pancreatitis in spontaneous adverse drug reaction reports in The Netherlands. METHODS: Our study is based on reports of drug-associated acute

  13. Leaf chemical composition of twenty-one Populus hybrid clones grown under intensive culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Dickson; Philip R. Larson

    1976-01-01

    Leaf material from 21 nursery-grown Populus hybrid clones was analyzed for three nitrogen fractions (total N, soluble protein, and soluble amino acids) and three carbhydrate fractions (reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, and total nonstructural carbohydrates-TNC). In addition, nursery-grown green ash and silver maple, field-grown bigtooth and trembling aspen, and...

  14. Twenty-one Asteroid Lightcurves at Asteroids Observers (OBAS) - MPPD: Nov 2016 - May 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Vicente; Fornas, G.; Lozano, Juan; Rodrigo, Onofre; Fornas, A.; Carreño, A.; Arce, Enrique; Brines, Pedro; Herrero, David

    2018-01-01

    We report on the analysis of photometric observations of 21 main-belt asteroids (MBA) done by Asteroids Observers (OBAS). This work is part of the Minor Planet Photometric Database task that was initiated by a group of Spanish amateur astronomers. We have managed to obtain a number of accurate and complete lightcurves as well as some additional incomplete lightcurves to help analysis at future oppositions.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-one. Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maine governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Phenol-enriched olive oils improve HDL antioxidant content in hypercholesterolemic subjects. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farràs, Marta; Fernández-Castillejo, Sara; Rubió, Laura; Arranz, Sara; Catalán, Úrsula; Subirana, Isaac; Romero, Mari-Paz; Castañer, Olga; Pedret, Anna; Blanchart, Gemma; Muñoz-Aguayo, Daniel; Schröder, Helmut; Covas, Maria-Isabel; de la Torre, Rafael; Motilva, Maria-José; Solà, Rosa; Fitó, Montserrat

    2018-01-01

    At present, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function is thought to be more relevant than HDL cholesterol quantity. Consumption of olive oil phenolic compounds (PCs) has beneficial effects on HDL-related markers. Enriched food with complementary antioxidants could be a suitable option to obtain additional protective effects. Our aim was to ascertain whether virgin olive oils (VOOs) enriched with (a) their own PC (FVOO) and (b) their own PC plus complementary ones from thyme (FVOOT) could improve HDL status and function. Thirty-three hypercholesterolemic individuals ingested (25 ml/day, 3 weeks) (a) VOO (80 ppm), (b) FVOO (500 ppm) and (c) FVOOT (500 ppm) in a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial. A rise in HDL antioxidant compounds was observed after both functional olive oil interventions. Nevertheless, α-tocopherol, the main HDL antioxidant, was only augmented after FVOOT versus its baseline. In conclusion, long-term consumption of phenol-enriched olive oils induced a better HDL antioxidant content, the complementary phenol-enriched olive oil being the one which increased the main HDL antioxidant, α-tocopherol. Complementary phenol-enriched olive oil could be a useful dietary tool for improving HDL richness in antioxidants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Relationship between hemoglobin A1c and cardiovascular disease in mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemic Japanese individuals: subanalysis of a large-scale randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohashi Yasuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the ADA/EASD/IDF International Expert Committee recommends using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c to define diabetes, the relation between HbA1c and cardiovascular disease (CVD has not been thoroughly investigated. We analyzed this relation using clinical data on Japanese individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Methods In the large-scale MEGA Study 7832 patients aged 40 to 70 years old with mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia without CVD were randomized to diet alone or diet plus pravastatin and followed for >5 years. In the present subanalysis of that study a total of 4002 patients with baseline and follow-up HbA1c data were stratified according to having an average HbA1c during the first year of follow-up Results Overall, risk of CVD was significantly 2.4 times higher in individuals with HbA1c ≥6.5% versus Conclusions In hypercholesterolemic individuals the risk of CVD increases linearly with HbA1c level. This significant contribution by elevated HbA1c to increased CVD is independent of pravastatin therapy, and thus requires appropriate HbA1c management in addition to lipids reduction.

  18. Passive opium smoking does not have beneficial effect on plasma lipids and cardiovascular indices in hypercholesterolemic rabbits with ischemic and non-ischemic hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Joukar, Siyavash; Malekpour-Afshar, Reza; Mirzaeipour, Fateme; Nasri, Hamid Reza

    2010-02-03

    To scientifically test a traditionally belief of some Asian countries residents that opium may prevent or have ameliorating effects on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) we investigated the effect of passive opium smoking (POS) on plasma lipids and some cardiovascular parameters in hypercholesterolemic rabbits with ischemic and non-ischemic hearts. 40 rabbits were fed for 2 weeks with cholesterol-enriched diet and divided to control (CTL), short-term opium (SO) and long-term opium (LO) groups. SO and LO groups were exposed to POS for 3 days and 4 weeks respectively. ECG, blood pressure (BP) and left ventricular pressure recorded and serum lipid and cardiac troponin I levels were measured. Isoproterenol (ISO) injected for induction of cardiac ischemia and after 4h the above variables were measured along with cardiac histopathology assessment. HDL cholesterol decreased significantly in LO compared to CTL group (35+/-5 vs 53+/-5mg/dl). Groups treated with ISO showed significantly higher increments in troponin I level (POpium exposure caused a trend of increase in blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and ECG disturbances, attenuated ISO induced myonecrosis but augmented tissue congestion and hemorrhage. POS can be considered as a CVD risk factor. Opium does not reduce BP or cholesterol level, as is anticipated by its users. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nori- and sea spaghetti- but not wakame-restructured pork decrease the hypercholesterolemic and liver proapototic short-term effects of high-dietary cholesterol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz Moreira, Adriana R; Benedi, Juana; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Reus, Isabel; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Restructured pork (RP) enriched in Seaweeds are potential functional foods. The antiapoptotic and hypocholesterolemic effects of consuming cholesterol enriched diets containing Wakame-RP (CW), Nori-RP (CN) and Sea Spaghetti (CS) were tested in a 1-wk study. Groups of six rats per group were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93M rodent-diet containing cholesterol and cholic acid as a cholesterol rising agent plus 15% RP containing alga. These diets were compared to control-RP diets enriched or not in cholesterol (CC and C, respectively). After 1-wk, cholesterol feeding significantly increased liver apoptosis markers which were significantly reduced by CS (cellular cycle DNA, caspase-3, and cytochrome c), CN (caspase-3 and cytochrome c) and CW (caspase-3) diets. CN and CS diets significantly blocked the cholesterolaemic rising effect observed in the CC group but no protective effect was observed in the CW group. Differences in seaweed composition added to RP appear responsible for blocking or not the proapoptotic and hypercholesterolemic effects of high cholesterol-RP consumption; thus, any generalization on seaweed effects or food containing seaweeds must be avoided. Although present results are worthy, future studies are demanded to ascertain the utility of consuming algal-RP as part of usual diets. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of supplementation of probiotics and phytosterols alone or in combination on serum and hepatic lipid profiles and thyroid hormones of hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaisheh, S S; Khalifeh, M S; Al-Ruwaili, M A; Khalil, O M; Al-Ameri, O H; Al-Groom, R

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria and phytosterols are natural hypocholesterolemic agents with potential cardiovascular benefits. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of probiotics and phytosterols alone or in combination on serum and hepatic lipid profiles and thyroid hormones of hypercholesterolemic rats. Mixed probiotics treatment consisted of 8 probiotic strains: 2 strains of each of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus reuteri. The rats were fed for 8 wk with the given treatments in addition to a high-fat-high-cholesterol basal diet to induce hypercholesterolemia. Results showed that supplementation significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides compared with the controls. The symbiotic treatment was more effective in lowering LDL-C, whereas mixed probiotics treatment more effectively lowered serum total cholesterol and LDL-C than the phytosterol-containing treatment. The phytosterol-containing treatments induced the increased activity of thyroid glands, as evident by elevated levels of serum total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, and free triiodothyronine. In conclusion, the lipid profile can effectively be reduced to lower the incidence of cardiovascular disease using combinations of Lactobacillus-based probiotics and phytosterols in functional foods. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of policosanol on experimental thrombosis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal, D; Arruzazabala, M L; Más, R; Molina, V; Valdés, S

    1994-05-01

    Policosanol is a natural product, obtained from sugar cane wax (Saccharum officinarum L.) with which cholesterol-lowering effects have been demonstrated in experimental models, healthy volunteers and hypercholesterolemic patients. The effects of policosanol on experimental venous and arterial thrombosis in rats were investigated. Policosanol (25 mg/kg) significantly decreased the thrombus weight, in the venous thrombosis models, the protective effect persisting until 4 h after its oral administration. Policosanol (25 mg/kg single dose) was able to reduce rectal temperature variation induced by arterial thrombosis. Also at the same dose policosanol increased 6-keto-PGF1 alpha serum levels in rats.

  2. Reduced and high molecular weight barley beta-glucans decrease plasma total and non-HDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Delaney, Bryan; Chadwell, Kim; Moolchandani, Vikas; Kotyla, Timothy; Ponduru, Sridevi; Zheng, Guo-Hua; Hess, Richard; Knutson, Nathan; Curry, Leslie; Kolberg, Lore; Goulson, Melanie; Ostergren, Karen

    2004-10-01

    Consumption of concentrated barley beta-glucan lowers plasma cholesterol because of its soluble dietary fiber nature. The role of molecular weight (MW) in lowering serum cholesterol is not well established. Prior studies showed that enzymatic degradation of beta-glucan eliminates the cholesterol-lowering activity; however, these studies did not evaluate the MW of the beta-glucan. The current study was conducted to evaluate whether barley beta-glucan concentrates, partially hydrolyzed to reduce MW, possess cholesterol-lowering and antiatherogenic activities. The reduced MW fraction was compared with a high MW beta-glucan concentrate from the same barley flour. Concentrated beta-glucan preparations were evaluated in Syrian Golden F(1)B hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) with cholesterol, hydrogenated coconut oil, and cellulose. After 2 wk, hamsters were fed HCD or diets that contained high or reduced MW beta-glucan at a concentration of 8 g/100 g at the expense of cellulose. Decreases in plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) concentrations occurred in the hamsters fed reduced MW and high MW beta-glucan diets. Plasma HDL-C concentrations did not differ. HCD-fed hamsters had higher plasma triglyceride concentrations. Liver TC, free cholesterol, and cholesterol ester concentrations did not differ. Aortic cholesterol ester concentrations were lower in the reduced MW beta-glucan-fed hamsters. Consumption of either high or reduced MW beta-glucan increased concentrations of fecal total neutral sterols and coprostanol, a cholesterol derivative. Fecal excretion of cholesterol was greater than in HCD-fed hamsters only in those fed the reduced MW beta-glucan. Study results demonstrate that the cholesterol-lowering activity of barley beta-glucan may occur at both lower and higher MW.

  3. Clinical role of a fixed combination of standardized Berberis aristata and Silybum marianum extracts in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic patients intolerant to statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Iaele Bellone,2 Giuliana Rapacioli,3 Pietro Putignano4 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 3AIOR, Pontenure, Province of Piacenza, Italy; 4University Hospital San Gerardo, Monza, Italy Background: Statin intolerance is a medical condition often leading patients to nonadherence to the prescribed therapy or to a relevant reduction of the statin dosage. Both situations determine a totally or partially uncontrolled lipid profile, and these conditions unquestionably increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Methods: We enrolled hypercholesterolemic, type 2 diabetic patients complaining of intolerance to statins. Some of them had reduced the statin dose ‘until the disappearance of symptoms’; others had opted for treatment with ezetimibe; and yet others were not undergoing any treatment at all. All patients of the three groups were then given a fixed combination of berberine and silymarin (Berberol®, known from previous papers to be able to control both lipidic and glycemic profiles. Results: The tested product both as a single therapy and as add-on therapy to low-dose statin or to ezetimibe reduced triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin in a significant manner without inducing toxicity conditions that might be somehow ascribed to a statin-intolerant condition. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that use of Berberol®, administered as a single or add-on therapy in statin-intolerant subjects affected by diabetes and hypercholesterolemia is a safe and effective tool capable of improving the patients' lipidic and glycemic profiles. Keywords: berberine, silymarin, Berberol®, ezetimibe, cholesterol, type 2 diabetes

  4. Treatment with ETC-1002 alone and in combination with ezetimibe lowers LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic patients with or without statin intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul D; MacDougall, Diane E; Newton, Roger S; Margulies, Janice R; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Orloff, David G; McKenney, James M; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2016-01-01

    ETC-1002 is an oral, once-daily, first-in-class medication being developed to treat hypercholesterolemia. To compare 2 doses of ETC-1002, alone or combined with ezetimibe 10 mg (EZE), vs EZE monotherapy for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). This phase 2b, multicenter, double-blind trial-evaluated hypercholesterolemic patients (LDL-C, 130 to 220 mg/dL) with (n = 177) or without (n = 171) muscle-related intolerance to ≥2 statins; 1 at lowest approved dose. Subjects were randomized to 12-week treatment with ETC-1002 120 mg or ETC-1002 180 mg alone, EZE alone, ETC-1002 120 mg plus EZE, or ETC-1002 180 mg plus EZE. EZE alone lowered LDL-C by 21%, whereas ETC-1002 monotherapy with 120 mg or 180 mg reduced LDL-C by 27% (P = .0008 vs EZE) and 30% (P statin-intolerant patients reported more muscle-related adverse events than did statin-tolerant patients. ETC-1002 was safe and well tolerated, and rates of muscle-related adverse events were similar in all treatment groups. In patients with and without statin intolerance, daily treatment with ETC-1002 120 mg and 180 mg alone or with EZE reduced LDL-C more than EZE alone and had a similar tolerability profile (NCT01941836). Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Short-Term Red Wine Consumption Promotes Differential Effects on Plasma Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Sympathetic Activity, and Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic, Hypertensive, and Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana CM; Cesena, Fernando HY; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Coimbra, Silmara R; Benjó, Alexandre M; Krieger, Eduardo M; da Luz, Protasio Lemos

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10) or arterial hypertension (n=9), or healthy controls (n=7) were given red wine (250 mL/night) for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01) and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine. PMID:19488610

  6. Short-term red wine consumption promotes differential effects on plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, sympathetic activity, and endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive, and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana CM Andrade

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10 or arterial hypertension (n=9, or healthy controls (n=7 were given red wine (250 mL/night for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01 and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05. Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine.

  7. Micro-organismos efectivos (EM-X: acción in-vivo sobre aorta de conejos hipercolesterolémicos Effective microorganisms (EM-X: in-vitro action on aorta of hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Echeverri

    favours in vitro vascular relaxation in a model of early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Methods: The study population was divided in four groups: 1. atherosclerotic rabbits administered with EM-X, 2: atherosclerotic rabbits not administered with EM-X; 3: healthy rabbits not administered with EM-X; and 4: healthy rabbits administered with EM-X. Serum cholesterol was measured in each rabbit and vascular rings were obtained for conducting the endothelium dependent relaxation (EDR in vitro analysis. Additionally, hystomorphometrical analysis and endothelial cell quantification were performed. Results: Whole cholesterol measurements differed significantly in groups 1 vs. 2 and 3 vs. 4 (p>0.05. EDR did not differ significantly between groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.181, or between groups 3 and 4 (p = 0.349. Hystomorphometrical characteristics did not show significant differences neither in groups 1 and 2 (p=0.85 nor in groups 3 and 4 (p=0.95. The immunohystochemical analysis did not show significant differences between any groups (p=0.85. Conclusion: The results found do not demonstrate the benefits of EM-X as antioxidant therapy in the prevention of atherosclerotic plaque formation and in vitro endothelium dependent vascular relaxation in healthy animals or with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

  8. Vodka and wine consumption in a swine model of metabolic syndrome alters insulin signaling pathways in the liver and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadhun, Nassrene Y; Lassaletta, Antonio D; Chu, Louis M; Bianchi, Cesario; Sellke, Frank W

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol in the context of metabolic syndrome on insulin signaling pathways in the liver and skeletal muscle. Twenty-six Yorkshire swine were fed a hypercaloric, high-fat diet for 4 weeks then split into 3 groups: hypercholesterolemic diet alone (HCC, n = 9), hypercholesterolemic diet with vodka (HCVOD, n = 9), and hypercholesterolemic diet with wine (HCW, n = 8) for 7 weeks. Animals underwent intravenous dextrose challenge before euthanasia and tissue collection. HCC, HCVOD, and HCW groups had similar blood fasting glucose levels, liver function test, and body mass index. Thirty and 60 minutes after dextrose infusion, HCVOD and HCW groups had significantly increased blood glucose levels compared with the HCC group. The HCW group had significantly increased levels of insulin compared with the HCC group. Immunoblotting in skeletal muscle demonstrated that alcohol up-regulates p-IRS1, IRS2, AKT, AMPKα, PPARα, Fox01, and GLUT4. In the liver, HCW had up-regulation of AKT, AMPKα, and GLUT4 compared with HCC. Skeletal muscle immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased sarcolemmal expression of GLUT4 in both alcohol groups compared with HCC. Moderate alcohol consumption in a swine model of metabolic syndrome worsens glucose metabolism by altering activation of the insulin signaling pathway in the liver and skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Virgin Olive Oil and Phenol-Enriched Virgin Olive Oils on the HDL Proteome in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Controlled, Cross-Over Clinical Trial (VOHF Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedret, Anna; Catalán, Úrsula; Fernández-Castillejo, Sara; Farràs, Marta; Valls, Rosa-M; Rubió, Laura; Canela, Núria; Aragonés, Gerard; Romeu, Marta; Castañer, Olga; de la Torre, Rafael; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Fitó, Montse; Motilva, Maria-José; Solà, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The effects of olive oil phenolic compounds (PCs) on HDL proteome, with respect to new aspects of cardioprotective properties, are still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on the HDL protein cargo of the intake of virgin olive oil (VOO) and two functional VOOs, enriched with their own PCs (FVOO) or complemented with thyme PCs (FVOOT), in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eligible volunteers were recruited from the IMIM-Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (Spain) from April 2012 to September 2012. Thirty-three hypercholesterolemic participants (total cholesterol >200 mg/dL; 19 men and 14 women; aged 35 to 80 years) were randomized in the double-blind, controlled, cross-over VOHF clinical trial. The subjects received for 3 weeks 25 mL/day of: VOO, FVOO, or FVOOT. Using a quantitative proteomics approach, 127 HDL-associated proteins were identified. Among these, 15 were commonly differently expressed after the three VOO interventions compared to baseline, with specific changes observed for each intervention. The 15 common proteins were mainly involved in the following pathways: LXR/RXR activation, acute phase response, and atherosclerosis. The three VOOs were well tolerated by all participants. Consumption of VOO, or phenol-enriched VOOs, has an impact on the HDL proteome in a cardioprotective mode by up-regulating proteins related to cholesterol homeostasis, protection against oxidation and blood coagulation while down-regulating proteins implicated in acute-phase response, lipid transport, and immune response. The common observed protein expression modifications after the three VOOs indicate a major matrix effect. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials ISRCTN77500181.

  10. Impact of Virgin Olive Oil and Phenol-Enriched Virgin Olive Oils on the HDL Proteome in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Controlled, Cross-Over Clinical Trial (VOHF Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pedret

    Full Text Available The effects of olive oil phenolic compounds (PCs on HDL proteome, with respect to new aspects of cardioprotective properties, are still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on the HDL protein cargo of the intake of virgin olive oil (VOO and two functional VOOs, enriched with their own PCs (FVOO or complemented with thyme PCs (FVOOT, in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eligible volunteers were recruited from the IMIM-Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (Spain from April 2012 to September 2012. Thirty-three hypercholesterolemic participants (total cholesterol >200 mg/dL; 19 men and 14 women; aged 35 to 80 years were randomized in the double-blind, controlled, cross-over VOHF clinical trial. The subjects received for 3 weeks 25 mL/day of: VOO, FVOO, or FVOOT. Using a quantitative proteomics approach, 127 HDL-associated proteins were identified. Among these, 15 were commonly differently expressed after the three VOO interventions compared to baseline, with specific changes observed for each intervention. The 15 common proteins were mainly involved in the following pathways: LXR/RXR activation, acute phase response, and atherosclerosis. The three VOOs were well tolerated by all participants. Consumption of VOO, or phenol-enriched VOOs, has an impact on the HDL proteome in a cardioprotective mode by up-regulating proteins related to cholesterol homeostasis, protection against oxidation and blood coagulation while down-regulating proteins implicated in acute-phase response, lipid transport, and immune response. The common observed protein expression modifications after the three VOOs indicate a major matrix effect.International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials ISRCTN77500181.

  11. Efeito da L-arginina na neoproliferação intimal e no remodelamento arterial após lesão por balão, em ilíacas de coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos The effect of L-arginine on neointimal proliferation and artery remodeling on an iliac artery lesion caused by a balloon catheter in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Knopfholz

    2006-10-01

    nineteen rabbits that were divided in two groups: control (CG and arginine (AG. There were 19 arteries studied from the control group and 17 in the arginine group. The animals were placed on a 2% hypercholesterolemic diet for 15 days and then submitted to a balloon angioplasty in order to produce a lesion in their iliac arteries. Next, the AG animals were given a 1g/kg/day oral dose of a L-arginine solution. The animals were sacrificed 15 days after the angioplasty procedure and histological artery sections were prepared, stained and fixed. The ratio between the neointimal area (in mm² and the media layer (in mm² was used to represent lesion development. In order to determine remodeling, the ratio between the total area of the medial portion of the vessel (greater balloon contact and the total area of the reference segment of the vessel (less balloon contact was used. RESULTS: Mean neointimal thickness (NI/M was 0.8151±0.2201 in CG and 0.3296±0.1133 in AG. Remodeling patterns for the two groups studied were similar. CONCLUSION: In the experimental model used, L-arginine was able to reduce intimal tissue thickness in hypercholesterolemic rabbits but did not act on artery remodeling.

  12. Hypocholesterolemic effect of physically refined rice bran oil: studies of cholesterol metabolism and early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Lynne M; Rong, Ni; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    Physically refined rice bran oil containing 2-4% nontriglyceride components as compared to other vegetable oils appears to be associated with lipid lowering and antiinflammatory properties in several rodent, primate and human models. These experiments were designed to investigate possible mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic effect of the physically refined rice bran oil and to examine its effect on aortic fatty streak formation. In the first experiment, 30 hamsters were fed, for 8 weeks, chow-based diets plus 0.03% added cholesterol and 5% (wt/wt) coconut, canola, or physically refined rice bran oil (COCO, CANOLA or PRBO animal groups, respectively). Both plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly reduced in PRBO but not in CANOLA relative to COCO. PRBO also showed a significant 15-17% reduction in cholesterol absorption and significant 30% increase in neutral sterol (NS) excretion with no effect on bile acid (BA) excretion. Both CANOLA and PRBO showed a significant 300-500% increase in intestinal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and significant (>25%) decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activities with respect to COCO. In a second experiment, 36 hamsters were fed chow-based diets with 0.05% added cholesterol, 10% coconut oil and 4% additional COCO, CANOLA or PRBO. Relative to COCO and CANOLA, plasma TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced in PRBO. Early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was significantly reduced (48%) only in PRBO, relative to the other two. These results suggest that the lipid lowering found in PRBO is associated with decreased cholesterol absorption, but not hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and that the decrease in fatty streak formation with this oil may be associated with its nontriglyceride components not present in the other two diets.

  13. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  14. Effects of combined dietary supplementation with fenofibrate and Schisandrae Fructus pulp on lipid and glucose levels and liver function in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu PL

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pei-Li Zhu,1 Si-Yuan Pan,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2 Yi Zhang,1 Xiao-Yan Wang,1 Nan Sun,1 Zhu-Sheng Chu,1 Zhi-Ling Yu,3 Kam-Ming Ko41Department of Pharmacology, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 4Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Currently, combined therapy using herbs and synthetic drugs has become a feasible therapeutic intervention against some diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with fenofibrate (FF, a chemical drug used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, and the aqueous extract of Schisandrae Fructus (SF, a Chinese herb pulp (AqSF-P or an SF-related synthetic analog, bicyclol (BY, on serum/hepatic lipid levels and liver status in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HCL mice.Methods: Male mice obtained from the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR were fed on a normal diet (ND or high cholesterol/bile salt (0.5%/0.15%, w/w diet (HCBD containing FF (0.03% or 0.1%, w/w with or without AqSF-P (0.3%-9.0%, based on crude herbal material, w/w or BY (0.025%, w/w for 10 days. Then serum lipid levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity, as well as hepatic triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and glucose levels, were measured.Results: Oral supplementation with FF significantly reduced serum and hepatic TG, TC, and hepatic glucose levels (approximately 79% in mice fed with ND or HCBD. FF supplementation combined with AqSF-P or BY increased FF-induced reduction in hepatic TC and TG contents in ND-fed mice (up to 67% and in HCBD-fed mice (up to 54%, when compared with FF supplementation alone. Hepatic glucose-lowering effect of FF was

  15. Evaluation of a porcine model of early aortic valve sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sider, Krista L; Zhu, Cuilan; Kwong, Andrea V; Mirzaei, Zahra; de Langé, Cornelius F M; Simmons, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity. While late-stage CAVD is well-described, early pathobiological processes are poorly understood due to the lack of animal models that faithfully replicate early human disease. Here we evaluated a hypercholesterolemic porcine model of early diet-induced aortic valve sclerosis. Yorkshire swine were fed either a standard or high-fat/high-cholesterol diet for 2 or 5 months. Right coronary aortic valve leaflets were excised and analyzed (immuno)histochemically. Early human-like proteoglycan-rich onlays formed between the endothelial layer and elastic lamina in the fibrosa layer of valve leaflets, with accelerated formation associated with hypercholesterolemia (Psclerosis in hypercholesterolemic swine is characterized by the formation of proteoglycan-rich onlays in the fibrosa, which can occur prior to significant lipid accumulation, inflammatory cell infiltration, or myofibroblast activation. These characteristics mimic those of early human aortic valve disease, and thus the porcine model has utility for the study of early valve sclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimycobacterial, antiprotozoal and cytotoxic potential of twenty-one brown algae (Phaeophyceae) from British and Irish waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spavieri, Jasmine; Allmendinger, Andrea; Kaiser, Marcel; Casey, Rosalyn; Hingley-Wilson, Suzie; Lalvani, Ajit; Guiry, Michael D; Blunden, Gerald; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2010-11-01

    In the continuation of our research on seaweeds, crude extracts of 21 brown algae collected from the south coast of England and the west coast of Ireland were screened for in vitro trypanocidal, leishmanicidal and antimycobacterial activities. Mammalian stages of a small set of parasitic protozoa; i.e. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, and the tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as test organisms. The extracts were also evaluated for selectivity by testing on a mammalian cell line (L6 cells). Only four extracts were moderately active against T. cruzi, whereas all algal extracts showed significant activity against T. brucei rhodesiense, with Halidrys siliquosa and Bifurcaria bifurcata (Sargassaceae) being the most potent (IC50 values 1.2 and 1.9 μg/mL). All algal extracts also displayed leishmanicidal activity, with H. siliquosa and B. bifurcata again being the most active (IC50s 6.4 and 8.6 μg/mL). When tested against M. tuberculosis, only the B. bifurcata extract was found to have some antitubercular potential (MIC value 64.0 μg/mL). Only three seaweed extracts, i.e. H. siliquosa, B. bifurcata and Cystoseira tamariscifolia showed some cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the antiprotozoal and antimycobacterial activity of brown algae from British and Irish waters. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Characterisation of twenty-one European badger (Meles meles) microsatellite loci facilitates the discrimination of second-order relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annavi, Geetha; Dawson, Deborah A.; Horsburgh, Gavin J.; Greig, Carolyn; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W.; Burke, Terry

    The European badger (Meles meles) breeds plurally in lowland England and is important economically due to its link with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) transmission. To understand disease transmission and facilitate effective management, it is vital to elucidate the social structure of

  18. The interaction of land-use legacies and hurricane disturbance in subtropical wet forest: twenty-one years of change

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, James Aaron; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Thompson, Jill; Nytch, Christopher J.; Uriarte, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance shapes plant communities over a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales. How natural and anthropogenic disturbance interact to shape ecological communities is highly variable and begs a greater understanding. We used five censuses spanning the years 1990–2011 from the 16-ha Luquillo Forest Dynamics Plot (LFDP) in northeast Puerto Rico to investigate the interplay of human land-use legacies dating to the early 20th century and two recent hurricanes (Hugo, 1989 and Georges, 1998...

  19. Benign monomelic amyotrophy: a study of twenty-one cases Amiotrofia monomélica benigna: estudo de 21 casos

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    MARCOS R.G. DE FREITAS

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A consecutive series of 21 patients with single limb atrophy (monomelic amyotrophy is reported. Sixteen had lower limb atrophy and five had upper limb involvement. The median age of the onset was 20 years. Characteristic features were sporadic occurrence, wasting confined to one limb, insidious onset with slow progression, stabilizing in 1 to 4 years, and absence of pyramidal signs. All the patients with upper limb involvement were male, however in our cases with lower limb amyotrophy there were no male preponderance. We observed wasting of the entire length of the lower limbs in six patients. There were nine cases with amyotrophy restricted to the leg and one with amyotrophy only in the thigh. In the upper limb in four cases the involvement was distal and in one patient the atrophy was proximal. The electromyographic features were suggestive of anterior horn disease not only in the affected limb but also, in some cases, in clinically uninvolved limb. Cervical or lumbar MRI was normal. MRI of the lower limb disclosed increased signal intensity in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in one patient suggesting denervation.Relatamos uma série consecutiva de 21 pacientes com amiotrofia de um só membro, denominada de amiotrofia monomélica. Em 16 casos a atrofia era no membro inferior e em 5 localizava-se no membro superior. Todos eram jovens e a idade média do início foi 20 anos. Os dados mais característicos da doença foram ausência de história familiar, comprometimento de um só membro, início e progressão lenta estabilizando em até 4 anos e ausência de sinais piramidais. Nossos enfermos com amiotrofia de membro superior eram todos do sexo masculino, entretanto naqueles com amiotrofia do membro inferior havia igualdade de sexos. Dos pacientes com atrofia de membro inferior, em 9 a atrofia era restrita a perna, em 6 era em todo o membro e somente um apresentava amiotrofia localizada só na coxa. Naqueles com comprometimento do membro superior a atrofia era distal em 4 e proximal em 1. Os achados na eletromiografia foram compatíveis com acometimento do II neurônio motor. Todos foram submetidos a RM da coluna cervical ou lombar que se mostrou normal. Em um caso realizamos RM da perna acometida que evidenciou sinais hiperintensos nos músculos gastrocnemius e soleus, o que sugere desnervação.

  20. Physical inactivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Data from twenty-one countries in a cross-sectional, international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T.; Hakkinen, A.; Kautiainen, H.

    2008-01-01

    usual clinical care. Frequency of physical exercise (>= 30 minutes with at least some shortness of breath, sweating) is queried with 4 response options: >= 3 times weekly, 1-2 times weekly, 1-2 times monthly, and no exercise. Results. Between January 2005 and April 2007, a total of 5,235 patients from...... 58 sites in 21 countries were enrolled in QUEST-RA: 79% were women, >90% were white, mean age was 57 years, and mean disease duration was 11.6 years. Only 13.8% of all patients reported physical exercise >= 3 times weekly. The majority of the patients were physically inactive with no regular weekly...... exercise: >80% in 7 countries, 60-80% in 12 countries, and 45% and 29% in 2 countries, respectively. Physical inactivity was associated with female sex, older age, lower education, obesity, comorbidity, low functional capacity, and higher levels of disease activity, pain, and fatigue. Conclusion. In many...

  1. Physical inactivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Data from twenty-one countries in a cross-sectional, international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T.; Hakkinen, A.; Kautiainen, H.

    2008-01-01

    usual clinical care. Frequency of physical exercise (>= 30 minutes with at least some shortness of breath, sweating) is queried with 4 response options: >= 3 times weekly, 1-2 times weekly, 1-2 times monthly, and no exercise. Results. Between January 2005 and April 2007, a total of 5,235 patients from......Objective. Regular physical activity is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been advised to limit physical exercise. We studied the prevalence of physical activity and associations with demographic and disease...... 58 sites in 21 countries were enrolled in QUEST-RA: 79% were women, >90% were white, mean age was 57 years, and mean disease duration was 11.6 years. Only 13.8% of all patients reported physical exercise >= 3 times weekly. The majority of the patients were physically inactive with no regular weekly...

  2. Porcine Models of Accelerated Coronary Atherosclerosis: Role of Diabetes Mellitus and Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Hamamdzic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of atherosclerosis have proven to be an invaluable asset in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. However, large animal models may be needed in order to assess novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of atherosclerosis. Porcine models of coronary and peripheral atherosclerosis offer several advantages over rodent models, including similar anatomical size to humans, as well as genetic expression and development of high-risk atherosclerotic lesions which are similar to humans. Here we review the four models of porcine atherosclerosis, including the diabetic/hypercholesterolemic model, Rapacz-familial hypercholesterolemia pig, the (PCSK9 gain-of-function mutant pig model, and the Ossabaw miniature pig model of metabolic syndrome. All four models reliably represent features of human vascular disease.

  3. Superiority of dietary safflower oil over olive oil in lowering serum cholesterol and increasing hepatic mRnas for the LDL receptor and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase in exogenously hypercholesterolemic (exHC) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Yoshida, S; Nagao, K; Imaizumi, K

    2000-06-01

    The exogenously hypercholesterolemic (ExHC) rat is a strain segregated from SD rats with a high response to dietary cholesterol. To understand the underlying mechanism(s) for this hypercholesterolemia, the interactive effects of dietary fatty acid and the susceptibility of rats to dietary cholesterol on the serum cholesterol concentration and hepatic mRNA abundance of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (7alpha-hydroxylase) and 3-hydroxyl-3methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase were examined. Both strains were fed on a diet supplemented with 10% each of olive, safflower or coconut oil with or without the addition of 1% cholesterol for one week. The ExHC rats fed on olive, safflower and coconut oil in combination with cholesterol respectively resulted in a 3.5-, 2.0- and 2.1-fold higher serum cholesterol concentration than that in the animals fed on the corresponding dietary fats without any supplementation of cholesterol (p cholesterol or type of fat). The dietary cholesterol dependent-elevation of serum cholesterol in the SD rats was less than 1.5-fold (poil-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol resulted in a higher mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and 7alpha-hydroxylase than in the corresponding fat-fed rats without cholesterol (pcholesterol-dependent change of mRNA abundance in either strain fed on olive or coconut oil, except for a decreased abundance of HMG CoA reductase mRNA in the olive oil-fed ExHC rats and coconut oil-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (pcholesterol and a fatty acid and suggest that a linoleic acid-rich diet may alleviate exogenous hypercholesterolemia by activating the process involved in the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of serum cholesterol.

  4. A modeling study of functional magnetic resonance imaging to individualize target definition of seminal vesicles for external beam radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Sidsel; Thomsen, Jakob B; Petersen, Svetlana I

    2017-01-01

    prescribed the same PTV mean dose. Rectal NTCP grade ≥2 was evaluated with the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model and TCP was estimated by a logistic model using the combined MRI positive volume in SV and prostate as region-of-interest. RESULTS: Fourteen of twenty-one patients were classified as MRI positive, six...

  5. Influência das proteínas do soro sobre enzimas hepáticas, perfil lipídico e formação óssea de ratos hipercolesterolêmicos Influence of whey protein on liver enzymes, lipid profile and bone formation of hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Kenji Haraguchi

    2009-08-01

    hypercholesterolemic diet. METHODS: A total of 32 adult Fisher rats were divided into 4 groups: C group, standard diet; H group, hypercholesterolemic diet; WP group, standard diet with whey protein; WPH group, hypercholesterolemic diet with whey protein. Food ingestion and weight gain were monitored weekly. After 8 weeks, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and the rats were killed. The statistical tests analysis of variance and Tukey's test were performed. RESULTS: Whey protein did not lower serum cholesterol significantly and increased serum triglycerides in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, whey protein decreased the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, as well as serum creatinine. The assessed antioxidant defenses were not affected. Diets containing whey protein generated heavier, thicker and longer bones than casein diets. CONCLUSION: Whey proteins did not have a significant hypocholesterolemic effect in rats. On the other hand, they significantly prevented changes in liver and kidney functions brought about by hypercholesterolemic diets. Data also suggest that whey proteins benefit bone formation when compared with casein diets.

  6. Alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism induced by a diet rich in coconut oil and cholesterol in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulet, M A; Barber, A; Garcin, H; Higueret, P; Martínez, J A

    1999-02-01

    The type of dietary fat as well as the amount of cholesterol occurring in the diet have been associated with several metabolic disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of a hypercholesterolemic diet enriched with coconut oil and cholesterol on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in a rat model. Twenty male Wistar rats weighing about 190 g were assigned to two dietary groups. One group received a semipurified control diet and the other was given a diet enriched in coconut oil (25% by weight) and cholesterol (1% by weight) for 26 days. Our results indicated a significant increase in serum total cholesterol (+285%; pcholesterol (+1509%; pcholesterol acyltransferase activity (-66%; p<0.001) was found. The situation of hypoglycemia (-18%; p<0.05) was accompanied by lower levels of serum insulin (-45%; p<0.01) and liver glycogen (-30%; p<0.05) in the hypercholesterolemic rats. Furthermore, glucose utilization was altered since lower glucose-6-Pase (-33%; p<0.05) and increased glucokinase (+212%; p<0.001) activities in the liver were found in the rat model of hypercholesterolemia. These results provide new evidence that a diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats is associated with several adaptative changes in carbohydrate metabolism. These findings may be of importance not only considering the role of western diets on cholesterogenesis, but also in other metabolic disturbances involving lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

  7. Cholesterol contributes to dopamine-neuronal loss in MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease: Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Paul

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a known contributor to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease while its role in the occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD is only conjecture and far from conclusive. Altered antioxidant homeostasis and mitochondrial functions are the key mechanisms in loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN region of the midbrain in PD. Hypercholesterolemia is reported to cause oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain in rodents. However, the impact of hypercholesterolemia on the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in animal models of PD remains elusive. We tested the hypothesis that hypercholesterolemia in MPTP model of PD would potentiate dopaminergic neuron loss in SN by disrupting mitochondrial functions and antioxidant homeostasis. It is evident from the present study that hypercholesterolemia in naïve animals caused dopamine neuronal loss in SN with subsequent reduction in striatal dopamine levels producing motor impairment. Moreover, in the MPTP model of PD, hypercholesterolemia exacerbated MPTP-induced reduction of striatal dopamine as well as dopaminergic neurons in SN with motor behavioral depreciation. Activity of mitochondrial complexes, mainly complex-I and III, was impaired severely in the nigrostriatal pathway of hypercholesterolemic animals treated with MPTP. Hypercholesterolemia caused oxidative stress in the nigrostriatal pathway with increased generation of hydroxyl radicals and enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes, which were further aggravated in the hypercholesterolemic mice with Parkinsonism. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of increased vulnerability of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in PD with hypercholesterolemia.

  8. Effects of a nutraceutical combination containing berberine (BRB), policosanol, and red yeast rice (RYR), on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic patients: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Jesus; Cicero, Arrigo F G; Torres, Francisco; Anguera, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A nutraceutical combination containing berberine, policosanol, and red yeast rice, largely marketed in Europe (Armolipid Plus(®)) (AP), has been reported to induce significant improvements in plasma lipids, insulin resistance and other components of the metabolic syndrome. However, literature study designs and results were heterogeneous and it was thus necessary to systematically review and meta-analyse all relevant randomised clinical trials (RCTs) to explore and quantify the effects of the dietary supplement AP on lipid profile. The aim of our meta-analysis was the evaluation of the effect of AP on lipid profile. We conducted a structures search on PubMed and Google Scholar to identify eligible articles published prior to 2015. Eleven RCTs were subjected to meta-analysis by means of random effects models using the Standardised Mean Differences approach (Hedges' method) and the Mean Differences approach as a sensitivity analysis. Data from 11 randomised clinical trials, corresponding to 1970 nutraceutical combination and 1954 control patients (3924 total patients), were included after the peer evaluation and data extraction of two independent evaluators. Heterogeneity was significant in all models. A significant effect was found for all lipid parameters. The effect size (relative change from baseline (%)) was -1.3 (9.9%) for total cholesterol, -1.17 (-13.7%) for LDL-c, +0.17 (+3.7%) for HDL-c and -0.24 (-7.0%) for Triglycerides. This meta-analysis confirms that the nutraceutical combination containing berberine, policosanol, and red yeast rice has shown to be an effective product for the improvement of the lipid profile. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Bococizumab (RN316/PF-04950615), a Monoclonal Antibody Against Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9, in Hypercholesterolemic Japanese Subjects Receiving a Stable Dose of Atorvastatin or Treatment-Naive - Results From a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Ranging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokote, Koutaro; Kanada, Shigeto; Matsuoka, Osamu; Sekino, Hisakuni; Imai, Keiji; Tabira, Junichi; Matsuoka, Nobushige; Chaudhuri, Sandip; Teramoto, Tamio

    2017-09-25

    A Phase 2, dose-ranging study of bococizumab, a monoclonal anti-proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 antibody, was conducted in Japanese subjects to assess its efficacy, safety, and tolerability in this population.Methods and Results:Two different hypercholesterolemic study populations were enrolled concurrently: Japanese subjects with uncontrolled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) despite atorvastatin treatment (LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL; n=121), and Japanese subjects naive to lipid-lowering agents and with LDL-C ≥130 mg/dL (n=97). Subjects within each study population were randomized to bococizumab 50, 100, or 150 mg, or placebo, q14D for 16 weeks; an open-label ezetimibe 10 mg daily arm was also included for the atorvastatin-treated population. Significant, dose-dependent reductions in fasting LDL-C levels were observed in all bococizumab arms of both study populations at Weeks 12 and 16 (adjusted mean percent changes from baseline: 54.1-76.7% for atorvastatin-treated subjects and 47.7-66.8% for treatment-naive subjects; P<0.001 vs. placebo for all). Bococizumab also caused dose-dependent changes in other lipid parameters in both study populations at Weeks 12 and 16. No serious adverse events (AEs) related to bococizumab treatment occurred and all treatment-emergent AEs were mild or moderate in severity. No dose-dependent relationship between bococizumab treatment and development of anti-drug antibodies was observed. Bococizumab was well tolerated and significantly reduced fasting LDL-C in atorvastatin-treated and treatment-naive hypercholesterolemic Japanese subjects. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02055976.).

  10. Efeito dos ácidos graxos ômega-3 sobre o relaxamento-dependente do endotélio em coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on endothelium-dependent relaxation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso Ribeiro Jorge

    1997-07-01

    were randomly assigned to hypercholesterolemic and omega-3 groups. The dose of omega-3 fatty acid utilized was 300g/kg/day during 15 days. All rabbits were fed a diet supplemented with cholesterol (0.5% and coconut oil (2% for four weeks. At the end of the experiment the animals were killed and the aorta removed for measurement of MDA content and the endothelium-dependent relaxation studies. Total plasma cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides was measured by enzymatic kits. MDA was also measured in natives and oxidized LDL and arterial wall. RESULTS: Cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol were increased significantly in the omega-3 treated animals. The triglyceride level was significantly reduced (p<0.05. The MDA content was increased in the LDL particles and in the arterial wall (p<0.05. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly reduced (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Omega-3 fatty acid impairs the endothelium-dependent relaxation when administered to cholesterol fed rabbits, increases the cholesterol and reduces the triglycerides plasma levels. The lipid peroxidation of the LDL particles and arterial wall was increased.

  11. EFEK PEMBERIAN BUAH JAMBU BIJI MERAH TERHADAP PRODUKSI SCFA DAN KOLESTEROL DALAM CAECUM TIKUS HIPERKOLESTEROLEMIA The Effect of Red Guava Fruits Supplementation on The SCFA and Cholesterol Production in Caecum of Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Maryanto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Red guava fruit has high soluble fiber (pectin and vitamin C content. Soluble fiber has a hypocholesterolemic effect. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of red guava fuits supplementation on the SCFA (short chain fatty acid production and cholesterol content in caecum, to explain the mechanism of red guava on the blood cholesterol reduction. The study was a randomized pre test-post test control group design on the hypercholesterolemic Sprague Dawley rats given a high-cholesterol feed. Rats were divided into 4 groups, receiving normal feed, hypercholesterol feed only, hypercholesterol feed + 0,72 g of red guava flour and hypercholesterol feed + 0,26 g pectin equal to that in red guava flour. Caecum digestion products beeing examined were SCFA (short chain fatty acids analysed by gas chromatography and cholesterol by Liebermann-Burchard method using a spectrophotometer. Data were analysed with 95% of level confidence one way Anova. The high SCFA and cholesterol concentrations in the rats caecum were found on the red guava supplementation groups and was significantly different from pectin suplemented group. The concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and caecum cholesterol were 18.9 mg/g, 7.8 mg/g, 2.4 mg/g, and 0.54 mg/g, compared to with pectin were 19.3 %M, 21.4 %M, 19.7 %M and 0.46 mg/g, respectively. The propionic acid caecum production and cholesterol excretion shown that to lower serum cholesterol. Red guava supplementation produced propionic acid and high cholesterol excretion as found in the caecum. Keywords: Pectin, red guava, SCFA, cholesterol excretion ABSTRAK Buah jambu biji merah memiliki kandungan serat khususnya serat larut air (pektin yang tinggi. Serat larut air di dalam tubuh bersifat hipokolesterolemik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek pemberian buah jambu biji merah terhadap produksi SCFA (short chain fatty acid dan kolesterol digesta caecum serta mengkaji mekanisme penurunan

  12. Plasma Copper Status in Hypercholesterolemic Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Femi Olaleye

    ... Rosenstein, F., and Lei, K.Y.. (1994): Pool size and concentration of plasma cholesterol are increased and tissue copper levels are reduced during early stages of copper deficiency in rats. J. Nutr. 124, 628-635. Anon (2000): Cardiovascular disease ranks as the first cause of death in Spain. Rev Esp Salud Publica 74 (3),.

  13. Plasma Copper Status in Hypercholesterolemic Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Femi Olaleye

    reduced during early stages of copper deficiency in rats. J. Nutr. 124, 628-635. Anon (2000): Cardiovascular disease ranks as the first cause of death in Spain. Rev Esp Salud Publica 74 (3),. 215-53. Anon. (1967): Vital Statistics of the United States. Mortality, Washington: U.S. Dept. Health, Educ. Wefare, 1969, vol. 2, Part A ...

  14. Plasma copper status in hypercholesterolemic patients | Oluwatosin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant inverse correlation between cholesterol and Cu levels (r = - 0.4909; p< 0.0001). These data support some previous reports that hypercholesterolemia is associated with decrease Cu status and this may be manipulated to control hypercholesterolemia and associated disorders. (Afr. J. Biomed. Res.

  15. Efeitos da atorvastatina, fluvastatina, pravastatina e simvastatina sobre a função endotelial, a peroxidação lipídica e a aterosclerose aórtica em coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos Effects of atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin on endothelial function, lipid peroxidation, and aortic atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso Ribeiro Jorge

    2005-04-01

    wall of hypercholesterolemic rabbits after adjusting the dosages of those statins to reduce total serum cholesterol levels to similar values. METHODS: Male rabbits were divided into the following 6 groups of 10 animals (n=10: 1 GH (control - hypercholesterolemic animals; 2 GA - atorvastatin; 3 GF - fluvastatin; 4 GP - pravastatin; 5 GS - simvastatin; and 6 GN - normal. The animals were fed a standard food preparation enriched with 0.5% cholesterol and 2% coconut oil for 45 days. Fifteen days after beginning the experiment, atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin were administered for 15 days through gavage, and the dosages were adjusted to obtain similar cholesterol values in each group. At the end of the experiment, a blood sample was withdrawn for determining total cholesterol and separating the lipoproteins, and a segment of the thoracic aorta was removed to be used for studying endothelial function and lipid peroxidation, and for measuring aortic atherosclerosis in histological sections. RESULTS: The statins significantly reduced total serum cholesterol levels, LDL-cholesterol levels, and aortic atherosclerosis. The MDA content was also significantly reduced in native and oxidized LDL, as well as in the arterial wall. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly greater in the treated group compared with that in the hypercholesterolemic group. CONCLUSION: The statins, at dosages adjusted, had a significant and similar effect in reducing lipid peroxidation in native and oxidized LDL-C and in arterial walls, in decreasing aortic atherosclerosis, and in reverting endothelial dysfunction.

  16. Radiolesão vascular como efeito deletério da braquiterapia intra-arterial com dose elevada de Samário-153 em coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos Vascular radiolesion as a deleterious effect of high-dose-rate intraarterial brachytherapy with Samarium-153 in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Bertolim Précoma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar as alterações vasculares morfológicas e morfométricas induzidas pela braquiterapia com Samário-153 (153 Sm em coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos, com doses elevadas. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 43 coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos, brancos, da raça New Zealand, e o total de 86 artérias ilíacas submetidas a lesão por balão de angioplastia. Divididos em três grupos: dois (GI irradiados com as doses de 15Gy (n=14 e 60Gy (n=36 e um grupo controle (n=36. Foram realizadas avaliação histológica morfométrica e análise histológica qualitativa para análise tecidual. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas uma redução significativa da neoproliferação intimal (NPI no GI 15 Gy (pOBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate vascular morphological and morphometric changes induced by brachytherapy with samarium-153 (Sm-153 at high doses in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. METHODS: Forty-three New Zealand White hypercholesterolemic rabbits were analyzed, and the total of 86 iliac arteries underwent balloon angioplasty injury. The rabbits were divided into three different groups: two irradiation groups (IG assigned to 15 Gy (n=14 and 60 Gy (n=36 irradiation doses, respectively, and a control group (n = 36. Histomorphometric and qualitative histological analyses were performed for tissue evaluation. RESULTS: Significant reductions were found in neointimal proliferation (NIP (p< 0.0001, media area (MA (p<0.0001 and percent stenosis (p<0.0001 in the 15-Gy IG, compared to the other groups. The 60-Gy IG had the higher rate of NIP, increase in media and vessel areas (VA and percent stenosis. The 60-Gy IG also showed the greatest number of xanthomatous cells (60-Gy IG: 86.11% and 15-Gy IG: 14.29%, p<0.0001 and the highest amount of hyaline amorphous tissue (60-Gy IG:58.33% and 15-Gy IG:0%, p=0.0001 and vascular proliferation (60-Gy IG:30.56% and 15-Gy IG:0%, p=0.0221. No statistically significant differences were found

  17. Anthropological Diplomacy: Case Studies in the Applications of Anthropology to International Relations. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Twenty-One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnarella, Paul J., Ed.

    Six articles in this volume focus on anthropological diplomacy--the study of the theory and practice of peace and conflict resolution among societies, based on knowledge of a society's fundamental cultural premises. The first article, by Ronald Cohen, considers questions pertinent to anthropological diplomacy, including the impact of diverse…

  18. Effect of dietary fiber and fat on performance and digestive traits of broilers from one to twenty-one days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Moreno, E; González-Alvarado, J M; González-Serrano, A; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G

    2009-12-01

    The influence of fiber source and dietary fat level on digestive traits and productive performance was studied in broilers from 1 to 21 d of age. There were 6 treatments arranged factorially with 3 sources of fiber (none; 3% oat hulls, OH; and 3% sugar beet pulp, SBP) and 2 fat sources (5% soybean oil, SO; and 5% yellow grease, YG). Each treatment was replicated 6 times and the experimental unit was a cage with 18 broilers. Fiber inclusion improved BW gain (P fiber was included in the diet. The TTAR of nutrients was higher for the SO than for the YG diets (P fiber inclusion were more pronounced with the YG than with the SO. Therefore, the inclusion of moderate amounts of fiber in the diet might improve performance and nutrient digestibility in young chicks, especially when saturated fats are used.

  19. Identification of Needs Reported by Grandparents of Grandchildren, from Birth to Twenty-One Years, with Disabilities in the Commonwealth of Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Margaret Hudson

    2009-01-01

    Grandparents of children with disabilities have an expanded grandparental role that can include performance of child care, raising the grandchildren, and in some instances taking legal custody of the grandchildren. Grandparents in the extended family of a child with a disability have needs that must be identified in order to facilitate the…

  20. Genetic admixture studies on four in situ evolved, two migrant and twenty-one ethnic populations of Tamil Nadu, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhasini, G; Sonaa, E; Shila, S; Srikumari, C R; Jayaraman, G; Ramesh, A

    2011-08-01

    We analysed the genetic structure of ≈ 1000 samples representing 27 ethnic groups settled in Tamil Nadu, south India, derived from two linguistic families (Dravidians and Indo-Europeans) representing four religious groups (Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Jainism) using 11 mtDNA markers. Out of 27 ethnic groups, four are in situ populations (Anglo-Indian, Labbai Muslim, Nadar Christian and south Indian Jain) and two are migrants (Gypsy and north Indian Jain) from north India to Tamil Nadu, and 21 are native ethnic groups. Six of the markers we used were monomorphic (HaeIII663, HpaI3592, AluI5176, AluI7025, AluI13262, 9-bp deletion) and five markers were polymorphic (DdeI10394, AluI10397, HinfI12308, HincII13259 and HaeIII16517). Haplogroup frequencies, genetic affinities and admixture analysis are based on the genotype data of polymorphic markers observed in these populations. Haplogroup frequencies indicate that various ethnic groups entered Tamil Nadu during different time periods. Genetic affinities and admixture estimates revealed that the ethnic groups possessing advanced knowledge of farming cluster in a branch (C), and could be the late arrived settlers as agriculture, was introduced to this region at about 5 to 3 thousand years ago. In situ ethnic groups appear to have arisen at various times as a result of the prevailing dominant socio-cultural forces. Hierarchical Hindu caste system created many ethnic groups in the history of its existence; some of them became isolated for considerable period of time. Over all, among Tamil ethnic groups, in spite of caste systems' rigidity, built in flexibility in the system in the form of hypergamy and hypogamy had allowed maternal gene flow between them.

  1. Excreção de gordura fecal de ratos (Rattus norvegicus, Wistar, submetidos a dietas hiperlipídicas e hipercolesterolêmicas suplementadas com quitosana Faecal fat excretion of mice (Rattus norvegicus, Wistar, submitted to hypercholesterolemic and hyperlipidic diets supplemented with chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana da Rosa Cherem

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito de duas marcas comerciais de quitosana na excreção de gordura fecal, em ratos submetidos a dietas hipercolesterolêmicas e hiperlipídicas. Utilizou-se 32 ratos Wistar, distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=8: grupo controle (GC, recebeu dieta AIN-93G, grupo hiperlipídico (GH: dieta AIN-93G modificada no teor de lipídios (12% e suplementada com colesterol (1%, e os grupos hiperlipídico quitosana 1 (GHQ1 e hiperlipídico quitosana 2 (GHQ2, que receberam a mesma dieta do GH, suplementados com suas respectivas quitosanas (5%. Realizou-se coleta de fezes nos dias 0, 14º e 28º do experimento. A determinação da gordura fecal (g foi realizada através do método de Soxhlet. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas significativas (p>0,05 entre os 4 grupos quanto ao teor de gordura fecal no início do experimento. No 14º dia, o grupo GHQ1 teve aumento significativo na excreção de gordura fecal quando comparado aos outros três grupos (pThe effect of two comercial brands of chitosan in the faecal fat excretion was investigated in mice submitted to hypercholesterolemic and hyperlipidic diets. 32 rats Wistar, recently weaned, distributed randomly in four groups (n=8: control group (CG, received diet of AIN93G; hyperlipidic group (HG: diet of AIN-93G modified in the lipids content (12% and supplemented with cholesterol (1%; and the chitosan hyperlipidic groups 1 (QHG1 and chitosan hyperlipidic 2 (QHG2, that received the same diet of the HG, supplemented with their respective chitosan (5%. The faecal collection was conducted on the days 0, 14th and 28th of the experiment. The faecal fat determination (g was conducted through the Soxhlet method. No significant statistical differences (p>0.05 were observed among the 4 groups as to the fat content in the beginning of the experiment. On the 14th day, the GHQ1 group had a significant increase of faecal fat when compared to the other three groups (p<0.05. On the

  2. Comments on: Spatiotemporal models for skewed processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2017-09-04

    We would first like to thank the authors for this paper that highlights the important problem of building models for non-Gaussian space-time processes. We will hereafter refer to the paper as SGV, and we also would like to acknowledge and thank them for providing us with the temporally detrended temperatures, plotted in their Figure 1, along with the coordinates of the twenty-one locations and the posterior means of the parameters for the MA1 model. We find much of interest to discuss in this paper, and as we progress through points of interest, we pose some questions to the authors that we hope they will be able to address.

  3. Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Spädtke, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

  4. Nutritional characteristics of amazonian fish fat (Colossoma macropomum and its effect on lipid metabolism of rats fed hypercholesterolemic diets Características nutricionais do tambaqui (Colossoma Macropomum e seu efeito no metabolismo lipídico de ratos alimentados com dietas ricas em colesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Vicente de Sousa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fat from tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, an Amazonian fish, on some nutritional and lipid parameters in rats were evaluated. Weaned Wistar rats were fed for 6 weeks with hypercholesterolemic diets containing 7.5% of soybean oil (SO, cod liver oil (CO, lard (LA, or tambaqui fat (TF. Food consumption, weight gain, and food conversion were measured weekly. Plasma triglycerides was determined at the beginning and on the 6th week of experiment. Plasma cholesterol was determined at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the sacrifice, hepatic lipids (triglycerides and cholesterol and plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL fractions were determined. Food consumption and weight gain were the same for all groups. There were no differences in plasma triglycerides among the four groups in the 1st and 6th weeks. Regarding the cholesterolemia, TF animals were similar to those fed SO diet, significantly lower than in LA group but higher compared to the CO group. The levels of very low density lipoprotein + low density lipoprotein (VLDL+LDL were higher in the TF and LA groups compared to the CO and SO groups. However, TA fed animals had high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels higher than the CO group. The ratio (VLDL+LDL/HDL was higher in the LA group when compared with the remaining groups. In the TA group, the triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations in the liver were similar to the SO group. It may be concluded that tambaqui fat is a good dietary source of lipids as a substitute for lard and similar to soybean oil, as far as atherosclerosis risks is concerned.Os efeitos da ingestão da gordura de Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum foram analisados em relação a alguns parâmetros nutricionais e lipídicos. Para isso ratos Wistar recém desmamados alimentados por 6 semanas com dietas aterogênicas contendo 7,5% óleo de soja (SO, óleo de fígado de bacalhau (CO, sebo (LA, ou gordura de Tambaqui (TF foram utilizados. Consumo alimentar e

  5. Honey improves lipid profile of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Nurmasitoh

    2016-04-01

    Honey supplementation was able to reduce the blood levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. Honey supplementation accompanied by non-cholesterol feeds could more effectively lower total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL serum levels in Wistar rats.

  6. Hypersensitivity to thrombin of platelets from hypercholesterolemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winocour, P.D.; Rand, M.L.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Hypersensitivity of platelets to thrombin has been associated with hypercholesterolemia. The authors have examined the mechanisms involved in this hypersensitivity. Rats were given diets rich in milk fat and containing added cholesterol and taurocholate to produce hypercholesterolemia (HC) (262 +/- 25 mg%) or added sitosterol as a normocholesterolemic control (NC) (89 +/- 6 mg%). Washed platelets were prelabelled with 14 C-serotonin. In the presence of acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA) (to inhibit thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) formation) and creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase (CP/CPK) (to remove released ADP), HC platelets aggregated more (26 +/- 1%) and released more 14 C (9.1 +/- 2.0%) than NC platelets (aggregation: 0%, p 14 C release: 1.5 +/- 0.5%, p 2 formation is involved in the hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin. Total binding of 125 I-thrombin to HC platelets was less than that to NC platelets but HC platelets were smaller and had less protein than NC platelets; the thrombin binding per mg platelet protein was the same for HC and NC platelets, indicating that hypersensitivity to thrombin of HC platelets does not result from increased thrombin binding. Thus, hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin is not due to TXA 2 formation, the action of released ADP or increased thrombin binding

  7. Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Allicin on Hypercholesterolemic ICR Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allicin was discussed as an active compound with regard to the beneficial effects of garlic in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the cholesterol-lowering properties of allicin. In order to examine its effects on hypercholesterolemia in male ICR mice, this compound with doses of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg body weight was given orally daily for 12 weeks. Changes in body weight and daily food intake were measured regularly during the experimental period. Final contents of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and hepatic cholesterol storage were determined. Following a 12-week experimental period, the body weights of allicin-fed mice were less than those of control mice on a high-cholesterol diet by 38.24±7.94% (P<0.0001 with 5 mg/kg allicin, 39.28±5.03% (P<0.0001 with 10 mg/kg allicin, and 41.18±5.00% (P<0.0001 with 20 mg/kg allicin, respectively. A decrease in daily food consumption was also noted in most of the treated animals. Meanwhile, allicin showed a favorable effect in reducing blood cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels and caused a significant decrease in lowering the hepatic cholesterol storage. Accordingly, both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated a potential value of allicin as a pronounced cholesterol-lowering candidate, providing protection against the onset of atherosclerosis.

  8. [Reliability study in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a chairside digital model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinggang, Liu; Xiaoxian, Chen

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the reliability of the software Picpick in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a digital model. Twenty-one trimmed models were used as experimental objects. The chairside digital impression was then used for the acquisition of 3D digital models, and the software Picpick was employed for the measurement of the cusp inclination of these models. The measurements were repeated three times, and the results were compared with a gold standard, which was a manually measured experimental model cusp angle. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The paired t test value of the two measurement methods was 0.91. The ICCs between the two measurement methods and three repeated measurements were greater than 0.9. The digital model achieved a smaller coefficient of variation (9.9%). The software Picpick is reliable in measuring the cusp inclination of a digital model.

  9. Russian Model Of The Administrative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja I. Jaroshenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 25, 2014 it would be twenty-one year since the Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted on the national referendum on December 12, 1993. During this time, almost all constitutional provisions are implemented. The key point of course was the judicial reform in Russia, launched simultaneously with the adoption of Constitution of the Russian Federation. Adopted the new Civil Procedural Code, Criminal Procedural Code, Arbitration Procedural Code of the Russian Federation, Federal Constitutional Law "On the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation", Federal Constitutional Law "On the courts of general jurisdiction in Russia", Federal Constitutional Law "On the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation". However, during twenty-one year of Russian Constitution work, the question on establishment of administrative courts in our country has not been resolved. Merger of the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, which happened in the year 2014, also shown the need to resolve the status of administrative courts in Russia. Previously submitted to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation the draft of the Federal Constitutional Law "On the Federal Administrative Courts in the Russian Federation" and is on the revision, which does not correspond to changes in the judicial system of the Russian Federation. Despite the failure of the Federal Constitutional Law "On the Federal Administrative Courts in the Russian Federation", in the opinion of the author, and it should be called that way, it Russia has already developed an own model of the Russian administrative justice, which is very specific.

  10. Ausência de efeito do captopril no metabolismo de uma emulsão lipídica artificial semelhante aos quilomícrons em pacientes hipertensos e hipercolesterolêmicos Lack of effect of captopril on the metabolism of an artificial lipid emulsion similar to chylomicrons in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato J. Alves

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do captopril, sobre o metabolismo dos quilomícrons e de seus remanescentes e as possíveis alterações nas concentrações dos lípides plasmáticos em hipertensos e hipercolesterolêmicos. MÉTODOS: O metabolismo dos quilomícrons foi testado pelo método da emulsão lipídica artificial de quilomícrons marcada com 3H-oleato de colesterol, foi injetada intravenosamente em 10 pacientes com hipertensão arterial leve-moderada antes e após 45 dias de tratamento com captopril (50 mg/dia. Após injeção, foram coletadas amostras de sangue durante 60min em intervalos de tempo pré-estabelecidos para determinar a curva de decaimento e a taxa fracional de remoção (TFR em min-1, bem como o tempo de residência no plasma, da emulsão lipídica artificial, por análise compartimental. As concentrações dos lípides do plasma também foram avaliadas antes e após o tratamento. RESULTADOS: A taxa fracional de remoção (em min-1 da emulsão lipídica antes e após o tratamento com captopril (0,012±0,003 e 0,011±0,003, respectivamente; p=0,85, n.s. ou o tempo de permanência da emulsão no plasma (83,3±20,8 e 90,9± 22,5 min, n.s. não se alteraram, mas os níveis de colesterol total e de LDL-c reduziram-se em 7% e 10% respectivamente (p=0,02. As concentrações de HDL-c, triglicérides, Lp(a e apolipoproteínas AI e B não se modificaram. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento com captopril, avaliado pelo método da emulsão lipídica artificial, não provoca alterações deletérias no metabolismo dos quilomícrons e seus remanescentes.OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, on the metabolism of chylomicrons and their remnants and the possible alterations in the concentrations of plasma lipids caused by the drug in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic individuals. METHODS: The metabolism of chylomicrons was tested with the method of artificial lipid emulsion of chylomicrons labeled with

  11. Comparative effects of supplementing beef steers with zilpaterol hydrochloride, ractopamine hydrochloride, or no beta agonist on strip loin composition, raw and cooked color properties, shear force, and consumer assessment of steaks aged for fourteen or twenty-one days postmortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Hodgen, J M; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Rathmann, R J; Miller, M F

    2014-08-01

    Beef steers (n = 1,914) were assigned to 1 of 3 β-adrenergic agonist (βAA) supplementation treatments-zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.3 mg/kg of DM for 20 d with 3-d withdrawal), ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 308 mg·head(-1)·d(-1) for 28 d), or no βAA (CON)-to determine the effects on consumer eating quality. Strip loins (n = 1,101; CON = 400, RH = 355, and ZH = 346) were obtained and fabricated into 2.5-cm-thick steaks for proximate, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), slice shear force (SSF), and consumer analyses; steaks were aged until 14 or 21 d postmortem. Fat and moisture contents were not affected by βAA supplementation (P > 0.05), but strip steaks from steers fed ZH had more protein (P 0.05). In steaks aged 21 d, feeding βAA influenced (P 0.05) acceptability. Quality grade impacted (P < 0.01) all traits and acceptability in steaks aged 14 and 21 d. In 14-d steaks, Premium Choice typically was scored higher than Low Choice or Select; however, consumers rated 21-d Low Choice and Premium Choice similarly-both receiving greater scores than Select. Consumers detected several differences in eating quality at 14 d because of βAA supplementation. Increasing aging from 14 to 21 d mitigated differences in shear force and tenderness scores because of feeding ZH, so that tenderness and overall acceptability were similar between ZH, RH, and CON.

  12. Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children: A Twenty-One Month Follow-Up Review of Industry Practices in the Motion Picture, Music Recording and Electronic Game Industries. A Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC.

    In a report issued in September 2000, the Federal Trade Commission contended that the motion picture, music recording, and electronic game industries had engaged in widespread marketing of violent movies, music, and games to children inconsistent with their own parental advisories and undermining parents attempts to make informed decisions about…

  13. Twenty-one novel mutations in the GLB1 gene identified in a large group of GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B patients: possible common origin for the prevalent p.R59H mutation among gypsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Raül; Chabás, Amparo; Coll, Maria Josep; Miranda, Clara Sa; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease are rare lysosomal storage disorders caused by beta-galactosidase deficiency due to mutations in the GLB1 gene. Three major clinical forms of GM1-gangliosidosis have been established on the basis of age of onset and severity of symptoms: infantile, late infantile/juvenile, and adult. We performed mutation analysis on 30 GM1-gangliosidosis and five Morquio B patients, mainly of Spanish origin, and all the causative mutations were identified. Thirty different mutations were found, 21 of which were novel. With the exception of two adults and one juvenile patient, all the GM1-gangliosidosis patients were affected by the infantile form. Clinical findings are presented for all patients. We report the association of the novel mutations p.T420K and p.L264S with the adult form and the juvenile form, respectively. In addition, the novel mutation p.Y83C was associated with Morquio B disease. Among the 30 GM1-gangliosidosis patients, 6 were of Gypsy origin (Roma). Moreover, those six Gypsy patients shared not only the same mutation (p.R59H) but also a common haplotype. This observation indicates a possible founder effect in this group and suggests that screening of the p.R59H mutation may be appropriate in GM1-gangliosidosis patients of Gypsy origin. This is the first exhaustive mutational analysis performed in a large group of Iberian GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B patients.

  14. Resveratrol provoca efeitos antiaterogênicos em um modelo animal de aterosclerose Resveratrol causes antiatherogenic effects in an animal model of atherosclerosis

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    Rossane Serafim Matos

    2012-02-01

    III, IV, V, or VI. All animals from the RG had mild aortic atherosclerotic lesions (types I or II, or no lesions. The intima area and the intima/media layer area ratio was significantly lower in the RG as compared to the CG (p<0.001. Positive areas for VCAM-1 molecules were lower in the RG (p=0.007. The MCP-1 and IL-6 concentrations were lower in the RG than the CG (p=0.039 and p=0.015, respectively. CONCLUSION: Resveratrol had significant anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model with rabbits fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol.

  15. Marked Acceleration of Atherosclerosis following Lactobacillus casei induced Coronary Arteritis in a Mouse Model of Kawasaki Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Lee, Young Ho; Crother, Timothy R.; Fishbein, Michael; Zhang, Wenxuan; Yilmaz, Atilla; Shimada, Kenichi; Schulte, Danica J; Lehman, Thomas J.A.; Shah, Prediman K.; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate if Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced Kawasaki Disease (KD) accelerates atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. Method and Resuslts Apoe−/− or Ldlr−/− mice were injected with LCWE (KD mice) or PBS, fed high fat diet for 8 weeks, and atherosclerotic lesions in aortic sinuses (AS), arch (AC) and whole aorta were assessed. KD mice had larger, more complex aortic lesions with abundant collagen, and both extracellular and intracellular lipid and foam cells, compared to lesions in control mice despite similar cholesterol levels. Both Apoe−/− KD and Ldlr−/− KD mice showed dramatic acceleration in atherosclerosis vs. controls, with increases in en face aortic atherosclerosis and plaque size in both the AS and AC plaques. Accelerated atherosclerosis was associated with increased circulating IL-12p40, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and increased macrophage, DC, and T cell recruitment in lesions. Furthermore, daily injections of the IL-1Ra, which inhibits LCWE induced KD vasculitis, prevented the acceleration of atherosclerosis. Conclusions Our results suggest an important pathophysiologic link between coronary arteritis/vasculitis in the KD mouse model and subsequent atherosclerotic acceleration, supporting the concept that a similar relation may also be present in KD patients. These results also suggest that KD in childhood may predispose to accelerated and early atherosclerosis as adults. PMID:22628430

  16. Experiential Learning Model in Enhancing Prospective English Teachers` Teaching Competence

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    Heri Mudra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the effectiveness of Experiential Learning (EL model in improving prospective EFL teachers’ (PETs teaching competence. The method of this study was Classroom Action Research (CAR consisting of planning, observing, acting, and reflecting phases. There were two cycles needed in implementing EL to the twenty one EFL learners as the participants. The results revealed that each subcompetence in cycle I and cycle II was achieved in the following score: planning & preparation for learning (Mean in cycle I=2,8; Mean in cycle II=3,38, classroom management (Mean in cycle I=2,5; Mean in cycle II=2,95, delivery of instruction (Mean in cycle I=2,6; Mean in cycle II=2,90, and monitoring, assessment, and follow-up (Mean in cycle I=2,4; Mean in cycle II=2,95. It can be concluded that EL is effective in improving PETs’ teaching competence.

  17. Dietary models for inducing hypercholesterolemia in rats

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    Sheyla Leite Matos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at finding a dietetical model capable of promoting the highest hypercholesterolemia without affecting the development of the rats. Sixty female Fisher rats were divided into five groups. The first one was fed a control diet; the remaining four were fed hypercholesterolemic diets with cholesterol and different contents of soybean oil, starch, casein, micronutrients and fiber and, consequently, different caloric values. After eight weeks animals were evaluated in relation to growth, fecal excretion, liver weight and fat, cholesterol and its fractions, serum biochemical parameters and sistolic pressure and compared with controls. The best result was obtained with the diet containing 25 % soybean oil, 1.0 % cholesterol, 13 % fiber and 4,538.4 Kcal/Kg, since it promoted an increase in LDL-cholesterol, a decrease in the HDL fraction and affected less the hepatic function of the animals.Modelos animais têm sido usados para investigar a relação entre desordens no metabolismo do colesterol e a aterogênese. A estratégia utilizada a fim de induzir hipercolesterolemia (dietas com alto teor de gordura e com colesterol adicionado leva à redução de sua ingestão pelos animais, o que induz desnutrição. O presente trabalho objetivou encontrar um modelo dietético capaz de promover a maior hipercolesterolemia, sem afetar o desenvolvimento dos animais. Sessenta ratas Fisher foram divididas em cinco grupos. O primeiro foi alimentado com uma dieta controle; os quatros restantes receberam dietas hipercolesterolêmicas, com colesterol e diferentes teores de óleo de soja, amido, caseína, micronutrientes e fibra e, conseqüentemente, diferentes valores calóricos. Após oito semanas os animais foram avaliados em relação ao crescimento, excreção fecal, peso e teor de gordura do fígado, colesterol e suas frações, parâmetros bioquímicos séricos e pressão sistólica. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a dieta contendo 25

  18. Modeling and Testing Landslide Hazard Using Decision Tree

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    Mutasem Sh. Alkhasawneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a decision tree model for specifying the importance of 21 factors causing the landslides in a wide area of Penang Island, Malaysia. These factors are vegetation cover, distance from the fault line, slope angle, cross curvature, slope aspect, distance from road, geology, diagonal length, longitude curvature, rugosity, plan curvature, elevation, rain perception, soil texture, surface area, distance from drainage, roughness, land cover, general curvature, tangent curvature, and profile curvature. Decision tree models are used for prediction, classification, and factors importance and are usually represented by an easy to interpret tree like structure. Four models were created using Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID, Exhaustive CHAID, Classification and Regression Tree (CRT, and Quick-Unbiased-Efficient Statistical Tree (QUEST. Twenty-one factors were extracted using digital elevation models (DEMs and then used as input variables for the models. A data set of 137570 samples was selected for each variable in the analysis, where 68786 samples represent landslides and 68786 samples represent no landslides. 10-fold cross-validation was employed for testing the models. The highest accuracy was achieved using Exhaustive CHAID (82.0% compared to CHAID (81.9%, CRT (75.6%, and QUEST (74.0% model. Across the four models, five factors were identified as most important factors which are slope angle, distance from drainage, surface area, slope aspect, and cross curvature.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors identified by using a high-throughput Caenorhabditis elegans-killing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, Jakob; Sifri, Costi D; Goldman, Samuel; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2005-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that is also able to kill the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We constructed a 2,950-member Tn917 transposon insertion library in S. aureus strain NCTC 8325. Twenty-one of these insertions exhibited attenuated C. elegans killing, and of these, 12 contained insertions in different genes or chromosomal locations. Ten of these 12 insertions showed attenuated killing phenotypes when transduced into two different S. aureus strains, and 5 of the 10 mutants correspond to genes that have not been previously identified in signature-tagged mutagenesis studies. These latter five mutants were tested in a murine renal abscess model, and one mutant harboring an insertion in nagD exhibited attenuated virulence. Interestingly, Tn917 was shown to have a very strong bias for insertions near the terminus of DNA replication.

  20. Comparative performance of high-fidelity training models for flexible ureteroscopy: Are all models effective?

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    Shashikant Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We performed a comparative study of high-fidelity training models for flexible ureteroscopy (URS. Our objective was to determine whether high-fidelity non-virtual reality (VR models are as effective as the VR model in teaching flexible URS skills. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one trained urologists without clinical experience of flexible URS underwent dry lab simulation practice. After a warm-up period of 2 h, tasks were performed on a high-fidelity non-VR (Uro-scopic Trainer TM ; Endo-Urologie-Modell TM and a high-fidelity VR model (URO Mentor TM . The participants were divided equally into three batches with rotation on each of the three stations for 30 min. Performance of the trainees was evaluated by an expert ureteroscopist using pass rating and global rating score (GRS. The participants rated a face validity questionnaire at the end of each session. Results: The GRS improved statistically at evaluation performed after second rotation (P<0.001 for batches 1, 2 and 3. Pass ratings also improved significantly for all training models when the third and first rotations were compared (P<0.05. The batch that was trained on the VR-based model had more improvement on pass ratings on second rotation but could not achieve statistical significance. Most of the realistic domains were higher for a VR model as compared with the non-VR model, except the realism of the flexible endoscope. Conclusions: All the models used for training flexible URS were effective in increasing the GRS and pass ratings irrespective of the VR status.

  1. Variance-based sensitivity analysis for wastewater treatment plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosenza, Alida; Mannina, Giorgio; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Neumann, Marc B

    2014-02-01

    Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) is a valuable tool to support the use of mathematical models that characterise technical or natural systems. In the field of wastewater modelling, most of the recent applications of GSA use either regression-based methods, which require close to linear relationships between the model outputs and model factors, or screening methods, which only yield qualitative results. However, due to the characteristics of membrane bioreactors (MBR) (non-linear kinetics, complexity, etc.) there is an interest to adequately quantify the effects of non-linearity and interactions. This can be achieved with variance-based sensitivity analysis methods. In this paper, the Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Testing (Extended-FAST) method is applied to an integrated activated sludge model (ASM2d) for an MBR system including microbial product formation and physical separation processes. Twenty-one model outputs located throughout the different sections of the bioreactor and 79 model factors are considered. Significant interactions among the model factors are found. Contrary to previous GSA studies for ASM models, we find the relationship between variables and factors to be non-linear and non-additive. By analysing the pattern of the variance decomposition along the plant, the model factors having the highest variance contributions were identified. This study demonstrates the usefulness of variance-based methods in membrane bioreactor modelling where, due to the presence of membranes and different operating conditions than those typically found in conventional activated sludge systems, several highly non-linear effects are present. Further, the obtained results highlight the relevant role played by the modelling approach for MBR taking into account simultaneously biological and physical processes. © 2013.

  2. Mice long-term high-fat diet feeding recapitulates human cardiovascular alterations: an animal model to study the early phases of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

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    Sebastián D Calligaris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Hypercaloric diet ingestion and sedentary lifestyle result in obesity. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of clinical features secondary to obesity, considered as a pre-diabetic condition and recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. To better understand the relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease as well as for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, animal models that reproduce the etiology, course and outcomes of these pathologies are required. The aim of this work was to characterize the long-term effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity on the mice cardiovascular system, in order to make available a new animal model for diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS/RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standardized high-fat diet (obese or regular diet (normal for 16 months. Metabolic syndrome was evaluated testing plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Arterial pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer (non invasive method and by hemodynamic parameters (invasive method. Cardiac anatomy was described based on echocardiography and histological studies. Cardiac function was assessed by cardiac catheterization under a stress test. Cardiac remodelling and metabolic biomarkers were assessed by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. As of month eight, the obese mice were overweight, hyperglycaemic, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic and hypercholesterolemic. At month 16, they also presented normal arterial pressure but altered vascular reactivity (vasoconstriction, and cardiac contractility reserve reduction, heart mass increase, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and heart metabolic compensations. By contrast, the normal mice remained healthy throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: Mice fed with a high-fat diet for prolonged time recapitulates the etiology, course and outcomes of the early phases of human diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  3. Prevalence and Predictors of Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes among Adults 18 Years or Older in Florida: A Multinomial Logistic Modeling Approach.

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    Ifechukwude Obiamaka Okwechime

    Full Text Available Individuals with pre-diabetes and diabetes have increased risks of developing macro-vascular complications including heart disease and stroke; which are the leading causes of death globally. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes, and to investigate their predictors among adults ≥18 years in Florida.Data covering the time period January-December 2013, were obtained from Florida's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS. Survey design of the study was declared using SVYSET statement of STATA 13.1. Descriptive analyses were performed to estimate the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes. Predictors of pre-diabetes and diabetes were investigated using multinomial logistic regression model. Model goodness-of-fit was evaluated using both the multinomial goodness-of-fit test proposed by Fagerland, Hosmer, and Bofin, as well as, the Hosmer-Lemeshow's goodness of fit test.There were approximately 2,983 (7.3% and 5,189 (12.1% adults in Florida diagnosed with pre-diabetes and diabetes, respectively. Over half of the study respondents were white, married and over the age of 45 years while 36.4% reported being physically inactive, overweight (36.4% or obese (26.4%, hypertensive (34.6%, hypercholesteremic (40.3%, and 26% were arthritic. Based on the final multivariable multinomial model, only being overweight (Relative Risk Ratio [RRR] = 1.85, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] = 1.41, 2.42, obese (RRR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.61, 4.45, hypertensive (RRR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.33, 2.15, hypercholesterolemic (RRR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.55, 2.43, and arthritic (RRR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.55 had significant associations with pre-diabetes. However, more predictors had significant associations with diabetes and the strengths of associations tended to be higher than for the association with pre-diabetes. For instance, the relative risk ratios for the association between diabetes and being overweight (RRR = 2.00, 95

  4. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions

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    Yoon Soo ePark

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effect on item parameters and examinee ability.

  5. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability.

  6. Turmeric and laurel aqueous extracts exhibit in vitro anti-atherosclerotic activity and in vivo hypolipidemic effects in a zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seori; Hong, Joo-Heon; Jung, Seung-Hyeon; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-03-01

    Culinary herbs and spices have been widely used for their hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study examined the physiologic activity of hydrophilic components using extracts of turmeric or laurel leaf powder. Aqueous extracts of turmeric and laurel showed potent inhibitory activity against fructose-mediated glycation with antioxidant ability against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and radical scavenging activity. The turmeric and laurel extracts had potent cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitory ability (up to 23% and 40% inhibition, respectively) at a final concentration of 10 μg/mL. The turmeric and laurel extracts inhibited the cellular uptake of oxidized LDL into macrophages, which is the initial step in atherogenesis. For in vivo testing, zebrafish consumed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) (final concentration, 4% [wt/wt]) with or without turmeric or laurel powder (final concentration, 10% [wt/wt]). The turmeric and laurel groups had a 14% and 12% decrease, respectively, in the weight and height ratios compared to the HCD group. The plasma total cholesterol level was significantly lower in the turmeric and laurel groups (48% and 28% less, respectively, than in the HCD group). Plasma triglycerides were more markedly reduced in the turmeric and laurel groups than in the HCD group (68% and 56% less, respectively, than the HCD group). In conclusion, the hydrophilic extracts of turmeric and laurel potently suppressed the incidence of atherosclerosis via a strong antioxidant potential, prevention of apolipoprotein A-I glycation and LDL phagocytosis, and inhibition of CETP. Consumption of turmeric and laurel extracts exhibited hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in a hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model.

  7. Audio-Magnetotelluric Modeling of Cimandiri Fault Zone at Cibeber, Cianjur

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    Lina Handayani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.1.39-47The characteristic of Cimandiri Fault Zone has not been completely defined despite plenty of studies had already been accomplished. Therefore, an audio-magnetotelluric modeling was carried out. An audiomagnetotelluric survey was conducted at two parallel lines (N166oE that intersected Cimandiri Fault Zone in Cibeber area, Cianjur. The distance between those two lines was 4.5 km and each line consisted of twenty-one stations with the distance between stations was 500 m. From the acquired forty-two apparent resistivity curves, inversion was executed to obtain two models. The models indicate layers with resistivity value of > 1000 ohm.m at about 500 m depth at both lines, which are associated to the basement layer. Columns of low resistivity zones in about the middle of each model represent fault zones as the weak zones of the area, and both models displayed them slightly dip southward as thrust faults.

  8. A new stochastic model considering satellite clock interpolation errors in precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengli; Yang, Fanlin; Gao, Wang; Yan, Lizi; Ge, Yulong

    2018-03-01

    Precise clock products are typically interpolated based on the sampling interval of the observational data when they are used for in precise point positioning. However, due to the occurrence of white noise in atomic clocks, a residual component of such noise will inevitable reside within the observations when clock errors are interpolated, and such noise will affect the resolution of the positioning results. In this paper, which is based on a twenty-one-week analysis of the atomic clock noise characteristics of numerous satellites, a new stochastic observation model that considers satellite clock interpolation errors is proposed. First, the systematic error of each satellite in the IGR clock product was extracted using a wavelet de-noising method to obtain the empirical characteristics of atomic clock noise within each clock product. Then, based on those empirical characteristics, a stochastic observation model was structured that considered the satellite clock interpolation errors. Subsequently, the IGR and IGS clock products at different time intervals were used for experimental validation. A verification using 179 stations worldwide from the IGS showed that, compared with the conventional model, the convergence times using the stochastic model proposed in this study were respectively shortened by 4.8% and 4.0% when the IGR and IGS 300-s-interval clock products were used and by 19.1% and 19.4% when the 900-s-interval clock products were used. Furthermore, the disturbances during the initial phase of the calculation were also effectively improved.

  9. TIMP3 interplays with apelin to regulate cardiovascular metabolism in hypercholesterolemic mice

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    Robert Stöhr

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: TIMP3 regulates lipid metabolism as well as oxidative stress response via apelin. These findings therefore suggest that TIMP3 maintains metabolic flexibility in the heart, particularly during episodes of increased cardiac stress.

  10. Effect of Diets Containing Sucrose vs. D-tagatose in Hypercholesterolemic Mice

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    Police, S.; Harris, J; Lodder, R; Cassis, L

    2008-01-01

    Effects of functional sweeteners on the development of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis are unknown. The objective was to compare the effect of dietary carbohydrate in the form of sucrose (SUCR) to D-tagatose (TAG; an isomer of fructose currently used as a low-calorie sweetener) on body weight, blood cholesterol concentrations, hyperglycemia, and atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr-/-) mice. LDLr-/- male and female mice were fed either standard murine diet or a diet enriched with TAG or SUCR as carbohydrate sources for 16 weeks. TAG and SUCR diets contained equivalent amounts (g/kg) of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. We measured food intake, body weight, adipocyte diameter, serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations, and aortic atherosclerosis. Macrophage immunostaining and collagen content were examined in aortic root lesions. CONTROL and TAG-fed mice exhibited similar energy intake, body weights and blood glucose and insulin concentrations, but SUCR-fed mice exhibited increased energy intake and became obese and hyperglycemic. Adipocyte diameter increased in female SUCR-fed mice compared to TAG and CONTROL. Male and female SUCR-fed mice had increased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared to TAG and CONTROL. Atherosclerosis was increased in SUCR-fed mice of both genders compared to TAG and CONTROL. Lesions from SUCR-fed mice exhibited pronounced macrophage immunostaining and reductions in collagen content compared to TAG and CONTROL mice. These results demonstrate that in comparison to sucrose, equivalent substitution of TAG as dietary carbohydrate does not result in the same extent of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis.

  11. Effect of diets containing sucrose vs. D-tagatose in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Police, Sara B; Harris, J Clay; Lodder, Robert A; Cassis, Lisa A

    2009-02-01

    Effects of functional sweeteners on the development of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis are unknown. The objective was to compare the effect of dietary carbohydrate in the form of sucrose (SUCR) to D-tagatose (TAG; an isomer of fructose currently used as a low-calorie sweetener) on body weight, blood cholesterol concentrations, hyperglycemia, and atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice. LDLr(-/-) male and female mice were fed either standard murine diet or a diet enriched with TAG or SUCR as carbohydrate sources for 16 weeks. TAG and SUCR diets contained equivalent amounts (g/kg) of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. We measured food intake, body weight, adipocyte diameter, serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations, and aortic atherosclerosis. Macrophage immunostaining and collagen content were examined in aortic root lesions. CONTROL and TAG-fed mice exhibited similar energy intake, body weights and blood glucose and insulin concentrations, but SUCR-fed mice exhibited increased energy intake and became obese and hyperglycemic. Adipocyte diameter increased in female SUCR-fed mice compared to TAG and CONTROL. Male and female SUCR-fed mice had increased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared to TAG and CONTROL. Atherosclerosis was increased in SUCR-fed mice of both genders compared to TAG and CONTROL. Lesions from SUCR-fed mice exhibited pronounced macrophage immunostaining and reductions in collagen content compared to TAG and CONTROL mice. These results demonstrate that in comparison to sucrose, equivalent substitution of TAG as dietary carbohydrate does not result in the same extent of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis.

  12. Differences in [14C]glycerol utilization in normal and familial hypercholesterolemic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shireman, R.B.; Durieux, J.

    1991-01-01

    It is known that cultured fibroblasts from familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients lack the normal cell receptor for low density lipoprotein (LDL) and that the absence of receptor-mediated transport of LDL cholesterol into these cells results in increased cellular synthesis of cholesterol. After 20 h perincubation in lipid-free medium, cultured FH fibroblasts incorporated significantly greater amounts of [ 14 C]glycerol into cellular lipids than did normal fibroblasts. Relative to the control medium which contained only bovine serum albumin (BSA), preincubation with 5% fetal bovine serum or 50 micrograms LDL/ml decreased [ 14 C]glycerol incorporation by both cell types. FH cells utilized more [ 14 C]glycerol for phospholipid synthesis and less for triglyceride synthesis than normal cells. This study indicates that LDL may be important in the transport of glycerides, as well as cholesterol, to cells

  13. White Matter Brain Lesions in Midlife Familial Hypercholesterolemic Patients at 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, S.A.; O' Regan, D.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Neuwirth, C.; Potter, E.; Tosi, I.; Hajnal, J.V.; Naoumova, R.P. (Imaging Sciences Dept. and Clinical Research Facility, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (GB))

    2008-03-15

    Background: Patients with hypercholesterolemia of 60 years and older have an increased risk for white matter brain lesions and dementia. Purpose: To investigate whether patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) develop white matter lesions at 3-Tesla (T) MRI as early as in midlife. Material and Methods: Non-diabetic, non-smoking, and non-hypertensive heterozygous FH patients on treatment with maximally tolerated dose of a statin for more than 5 years (n = 14) and matched controls (n = 22) aged 25 to 60 years of age were studied. Imaging was performed at 3T with a fluid-attenuated T2-weighted MR pulse sequence and a T1-weighted spin-echo pulse sequence following 10 ml of i.v. gadopentetate dimeglumine. Images were evaluated by two independent readers. Fasting blood samples were taken. Student's t test was employed at P<0.05. Results: Three volunteers and one FH patient had white matter lesions (P<0.53). No other evidence of past ischemic stroke was observed. Mean total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the FH group (6.0+-1.1 vs. 5.1+-0.9 mmol/l, P<0.02 and 4.1+-0.9 vs. 3.1+-0.8 mmol/l, P<0.004, respectively). Conclusion: Heterozygous FH patients on statin treatment in the age range of 25 to 60 years are not at increased risk of white matter lesions at 3T MRI

  14. Suppressive impact of anethum graveolens consumption on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: A. graveolens might have some protective values against atherosclerosis and that it significantly affects some biochemical risk factors of this disease. Our findings also confirm the potential harmful effects of oxidized fats and the importance of dietary polyphenols in the meal.

  15. Mevinolin-induced changes in cholesterol synthesis and protein glycosylation in lymphocytes of hypercholesterolemics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, V.; Premkumar, N.D.; Ramachandran, C.K.; Melnykovych, G.; Dujovne, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Mevinolin (lovastatin, MVN), a potent competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HMGR), has proven to be an effective hypolipidemic agent in patients with non-homozygous primary hypercholesterolemia. Since inhibition of HMGR can also reduce the synthesis of non-sterol mevalonate products such as dolichols, it was of interest to examine the dolichol-mediated cellular reactions in MVN-treated patients. Blood was collected from patients after various durations of MVN therapy. Peripheral lymphocytes were isolated using Ficoll-Paque gradient. The cells were suspended in RPMI-1640 medium and pulsed in the presence of 14 C-2-acetate or 3 H-mannose for 30 min. At the end of incubation the radioactivity recovered in non-saponifiable fraction ( 14 C) or TCA precipitable protein ( 3 H) was measured. Cholesterol synthesis continued to fall gradually and remained low throughout, in direct correlation with falls in plasma LDL cholesterol levels. Incorporation of mannose into protein fraction was reduced by the 1st month of therapy, remained low until the 7th month and recovered by the 10th month while on MVN. In summary, MVN appears to reduce cholesterol synthesis continuously but its inhibitory effect on glycosylation seems to be overcome after prolonged therapy. This escape effect could result from a rebound increase in HMGR in response to its competitive inhibition by MVN

  16. White Matter Brain Lesions in Midlife Familial Hypercholesterolemic Patients at 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, S.A.; O'Regan, D.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Neuwirth, C.; Potter, E.; Tos i, I.; Hajnal, J.V.; Naoumova, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Patients with hypercholesterolemia of 60 years and older have an increased risk for white matter brain lesions and dementia. Purpose: To investigate whether patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) develop white matter lesions at 3-Tesla (T) MRI as early as in midlife. Material and Methods: Non-diabetic, non-smoking, and non-hypertensive heterozygous FH patients on treatment with maximally tolerated dose of a statin for more than 5 years (n = 14) and matched controls (n = 22) aged 25 to 60 years of age were studied. Imaging was performed at 3T with a fluid-attenuated T2-weighted MR pulse sequence and a T1-weighted spin-echo pulse sequence following 10 ml of i.v. gadopentetate dimeglumine. Images were evaluated by two independent readers. Fasting blood samples were taken. Student's t test was employed at P<0.05. Results: Three volunteers and one FH patient had white matter lesions (P<0.53). No other evidence of past ischemic stroke was observed. Mean total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the FH group (6.0±1.1 vs. 5.1±0.9 mmol/l, P<0.02 and 4.1±0.9 vs. 3.1±0.8 mmol/l, P<0.004, respectively). Conclusion: Heterozygous FH patients on statin treatment in the age range of 25 to 60 years are not at increased risk of white matter lesions at 3T MRI

  17. Oral administration of alkaloid fraction from Ruta graveolens inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Helen, A

    2013-12-01

    The anti-atherogenic effect of alkaloid fraction from Ruta graveolens Linn (Rutaceae) extract is suspected to be related to its activities of antioxidation and anti-inflammation. This study investigated the efficacy of alkaloid fraction isolated from Ruta graveolens (AFR) in reducing oxidative damage and inflammation in hypercholesteremic rabbits. The New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group I rabbits were fed with normal chow diet for 90 d. Group II rabbits were fed with 1% cholesterol-enriched diet. Group III rabbits were fed with 1% cholesterol-enriched diet together with AFR (10 mg/kg/daily for 90 d). The results showed that on treatment with AFR significantly lowered the level of total cholesterol and LDL-C and showed an increment in the level of HDL-C. LD50 of the AFR in rats is greater than 525 mg/kg. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and GSH level were decreased in cholesterol-fed rabbit and supplementation of AFR significantly enhanced the activities of these antioxidant enzymes and GSH level. Increased activities of enzymes such as cyclooxygenase-2, 15-lipoxygenase and myeloperoxidase were significantly suppressed by AFR administration. The acute phase proteins, total WBC count and TBARS concentrations were significantly increased by hypercholesteromic diet, which were significantly decreased by AFR treatment. Histopathological studies of aorta in cholesterol-fed rabbit showed plaque formation and significant changes in aortic wall. Administration of AFR showed no changes in aortic wall. AFR reduces oxidative stress and inflammation and reduces the aortic pathology in hypercholesteromic rabbits.

  18. Cholesterol lowering effect of a commercial margarine in hypercholesterolemic adults: a review of the scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Bernácer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the hypercholesterolemia is a growing problem, responsible of one fifth of coronary events in Spain. It is considered that plant sterols (PS could play an important role in their treatment.Objective: we review the role of a range of functional foods with added PS (including specific studies using Flora pro•activ in adults with hypercholesterolemia.Methods: we performed a review of the literature in the PubMed database to locate human studies that have evaluated the role of Flora pro•activ or PS fortified foods with a similar composition. We also have been consulted the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA database.Results: Flora pro•activ demonstrated in rigorous scientific studies to lower cholesterol in adults with hypercholesterolemia. Two servings of Flora pro•activ (1.5 g PS are needed to observe this effect. Lowering cholesterol with Flora pro•activ (2 servings / day oscillate as EFSA notes, between 7 and 10%. This effect is observed after 2-3 weeks. Its composition allows to make health claims about lowering cholesterol as is described for the European Union. The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of PS enriched foods that are not margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressings or dairy products is under-researched. With few exceptions, the use of fortified foods with PS is safe.Conclusions: the current scientific evidence justify the promotion of the use of PS to lower LDL cholesterol in adults with hypercholesterolemia.

  19. Effect of fermented milk (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus L1 on serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J W; Gilliland, S E

    1999-02-01

    Two controlled clinical studies were performed to examine effects of consumption of one daily serving of fermented milk (FM) (yogurt) on serum lipids. In the first study, subjects were randomly allocated to FM containing Lactobacillus acidophilus L1 of human origin or to FM containing L. acidophilus ATCC 43211 of swine origin. In this single-blind study, subjects consumed one 200 ml serving of FM daily for 3 weeks. The second study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Subjects completed a 4-week first treatment, had a 2-week washout, and completed a second 4-week treatment. In the second study subjects consumed FM containing L. acidophilus L1 or placebo FM over 4 weeks. In the first study, FM containing L. acidophilus L1 was accompanied by a 2.4% (pcholesterol concentration. In the second study, strain L1 reduced serum cholesterol concentration by 3.2% (pcholesterol concentration. Combined analysis of the two L1 treatment studies demonstrated a 2.9% (pcholesterol concentration. Since every 1% reduction in serum cholesterol concentration is associated with an estimated 2% to 3% reduction in risk for coronary heart disease, regular intake of FM containing an appropriate strain of L. acidophilus has the potential of reducing risk for coronary heart disease by 6 to 10%.

  20. Humanin preserves endothelial function and prevents atherosclerotic plaque progression in hypercholesterolemic ApoE deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yun K; Bachar, Adi R; Zacharias, David G; Kim, Sung Gyun; Wan, Junxiang; Cobb, Laura J; Lerman, Lilach O; Cohen, Pinchas; Lerman, Amir

    2011-11-01

    Humanin (HN) is a cytoprotective peptide derived from endogenous mitochondria, expressed in the endothelial layer of human vessels, but its role in atherogenesis in vivo is not known. In vitro study, however, HN reduced oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced formation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. The present study tested the hypothesis that long term treatment with HN will have a protective role against endothelial dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis in vivo. Daily intraperitonial injection of the HN analogue HNGF6A for 16 weeks prevented endothelial dysfunction and decreased atherosclerotic plaque size in the proximal aorta of ApoE-deficient mice fed on a high cholesterol diet, without showing direct vasoactive effects or cholesterol-reducing effects. HN was expressed in the endothelial layer on the aortic plaques. HNGF6A treatment reduced apoptosis and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in the aortic plaques without affecting the systemic cytokine profile. HNGF6A also preserved expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in aorta. HN may have a protective effect on endothelial function and progression of atherosclerosis by modulating oxidative stress and apoptosis in the developing plaque. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The hypercholesterolemic effect of cafestol in coffee oil in gerbils and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, A.H.M.; Katan, M.B.; Weusten-van, der M.P.M.E.; Roos, de B.; Beynen, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Coffee beans contain the diterpene cafestol, which raises plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. Daily consumption of 2 g coffee oil, which provides approximately 60 mg cafestol (equivalent to 5.7 mg cafestol/MJ), increases plasma cholesterol concentrations by 28%. We studied the effect of

  2. Infection-induced coronary dysfunction and systemic inflammation in piglets are dampened in hypercholesterolemic milieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene M.; Pesonen, Erkki; Odermarsky, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The synergism of infection with conventional cardiovascular risk factors in atherosclerosis is much debated. We hypothesized that coronary arterial injury correlates with infection recurrence and pathogen burden and is further aggravated by hypercholesterolemia. Forty-two Göttingen minipigs were...... assigned to repeated intratracheal inoculation of PBS, Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn), or both Cpn and influenza virus at 8, 11, and 14 wk of age. Animals were fed either standard or 2% cholesterol diet (chol-diet). At 19 wk of age coronary vasomotor responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine were assessed...

  3. Mechanism for reduced pericardial adhesion formation in hypercholesterolemic swine supplemented with alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, Antonio D; Chu, Louis M; Elmadhun, Nassrene Y; Robich, Michael P; Hoffman, Zachary G; Kim, David J; Sellke, Frank W

    2013-05-01

    Previous experiments in Yorkshire swine demonstrated significantly fewer pericardial adhesions and intramyocardial collagen deposition at reoperative sternotomy in animals supplemented with vodka but not with red wine. The purpose of this experiment was to determine a mechanism for adhesion reduction. Twenty-seven male Yorkshire swine were fed a high-cholesterol diet to simulate conditions of coronary artery disease followed by the surgical placement of an ameroid constrictor to the left circumflex coronary artery to induce chronic ischaemia. Postoperatively, control pigs continued their high-fat/cholesterol diet alone, whereas the two experimental groups had diets supplemented with either red wine or vodka for 7 weeks followed by reoperative sternotomy and cardiac harvest. The expression of related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase (RAFTK) and caspase 3 in the sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-soluble myocardial fraction was significantly higher only in the vodka-supplemented group. In the more soluble fraction, the expression of caspase 3, cleaved caspase 3 and caspase 9 was lower in both the vodka and red wine treatment groups. In the SDS-soluble lysate fraction, likely representing the transmembrane/cell-extracellular matrix (ECM), a significant increase in RAFTK and caspase 3 expression was seen only in the vodka-treated animals, which may explain why this group demonstrated significantly fewer pericardial adhesions. Caspase expression/signalling was not increased in the more soluble myocardial lysate, suggesting that the increased apoptotic signalling was specific to the epicardial-ECM.

  4. Renal and Hepatic Function in Hypercholesterolemic Rats Fed Jamaican Bitter Yam (Dioscorea polygonoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoy, Marsha-Lyn; Grant, Kevin; Asemota, Helen; Simon, Oswald; Omoruyi, Felix

    2015-06-01

    We reported that Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) has antilipemic potential in rats; however there is limited data on the toxicological profile of the yam. We therefore investigated the effects of bitter yam consumption for 6 or 12 weeks on renal and hepatic function in rats fed a high (4%) cholesterol diet. Twenty four rats were divided into six groups (n = 4); three of which were used for each investigation (6 or 12 weeks). One group was administered 4% cholesterol diet, while the yam group had the cholesterol diet supplemented with 5% bitter yam. The control group was fed standard rat chow. Liver and kidney function tests were performed on serum, liver and kidney. Histological studies were conducted on liver samples. Acute toxicity tests were performed in rats and mice administered a single high dose of bitter yam (10 g/kg). Activities of liver and kidney AST and ALT differed (p ≤ .02) between control rats and those fed cholesterol with bitter yam for 12 weeks. Albumin to globulin ratio was reduced (p = .03) in rats fed cholesterol with bitter yam for 6 weeks as compared to the control group. Serum urea concentration was higher (p < .05) in rats fed bitter yam as compared to normal chow for 6 weeks. The cholesterol diet caused extensive fat deposition in liver cells; however this was inhibited by co-administration of bitter yam. Long-term administration of Jamaican bitter yam may induce slight changes in renal and hepatic functions.

  5. Lipid lowering effect of policosanol and omega-3 fatty acids combined therapy in hypercholesterolemic patients

    OpenAIRE

    José Illnait; Gladys Castaño; Julio Fernández; Ernesto López; Rosa Más; Lilia Fernández; Sarahí Mendoza; Melbis Mesa; Rafael Gámez

    2010-01-01

    Aunque el colesterol de las lipoproteinas de baja densidad (LDL-C) continua siendo el principal objetivo en el manejo de la dislipidemia, la prevencion de la enfermedad coronaria incluye ademas, la modificacion de otros indicadores tales como la disminucion del colesterol no unido a las lipoproteinas de alta densidad y los trigliceridos sericos (TG), asi como el incremento de las HDL-C. Se reconoce que los aceites de pescado ricos en acidos grasos omega 3 (AG-OMEGA3), los cuales reducen los T...

  6. Flood modelling with a distributed event-based parsimonious rainfall-runoff model: case of the karstic Lez river catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Coustau

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff models are crucial tools for the statistical prediction of flash floods and real-time forecasting. This paper focuses on a karstic basin in the South of France and proposes a distributed parsimonious event-based rainfall-runoff model, coherent with the poor knowledge of both evaporative and underground fluxes. The model combines a SCS runoff model and a Lag and Route routing model for each cell of a regular grid mesh. The efficiency of the model is discussed not only to satisfactorily simulate floods but also to get powerful relationships between the initial condition of the model and various predictors of the initial wetness state of the basin, such as the base flow, the Hu2 index from the Meteo-France SIM model and the piezometric levels of the aquifer. The advantage of using meteorological radar rainfall in flood modelling is also assessed. Model calibration proved to be satisfactory by using an hourly time step with Nash criterion values, ranging between 0.66 and 0.94 for eighteen of the twenty-one selected events. The radar rainfall inputs significantly improved the simulations or the assessment of the initial condition of the model for 5 events at the beginning of autumn, mostly in September–October (mean improvement of Nash is 0.09; correction in the initial condition ranges from −205 to 124 mm, but were less efficient for the events at the end of autumn. In this period, the weak vertical extension of the precipitation system and the low altitude of the 0 °C isotherm could affect the efficiency of radar measurements due to the distance between the basin and the radar (~60 km. The model initial condition S is correlated with the three tested predictors (R2 > 0.6. The interpretation of the model suggests that groundwater does not affect the first peaks of the flood, but can strongly impact subsequent peaks in the case of a multi-storm event. Because this kind of model is based on a limited

  7. The perceived quality of in-vehicle auditory signals: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Dewi, Ratna Sari; Surbakti, Yopie Yutama; Hsieh, Dong-Yu

    2017-11-01

    The current study applied Structural Equation Modelling to analyse the relationship among pitch, loudness, tempo and timbre and their relationship with perceived sound quality. Twenty-eight auditory signals of horn, indicator, door open warning and parking sensor were collected from 11 car brands. Twenty-one experienced drivers were recruited to evaluate all sound signals with 11 semantic differential scales. The results indicate that for the continuous sounds, pitch, loudness and timbre each had a direct impact on the perceived quality. Besides the direct impacts, pitch also had an impact on loudness perception. For the intermittent sounds, tempo and timbre each had a direct impact on the perceived quality. These results can help to identify the psychoacoustic attributes affecting the consumers' quality perception and help to design preferable sounds for vehicles. In the end, a design guideline is proposed for the development of auditory signals that adopts the current study's research findings as well as those of other relevant research. Practitioner Summary: This study applied Structural Equation Modelling to analyse the relationship among pitch, loudness, tempo and timbre and their relationship with perceived sound quality. The result can help to identify psychoacoustic attributes affecting the consumers' quality perception and help to design preferable sounds for vehicles.

  8. Macropolyhedral boron-containing cluster chemistry. Isolation and structure of the twenty-one-vertex globular cluster compound [(.eta..sup.5./sup.-C.sub.5./sub.Me.sub.5./sub.).sub.3./sub.Ir.sub.3./sub.B.sub.18./sub.H.sub.15./sub.(OH)].sup.1./sup..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shea, S. L.; Jelínek, Tomáš; Štíbr, Bohumil; Thornton-Pett, M.; Kennedy, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2000), s. 169-172 ISSN 1387-7003 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4032701; GA ČR GA203/00/1042; GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Grant - others:EPSRC(GB) F/78323; EPSRC(GB) J/56929; EPSRC(GB) K/05818; EPSRC(GB) L/49505; EPSRC(GB) M/83360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : globular * cluster * borane Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.090, year: 2000

  9. Preoperative prediction model of outcome after cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borly, L; Anderson, I B; Bardram, L

    1999-01-01

    patients completed all questionnaires. Twenty-one patients continued to have abdominal pain after the operation. Patients with pain 1 year after cholecystectomy were characterized by the preoperative presence of a high dyspepsia score, 'irritating' abdominal pain, and an introverted personality...

  10. Modeling of Geometric Error in Linear Guide Way to Improved the vertical three-axis CNC Milling machine’s accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwintarini, Widiyanti; Wibowo, Agung; Arthaya, Bagus M.; Yuwana Martawirya, Yatna

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the accuracy of three-axis CNC Milling Vertical engines with a general approach by using mathematical modeling methods of machine tool geometric errors. The inaccuracy of CNC machines can be caused by geometric errors that are an important factor during the manufacturing process and during the assembly phase, and are factors for being able to build machines with high-accuracy. To improve the accuracy of the three-axis vertical milling machine, by knowing geometric errors and identifying the error position parameters in the machine tool by arranging the mathematical modeling. The geometric error in the machine tool consists of twenty-one error parameters consisting of nine linear error parameters, nine angle error parameters and three perpendicular error parameters. The mathematical modeling approach of geometric error with the calculated alignment error and angle error in the supporting components of the machine motion is linear guide way and linear motion. The purpose of using this mathematical modeling approach is the identification of geometric errors that can be helpful as reference during the design, assembly and maintenance stages to improve the accuracy of CNC machines. Mathematically modeling geometric errors in CNC machine tools can illustrate the relationship between alignment error, position and angle on a linear guide way of three-axis vertical milling machines.

  11. Model-Based Approach to the Evaluation of Task Complexity in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Dong Han

    2007-02-01

    This study developed a model-based method for evaluating task complexity and examined the ways of evaluating the complexity of tasks designed for abnormal situations and daily task situations in NPPs. The main results of this study can be summarised as follows. First, this study developed a conceptual framework for studying complexity factors and a model of complexity factors that classifies complexity factors according to the types of knowledge that human operators use. Second, this study developed a more practical model of task complexity factors and identified twenty-one complexity factors based on the model. The model emphasizes that a task is a system to be designed and its complexity has several dimensions. Third, we developed a method of identifying task complexity factors and evaluating task complexity qualitatively based on the developed model of task complexity factors. This method can be widely used in various task situations. Fourth, this study examined the applicability of TACOM to abnormal situations and daily task situations, such as maintenance and confirmed that it can be reasonably used in those situations. Fifth, we developed application examples to demonstrate the use of the theoretical results of this study. Lastly, this study reinterpreted well-know principles for designing information displays in NPPs in terms of task complexity and suggested a way of evaluating the conceptual design of displays in an analytical way by using the concept of task complexity. All of the results of this study will be used as a basis when evaluating the complexity of tasks designed on procedures or information displays and designing ways of improving human performance in NPPs

  12. Model(ing) Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the case law of the ICTY...

  13. Models and role models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of

  14. Analyzer-based imaging of spinal fusion in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M E; Beavis, R C; Allen, L A; Fiorella, David; Schueltke, E; Juurlink, B H; Chapman, L D; Zhong, Z

    2008-01-01

    Analyzer-based imaging (ABI) utilizes synchrotron radiation sources to create collimated monochromatic x-rays. In addition to x-ray absorption, this technique uses refraction and scatter rejection to create images. ABI provides dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging techniques. Twenty-one adult male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups to undergo the following interventions: (1) non-injured control, (2) decortication alone, (3) decortication with iliac crest bone grafting and (4) decortication with iliac crest bone grafting and interspinous wiring. Surgical procedures were performed at the L5-6 level. Animals were killed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the intervention and the spine muscle blocks were excised. Specimens were assessed for the presence of fusion by (1) manual testing, (2) conventional absorption radiography and (3) ABI. ABI showed no evidence of bone fusion in groups 1 and 2 and showed solid or possibly solid fusion in subjects from groups 3 and 4 at 6 weeks. Metal artifacts were not present in any of the ABI images. Conventional absorption radiographs did not provide diagnostic quality imaging of either the graft material or fusion masses in any of the specimens in any of the groups. Synchrotron-based ABI represents a novel imaging technique which can be used to assess spinal fusion in a small animal model. ABI produces superior image quality when compared to conventional radiographs

  15. Preliminary study of efficacy of hyaluronic acid on caustic esophageal burns in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Muazez; Demir, Tuncer; Karadag, Cetin Ali; Ketani, Muzaffer Aydin; Celik, Hakim; Kaplan, Davut Sinan; Boleken, Mehmet Emin

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid on the prevention of esophageal damage and stricture formation after experimental caustic (alkaline) esophageal injury in rats. Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups. A caustic esophageal burn was created following the Gehanno model: Group l (n=7) underwent operation, but no injury; Group 2 (n=7) was injured and left untreated; and Group 3 (n=7) was injured and treated with hyaluronic acid, first topically and then orally by gavage (2×0.3mL; 12.5mg/mL for 7days). The caustic esophageal burn was created by instilling 25% NaOH into the distal esophagus. All rats were euthanized on day 22 for evaluation. The efficacy of hyaluronic acid treatment was assessed histopathologically and biochemically via blood determination of the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and sulfhydryl group (SH) and lipid hydroperoxidase (LOOH) levels. Statistical analyses were performed. Weight gain was significantly lower in Group 2 than in the other two groups (POSI, and SH and LOOH levels were higher in Group 2 than in the other two groups. The mean stenosis index, inflammation, TAS, SH and OSI in Group 2 were significantly different than those in the other two groups (P<0.05). Hyaluronic acid treatment is effective in treating damage and preventing strictures after caustic esophageal burn in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Scoping study into wound management nurse practitioner models of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Michelle A; Edwards, Helen E; Gardner, Glenn E

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this research was to investigate wound management nurse practitioner (WMNP) models of service for the purposes of identifying parameters of practice and how patient outcomes are measured. A scoping study was conducted with all authorised WMNPs in Australia from October to December 2012 using survey methodology. A questionnaire was developed to obtain data on the role and practice parameters of authorised WMNPs in Australia. The tool comprised seven sections and included a total of 59 questions. The questionnaire was distributed to all members of the WMNP Online Peer Review Group, to which it was anticipated the majority of WMNPs belonged. Twenty-one WMNPs responded (response rate 87%), with the results based on a subset of respondents who stated that, at the time of the questionnaire, they were employed as a WMNP, therefore yielding a response rate of 71% (n=15). Most respondents (93%; n=14) were employed in the public sector, with an average of 64 occasions of service per month. The typical length of a new case consultation was 60 min, with 32 min for follow ups. The most frequently performed activity was wound photography (83%; n=12), patient, family or carer education (75%; n=12), Doppler ankle-brachial pressure index assessment (58%; n=12), conservative sharp wound debridement (58%; n=12) and counselling (50%; n=12). The most routinely prescribed medications were local anaesthetics (25%; n=12) and oral antibiotics (25%; n=12). Data were routinely collected by 91% of respondents on service-related and wound-related parameters to monitor patient outcomes, to justify and improve health services provided. This study yielded important baseline information on this professional group, including data on patient problems managed, the types of interventions implemented, the resources used to accomplish outcomes and how outcomes are measured.

  17. Medium strength self-compacting concrete containing fly ash: Modelling using factorial experimental plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed Sonebi [University of Paisley, Paisley (United Kingdom). Advanced Concrete and Masonry Centre

    2004-07-01

    This investigation aims to develop medium strength self-compacting concrete (MS-SCC). The cost of materials will be decreased by reducing the cement content and by using pulverised fuel ash (PFA) with a minimum amount of superplasticizer (SP). A factorial design was carried out to mathematically model the influence of five key parameters on filling and passing abilities, segregation and compressive strength, which are important for the successful development of medium strength self-compacting concrete incorporating PFA. The parameters considered in the study were the contents of cement and PFA, water-to-powder (cement+PFA) ratio (W/P) and dosage of SP. The responses of the derived statistical models are slump flow, fluidity loss, Orimet time, V-funnel time, L-box, JRing combined to the Orimet, JRing combined to cone, rheological parameters, segregation and compressive strength at 7, 28 and 90 days. Twenty-one mixes were prepared to derive the statistical models, and five were used for the verification and the accuracy of the developed models. The models are valid for mixes made with 0.38 to 0.72 W/P, 60 to 216 kg/m{sup 3} of cement content, 183 to 317 kg/m{sup 3} of PFA and 0% to 1% of SP, by mass of powder. The influences of W/P, cement and PFA contents, and the dosage of SP were characterised and analysed using polynomial regression, which can identify the primary factors and their interactions on the measured properties. The results show tha MS-SCC can be achieved with a 28-day compressive strength of 30 to 35 MPa by using up to 210 kg/m{sup 3} of PFA.

  18. A socio-sports model of disordered eating among Brazilian male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; de Oliveira, Saulo Melo Fernandes; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a socio-sports model of disordered eating (DE) in Brazilian male athletes. Three hundred and twenty one athletes over 12 years of age from 18 different sports modalities were investigated. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to evaluate DE. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with body fat levels. The Muscularity Concern subscale of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with muscularity levels. To investigate the influence of sociocultural factors on body image, the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) was applied. Body fat was estimated by skinfold measurement. Demographic data were collected (competitive level and training regimen). Structural equation modelling was conducted to analyse the relationships between research variables and the factors that mediate them. The results indicated that the sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction adhered to socio-sports model of DE (X(2) = 18.50, p = .001, RMSEA = .069, GFI = .97, AGFI = .91, TLI = .93). The BSQ accurately predicted the relationship between SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2) = .08, p = 0.001) scores. A direct relationship between the SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2) = .07, p = 0.01) and BSQ (R(2) = .10, p = 0.001) scores was identified. No relationship was found between structural equation model and Muscularity Concern (R(2) = .02, p = 0.14), competitive level (R(2) = .01, p = 0.19), training regimen (R(2) = .03, p = 0.11) or body fat (R(2) = .02, p = 0.14). The results suggest that sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction follow the socio-sports model of DE in Brazilian male athletes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics assessed using a 4-segment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeve, Sander; Leenstra, Bernard; Willems, Paul; Poeze, Martijn; Meijer, Kenneth

    2017-09-01

    The effects of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics in gait studies using foot models are not fully understood, whereas this can have significant influence. We analyzed these variables with the 4-segment Oxford foot model. Twenty-one healthy subjects (aged 20-65 years) were recruited for gait analysis. The effect of speed on foot and ankle kinematics was assessed by comparing results during slow walking and fast walking. To assess the effect of age, a group of 13 healthy young adults (aged 20-24 years) were compared with a group of 8 older adults (aged 53-65 years). Also, the interaction between age and speed was analyzed. Regarding speed, there was a significant difference between forefoot/hindfoot motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during both loading- and push-off phase (P = .004, P plane (flexion/extension) during push-off phase (P = .5). Age did not significantly influence kinematics. There was no interaction between age and speed. Our analysis found that speed significantly influenced the kinematic outcome parameters. This was more pronounced in the ankle joint. In contrast, no significant differences were found between younger and older healthy subjects.

  20. NMR studies in the relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis in the strain 13 guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlik, S J; Wong, C; Gilbert, J J; Noseworthy, J H

    1989-01-01

    Juvenile strain 13 guinea pigs sensitized with an emulsion of whole isologous central nervous system (CNS) tissue in complete Freund's adjuvant in the first two weeks of life develop a relapsing-remitting form of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) which resembles multiple sclerosis (MS) both clinically and pathologically. In order to determine if this experimental model could be used to identify the tissue factors which contribute to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected lesions in MS, we measured T1 and T2 relaxation times, tissue specific gravity and histology throughout the entire CNS in vitro in eighteen animals during the acute phase (first attack), and twenty-one animals during further periods of clinical worsening (relapses) and recovery (remissions). The neuropathological findings of spinal cord meningeal inflammation, perivascular and parenchymal infiltration (myelitis and encephalitis) and demyelination were more marked during periods of clinical worsening than when the animal had recovered clinically. Even though the histological changes of EAE were present in all experimental animals, NMR relaxation times and tissue specific gravity could not distinguish experimental (first attack, subsequent relapses and remissions) from control animals due to a wide range of values for each of these parameters. Although relapsing EAE in the strain 13 guinea pig has been an instructive model of MS, we have found that in vitro NMR relaxometry cannot be used to predict the presence or degree of pathological change in the nervous system of these experimental animals.

  1. Effect of QSKL on MAPK and RhoA Pathways in a Rat Model of Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Qishenkeli (QSKL is one of the Chinese medicine formulae for treating heart failure and has been shown to have an antifibrotic effect. However, the mechanism of its therapeutic effects remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore whether QSKL could exert an antifibrotic effect by attenuating ras homolog family member A (RhoA and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Rats were randomly divided into sham group, model group, QSKL group, and positive control group. Heart failure was induced by ligation of the left ventricle anterior descending artery. Cardiac functions were measured by echocardiography and collagen deposition was assessed by Masson staining. Expressions of the key molecules involved in the RhoA and MAPK pathways were also measured. Twenty-one days after surgery, cardiac functions were severely impaired and collagen deposition was remarkable, while QSKL treatment could improve heart functions and alleviate collagen deposition. Further results demonstrated that the effects may be mediated by suppressing expressions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. Moreover, expressions of RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase 1/2 (ROCK1/2, and phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC were also downregulated by QSKL compared with the model group. The cardioprotective mechanism of QSKL on heart failure is probably mediated by regulating both the MAPK and RhoA signaling pathways.

  2. An Interlaminotomy New Zealand White Rabbit Model to Evaluate Novel Epidural Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzati, Edin; Soleman, Jehuda; Schöpf, Salome Aglaia; Coluccia, Daniel; Fandino, Javier; Marbacher, Serge

    2015-11-01

    The New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit model is an established animal model for examining surgical methods to prevent epidural scar formation after spine surgery. As most approaches include complete laminectomy of the rabbit vertebra, this procedure is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. We examined a less invasive technique, the microsurgical interlaminotomy, for testing epidural substance application in the rabbit spine. Surgery was performed in the cadaver rabbit spine to evaluate the approach before performing it in NZW rabbits. All surgical procedures were performed under an operation microscope. Female rabbits with a mean weight of 4770 g  ±  240 g were used. Neurologic symptoms were analyzed based on predefined scores. After resection of the spinal process, the caudal part of the upper lamina was resected using a drill and a 1-mm Kerrison punch. The yellow ligament was resected resulting in a dural exposure of ∼ 5 × 10 mm. Eight pilot interlaminotomies were performed on three cadaveric spines to establish the surgical approach. Twenty-one NZW rabbits were then operated on using the interlaminotomy model. Three rabbits (14.3%) died during surgery due to anesthesia-related complications. Two rabbits (9.5%) showed partial paresis of the lower extremities and one (4.8%) a complete paraplegia. The remaining 15 rabbits (71.4%) had an uneventful recovery without neurologic symptoms. The mean surgical duration was 88 +/- 28 minutes. The rabbit interlaminotomy model is associated with few neurologic deficits and a relatively short operating time. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. A Leishmania murine model to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of Pythium insidiosum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inêz-Ferreira, Tatiana Maria; Mendoza, Leonel; Vilela, Raquel; Andrade, Hélida Monteiro de; Haddad, João Paulo; Nunes, Fernanda Freire Campos; Gondim, Isabela Moreira; Guimarães, Tânia Mara Pinto Dabés; de Toledo, Vicente de Paulo Coelho Peixoto

    2017-03-01

    Pythium insidiosum immunomodulatory vaccine (PiV) has been tested in clinical and experimental pythiosis. Previous data showed that P. insidiosum immunogens have the ability to switch the Th2 immune response, normally in place during pythiosis, to a curative Th1 response. Pythiosis cannot be reproduced in experimental rodents with the exception of rabbits, and thus thorough evaluation of PiV´s immunomodulatory properties has been limited by the lack of a compatible inbred mouse model. In this study, we took advantage of the murine BALB/c Leishmania infection model, where infected mice produce a Th2 response, to evaluate the PiV Th2 to Th1 immunomodulatory potential. Twenty-one days following challenge with L. major, large cutaneous granulomas developed in control mice, consistent with the expected Th2 response. In contrast, Leishmania -induced cutaneous lesions in PiV-immunized mice were minimal or absent. Flow cytometry analysis of spleen cells from mice immunized with PiV and subsequently challenged with L. major displayed more CD4+ and CD8+ cells than the control group. Moreover, spleen cells from mice that were immunized with PiV then challenged with L. major secreted high levels of IFN-γ, with a moderate IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 mixed cytokine profile upon in vitro re-stimulation with PiV. Anti- P. insidiosum IgG1 in immunized animals was present at low titers suggesting a minor immunological role for this Ig isotype in this model. Our preliminary data showed that BALB/c mice challenged with L. major represent an attractive model in which to study PiV´s immunomodulatory properties.

  4. The effects of concurrent chemoradiation therapy to the base of tongue in a preclinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Peter A; Ruiz, Ryan; Verma, Avanti; Dion, Gregory R; Oh, Philmo; Wang, Binhuan; Ahmed, Omar H; Hiwatashi, Nao; Bing, Renjie; Victor, Kristen; Hu, Kenneth S; Johnson, Aaron; Branski, Ryan C; Amin, Milan R

    2017-12-27

    To develop a clinically relevant model of oropharyngeal concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) in order to quantify the effects of CCRT on tongue function and structure. CCRT for advanced oropharyngeal cancer commonly leads to tongue base dysfunction and dysphagia. However, no preclinical models currently exist to study the pathophysiology of CCRT-related morbidity, thereby inhibiting the development of targeted therapeutics. Animal model. Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: 2 week (2W), 5 month (5M), and control (C). The 2W and 5M animals received cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and five fractions of 7 Gy to the tongue base; the C animals received no intervention. In vivo tongue strength and displacement, as well as hyoglossus muscle collagen content, were assessed. Analyses were conducted 2 weeks or 5 months following completion of CCRT in the 2W and 5M groups, respectively. Peak tetanic and twitch tongue forces were significantly reduced in both 2W and 5M animals compared to controls (tetanic: P = .0041, P = .0089, respectively; twitch: P = .0201, P = .0020, respectively). Twitch half-decay time was prolonged in 2W animals compared to controls (P = .0247). Tongue displacement was significantly reduced across all testing parameters in 5M animals compared to both the C and 2W groups. No differences in collagen content were observed between experimental groups. The current study is the first to describe a preclinical model of CCRT to the head and neck with an emphasis on clinical relevance. Tongue strength decreased at 2 weeks and 5 months post-CCRT. Tongue displacement increased only at 5 months post-CCRT. Fibrosis was not detected, implicating alternative causative factors for these findings. NA Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Cognitive modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Zandbelt, Bram

    2017-01-01

    Introductory presentation on cognitive modeling for the course ‘Cognitive control’ of the MSc program Cognitive Neuroscience at Radboud University. It addresses basic questions, such as 'What is a model?', 'Why use models?', and 'How to use models?'

  6. Modelling the models

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    By analysing the production of mesons in the forward region of LHC proton-proton collisions, the LHCf collaboration has provided key information needed to calibrate extremely high-energy cosmic ray models.   Average transverse momentum (pT) as a function of rapidity loss ∆y. Black dots represent LHCf data and the red diamonds represent SPS experiment UA7 results. The predictions of hadronic interaction models are shown by open boxes (sibyll 2.1), open circles (qgsjet II-03) and open triangles (epos 1.99). Among these models, epos 1.99 shows the best overall agreement with the LHCf data. LHCf is dedicated to the measurement of neutral particles emitted at extremely small angles in the very forward region of LHC collisions. Two imaging calorimeters – Arm1 and Arm2 – take data 140 m either side of the ATLAS interaction point. “The physics goal of this type of analysis is to provide data for calibrating the hadron interaction models – the well-known &...

  7. Watchfully checking rapport with the Primary Child Health Care nurses - a theoretical model from the perspective of parents of foreign origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Anita; Törnkvist, Lena; Hylander, Ingrid

    2010-07-20

    Worldwide, multicultural interaction within health care seems to be challenging and problematic. This is also true among Primary Child Health Care nurses (PCHC nurses) in the Swedish Primary Child Health Care services (PCHC services). Therefore, there was a need to investigate the parents' perspective in-depth. The aim of the study was to construct a theoretical model that could promote further understanding of the variety of experiences of parents of foreign origin regarding their interaction with the PCHC nurses at PCHC services. The study used Grounded Theory Methodology. Twenty-one parents of foreign origin in contact with PCHC servicies were interviewed. In our study parents were watchfully checking rapport, i.e. if they could perceive sympathy and understanding from the PCHC nurses. This was done by checking the nurse's demeanour and signs of judgement. From these interviews we created a theoretical model illustrating the interactive process between parents and PCHC nurses. We found it to be of utmost importance for parents to be certain that it was possible to establish rapport with the PCHC nurse. If not, disruptions in the child's attendance at PCHC services could result. PCHC nurses can use the theoretical model resulting from this study as a basis for understanding parents, avoiding a demeanour and judgements that may cause misunderstandings thus promoting high-quality interaction in PCHC services.

  8. Modelling Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the practicalities of building, testing, deploying and maintaining models. It gives specific advice for each phase of the modelling cycle. To do this, a modelling framework is introduced which covers: problem and model definition; model conceptualization; model data...... requirements; model construction; model solution; model verification; model validation and finally model deployment and maintenance. Within the adopted methodology, each step is discussedthrough the consideration of key issues and questions relevant to the modelling activity. Practical advice, based on many...... years of experience is providing in directing the reader in their activities.Traps and pitfalls are discussed and strategies also given to improve model development towards “fit-for-purpose” models. The emphasis in this chapter is the adoption and exercise of a modelling methodology that has proven very...

  9. Model-based identification and use of task complexity factors of human integrated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Dong-Han; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2012-01-01

    Task complexity is one of the conceptual constructs that are critical to explain and predict human performance in human integrated systems. A basic approach to evaluating the complexity of tasks is to identify task complexity factors and measure them. Although a great deal of task complexity factors have been studied, there is still a lack of conceptual frameworks for identifying and organizing them analytically, which can be generally used irrespective of the types of domains and tasks. This study proposes a model-based approach to identifying and using task complexity factors, which has two facets—the design aspects of a task and complexity dimensions. Three levels of design abstraction, which are functional, behavioral, and structural aspects of a task, characterize the design aspect of a task. The behavioral aspect is further classified into five cognitive processing activity types. The complexity dimensions explain a task complexity from different perspectives, which are size, variety, and order/organization. Twenty-one task complexity factors are identified by the combination of the attributes of each facet. Identification and evaluation of task complexity factors based on this model is believed to give insights for improving the design quality of tasks. This model for complexity factors can also be used as a referential framework for allocating tasks and designing information aids. The proposed approach is applied to procedure-based tasks of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as a case study to demonstrate its use. Last, we compare the proposed approach with other studies and then suggest some future research directions.

  10. Appraisal of the remineralizing potential of child formula dentifrices on primary teeth: An i n vitropH cycling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kiranmayi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the remineralizing potential of child formula dentifrices on primary teeth using an in vitro 7 days pH cycling model. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one primary teeth were placed in demineralizing solution for 96 h to produce artificial carious lesions; then cut longitudinally into 100-150 μm thick sections and randomly assigned to three groups. Sections in Group A were treated with dentifrice containing 458 ppm monofluorophosphate (MFP and sections in Group B with 500 ppm sodium fluoride (NaF. Group C sections were treated with a nonfluoridated dentifrice. Results: Group A (458 ppm MFP and Group B (500 ppm NaF showed significant decrease in lesion depth, whereas Group C (non F showed a significant increase in depth (P ≤ 0.05, paired t-test. Conclusion: Though dentifrices containing 458 ppm MFP and 500 ppm NaF demonstrated remineralization of carious lesions, it was not complete. Therefore, it is also important to emphasize on other preventive methods in the prevention and/or reversal of carious lesions.

  11. Effect of adenine on bacterial translocation using technetium-99m labeled E. coli in an intestinal obstruction model in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugur Oflaz; Fatma Yurt Lambrecht; Osman Yilmaz; Cetin Pekcetin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate effects of adenine on bacterial translocation (BT) using 99m Tc-labeled E. coli in an intestinal obstruction rat model. In the study twenty-one rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups according to different feeding patterns. The control group (CG) was fed with a standard chow diet for 7 days. Group A1 and group A2 were fed with adenine supplemented chow diet for 7 days. At the end of the feeding period, after all groups was submitted intestinal obstruction. 99m Tc-E. coli was injected into the rats' terminal ileum under anesthetic. The rats were sacrificed under aseptic conditions at 24th h after the surgery. The uptake of 99m Tc-E. coli was determined in organs such as the liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and ileum. Group A1 and group A2 results show that the uptake of 99m Tc-E. coli decreased in the blood and organs comparing to the CG. As a result, it was observed that adenine reduced the level of BT when compared with CG. The beneficial effect of adenine on BT in intestinal obstruction was observed. However, further studies are needed to more clearly assess how this benefit can be achieved. (author)

  12. Cannabis sativa (Marijuana) alters blood chemistry and the cytoarchitecture of some organs in Sprague Dawley rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abey, Nosarieme Omoregie

    2018-04-19

    There is evidence that Cannabis whose active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most commonly abused neuroactive substance, among young adults. This work investigated the effects of Cannabis sativa on the cytoarchitecture of some key organs and the blood chemistry of rat models. Twenty-one (21) male Sprague Dawley rats were fed different percentage of cannabis chow (0%, 5% and 10%) for a period of seven (7) weeks. Rats were subjected to intermittent cognitive function test and sacrificed after the seventh week, collecting the blood, brain and other important tissues for analysis which include; brain total protein and nitric oxide concentration, blood chemistry and histopathology. Results revealed a dose-dependent decline in the cognitive function, statistically significant decrease in the brain total protein and nitric oxide. Histopathology revealed significant hypertrophy in the heart, hypercellularity in neuronal cells, prominent sinusoids cytoarchitecture of the hepatocytes and vascular congestion in the seminiferous tubules of testes. There was a statistically significant difference in the plasma ALP, ALT, AST level between controls and the cannabis test groups. Cannabis use caused cellular damage through mediation of imbalance and altered cytoarchitecture which may affects the overall health of dependent user. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An Online Telepractice Model for the Prevention of Voice Disorders in Vocally Healthy Student Teachers Evaluated by a Smartphone Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Elizabeth U

    2017-06-01

    This article describes the Global Voice Prevention Model (GVPM) facilitated with student teachers at West Chester University and the VoiceEvalU8 smartphone application (app) used to assess the effectiveness of the GVPM. Twenty-one participants completed 1 of 3 conditions (i.e., in-person GVPM, telepractice GVPM, and control). The in-person and telepractice conditions ran for 4 weeks during fall 2016, with 1 week dedicated to vocal education and vocal hygiene and 3 weeks spent in vocal training. The control condition ran for 1 week and included only vocal education and vocal hygiene. The VoiceEvalU8 app was used at pre- and post-condition twice a day for 5 days to record acoustic, perceptual, and aerodynamic voice measures. The study is ongoing; therefore, preliminary acoustic results for fundamental frequency (F0) and jitter% are presented from pre- to post-condition. During spring 2017, the participants were student teaching and using the VoiceEvalU8 app to record the voice measures before and after teaching all day. A new group of participants will be enrolled fall 2017 for selection into 1 of the 3 conditions and then continue on to student teaching spring 2018.

  14. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamum indicum L. in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame seed (10%, and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame oil (5%. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P0.05. In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P0.05. Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  15. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Sesamum indicum L. in rabbits fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Najafi, Somayeh; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol), hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame seed (10%), and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame oil (5%). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P 0.05). In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P 0.05). Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  16. Formation of disinfection by-products: effect of temperature and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-lu; Yang, Hong-wei; Wang, Xiao-mao; Fu, Jing; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2013-01-01

    The temperature of drinking water fluctuates naturally in water distribution systems as well as often deliberately heated for household or public uses. In this study, the temperature effect on the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) was investigated by monitoring the temporal variations of twenty-one DBPs during the chlorination of a humic precursors-containing water at different temperatures. It was found that chloroform, DCAA, TCAA, DCAN and CH were detected at the considerable level of tens of μg L(-1). The three regulated DBPs (chloroform, DCAA and TCAA) were found increasing with both contact time and water temperature, while the five typical emerging DBPs (DCAN, CH, TCNM 1,1-DCPN and 1,1,1-TCPN) revealed the significant auto-decomposition in addition to the initial growth in the first few hours. Increasing water temperature could enhance the formation rates of all the eight detected DBPs and the decomposition rates of the five emerging DBPs. Further, a kinetic model was developed for the simulation of DBP formation. The validity and universality of the model were verified by its excellent correlation with the detected values of each DBP species at various temperatures. The formation rates of 1,1-DCPN and 1,1,1-TCPN, and the decomposition rate of 1,1,1-TCPN were faster as compared to the other DBPs. And the formation reaction activation energies of CH, DCAN and 1,1-DCPN were relatively large, indicating that their occurrence levels in the finished water were more susceptible to temperature variations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. STRUCTURAL MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Ya. Danelyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article states the general principles of structural modeling in aspect of the theory of systems and gives the interrelation with other types of modeling to adjust them to the main directions of modeling. Mathematical methods of structural modeling, in particular method of expert evaluations are considered.

  18. (HEV) Model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moatez Billah HARIDA

    The use of the simulator “Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Model Balances Fidelity and. Speed (HEVMBFS)” and the global control strategy make it possible to achieve encouraging results. Key words: Series parallel hybrid vehicle - nonlinear model - linear model - Diesel engine - Engine modelling -. HEV simulator - Predictive ...

  19. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Piccolo, Chiara; Heitzig, Martina

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...... procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also...

  20. Modelling the energy and exergy utilisation of the Mexican non-domestic sector: A study by climatic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Kerdan, Iván; Morillón Gálvez, David; Raslan, Rokia; Ruyssevelt, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a bottom-up stock model to perform a holistic energy study of the Mexican non-domestic sector. The current energy and exergy flows are shown based on a categorisation by climatic regions with the aim of understanding the impact of local characteristics on regional efficiencies. Due to the limited data currently available, the study is supported by the development of a detailed archetype-based stock model using EnergyPlus as a first law analysis tool combined with an existing exergy analysis method. Twenty-one reference models were created to estimate the electric and gas use in the sector. The results indicate that sectoral energy and exergy annual input are 95.37 PJ and 94.28 PJ, respectively. Regional exergy efficiencies were found to be 17.8%, 16.6% and 23.2% for the hot-dry, hot-humid and temperate climates, respectively. The study concludes that significant potential for improvements still exists, especially in the cases of space conditioning, lighting, refrigeration, and cooking where most exergy destructions occur. Additionally, this work highlights that the method described may be further used to study the impact of large-scale refurbishments and promote national regulations and standards for sustainable buildings that takes into consideration energy and exergy indicators. - Highlights: • A bottom-up physics model was developed to analyse the Mexican commercial stock. • A detailed energy analysis by climate, buildings and end-uses is presented. • The Mexican non-domestic sector as a whole has an exergy efficiency of 19.7%. • The lowest regional exergy efficiency is found at the hot-humid region with 16.6%. • By end use, the highest exergy destructions are caused by HVAC and lighting

  1. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  2. Modelling hippocampal neurogenesis across the lifespan in seven species

    OpenAIRE

    Lazic, Stanley E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the number of new cells and neurons added to the dentate gyrus across the lifespan, and to compare the rate of age-associated decline in neurogenesis across species. Data from mice (Mus musculus), rats (Rattus norvegicus), lesser hedgehog tenrecs (Echinops telfairi), macaques (Macaca mulatta), marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), and humans (Homo sapiens) were extracted from twenty one data sets published in fourteen different p...

  3. Beneficial effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract and a niacin-bound chromium in a hamster atherosclerosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, J A; Mandarano, M A; Shuta, D L; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2002-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries in which fatty plaques develop on the inner arterial wall, which eventually obstructs blood flow. Identified risk factors for atherosclerosis include genetics, diet, lifestyle, smoking, circulating lipid and cholesterol levels, and molecular and circulating signals of chronic vascular inflammation. The link between flavonoids and atherosclerosis is based partly on the evidence that some flavonoids possess antioxidant properties and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation in vitro. Hypercholesterolemia, a significant cardiovascular risk factor is prevalent in the American population. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts are known to exhibit a broad spectrum of chemopreventive and cardioprotective properties against oxidative stress. A recent study has shown that a combination of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) and a niacin-bound chromium (NBC) can decrease total cholesterol, LDL and oxidized LDL levels in hypercholesterolemic human subjects. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of GSPE supplementation in hamsters, singly and in combination with NBC, since these animals have a similar lipid profile to hypercholesterolemic humans when fed a hypercholesterolemic diet of 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (HCD). After 10 weeks of feeding HCD, these animals developed foam cells, which is a biomarker of early stages of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis (% of aorta covered with foam cells) was reduced by approximately 50% and 63% following supplementation of these animals with 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of GSPE, respectively, in conjunction with a HCD, while approximately 32% reduction was observed following supplementation of GSPE plus NBC. A range of 7-9 animals was used in each study group. GSPE alone and in combination with NBC exerted a pronounced effect on the cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as oxidative lipid damage as demonstrated by the formation of thiobarbituric acid

  4. Galactic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchler, J.R.; Gottesman, S.T.; Hunter, J.H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on galactic models are presented. Individual topics addressed include: observations relating to galactic mass distributions; the structure of the Galaxy; mass distribution in spiral galaxies; rotation curves of spiral galaxies in clusters; grand design, multiple arm, and flocculent spiral galaxies; observations of barred spirals; ringed galaxies; elliptical galaxies; the modal approach to models of galaxies; self-consistent models of spiral galaxies; dynamical models of spiral galaxies; N-body models. Also discussed are: two-component models of galaxies; simulations of cloudy, gaseous galactic disks; numerical experiments on the stability of hot stellar systems; instabilities of slowly rotating galaxies; spiral structure as a recurrent instability; model gas flows in selected barred spiral galaxies; bar shapes and orbital stochasticity; three-dimensional models; polar ring galaxies; dynamical models of polar rings

  5. An integrative model on the role of DMBT1 in epithelial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollenhauer, Jan; Helmke, Burkhard; Müller, Hanna

    2002-01-01

    to understand its role in cancer. To gain insights into its role in tumorigenesis, we conducted a comprehensive study on DMBT1 mutations, expression and location. Twenty-one out of 44 tumors showed variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) due to genetic polymorphism of DMBT1, whereas 11 out of 44 tumors...

  6. Longitudinal monitoring adipose-derived stem cell survival by PET imaging hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate in rat myocardial infarction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Sang-Keun; Lee, Kyo Chul; An, Gwang Il [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pandya, Darpan [Department of Molecular Medicine, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Noh Won; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Eom, Ki Dong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Tae Sup [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Wha [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Joo Hyun [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jeongsoo, E-mail: yooj@knu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Jin, E-mail: yjlee@kirams.re.kr [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We developed a safe, simple and appropriate stem cell labeling method with {sup 124}I-HIB. • ADSC survival can be monitored with PET in MI model via direct labeling. • Tracking of ADSC labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB was possible for 3 days in MI model using PET. • ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. • Survival of ADSC in living bodies can be longitudinally tracked with PET imaging. - Abstract: This study aims to monitor how the change of cell survival of transplanted adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) responds to myocardial infarction (MI) via the hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate ({sup 124}I-HIB) mediated direct labeling method in vivo. Stem cells have shown the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. However, monitoring of the fate of transplanted stem cells at target sites is still unclear. Rat ADSCs were labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB, and radiolabeled ADSCs were transplanted into the myocardium of normal and MI model. In the group of {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSC transplantation, in vivo imaging was performed using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for 9 days. Twenty-one days post-transplantation, histopathological analysis and apoptosis assay were performed. ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. In vivo tracking of the {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSCs was possible for 9 and 3 days in normal and MI model, respectively. Apoptosis of transplanted cells increased in the MI model compared than that in normal model. We developed a direct labeling agent, {sup 124}I-HIB, and first tried to longitudinally monitor transplanted stem cell to MI. This approach may provide new insights on the roles of stem cell monitoring in living bodies for stem cell therapy from pre-clinical studies to clinical trials.

  7. New insights into the effects of onion consumption on lipid mediators using a diet-induced model of hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana González-Peña

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The levels and roles of lipid mediators can be modified in response to nutritional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate shifts in oxylipin and sphingolipid profiles stimulated by a hypercholesterolemic (HC diet along with the modulating effects of onion introduced as an antioxidant functional ingredient characterized in the diet (HCO. Oxylipin and sphingolipid profiles were determined in plasma and tissues from Wistar rats using LC-MS/MS. Plasma ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA-derived oxylipins decreased in rats after 7 weeks of HC feeding, but did not evidence a further shift with HCO diet. Onion ingredient supplementation modulated the hepatic concentrations of prostaglandins and enhanced ω-3 oxylipins in the liver of HCO-fed rats relative to the HC group. The HC diet induced shifts in plasma sphingolipids, increasing sphingoid bases, dihydroceramides and ceramides, whilst the sphingomyelin, hexosylceramide and lactosylceramide families decreased. The HCO diet modified some HC diet-induced changes in sphingolipids in liver and spleen tissue. Onion supplementation effected changes in lipid mediator levels in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats. The potential of onion as regulator of pro-inflammatory mediators, and possible enhancer of pro-resolution pathways, warrants further study of the interaction of functional ingredients with bioactive lipid mediators and their potential impact on inflammation, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction.

  8. New insights into the effects of onion consumption on lipid mediators using a diet-induced model of hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Peña, Diana; Checa, Antonio; de Ancos, Begoña; Wheelock, Craig E; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción

    2017-04-01

    The levels and roles of lipid mediators can be modified in response to nutritional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate shifts in oxylipin and sphingolipid profiles stimulated by a hypercholesterolemic (HC) diet along with the modulating effects of onion introduced as an antioxidant functional ingredient characterized in the diet (HCO). Oxylipin and sphingolipid profiles were determined in plasma and tissues from Wistar rats using LC-MS/MS. Plasma ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA-derived oxylipins decreased in rats after 7 weeks of HC feeding, but did not evidence a further shift with HCO diet. Onion ingredient supplementation modulated the hepatic concentrations of prostaglandins and enhanced ω-3 oxylipins in the liver of HCO-fed rats relative to the HC group. The HC diet induced shifts in plasma sphingolipids, increasing sphingoid bases, dihydroceramides and ceramides, whilst the sphingomyelin, hexosylceramide and lactosylceramide families decreased. The HCO diet modified some HC diet-induced changes in sphingolipids in liver and spleen tissue. Onion supplementation effected changes in lipid mediator levels in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats. The potential of onion as regulator of pro-inflammatory mediators, and possible enhancer of pro-resolution pathways, warrants further study of the interaction of functional ingredients with bioactive lipid mediators and their potential impact on inflammation, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines in the choroid and sclera of hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogil José de Almeida Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão das citocinas inflamatórias TNF-α e IL-6 na esclera e coroide de coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos. Método: Coelhos New Zealand foram organizados em dois grupos: GN recebeu ração padrão para coelhos; GH recebeu dieta rica em colesterol a 1%. Foi realizada a dosagem sérica de colesterol total, triglicerídeos, HDL colesterol, glicemia de jejum no início do experimento e no momento da eutanásia. Ao final da 4ª semana para o GN e 8ª semana para o GH foi realizada a eutanásia dos animais. Os olhos foram submetidos à análise imuno-histoquímica com os anticorpos TNF-α e IL-6. Resultados: O GH manifestou significativo aumento do colesterol total e triglicerídeos em relação ao GN (p<0,001. Houve significativo aumento da expressão da TNF-α (p<0,001 e da IL-6 (p=0,002 na coroide e esclera dos animais do GH em relação ao GN. Conclusão: Este estudo demonstra que a dieta hipercolesterolêmica induz ao aumento da expressão das citocinas TNF-α e IL-6 na coroide e esclera de coelhos.

  10. Hypolipidemic Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam Leaf Powder and its Extract in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Shahinaz A; Morsy, Nashwa F S; Elaby, Shahenda M; Ghaly, Mohammed A A

    2017-08-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam possess some potential medicinal value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of M. oleifera leaf powder and its extract against hyperlipidemia in rats. Adult male albino rats were divided into six groups. The first group was fed on a basal diet that served as a negative control, whereas the others were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) containing moringa leaf powder at 0.737% or 1.475% or administered daily with 200 or 400 mg dry moringa leaf extract/kg bw for 60 days. A positive control group was fed on the HFD. Serum indices related to lipid profile, oxidative status, and liver function were analyzed. Feeding rats on an HFD containing moringa leaf powder at 0.737% or an oral dose of its dry extract at 400 mg/kg bw alleviated the harmful elevation of cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum that were induced by the HFD. This is the first study demonstrating the hypocholesterolemic effect of M. oleifera leaf powder.

  11. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  13. Effect of Rice Bran Oil on the Lipid Profile of Mild-Moderate Hypercholesterolemic Male Aged 19-55 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Diah Erlinawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adult individuals in Indonesia showed changes in diet and lack of physical activity, therefore increasing the risk of hypercholesterolemia and obesity. One of nutritional therapy for hypercholesterolemia is rice bran oil, which contains active substances that works synergistically in controlling lipid profile. The substances are gamma-orzanol, phytosterols, and vitamin E isomers (tocotrienol and tocopherol. Methods: A clinical trial was conducted for 4 weeks in City Hall of Jakarta on 20 males, age 19–55 years old, with mild-moderate hypercholesterolemia, to assess lipid profile improvement of the supplementation of rice bran oil 45 ml/days compared to 15 ml/days without changing eating patterns. Results: After 4 weeks of intervention, there was significant difference in total cholesterol level between both groups (p = 0.049. In the group that received 45 ml/days of rice bran oil, total cholesterol level decreased 14%, and in the group of 15 ml/days total cholesterol level decreased 7.8%. The reduction of LDL and triglycerides and the increase of HDL were not significantly different between both groups (p >0,05. There was no significant changes of body weight in both groups. Conclusion: This study showed that consumption of  45 ml/days rice bran oil led to better improvements in lipid profiles compare to 15 ml/days. It has been demonstrated that gamma oryzanol and plant sterols in rice bran oil have the capability to remove cholesterol from bile salt micelles, thus decreasing cholesterol absorption in intestine.

  14. Monocyte tissue factor–dependent activation of coagulation in hypercholesterolemic mice and monkeys is inhibited by simvastatin

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, A. Phillip; Passam, Freda H.; Antoniak, Silvio; Marshall, Stephanie M.; McDaniel, Allison L.; Rudel, Lawrence; Williams, Julie C.; Hubbard, Brian K.; Dutton, Julie-Ann; Wang, Jianguo; Tobias, Peter S.; Curtiss, Linda K.; Daugherty, Alan; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Luyendyk, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. It also is associated with platelet hyperactivity, which increases morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms by which hypercholesterolemia produces a procoagulant state remain undefined. Atherosclerosis is associated with accumulation of oxidized lipoproteins within atherosclerotic lesions. Small quantities of oxidized lipoproteins are also present in the circulation of patients with coronary a...

  15. White Bean seeds and Pomegranate peel and fruit seeds as hypercholesterolemic and hypolipidemic agents in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Rahim, E. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of soaked white bean seeds, pomegranate seeds and dried peels and their mixtures on the lipid profiles of rats suffering from hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia. The chemical compositions of dried soaked beans and pomegranate (seeds and peels were determined on dry matter which amounted to good values for proteins, lipids, crude fiber and phenols. Also, the phenol contents of pomegranate seeds and peels showed 16 compounds varying in amount between them. It was noticed that catechin and phenol are the dominating compounds. The obtained results showed a good hypolipidemic ability for soaked bean seeds and pomegranate (seeds, peels and their mixtures as well as their mixtures. A bean seeds diet produced a general improvement in the clinical status of blood lipid profile (total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and VLDL-c, liver function (ALT, AST and bilirubin, kidneys function (uric acid, urea and creatinine, blood lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT by which hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia were reduced. The mixed diet had the best influence concerning biological studies than the other treatments which used bean seeds and pomegranate (seeds and peels alone.

    Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio para evaluar los efectos de las semillas de alubias blancas y de las de granadas así como de sus cáscaras secas y sus mezclas sobre los perfiles de lípidos de ratas que sufren de hiperlipidemia e hipercolesterolemia. La composición química de las alubias blancas y de las granadas (semillas y cáscaras fue determinada en base a materia seca alcanzando una buena relación de proteínas, lípidos, fibra cruda y fenoles. Además, el contenido de fenoles de las semillas y las cáscaras de granada mostraron 16 compuestos que varían en cantidad entre ellos. Se observó que la catequina y los fenoles son los compuestos predominantes. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron un buen poder hipolipidémico de las semillas de alubias blancas y de granadas (semillas y las cáscaras, así como sus mezcla. Las semillas de alubias blancas en la dieta produjo una mejora general de la situación clínica, del perfil de lípidos en sangre (lípidos totales, triglicéridos, colesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C y VLDL-c, de la función hepática (ALT, AST y bilirrubina, de la función de los riñones (ácido úrico, urea y creatinina, de la peroxidación de lípidos en sangre y de las enzimas antioxidantes (SOD y CAT por lo que se reduce la hiperlipidemia e hipercolesterolemia. La dieta mezcla presentó la mayor influencia sobre los estudios biológicos en relación con los otros tratamientos que utilizan solamente semillas de alubias blancas o granadas (semillas y cáscaras.

  16. Heart-rate reduction by If-channel inhibition with ivabradine restores collateral artery growth in hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Stephan H; Degen, Achim; Baumhäkel, Magnus; Custodis, Florian; Schuh, Lisa; Kohlhaas, Michael; Friedrich, Erik; Bahlmann, Ferdinand; Kappl, Reinhard; Maack, Christoph; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2012-05-01

    Collateral arteries protect tissue from ischaemia. Heart rate correlates with vascular events in patients with arterial obstructive disease. Here, we tested the effect of heart-rate reduction (HRR) on collateral artery growth. The I(f)-channel inhibitor ivabradine reduced heart rate by 11% in wild-type and 15% in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)(-/-) mice and restored endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings of ApoE(-/-) mice. Microsphere perfusion and angiographies demonstrated that ivabradine did not change hindlimb perfusion in wild-type mice but improved perfusion in ApoE(-/-) mice from 40.5 ± 15.8-60.2 ± 18.5% ligated/unligated hindlimb. Heart rate reduction (13%) with metoprolol failed to improve endothelial function and perfusion. Protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phosphorylated eNOS, and eNOS activity were increased in collateral tissue following ivabradine treatment of ApoE(-/-) mice. Co-treatment with nitric oxide-inhibitor N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester abolished the effects of ivabradine on arteriogenesis. Following ivabradine, classical inflammatory cytokine expression was lowered in ApoE(-/-) circulating mononuclear cells and in plasma, but unaltered in collateral-containing hindlimb tissue, where numbers of perivascular macrophages also remained unchanged. However, ivabradine reduced expression of anti-arteriogenic cytokines CXCL10and CXCL11 and of smooth muscle cell markers smoothelin and desmin in ApoE(-/-) hindlimb tissue. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase and inflammatory cytokine expression were unchanged in wild-type mice. Ivabradine did not affect cytokine production in HUVECs and THP1 mononuclear cells and had no effect on the membrane potential of HUVECs in patch-clamp experiments. Ivabradine-induced HRR stimulates adaptive collateral artery growth. Important contributing mechanisms include improved endothelial function, eNOS activity, and modulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression.

  17. Dual PPARα/γ agonist tesaglitazar reduces atherosclerosis in insulin-resistant and hypercholesterolemic ApoE*3Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadelaar, A.S.M.; Boesten, L.S.M.; Jukema, J.W.; Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Kooistra, T.; Emeis, J.J.; Lundholm, E.; Camejo, G.; Havekes, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - We investigated whether the dual PPARα/γ agonist tesaglitazar has anti-atherogenic effects in ApoE*3Leiden mice with reduced insulin sensitivity. METHODS AND RESULTS - ApoE*3Leiden transgenic mice were fed a high-fat (HF) insulin-resistance-inducing diet. One group received a

  18. Laboratory-based assessment of plasma lipids and lipoproteins for the classification of familial hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglyceridemic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demacker, Pierre N M

    2004-02-01

    Laboratory-based coronary heart disease risk assessment classically involves measurement of lipids and lipoproteins. In this review, information is provided on the methods commonly used in laboratories for the diagnosis of hyperlipidemia, including aspects of precision and accuracy. The latter, when fulfilled, allows the use of uniform reference values. Special attention is paid to the risk estimation using apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a) measurement. The overall aim of this review is to simplify the laboratory-based risk estimation for coronary heart disease and to provide help in interpreting the results for effective prevention and treatment of this complex disease.

  19. Cholesterol-lowering effect of non-viscous soluble dietary fiber Nutriose6 in moderately hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhel, Christine; Tosini, Fredéric; Steib, Marlène; Wils, Daniel; Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Lairon, Denis; Cara, Louis

    2011-03-01

    NUTRIOSE6 is a new wheat starch-based low-digestible carbohydrate. This study investigated the effect of this soluble non-viscous fiber on cholesterol metabolism. Hamsters fed with 0.25% cholesterol-enriched diet (CHO) were given graded amounts of NUTRIOSE6, i.e., 0% (cellulose, CHO), 3% (N3), 6% (N6) or 9% (N9) (w:w). As compared to CHO diet, 9% NUTRIOSE6 significantly lowered plasma and LDL cholesterol by 14.5 and 23.8%, respectively. The LDL-cholesterol lowering effect was also significant with the 6% dose (-21.4%). NUTRIOSE6 diets prevented hepatic cholesterol accumulation (-10 to -20%) and significantly decreased bile cholesterol (-47 to -68%) and phospholipids (-30 to -45%) concentrations. The 9% NUTRIOSE6 diet significantly decreased the rate of dietary cholesterol absorption (-25%) and markedly stimulated faecal neutral sterol (+81%) and bile salts (+220%) excretion. No significant change in cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase or LDL-receptor activities was observed whereas 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity was reduced by 29%. Reduced cholesterol and bile salt absorptions and lowered cholesterol synthesis are likely mechanisms underlying the cholesterol lowering effect of NUTRIOSE6. Results suggest the use of NUTRIOSE6 as a new dietary cholesterol-lowering agent that should be tested in humans as treatment and evenly prevention of mild hypercholesterolemia.

  20. Anti-hypercholesterolemic effect of Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil in egg yolk-fed rabbits: a comparative study with simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerrou, Zouhir

    2014-08-01

    The current study was undertaken to assess anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil (PLFO) in rabbits following a hyperlipidemic diet. Twenty healthy female (WNZ) rabbits were divided into four groups of five animals each: (a) normal control (NC group) receiving standard diet, (b) hyperlipidemic control (EY) group receiving standard diet and gavaged daily with egg yolk (10 mL), (c) hyperlipidemic + PLFO (EY + PLFO) group receiving as the EY group and treated daily with PLFO (2 mL/kg BW, (d) hyperlipidemic + simvastatin (EY + SVS) group receiving as the EY group and treated once daily with 2.5 mg/kg BW of simvastatin. At the end of the six-week experimental period, the lipidemic profiles of the different groups were investigated. In the EY group, the egg yolk resulted in a significant increase of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-C, LDL-C, and the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Both the EY + PLFO and EY + SVS groups, when compared to the EY group, showed a significant decrease of TC, TG, LDL-C, and the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. However, with respect to HDL-C the differences were not significant. The TGs were significantly lower (P cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  2. A structural equation model analysis of perceived control and psychological distress on worry among African American and European American young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, L Kevin; Kertz, Sarah J; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Perceived control has been identified as an important factor in the development and maintenance of mood disorders, and worry has been shown to have a unique relationship with psychological distress associated with mood disorders. The relationships between these variables have received little attention in the literature, and even less in terms of the role racial status may serve. The current study investigated the structural relationship between psychological distress and perceived control in predicting self-reported worry as well as potential differences in paths to worry in African American and European American young adults using a structural equation model. One hundred twenty-one European American and 100 African American undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Results suggest that psychological distress and perceived control predict worry in both the African American and European American samples, however there were significant differences in terms of which construct contributed most. For African Americans, psychological distress contributed significantly more to worry than perceived control, whereas low perceived control contributed more to worry for European Americans. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  3. Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Final report. Part IV. A petrographic and chemical model for the evolution of the Tradewater Formation coals in Western Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graese, A.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A depositional model for the coals of the Tradewater Formation and associated rock units was constructed as a predictive device for the occurrence of economically important low sulfur coal. Twenty-one cores were examined and ninety-eight coal samples were analyzed for maceral, ash, and sulfur contents. These data were then analyzed to determine regional variation as well as vertical variation in single coal columns. Core data indicate that the majority of the Tradewater rocks consist of irregularly distributed, coarsening-upward, fine-grained detrital material which was deposited in shallow bodies of water. Minor fossiliferous shales and limestones suggest a marine influence. Less common coarse-grained, fining-upward sequences appear to be deposits of meandering channels. Like the detrital rocks, the coal seams are also irregularly distributed and exhibit variable petrographic and chemical properties reflecting changes in the Eh and pH of the coal swamp waters as well as detrital influx into the swamps. These swamps were relatively limited in extent and probably occupied the upper reaches of the tidal zone. The lack of significant stratigraphic and geographic trends in the regional data suggests that this mode of deposition was widespread and continued for a long period of time. 42 references, 19 figures, 9 tables.

  4. A randomized controlled study of the efficacy of misoprostol and hyaluronic acid in preventing adhesion formation after gynecological surgery: a rat uterine horn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cihan; Sever, Nurten; Cengiz, Hüseyin; Yıldız, Şükrü; Ekin, Murat; Yaşar, Levent

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of misoprostol in the reduction of adhesion formation after gynecological surgery. A double blind, randomized controlled experimental study was designed. Twenty-one female Wistar Hannover rats were divided into three groups as control, misoprostol and Hyalobarrier(®) groups. A uterine horn adhesion model was created. After anesthesia induction, 1.5-2cm injuries were made to the each uterine horn by cautery. The control group received no special medications except for the standard surgical procedure. The misoprostol group received 10μcg/kg misoprostol in addition to the standard surgical procedure, and the Hyalobarrier(®) group received 1cm(3) ready-for-use Hyalobarrier(®) gel intraperitoneally in addition to the standard surgical procedure. After 14 days from the first surgical procedure, adhesion scores were evaluated. The extent (p<0.001), severity (p<0.001), degree (p<0.001) and total adhesion score (p<0.001) values of the control group were statistically higher than the values of misoprostol and Hyalobarrier(®) groups. The inflammation score value of misoprostol group was statistically lower than control and Hyalobarrier(®) groups (p<0.001). In this study, we have found a new therapeutic potential of misoprostol that may be useful in preventing pelvic adhesion and reducing inflammation scores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Burden and outcomes of pressure ulcers in cancer patients receiving the Kerala model of home based palliative care in India: Results from a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biji M Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the prevalence and outcomes of pressure ulcers (PU seen in a cohort of cancer patients requiring home-based palliative care. Materials and Methods: All patients referred for home care were eligible for this prospective observational study, provided they were living within a distance of 35 km from the institute and gave informed consent. During each visit, caregivers were trained and educated for providing nursing care for the patient. Dressing material for PU care was provided to all patients free of cost and care methods were demonstrated. Factors influencing the occurrence and healing of PUs were analyzed using logistic regression. Duration for healing of PU was calculated using the Kaplan Meier method. P < 0.05 are taken as significant. Results: Twenty-one of 108 (19.4% enrolled patients had PU at the start of homecare services. None of the patients developed new PU during the course of home care. Complete healing of PU was seen in 9 (42.9% patients. The median duration for healing of PU was found to be 56 days. Median expenditure incurred in patients with PU was Rs. 2323.40 with a median daily expenditure of Rs. 77.56. Conclusions: The present model of homecare service delivery was found to be effective in the prevention and management of PUs. The high prevalence of PU in this cohort indicates a need for greater awareness for this complication. Clinical Trial Registry Number: CTRI/2014/03/004477

  6. Influence of milk processing temperature on growth performance, nitrogen retention, and hindgut's inflammatory status and bacterial populations in a calf model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Aris, Anna; Vidal, Maria; Fàbregas, Francesc; Terré, Marta

    2017-08-01

    This research communication describes a study aimed at evaluating the effects of heat treatment of milk on growth performance, N retention, and hindgut's inflammatory status and bacterial populations using young dairy calves as a model. Twenty-one Holstein calves were randomly allocated to one of three treatments: raw milk (RM), pasteurised milk (PAST), or UHT milk (UHT). Calves were submitted to a N balance study, and a biopsy from the distal colon and a faecal sample were obtained from 5 animals per treatment to determine expression of several genes and potential changes in the hindgut's bacterial population. Milk furosine content was 33-fold greater in UHT than in RM and PAST milks. Calves receiving RM grew more than those fed UHT, and urinary N excretion was greatest in calves fed UHT. Quantification of Lactobacillus was lower in calves consuming PAST or UHT, and Gram negative bacteria were greater in UHT than in PAST calves. The expression of IL-8 in the hindgut's mucosa was lowest and that of IL-10 tended to be lowest in RM calves, and expression of claudin-4 tended to be greatest in UHT calves. In conclusion, the nutritional value of UHT-treated milk may be hampered because it compromises growth and increases N excretion in young calves and may have deleterious effects on the gut's bacterial population and inflammation status.

  7. Hydrological models are mediating models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, L. V.; Karssenberg, D.

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" between theory and observations. The core of this approach lies in identifying models as (1) being only partially dependent on theory and observations, (2) integrating non-deductive elements in their construction, and (3) carrying the role of instruments of scientific enquiry about both theory and the world. The applicability of this approach to hydrology is evaluated in the present article. Three widely used hydrological models, each showing a different degree of apparent physicality, are confronted to the main characteristics of the "mediating models" concept. We argue that irrespective of their kind, hydrological models depend on both theory and observations, rather than merely on one of these two domains. Their construction is additionally involving a large number of miscellaneous, external ingredients, such as past experiences, model objectives, knowledge and preferences of the modeller, as well as hardware and software resources. We show that hydrological models convey the role of instruments in scientific practice by mediating between theory and the world. It results from these considerations that the traditional distinction between physically-based and conceptual models is necessarily too simplistic and refers at best to the stage at which theory and observations are steering model construction. The large variety of ingredients involved in model construction would deserve closer attention, for being rarely explicitly presented in peer-reviewed literature. We believe that devoting

  8. ICRF modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.K.

    1985-12-01

    This lecture provides a survey of the methods used to model fast magnetosonic wave coupling, propagation, and absorption in tokamaks. The validity and limitations of three distinct types of modelling codes, which will be contrasted, include discrete models which utilize ray tracing techniques, approximate continuous field models based on a parabolic approximation of the wave equation, and full field models derived using finite difference techniques. Inclusion of mode conversion effects in these models and modification of the minority distribution function will also be discussed. The lecture will conclude with a presentation of time-dependent global transport simulations of ICRF-heated tokamak discharges obtained in conjunction with the ICRF modelling codes. 52 refs., 15 figs

  9. Neurotransmitter alteration in a testosterone propionate-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nirja K; Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P

    2017-02-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), one of the leading causes of infertility seen in women, is characterized by anovulation and hyperandrogenism, resulting in ovarian dysfunction. In addition, associations of several metabolic complications like insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and psychological co-morbidities are well known in PCOS. One of the major factors influencing mood and the emotional state of mind is neurotransmitters. Also, these neurotransmitters are very crucial for GnRH release. Hence, the current study investigates the status of neurotransmitters in PCOS. A PCOS rat model was developed using testosterone. Twenty-one-day-old rats were subcutaneously injected with 10 mg/kg body weight of testosterone propionate (TP) for 35 days. The animals were validated for PCOS characteristics by monitoring estrus cyclicity, serum testosterone and estradiol levels and by histological examination of ovarian sections. Neurotransmitter estimation was carried out using fluorometric and spectrophotometric methods. TP-treated animals demonstrated increased serum testosterone levels with unaltered estradiol content, disturbed estrus cyclicity and many peripheral cysts in the ovary compared to control rats mimicking human PCOS. Norepinephrine (NE), dopamine, serotonin, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and epinephrine levels were significantly low in TP-induced PCOS rats compared to control ones, whereas the activity of acetylcholinesterase in the PCOS brain was markedly elevated. Neurotransmitter alteration could be one of the reasons for disturbed gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release, consequently directing the ovarian dysfunction in PCOS. Also, decrease in neurotransmitters, mainly NE, serotonin and dopamine (DA) attributes to mood disorders like depression and anxiety in PCOS.

  10. Modelling in Business Model design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonse, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    It appears that business model design might not always produce a design or model as the expected result. However when designers are involved, a visual model or artefact is produced. To assist strategic managers in thinking about how they can act, the designers challenge is to combine strategy and

  11. Anxiety after completion of treatment for early-stage breast cancer: a systematic review to identify candidate predictors and evaluate multivariable model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenny; Cornelius, Victoria; Ream, Emma; Cheevers, Katy; Armes, Jo

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify potential candidate predictors of anxiety in women with early-stage breast cancer (BC) after adjuvant treatments and evaluate methodological development of existing multivariable models to inform the future development of a predictive risk stratification model (PRSM). Databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, CENTRAL and PsycINFO) were searched from inception to November 2015. Eligible studies were prospective, recruited women with stage 0-3 BC, used a validated anxiety outcome ≥3 months post-treatment completion and used multivariable prediction models. Internationally accepted quality standards were used to assess predictive risk of bias and strength of evidence. Seven studies were identified: five were observational cohorts and two secondary analyses of RCTs. Variability of measurement and selective reporting precluded meta-analysis. Twenty-one candidate predictors were identified in total. Younger age and previous mental health problems were identified as risk factors in ≥3 studies. Clinical variables (e.g. treatment, tumour grade) were not identified as predictors in any studies. No studies adhered to all quality standards. Pre-existing vulnerability to mental health problems and younger age increased the risk of anxiety after completion of treatment for BC survivors, but there was no evidence that chemotherapy was a predictor. Multiple predictors were identified but many lacked reproducibility or were not measured across studies, and inadequate reporting did not allow full evaluation of the multivariable models. The use of quality standards in the development of PRSM within supportive cancer care would improve model quality and performance, thereby allowing professionals to better target support for patients.

  12. Ventilation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis and model report (AMR) for the Ventilation Model is to analyze the effects of pre-closure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts and provide heat removal data to support EBS design. It will also provide input data (initial conditions, and time varying boundary conditions) for the EBS post-closure performance assessment and the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Process Model. The objective of the analysis is to develop, describe, and apply calculation methods and models that can be used to predict thermal conditions within emplacement drifts under forced ventilation during the pre-closure period. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Provide a general description of effects and heat transfer process of emplacement drift ventilation. (2) Develop a modeling approach to simulate the impacts of pre-closure ventilation on the thermal conditions in emplacement drifts. (3) Identify and document inputs to be used for modeling emplacement ventilation. (4) Perform calculations of temperatures and heat removal in the emplacement drift. (5) Address general considerations of the effect of water/moisture removal by ventilation on the repository thermal conditions. The numerical modeling in this document will be limited to heat-only modeling and calculations. Only a preliminary assessment of the heat/moisture ventilation effects and modeling method will be performed in this revision. Modeling of moisture effects on heat removal and emplacement drift temperature may be performed in the future

  13. Target dose conversion modeling from pencil beam (PB) to Monte Carlo (MC) for lung SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dandan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qinghui; Liang, Xiaoying; Zhen, Weining; Lin, Chi; Verma, Vivek; Wang, Shuo; Wahl, Andrew; Lei, Yu; Zhou, Sumin; Zhang, Chi

    2016-01-01

    A challenge preventing routine clinical implementation of Monte Carlo (MC)-based lung SBRT is the difficulty of reinterpreting historical outcome data calculated with inaccurate dose algorithms, because the target dose was found to decrease to varying degrees when recalculated with MC. The large variability was previously found to be affected by factors such as tumour size, location, and lung density, usually through sub-group comparisons. We hereby conducted a pilot study to systematically and quantitatively analyze these patient factors and explore accurate target dose conversion models, so that large-scale historical outcome data can be correlated with more accurate MC dose without recalculation. Twenty-one patients that underwent SBRT for early-stage lung cancer were replanned with 6MV 360° dynamic conformal arcs using pencil-beam (PB) and recalculated with MC. The percent D95 difference (PB-MC) was calculated for the PTV and GTV. Using single linear regression, this difference was correlated with the following quantitative patient indices: maximum tumour diameter (MaxD); PTV and GTV volumes; minimum distance from tumour to soft tissue (dmin); and mean density and standard deviation of the PTV, GTV, PTV margin, lung, and 2 mm, 15 mm, 50 mm shells outside the PTV. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) were employed to model multiple factors and improve dose conversion accuracy. Single linear regression with PTV D95 deficiency identified the strongest correlation on mean-density (location) indices, weaker on lung density, and the weakest on size indices, with the following R 2 values in decreasing orders: shell2mm (0.71), PTV (0.68), PTV margin (0.65), shell15mm (0.62), shell50mm (0.49), lung (0.40), dmin (0.22), GTV (0.19), MaxD (0.17), PTV volume (0.15), and GTV volume (0.08). A multiple linear regression model yielded the significance factor of 3.0E-7 using two independent features: mean density of shell2mm (P = 1.6E-7) and PTV volume

  14. Turbulence modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-ε two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the 'standard' (R ij -ε) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called 'feasible'. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author)

  15. Mathematical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.

  16. Modelling Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan

    sharing many of the characteristics of a virtual enterprise. This extended enterprise will have the following characteristics: The extended enterprise is focused on satisfying the current customer requirement so that it has a limited life expectancy, but should be capable of being recreated to deal....... One or more units from beyond the network may complement the extended enterprise. The common reference model for this extended enterprise will utilise GERAM (Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology) to provide an architectural framework for the modelling carried out within......This report provides an overview of the existing models of global manufacturing, describes the required modelling views and associated methods and identifies tools, which can provide support for this modelling activity.The model adopted for global manufacturing is that of an extended enterprise...

  17. Mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten

    2004-01-01

    modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive......Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...

  18. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...... be characterized by their occurrence times and the participating books and borrowers. When we characterize events as information objects we focus on concepts like information structures. When viewed as change agents events are phenomena that trigger change. For example, when borrow event occurs books are moved...

  19. Model : making

    OpenAIRE

    Bottle, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The Model : making exhibition was curated by Brian Kennedy in collaboration with Allies & Morrison in September 2013. For the London Design Festival, the Model : making exhibition looked at the increased use of new technologies by both craft-makers and architectural model makers. In both practices traditional ways of making by hand are increasingly being combined with the latest technologies of digital imaging, laser cutting, CNC machining and 3D printing. This exhibition focussed on ...

  20. Spherical models

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Magnus J

    2012-01-01

    Well-illustrated, practical approach to creating star-faced spherical forms that can serve as basic structures for geodesic domes. Complete instructions for making models from circular bands of paper with just a ruler and compass. Discusses tessellation, or tiling, and how to make spherical models of the semiregular solids and concludes with a discussion of the relationship of polyhedra to geodesic domes and directions for building models of domes. "". . . very pleasant reading."" - Science. 1979 edition.

  1. Modeling Documents with Event Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhui Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently deep learning has made great breakthroughs in visual and speech processing, mainly because it draws lessons from the hierarchical mode that brain deals with images and speech. In the field of NLP, a topic model is one of the important ways for modeling documents. Topic models are built on a generative model that clearly does not match the way humans write. In this paper, we propose Event Model, which is unsupervised and based on the language processing mechanism of neurolinguistics, to model documents. In Event Model, documents are descriptions of concrete or abstract events seen, heard, or sensed by people and words are objects in the events. Event Model has two stages: word learning and dimensionality reduction. Word learning is to learn semantics of words based on deep learning. Dimensionality reduction is the process that representing a document as a low dimensional vector by a linear mode that is completely different from topic models. Event Model achieves state-of-the-art results on document retrieval tasks.

  2. Early diagnosis and Early Start Denver Model intervention in autism spectrum disorders delivered in an Italian Public Health System service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devescovi, Raffaella; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mancini, Alice; Bin, Maura; Vellante, Valerio; Carrozzi, Marco; Colombi, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System. Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20-36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents' and teachers' active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months) and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months). Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment. Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children. Particularly in toddlers, it seems that an intervention model based on the ESDM principles, involving the active engagement of parents and nursery school teachers, may be effective even when the individual treatment is delivered at low intensity. Furthermore, our study supports the adaptation and the positive impact of the ESDM entirely sustained by the Italian Public Health System.

  3. Didactical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas; Hansen, Rune

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Didactical Modelling as a research methodology in mathematics education. We compare the methodology with other approaches and argue that Didactical Modelling has its own specificity. We discuss the methodological “why” and explain why we find it useful...... to construct this approach in mathematics education research....

  4. Virtual modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, J.; Kiss, S.; Cano, P.; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    We concentrate our efforts on building virtual modelling environments where the content creator uses controls (widgets) as an interactive adjustment modality for the properties of the edited objects. Besides the advantage of being an on-line modelling approach (visualised just like any other on-line

  5. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  6. Education models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Sybilla; Sloep, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Educational models describes a case study on a complex learning object. Possibilities are investigated for using this learning object, which is based on a particular educational model, outside of its original context. Furthermore, this study provides advice that might lead to an increase in

  7. Modeling Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil Seok; Oh, Sung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Modeling in science has been studied by education researchers for decades and is now being applied broadly in school. It is among the scientific practices featured in the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") (Achieve Inc. 2013). This article describes modeling activities in an extracurricular science club in a high…

  8. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  9. The effect of ACE inhibition on the pulmonary vasculature in combined model of chronic hypoxia and pulmonary arterial banding in Sprague Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Shanelle; Baumgardt, Shelley; Molthen, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Microfocal CT was used to image the pulmonary arterial (PA) tree in rodent models of pulmonary hypertension (PH). CT images were used to measure the arterial tree diameter along the main arterial trunk at several hydrostatic intravascular pressures and calculate distensibility. High-resolution planar angiographic imaging was also used to examine distal PA microstructure. Data on pulmonary artery tree morphology improves our understanding of vascular remodeling and response to treatments. Angiotensin II (ATII) has been identified as a mediator of vasoconstriction and proliferative mitotic function. ATII has been shown to promote vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as stimulate synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. Available ATII is targeted through angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), a method that has been used in animal models of PH to attenuate vascular remodeling and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance. In this study, we used rat models of chronic hypoxia to induce PH combined with partial left pulmonary artery occlusion (arterial banding, PLPAO) to evaluate effects of the ACEI, captopril, on pulmonary vascular hemodynamic and morphology. Male Sprague Dawley rats were placed in hypoxia (FiO2 0.1), with one group having underwent PLPAO three days prior to the chronic hypoxia. After the twenty-first day of hypoxia exposure, treatment was started with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) for an additional twenty-one days. At the endpoint, lungs were excised and isolated to examine: pulmonary vascular resistance, ACE activity, pulmonary vessel morphology and biomechanics. Hematocrit and RV/LV+septum ratio was also measured. CT planar images showed less vessel dropout in rats treated with captopril versus the non-treatment lungs. Distensibility data shows no change in rats treated with captopril in both chronic hypoxia (CH) and CH with PLPAO (CH+PLPAO) models. Hemodynamic measurements also show no change in the pulmonary vascular

  10. VENTILATION MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Chipman

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their postclosure analyses

  11. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult......There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...

  12. OSPREY Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2013-01-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of off-gas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data is obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data and parameters were input into the adsorption model to develop models specific for krypton adsorption. The same can be done for iodine, xenon, and tritium. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Customers will be given access to

  13. Modeling Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMEEKIN, Thomas A; Ross, Thomas

    1996-12-01

    The concept of predictive microbiology has developed rapidly through the initial phases of experimental design and model development and the subsequent phase of model validation. A fully validated model represents a general rule which may be brought to bear on particular cases. For some microorganism/food combinations, sufficient confidence now exists to indicate substantial benefits to the food industry from use of predictive models. Several types of devices are available to monitor and record environmental conditions (particularly temperature). These "environmental histories" can be interpreted, using predictive models, in terms of microbial proliferation. The current challenge is to provide systems for the collection and interpretation of environmental information which combine ease of use, reliability, and security, providing the industrial user with the ability to make informed and precise decisions regarding the quality and safety of foods. Many specific applications for predictive modeling can be developed from a basis of understanding the inherent qualities of a fully validated model. These include increased precision and confidence in predictions based on accumulation of quantitative data, objective and rapid assessment of the effect of environmental conditions on microbial proliferation, and flexibility in monitoring the relative contribution of component parts of processing, distribution, and storage systems for assurance of shelf life and safety.

  14. A Model for Math Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tony; Erfan, Sasan

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an open-ended research subject where no definite answers exist for any problem. Math modeling enables thinking outside the box to connect different fields of studies together including statistics, algebra, calculus, matrices, programming and scientific writing. As an integral part of society, it is the foundation for many…

  15. Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-03-01

    Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C α RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. RNICE Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Stritch, Justin Michael

    2018-01-01

    contributes knowledge about a social phenomenon and advances knowledge in the public administration and management literatures. The RNICE model provides a vehicle for researchers who seek to evaluate or demonstrate the value of a replication study systematically. We illustrate the practical application...... research. Recently, scholars have issued calls for more replication, but academic reflections on when replication adds substantive value to public administration and management research are needed. This concise article presents a conceptual model, RNICE, for assessing when and how a replication study...... of the model using two previously published replication studies as examples....

  17. Correct Models

    OpenAIRE

    Blacher, René

    2010-01-01

    Ce rapport complete les deux rapports précédents et apporte une explication plus simple aux résultats précédents : à savoir la preuve que les suites obtenues sont aléatoires.; In previous reports, we have show how to transform a text $y_n$ in a random sequence by using functions of Fibonacci $T_q$. Now, in this report, we obtain a clearer result by proving that $T_q(y_n)$ has the IID model as correct model. But, it is necessary to define correctly a correct model. Then, we study also this pro...

  18. Hypocholesterolemic activity of indigenous probiotic isolate Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARDMC1 in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devabrata Saikia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate probiotic attributes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARDMC1 isolated from traditional rice beer starter cake and its hypocholesterolemic effects on Wistar rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The indigenous isolate ARDMC1 showed potential probiotic characteristics such as tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal stress conditions, autoaggregation properties, and adhesion to intestinal epithelium Caco-2 cell line. In addition, ARDMC1 isolate exhibited in vitro cholesterol assimilation properties in media supplemented with cholesterol. Furthermore, administration of probiotic isolate to rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet resulted in significant reduction of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride at the end of 42 days. The present study envisages ARDMC1 as a promising starter culture for the preparation of functional foods with properties to combat cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Hypocholesterolemic activity of indigenous probiotic isolate Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARDMC1 in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Devabrata; Manhar, Ajay Kumar; Deka, Bhagyashree; Roy, Raju; Gupta, Kuldeep; Namsa, Nima D; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Doley, Robin; Mandal, Manabendra

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate probiotic attributes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARDMC1 isolated from traditional rice beer starter cake and its hypocholesterolemic effects on Wistar rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The indigenous isolate ARDMC1 showed potential probiotic characteristics such as tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal stress conditions, autoaggregation properties, and adhesion to intestinal epithelium Caco-2 cell line. In addition, ARDMC1 isolate exhibited in vitro cholesterol assimilation properties in media supplemented with cholesterol. Furthermore, administration of probiotic isolate to rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet resulted in significant reduction of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride at the end of 42 days. The present study envisages ARDMC1 as a promising starter culture for the preparation of functional foods with properties to combat cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A modeling study of functional magnetic resonance imaging to individualize target definition of seminal vesicles for external beam radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Sidsel; Thomsen, Jakob B; Petersen, Svetlana I

    2017-01-01

    introducing more toxicity. In this study we evaluate the concept of using MRI-defined target volumes in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) and rectal normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-one high-risk prostate cancer patients were included. Pre-treatment CT images...

  1. Paleoclimate Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Computer simulations of past climate. Variables provided as model output are described by parameter keyword. In some cases the parameter keywords are a subset of all...

  2. Anchor Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  3. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  4. Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's modeling community is working to gain insights into certain parts of a physical, biological, economic, or social system by conducting environmental assessments for Agency decision making to complex environmental issues.

  5. Quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper invites experimenters to consider the wide variety of tests suggested by the new aspects of quark models since the discovery of charm and beauty, and nonrelativistic models. Colors and flavours are counted and combined into hadrons. The current quark zoo is summarized. Models and theoretical background are studied under: qualitative QCD: strings and bags, potential models, relativistic effects, electromagnetic transitions, gluon emissions, and single quark transition descriptions. Hadrons containing quarks known before 1974 (i.e. that can be made of ''light'' quarks u, d, and s) are treated in Section III, while those containing charmed quarks and beauty (b) quarks are discussed in Section IV. Unfolding the properties of the sixth quark from information on its hadrons is seen as a future application of the methods used in this study

  6. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, Wilfrid

    1993-01-01

    An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.

  7. Numerical models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Manoj, N.T.

    developed most of the above models. This is a good approximation to simulate horizontal distribution of active and passive variables. The future challenge lies in developing capability to simulate the distribution in the vertical....

  8. Composite models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    If quarks and leptons are composite, it should be possible eventually to calculate their mass spectrum and understand the reasons for the observed family replications, questions which lie beyond the standard model. Alas, all experimental evidence to date points towards quark and lepton elemenarity with the typical momentum scale Λsub(comp), beyond which effects of inner structure may be seen, probably being greater than ITeV. One supersymmetric preon model explained provides a new dynamical alternative for obtaining light fermions which is that these states are quasi Goldstone fermions. This, and similar models are discussed. Although quasi Goldstone fermions provide an answer to the 0sup(th)-order question of composite models the questions of how masses and families are generated remain unanswered. (U.K.)

  9. Ventilation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaret, Eimund

    Calculation procedures, used in the design of ventilating systems, which are especially suited for displacement ventilation in addition to linking it to mixing ventilation, are addressed. The two zone flow model is considered and the steady state and transient solutions are addressed. Different methods of supplying air are discussed, and different types of air flow are considered: piston flow, plane flow and radial flow. An evaluation model for ventilation systems is presented.

  10. Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  11. Accelerated life models modeling and statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bagdonavicius, Vilijandas

    2001-01-01

    Failure Time DistributionsIntroductionParametric Classes of Failure Time DistributionsAccelerated Life ModelsIntroductionGeneralized Sedyakin's ModelAccelerated Failure Time ModelProportional Hazards ModelGeneralized Proportional Hazards ModelsGeneralized Additive and Additive-Multiplicative Hazards ModelsChanging Shape and Scale ModelsGeneralizationsModels Including Switch-Up and Cycling EffectsHeredity HypothesisSummaryAccelerated Degradation ModelsIntroductionDegradation ModelsModeling the Influence of Explanatory Varia

  12. Model uncertainty: Probabilities for models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Like any other type of uncertainty, model uncertainty should be treated in terms of probabilities. The question is how to do this. The most commonly-used approach has a drawback related to the interpretation of the probabilities assigned to the models. If we step back and look at the big picture, asking what the appropriate focus of the model uncertainty question should be in the context of risk and decision analysis, we see that a different probabilistic approach makes more sense, although it raise some implementation questions. Current work that is underway to address these questions looks very promising

  13. Rectal application of a highly osmolar personal lubricant in a macaque model induces acute cytotoxicity but does not increase risk of SHIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram A Vishwanathan

    Full Text Available Personal lubricant use is common during anal intercourse. Some water-based products with high osmolality and low pH can damage genital and rectal tissues, and the polymer polyquaternium 15 (PQ15 can enhance HIV replication in vitro. This has raised concerns that lubricants with such properties may increase STD/HIV infection risk, although in vivo evidence is scarce. We use a macaque model to evaluate rectal cytotoxicity and SHIV infection risk after use of a highly osmolar (>8,000 mOsm/kg water-based lubricant with pH of 4.4, and containing PQ15.Cytotoxicity was documented by measuring inflammatory cytokines and epithelial tissue sloughing during six weeks of repeated, non-traumatic lubricant or control buffer applications to rectum and anus. We measured susceptibility to SHIVSF162P3 infection by comparing virus doses needed for rectal infection in twenty-one macaques treated with lubricant or control buffer 30 minutes prior to virus exposure.Lubricant increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and tissue sloughing while control buffer (phosphate buffered saline; PBS did not. However, the estimated AID50 (50% animal infectious dose was not different in lubricant- and control buffer-treated macaques (p = 0.4467; logistic regression models.Although the test lubricant caused acute cytotoxicity in rectal tissues, it did not increase susceptibility to infection in this macaque model. Thus neither the lubricant-induced type/extent of inflammation nor the presence of PQ15 affected infection risk. This study constitutes a first step in the in vivo evaluation of lubricants with regards to HIV transmission.

  14. Mechanistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1990-09-01

    Several models and theories are reviewed that incorporate the idea of radiation-induced lesions (repairable and/or irreparable) that can be related to molecular lesions in the DNA molecule. Usually the DNA double-strand or chromatin break is suggested as the critical lesion. In the models, the shoulder on the low-LET survival curve is hypothesized as being due to one (or more) of the following three mechanisms: (1) ``interaction`` of lesions produced by statistically independent particle tracks; (2) nonlinear (i.e., linear-quadratic) increase in the yield of initial lesions, and (3) saturation of repair processes at high dose. Comparisons are made between the various approaches. Several significant advances in model development are discussed; in particular, a description of the matrix formulation of the Markov versions of the RMR and LPL models is given. The more advanced theories have incorporated statistical fluctuations in various aspects of the energy-loss and lesion-formation process. An important direction is the inclusion of physical and chemical processes into the formulations by incorporating relevant track structure theory (Monte Carlo track simulations) and chemical reactions of radiation-induced radicals. At the biological end, identification of repair genes and how they operate as well as a better understanding of how DNA misjoinings lead to lethal chromosome aberrations are needed for appropriate inclusion into the theories. More effort is necessary to model the complex end point of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  15. Mechanistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1990-09-01

    Several models and theories are reviewed that incorporate the idea of radiation-induced lesions (repairable and/or irreparable) that can be related to molecular lesions in the DNA molecule. Usually the DNA double-strand or chromatin break is suggested as the critical lesion. In the models, the shoulder on the low-LET survival curve is hypothesized as being due to one (or more) of the following three mechanisms: (1) interaction'' of lesions produced by statistically independent particle tracks; (2) nonlinear (i.e., linear-quadratic) increase in the yield of initial lesions, and (3) saturation of repair processes at high dose. Comparisons are made between the various approaches. Several significant advances in model development are discussed; in particular, a description of the matrix formulation of the Markov versions of the RMR and LPL models is given. The more advanced theories have incorporated statistical fluctuations in various aspects of the energy-loss and lesion-formation process. An important direction is the inclusion of physical and chemical processes into the formulations by incorporating relevant track structure theory (Monte Carlo track simulations) and chemical reactions of radiation-induced radicals. At the biological end, identification of repair genes and how they operate as well as a better understanding of how DNA misjoinings lead to lethal chromosome aberrations are needed for appropriate inclusion into the theories. More effort is necessary to model the complex end point of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  16. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  17. Mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Eck, Christof; Knabner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models are the decisive tool to explain and predict phenomena in the natural and engineering sciences. With this book readers will learn to derive mathematical models which help to understand real world phenomena. At the same time a wealth of important examples for the abstract concepts treated in the curriculum of mathematics degrees are given. An essential feature of this book is that mathematical structures are used as an ordering principle and not the fields of application. Methods from linear algebra, analysis and the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations are thoroughly introduced and applied in the modeling process. Examples of applications in the fields electrical networks, chemical reaction dynamics, population dynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity theory and crystal growth are treated comprehensively.

  18. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  19. Molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  20. Supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the observed properties of Type I supernovae as a consequence of the thermonuclear detonation of white dwarf stars and the ensuing decay of the 56 Ni produced therein is reviewed. Within the context of this model for Type I explosions and the 1978 model for Type II explosions, the expected nucleosynthesis and gamma-line spectra from both kinds of supernovae are presented. Finally, a qualitatively new approach to the problem of massive star death and Type II supernovae based upon a combination of rotation and thermonuclear burning is discussed

  1. Cadastral Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    to the modeling of an industrial sector, as it aims at rendering the basic concepts that relate to the domain of real estate and the pertinent human activities. The palpable objects are pieces of land and buildings, documents, data stores and archives, as well as persons in their diverse roles as owners, holders...... to land. The paper advances the position that cadastral modeling has to include not only the physical objects, agents, and information sets of the domain, but also the objectives or requirements of cadastral systems....

  2. Peripheral denervation participates in heterotopic ossification in a spinal cord injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Debaud

    Full Text Available We previously reported the development of a new acquired neurogenic HO (NHO mouse model, combining spinal cord transection (SCI and chemical muscle injury. Pathological mechanisms responsible for ectopic osteogenesis after central neurological damage are still to be elucidated. In this study, we first hypothesized that peripheral nervous system (PNS might convey pathological signals from injured spinal cord to muscles in NHO mouse model. Secondly, we sought to determine whether SCI could lead to intramuscular modifications of BMP2 signaling pathways. Twenty one C57Bl6 mice were included in this protocol. Bilateral cardiotoxin (CTX injection in hamstring muscles was associated with a two-stage surgical procedure, combining thoracic SCI with unilateral peripheral denervation. Volumes of HO (Bone Volume, BV were measured 28 days after surgery using micro-computed tomography imaging techniques and histological analyses were made to confirm intramuscular osteogenesis. Volume comparisons were conducted between right and left hind limb of each animal, using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was performed to explore intra muscular expression of BMP2, Alk3 and Id1. Nineteen mice survive the complete SCI and peripheral denervation procedure. When CTX injections were done right after surgery (n = 7, bilateral HO were detected in all animals after 28 days. Micro-CT measurements showed significantly increased BV in denervated paws (1.47 mm3 +/- 0.5 compared to contralateral sides (0.56 mm3 +/-0.4, p = 0.03. When peripheral denervation and CTX injections were performed after sham SCI surgery (n = 6, bilateral HO were present in three mice at day 28. Quantitative PCR analyses showed no changes in intra muscular BMP2 expression after SCI as compared to control mice (shamSCI. Peripheral denervation can be reliably added to spinal cord transection in NHO mouse model. This new experimental design confirms that neuro

  3. Risk-adjusted performance evaluation in three academic thoracic surgery units using the Eurolung risk models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Cecilia; Shargall, Yaron; Decaluwe, Herbert; Moons, Johnny; Chari, Madhu; Brunelli, Alessandro

    2018-01-03

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3 thoracic surgery centres using the Eurolung risk models for morbidity and mortality. This was a retrospective analysis performed on data collected from 3 academic centres (2014-2016). Seven hundred and twenty-one patients in Centre 1, 857 patients in Centre 2 and 433 patients in Centre 3 who underwent anatomical lung resections were analysed. The Eurolung1 and Eurolung2 models were used to predict risk-adjusted cardiopulmonary morbidity and 30-day mortality rates. Observed and risk-adjusted outcomes were compared within each centre. The observed morbidity of Centre 1 was in line with the predicted morbidity (observed 21.1% vs predicted 22.7%, P = 0.31). Centre 2 performed better than expected (observed morbidity 20.2% vs predicted 26.7%, P < 0.001), whereas the observed morbidity of Centre 3 was higher than the predicted morbidity (observed 41.1% vs predicted 24.3%, P < 0.001). Centre 1 had higher observed mortality when compared with the predicted mortality (3.6% vs 2.1%, P = 0.005), whereas Centre 2 had an observed mortality rate significantly lower than the predicted mortality rate (1.2% vs 2.5%, P = 0.013). Centre 3 had an observed mortality rate in line with the predicted mortality rate (observed 1.4% vs predicted 2.4%, P = 0.17). The observed mortality rates in the patients with major complications were 30.8% in Centre 1 (versus predicted mortality rate 3.8%, P < 0.001), 8.2% in Centre 2 (versus predicted mortality rate 4.1%, P = 0.030) and 9.0% in Centre 3 (versus predicted mortality rate 3.5%, P = 0.014). The Eurolung models were successfully used as risk-adjusting instruments to internally audit the outcomes of 3 different centres, showing their applicability for future quality improvement initiatives. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  4. (SSE) model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple analytic polynomials have been proposed for estimating solar radiation in the traditional Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi. There is a strong agreement between the polynomials and the SSE model with R2 values of 0.988, 0.989 and 0.989 and root mean square errors of 0.061, 0.057 and 0.062 ...

  5. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...

  6. Markov model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pattern of the watershed LULC, leading to an accretive linear growth of agricultural and settlement areas. The annual rate of ... thereby advocates for better agricultural practices with additional energy subsidy to arrest further forest loss and LULC ...... automaton model and GIS: Long-term urban growth pre- diction for San ...

  7. Cheating models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob

    The article discusses the use of algorithmic models for so-called High Frequency Trading (HFT) in finance. HFT is controversial yet widespread in modern financial markets. It is a form of automated trading technology which critics among other things claim can lead to market manipulation. Drawing ...

  8. Entrepreneurship Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger Lakes Regional Education Center for Economic Development, Mount Morris, NY.

    This guide describes seven model programs that were developed by the Finger Lakes Regional Center for Economic Development (New York) to meet the training needs of female and minority entrepreneurs to help their businesses survive and grow and to assist disabled and dislocated workers and youth in beginning small businesses. The first three models…

  9. The Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    About the reconstruction of Palle Nielsen's (f. 1942) work The Model from 1968: a gigantic playground for children in the museum, where they can freely romp about, climb in ropes, crawl on wooden structures, work with tools, jump in foam rubber, paint with finger paints and dress up in costumes....

  10. Model Checking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Model Checking - Automated Verification of Computational Systems. Madhavan Mukund. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 667-681. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Successful modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    Tichelaar and Ruff [1989] propose to “estimate model variance in complicated geophysical problems,” including the determination of focal depth in earthquakes, by means of unconventional statistical methods such as bootstrapping. They are successful insofar as they are able to duplicate the results from more conventional procedures.

  12. Molecular Modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. Molecular Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Drug Design and Molecular Docking. Rama Rao Nadendla. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Turbulence Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens

    2011-01-01

    term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...

  14. Model-reduced inverse modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Although faster computers have been developed in recent years, they tend to be used to solve even more detailed problems. In many cases this will yield enormous models that can not be solved within acceptable time constraints. Therefore, there is a need for alternative methods that simulate such

  15. Building Models and Building Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Skauge, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    I rapportens indledende kapitel beskrives de primære begreber vedrørende bygningsmodeller og nogle fundamentale forhold vedrørende computerbaseret modulering bliver opstillet. Desuden bliver forskellen mellem tegneprogrammer og bygnings­model­lerings­programmer beskrevet. Vigtige aspekter om comp...

  16. Molecular Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important
    tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and
    the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to tailored to
    decrease harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques
    employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modelling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported from
    the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  17. Acyclic models

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Acyclic models is a method heavily used to analyze and compare various homology and cohomology theories appearing in topology and algebra. This book is the first attempt to put together in a concise form this important technique and to include all the necessary background. It presents a brief introduction to category theory and homological algebra. The author then gives the background of the theory of differential modules and chain complexes over an abelian category to state the main acyclic models theorem, generalizing and systemizing the earlier material. This is then applied to various cohomology theories in algebra and topology. The volume could be used as a text for a course that combines homological algebra and algebraic topology. Required background includes a standard course in abstract algebra and some knowledge of topology. The volume contains many exercises. It is also suitable as a reference work for researchers.

  18. RNICE Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Stritch, Justin Michael

    2018-01-01

    Replication studies relate to the scientific principle of replicability and serve the significant purpose of providing supporting (or contradicting) evidence regarding the existence of a phenomenon. However, replication has never been an integral part of public administration and management...... research. Recently, scholars have issued calls for more replication, but academic reflections on when replication adds substantive value to public administration and management research are needed. This concise article presents a conceptual model, RNICE, for assessing when and how a replication study...... contributes knowledge about a social phenomenon and advances knowledge in the public administration and management literatures. The RNICE model provides a vehicle for researchers who seek to evaluate or demonstrate the value of a replication study systematically. We illustrate the practical application...

  19. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered......The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident...... characteristic of architectural practice. But the persistence in persistent modelling can also be understood to apply in other ways, reflecting and anticipating extended roles for representation. This book identifies three principle areas in which these extensions are becoming apparent within contemporary...

  20. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered......The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident...... characteristic of architectural practice. But the persistence in persistent modelling can also be understood to apply in other ways, reflecting and anticipating extended roles for representation. This book identifies three principle areas in which these extensions are becoming apparent within contemporary...

  1. Modeling Minds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John

    others' minds. Then (2), in order to bring to light some possible justifications, as well as hazards and criticisms of the methodology of looking time tests, I will take a closer look at the concept of folk psychology and will focus on the idea that folk psychology involves using oneself as a model...... of other people in order to predict and understand their behavior. Finally (3), I will discuss the historical location and significance of the emergence of looking time tests...

  2. Hydroballistics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    detailed rendered visible in his photographs by streams of photographs of spheres entering the water small bubbles from electrolysis . So far as is...of the cavity is opaque or, brined wihile the sphere wats still in the oil. At if translucent, the contrast between thle jet and about the time the...and brass, for example) should be so model velocity scale according to Equation 1.18, selected that electrolysis is not a problem. the addition of

  3. Biomimetic modelling.

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Julian F V

    2003-01-01

    Biomimetics is seen as a path from biology to engineering. The only path from engineering to biology in current use is the application of engineering concepts and models to biological systems. However, there is another pathway: the verification of biological mechanisms by manufacture, leading to an iterative process between biology and engineering in which the new understanding that the engineering implementation of a biological system can bring is fed back into biology, allowing a more compl...

  4. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....

  5. Combustor Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    a teuto 014aceo 0-oiuato 4 ajj 210- I 14 *Experiments l~~lamCID - l2 C15 model+ Aida ditane &Gray medium K .2 a Experiments hont target n-IO a0 deawa...possibilita di valutazione dello scambio termico in focolai di caldaie per ricaldamento"I Atti E Rassegna Tecnica Societa ingegneri e arc~hitetti in Torino

  6. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    practice: the duration of active influence that representation can hold in relation to the represented; the means, methods and media through which representations are constructed and used; and what it is that is being represented. Featuring contributions from some of the world’s most advanced thinkers....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....

  7. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIllvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO x concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO x coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO x ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  8. Modeling biomembranes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimpton, Steven James; Heffernan, Julieanne; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Stevens, Mark Jackson; Frink, Laura J. Douglas

    2005-11-01

    Understanding the properties and behavior of biomembranes is fundamental to many biological processes and technologies. Microdomains in biomembranes or ''lipid rafts'' are now known to be an integral part of cell signaling, vesicle formation, fusion processes, protein trafficking, and viral and toxin infection processes. Understanding how microdomains form, how they depend on membrane constituents, and how they act not only has biological implications, but also will impact Sandia's effort in development of membranes that structurally adapt to their environment in a controlled manner. To provide such understanding, we created physically-based models of biomembranes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and classical density functional theory (DFT) calculations using these models were applied to phenomena such as microdomain formation, membrane fusion, pattern formation, and protein insertion. Because lipid dynamics and self-organization in membranes occur on length and time scales beyond atomistic MD, we used coarse-grained models of double tail lipid molecules that spontaneously self-assemble into bilayers. DFT provided equilibrium information on membrane structure. Experimental work was performed to further help elucidate the fundamental membrane organization principles.

  9. A Novel Patient-Derived Conceptual Model of the Impact of Celiac Disease in Adults: Implications for Patient-Reported Outcome and Health-Related Quality-of-Life Instrument Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Daniel A; Acaster, Sarah; Gallop, Katy; Dennis, Melinda; Kelly, Ciarán P; Adelman, Daniel C

    2017-04-01

    Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory condition with wide ranging effects on individual's lives caused by a combination of symptoms and the burden of adhering to a gluten-free diet (GFD). To further understand patients' experience of celiac disease, the impact it has on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and to develop a conceptual model describing this impact. Adults with celiac disease on a GFD reporting symptoms within the previous 3 months were included; patients with refractory celiac disease and confounding medical conditions were excluded. A semistructured discussion guide was developed exploring celiac disease symptoms and impact on patients' HRQOL. An experienced interviewer conducted in-depth interviews. The data set was coded and analyzed using thematic analysis to identify concepts, themes, and the inter-relationships between them. Data saturation was monitored and concepts identified formed the basis of the conceptual model. Twenty-one participants were recruited, and 32 distinct gluten-related symptoms were reported and data saturation was reached. Analysis identified several themes impacting patients' HRQOL: fears and anxiety, day-to-day management of celiac disease, physical functioning, sleep, daily activities, social activities, emotional functioning, and relationships. The conceptual model highlights the main areas of impact and the relationships between concepts. Both symptoms and maintaining a GFD have a substantial impact on patient functioning and HRQOL in adults with celiac disease. The conceptual model derived from these data may help to design future patient-reported outcomes as well as interventions to improve the quality of life in an individual with celiac disease. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Object Modeling and Building Information Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Auråen, Hege; Gjemdal, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    The main part of this thesis is an online course (Small Private Online Course) entitled "Introduction to Object Modeling and Building Information Modeling". This supplementary report clarifies the choices made in the process of developing the course. The course examines the basic concepts of object modeling, modeling techniques and a modeling language ​​(UML). Further, building information modeling (BIM) is presented as a modeling process, and the object modeling concepts in the BIM softw...

  11. DTN Modeling in OPNET Modeler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPAJ Jan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional wireless networks use the concept of the point-to-point forwarding inherited from reliable wired networks which seems to be not ideal for wireless environment. New emerging applications and networks operate mostly disconnected. So-called Delay-Tolerant networks (DTNs are receiving increasing attentions from both academia and industry. DTNs introduced a store-carry-and-forward concept solving the problem of intermittent connectivity. Behavior of such networks is verified by real models, computer simulation or combination of the both approaches. Computer simulation has become the primary and cost effective tool for evaluating the performance of the DTNs. OPNET modeler is our target simulation tool and we wanted to spread OPNET’s simulation opportunity towards DTN. We implemented bundle protocol to OPNET modeler allowing simulate cases based on bundle concept as epidemic forwarding which relies on flooding the network with messages and the forwarding algorithm based on the history of past encounters (PRoPHET. The implementation details will be provided in article.

  12. Model integration and a theory of models

    OpenAIRE

    Dolk, Daniel R.; Kottemann, Jeffrey E.

    1993-01-01

    Model integration extends the scope of model management to include the dimension of manipulation as well. This invariably leads to comparisons with database theory. Model integration is viewed from four perspectives: Organizational, definitional, procedural, and implementational. Strategic modeling is discussed as the organizational motivation for model integration. Schema and process integration are examined as the logical and manipulation counterparts of model integr...

  13. Model Checking Algorithms for Markov Reward Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, Lucia; Cloth, L.

    2006-01-01

    Model checking Markov reward models unites two different approaches of model-based system validation. On the one hand, Markov reward models have a long tradition in model-based performance and dependability evaluation. On the other hand, a formal method like model checking allows for the precise

  14. Modelling Defiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    focus centres on how the catwalk scenography evokes a ‘defiguration’ of the walking models and to what effect. Vibskov’s mobile catwalk draws attention to the walk, which is a key element of models’ performance but which usually functions in fashion shows merely to present clothes in the most...... catwalks. Vibskov’s catwalk induces what the dance scholar Gabriele Brandstetter has labelled a ‘defigurative choregoraphy’: a straying from definitions, which exist in ballet as in other movement-based genres, of how a figure should move and appear (1998). The catwalk scenography in this instance...

  15. Students' Models of Curve Fitting: A Models and Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shweta

    2010-01-01

    The Models and Modeling Perspectives (MMP) has evolved out of research that began 26 years ago. MMP researchers use Model Eliciting Activities (MEAs) to elicit students' mental models. In this study MMP was used as the conceptual framework to investigate the nature of students' models of curve fitting in a problem-solving environment consisting of…

  16. ALEPH model

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A wooden model of the ALEPH experiment and its cavern. ALEPH was one of 4 experiments at CERN's 27km Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) that ran from 1989 to 2000. During 11 years of research, LEP's experiments provided a detailed study of the electroweak interaction. Measurements performed at LEP also proved that there are three – and only three – generations of particles of matter. LEP was closed down on 2 November 2000 to make way for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider in the same tunnel. The cavern and detector are in separate locations - the cavern is stored at CERN and the detector is temporarily on display in Glasgow physics department. Both are available for loan.

  17. Intimatan (dermatan 4,6-O-disulfate) prevents rethrombosis after successful thrombolysis in the canine model of deep vessel wall injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ting-Ting; Van Gorp, Cornelius L; Cardin, Alan D; Lucchesi, Benedict R

    2006-01-01

    Intimatan (dermatan 4,6-O-disulfate), a heparin cofactor II (HCII) agonist, inhibits both the fluid phase and thrombus bound thrombin. The efficacy of Intimatan as an adjunctive anticoagulant during thrombolysis was evaluated in the canine model of arterial injury. After forming an occlusive thrombus in the right carotid artery (RCA), twenty-one dogs were administered recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) intra-arterially to achieve thrombolysis in the presence of either 0.9% NaCl or Intimatan (9 mg/kg bolus+300 mug/kg/min i.v. infusion). Next, the left carotid arteries (LCA) of the same animals were injured in the presence of either Intimatan or 0.9% NaCl. The incidence of RCA rethrombosis between the Intimatan and control groups was 2/9 and 8/12, respectively. The quality of RCA blood flow, i.e., patency score (Scale of 0-3, i.e., no flow to high flow, respectively), was 2.3+/-0.4 (Intimatan) versus 0.9+/-0.4 (0.9% NaCl). The incidence of primary thrombosis was determined among the groups as 0/9 (Intimatan) versus 7/12 (0.9% NaCl); the patency score was 2.8+/-0.1 (Intimatan) versus 0.9+/-0.4 (0.9% NaCl). Intimatan resulted in a >90% ex vivo inhibition of gamma-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation whereas 0.9% NaCl had no inhibitory effect. Clot-bound thrombin activity was reduced significantly by Intimatan. Intimatan induced <2-fold change in aPTT and bleeding time (BT) when corrected for the 0.9% NaCl group. Intimatan significantly reduces the incidence of both primary and secondary arterial thrombosis while maintaining a high-grade vessel patency score with only moderate increases in BT and aPTT.

  18. WE-EF-BRA-10: Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Reduces the Incidence of Brain Metastasis in a Mouse Model of Metastatic Breast Cancerr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D; Debeb, B; Larson, R; Diagaradjane, P; Woodward, W [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a clinical technique used to reduce the incidence of brain metastasis and improve overall survival in select patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and small-cell lung cancer. We examined whether PCI could benefit breast cancer patients at high risk of developing brain metastases. Methods: We utilized our mouse model in which 500k green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled breast cancer cells injected into the tail vein of SCID/Beige mice resulted in brain metastases in approximately two-thirds of untreated mice. To test the efficacy of PCI, one set of mice was irradiated five days after cell injection with a single fraction of 4-Gy (two 2-Gy opposing fields) whole-brain irradiation on the XRAD 225Cx small-animal irradiator. Four controls were included: a non-irradiated group, a group irradiated two days prior to cell injection, and two groups irradiated 3 or 6 weeks after cell injection. Mice were sacrificed four and eight weeks post-injection and were evaluated for the presence of brain metastases on a fluorescent stereomicroscope. Results: The incidence of brain metastasis in the non-irradiated group was 77% and 90% at four and eight weeks, respectively. The PCI group had a significantly lower incidence, 20% and 30%, whereas the other three control groups had incidence rates similar to the non-treated control (70% to 100%). Further, the number of metastases and the metastatic burden were also significantly lower in the PCI group compared to all other groups. Conclusion: The timing of irradiation to treat subclinical disease is critical, as a small dose of whole-brain irradiation given five days after cell injection abrogated tumor burden by greater than 90%, but had no effect when administered twenty-one days after cell injection. PCI is likely to benefit breast cancer patients at high risk of developing brain metastases and should be strongly considered in the clinic.

  19. [Evaluation on Ability to Detect the Intracranial Hematoma with Different Density Using C-Arm Cone-beam Computed Tomography Based on Animal Model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Zeng, Yongming; Yu, Renqiang; Zhou, Yang; Xu, Rui; Sun, Jingkun; Gao, Zhimei

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the ability of C-arm cone-beam CT to detect intracranial hematomas in canine models. Twenty one healthy canines were divided into seven groups and each group had three animals. Autologous blood and contrast agent (3 mL) were slowly injected into the left/right frontal lobes of each animal. Canines in the first group, the control group, were only injected with autologous blood without contrast agent. Each animal in all the 7 groups was scanned with C-arm cone-beam CT and multislice computed tomography (MSCT) after 5 minutes. The attenuation values and their standard deviations of the hematoma and uniformed brain tissues were measured to calculate the image noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). A scale with scores 1-3 was used to rate the quality of the reconstructed image of different hematoma as a subjective evaluation, and all the experimental data were processed with statistical treatment. The results revealed that when the density of hematoma was less than 65 HU, hematomata were not very clear on C-arm CT images, and when the density of hematoma was more than 65 HU, hematomata showed clearly on both C-arm CT and MSCT images and the scores of them were close. The coherence between the two physicians was very reliable. The same results were obtained with C-arm cone-beam CT and MSCT grades in measuring SD value, SNR, and CNR. The reasonable choice of density detection range of intracranial hematoma with C-arm cone-beam CT could be effectively applied to monitoring the intracranial hemorrhage during interventional diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Patient flow within UK emergency departments: a systematic review of the use of computer simulation modelling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, Syed; Busby, John; Savović, Jelena; Richards, Alison; Northstone, Kate; Hollingworth, William; Donovan, Jenny L; Vasilakis, Christos

    2017-05-09

    Overcrowding in the emergency department (ED) is common in the UK as in other countries worldwide. Computer simulation is one approach used for understanding the causes of ED overcrowding and assessing the likely impact of changes to the delivery of emergency care. However, little is known about the usefulness of computer simulation for analysis of ED patient flow. We undertook a systematic review to investigate the different computer simulation methods and their contribution for analysis of patient flow within EDs in the UK. We searched eight bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, WEB OF SCIENCE, CINAHL, INSPEC, MATHSCINET and ACM DIGITAL LIBRARY) from date of inception until 31 March 2016. Studies were included if they used a computer simulation method to capture patient progression within the ED of an established UK National Health Service hospital. Studies were summarised in terms of simulation method, key assumptions, input and output data, conclusions drawn and implementation of results. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 19 used discrete event simulation and 2 used system dynamics models. The purpose of many of these studies (n=16; 76%) centred on service redesign. Seven studies (33%) provided no details about the ED being investigated. Most studies (n=18; 86%) used specific hospital models of ED patient flow. Overall, the reporting of underlying modelling assumptions was poor. Nineteen studies (90%) considered patient waiting or throughput times as the key outcome measure. Twelve studies (57%) reported some involvement of stakeholders in the simulation study. However, only three studies (14%) reported on the implementation of changes supported by the simulation. We found that computer simulation can provide a means to pretest changes to ED care delivery before implementation in a safe and efficient manner. However, the evidence base is small and poorly developed. There are some methodological, data, stakeholder

  1. Long-term altered immune responses following fetal priming in a non-human primate model of maternal immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Destanie R; Careaga, Milo; Van de Water, Judy; McAllister, Kim; Bauman, Melissa D; Ashwood, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Infection during pregnancy can lead to activation of the maternal immune system and has been associated with an increased risk of having an offspring later diagnosed with a neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or schizophrenia (SZ). Most maternal immune activation (MIA) studies to date have been in rodents and usually involve the use of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). However, since NDD are based on behavioral changes, a model of MIA in non-human primates could potentially provide data that helps illuminate complex behavioral and immune outputs in human NDD. In this study twenty-one pregnant rhesus macaques were either given three injections over 72 hours of poly I:C-LC, a double stranded RNA analog (viral mimic), or saline as a control. Injections were given near the end of the first trimester or near the end of the second trimester to determine if there were differences in immune output due to the timing of MIA.An additional three non-treated animals were used as controls. The offspring were followed until 4 years of age, with blood collected at the end of their first (year 1) and fourth (year 4) years to assess dynamic cellular immune function. Induced responses from peripheral immune cells were measured using multiplex assays.At one year of age, MIA exposed offspring displayed elevated production of innate inflammatory cytokines including: interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α at baseline and following stimulation. At four years of age, the MIA exposed offspring continued to display elevated IL-1β, and there was also a pattern of an increased production of T-cell helper type (T H )-2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13. Throughout this time period, the offspring of MIA treated dams exhibited altered behavioral phenotypes including increased stereotyped behaviors. During the first two years, stereotyped behaviors were associated with innate cytokine production

  2. The IMACLIM model; Le modele IMACLIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document provides annexes to the IMACLIM model which propose an actualized description of IMACLIM, model allowing the design of an evaluation tool of the greenhouse gases reduction policies. The model is described in a version coupled with the POLES, technical and economical model of the energy industry. Notations, equations, sources, processing and specifications are proposed and detailed. (A.L.B.)

  3. Building Mental Models by Dissecting Physical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anveshna

    2016-01-01

    When students build physical models from prefabricated components to learn about model systems, there is an implicit trade-off between the physical degrees of freedom in building the model and the intensity of instructor supervision needed. Models that are too flexible, permitting multiple possible constructions require greater supervision to…

  4. Atmospheric Models/Global Atmospheric Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-30

    Atmospheric Models /Global Atmospheric Modeling Timothy F. Hogan Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, CA 93943-5502 phone: (831) 656-4705 fax: (831...to 00-00-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Atmospheric Models /Global Atmospheric Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...initialization of increments, improved cloud prediction, and improved surface fluxes) have been transition to 6.4 (Global Atmospheric Models , PE 0603207N, X-0513

  5. Models in architectural design

    OpenAIRE

    Pauwels, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Whereas architects and construction specialists used to rely mainly on sketches and physical models as representations of their own cognitive design models, they rely now more and more on computer models. Parametric models, generative models, as-built models, building information models (BIM), and so forth, they are used daily by any practitioner in architectural design and construction. Although processes of abstraction and the actual architectural model-based reasoning itself of course rema...

  6. Rotating universe models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozini, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    A review is made of some properties of the rotating Universe models. Godel's model is identified as a generalized filted model. Some properties of new solutions of the Einstein's equations, which are rotating non-stationary Universe models, are presented and analyzed. These models have the Godel's model as a particular case. Non-stationary cosmological models are found which are a generalization of the Godel's metrics in an analogous way in which Friedmann is to the Einstein's model. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Wake Expansion Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Different models of wake expansion are presented in this chapter: the 1D momentum theory model, the cylinder analog model and Theodorsen’s model. Far wake models such as the ones from Frandsen or Rathmann or only briefly mentioned. The different models are compared to each other. Results from...

  8. Model Manipulation for End-User Modelers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad

    End-user modelers are domain experts who create and use models as part of their work. They are typically not Software Engineers, and have little or no programming and meta-modeling experience. However, using model manipulation languages developed in the context of Model-Driven Engineering often...... of these proposals. To achieve its first goal, the thesis presents the findings of a Systematic Mapping Study showing that human factors topics are scarcely and relatively poorly addressed in model transformation research. Motivated by these findings, the thesis explores the requirements of end-user modelers......, and transformations using their modeling notation and editor of choice. The VM* languages are implemented via a single execution engine, the VM* Runtime, built on top of the Henshin graph-based transformation engine. This approach combines the benefits of flexibility, maturity, and formality. To simplify model editor...

  9. Model-to-model interface for multiscale materials modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, Perry Edward [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-12-17

    A low-level model-to-model interface is presented that will enable independent models to be linked into an integrated system of models. The interface is based on a standard set of functions that contain appropriate export and import schemas that enable models to be linked with no changes to the models themselves. These ideas are presented in the context of a specific multiscale material problem that couples atomistic-based molecular dynamics calculations to continuum calculations of fluid ow. These simulations will be used to examine the influence of interactions of the fluid with an adjacent solid on the fluid ow. The interface will also be examined by adding it to an already existing modeling code, Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) and comparing it with our own molecular dynamics code.

  10. Concept Modeling vs. Data modeling in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter shows the usefulness of terminological concept modeling as a first step in data modeling. First, we introduce terminological concept modeling with terminological ontologies, i.e. concept systems enriched with characteristics modeled as feature specifications. This enables a formal...... account of the inheritance of characteristics and allows us to introduce a number of principles and constraints which render concept modeling more coherent than earlier approaches. Second, we explain how terminological ontologies can be used as the basis for developing conceptual and logical data models...

  11. Cognitive models embedded in system simulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, A.I.; Wolf, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    If we are to discuss and consider cognitive models, we must first come to grips with two questions: (1) What is cognition; (2) What is a model. Presumably, the answers to these questions can provide a basis for defining a cognitive model. Accordingly, this paper first places these two questions into perspective. Then, cognitive models are set within the context of computer simulation models and a number of computer simulations of cognitive processes are described. Finally, pervasive issues are discussed vis-a-vis cognitive modeling in the computer simulation context

  12. Suppression of cholesterol synthesis in cultured fibroblasts from a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia by her own low density lipoprotein density fraction. A possible role of apolipoprotein E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, L.; Vermeer, B.J.; Wit, E. de

    1980-01-01

    The suppression of cellular cholesterol synthesis by low density lipoprotein (LDL) from a normal and from a homozygous familial hypercholesterolemic subject was measured on normal fibroblasts and on fibroblasts derived from the same homozygous familial hypercholesterolemic patient. On normal

  13. Alcohol modulates autophagy and apoptosis in pig liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potz, Brittany A; Lawandy, Isabella J; Clements, Richard T; Sellke, Frank W

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy serves as a cellular protective mechanism against alcohol-induced tissue injury but excessive autophagy can also be detrimental leading to apoptosis. Our laboratory has previously shown that moderate alcohol consumption alters expression of proteins in the insulin signaling pathway and worsens glucose metabolism in the liver in a swine model of metabolic syndrome. We examined the effect of alcohol consumption on apoptosis and autophagy signaling in the liver in our clinically relevant animal model of chronic hypercholesterolemia. Twenty-six Yorkshire swine were fed a high-fat diet for 4 wks and were then split into three groups: hypercholesterolemic diet alone (HCC, n = 9), hypercholesterolemic diet with vodka (hypercholesterolemic vodka [HCV], n = 9), and hypercholesterolemic diet with wine (hypercholesterolemic wine [HCW], n = 8) for 7 wks. Animals underwent euthanasia, and liver tissue samples were harvested for analysis. Liver tissue was analyzed via Western blot analysis. Protein density data were normalized to GAPDH and is reported as fold-change values ± standard error of the mean compared to the high-cholesterol diet control group. A Kruskal-Wallis test with a Dunn's multiple comparison test was used to compare the means among groups. The HCV group showed significant increases in several proapoptotic proteins (including caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, and cleaved caspase 9) compared with the HCC group. There was a decrease in the proapoptotic protein (BAD) and an increase in anti-apoptotic signal (B-cell lymphoma-2) in the HCW group compared with HCC control. There were increases in pro-survival proteins (AKT, p-AKT, mTOR, p-mTOR) in the HCW and the HCV group compared with control (HCC). There were decreases in autophagy protein LCB-3 in the HCW and HCV compared with the control. We found that moderate alcohol consumption altered protein expression related to apoptosis and autophagy signaling in pig liver in the setting of

  14. Business Model Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Dodgson, Mark; Gann, David; Phillips, Nelson; Massa, Lorenzo; Tucci, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The chapter offers a broad review of the literature at the nexus between Business Models and innovation studies, and examines the notion of Business Model Innovation in three different situations: Business Model Design in newly formed organizations, Business Model Reconfiguration in incumbent firms, and Business Model Innovation in the broad context of sustainability. Tools and perspectives to make sense of Business Models and support managers and entrepreneurs in dealing with Business Model ...

  15. Air Quality Dispersion Modeling - Alternative Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models, not listed in Appendix W, that can be used in regulatory applications with case-by-case justification to the Reviewing Authority as noted in Section 3.2, Use of Alternative Models, in Appendix W.

  16. Wake modelling combining mesoscale and microscale models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Jake; Volker, Patrick; Prospathospoulos, J.

    2013-01-01

    parameterizations are demonstrated in theWeather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model (WRF) in an idealized atmospheric flow. The model framework is the Horns Rev I wind farm experiencing an 7.97 m/s wind from 269.4o. Three of the four parameterizations use thrust output from the CRESflow-NS microscale model......In this paper the basis for introducing thrust information from microscale wake models into mesocale model wake parameterizations will be described. A classification system for the different types of mesoscale wake parameterizations is suggested and outlined. Four different mesoscale wake....... The characteristics of the mesoscale wake that developed from the four parameterizations are examined. In addition the mesoscale model wakes are compared to measurement data from Horns Rev I. Overall it is seen as an advantage to incorporate microscale model data in mesocale model wake parameterizations....

  17. A Model of Trusted Measurement Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Zhili; Wang Zhihao; Dai Liang; Zhu Xiaoqin

    2017-01-01

    A model of Trusted Measurement supporting behavior measurement based on trusted connection architecture (TCA) with three entities and three levels is proposed, and a frame to illustrate the model is given. The model synthesizes three trusted measurement dimensions including trusted identity, trusted status and trusted behavior, satisfies the essential requirements of trusted measurement, and unified the TCA with three entities and three levels.

  18. Molecular Models: Construction of Models with Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinovčić P.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular models are indispensable tools in teaching chemistry. Beside their high price, commercially available models are generally too small for classroom demonstration. This paper suggests how to make space-filling (callote models from Styrofoam with magnetic balls as connectors and disc magnets for showing molecular polarity

  19. Target Scattering Metrics: Model-Model and Model Data comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    be suitable for input to classification schemes. The investigated metrics are then applied to model-data comparisons. INTRODUCTION Metrics for...stainless steel replica of artillery shell Table 7. Targets used in the TIER simulations for the metrics study. C. Four Potential Metrics: Four...Four metrics were investigated. The metric, based on 2D cross-correlation, is typically used in classification algorithms. Model-model comparisons

  20. Modelling binary data

    CERN Document Server

    Collett, David

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...

  1. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  2. Automated data model evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Zoltan; Kazi, Ljubica; Radulovic, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Modeling process is essential phase within information systems development and implementation. This paper presents methods and techniques for analysis and evaluation of data model correctness. Recent methodologies and development results regarding automation of the process of model correctness analysis and relations with ontology tools has been presented. Key words: Database modeling, Data model correctness, Evaluation

  3. Elastic Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Fagertun, Jens; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fusion of the active appearance model (AAM) and the Riemannian elasticity framework which yields a non-linear shape model and a linear texture model – the active elastic appearance model (EAM). The non-linear elasticity shape model is more flexible than the usual linear subs...

  4. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  5. "Bohr's Atomic Model."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  6. From Numeric Models to Granular System Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Pedrycz

    2015-03-01

    To make this study self-contained, we briefly recall the key concepts of granular computing and demonstrate how this conceptual framework and its algorithmic fundamentals give rise to granular models. We discuss several representative formal setups used in describing and processing information granules including fuzzy sets, rough sets, and interval calculus. Key architectures of models dwell upon relationships among information granules. We demonstrate how information granularity and its optimization can be regarded as an important design asset to be exploited in system modeling and giving rise to granular models. With this regard, an important category of rule-based models along with their granular enrichments is studied in detail.

  7. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M and O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and

  8. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  9. Mathematical Modeling Using MATLAB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Donovan

    1998-01-01

    .... Mathematical Modeling Using MA MATLAB acts as a companion resource to A First Course in Mathematical Modeling with the goal of guiding the reader to a fuller understanding of the modeling process...

  10. Energy modelling software

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has turned to energy modelling in order to assist them in reducing the amount of energy consumed by buildings. However, while the energy loads of buildings can be accurately modelled, energy models often under...

  11. Multivariate GARCH models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    This article contains a review of multivariate GARCH models. Most common GARCH models are presented and their properties considered. This also includes nonparametric and semiparametric models. Existing specification and misspecification tests are discussed. Finally, there is an empirical example...

  12. N-Gram models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Liu, Ling; Tamer Özsu, M.

    2017-01-01

    In language modeling, n-gram models are probabilistic models of text that use some limited amount of history, or word dependencies, where n refers to the number of words that participate in the dependence relation.

  13. Business Model Canvas

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, D', Austin

    2013-01-01

    Presentatie gegeven op 13 mei 2013 op de bijeenkomst "Business Model Canvas Challenge Assen". Het Business Model Canvas is ontworpen door Alex Osterwalder. Het model werkt zeer overzichtelijk en bestaat uit negen bouwstenen.

  14. Wildfire Risk Main Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The model combines three modeled fire behavior parameters (rate of spread, flame length, crown fire potential) and one modeled ecological health measure (fire regime...

  15. Lapse Rate Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico

    prepayment models for mortgage backed securities, this paper builds a Rational Expectation (RE) model describing the policyholders' behavior in lapsing the contract. A market model with stochastic interest rates is considered, and the pricing is carried out through numerical approximation...

  16. Lapse rate modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    prepayment models for mortgage backed securities, this paper builds a Rational Expectation (RE) model describing the policyholders' behavior in lapsing the contract. A market model with stochastic interest rates is considered, and the pricing is carried out through numerical approximation...

  17. APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms influence metabolic responses to Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino tea consumption in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeenduang, Nutjaree; Sangkaew, Boonnisa; Chantaracha, Pacharee; Chanchareonsri, Sirada; Plyduang, Thunyaluk; Thitdee, Wanida; Samae, Cathaleeya; Pitumanon, Wacharaporn

    2017-03-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GP) have been used as traditional medicines to treat diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, there is interindividual variation in the metabolic responses to HS and GP consumption. This may be due to genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HS and GP tea consumption on anthropometric data, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and lipid concentrations in hypercholesterolemia subjects with different genotypes of the APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms. Forty-eight subjects with hypercholesterolemia were given either HS or GP tea for 30 days. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were determined, and APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). E4 (p=0.008) and homozygous B1B1 (p=0.010) carriers had significantly decreased HDL-C concentrations after HS consumption; in addition, B2 carriers who consumed HS showed significantly decreased triglyceride (TG) concentrations (p=0.039). Regarding GP consumption, non-E4 carriers had significantly decreased HDL-C (p=0.009) and FBG (p=0.042) concentrations. Furthermore, B2 carriers had significantly decreased total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.045), HDL-C (p=0.004), and FBG (p=0.026) concentrations. HS consumption may have beneficial effects with respect to TG concentrations in the B2 carriers, but it may adversely affect HDL-C concentrations in homozygous B1B1 and E4 carriers. In contrast, GP consumption may have favorable effects on TC and FBG concentrations but not on HDL-C concentrations for B2 and/or non-E4 carriers.

  18. Effects of poly-bioactive compounds on lipid profile and body weight in a moderately hypercholesterolemic population with low cardiovascular disease risk: a multicenter randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Solà

    Full Text Available A dietary supplement (AP, Armolipid Plus that combines red yeast rice extract, policosanol, berberine, folic acid, coenzyme Q10 and asthaxantine can have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarkers. The aim of this study was to assess whether the intake of AP, in combination with dietary recommendations, reduces serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c concentrations and other CVD biomarkers in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Eligible patients were recruited from the outpatient clinics of six Spanish hospitals Hospital Virgen del Rocío (Sevilla; Hospital San Jorge (Huesca; Hospital San Pedro (Logroño; Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid, Hospital la Fe (Valencia and Hospital Universitari Sant Joan (Reus as recruiting and coordinating center. 102 participants (mean age ± SD; 50.91 ± 11.61; 32 men with low CVD, with mild-to-moderately elevated LDL-c (between 3.35 mmol/L and 4.88 mmol/L without hypolipemic therapy were randomized in a double-blind, parallel, controlled, multicenter trial commencing January 2012 and ending December 2012. Among the exclusion criteria were any concomitant chronic disease, triglycerides (TG >3.97 mmol/L, pregnant or lactating, and history of CVD. At 12 weeks, compared to placebo, AP reduced LDL-c by -6.9%, apolipoprotein (Apo B-100 by -6.6% and total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio by -5.5%, the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio by -8.6%, while increasing ApoA1 by +2.5% (p<0.05. AP consumption was associated with modest mean weight loss of -0.93 kg (95%CI: -1.74 to -0.12; P = 0.02 compared with control group while dietary composition remained unchanged in the AP group. The AP product was well tolerated. In conclusion, AP, combined with dietary recommendations, reduced LDL-c levels as well as total cholesterol/HDL-c and ApoB/ApoA1 ratios, while increasing Apo A1, all of which are improvements in CVD risk indicators. AP is a product which could benefit patients having moderate hyperlipidemia and excess body weight.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01562080.

  19. Treatment of young rats with cholestyramine or a hypercholesterolemic diet does not influence the response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Bruijne, J.J. de; Katan, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Groups of 10 female Wistar rats (aged 4 weeks) were fed for 29 days either a low-cholesterol commercial diet, a commercial diet containing 2% (w/w) cholesterol, 0.5% cholate and 5% olive oil or a diet containing 2% cholestyramine. The rats were then fed the low-cholesterol commercial diet for the

  20. Lactic-fermented egg white reduced serum cholesterol concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic Japanese men: a double-blind, parallel-arm design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2017-05-30

    Lactic-fermented egg white (LE), produced by lactic acid fermentation of egg white, is an easy-to-consume form of egg white. Here we assessed the effect of daily consumption of LE for 8 weeks on serum total cholesterol (TC) levels. The study followed a double-blind, parallel-arm design and included 88 adult men with mild hypercholesterolemia (mean ± standard error) serum TC levels, 229 ± 1.6 mg/dL; range, 204-259 mg/dL). The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, which consumed LE containing 4, 6, or 8 g of protein daily for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected before starting LE consumption (baseline) and at 4 and 8 weeks to measure serum TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. After 8 weeks of consumption, serum TC levels in the 8 g group decreased by 11.0 ± 3.7 mg/dL, a significant decrease compared to baseline (p < 0.05) and a significantly greater decrease than for the 4 g group (3.1 ± 3.4 mg/dL; p < 0.05). Serum LDL-C levels in the 8 g group decreased by 13.7 ± 3.1 mg/dL, again a significant decrease compared with baseline (p < 0.05) and a significantly greater decrease than that for the 4 g group (2.1 ± 2.9 mg/dL; p < 0.05). Consumption of LE for 8 weeks at a daily dose of 8 g of proteins reduced serum TC and LDL-C levels in men with mild hypercholesterolemia, suggesting this may be effective in helping to prevent arteriosclerotic diseases. This clinical trial was retrospectively registered with the Japan Medical Association Center for Clinical Trials, (JMA-IIA00279; registered on 13/03/2017; https://dbcentre3.jmacct.med.or.jp/JMACTR/App/JMACTRE02_04/JMACTRE02_04.aspx?kbn=3&seqno=6530 ).

  1. Salvia officinalis (Sage) Leaf Extract as Add-on to Statin Therapy in Hypercholesterolemic Type 2 Diabetic Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kianbakht, Saeed; Nabati, Farzaneh; Abasi, Behrooz

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of Salvia officinalis combined with statin have not been evaluated in dyslipidemic diabetes mellitus type 2 (DDMT2) so far. The plant extract antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH radical scavenging assay. The total flavonoid, total phenolic and quercetin contents of the capsules containing the plant extract were also measured. Moreover, the effects of 2-month extract intake (500 mg capsule three times a day) as add-on to daily use of 15 mg glyburide, 2000 mg...

  2. Salvia officinalis (Sage) Leaf Extract as Add-on to Statin Therapy in Hypercholesterolemic Type 2 Diabetic Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianbakht, Saeed; Nabati, Farzaneh; Abasi, Behrooz

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of Salvia officinalis combined with statin have not been evaluated in dyslipidemic diabetes mellitus type 2 (DDMT2) so far. The plant extract antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH radical scavenging assay. The total flavonoid, total phenolic and quercetin contents of the capsules containing the plant extract were also measured. Moreover, the effects of 2-month extract intake (500 mg capsule three times a day) as add-on to daily use of 15 mg glyburide, 2000 mg metformin and 10 mg atorvastatin on the blood levels of fasting glucose (FG), 2 h postprandial glucose (2hPPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and body mass index were studied in 50 patients and compared with the placebo group (n=50).The extract IC 50 in the DPPH assay was 87.26±0.003 µg/mL (mean±SD), whereas the ascorbic acid IC 50 was 5.626± 0.001 µg/mL (mean±SD). The total flavonoid, total phenolic and quercetin contents of the capsule containing the plant extract were 39.76±3.58 mg of rutin equivalents (mean±SD), 30.33±1.23 mg of gallic acid (mean±SD) and 0.13 mg, respectively. The extract lowered FG, 2hPPG, HbA1c, TC, LDL-C and triglyceride levels, but increased HDL-C level compared to the placebo at the endpoint (P<0.05). The extract did not affect the other parameters significantly and no adverse effect was reported. The extract has substantial antioxidant activity which may be beneficial for the prevention of the cardiovascular complications of DDMT2. Moreover, addition of the extract to statin therapy is apparently safe and further improves lipid profile.

  3. A high intake of dietary fiber influences C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, but not glucose and lipid metabolism, in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson-Persson, Anna; Ulmius, Matilda; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Karhu, Toni; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Onning, Gunilla

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how a diet high in dietary fiber, with several fiber sources included, modulates glucose and lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response in humans. Subjects (n = 25) aged 58.6 (1.1) years (mean and SD) with a BMI of 26.6 (0.5) kg/m(2) and a total cholesterol (TC) of 5.8 (0.1) mmol/L (mean and SEM) were given a high fiber (HF) and low fiber (LF) diet, in a randomized controlled 5-week crossover intervention, separated by a 3-week washout. The HF diet consisted of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber incorporated into test food products; one bread roll, one ready meal, and two beverages consumed daily. Equivalent food products, without added fibers, were provided in the LF diet. Total dietary fiber intake was 48.0 g and 30.2 g per day for the HF and LF diet, respectively. Significant reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) was observed between the diets (P = 0.017) and a significant reduction in fibrinogen within the HF diet (P = 0.044). There were no significant effects in other measured circulating cytokines or in glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Our study suggests that a 5-week high dietary fiber intake of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber might reduce the low-grade inflammatory response measured as CRP which could, together with reduced fibrinogen, help to prevent the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  4. Comparison Between the Effects of the Alcholic Extract of Mellissia Officinalis and Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Thyroid Hormones in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Materials and Methods: Consumption of unsaturated fats reduces the serum level of lipids and leptin. Thyroid hormones and leptin play pivotal roles in metabolism and their amounts are inter-related. This study was done to compare the effects of Mellissia officinalis extract and atorvastatin on the serum levels of thyroid hormones in hypercholesterolemia rats.Results: The results showed that in experimental groups receiving the plant extract and atorvastatin, the concentration of thyroid hormones increased, whereas the amount of the thyroid-stimulating hormone showed a significant decrease (p<0.05.Conclusion: Mellissia officinalis extract decreases TSH but it increases T3 and T4. Further studies are required for applying this extract to the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

  5. Long-term orange juice consumption is associated with low LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in normal and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptekmann, Nancy P; Cesar, Thais B

    2013-08-06

    This study investigated the hypothesis that long-term orange juice consumption (≥ 12 months) was associated with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adult men and women with normal and moderately high cholesterol blood levels. The sample consisted of 103 men (18-66 y) and 26 women (18-65 y); all were employees of an orange juice factory with daily access to free orange juice. The results showed that 41% of the individuals consumed 2 cups (480 mL) of orange juice per day for at least twelve months, while 59% of the volunteers are non-consumers of orange juice. Orange juice consumers with normal serum lipid levels had significantly lower total cholesterol (-11%, p orange juice consumers and non-consumers, but vitamin C and folate intake was higher in orange juice consumers. Long-term orange juice consumers had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and LDL/HDL ratio and an improvement of folate and vitamin C in their diet.

  6. Marked antioxidant effect of orange juice intake and its phytomicronutrients in a preliminary randomized cross-over trial on mild hypercholesterolemic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constans, Joël; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Martin, Jean-François; Rock, Edmond; Mazur, Andrzej; Bedel, Aurélie; Morand, Christine; Bérard, Annie M

    2015-12-01

    Blond orange juice is the most consumed fruit juice in the world. It is a source of hesperidin, a bioavailable flavonoid reported to exhibit potential vascular protective actions. However, the specific impact on vascular function of Citrus phytomicronutrients, is unknown. For the first time, we investigated the effects of blond orange juice compared with a control beverage mimicking the composition of orange juice (including Vitamin C but no phytomicronutrients), on antioxidant markers, cardiovascular risk factors and endothelial function. Twenty five male volunteers with two cardiovascular risk factors (age over 50 years and LDL-cholesterol between 130 and 190 mg/L) were enrolled in a randomized cross-over study. They received 3 times daily 200 mL of either blond orange juice or control beverage for 4 weeks, spaced by a 5-week wash-out. Endothelial function (flow mediated dilatation and plasma markers), oxidative status, lipid profile and inflammatory markers were assessed. Daily intakes of orange juice significantly led to a marked antioxidant effect which was correlated to hesperetin plasma levels and related with a decrease in reactive oxygen species. A tendency towards reduction of endothelial dysfunction and modest increase in plasma apoA-I concentration were also observed. This allows further experiments demonstrating the specific effect of phytomicronutrients from orange juice. These findings suggest that daily intake of nutritionally relevant dose of blond orange juice may contribute for a significant antioxidant effect through the phytochemicals contained in. Orange juice may be associated to other healthy foods to achieve a significant effect on the vascular function. This study is recorded in ClinicalTrials.com as NCT00539916. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The regular consumption of a polyphenol-rich apple doet not influence endothelial function: a randomised double-blind trial in hypercholesterolemic adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auclair, S.; Chironi, G.; Milenkovic, D.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Renard, C.M.; Megnien, J.L.; Gariepy, J.; Paul, J.L.; Simon, A.; Scalbert, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/objectives: Epidemiological studies suggest that apple consumption is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk. Apple polyphenols may contribute to explain these effects. Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with early stage of atherosclerosis and polyphenols from

  8. Effects of poly-bioactive compounds on lipid profile and body weight in a moderately hypercholesterolemic population with low cardiovascular disease risk: a multicenter randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa-M; Puzo, José; Calabuig, José-Ramón; Brea, Angel; Pedret, Anna; Moriña, David; Villar, José; Millán, Jesús; Anguera, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A dietary supplement (AP, Armolipid Plus) that combines red yeast rice extract, policosanol, berberine, folic acid, coenzyme Q10 and asthaxantine can have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers. The aim of this study was to assess whether the intake of AP, in combination with dietary recommendations, reduces serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations and other CVD biomarkers in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Eligible patients were recruited from the outpatient clinics of six Spanish hospitals Hospital Virgen del Rocío (Sevilla); Hospital San Jorge (Huesca); Hospital San Pedro (Logroño); Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid), Hospital la Fe (Valencia) and Hospital Universitari Sant Joan (Reus) as recruiting and coordinating center. 102 participants (mean age ± SD; 50.91 ± 11.61; 32 men) with low CVD, with mild-to-moderately elevated LDL-c (between 3.35 mmol/L and 4.88 mmol/L) without hypolipemic therapy were randomized in a double-blind, parallel, controlled, multicenter trial commencing January 2012 and ending December 2012. Among the exclusion criteria were any concomitant chronic disease, triglycerides (TG) >3.97 mmol/L, pregnant or lactating, and history of CVD. At 12 weeks, compared to placebo, AP reduced LDL-c by -6.9%, apolipoprotein (Apo) B-100 by -6.6% and total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio by -5.5%, the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio by -8.6%, while increasing ApoA1 by +2.5% (pweight loss of -0.93 kg (95%CI: -1.74 to -0.12; P = 0.02) compared with control group while dietary composition remained unchanged in the AP group. The AP product was well tolerated. In conclusion, AP, combined with dietary recommendations, reduced LDL-c levels as well as total cholesterol/HDL-c and ApoB/ApoA1 ratios, while increasing Apo A1, all of which are improvements in CVD risk indicators. AP is a product which could benefit patients having moderate hyperlipidemia and excess body weight. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01562080.

  9. Rosuvastatin reduces intima-media thickness in hypercholesterolemic subjects with asymptomatic carotid artery disease: the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerotic Disease in Manfredonia (ACADIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Graziano; Bazzano, Lydia A; Bucciarelli, Tonino; Mancini, Barbara; di Ilio, Emanuela; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2008-10-01

    An increase in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) represents an early phase of the atherosclerotic process. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a reduction in CIMT could be seen with only 16 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg/day). Sixty-six participants of the ACADIM Study with hypercholesterolemia and carotid atherosclerosis at baseline carotid ultrasound investigation (CUI) were examined, with repeat CUI after 16 weeks of treatment. Demographic and lifestyle data were collected, as well as physical examination and fasting venous blood samples. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides decreased significantly (p < 0.0001), while high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased significantly (p < 0.0001) during the intervention. The mean decrease in IMT of the right and left common carotid arteries (CCAs) was 0.35 and 0.38 mm, respectively (p < 0.05 for each). Age and lipid profile parameters were significant predictors of change in CIMT in linear regression analyses after adjustment for established atherosclerosis risk factors. Treatment with rosuvastatin in adults with evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis significantly reduced the CIMT of both CCAs, as well as improving lipid and lipoprotein levels.

  10. Evaluation of the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Berberis vulgaris root on the activity of liver enzymes in male hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Taheri

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Noticing the antioxidant properties of B. vulgaris root extract  and its effects on reducing the activity of liver enzymes, the extract of this plant can be a good choice for improving the function of liver.

  11. Intramural hemorrhage and endothelial changes in atherosclerotic coronary artery after repetitive episodes of spasm in x-ray-irradiated hypercholesterolemic pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, K.; Tomoike, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Yamada, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, M.

    1989-01-01

    To assess whether coronary spasm affects the progression of atherosclerosis and results in evolution of myocardial infarction, the role of coronary spasm on the fine structure of conduit coronary arteries was studied morphologically. Goettingen miniature pigs were fed a semisynthetic diet containing 2% cholesterol and 1.1% sodium cholate. One month after being on this diet, the pigs were anesthetized and the endothelium of a branch of the left coronary artery was denuded using a balloon catheter. X-ray irradiation in a dose of 1,500 rad was given twice selectively to the area denuded, after 4 and 5 months of cholesterol feeding. Five months after endothelial denudation, transient (group A) and repetitive episodes (group B) of coronary spasm were provoked by single and periodic (five times every 5 minutes) intracoronary injections of serotonin (10 micrograms/kg/injection), respectively. The extent of spasm by serotonin at the previously denuded site was 84 +/- 4% (n = 4) and 90 +/- 5% (n = 6) narrowing in groups A and B (p = NS between groups), respectively. Forty minutes after the final administration of serotonin, the left coronary artery was relaxed by nitroglycerin, and the heart was isolated and perfuse-fixed under physiological pressure. Intramural hemorrhage was noted at the spastic site in six pigs of group B but not in group A. The average percent luminal narrowing, on cross sections at the spastic site in group B, was significantly greater than in group A (56 +/- 7% vs. 23 +/- 5%, p less than 0.01). Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the endothelial lining was intact at the nonspastic site in both groups. In addition to the appearance of intercellular bridges at the spastic site in both groups, squeezing of endothelial cells and adhesion of white blood cells were present at the spastic site exclusively in group B

  12. Impact of hydrogenated fat consumption on endogenous cholesterol synthesis and susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation in moderately hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuchel, M; Schwab, U S; Jones, P J; Vogel, S; Lammi-Keefe, C; Li, Z; Ordovas, J; McNamara, J R; Schaefer, E J; Lichtenstein, A H

    1996-02-01

    The effects of replacing corn oil with corn oil margarine in stick form on endogenous cholesterol synthesis and susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation were assessed in 14 middle-aged and elderly men and women aged 63 +/- 12 years (mean +/- SD) with moderate hypercholesterolemia (mean LDL-cholesterol [LDL-C], 4.24 +/- 0.59 mmol/L at the time of recruitment). Subjects consumed each of two diets for 32-day periods, one enriched in corn oil, which contained 30% of energy as fat (7% saturated fatty acid [SFA], 9% monounsaturated fatty acid [MUFA] [0.4% 18:1n9 trans], and 11% polyunsaturated fatty acid [PUFA]) and 85 mg cholesterol/4.2 MJ, and one enriched in stick corn oil margarine, which contained 30% fat (8% SFA, 12% MUFA [4.2% 18:1n9trans], and 8% PUFA) and 77 mg cholesterol/4.2 MJ. Both diets were isocaloric and supplied by a metabolic research kitchen. Mean total cholesterol levels were lowest (P = .039) when subjects consumed the corn oil-enriched diet (5.01 +/- 0.51 mmol/L) as compared with the margarine-enriched diet (5.30 +/- 0.58 mmol/L). LDL-C levels were 3.24 +/- 0.51 and 3.50 +/- 0.54 mmol/L when subjects consumed corn oil-and margarine-enriched diets, respectively (P = .058). There were no significant differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) or triglyceride concentrations between the two experimental periods. Consumption of the margarine-enriched diet versus the corn oil-enriched diet tended to result in lower cholesterol fractional synthetic rates ([C-FSRs] 0.0466 +/- 0.0175 and 0.0668 +/- 0.0298, respectively, P = .080) and cholesterol absolute synthetic rates ([C-ASRs] 1.1761 +/- 0.5375 and 1.6954 +/- 0.8685, respectively, P = .092); however, differences did not reach statistical significance. Consumption of the margarine-enriched diet versus the corn oil-enriched diet resulted in a significantly higher concentration of alpha-tocopherol in both plasma and LDL(P = .004 and P = .011, respectively). LDL particle size tended to be smaller after subjects consumed the margarine-enriched diet versus the corn oil-enriched diet (P = .103). Susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was similar after consumption of the corn oil- and margarine-enriched diets. These data suggest that an increased rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis did not contribute to the higher plasma cholesterol concentrations during the period when subjects consumed the margarine-enriched diet. Therefore, the increase in cholesterol concentration resulting from margarine consumption was likely attributable, at least in part, to a decreased catabolic rate of cholesterol. Additionally, susceptibility of LDL to in vitro oxidation was not altered by consumption of hydrogenated fat.

  13. Study of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peel extract containing anthocyanins on fatty streak formation in the renal arteries in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sharifiyan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that consumption of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins (polyphenol content 1 g/kg diet despite of a significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity cannot protect the kidneys from hypercholesterolemia-induced damages during the treatment period.

  14. Quintessence Model Building

    OpenAIRE

    Brax, P.; Martin, J.; Riazuelo, A.

    2001-01-01

    A short review of some of the aspects of quintessence model building is presented. We emphasize the role of tracking models and their possible supersymmetric origin. A short review of some of the aspects of quintessence model building is presented. We emphasize the role of tracking models and their possible supersymmetric origin. A short review of some of the aspects of quintessence model building is presented. We emphasize the role of tracking models and their possible supersymmetric o...

  15. Computational neurogenetic modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Benuskova, Lubica

    2010-01-01

    Computational Neurogenetic Modeling is a student text, introducing the scope and problems of a new scientific discipline - Computational Neurogenetic Modeling (CNGM). CNGM is concerned with the study and development of dynamic neuronal models for modeling brain functions with respect to genes and dynamic interactions between genes. These include neural network models and their integration with gene network models. This new area brings together knowledge from various scientific disciplines, such as computer and information science, neuroscience and cognitive science, genetics and molecular biol

  16. Effectiveness of a Drill-assisted Intraosseous Catheter versus Manual Intraosseous Catheter by Resident Physicians in a Swine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafner, John William

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our objective was to compare the effectiveness, speed, and complication rate of the traditional manually placed intraosseous (IO catheter to a mechanical drill-assisted IO catheter by emergency medicine (EM resident physicians in a training environment. Methods: Twenty-one EM residents participated in a randomized prospective crossover experiment placing 2 intraosseous needles (Cook® Intraosseous Needle, Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN; and EZ-IO® Infusion System, Vidacare, San Antonio, TX. IO needles were placed in anesthetized mixed breed swine (mass range: 25 kg to 27.2 kg. The order of IO placement and puncture location (proximal tibia or distal femur were randomly assigned. IO placement time was recorded from skin puncture until the operator felt they had achieved successful placement. We used 3 verification criteria: aspiration of marrow blood, easy infusion of 10 mL saline mixed with methylene blue, and lack of stained soft tissue extravasation. Successful placement was defined as meeting 2 out of the 3 predetermined criteria. We surveyed participants regarding previous IO experience, device preferences, and comfort levels using multiple choice, Likert scale, and visual analog scale (VAS questions. IO completion times, VAS, and mean Likert scales were compared using Student’s t-test and success rates were compared using Fisher’s exact test with p<0.05 considered significant.Results: Drill-assisted IO needle placement was faster than manually placed IO needle placement (3.66 vs. 33.57 seconds; p=0.01. Success rates were 100% with the drill-assisted IO needle and 76.2% with the manual IO needle (p=0.04. The most common complication of the manual IO insertion was a bent needle (33.3% of attempts. Participants surveyed preferred the drill-assisted IO insertion more than the manual IO insertion (p<0.0001 and felt the drill-assisted IO was easier to place (p<0.0001.Conclusion: In an experimental swine model, drill-assisted IO

  17. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes in an animal model of depression for males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Rappeneau

    2016-12-01

    -1, compared to controls. When 10 µM of glutamate was infused, these females showed a significant accumulation of glutamate compared to controls. Infusions of glutamate reduced extracellular glutamine for both male and female intruders compared to their respective controls. Conclusions: Twenty-one days of territorial or maternal aggression produced a depressive-like phenotype and impaired astrocytes in both male and female intruders. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in the PFC-striatal network may be linked to depressive-like deficits more in females than in males.

  18. Overuse Injury Assessment Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stuhmiller, James H; Shen, Weixin; Sih, Bryant

    2005-01-01

    .... Previously, we developed a preliminary model that predicted the stress fracture rate and used biomechanical modeling, nonlinear optimization for muscle force, and bone structural analysis to estimate...

  19. Multilevel modeling using R

    CERN Document Server

    Finch, W Holmes; Kelley, Ken

    2014-01-01

    A powerful tool for analyzing nested designs in a variety of fields, multilevel/hierarchical modeling allows researchers to account for data collected at multiple levels. Multilevel Modeling Using R provides you with a helpful guide to conducting multilevel data modeling using the R software environment.After reviewing standard linear models, the authors present the basics of multilevel models and explain how to fit these models using R. They then show how to employ multilevel modeling with longitudinal data and demonstrate the valuable graphical options in R. The book also describes models fo

  20. Cosmological models without singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, W.

    1981-01-01

    A previously studied theory of gravitation in flat space-time is applied to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. There exist two different classes of models without singularities: (i) ever-expanding models, (ii) oscillating models. The first class contains models with hot big bang. For these models there exist at the beginning of the universe-in contrast to Einstein's theory-very high but finite densities of matter and radiation with a big bang of very short duration. After short time these models pass into the homogeneous and isotropic models of Einstein's theory with spatial curvature equal to zero and cosmological constant ALPHA >= O. (author)

  1. Validated dynamic flow model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    model structure suggested by University of Lund the WP4 leader. This particular model structure has the advantages that it fits better into the control design frame work used by WP3-4 compared to the model structures previously developed in WP2. The different model structures are first summarised....... Then issues dealing with optimal experimental design is considered. Finally the parameters are estimated in the chosen static and dynamic models and a validation is performed. Two of the static models, one of them the additive model, explains the data well. In case of dynamic models the suggested additive...

  2. Environmental Modeling Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Modeling Center provides the computational tools to perform geostatistical analysis, to model ground water and atmospheric releases for comparison...

  3. TRACKING CLIMATE MODELS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CLAIRE MONTELEONI*, GAVIN SCHMIDT, AND SHAILESH SAROHA* Climate models are complex mathematical models designed by meteorologists, geophysicists, and climate...

  4. Regularized Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J.; McArdle, John J.

    2016-01-01

    A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM’s utility. PMID:27398019

  5. Integrated Site Model Process Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, T.

    2000-01-01

    The Integrated Site Model (ISM) provides a framework for discussing the geologic features and properties of Yucca Mountain, which is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for the disposal of nuclear waste. The ISM is important to the evaluation of the site because it provides 3-D portrayals of site geologic, rock property, and mineralogic characteristics and their spatial variabilities. The ISM is not a single discrete model; rather, it is a set of static representations that provide three-dimensional (3-D), computer representations of site geology, selected hydrologic and rock properties, and mineralogic-characteristics data. These representations are manifested in three separate model components of the ISM: the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), the Rock Properties Model (RPM), and the Mineralogic Model (MM). The GFM provides a representation of the 3-D stratigraphy and geologic structure. Based on the framework provided by the GFM, the RPM and MM provide spatial simulations of the rock and hydrologic properties, and mineralogy, respectively. Functional summaries of the component models and their respective output are provided in Section 1.4. Each of the component models of the ISM considers different specific aspects of the site geologic setting. Each model was developed using unique methodologies and inputs, and the determination of the modeled units for each of the components is dependent on the requirements of that component. Therefore, while the ISM represents the integration of the rock properties and mineralogy into a geologic framework, the discussion of ISM construction and results is most appropriately presented in terms of the three separate components. This Process Model Report (PMR) summarizes the individual component models of the ISM (the GFM, RPM, and MM) and describes how the three components are constructed and combined to form the ISM

  6. Better models are more effectively connected models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bielders, Charles; Darboux, Frederic; Fiener, Peter; Finger, David; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Wainwright, John

    2016-04-01

    The concept of hydrologic and geomorphologic connectivity describes the processes and pathways which link sources (e.g. rainfall, snow and ice melt, springs, eroded areas and barren lands) to accumulation areas (e.g. foot slopes, streams, aquifers, reservoirs), and the spatial variations thereof. There are many examples of hydrological and sediment connectivity on a watershed scale; in consequence, a process-based understanding of connectivity is crucial to help managers understand their systems and adopt adequate measures for flood prevention, pollution mitigation and soil protection, among others. Modelling is often used as a tool to understand and predict fluxes within a catchment by complementing observations with model results. Catchment models should therefore be able to reproduce the linkages, and thus the connectivity of water and sediment fluxes within the systems under simulation. In modelling, a high level of spatial and temporal detail is desirable to ensure taking into account a maximum number of components, which then enables connectivity to emerge from the simulated structures and functions. However, computational constraints and, in many cases, lack of data prevent the representation of all relevant processes and spatial/temporal variability in most models. In most cases, therefore, the level of detail selected for modelling is too coarse to represent the system in a way in which connectivity can emerge; a problem which can be circumvented by representing fine-scale structures and processes within coarser scale models using a variety of approaches. This poster focuses on the results of ongoing discussions on modelling connectivity held during several workshops within COST Action Connecteur. It assesses the current state of the art of incorporating the concept of connectivity in hydrological and sediment models, as well as the attitudes of modellers towards this issue. The discussion will focus on the different approaches through which connectivity

  7. Modelling bankruptcy prediction models in Slovak companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacova Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An intensive research from academics and practitioners has been provided regarding models for bankruptcy prediction and credit risk management. In spite of numerous researches focusing on forecasting bankruptcy using traditional statistics techniques (e.g. discriminant analysis and logistic regression and early artificial intelligence models (e.g. artificial neural networks, there is a trend for transition to machine learning models (support vector machines, bagging, boosting, and random forest to predict bankruptcy one year prior to the event. Comparing the performance of this with unconventional approach with results obtained by discriminant analysis, logistic regression, and neural networks application, it has been found that bagging, boosting, and random forest models outperform the others techniques, and that all prediction accuracy in the testing sample improves when the additional variables are included. On the other side the prediction accuracy of old and well known bankruptcy prediction models is quiet high. Therefore, we aim to analyse these in some way old models on the dataset of Slovak companies to validate their prediction ability in specific conditions. Furthermore, these models will be modelled according to new trends by calculating the influence of elimination of selected variables on the overall prediction ability of these models.

  8. Generalized latent variable modeling multilevel, longitudinal, and structural equation models

    CERN Document Server

    Skrondal, Anders; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2004-01-01

    This book unifies and extends latent variable models, including multilevel or generalized linear mixed models, longitudinal or panel models, item response or factor models, latent class or finite mixture models, and structural equation models.

  9. Biosphere Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), the TSPA-LA. The ERMYN model provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs), the reference biosphere, the human receptor, and assumptions (Section 6.2 and Section 6.3); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN model compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN model by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); and (8) Validating the ERMYN model by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7)

  10. Biosphere Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Wu

    2003-07-16

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), the TSPA-LA. The ERMYN model provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs), the reference biosphere, the human receptor, and assumptions (Section 6.2 and Section 6.3); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN model compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN model by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); and (8) Validating the ERMYN model by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  11. Biosphere Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-10-27

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), the TSPA-LA. The ERMYN model provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs), the reference biosphere, the human receptor, and assumptions (Section 6.2 and Section 6.3); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN model compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN model by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); and (8) Validating the ERMYN model by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  12. Lumped Thermal Household Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    a lumped model approach as an alternative to the individual models. In the lumped model, the portfolio is seen as baseline consumption superimposed with an ideal storage of limited power and energy capacity. The benefit of such a lumped model is that the computational effort of flexibility optimization...

  13. The Moody Mask Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarke Alexander; Andkjær, Kasper Ingdahl; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new relation model, called "The Moody Mask model", for Interactive Digital Storytelling (IDS), based on Franceso Osborne's "Mask Model" from 2011. This, mixed with some elements from Chris Crawford's Personality Models, is a system designed for dynamic interaction between ch...

  14. The Model Confidence Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Nason, James M.

    The paper introduces the model confidence set (MCS) and applies it to the selection of models. A MCS is a set of models that is constructed such that it will contain the best model with a given level of confidence. The MCS is in this sense analogous to a confidence interval for a parameter. The MCS...

  15. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  16. Numerical Modelling of Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of numerical water quality models. Numeric water quality modeling can be divided into three steps: Hydrodynamic modeling for the determination of stream flow and water levels. Modelling of transport and dispersion of a conservative...

  17. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...

  18. Generic Market Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pietersz (Raoul); M. van Regenmortel

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, there are two market models for valuation and risk management of interest rate derivatives, the LIBOR and swap market models. In this paper, we introduce arbitrage-free constant maturity swap (CMS) market models and generic market models featuring forward rates that span

  19. Modeling the Accidental Deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyam Hafeez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The model for accidental deaths in the city of Lahore has been developed by using a class of Generalized Linear Models. Various link functions have been used in developing the model. The diagnostic checks have been carried out to see the validity of the fitted model.

  20. Cultural Resource Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    refining formal, inductive predictive models is the quality of the archaeological and environmental data. To build models efficiently, relevant...geomorphology, and historic information . Lessons Learned: The original model was focused on the identification of prehistoric resources. This...system but uses predictive modeling informally . For example, there is no probability for buried archaeological deposits on the Burton Mesa, but there is

  1. Modelling Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Morten Peter; Viuf, P.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    In this report we present a model of interlocking systems, and describe how the model may be validated by simulation. Station topologies are modelled by graphs in which the nodes denote track segments, and the edges denote connectivity for train traÆc. Points and signals are modelled by annotatio...

  2. Lumped-parameter models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    A lumped-parameter model represents the frequency dependent soil-structure interaction of a massless foundation placed on or embedded into an unbounded soil domain. In this technical report the steps of establishing a lumped-parameter model are presented. Following sections are included in this report: Static and dynamic formulation, Simple lumped-parameter models and Advanced lumped-parameter models. (au)

  3. Comparing Active Vision Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, G.C.H.E. de; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.

    2009-01-01

    Active vision models can simplify visual tasks, provided that they can select sensible actions given incoming sensory inputs. Many active vision models have been proposed, but a comparative evaluation of these models is lacking. We present a comparison of active vision models from two different

  4. Comparing active vision models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, G.C.H.E. de; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.

    2009-01-01

    Active vision models can simplify visual tasks, provided that they can select sensible actions given incoming sensory inputs. Many active vision models have been proposed, but a comparative evaluation of these models is lacking. We present a comparison of active vision models from two different

  5. White Paper on Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bloemendaal, Karen; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Woerdman, Edwin; Jong, Mattheus

    2015-01-01

    This White Paper provides an overview of the modelling approaches adopted by the project partners in the EDGaR project 'Understanding Gas Sector Intra- and Inter- Market interactions' (UGSIIMI). The paper addresses three types of models: complementarity modelling, agent-based modelling and property

  6. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...... of design. Three distinctions are drawn through which to develop this discussion of models in an architectural context. An examination of these distinctions serves to nuance particular characteristics and roles of models, the modelling activity itself and those engaged in it....

  7. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  8. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  9. Applied stochastic modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Byron JT; Tanner, Martin Abba; Carlin, Bradley P

    2008-01-01

    Introduction and Examples Introduction Examples of data sets Basic Model Fitting Introduction Maximum-likelihood estimation for a geometric model Maximum-likelihood for the beta-geometric model Modelling polyspermy Which model? What is a model for? Mechanistic models Function Optimisation Introduction MATLAB: graphs and finite differences Deterministic search methods Stochastic search methods Accuracy and a hybrid approach Basic Likelihood ToolsIntroduction Estimating standard errors and correlations Looking at surfaces: profile log-likelihoods Confidence regions from profiles Hypothesis testing in model selectionScore and Wald tests Classical goodness of fit Model selection biasGeneral Principles Introduction Parameterisation Parameter redundancy Boundary estimates Regression and influence The EM algorithm Alternative methods of model fitting Non-regular problemsSimulation Techniques Introduction Simulating random variables Integral estimation Verification Monte Carlo inference Estimating sampling distributi...

  10. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    -ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored......This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open...

  11. Calibrated Properties Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Ahlers; H. Liu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00. These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions.

  12. Calibrated Properties Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.F. Ahlers, H.H. Liu

    2001-12-18

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00 (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions.

  13. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  14. MulensModel: Microlensing light curves modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleski, Radoslaw; Yee, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    MulensModel calculates light curves of microlensing events. Both single and binary lens events are modeled and various higher-order effects can be included: extended source (with limb-darkening), annual microlensing parallax, and satellite microlensing parallax. The code is object-oriented and written in Python3, and requires AstroPy (ascl:1304.002).

  15. Business Models and Business Model Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.; Saebi, Tina

    2018-01-01

    While research on business models and business model innovation continue to exhibit growth, the field is still, even after more than two decades of research, characterized by a striking lack of cumulative theorizing and an opportunistic borrowing of more or less related ideas from neighbouring...

  16. EMC Simulation and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takehiro; Schibuya, Noboru

    The EMC simulation is now widely used in design stage of electronic equipment to reduce electromagnetic noise. As the calculated electromagnetic behaviors of the EMC simulator depends on the inputted EMC model of the equipment, the modeling technique is important to obtain effective results. In this paper, simple outline of the EMC simulator and EMC model are described. Some modeling techniques of EMC simulation are also described with an example of the EMC model which is shield box with aperture.

  17. Phenomenology of inflationary models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyaei, Abbas

    2018-01-01

    There are many inflationary models compatible with observational data. One can investigate inflationary models by looking at their general features, which are common in most of the models. Here we have investigated some of the single-field models without considering their origin in order to find the phenomenology of them. We have shown how to adjust the simple harmonic oscillator model in order to be in good agreement with observational data.

  18. Multilevel statistical models

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a clear introduction to this important area of statistics. The author provides a wide of coverage of different kinds of multilevel models, and how to interpret different statistical methodologies and algorithms applied to such models. This 4th edition reflects the growth and interest in this area and is updated to include new chapters on multilevel models with mixed response types, smoothing and multilevel data, models with correlated random effects and modeling with variance.

  19. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  20. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Zarrabi

    2001-09-27

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation