Sample records for model three-dimensional surface

  1. Three-dimensional surface model analysis in the gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghua Liao; Jens B Fr(φ)kj(ae)r; Jian Yang; Jingbo Zhao; Asbj(φ)rn M Drewes; Odd H Gilja; Hans Gregersen


    The biomechanical changes during functional loading and unloading of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract are not fully understood. GI function is usually studied by introducing probes in the GI lumen. Computer modeling offers a promising alternative approach in this regard, with the additional ability to predict regional stresses and strains in inaccessible locations. The tension and stress distributions in the GI tract are related to distensibility (tension-strain relationship) and smooth muscle tone. More knowledge on the tension and stress on the GI tract are needed to improve diagnosis of patients with gastrointestinal disorders. A modeling framework that can be used to integrate the physiological,anatomical and medical knowledge of the GI system has recently been developed. The 3-D anatomical model was constructed from digital images using ultrasonography,computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Different mathematical algorithms were developed for surface analysis based on thin-walled structure and the finite element method was applied for the mucosa-folded three layered esophageal model analysis.The tools may be useful for studying the geometry and biomechanical properties of these organs in health and disease. These studies will serve to test the structurefunction hypothesis of geometrically complex organs.

  2. Three-dimensional modeling of chloroprene rubber surface topography upon composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žukienė, Kristina, E-mail: [Department of Clothing and Polymer Products Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentu St. 56, LT-51424 Kaunas (Lithuania); Jankauskaitė, Virginija [Department of Clothing and Polymer Products Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentu St. 56, LT-51424 Kaunas (Lithuania); Petraitienė, Stase [Department of Applied Mathematics, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentu 50, LT-51368 Kaunas (Lithuania)


    In this study the effect of polymer blend composition on the surface roughness has been investigated and simulated. Three-dimensional modeling of chloroprene rubber film surface upon piperylene-styrene copolymer content was conducted. The efficiency of various surface roughness modeling methods, including Monte Carlo, surface growth and proposed method, named as parabolas, were compared. The required parameters for modeling were obtained from atomic force microscopy topographical images of polymer films surface. It was shown that experimental and modeled surfaces have the same correlation function. The quantitative comparison of function parameters was made. It was determined that novel parabolas method is suitable for three-dimensional polymer blends surface roughness description.

  3. Three-dimensional pose estimation model for object with complex surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghua Li


    Full Text Available The proposed three-dimensional pose estimation model for object with complex surface, which primarily absorbs the essence of scale-invariant feature transform and iterative closest point algorithm, includes two steps, off-line and online. At first, two kinds of feature databases are established in the off-line operations. Then, the online process mainly has three steps. The first one is two-dimensional edge extraction from red–green–blue (RGB information based on scale-invariant feature transform algorithm. The second one is three-dimensional surface reconstruction from the previous two-dimensional edge and the depth information obtained from depth camera. The last one is three-dimensional pose estimation based on camera calibration and iterative closest point algorithm. The Kinect camera is selected as the information acquisition device which can produce red–green–blue information and depth information. In the experiment, the container twist-lock with complex surface is taken as the object. The result shows that the accuracy of the proposed model is very high.

  4. Linear surface roughness growth and flow smoothening in a three-dimensional biofilm model

    CERN Document Server

    Head, D A


    The sessile microbial communities known as biofilms exhibit different surface structures as environmental factors are varied, including nutrient availability and flow-generated shear stresses. Here we modify an established agent-based biofilm model to include adhesive interactions, permitting it to mechanically react to an imposed stress. This model is employed to analyse the growth of surface roughness of single-species, three-dimensional biofilms. We find linear growth laws of surface geometry in both horizontal and vertical directions, and an active surface layer whose thickness anti-correlates with roughness. Flow is consistently shown to reduce surface roughness without affecting the active layer. We argue that the rapid roughening is due to non-local surface interactions mediated by the nutrient field which are curtailed by sufficiently rapid flows, and suggest simplified models will need to be developed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  5. Linear surface roughness growth and flow smoothening in a three-dimensional biofilm model (United States)

    Head, D. A.


    The sessile microbial communities known as biofilms exhibit varying architectures as environmental factors are varied, which for immersed biofilms includes the shear rate of the surrounding flow. Here we modify an established agent-based biofilm model to include affine flow and employ it to analyze the growth of surface roughness of single-species, three-dimensional biofilms. We find linear growth laws for surface geometry in both horizontal and vertical directions and measure the thickness of the active surface layer, which is shown to anticorrelate with roughness. Flow is shown to monotonically reduce surface roughness without affecting the thickness of the active layer. We argue that the rapid roughening is due to nonlocal surface interactions mediated by the nutrient field, which are curtailed when advection competes with diffusion. We further argue the need for simplified models to elucidate the underlying mechanisms coupling flow to growth.

  6. Implicit Three-Dimensional Geo-Modelling Based on HRBF Surface (United States)

    Gou, J.; Zhou, W.; Wu, L.


    Three-dimensional (3D) geological models are important representations of the results of regional geological surveys. However, the process of constructing 3D geological models from two-dimensional (2D) geological elements remains difficult and time-consuming. This paper proposes a method of migrating from 2D elements to 3D models. First, the geological interfaces were constructed using the Hermite Radial Basis Function (HRBF) to interpolate the boundaries and attitude data. Then, the subsurface geological bodies were extracted from the spatial map area using the Boolean method between the HRBF surface and the fundamental body. Finally, the top surfaces of the geological bodies were constructed by coupling the geological boundaries to digital elevation models. Based on this workflow, a prototype system was developed, and typical geological structures (e.g., folds, faults, and strata) were simulated. Geological modes were constructed through this workflow based on realistic regional geological survey data. For extended applications in 3D modelling of other kinds of geo-objects, mining ore body models and urban geotechnical engineering stratum models were constructed by this method from drill-hole data. The model construction process was rapid, and the resulting models accorded with the constraints of the original data.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Bing-chen; LI Hua-jun; LEE Dong-yong


    The effects of waves on Surface Drag Coefficient (SDC) and surface mixing length were analyzed and discussed by carrying out three-dimensional current modeling for the Bohai Sea in the present work. A three- dimensional coupled hydrodynamical-ecological model for regional and shelf seas (COHERENS) incorporating the influences of wave-current interactions was coupled with the third-generation wave model swan taking into account time-varying currents. The effects of waves on currents were included in the SDC, surface mixing length and bottom drag coefficient. Firstly, the formulations in Donelan were incorporated into the COHERENS to account for wave-dependent SDC. In order to compare simulation results for the wave-dependent SDC, the simulation for wind-dependent SDC was also carried out. Second, Wave-Induced Surface Mixing Length (described as WISML sometimes in this paper) was incorporated into the COHERENS. Four numerical experiments were conducted to discuss the effects of two kinds of wave processes. Generally, the values of time series of current velocity and water surface elevation given by the simulation with all of the three wave processes have a good agreement with observed data. The existence of WISML changes obviously current vertical profiles and the existence of the wave dependent SDC modifies the current field of both top and bottom layers with the wind-dependent SDC.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Cong-fang; JIN Sheng


    The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations were solved with the fractional step method where the hydrostatic pressure component was determined first, while the non-hydrostatic component of the pressure was computed from the pressure Poisson equation in which the coefficient matrix is positive definite and symmetric. The eddy viscosity was calculated from the efficient k-ε turbulence model. The resulting model is computationally efficient and unrestricted to the CFL condition. Computations with and without hydrostatic approximation were compared for the same cases to test the validity of the conventional hydrostatic pressure assumption. The model was verified against analytical solutions and experimental data, with excellent agreement.

  9. Extracting Three Dimensional Surface Model of Human Kidney from the Visible Human Data Set using Free Software

    CERN Document Server

    P, Kirana Kumara


    Three dimensional digital model of a representative human kidney is needed for a surgical simulator that is capable of simulating a laparoscopic surgery involving kidney. Buying a three dimensional computer model of a representative human kidney, or reconstructing a human kidney from an image sequence using commercial software, both involve (sometimes significant amount of) money. In this paper, author has shown that one can obtain a three dimensional surface model of human kidney by making use of images from the Visible Human Data Set and a few free software packages (ImageJ, ITK-SNAP, and MeshLab in particular). Images from the Visible Human Data Set, and the software packages used here, both do not cost anything. Hence, the practice of extracting the geometry of a representative human kidney for free, as illustrated in the present work, could be a free alternative to the use of expensive commercial software or to the purchase of a digital model.

  10. A Monte Carlo reflectance model for soil surfaces with three-dimensional structure (United States)

    Cooper, K. D.; Smith, J. A.


    A Monte Carlo soil reflectance model has been developed to study the effect of macroscopic surface irregularities larger than the wavelength of incident flux. The model treats incoherent multiple scattering from Lambertian facets distributed on a periodic surface. Resulting bidirectional reflectance distribution functions are non-Lambertian and compare well with experimental trends reported in the literature. Examples showing the coupling of the Monte Carlo soil model to an adding bidirectional canopy of reflectance model are also given.

  11. Three-dimensional forward modeling and inversion of borehole-to-surface electrical imaging with different power sources (United States)

    Bai, Ze; Tan, Mao-Jin; Zhang, Fu-Lai


    Borehole-to-surface electrical imaging (BSEI) uses a line source and a point source to generate a stable electric field in the ground. In order to study the surface potential of anomalies, three-dimensional forward modeling of point and line sources was conducted by using the finite-difference method and the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG) method. Then, the damping least square method was used in the 3D inversion of the formation resistivity data. Several geological models were considered in the forward modeling and inversion. The forward modeling results suggest that the potentials generated by the two sources have different surface signatures. The inversion data suggest that the low-resistivity anomaly is outlined better than the high-resistivity anomaly. Moreover, when the point source is under the anomaly, the resistivity anomaly boundaries are better outlined than when using a line source.

  12. Bulk and surface phase transitions in the three-dimensional O(4) spin model (United States)

    Deng, Youjin


    We investigate the O(4) spin model on the simple-cubic lattice by means of the Wolff cluster algorithm. Using the toroidal boundary condition, we locate the bulk critical point at coupling Kc=0.935856(2) , and determine the bulk thermal magnetic renormalization exponents as yt=1.3375(15) and yh=2.4820(2) , respectively. The universal ratio Q=⟨m2⟩2/⟨m4⟩ is also determined as 0.9142(1). The precision of these estimates significantly improves over that of the existing results. Then, we simulate the critical O(4) model with two open surfaces on which the coupling strength K1 can be varied. At the ordinary transitions, the surface magnetic exponent is determined as yh1(o)=1.0202(12) . Further, we find a so-called special surface transition at κ=K1/K-1=1.258(20) . At this point, the surface thermal exponent yt1(s) is rather close to zero, and we cannot exclude that the corresponding surface transition is Kosterlitz-Thouless-like. The surface magnetic exponent is yh1(s)=1.816(2) .

  13. Bulk and surface phase transitions in the three-dimensional O4 spin model. (United States)

    Deng, Youjin


    We investigate the O(4) spin model on the simple-cubic lattice by means of the Wolff cluster algorithm. Using the toroidal boundary condition, we locate the bulk critical point at coupling K(c) = 0.935 856(2), and determine the bulk thermal magnetic renormalization exponents as y(t) = 1.337 5(15) and y(h) = 2.482 0(2), respectively. The universal ratio Q=m(2)(2)/m(4) is also determined as 0.9142(1). The precision of these estimates significantly improves over that of the existing results. Then, we simulate the critical O(4) model with two open surfaces on which the coupling strength K(1) can be varied. At the ordinary transitions, the surface magnetic exponent is determined as y((o))(h1) = 1.020 2(12). Further, we find a so-called special surface transition at (k) = K(1)/K-1 = 1.258(20). At this point, the surface thermal exponent y(s)(t1) is rather close to zero, and we cannot exclude that the corresponding surface transition is Kosterlitz-Thouless-like. The surface magnetic exponent is y((s))/h1 = 1.816(2).

  14. Loops, Surfaces and Grassmann Representation in Two- and Three-Dimensional Ising Models

    CERN Document Server

    Gattringer, C R; Semenoff, Gordon W


    Starting from the known representation of the partition function of the 2- and 3-D Ising models as an integral over Grassmann variables, we perform a hopping expansion of the corresponding Pfaffian. We show that this expansion is an exact, algebraic representation of the loop- and surface expansions (with intrinsic geometry) of the 2- and 3-D Ising models. Such an algebraic calculus is much simpler to deal with than working with the geometrical objects. For the 2-D case we show that the algebra of hopping generators allows a simple algebraic treatment of the geometry factors and counting problems, and as a result we obtain the corrected loop expansion of the free energy. We compute the radius of convergence of this expansion and show that it is determined by the critical temperature. In 3-D the hopping expansion leads to the surface representation of the Ising model in terms of surfaces with intrinsic geometry. Based on a representation of the 3-D model as a product of 2-D models coupled to an auxiliary field...

  15. Surface critical behavior and scaling functions for the three-dimensional mean spherical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Magdy E. [Mathematics Department, Ar' ar Teacher College, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia) and Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University (Egypt)]. E-mail:


    The d-dimensional mean spherical model on a fully finite L{sup d} simple cubic lattice with Neumann-Dirichlet boundary conditions is considered in the presence of a surface external fields acting at the surfaces bounding the system. Exact calculations are evaluated for the fully finite system and in the case of a film geometry Lx{approx}{sup d-1}. Critical finite-size scaling functions both for the specific heat and the mean-square magnetization are derived and investigated close to and below the bulk critical temperature K{sub c}.

  16. Integration of remote sensing based surface information into a three-dimensional microclimate model (United States)

    Heldens, Wieke; Heiden, Uta; Esch, Thomas; Mueller, Andreas; Dech, Stefan


    Climate change urges cities to consider the urban climate as part of sustainable planning. Urban microclimate models can provide knowledge on the climate at building block level. However, very detailed information on the area of interest is required. Most microclimate studies therefore make use of assumptions and generalizations to describe the model area. Remote sensing data with area wide coverage provides a means to derive many parameters at the detailed spatial and thematic scale required by urban climate models. This study shows how microclimate simulations for a series of real world urban areas can be supported by using remote sensing data. In an automated process, surface materials, albedo, LAI/LAD and object height have been derived and integrated into the urban microclimate model ENVI-met. Multiple microclimate simulations have been carried out both with the dynamic remote sensing based input data as well as with manual and static input data to analyze the impact of the RS-based surface information and the suitability of the applied data and techniques. A valuable support of the integration of the remote sensing based input data for ENVI-met is the use of an automated processing chain. This saves tedious manual editing and allows for fast and area wide generation of simulation areas. The analysis of the different modes shows the importance of high quality height data, detailed surface material information and albedo.

  17. Three dimensional modeling and inversion of Borehole-surface Electrical Resistivity Data (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, D.; Liu, Y.; Qin, M.


    After a long time of exploration, many oil fields have stepped into the high water-cut period. It is sorely needed to determining the oil-water distribution and water flooding front. Borehole-surface electrical resistivity tomography (BSERT) system is a low-cost measurement with wide measuring scope and small influence on the reservoir. So it is gaining more and more application in detecting water flooding areas and evaluating residual oil distribution in oil fields. In BSERT system, current is connected with the steel casing of the observation well. The current flows along the long casing and transmits to the surface through inhomogeneous layers. Then received electric potential difference data on the surface can be used to inverse the deep subsurface resistivity distribution. This study presents the 3D modeling and inversion method of electrical resistivity data. In an extensive literature, the steel casing is treated as a transmission line current source with infinite small radius and constant current density. However, in practical multi-layered formations with different resistivity, the current density along the casing is not constant. In this study, the steel casing is modeled by a 2.5e-7 ohm-m physical volume that the casing occupies in the finite element mesh. Radius of the casing can be set to a little bigger than the true radius, and this helps reduce the element number and computation time. The current supply point is set on the center of the top surface of the physical volume. The homogeneous formation modeling result shows the same precision as the transmission line current source model. The multi-layered formation modeling result shows that the current density along the casing is high in the low-resistivity layer, and low in the high-resistivity layer. These results are more reasonable. Moreover, the deviated and horizontal well can be simulated as simple as the vertical well using this modeling method. Based on this forward modeling method, the

  18. Development of a Turbulence-Resolving, Three-dimensional, Free Water Surface Numerical Model for Recirculation Eddies in Grand Canyon (United States)

    Akahori, R.; Schmeeckle, M. W.


    In the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, sand bars, which are built in recirculation areas downstream of channel expansions are valuable resources, particularly as natural habitat for endangered native fish and recreation sites for recreation. Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, there has been a reduction in the size of recirculation eddy bars. Simulated floods in the Colorado after tributary flood sediment input from the Paria River are being investigated as a method of rebuilding recirculation eddy beaches. Time-averaged, two-dimensional (and quasi- three-dimensional) numerical models have been employed to predict deposition during these beach/habit-building test flows. However, behind channel expansion areas, flows are strongly three-dimensional and the cross-channel flow is driven primarily by upwelling boils along the eddy fence that are neither stationary in time or space. Furthermore, these strong vertical motions along the eddy fence preclude use of the hydrostatic assumption. In this study, a non-hydrostatic three-dimensional numerical model is presented in order to calculate flow velocity in channels having rapid channel expansions. This model employs the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence modeling technique. LES uses spatial filtering to separate flows into gird scale and sub-gird scale rather than time averaging, thus it directly calculates large-scale turbulent motions. Also, this model employs a moving grid system and the Body Fitted Coordinate (BFC) system. These grid and coordinate systems allow the model to calculate time-dependent free water surface levels induced by large-scale turbulent motions. The model_fs calculation results are compared to existing experimental results of an open channel flow expansion in a laboratory flume. The comparison shows that the model succeeds to reproduce several key features of the flow, such as the temporally- and vertically-averaged horizontal recirculation eddy structure, and the time-averaged cross

  19. Generating Three-Dimensional Surface Models of Solid Objects from Multiple Projections. (United States)


    x,y,z,w) i , on surface G this procedure finds the nearest intersection with .’, the surface-normal vector, and the normal surface curva - ture, equation (A.1), such as the Coons, Ferguson, Bezier , Hermite, and B-spline methods -J [7,20,26,27]. The Ferguson method is useful for fitting a

  20. Self-consistent three-dimensional modeling and simulation of large-scale rectangular surface-wave plasma source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Chao-Hui; Lan Chao-Zhen; Hu Xi-Wei; Chen Zhao-Quan; Liu Ming-Hai


    A self-consistent and three-dimensional (3D) model of argon discharge in a large-scale rectangular surface-wave plasma (SWP) source is presented in this paper, which is based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approximation to Maxwell's equations self-consistently coupled with a fluid model for plasma evolution. The discharge characteristics at an input microwave power of 1200 W and a filling gas pressure of 50 Pa in the SWP source are analyzed. The simulation shows the time evolution of deposited power density at different stages, and the 3D distributions of electron density and temperature in the chamber at steady state. In addition, the results show that there is a peak of plasma density approximately at a vertical distance of 3 cm from the quartz window.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper presents a hybrid model for three-dimensional Geographical Information Systems which is an integration of surface- and volume-based models. The Triangulat ed Irregular Network (TIN) and octree models are integrated in this hybrid model. The TIN model works as a surface-based model which mainly serves for surface presentation and visualization. On the other hand, the octree encoding supports volumetric analysis. The designed data structure brings a major advantage in the three-dimensional selective retrieval. This technique increases the efficiency of three-dimensional data operation.

  2. Generation of three-dimensional patterns through wave interaction in a model of free surface swirling flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, D; Mougel, J, E-mail: [Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), University of Toulouse (France)


    The free surface flow in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom is known to support spectacular three-dimensional patterns, including deformation of the inner free surface into the shape of rotating polygons and sloshing behavior of the upper free surface (e.g. Iga et al 2014 Fluid Dyn. Res. 46 031409). Through a stability analysis of a simplified model of this flow, we show that such patterns can be explained as a resonance mechanism involving different families of waves. The approach extends a previous work (Tophøj et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 194502) which explained the rotating polygons as an interaction between gravity waves and centrifugal waves, under the assumption that the base flow can be modeled as a potential vortex. We show that this previous model is justified for strong rotation rates (Dry-Potential case), and that for weaker rotations it can be improved by introducing an inner vortex core in solid-body rotation, which either extends to the center of the plate (Wet case) or surrounds a dry central region (Dry-Composite case). The study of this improved model predicts two new kinds of instabilities. The first occurs at low rotations (Wet case) and results from an interaction between gravity waves and the Kelvin–Kirchhoff wave (namely, oscillation of the boundary of the vortex core). This instability is proposed to be at the origin of the sloshing phenomenon. The second new instability occurs, for moderate rotations, (Dry-Composite case) as an interaction between gravity waves and a ‘Kelvin-Centrifugal’ wave characterized by deformation of the inner surface and the vortex core boundary in opposite directions. This instability exists for all azimuthal wave numbers starting from m = 1, this case corresponding to a ‘monogon’ pattern. (paper)

  3. Influence of scanning and reconstruction parameters on quality of three-dimensional surface models of the dental arches from cone beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, B.; Souza, P.C.; Jacobs, R.; Berti, S.D.; van der Stelt, P.


    The study aim is to investigate the influence of scan field, mouth opening, voxel size, and segmentation threshold selections on the quality of the three-dimensional (3D) surface models of the dental arches from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). 3D models of 25 patients scanned with one image in

  4. Thermal Pollution Mathematical Model. Volume 6: Verification of Three-Dimensional Free-Surface Model at Anclote Anchorage. [environment impact of thermal discharges from power plants (United States)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.; Tuann, S. Y.; Lee, C. R.


    The free-surface model presented is for tidal estuaries and coastal regions where ambient tidal forces play an important role in the dispersal of heated water. The model is time dependent, three dimensional, and can handle irregular bottom topography. The vertical stretching coordinate is adopted for better treatment of kinematic condition at the water surface. The results include surface elevation, velocity, and temperature. The model was verified at the Anclote Anchorage site of Florida Power Company. Two data bases at four tidal stages for winter and summer conditions were used to verify the model. Differences between measured and predicted temperatures are on an average of less than 1 C.

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of the pulp cavity on surface models of molar teeth, using X-ray micro-computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Bjørndal, Lars; Darvann, Tron Andre


    . In summary, three-dimensional surface models were made with a high precision; an increased accumulation of mineral deposits was noted in molars with small pulp chambers and combined with the consistent pattern of intra-radicular connections, the potential endodontic treatment complexity is underlined...

  6. Three-Dimensional Ocean Noise Modeling (United States)


    particular attention paid to the case of Gaussian canyon . The solution to the three-dimensional wave equation in Cartesian co-ordinates can be terms of a modal decomposition, carried out in the vertical and across- canyon horizontal directions. Work Completed 1. Nx2D and 3D Noise PE...azimuth in the Hudson Canyon [Figure 2). Additionally, the PE-reciprocity noise model was used to estimate the size, speed and distance from the

  7. Quantitative model of cellulite: three-dimensional skin surface topography, biophysical characterization, and relationship to human perception. (United States)

    Smalls, Lola K; Lee, Caroline Y; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kitzmiller, W John; Wickett, R Randall; Visscher, Marty O


    Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) is the irregular, dimpled skin surface of the thighs, abdomen, and buttocks in 85% of post-adolescent women. The distinctive surface morphology is believed to result when subcutaneous adipose tissue protrudes into the lower reticular dermis, thereby creating irregularities at the surface. The biomechanical properties of epidermal and dermal tissue may also influence severity. Cellulite-affected thigh sites were measured in 51 females with varying degrees of cellulite, in 11 non-cellulite controls, and in 10 male controls. A non-contact high-resolution three-dimensional laser surface scanner was used to quantify the skin surface morphology and determine specific roughness values. The scans were evaluated by experts and naive judges (n=62). Body composition was evaluated via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; dermal thickness and the dermal-subcutaneous junction were evaluated via high-resolution 3D ultrasound and surface photography under compression. Biomechanical properties were also measured. The roughness parameters Svm (mean depth of the lowest valleys) and Sdr (ratio between the roughness surface area and the area of the xy plane) were highly correlated to the expert image grades and, therefore, designated as the quantitative measures of cellulite severity. The strength of the correlations among naive grades, expert grades, and roughness values confirmed that the data quantitatively evaluate the human perception of cellulite. Cellulite severity was correlated to BMI, thigh circumference, percent thigh fat, architecture of the dermal-subcutaneous border (ultrasound surface area, red-band SD from compressed images), compliance, and stiffness (negative correlation). Cellulite severity was predicted by the percent fat and the area of the dermal-subcutaneous border. The biomechanical properties did not significantly contribute to the prediction. Comparison of the parameters for females and males further suggest that percent thigh fat

  8. Three-dimensional potential energy surface of Ar–CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumiyoshi, Yoshihiro, E-mail: [Division of Pure and Applied Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 4-2 Aramaki, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8510 (Japan); Endo, Yasuki [Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)


    A three-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface of the Ar–CO complex has been determined by fitting most of the previously reported spectroscopic data, where observed transition frequencies by microwave, millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave, and infrared spectroscopy were reproduced simultaneously within their experimental accuracies. A free rotor model Hamiltonian considering all the freedom of motions for an atom-diatom system was applied to calculate vibration-rotation energies. A three-dimensional potential energy surface obtained by ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pV5Z level of theory was parameterized by a model function consisting of 46 parameters. They were used as initial values for the least-squares analysis of the experimental data. A total of 20 parameters were optimized to reproduce all the spectroscopic data.

  9. Modeling three-dimensional surface morphology of biocake layer in a membrane bioreactor based on fractal geometry. (United States)

    Zhao, Leihong; Yang, Lining; Lin, Hongjun; Zhang, Meijia; Yu, Haiying; Liao, Bao-Qiang; Wang, Fangyuan; Zhou, Xiaoling; Li, Renjie


    While the adsorptive fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is highly dependent of the surface morphology, little progress has been made on modeling biocake layer surface morphology. In this study, a novel method, which combined static light scattering method for fractal dimension (Df) measurement with fractal method represented by the modified two-variable Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function, was proposed to model biocake layer surface in a MBR. Characterization by atomic force microscopy showed that the biocake surface was stochastic, disorder, self-similarity, and with non-integer dimension, illustrating obvious fractal features. Fractal dimension (Df) of sludge suspension experienced a significant change with operation of the MBR. The constructed biocake layer surface by the proposed method was quite close to the real surface, showing the feasibility of the proposed method. It was found that Df was the critical factor affecting surface morphology, while other factors exerted moderate or minor effects on the roughness of biocake layer.

  10. Three Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model With Multiquadtree Meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Vanegas


    Full Text Available This study presents a three dimensional model for the transport of conservative contaminants, which can be used for bodies of water which are affected by winds and/or tides. The model solves the equation of mass transport, based on results obtained using a hydrodynamic model for shallow waters that works in a finite volume scheme and a type of hierarchical grid, called multi-quadtree, which is adaptable to the bathymetry. To solve the vertical coordinates, the coordinate z is transformed into a sigma (σ coordinate, thus allowing the same number of layers in the vertical, regardless of depth. This hydrodynamic model is validated using two cases: a long wave propagated in a channel of variable width and bottom and wind action in a rectangular basin. Finally, the results obtained are presented for a hypothetical single port outfall in the bay of Campeche, México. The model developed here is both quick and easy to use and is efficient when compared with models presented by other authors since it uses adaptable grids which allow detailed solutions to be obtained for areas of interest such as coastlines and the area around an outfall.

  11. A multiphase three-dimensional multi-relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model with surface tension adjustment (United States)

    Ammar, Sami; Pernaudat, Guillaume; Trépanier, Jean-Yves


    The interdependence of surface tension and density ratio is a weakness of pseudo-potential based lattice Boltzmann models (LB). In this paper, we propose a 3D multi-relaxation time (MRT) model for multiphase flows at large density ratios. The proposed model is capable of adjusting the surface tension independently of the density ratio. We also present the 3D macroscopic equations recovered by the proposed forcing scheme. A high order of isotropy for the interaction force is used to reduce the amplitude of spurious currents. The proposed 3D-MRT model is validated by verifying Laplace's law and by analyzing its thermodynamic consistency and the oscillation period of a deformed droplet. The model is then applied to the simulation of the impact of a droplet on a dry surface. Impact dynamics are determined and the maximum spread factor calculated for different Reynolds and Weber numbers. The numerical results are in agreement with data published in the literature. The influence of surface wettability on the spread factor is also investigated. Finally, our 3D-MRT model is applied to the simulation of the impact of a droplet on a wet surface. The propagation of transverse waves is observed on the liquid surface.

  12. Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Digital Images. (United States)


    pipi -l n n the desired subsets.EJ Proposition 3. Let =Pl’""" ’Pn be any path of orientable surface points. There exist connected subsets B’ and C’ of...a B’ , B! isi l-±Pi ’ Pi-i Pi-i PiPi -I i a connected subset of Sn[I U N1 (pj)] if B! is a connected Si- subset of S5[i U N (pj)], and similarly for

  13. Two-Dimensional Sectioned Images and Three-Dimensional Surface Models for Learning the Anatomy of the Female Pelvis (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Hwang, Sung Bae; Har, Dong-Hwan; Moon, Young Lae; Chung, Min Suk


    In the Visible Korean project, serially sectioned images of the pelvis were made from a female cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. To improve the accessibility and informational content of these data, a five-step process was designed and implemented. First, 154 pelvic…

  14. Three-dimensional surface imaging by multi-frequency phase shift profilometry with angle and pattern modeling for system calibration (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhou


    In this paper, we present a 3D surface imaging system based on the well-known phase shift profilometry. To yield the analytical solutions, four shifted phases and three high carrier frequencies are used to compute the phase map and reduce the noises that are caused by the inherent optical aberrations and external influences, e.g. different illumination light sources, uneven intensity distribution and automatic image processing algorithms. To reduce the system noise, we propose to model the pattern of the calibration grid in a virtual space. To obtain the modeled pattern, we use a plane to intercept the rays that are modeled by the proposed angle modeling method. In the world coordinate system, the angle and the pattern are computed based on the calibration data. A registration method is used to transform the modeled pattern in the virtual space to the ideal pattern in the world coordinate system by computing the least squared errors between the true points in the modeled pattern and the measured points in the practical pattern. The modeled (true) points are used for re-calibration of the 3D imaging system. Experimental results showed that the measurement accuracy increases considerably and the MSE is reduced from 0.95 mm to 0.65 mm (32% average error decrease) after replacing the measured points with the true points for calibration.

  15. Forecasting of Surface Currents via Correcting Wind Stress with Assimilation of High-Frequency Radar Data in a Three-Dimensional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren


    Full Text Available This paper details work in assessing the capability of a hydrodynamic model to forecast surface currents and in applying data assimilation techniques to improve model forecasts. A three-dimensional model Environment Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC was forced with tidal boundary data and onshore wind data, and so forth. Surface current data from a high-frequency (HF radar system in Galway Bay were used for model intercomparisons and as a source for data assimilation. The impact of bottom roughness was also investigated. Having developed a “good” water circulation model the authors sought to improve its forecasting ability through correcting wind shear stress boundary conditions. The differences in surface velocity components between HF radar measurements and model output were calculated and used to correct surface shear stresses. Moreover, data assimilation cycle lengths were examined to extend the improvements of surface current’s patterns during forecasting period, especially for north-south velocity component. The influence of data assimilation in model forecasting was assessed using a Data Assimilation Skill Score (DASS. Positive magnitude of DASS indicated that both velocity components were considerably improved during forecasting period. Additionally, the improvements of RMSE for vector direction over domain were significant compared with the “free run.”

  16. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction from multistatic SAR images. (United States)

    Rigling, Brian D; Moses, Randolph L


    This paper discusses reconstruction of three-dimensional surfaces from multiple bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Techniques for surface reconstruction from multiple monostatic SAR images already exist, including interferometric processing and stereo SAR. We generalize these methods to obtain algorithms for bistatic interferometric SAR and bistatic stereo SAR. We also propose a framework for predicting the performance of our multistatic stereo SAR algorithm, and, from this framework, we suggest a metric for use in planning strategic deployment of multistatic assets.

  17. Three dimensional modeling of CR propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Gaggero, Daniele; Di Bernardo, Giuseppe; Evoli, Carmelo; Grasso, Dario


    We present here a major upgrade of DRAGON, a numerical package that computes the propagation of a wide set of CR species from both astrophysical and exotic origin in the Galaxy in a wide energy range from tens of MeV to tens of TeV. DRAGON takes into account all relevant processes in particular diffusion, convection, reacceleration, fragmentation and energy losses. For the first time, we present a full 3D version of DRAGON with anisotropic position-dependent diffusion. In this version, the propagation is calculated within a 3D cartesian grid and the user is able to implement realistic and structured three dimensional source, gas and regular magnetic field distributions. Moreover, it is possible to specify an arbitrary function of position and rigidity for the diffusion coefficients in the parallel and perpendicular direction to the regular magnetic field of the Galaxy. The code opens many new possibilities in the study of CR physics. In particular, we can study for the first time the impact of the spiral arm ...

  18. Synthetic Spectrum Methods for Three-Dimensional Supernova Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, R C


    Current observations stimulate the production of fully three-dimensional explosion models, which in turn motivates three-dimensional spectrum synthesis for supernova atmospheres. We briefly discuss techniques adapted to address the latter problem, and consider some fundamentals of line formation in supernovae without recourse to spherical symmetry. Direct and detailed extensions of the technique are discussed, and future work is outlined.

  19. Analytical modelling and experimental verification of the three-dimensional current distribution on the top surface of silicon solar cells operating under concentrated sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costagliola, Maurizio; Riccio, Michele; Irace, Andrea; Breglio, Gianluca; Daliento, Santolo [Department of Biomedical, Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy)


    The approximation that the current is constant in any point of the emitter is not true for solar cells operating under concentrated sunlight. The transverse paths followed by photogenerated carriers to reach metal grid electrodes causes voltage drops leading to non-uniform distributed surface potential and a consequent reduction of the conversion efficiency. Moreover, concentrating lens often provide non-uniform light intensity thus worsening non-uniform current distribution. The correct design of surface geometry of the cell (metal grid, emitter depth, sheet resistance) should always take into account the above effects. Unfortunately a lack of reliable models still exists. In this paper we analytically solve the three-dimensional semiconductor equations with proper boundary conditions and taking into account, as source term, a distributed generation contribute. The reliability of the model has been tested by numerical simulations and experimentally verified with a lock-in thermography technique (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Transient, three-dimensional heat transfer model for the laser assisted machining of silicon nitride: 1. Comparison of predictions with measured surface temperature histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozzi, J.C.; Pfefferkorn, F.E.; Shin, Y.C. [Purdue University, (United States). Laser Assisted Materials Processing Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering; Incropera, F.P. [University of Notre Dame, (United States). Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Department


    Laser assisted machining (LAM), in which the material is locally heated by an intense laser source prior to material removal, provides an alternative machining process with the potential to yield higher material removal rates, as well as improved control of workpiece properties and geometry, for difficult-to-machine materials such as structural ceramics. To assess the feasibility of the LAM process and to obtain an improved understanding of governing physical phenomena, experiments have been performed to determine the thermal response of a rotating silicon nitride workpiece undergoing heating by a translating CO{sub 2} laser and material removal by a cutting tool. Using a focused laser pyrometer, surface temperature histories were measured to determine the effect of the rotational and translational speeds, the depth of cut, the laser-tool lead distance, and the laser beam diameter and power on thermal conditions. The measurements are in excellent agreement with predictions based on a transient, three-dimensional numerical solution of the heating and material removal processes. The temperature distribution within the unmachined workpiece is most strongly influenced by the laser power and laser-tool lead distance, as well as by the laser/tool translational velocity. A minimum allowable operating temperature in the material removal region corresponds to the YSiAlON glass transition temperature, below which tool fracture may occur. In a companion paper, the numerical model is used to further elucidate thermal conditions associated with laser assisted machining. (author)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    3D GISs were developed simultaneously in the late 1980s in a number of different disciplines.The development of these 3D GISs can not yet meet all needs for new representations and analytical tools in 3D envir onments.In this paper,the data structures,especially solid-based data representa tions are introduced.Then,a typical object-oriented data model is put forth to show a new data model.And at last,two data access methods are proposed to make the data model clear.

  2. Three-dimensional model analysis and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Faxin; Luo, Hao; Wang, Pinghui


    This book focuses on five hot research directions in 3D model analysis and processing in computer science:  compression, feature extraction, content-based retrieval, irreversible watermarking and reversible watermarking.

  3. Three-dimensional modeling of piezoelectric materials. (United States)

    Brissaud, Michel


    This paper deals with 3-D modeling of piezoelectric materials. The model is based on an exact description of the potential and electric field inside a material. Moreover, coherent piezoelectric equations are used. Modeling has been applied to rectangular and cylindrical elements. In each case, the exact equations of the displacements along the three coordinate axes and the corresponding electric impedance are calculated. The general resonance conditions are stated for these two geometries. It is shown that, contrary to the 1-D models, a unique equation describes lateral and thickness vibrations, or radial and thickness vibrations. These properties enable us to analytically calculate the frequency spectrum of rectangular elements, thick disks, or cylinders and also thick rings or hollow cylinders versus the width to thickness ratio. It is then very easy to determine the corresponding dispersion diagram related to each geometry sample. These resonance conditions are similar to those deduced from the 1-D model described in the IEEE standard but are more general and necessitate no cancelling out assumptions. In addition, contrary to 1-D models, the wave velocities and the permittivity are independent of the element geometry (parallelepiped or cylindrical). The wave velocities are equal to those stated for the wave propagation in infinite medium and measured with pulse-echo techniques. It is the coupling inside the material which modifies the resonance conditions and not the geometrical dimensions of the vibrating element. 3-D modeling and 1-D radial mode of the admittance of a thick disk are calculated and compared with experimental measurements. Theoretical and measured admittances are compared and discussed.

  4. Three-dimensional model for fusion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, A.P.


    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) emit unusual spectra of radiation which is interpreted to signify extreme distance, extreme power, or both. The status of AGNs was recently reviewed by Balick and Heckman. It seems that the greatest conceptual difficulty with understanding AGNs is how to form a coherent phenomenological model of their properties. What drives the galactic engine. What and where are the mass-flows of fuel to this engine. Are there more than one engine. Do the engines have any symmetry properties. Is observed radiation isotropically emitted from the source. If it is polarized, what causes the polarization. Why is there a roughly spherical cloud of ionized gas about the center of our own galaxy, the Milky Way. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a new model, based on fusion processes which are not axisymmetric, uniform, isotropic, or even time-invariant. Then, the relationship to these questions will be developed. A unified model of fusion processes applicable to many astronomical phenomena will be proposed and discussed.

  5. Modeling three-dimensional morphological structures using spherical harmonics. (United States)

    Shen, Li; Farid, Hany; McPeek, Mark A


    Quantifying morphological shape is a fundamental issue in evolutionary biology. Recent technological advances (e.g., confocal microscopy, laser scanning, computer tomography) have made the capture of detailed three-dimensional (3D) morphological structure easy and cost-effective. In this article, we develop a 3D analytic framework (SPHARM-spherical harmonics) for modeling the shapes of complex morphological structures from continuous surface maps that can be produced by these technologies. Because the traditional SPHARM methodology has limitations in several of its processing steps, we present new algorithms for two SPHARM processing steps: spherical parameterization and SPHARM registration. These new algorithms allow for the numerical characterization of a much larger class of 3D models. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by applying it to modeling the cerci of Enallagma damselflies.

  6. Standalone visualization tool for three-dimensional DRAGON geometrical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukomski, A.; McIntee, B.; Moule, D.; Nichita, E. [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)


    DRAGON is a neutron transport and depletion code able to solve one-, two- and three-dimensional problems. To date DRAGON provides two visualization modules, able to represent respectively two- and three-dimensional geometries. The two-dimensional visualization module generates a postscript file, while the three dimensional visualization module generates a MATLAB M-file with instructions for drawing the tracks in the DRAGON TRACKING data structure, which implicitly provide a representation of the geometry. The current work introduces a new, standalone, tool based on the open-source Visualization Toolkit (VTK) software package which allows the visualization of three-dimensional geometrical models by reading the DRAGON GEOMETRY data structure and generating an axonometric image which can be manipulated interactively by the user. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional chemotaxis model for a crawling neutrophil. (United States)

    Song, Jihwan; Kim, Dongchoul


    Chemotactic cell migration is a fundamental phenomenon in complex biological processes. A rigorous understanding of the chemotactic mechanism of crawling cells has important implications for various medical and biological applications. In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional model of a single crawling cell to study its chemotaxis. A single-cell study of chemotaxis has an advantage over studies of a population of cells in that it provides a clearer observation of cell migration, which leads to more accurate assessments of chemotaxis. The model incorporates the surface energy of the cell and the interfacial interaction between the cell and substrate. The semi-implicit Fourier spectral method is applied to achieve high efficiency and numerical stability. The simulation results provide the kinetic and morphological traits of a crawling cell during chemotaxis.

  8. Algebraic surface grid generation in three-dimensional space (United States)

    Warsi, Saif


    An interactive program for algebraic generation of structured surface grids in three dimensional space was developed on the IRIS4D series workstations. Interactive tools are available to ease construction of edge curves and surfaces in 3-D space. Addition, removal, or redistribution of points at arbitrary locations on a general 3-D surface or curve is possible. Also, redistribution of surface grid points may be accomplished through use of conventional surface splines or a method called 'surface constrained transfinite interpolation'. This method allows the user to redistribute the grid points on the edges of a surface patch; the effect of the redistribution is then propagated to the remainder of the surface through a transfinite interpolation procedure where the grid points will be constrained to lie on the surface. The program was written to be highly functional and easy to use. A host of utilities are available to ease the grid generation process. Generality of the program allows the creation of single and multizonal surface grids according to the user requirements. The program communicates with the user through popup menus, windows, and the mouse.

  9. Three-dimensional surface imaging system for assessing human obesity (United States)

    Xu, Bugao; Yu, Wurong; Yao, Ming; Pepper, M. Reese; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H.


    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable, and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3-D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for the estimation of body composition. We present a new 3-D body imaging system, which is designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology is used to satisfy the requirement for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisition. The portability of the system is created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements is improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3-D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also are developed. The overall performance of the system is evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  10. Optimized Fourier representations for three-dimensional magnetic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshman, S.P.; Meier, H.K.


    The selection of an optimal parametric angle theta describing a closed magnetic flux surface is considered with regard to accelerating the convergence rate of the Fourier series for the Cartesian coordinates x(theta,phi) identical with R - R/sub 0/ and y(theta,phi) identical with Z - Z/sub 0/. Geometric criteria are developed based on the Hamiltonian invariants of Keplerian orbits. These criteria relate the rate of curve traversal (tangential speed) to the curvature (normal acceleration) so as to provide increased angular resolution in regions of largest curvature. They are, however, limited to either convex or starlike domains and do not provide rapid convergence for complex domains with alternating convex and concave regions. A generally applicable constraint criterion, based directly on minimizing the width of the x and y Fourier spectra, is also derived. A variational principle is given for implementing these constraints numerically. Application to the representation of three-dimensional magnetic flux surfaces is discussed.

  11. Characterization of highly anisotropic three-dimensionally nanostructured surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Daniel


    Generalized ellipsometry, a non-destructive optical characterization technique, is employed to determine geometrical structure parameters and anisotropic dielectric properties of highly spatially coherent three-dimensionally nanostructured thin films grown by glancing angle deposition. The (piecewise) homogeneous biaxial layer model approach is discussed, which can be universally applied to model the optical response of sculptured thin films with different geometries and from diverse materials, and structural parameters as well as effective optical properties of the nanostructured thin films are obtained. Alternative model approaches for slanted columnar thin films, anisotropic effective medium approximations based on the Bruggeman formalism, are presented, which deliver results comparable to the homogeneous biaxial layer approach and in addition provide film constituent volume fraction parameters as well as depolarization or shape factors. Advantages of these ellipsometry models are discussed on the example ...

  12. Digital Moon: A three-dimensional framework for lunar modeling (United States)

    Paige, D. A.; Elphic, R. C.; Foote, E. J.; Meeker, S. R.; Siegler, M. A.; Vasavada, A. R.


    The Moon has a complex three-dimensional shape with significant large-scale and small-scale topographic relief. The Moon’s topography largely controls the distribution of incident solar radiation, as well as the scattered solar and infrared radiation fields. Topography also affects the Moon’s interaction with the space environment, its magnetic field, and the propagation of seismic waves. As more extensive and detailed lunar datasets become available, there is an increasing need to interpret and compare them with the results of physical models in a fully three-dimensional context. We have developed a three-dimensional framework for lunar modeling we call the Digital Moon. The goal of this work is to enable high fidelity physical modeling and visualization of the Moon in a parallel computing environment. The surface of the Moon is described by a continuous triangular mesh of arbitrary shape and spatial scale. For regions of limited geographic extent, it is convenient to employ meshes on a rectilinear grid. However for global-scale modeling, we employ a continuous geodesic gridding scheme (Teanby, 2008). Each element in the mesh surface is allowed to have a unique set of physical properties. Photon and particle interactions between mesh elements are modeled using efficient ray tracing algorithms. Heat, mass, photon and particle transfer within each mesh element are modeled in one dimension. Each compute node is assigned a portion of the mesh and collective interactions between elements are handled through network interfaces. We have used the model to calculate lunar surface and subsurface temperatures that can be compared directly with radiometric temperatures measured by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The model includes realistic surface photometric functions based on goniometric measurements of lunar soil samples (Foote and Paige, 2009), and one-dimensional thermal models based on lunar remote sensing and Apollo

  13. Bistatic scattering from a three-dimensional object above a two-dimensional randomly rough surface modeled with the parallel FDTD approach. (United States)

    Guo, L-X; Li, J; Zeng, H


    We present an investigation of the electromagnetic scattering from a three-dimensional (3-D) object above a two-dimensional (2-D) randomly rough surface. A Message Passing Interface-based parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach is used, and the uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) medium is adopted for truncation of the FDTD lattices, in which the finite-difference equations can be used for the total computation domain by properly choosing the uniaxial parameters. This makes the parallel FDTD algorithm easier to implement. The parallel performance with different number of processors is illustrated for one rough surface realization and shows that the computation time of our parallel FDTD algorithm is dramatically reduced relative to a single-processor implementation. Finally, the composite scattering coefficients versus scattered and azimuthal angle are presented and analyzed for different conditions, including the surface roughness, the dielectric constants, the polarization, and the size of the 3-D object.

  14. Numerical study of three-dimensional free surface dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baozeng Yue; Zhaolin Wang


    The dynamic problem of three-dimensional free surface is numerically studied in this paper.The ALE (Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler) kinematic description is introduced into the control equation system.The ALE description method is used to track free surface.Accurate formulations for calculating the normal vector on the free surface are presented.The discrete numerical equations by finite element method are developed by Galerkin weighted residual method.The boundary condition about free-surface tension is represented in the form of weak integration that can be computed by a differential geometry method derived in the present paper.The effect of contact angle is incorporated in the numerical algorithm.Furthermore, the numerical computations are performed and the comparison between computational and analytical results validated the effectiveness of the method.The results of this paper provide a fundamental understandings of the dynamics of liquid free surfaces,in which the surface tension and contact angle boundary conditions are taken into account.Finally,numerical simulation of largescale amplitude sloshing of liquid in a cylindrical container is performed and a numerical analysis of the effect of an annular ring-shaped rigid damping baffle on liquid sloshing oscillations in a cylindrical tank is also carried out.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUGe; SHENGuanghan; JIXiaoming; WANGQuanke


    The theory and method for selecting the three dimensional prediction models of mining subsidence are studied in this paper. Namely, based on system identification and statistics theory, an optimum mining subsidence prediction model can be selected. The method proved by a typical case has a good prospect for determining the physical model of rock mass for mining subsidence prediction.

  16. Three dimensional geometric modeling of processing-tomatoes (United States)

    Characterizing tomato geometries with different shapes and sizes would facilitate the design of tomato processing equipments and promote computer-based engineering simulations. This research sought to develop a three-dimensional geometric model that can describe the morphological attributes of proce...

  17. Thermodynamics of a Simple Three-Dimensional DNA Hairpin Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Kellan; Boggess, Erin; Mask, Walker; Saucedo, Tony; Hansen, JJ; Appelgate, Ian; Jurgensen, Taylor; Santos, Aaron


    We characterize the equation of state for a simple three-dimensional DNA hairpin model using a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm. This algorithm was run at constant temperature and fixed separation between the terminal ends of the strand. From the equation of state, we compute the compressibility, thermal expansion coefficient, and specific heat along with adiabatic path.

  18. Three dimensional rigorous model for optical scattering problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, X.


    We present a three-dimensional model based on the finite element method for solving the time-harmonic Maxwell equation in optics. It applies to isotropic or anisotropic dielectrics and metals, and to many configurations such as an isolated scatterer in a multilayer, bi-gratings and crystals. We shal

  19. A three-dimensional model of Tangential YORP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubov, O.; Scheeres, D. J. [Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder 429 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Krugly, Yu. N., E-mail: [Institute of Astronomy, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, 35 Sumska Str., Kharkiv, 61022 (Ukraine)


    Tangential YORP, or TYORP, has recently been demonstrated to be an important factor in the evolution of an asteroid's rotation state. It is complementary to normal YORP, or NYORP, which used to be considered previously. While NYORP is produced by non-symmetry in the large-scale geometry of an asteroid, TYORP is due to heat conductivity in stones on the surface of the asteroid. To date, TYORP has been studied only in a simplified one-dimensional model, substituting stones with high long walls. This article for the first time considers TYORP in a realistic three-dimensional model, also including shadowing and self-illumination effects via ray tracing. TYORP is simulated for spherical stones lying on regolith. The model includes only five free parameters and the dependence of the TYORP on each of them is studied. The TYORP torque appears to be smaller than previous estimates from the one-dimensional model, but is still comparable to the NYORP torques. These results can be used to estimate TYORP of different asteroids and also as a basis for more sophisticated models of TYORP.

  20. Robust three dimensional surface contouring method with digital holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Cao-jin; ZHAI Hong-chen; WANG Xiao-lei; WU Lan


    In this paper,a digital holography system with short-coherence light source is used to record a series of holograms of a micro-object. The three dimensional reconstruction is completed by the least-square-polynomial-fitting with a series of two dimensional intensity images which are obtained through holographic reconstruction. This three dimensional reconstruction method can be used to carry out three-dimensional reconstruction of a micro-object with strong laser speckle noise,which can not be obtained from the conventional method.

  1. Highly Crystalline Multimetallic Nanoframes with Three-Dimensional Electrocatalytic Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Kang, Yijin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Huo, Ziyang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhu, Zhongwei [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Wenyu [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xin, Huolin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Snyder, Joshua [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Li, Dongguo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Herron, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mavrikakis, Manos [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Chi, Miaofang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); More, Karren L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Yadong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Markovic, Nenad M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Somorjai, Gabor A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Peidong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudia Arabia); Stamenkovic, Vojislav R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Control of structure at the atomic level can precisely and effectively tune catalytic properties of materials, enabling enhancement in both activity and durability. We synthesized a highly active and durable class of electrocatalysts by exploiting the structural evolution of platinum-nickel (Pt-Ni) bimetallic nanocrystals. The starting material, crystalline PtNi3 polyhedra, transforms in solution by interior erosion into Pt3Ni nanoframes with surfaces that offer three-dimensional molecular accessibility. The edges of the Pt-rich PtNi3 polyhedra are maintained in the final Pt3Ni nanoframes. Both the interior and exterior catalytic surfaces of this open-framework structure are composed of the nanosegregated Pt-skin structure, which exhibits enhanced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. The Pt3Ni nanoframe catalysts achieved a factor of 36 enhancement in mass activity and a factor of 22 enhancement in specific activity, respectively, for this reaction (relative to state-of-the-art platinum-carbon catalysts) during prolonged exposure to reaction conditions.

  2. Three-dimensional conceptual model for service-oriented simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-guang WANG; Wei-ping WANG; Justyna ZANDER; Yi-fan ZHU


    In this letter, we propose a novel three-dimensional conceptual model for an emerging service-oriented simulation paradigm. The model can be used as a guideline or an analytic means to find the potential and possible future directions of the current simulation frameworks, In particular, the model inspects the crossover between the disciplines of modeling and simulation,service-orientation, and software/systems engineering. Finally, two specific simulation frameworks are studied as examples.

  3. Three-dimensional conceptual model for service-oriented simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenguang; Zander, Justyna; Zhu, Yifan; 10.1631/jzus.A0920258


    In this letter, we propose a novel three-dimensional conceptual model for an emerging service-oriented simulation paradigm. The model can be used as a guideline or an analytic means to find the potential and possible future directions of the current simulation frameworks. In particular, the model inspects the crossover between the disciplines of modeling and simulation, service-orientation, and software/systems engineering. Finally, two specific simulation frameworks are studied as examples.

  4. Transmission Spectra of Three-Dimensional Hot Jupiter Model Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Fortney, J J; Showman, A P; Lian, Y; Freedman, R S; Marley, M S; Lewis, N K


    We compute models of the transmission spectra of planets HD 209458b, HD 189733b, and generic hot Jupiters. We examine the effects of temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity for the generic planets as a guide to understanding transmission spectra in general. We find that carbon dioxide absorption at 4.4 and 15 microns is prominent at high metallicity, and is a clear metallicity indicator. For HD 209458b and HD 189733b, we compute spectra for both one-dimensional and three-dimensional model atmospheres and examine the differences between them. The differences are usually small, but can be large if atmospheric temperatures are near important chemical abundance boundaries. The calculations for the 3D atmospheres, and their comparison with data, serve as constraints on these dynamical models that complement the secondary eclipse and light curve data sets. For HD 209458b, even if TiO and VO gases are abundant on the day side, their abundances can be considerably reduced on the cooler planetary limb. However, ...

  5. Three dimensional modelling of ICRF launchers for fusion devices (United States)

    Carter, M. D.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Ryan, P. M.; Hanson, G. R.; Stallings, D. C.; Batchelor, D. B.; Bigelow, T. S.; England, A. C.; Hoffman, D. J.; Murakami, M.; Wang, C. Y.; Wilgen, J. B.; Rogers, J. H.; Wilson, J. R.; Majeski, R.; Schilling, G.


    The three dimensional (3-D) nature of antennas for fusion applications in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) requires accurate modelling to design and analyse new antennas. In this article, analysis and design tools for radiofrequency (RF) antennas are successfully benchmarked with experiment, and the 3-D physics of the launched waves is explored. The systematic analysis combines measured density profiles from a reflectometer system, transmission line circuit modelling, detailed 3-D magnetostatics modelling and a new 3-D electromagnetic antenna model including plasma. This analysis gives very good agreement with measured loading data from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Bay-M antenna, thus demonstrating the validity of the analysis for the design of new RF antennas. The 3-D modelling is contrasted with 2-D models, and significant deficiencies are found in the latter. The 2-D models are in error by as much as a factor of 2 in real and reactive loading, even after they are corrected for the most obvious 3-D effects. Three dimensional effects play the most significant role at low parallel wavenumbers, where the launched power spectrum can be quite different from the predictions of 2-D models. Three dimensional effects should not be ignored for many RF designs, especially those intended for fast wave current drive

  6. Three-dimensional reconstruction of specular reflecting technical surfaces using structured light microscopy (United States)

    Kettel, Johannes; Müller, Claas; Reinecke, Holger


    In computer assisted quality control the three-dimensional reconstruction of technical surfaces is playing an ever more important role. Due to the demand on high measurement accuracy and data acquisition rates, structured light optical microscopy has become a valuable solution for the three-dimensional measurement of technical surfaces with high vertical and lateral resolution. However, the three-dimensional reconstruction of specular reflecting technical surfaces with very low surface-roughness and local slopes still remains a challenge to optical measurement principles. Furthermore the high data acquisition rates of current optical measurement systems depend on highly complex and expensive scanning-techniques making them impractical for inline quality control. In this paper we present a novel measurement principle based on a multi-pinhole structured light solution without moving parts which enables the threedimensional reconstruction of specular and diffuse reflecting technical surfaces. This measurement principle is based on multiple and parallel processed point-measurements. These point measurements are realized by spatially locating and analyzing the resulting Point Spread Function (PSF) in parallel for each point measurement. Analysis of the PSF is realized by pattern recognition and model-fitting algorithms accelerated by current Graphics-Processing-Unit (GPU) hardware to reach suitable measurement rates. Using the example of optical surfaces with very low surface-roughness we demonstrate the three-dimensional reconstruction of these surfaces by applying our measurement principle. Thereby we show that the resulting high measurement accuracy enables cost-efficient three-dimensional surface reconstruction suitable for inline quality control.

  7. Three-dimensional radiation transfer modeling in a dicotyledon leaf (United States)

    Govaerts, Yves M.; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Verstraete, Michel M.; Ustin, Susan L.


    The propagation of light in a typical dicotyledon leaf is investigated with a new Monte Carlo ray-tracing model. The three-dimensional internal cellular structure of the various leaf tissues, including the epidermis, the palisade parenchyma, and the spongy mesophyll, is explicitly described. Cells of different tissues are assigned appropriate morphologies and contain realistic amounts of water and chlorophyll. Each cell constituent is characterized by an index of refraction and an absorption coefficient. The objective of this study is to investigate how the internal three-dimensional structure of the tissues and the optical properties of cell constituents control the reflectance and transmittance of the leaf. Model results compare favorably with laboratory observations. The influence of the roughness of the epidermis on the reflection and absorption of light is investigated, and simulation results confirm that convex cells in the epidermis focus light on the palisade parenchyma and increase the absorption of radiation.

  8. Complete wetting in the three-dimensional transverse Ising model


    Harris, A B; Micheletti, C.; Yeomans, J. M.


    We consider a three-dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field, $h$ and a bulk field $H$. An interface is introduced by an appropriate choice of boundary conditions. At the point $(H=0,h=0)$ spin configurations corresponding to different positions of the interface are degenerate. By studying the phase diagram near this multiphase point using quantum-mechanical perturbation theory we show that that quantum fluctuations, controlled by $h$, split the multiphase degeneracy giving rise...

  9. Fitting manifold surfaces to three-dimensional point clouds. (United States)

    Grimm, Cindy M; Crisco, Joseph J; Laidlaw, David H


    We present a technique for fitting a smooth, locally parameterized surface model (called the manifold surface model) to unevenly scattered data describing an anatomical structure. These data are acquired from medical imaging modalities such as CT scans or MRI. The manifold surface is useful for problems which require analyzable or parametric surfaces fitted to data acquired from surfaces of arbitrary topology (e.g., entire bones). This surface modeling work is part of a larger project to model and analyze skeletal joints, in particular the complex of small bones within the wrist and hand. To demonstrate the suitability of this model we fit to several different bones in the hand, and to the same bone from multiple people.

  10. New Discrete Element Models for Three-Dimensional Impact Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Li; CHENG Ming; LIU Kai-xin; LIU Wei-Fu; CHEN Shi-Yang


    Two 3-D numerical models of the discrete element method(DEM)for impact problems are proposed.The models can calculate not only the impact problems of continuum and non-continuum,but also the transient process from continuum to non-continuum.The stress wave propagation in a concrete block and a dynamic splitting process of a marble disc under impact loading are numerically simulated with the proposed models.By comparing the numerical results with the corresponding results obtained by the finite element method(FEM)and the experiments,it is proved that the models are reliable for three-dimensional impact problems.

  11. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of nearshore circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Detong


    A three-dimensional nearshore circulation model was developed by coupling CH3D, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and REF/DIF, a nearsbore wave transformation model. The model solves the three-dimensional wave-averaged equations of motion. Wave-induced effects on circulation were introduced in the form of radiation stresses, wave-induced mass transport, wave-induced enhancement of bottom friction and wave-induced turbulent mixing. Effects of breaking waves were considered following Svendsen (1984a and 1984b) and Stive and Wind (1986). The model was successfully tested against the analytical solution of longshore currents by Longuet and Higgins (1970). The model successfully simulated the undertow as observed in a laboratory experiment by Stive and Wind (1982). In addition, the model was applied to a physical model by Mory and Hamm (1997) and successfully reproduced the eddy behind a detached breakwater as well as the longshore current on the open beach and the contiguous eddy in the open area of the wave tank. While the qualitative agreement between model results and experimental observations was very good, the quantitative agreement needs to be further improved. Albeit difficult to explain every discrepancy between the model re- suits and observations, in general, sources of errors are attributed to the lack of understanding and comprehensive description of following processes: (1) the horizontal and vertical distribution of radiation stress, especially for breaking waves; (2) the detailed structure of turbulence;(3)Wave-current interaction (not included at this moment) ; and (4)the wave- current boundary layer and the resulting bottom shear stress.

  12. Three Dimensional Vapor Intrusion Modeling: Model Validation and Uncertainty Analysis (United States)

    Akbariyeh, S.; Patterson, B.; Rakoczy, A.; Li, Y.


    Volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), such as chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons, are prevalent groundwater contaminants due to their improper disposal and accidental spillage. In addition to contaminating groundwater, VOCs may partition into the overlying vadose zone and enter buildings through gaps and cracks in foundation slabs or basement walls, a process termed vapor intrusion. Vapor intrusion of VOCs has been recognized as a detrimental source for human exposures to potential carcinogenic or toxic compounds. The simulation of vapor intrusion from a subsurface source has been the focus of many studies to better understand the process and guide field investigation. While multiple analytical and numerical models were developed to simulate the vapor intrusion process, detailed validation of these models against well controlled experiments is still lacking, due to the complexity and uncertainties associated with site characterization and soil gas flux and indoor air concentration measurement. In this work, we present an effort to validate a three-dimensional vapor intrusion model based on a well-controlled experimental quantification of the vapor intrusion pathways into a slab-on-ground building under varying environmental conditions. Finally, a probabilistic approach based on Monte Carlo simulations is implemented to determine the probability distribution of indoor air concentration based on the most uncertain input parameters.

  13. Three-Dimensional Model for Strip Hot Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-min; XIAO Hong; WANG Chun-hua


    A three-dimensional model for strip hot rolling was developed, in which the plastic deformation of strip, the thermal crown of rolls, roll deflection and flattening were calculated by rigid-plastic finite element method, finite difference method, influential function method and elastic finite element method respectively. The roll wear was taken into consideration. The model can provide detailed information such as rolling pressure distribution, contact pressure distribution between backup rolls and work rolls, deflection and flattening of work rolls, lateral distribution of strip thickness, and lateral distribution of front and back tensions. The finish rolling on a 1 450 mm hot strip mill was simulated.

  14. Three-dimensional nanojunction device models for photovoltaics (United States)

    Wangperawong, Artit; Bent, Stacey F.


    A model is developed to describe the behavior of three-dimensionally nanostructured photovoltaic devices, distinguishing between isolated radial pn junctions and interdigitated pn junctions. We examine two specific interdigitated architectures, the point-contact nanojunction and the extended nanojunction, which are most relevant to experimental devices reported to date but have yet to be distinguished in the field. The model is also applied to polycrystalline CdTe devices with inverted grain boundaries. We demonstrate that for CdTe/CdS solar cells using low-quality materials, the efficiency of the extended nanojunction geometry is superior to other designs considered.

  15. Critical exponents of a three dimensional O(4) spin model

    CERN Document Server

    Kanaya, K; Kanaya, K; Kaya, S


    By Monte Carlo simulation we study the critical exponents governing the transition of the three-dimensional classical O(4) Heisenberg model, which is considered to be in the same universality class as the finite-temperature QCD with massless two flavors. We use the single cluster algorithm and the histogram reweighting technique to obtain observables at the critical temperature. After estimating an accurate value of the inverse critical temperature \\Kc=0.9360(1) we make non-perturbative estimates for various critical exponents by finite-size scaling analysis. They are in excellent agreement with those obtained with the 4-\\epsilon expansion method with errors reduced to about halves of them.

  16. Complete wetting in the three-dimensional transverse Ising model (United States)

    Harris, A. B.; Micheletti, C.; Yeomans, J. M.


    We consider a three-dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field h and a bulk field H. An interface is introduced by an appropriate choice of boundary conditions. At the point ( H=0, h=0) spin configurations corresponding to different positions of the interface are degenerate. By studying the phase diagram near this multiphase point using quantum mechanical perturbation theory, we show that the quantum fluctuations, controlled by h, split the multiphase degeneracy giving rise to an infinite sequence of layering transitions.

  17. Ising Model Coupled to Three-Dimensional Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Baillie, C F


    We have performed Monte Carlo simulations of the Ising model coupled to three-dimensional quantum gravity based on a summation over dynamical triangulations. These were done both in the microcanonical ensemble, with the number of points in the triangulation and the number of Ising spins fixed, and in the grand canoncal ensemble. We have investigated the two possible cases of the spins living on the vertices of the triangulation (``diect'' case) and the spins living in the middle of the tetrahedra (``dual'' case). We observed phase transitions which are probably second order, and found that the dual implementation more effectively couples the spins to the quantum gravity.

  18. Three-dimensional Thermal Model of the Mexican Subduction Zone (United States)

    Rosas, J. C.; Pimentel, F. D. C.; Currie, C. A.; He, J.; Harris, R. N.


    Along the Mexican section of the Middle America Trench (MAT), the Cocos plate subducts beneath the North American plate. The most important feature of this subduction zone is the flat-slab section below central Mexico, extending approximately 250 km landward from the trench at a depth of 50 km. Further west, the dip changes to 45-50º. This particular geometry has several unique consequences, such as a volcanic arc that is not aligned with the trench and very shallow slab seismicity. For the mantle wedge, the abrupt change in slab geometry could lead to a three-dimensional (3D) mantle wedge flow that departs from the classical 2D subduction-driven corner flow. Evidence of 3D flow in the region comes from seismic anisotropy studies, which show that olivine fast-direction axes have a component that is parallel to the MAT. In other subduction zones, such as Costa Rica-Nicaragua and Japan, 3D flow has been observed to increase temperatures by >50º C relative to corner flow models.For this study, we have created the first 3D finite-element model of the Mexican subduction zone in order to analyze its thermal structure. Our objective is to assess the effects of 3D mantle flow and hydrothermal circulation (HC) in the subducting slab. In this region, low surface heat flow values near the trench indicate that HC may remove heat from the oceanic plate. Our model incorporates the effect of HC through conductivity proxies in the subducting crust and a 2D oceanic geotherm that includes the age variations of the Cocos plate along the MAT. For an isoviscous mantle, our model shows that the slab dip variations induce a flow that departs from 2D corner flow near the transition between the flat-slab and normal-dipping sections. The mantle flows in eastward direction toward the flat slab, and its orientation is consistent with seismic anisotropy studies. The maximum along-margin flow rate is nearly 2 cm/yr, which is >30% of the convergence rate. Temperatures at the location of this

  19. Transect-based Three-Dimensional Road Modeling and Visualization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qingquan; TANG Luliang; ZUO Xiaoqing; LI Hanwu


    On the basis of the study on road elements and the existing three-dimensional road data models, this paper puts forward the transect-based road modeling, resolves the modeling of the simplest road with two road transects, and fulfils the visualization of the road. OpenGL is applied as the tool of visualization. The map texture technology, LOD algorithm and dynamic multi-differentiating texture technology are of benefit to the construction of 3D road GIS, and improve the speed of roaming and effective visualization. This paper also disusses the combination of 2D digitall road map and 3D road scene, and the dynamic response between them. Finally, on the basis of the research on the transect-based road model, this paper develops the three-dimensional road geographic information system called virtual road ( VRoad ), which not only supplies road designers with a set of tool which can turn the designed 2D road data into 3D road and the high road assistant function area in computer, but also supplies the road management with a set of tool which can realize the road real time and interactive roaming, high-efficiency management.

  20. Three dimensional heat transport modeling in Vossoroca reservoir (United States)

    Arcie Polli, Bruna; Yoshioka Bernardo, Julio Werner; Hilgert, Stephan; Bleninger, Tobias


    Freshwater reservoirs are used for many purposes as hydropower generation, water supply and irrigation. In Brazil, according to the National Energy Balance of 2013, hydropower energy corresponds to 70.1% of the Brazilian demand. Superficial waters (which include rivers, lakes and reservoirs) are the most used source for drinking water supply - 56% of the municipalities use superficial waters as a source of water. The last two years have shown that the Brazilian water and electricity supply is highly vulnerable and that improved management is urgently needed. The construction of reservoirs affects physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water body, e.g. stratification, temperature, residence time and turbulence reduction. Some water quality issues related to reservoirs are eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission to the atmosphere and dissolved oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion. The understanding of the physical processes in the water body is fundamental to reservoir management. Lakes and reservoirs may present a seasonal behavior and stratify due to hydrological and meteorological conditions, and especially its vertical distribution may be related to water quality. Stratification can control heat and dissolved substances transport. It has been also reported the importance of horizontal temperature gradients, e.g. inflows and its density and processes of mass transfer from shallow to deeper regions of the reservoir, that also may impact water quality. Three dimensional modeling of the heat transport in lakes and reservoirs is an important tool to the understanding and management of these systems. It is possible to estimate periods of large vertical temperature gradients, inhibiting vertical transport and horizontal gradients, which could be responsible for horizontal transport of heat and substances (e.g. differential cooling or inflows). Vossoroca reservoir was constructed in 1949 by the impoundment of São João River and is located near to

  1. Three-dimensional cell culture models for investigating human viruses. (United States)

    He, Bing; Chen, Guomin; Zeng, Yi


    Three-dimensional (3D) culture models are physiologically relevant, as they provide reproducible results, experimental flexibility and can be adapted for high-throughput experiments. Moreover, these models bridge the gap between traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures and animal models. 3D culture systems have significantly advanced basic cell science and tissue engineering, especially in the fields of cell biology and physiology, stem cell research, regenerative medicine, cancer research, drug discovery, and gene and protein expression studies. In addition, 3D models can provide unique insight into bacteriology, virology, parasitology and host-pathogen interactions. This review summarizes and analyzes recent progress in human virological research with 3D cell culture models. We discuss viral growth, replication, proliferation, infection, virus-host interactions and antiviral drugs in 3D culture models.

  2. Estimation of surface area and surface area measure of three-dimensional sets from digitizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Kiderlen, Markus


    A local method for estimating surface area and surface area measure of three-dimensional objects from discrete binary images is presented. A weight is assigned to each 2 × 2 × 2 configuration of voxels and the total surface area of an object is given by summation of the local area contributions. ...

  3. Three Dimensional Modeling of an MRI Actuated Steerable Catheter System. (United States)

    Liu, Taoming; Cavuşoğlu, M Cenk


    This paper presents the three dimensional kinematic modeling of a novel steerable robotic ablation catheter system. The catheter, embedded with a set of current-carrying micro-coils, is actuated by the magnetic forces generated by the magnetic field of the MRI scanner. This paper develops a 3D model of the MRI actuated steerable catheter system by using finite differences approach. For each finite segment, a quasi-static torque-deflection equilibrium equation is calculated using beam theory. By using the deflection displacements and torsion angles, the kinematic modeling of the catheter system is derived. The proposed models are evaluated by comparing the simulation results of the proposed model with the experimental results of a proof-of-concept prototype.

  4. Automated photogrammetry for three-dimensional models of urban spaces (United States)

    Leberl, Franz; Meixner, Philipp; Wendel, Andreas; Irschara, Arnold


    The location-aware Internet is inspiring intensive work addressing the automated assembly of three-dimensional models of urban spaces with their buildings, circulation spaces, vegetation, signs, even their above-ground and underground utility lines. Two-dimensional geographic information systems (GISs) and municipal utility information exist and can serve to guide the creation of models being built with aerial, sometimes satellite imagery, streetside images, indoor imaging, and alternatively with light detection and ranging systems (LiDARs) carried on airplanes, cars, or mounted on tripods. We review the results of current research to automate the information extraction from sensor data. We show that aerial photography at ground sampling distances (GSD) of 1 to 10 cm is well suited to provide geometry data about building facades and roofs, that streetside imagery at 0.5 to 2 cm is particularly interesting when it is collected within community photo collections (CPCs) by the general public, and that the transition to digital imaging has opened the no-cost option of highly overlapping images in support of a more complete and thus more economical automation. LiDAR-systems are a widely used source of three-dimensional data, but they deliver information not really superior to digital photography.

  5. Recursive three-dimensional model reconstruction based on Kalman filtering. (United States)

    Yu, Ying Kin; Wong, Kin Hong; Chang, Michael Ming Yuen


    A recursive two-step method to recover structure and motion from image sequences based on Kalman filtering is described in this paper. The algorithm consists of two major steps. The first step is an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for the estimation of the object's pose. The second step is a set of EKFs, one for each model point, for the refinement of the positions of the model features in the three-dimensional (3-D) space. These two steps alternate from frame to frame. The initial model converges to the final structure as the image sequence is scanned sequentially. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated with both synthetic data and real-world objects. Analytical and empirical comparisons are made among our approach, the interleaved bundle adjustment method, and the Kalman filtering-based recursive algorithm by Azarbayejani and Pentland. Our approach outperformed the other two algorithms in terms of computation speed without loss in the quality of model reconstruction.

  6. Three-dimensional percolation modeling of self-healing composites. (United States)

    Dementsov, Alexander; Privman, Vladimir


    We study the self-healing process of materials with embedded "glue"-carrying cells, in the regime of the onset of the initial fatigue. Three-dimensional numerical simulations within the percolation-model approach are reported. The main numerical challenge taken up in the present work has been to extend the calculation of the conductance to three-dimensional lattices. Our results confirm the general features of the process: The onset of material fatigue is delayed, by development of a plateaulike time dependence of the material quality. We demonstrate that, in this low-damage regime, the changes in the conductance and thus in similar transport and response properties of the material can be used as measures of the material quality degradation. A new feature found for three dimensions, where it is much more profound than in earlier-studied two-dimensional systems, is the competition between the healing cells. Even for low initial densities of the healing cells, they interfere with each other and reduce each other's effective healing efficiency.

  7. A finite area scheme for shallow granular flows on three-dimensional surfaces (United States)

    Rauter, Matthias


    Shallow granular flow models have become a popular tool for the estimation of natural hazards, such as landslides, debris flows and avalanches. The shallowness of the flow allows to reduce the three-dimensional governing equations to a quasi two-dimensional system. Three-dimensional flow fields are replaced by their depth-integrated two-dimensional counterparts, which yields a robust and fast method [1]. A solution for a simple shallow granular flow model, based on the so-called finite area method [3] is presented. The finite area method is an adaption of the finite volume method [4] to two-dimensional curved surfaces in three-dimensional space. This method handles the three dimensional basal topography in a simple way, making the model suitable for arbitrary (but mildly curved) topography, such as natural terrain. Furthermore, the implementation into the open source software OpenFOAM [4] is shown. OpenFOAM is a popular computational fluid dynamics application, designed so that the top-level code mimics the mathematical governing equations. This makes the code easy to read and extendable to more sophisticated models. Finally, some hints on how to get started with the code and how to extend the basic model will be given. I gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the OEAW project "beyond dense flow avalanches". Savage, S. B. & Hutter, K. 1989 The motion of a finite mass of granular material down a rough incline. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 199, 177-215. Ferziger, J. & Peric, M. 2002 Computational methods for fluid dynamics, 3rd edn. Springer. Tukovic, Z. & Jasak, H. 2012 A moving mesh finite volume interface tracking method for surface tension dominated interfacial fluid flow. Computers & fluids 55, 70-84. Weller, H. G., Tabor, G., Jasak, H. & Fureby, C. 1998 A tensorial approach to computational continuum mechanics using object-oriented techniques. Computers in physics 12(6), 620-631.

  8. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (United States)

    Turner, M. W.; Hawk, C. W.; Litchford, R. J.


    Over the past several years, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has engaged in the design and development of an experimental research facility to investigate the use of diagonalized crossed-field magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerators as a possible thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. In support of this effort, a three-dimensional numerical MHD model has been developed for the purpose of analyzing and optimizing accelerator performance and to aid in understanding critical underlying physical processes and nonideal effects. This Technical Memorandum fully summarizes model development efforts and presents the results of pretest performance optimization analyses. These results indicate that the MHD accelerator should utilize a 45deg diagonalization angle with the applied current evenly distributed over the first five inlet electrode pairs. When powered at 100 A, this configuration is expected to yield a 50% global efficiency with an 80% increase in axial velocity and a 50% increase in centerline total pressure.

  9. User’s Manual for SAC-3: A Three-Dimensional Nonlinear, Time Dependent Soil Analysis Code Using the Bounding Surface Plasticity Model. (United States)


    by the fact that two distinct processes are involved, i.e. water flow and soil plasticity . 35 %. ........ - w 2 A L4 bL’ ,- - P7 Thus a certain amount...for *• MODCAL-Bounding Surface Soil Plasticity Model Calibration and Prediction -. *.Code (Volume II)," Civil Engineering Laboratory, Naval

  10. Three-dimensional antenna models for fusion experiments (United States)

    Carter, M. D.; Wang, C. Y.; Hogan, J. T.; Harris, J. H.; Hoffman, D. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Ryan, P. M.; Stallings, D. S.; Batchelor, D. B.; Beaumont, B.; Hutter, T.; Saoutic, B.


    The development of the RANT3D code has permitted the systematic study of the effect of three-dimensional structures on the launched power spectrum for antennas in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The code allows the septa between current straps to be modeled with arbitrary heights and permits the antenna to interact with other structures in the tokamak. In this paper we present comparisons of calculated loading with the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and Tore Supra experiments, demonstrate the effects on loading caused by positioning uncertainties for an antenna in Tore Supra, and show electric field patterns near the Tore Supra antenna. A poloidal component in the static magnetic field for the plasma response is included in the near-field calculations using the warm plasma code, GLOSI. Preliminary estimates for the heat flux on the bumper limiters during typical operation in Tore Supra are also presented.

  11. Three-dimensional antenna models for fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.D.; Wang, C.Y.; Hogan, J.T.; Harris, J.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Ryan, P.M.; Stallings, D.S.; Batchelor, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071, (United States); Beaumont, B.; Hutter, T.; Saoutic, B. [Association Euratom-CEA, Department de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance, Cedex (France)


    The development of the RANT3D code has permitted the systematic study of the effect of three-dimensional structures on the launched power spectrum for antennas in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The code allows the septa between current straps to be modeled with arbitrary heights and permits the antenna to interact with other structures in the tokamak. In this paper we present comparisons of calculated loading with the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and Tore Supra experiments, demonstrate the effects on loading caused by positioning uncertainties for an antenna in Tore Supra, and show electric field patterns near the Tore Supra antenna. A poloidal component in the static magnetic field for the plasma response is included in the near-field calculations using the warm plasma code, GLOSI. Preliminary estimates for the heat flux on the bumper limiters during typical operation in Tore Supra are also presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Lattice gauge theory of three dimensional Thirring model

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S; Kim, Seyong; Kim, Yoonbai


    Three dimensional Thirring model with N four-component Dirac fermions, reformulated as a lattice gauge theory, is studied by computer simulation. According to an 8^{3} data and preliminary 16^3 data, chiral symmetry is found to be spontaneously broken for N=2,\\;4 and 6. N=2 data exhibits long tail of the non-vanishing chiral condensate into weak coupling region, and N=6 case shows phase separation between the strong coupling region and the weak coupling region. Although the comparison between 8^3 data and 16^3 data shows large finite volume effects, an existence of the critical fermion flavor number N_{{\\rm cr}} (2

  13. Three-dimensional surface imaging in plastic surgery: foundation, practical applications, and beyond. (United States)

    Chang, Jessica B; Small, Kevin H; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S


    Three-dimensional surface imaging has gained clinical acceptance in plastic and reconstructive surgery. In contrast to computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, three-dimensional surface imaging relies on triangulation in stereophotography to measure surface x, y, and z coordinates. This study reviews the past, present, and future directions of three-dimensional topographic imaging in plastic surgery. Historically, three-dimensional imaging technology was first used in a clinical setting in 1944 to diagnose orthodontologic conditions. Karlan established its use in the field of plastic surgery in 1979, analyzing contours and documenting facial asymmetries. Present use of three-dimensional surface imaging has focused on standardizing patient topographic measurements to enhance preoperative planning and to improve postoperative outcomes. Various measurements (e.g., volume, surface area, vector distance, curvature) have been applied to breast, body, and facial topography to augment patient analysis. Despite the rapid progression of the clinical applications of three-dimensional imaging, current use of this technology is focused on the surgeon's perspective and secondarily the patient's perspective. Advancements in patient simulation may improve patient-physician communication, education, and satisfaction. However, a communal database of three-dimensional surface images integrated with emerging three-dimensional printing and portable information technology will validate measurements and strengthen preoperative planning and postoperative outcomes. Three-dimensional surface imaging is a useful adjunct to plastic and reconstructive surgery practices and standardizes measurements to create objectivity in a subjective field. Key improvements in three-dimensional imaging technology may significantly enhance the quality of plastic and reconstructive surgery in the near future.

  14. 三维粗糙面上的MIMO信道模型%Model of MIMO System above a Three-Dimensional Random Rough Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维; 金亚秋


    多天线构成的多输入多输出MIMO(Multiple-Input Multiple-Output)信道是B3G/4G系统的关键技术之一。文章建立下垫三维粗糙面的MIMO信道模型,用基尔霍夫(KA,Kirchhoff approximation)近似随机粗糙面散射的数值计算方法研究下垫粗糙面产生的随机多路径传输对MIMO信道矩阵的影响,并数值地讨论接收、发射天线阵列位置以及下垫粗糙面几何参数对MIMO系统信道容量的影响。结果表明,双站距离大、天线高度低时,下垫随机粗糙面对MIMO信道容量的影响显著。当天线阵元%Multiple input-multiple output(MIMO) system has becomes one of key techniques for developing B3G/4G systems.In this paper,a model of the MIMO system above a 3-D random rough surface is presented.Using Monte Carlo method,underlying random rough surface is realized.The Kirchhoff approximation(KA) is applied to numerical calculation of rough surface scattering for implementing multi-path propagation and the channel transfer matrix of MIMO system.It numerically shows the dependence of the MIMO system capacity upon physical parameters of the MIMO antenna arrays and underlying surface.It is found that when the inter-element separation of the antenna array is small,the underlying rough surface can significantly increase the MIMO capacity.However,when the separation is large,the MIMO capacity above the rough surface becomes lower.

  15. Three-dimensional effects for radio frequency antenna modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; Stallings, D.C.


    Electromagnetic field calculations for radio frequency (rf) antennas in two dimensions (2-D) neglect finite antenna length effects as well as the feeders leading to the main current strap. The 2-D calculations predict that the return currents in the sidewalls of the antenna structure depend strongly on the plasma parameters, but this prediction is suspect because of experimental evidence. To study the validity of the 2-D approximation, the Multiple Antenna Implementation System (MAntIS) has been used to perform three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of the power spectrum, plasma loading, and inductance for a relevant loop antenna design. Effects on antenna performance caused by feeders to the main current strap and conducting sidewalls are considered. The modeling shows that the feeders affect the launched power spectrum in an indirect way by forcing the driven rf current to return in the antenna structure rather than the plasma, as in the 2-D model. It has also been found that poloidal dependencies in the plasma impedance matrix can reduce the loading predicted from that predicted in the 2-D model. For some plasma parameters, the combined 3-D effects can lead to a reduction in the predicted loading by as much as a factor of 2 from that given by the 2-D model, even with end-effect corrections for the 2-D model.

  16. Three-dimensional effects for radio frequency antenna modeling (United States)

    Carter, M. D.; Batchelor, D. B.; Stallings, D. C.


    Electromagnetic field calculations for radio frequency (rf) antennas in two dimensions (2-D) neglect finite antenna length effects as well as the feeders leading to the main current strap. The 2-D calculations predict that the return currents in the sidewalls of the antenna structure depend strongly on the plasma parameters, but this prediction is suspect because of experimental evidence. To study the validity of the 2-D approximation, the Multiple Antenna Implementation System (MAntIS) has been used to perform three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of the power spectrum, plasma loading, and inductance for a relevant loop antenna design. Effects on antenna performance caused by feeders to the main current strap and conducting sidewalls are considered. The modeling shows that the feeders affect the launched power spectrum in an indirect way by forcing the driven rf current to return in the antenna structure rather than the plasma, as in the 2-D model. It has also been found that poloidal dependencies in the plasma impedance matrix can reduce the loading predicted from that predicted in the 2-D model. For some plasma parameters, the combined 3-D effects can lead to a reduction in the predicted loading by as much as a factor of 2 from that given by the 2-D model, even with end-effect corrections for the 2-D model.

  17. Three-dimensional effects for radio frequency antenna modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; Stallings, D.C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37821-8071 (United States))


    Electromagnetic field calculations for radio frequency (rf) antennas in two dimensions (2-D) neglect finite antenna length effects as well as the feeders leading to the main current strap. The 2-D calculations predict that the return currents in the sidewalls of the antenna structure depend strongly on the plasma parameters, but this prediction is suspect because of experimental evidence. To study the validity of the 2-D approximation, the Multiple Antenna Implementation System (MAntIS) has been used to perform three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of the power spectrum, plasma loading, and inductance for a relevant loop antenna design. Effects on antenna performance caused by feeders to the main current strap and conducting sidewalls are considered. The modeling shows that the feeders affect the launched power spectrum in an indirect way by forcing the driven rf current to return in the antenna structure rather than the plasma, as in the 2-D model. It has also been found that poloidal dependencies in the plasma impedance matrix can reduce the loading predicted from that predicted in the 2-D model. For some plasma parameters, the combined 3-D effects can lead to a reduction in the predicted loading by as much as a factor of 2 from that given by the 2-D model, even with end-effect corrections for the 2-D model.

  18. Mathematical structure of three - dimensional (3D) Ising model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhi-dong


    An overview of the mathematical structure of the three-dimensional (3D) Ising model is given, from the viewpoints of topologic, algebraic and geometric aspects. By analyzing the relations among transfer matrices of the 3D Ising model, Reidemeister moves in the knot theory, Yang-Baxter and tetrahedron equations, the following facts are illustrated for the 3D Ising model: 1) The complexified quaternion basis constructed for the 3D Ising model represents naturally the rotation in a (3 + 1) - dimensional space-time, as a relativistic quantum statistical mechanics model, which is consistent with the 4-fold integrand of the partition function by taking the time average. 2) A unitary transformation with a matrix being a spin representation in 2^(nlo)-space corresponds to a rotation in 2nlo-space, which serves to smooth all the crossings in the transfer matrices and contributes as the non-trivial topologic part of the partition function of the 3D Ising model. 3) A tetrahedron relation would ensure the commutativity o...

  19. The innovative concept of three-dimensional hybrid receptor modeling (United States)

    Stojić, A.; Stanišić Stojić, S.


    The aim of this study was to improve the current understanding of air pollution transport processes at regional and long-range scale. For this purpose, three-dimensional (3D) potential source contribution function and concentration weighted trajectory models, as well as new hybrid receptor model, concentration weighted boundary layer (CWBL), which uses a two-dimensional grid and a planetary boundary layer height as a frame of reference, are presented. The refined approach to hybrid receptor modeling has two advantages. At first, it considers whether each trajectory endpoint meets the inclusion criteria based on planetary boundary layer height, which is expected to provide a more realistic representation of the spatial distribution of emission sources and pollutant transport pathways. Secondly, it includes pollutant time series preprocessing to make hybrid receptor models more applicable for suburban and urban locations. The 3D hybrid receptor models presented herein are designed to identify altitude distribution of potential sources, whereas CWBL can be used for analyzing the vertical distribution of pollutant concentrations along the transport pathway.

  20. Large-N Analysis of Three Dimensional Nonlinear Sigma Models

    CERN Document Server

    Higashijima, K; Tsuzuki, M; Higashijima, Kiyoshi; Itou, Etsuko; Tsuzuki, Makoto


    Non-perturbative renormalization group approach suggests that a large class of nonlinear sigma models are renormalizable in three dimensional space-time, while they are non-renormalizable in perturbation theory. ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models whose target spaces are Einstein-K\\"{a}hler manifolds with positive scalar curvature belongs to this class. hermitian symmetric spaces, being homogeneous, are specially simple examples of these manifolds. To find an independent evidence of the nonperturbative renormalizability of these models, the large N method, another nonperturbative method, is applied to 3-dimensional ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models on the target spaces $CP^{N-1}=SU(N)/[SU(N-1)\\times U(1)]$ and $Q^{N-2}=SO(N)/[SO(N-2)\\times SO(2)]$, two typical examples of hermitian symmetric spaces. We find that $\\beta$ functions in these models agree with the results of the nonperturbative renormalization group approach in the next-to-leading order of 1/N expansion, and have n...

  1. Modeling the three-dimensional structure of ionospheric electrodynamics (United States)

    Maute, A. I.; Richmond, A. D.


    Ionospheric electric fields and currents are driven by collisionalinteraction between thermospheric winds and ions, bymagnetospherically driven convection and field-aligned currents athigh latitudes, by gravitational and pressure-gradient forces on theionospheric plasma, and by weak currents from the lower atmosphere.The electrodynamics of the ionospheric E and F regions are stronglycoupled. For time scales longer than a few minutes the electric fieldis electrostatic. The electric potential is nearly constant alonggeomagnetic-field lines, and can be represented in two dimensions in acoordinate system aligned with the magnetic field. The currentdensity, however, varies in all three dimensions. The associatedperturbations of the geomagnetic field induce currents in the Earth,which modify the perturbations. We are developing a model of ionospheric electrodynamics that takes into account all of the sourcesand calculates the three-dimensional structure of currents andtheir associated magnetic perturbation fields at high spatialresolution. This model will be used to simulate ionospheric drifts aswell as geomagnetic perturbations at the ground, at low-Earth-orbitsatellite heights, and within the E-region ionosphere. When coupledwith a dynamical model of the thermosphere and ionosphere it can beused to assimilate electrodynamic data into the model. In thispresentation we discuss the modeling principles and present resultsrelevant to the electrodynamics of the middle and low latitudeionosphere below 200 km, including the effects of coupling withF-region electrodynamics and the expected observable effects onrockets and on low Earth orbit satellites.

  2. Up and down cascades: three-dimensional magnetic field model. (United States)

    Blanter, E M; Shnirman, M G; Le Mouël, J L


    In our previous works we already have proposed a two-dimensional model of geodynamo. Now we use the same approach to build a three-dimensional self-excited geodynamo model that generates a large scale magnetic field from whatever small initial field, using the up and down cascade effects of a multiscale turbulent system of cyclones. The multiscale system of turbulent cyclones evolves in six domains of an equatorial cylindrical layer of the core. The appearance of new cyclones is realized by two cascades: a turbulent direct cascade and an inverse cascade of coupling of similar cyclones. The interaction between the different domains is effected through a direct cascade parameter which is essential for the statistics of the long-life symmetry breaking. Generation of the secondary magnetic field results from the interaction of the components of the primary magnetic field with the turbulent cyclones. The amplification of the magnetic field is due to the transfer of energy from the turbulent helical motion to the generated magnetic field. The model demonstrates a phase transition through the parameter characterizing this energy transfer. In the supercritical domain we obtain long-term intervals of constant polarity (chrons) and quick reversals; relevant time constants agree with paleomagnetic observations. Possible application of the model to the study of the geometrical structure of the geomagnetic field (and briefly other planetary fields) is discussed.

  3. Three-dimensional antiferromagnetic CP(N-1) models. (United States)

    Delfino, Francesco; Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore


    We investigate the critical behavior of three-dimensional antiferromagnetic CP(N-1) (ACP(N-1)) models in cubic lattices, which are characterized by a global U(N) symmetry and a local U(1) gauge symmetry. Assuming that critical fluctuations are associated with a staggered gauge-invariant (Hermitian traceless matrix) order parameter, we determine the corresponding Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson (LGW) model. For N=3 this mapping allows us to conclude that the three-component ACP(2) model undergoes a continuous transition that belongs to the O(8) vector universality class, with an effective enlargement of the symmetry at the critical point. This prediction is confirmed by numerical analyses of the finite-size scaling behaviors of the ACP(2) and the O(8) vector models, which show the same universal features at their transitions. We also present a renormalization-group (RG) analysis of the LGW theories for N≥4. We compute perturbative series in two different renormalization schemes and analyze the corresponding RG flow. We do not find stable fixed points that can be associated with continuous transitions.

  4. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for electrodynamics. (United States)

    Mendoza, M; Muñoz, J D


    In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional Lattice-Boltzmann model that recovers in the continuous limit the Maxwell equations in materials. In order to build conservation equations with antisymmetric tensors, like the Faraday law, the model assigns four auxiliary vectors to each velocity vector. These auxiliary vectors, when combined with the distribution functions, give the electromagnetic fields. The evolution is driven by the usual Bhatnager-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision rule, but with a different form for the equilibrium distribution functions. This lattice Bhatnager-Gross-Krook (LBGK) model allows us to consider for both dielectrics and conductors with realistic parameters, and therefore it is adequate to simulate the most diverse electromagnetic problems, like the propagation of electromagnetic waves (both in dielectric media and in waveguides), the skin effect, the radiation pattern of a small dipole antenna and the natural frequencies of a resonant cavity, all with 2% accuracy. Actually, it shows to be one order of magnitude faster than the original Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) formulation by Yee to reach the same accuracy. It is, therefore, a valuable alternative to simulate electromagnetic fields and opens lattice Boltzmann for a broad spectrum of new applications in electrodynamics.

  5. Turbulence modeling in three-dimensional stenosed arterial bifurcations. (United States)

    Banks, J; Bressloff, N W


    Under normal healthy conditions, blood flow in the carotid artery bifurcation is laminar. However, in the presence of a stenosis, the flow can become turbulent at the higher Reynolds numbers during systole. There is growing consensus that the transitional k-omega model is the best suited Reynolds averaged turbulence model for such flows. Further confirmation of this opinion is presented here by a comparison with the RNG k-epsilon model for the flow through a straight, nonbifurcating tube. Unlike similar validation studies elsewhere, no assumptions are made about the inlet profile since the full length of the experimental tube is simulated. Additionally, variations in the inflow turbulence quantities are shown to have no noticeable affect on downstream turbulence intensity, turbulent viscosity, or velocity in the k-epsilon model, whereas the velocity profiles in the transitional k-omega model show some differences due to large variations in the downstream turbulence quantities. Following this validation study, the transitional k-omega model is applied in a three-dimensional parametrically defined computer model of the carotid artery bifurcation in which the sinus bulb is manipulated to produce mild, moderate, and severe stenosis. The parametric geometry definition facilitates a powerful means for investigating the effect of local shape variation while keeping the global shape fixed. While turbulence levels are generally low in all cases considered, the mild stenosis model produces higher levels of turbulent viscosity and this is linked to relatively high values of turbulent kinetic energy and low values of the specific dissipation rate. The severe stenosis model displays stronger recirculation in the flow field with higher values of vorticity, helicity, and negative wall shear stress. The mild and moderate stenosis configurations produce similar lower levels of vorticity and helicity.

  6. Three-dimensional shape measurement of a highly reflected, specular surface with structured light method. (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei; Ji, Lishuan; Liu, Shugui; Li, Shaohui; Han, Shujian; Zhang, Xiaojie


    This paper proposes a mathematical measurement model of a highly reflected, specular surface with structured light method. In the measurement, an auxiliary fringe pattern named amplitude perturbation is adopted to be projected onto the measured surface. The amplitude perturbation can ease the procedure of searching the corresponding points between the phase map of the measured surface and that of the reference plane by locking up the most reliable point as the starting unwrapping point whose true phase can be calculated accurately. The proposed method is also suitable for measuring the step surfaces such as gauge blocks with different heights. Furthermore, the image segmentation technology is introduced in the phase unwrapping procedure to increase the speed. Based on the unwrapped phase map, zonal wave-front reconstruction algorithm is implemented to realize three-dimensional, highly reflected, specular surface reconstruction. Experimental studies show that the developed methodology displays accuracy and high stability for highly reflected, specular surface measurement.

  7. Modelling for three dimensional coalescence of two bubbles (United States)

    Han, R.; Li, S.; Zhang, A. M.; Wang, Q. X.


    This paper is concerned with the three dimensional (3D) interaction and coalescence of two bubbles subject to buoyancy and the dynamics of the subsequent joined bubble using the boundary integral method (BIM). An improved density potential method is implemented to control the mesh quality. It helps to avoid the numerical instabilities, which occur after coalescence. Numerical convergence tests are conducted in terms of mesh sizes and time steps. The 3D numerical model agrees well with an axisymmetric BIM model for axisymmetric cases as well as experimental results captured by high-speed camera. The bubble jetting, interaction, and coalescence of the two bubbles depend on the maximum bubble radii, the centre distance between two bubbles at inception, and the angle β between the centre line and the direction of buoyancy. We investigate coalescence of two bubbles for β = 0, π/4, and π/2, respectively, and at various centre distances at inception. Numerical results presented include the bubble and jet shapes, the velocity, and pressure fields surrounding the bubbles, as well as the time histories of bubble volumes, jet velocities, and positions of centroid of the bubble system.

  8. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Quasi-Homologous Solar Jets (United States)

    Pariat, E.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.


    Recent solar observations (e.g., obtained with Hinode and STEREO) have revealed that coronal jets are a more frequent phenomenon than previously believed. This higher frequency results, in part, from the fact that jets exhibit a homologous behavior: successive jets recur at the same location with similar morphological features. We present the results of three-dimensional (31)) numerical simulations of our model for coronal jets. This study demonstrates the ability of the model to generate recurrent 3D untwisting quasi-homologous jets when a stress is constantly applied at the photospheric boundary. The homology results from the property of the 3D null-point system to relax to a state topologically similar to its initial configuration. In addition, we find two distinct regimes of reconnection in the simulations: an impulsive 3D mode involving a helical rotating current sheet that generates the jet, and a quasi-steady mode that occurs in a 2D-like current sheet located along the fan between the sheared spines. We argue that these different regimes can explain the observed link between jets and plumes.

  9. Modeling Three-Dimensional Chromosome Structures Using Gene Expression Data. (United States)

    Xiao, Guanghua; Wang, Xinlei; Khodursky, Arkady B


    Recent genomic studies have shown that significant chromosomal spatial correlation exists in gene expression of many organisms. Interestingly, coexpression has been observed among genes separated by a fixed interval in specific regions of a chromosome chain, which is likely caused by three-dimensional (3D) chromosome folding structures. Modeling such spatial correlation explicitly may lead to essential understandings of 3D chromosome structures and their roles in transcriptional regulation. In this paper, we explore chromosomal spatial correlation induced by 3D chromosome structures, and propose a hierarchical Bayesian method based on helical structures to formally model and incorporate the correlation into the analysis of gene expression microarray data. It is the first study to quantify and infer 3D chromosome structures in vivo using expression microarrays. Simulation studies show computing feasibility of the proposed method and that, under the assumption of helical chromosome structures, it can lead to precise estimation of structural parameters and gene expression levels. Real data applications demonstrate an intriguing biological phenomenon that functionally associated genes, which are far apart along the chromosome chain, are brought into physical proximity by chromosomal folding in 3D space to facilitate their coexpression. It leads to important biological insight into relationship between chromosome structure and function.

  10. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, Ahmad [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)


    The objective of this is to develop a 3-D numerical model for simulating mode I, II, and III (tensile, shear, and out-of-plane) propagation of multiple fractures and fracture clusters to accurately predict geothermal reservoir stimulation using the virtual multi-dimensional internal bond (VMIB). Effective development of enhanced geothermal systems can significantly benefit from improved modeling of hydraulic fracturing. In geothermal reservoirs, where the temperature can reach or exceed 350oC, thermal and poro-mechanical processes play an important role in fracture initiation and propagation. In this project hydraulic fracturing of hot subsurface rock mass will be numerically modeled by extending the virtual multiple internal bond theory and implementing it in a finite element code, WARP3D, a three-dimensional finite element code for solid mechanics. The new constitutive model along with the poro-thermoelastic computational algorithms will allow modeling the initiation and propagation of clusters of fractures, and extension of pre-existing fractures. The work will enable the industry to realistically model stimulation of geothermal reservoirs. The project addresses the Geothermal Technologies Office objective of accurately predicting geothermal reservoir stimulation (GTO technology priority item). The project goal will be attained by: (i) development of the VMIB method for application to 3D analysis of fracture clusters; (ii) development of poro- and thermoelastic material sub-routines for use in 3D finite element code WARP3D; (iii) implementation of VMIB and the new material routines in WARP3D to enable simulation of clusters of fractures while accounting for the effects of the pore pressure, thermal stress and inelastic deformation; (iv) simulation of 3D fracture propagation and coalescence and formation of clusters, and comparison with laboratory compression tests; and (v) application of the model to interpretation of injection experiments (planned by our

  11. A Three-Dimensional Model of the Yeast Genome (United States)

    Noble, William; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Andronescu, Mirela; Schutz, Kevin; McIlwain, Sean; Kim, Yoo Jung; Lee, Choli; Shendure, Jay; Fields, Stanley; Blau, C. Anthony

    Layered on top of information conveyed by DNA sequence and chromatin are higher order structures that encompass portions of chromosomes, entire chromosomes, and even whole genomes. Interphase chromosomes are not positioned randomly within the nucleus, but instead adopt preferred conformations. Disparate DNA elements co-localize into functionally defined aggregates or factories for transcription and DNA replication. In budding yeast, Drosophila and many other eukaryotes, chromosomes adopt a Rabl configuration, with arms extending from centromeres adjacent to the spindle pole body to telomeres that abut the nuclear envelope. Nonetheless, the topologies and spatial relationships of chromosomes remain poorly understood. Here we developed a method to globally capture intra- and inter-chromosomal interactions, and applied it to generate a map at kilobase resolution of the haploid genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The map recapitulates known features of genome organization, thereby validating the method, and identifies new features. Extensive regional and higher order folding of individual chromosomes is observed. Chromosome XII exhibits a striking conformation that implicates the nucleolus as a formidable barrier to interaction between DNA sequences at either end. Inter-chromosomal contacts are anchored by centromeres and include interactions among transfer RNA genes, among origins of early DNA replication and among sites where chromosomal breakpoints occur. Finally, we constructed a three-dimensional model of the yeast genome. Our findings provide a glimpse of the interface between the form and function of a eukaryotic genome.

  12. Three-dimensional parabolic equation modeling of mesoscale eddy deflection. (United States)

    Heaney, Kevin D; Campbell, Richard L


    The impact of mesoscale oceanography, including ocean fronts and eddies, on global scale low-frequency acoustics is examined using a fully three-dimensional parabolic equation model. The narrowband acoustic signal, for frequencies from 2 to 16 Hz, is simulated from a seismic event on the Kerguellen Plateau in the South Indian Ocean to an array of receivers south of Ascension Island in the South Atlantic, a distance of 9100 km. The path was chosen for its relevance to seismic detections from the HA10 Ascension Island station of the International Monitoring System, for its lack of bathymetric interaction, and for the dynamic oceanography encountered as the sound passes the Cape of Good Hope. The acoustic field was propagated through two years (1992 and 1993) of the eddy-permitting ocean state estimation ECCO2 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II) system. The range of deflection of the back-azimuth was 1.8° with a root-mean-square of 0.34°. The refraction due to mesoscale oceanography could therefore have significant impacts upon localization of distant low-frequency sources, such as seismic or nuclear test events.

  13. Three-Dimensional Elasto-Plastic Calculations Using Yield Surfaces with Corner Discontinuities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Andersen, Lars; Damkilde, Lars


    This paper presents a simple and efficient way of dealing with the corners found in many yield surfaces, especially in geotechnical engineering. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated through three-dimensional computational examples.......This paper presents a simple and efficient way of dealing with the corners found in many yield surfaces, especially in geotechnical engineering. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated through three-dimensional computational examples....

  14. A regional adaptive and assimilative three-dimensional ionospheric model (United States)

    Sabbagh, Dario; Scotto, Carlo; Sgrigna, Vittorio


    A regional adaptive and assimilative three-dimensional (3D) ionospheric model is proposed. It is able to ingest real-time data from different ionosondes, providing the ionospheric bottomside plasma frequency fp over the Italian area. The model is constructed on the basis of empirical values for a set of ionospheric parameters Pi[base] over the considered region, some of which have an assigned variation ΔPi. The values for the ionospheric parameters actually observed at a given time at a given site will thus be Pi = Pi[base] + ΔPi. These Pi values are used as input for an electron density N(h) profiler. The latter is derived from the Advanced Ionospheric Profiler (AIP), which is software used by Autoscala as part of the process of automatic inversion of ionogram traces. The 3D model ingests ionosonde data by minimizing the root-mean-square deviation between the observed and modeled values of fp(h) profiles obtained from the associated N(h) values at the points where observations are available. The ΔPi values are obtained from this minimization procedure. The 3D model is tested using data collected at the ionospheric stations of Rome (41.8N, 12.5E) and Gibilmanna (37.9N, 14.0E), and then comparing the results against data from the ionospheric station of San Vito dei Normanni (40.6N, 18.0E). The software developed is able to produce maps of the critical frequencies foF2 and foF1, and of fp at a fixed altitude, with transverse and longitudinal cross-sections of the bottomside ionosphere in a color scale. fp(h) and associated simulated ordinary ionogram traces can easily be produced for any geographic location within the Italian region. fp values within the volume in question can also be provided.

  15. A computational method for modeling arbitrary junctions employing different surface integral equation formulations for three-dimensional scattering and radiation problems

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Sousa, Hipolito; Martinez-Lorenzo, Jose Angel; Arias-Acuña, Marcos


    This paper presents a new method, based on the well-known method of moments (MoM), for the numerical electromagnetic analysis of scattering and radiation from metallic or dielectric structures, or both structure types in the same simulation, that are in contact with other metallic or dielectric structures. The proposed method for solving the MoM junction problem consists of two separate algorithms, one of which comprises a generalization for bodies in contact of the surface integral equation (SIE) formulations. Unlike some other published SIE generalizations in the field of computational electromagnetics, this generalization does not require duplicating unknowns on the dielectric separation surfaces. Additionally, this generalization is applicable to any ordinary single-scatterer SIE formulations employed as baseline. The other algorithm deals with enforcing boundary conditions and Kirchhoff's Law, relating the surface current flow across a junction edge. Two important features inherent to this latter algorit...

  16. Three-Dimensional Multiscale MHD Model of Cometary Plasma Environments (United States)

    Gombosi, Tamas I.; DeZeeuw, Darren L.; Haberli, Roman M.; Powell, Kenneth G.


    First results of a three-dimensional multiscale MHD model of the interaction of an expanding cometary atmosphere with the magnetized solar wind are presented. The model starts with a supersonic and super-Alfvenic solar wind far upstream of the comet (25 Gm upstream of the nucleus) with arbitrary interplanetary magnetic field orientation. The solar wind is continuously mass loaded with cometary ions originating from a 10-km size nucleus. The effects of photoionization, electron impact ionization, recombination, and ion-neutral frictional drag are taken into account in the model. The governing equations are solved on an adaptively refined unstructured Cartesian grid using our new multiscale upwind scalar conservation laws-type numerical technique (MUSCL). We have named this the multiscale adaptive upwind scheme for MHD (MAUS-MHD). The combination of the adaptive refinement with the MUSCL-scheme allows the entire cometary atmosphere to be modeled, while still resolving both the shock and the diamagnetic cavity of the comet. The main findings are the following: (1) Mass loading decelerates the solar wind flow upstream of the weak cometary shock wave (M approximately equals 2, M(sub A) approximately equals 2), which forms at a subsolar standoff distance of about 0.35 Gm. (2) A cometary plasma cavity is formed at around 3 x 10(exp 3) km from the nucleus. Inside this cavity the plasma expands outward due to the frictional interaction between ions and neutrals. On the nightside this plasma cavity considerably narrows and a relatively fast and dense cometary plasma beam is ejected into the tail. (3) Inside the plasma cavity a teardrop-shaped inner shock is formed, which is terminated by a Mach disk on the nightside. Only the region inside the inner shock is the 'true' diamagnetic cavity. (4) The model predicts four distinct current systems in the inner coma: the density peak current, the cavity boundary current, the inner shock current, and finally the cross-tail current

  17. Development and application of a three-dimensional finite element vapor intrusion model. (United States)

    Pennell, Kelly G; Bozkurt, Ozgur; Suuberg, Eric M


    Details of a three-dimensional finite element model of soil vapor intrusion, including the overall modeling process and the stepwise approach, are provided. The model is a quantitative modeling tool that can help guide vapor intrusion characterization efforts. It solves the soil gas continuity equation coupled with the chemical transport equation, allowing for both advective and diffusive transport. Three-dimensional pressure, velocity, and chemical concentration fields are produced from the model. Results from simulations involving common site features, such as impervious surfaces, porous foundation sub-base material, and adjacent structures are summarized herein. The results suggest that site-specific features are important to consider when characterizing vapor intrusion risks. More importantly, the results suggest that soil gas or subslab gas samples taken without proper regard for particular site features may not be suitable for evaluating vapor intrusion risks; rather, careful attention needs to be given to the many factors that affect chemical transport into and around buildings.

  18. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction within noncontact diffuse optical tomography using structured light (United States)

    Baum, Kirstin; Hartmann, Raimo; Bischoff, Tobias; Oelerich, Jan O.; Finkensieper, Stephan; Heverhagen, Johannes T.


    A main field in biomedical optics research is diffuse optical tomography, where intensity variations of the transmitted light traversing through tissue are detected. Mathematical models and reconstruction algorithms based on finite element methods and Monte Carlo simulations describe the light transport inside the tissue and determine differences in absorption and scattering coefficients. Precise knowledge of the sample's surface shape and orientation is required to provide boundary conditions for these techniques. We propose an integrated method based on structured light three-dimensional (3-D) scanning that provides detailed surface information of the object, which is usable for volume mesh creation and allows the normalization of the intensity dispersion between surface and camera. The experimental setup is complemented by polarization difference imaging to avoid overlaying byproducts caused by inter-reflections and multiple scattering in semitransparent tissue.

  19. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Surface-Wave Plasma Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Chaohui; CHEN Zhaoquan; LIU Minghai; JIANG Zhonghe; HU Xiwei


    A three-dimensional model of a surface-wave plasma(SWP)source is built numerically using the finite-difference time-domain(FDTD)method to investigate the structure of the surface wave propagation along the plasma-dielectric interface and the distributions of electromagnetic fields in the whole system.A good-performance excitation source technique for the waveguide which is pivotal to the simulation is presented.The technique can avoid the dc distortions of magnetic fields caused by the forcing electric wall.An example of simulation is given to confirm the existence of the surface waves.The simulation also shows that the code developed is a useful tool in the computer-aided design of the antenna of the SWP source.

  20. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction within noncontact diffuse optical tomography using structured light. (United States)

    Baum, Kirstin; Hartmann, Raimo; Bischoff, Tobias; Oelerich, Jan O; Finkensieper, Stephan; Heverhagen, Johannes T


    A main field in biomedical optics research is diffuse optical tomography, where intensity variations of the transmitted light traversing through tissue are detected. Mathematical models and reconstruction algorithms based on finite element methods and Monte Carlo simulations describe the light transport inside the tissue and determine differences in absorption and scattering coefficients. Precise knowledge of the sample's surface shape and orientation is required to provide boundary conditions for these techniques. We propose an integrated method based on structured light three-dimensional (3-D) scanning that provides detailed surface information of the object, which is usable for volume mesh creation and allows the normalization of the intensity dispersion between surface and camera. The experimental setup is complemented by polarization difference imaging to avoid overlaying byproducts caused by inter-reflections and multiple scattering in semitransparent tissue.

  1. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Guide-Field Magnetic Reconnection (United States)

    Hesse, Michael


    The dissipation mechanism of guide field magnetic reconnection remains a subject of intense scientific interest. On one hand, one set of recent studies have shown that particle inertia-based processes, which include thermal and bulk inertial effects, provide the reconnection electric field in the diffusion region. On the other hand, a second set of studies emphasizes the role of wave-particle interactions in providing anomalous resistivity in the diffusion region. In this presentation, we analyze three-dimensional PIC simulations of guide-field magnetic reconnection. Specific emphasis will be on the question whether thermal-inertia processes, mediated by the electron pressure tensor, remain a viable dissipation mechanism in fully three-dimensional systems.

  2. Application of Steenbeck's minimum principle for three-dimensional modelling of DC arc plasma torches

    CERN Document Server

    Li He Ping; Chen, X


    In this paper, physical/mathematical models for the three-dimensional, quasi-steady modelling of the plasma flow and heat transfer inside a non-transferred DC arc plasma torch are described in detail. The Steenbeck's minimum principle (Finkelnburg W and Maecker H 1956 Electric arcs and thermal plasmas Encyclopedia of Physics vol XXII (Berlin: Springer)) is employed to determine the axial position of the anode arc-root at the anode surface. This principle postulates a minimum arc voltage for a given arc current, working gas flow rate, and torch configuration. The modelling results show that the temperature and flow fields inside the DC non-transferred arc plasma torch show significant three-dimensional features. The predicted anode arc-root attachment position and the arc shape by employing Steenbeck's minimum principle are reasonably consistent with experimental observations. The thermal efficiency and the torch power distribution are also calculated in this paper. The results show that the thermal efficiency...

  3. A numerical study of three-dimensional droplets spreading on chemically patterned surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Hua


    We study numerically the three-dimensional droplets spreading on physically flat chemically patterned surfaces with periodic squares separated by channels. Our model consists of the Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard equations with the generalized Navier boundary conditions. Stick-slip behavior and con-tact angle hysteresis are observed. Moreover, we also study the relationship between the effective advancing/receding angle and the two intrinsic angles of the surface patterns. By increasing the volume of droplet gradually, we find that the advancing contact line tends gradually to an equiangular octagon with the length ratio of the two adjacent sides equal to a fixed value that depends on the geometry of the pattern.

  4. Three-Dimensional Heat Transfer Modeling of a Moving Plate in Forming Process Applications (United States)

    Lavella, Mario; Maizza, Giovanni; Borgna, Massimo; Firrao, Donato


    A three-dimensional heat transfer model of glass plates heating and cooling has been developed to study their thermal tempering. The furnace being modeled is of a tunnel type, in which the glass plate alternates translational motions with back and forth mouvements with a specified law. An appropriate implementation of a moving (transient) convection/radiation boundary condition has been proposed to describe the heat transfer exchanged between the glass surfaces and the furnace environment. The model results have been experimentally validated by a scanning pyrometer which detects the pointwise temperature of the upper surface of the plate at the exit of the furnace.

  5. Structured light optical microscopy for three-dimensional reconstruction of technical surfaces (United States)

    Kettel, Johannes; Reinecke, Holger; Müller, Claas


    In microsystems technology quality control of micro structured surfaces with different surface properties is playing an ever more important role. The process of quality control incorporates three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of specularand diffusive reflecting technical surfaces. Due to the demand on high measurement accuracy and data acquisition rates, structured light optical microscopy has become a valuable solution to solve this problem providing high vertical and lateral resolution. However, 3D reconstruction of specular reflecting technical surfaces still remains a challenge to optical measurement principles. In this paper we present a measurement principle based on structured light optical microscopy which enables 3D reconstruction of specular- and diffusive reflecting technical surfaces. It is realized using two light paths of a stereo microscope equipped with different magnification levels. The right optical path of the stereo microscope is used to project structured light onto the object surface. The left optical path is used to capture the structured illuminated object surface with a camera. Structured light patterns are generated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) device in combination with a high power Light Emitting Diode (LED). Structured light patterns are realized as a matrix of discrete light spots to illuminate defined areas on the object surface. The introduced measurement principle is based on multiple and parallel processed point measurements. Analysis of the measured Point Spread Function (PSF) by pattern recognition and model fitting algorithms enables the precise calculation of 3D coordinates. Using exemplary technical surfaces we demonstrate the successful application of our measurement principle.

  6. Overlap distribution of the three-dimensional Ising model. (United States)

    Berg, Bernd A; Billoire, Alain; Janke, Wolfhard


    We study the Parisi overlap probability density P(L)(q) for the three-dimensional Ising ferromagnet by means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. At the critical point, P(L)(q) is peaked around q=0 in contrast with the double peaked magnetic probability density. We give particular attention to the tails of the overlap distribution at the critical point, which we control over up to 500 orders of magnitude by using the multioverlap MC algorithm. Below the critical temperature, interface tension estimates from the overlap probability density are given and their approach to the infinite volume limit appears to be smoother than for estimates from the magnetization.

  7. Three-dimensional surface scanners compared with standard anthropometric measurements for head shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, C.A.A. (Caroline A.A.); Knoops, P.G.M. (Paul G.M.); Borghi, A. (Alessandro); Jeelani, N.U.O. (N.U. Owase); M.J. Koudstaal (Maarten); S. Schievano (Silvia); D.J. Dunaway (David); Rodriguez-Florez, N. (Naiara)


    textabstractThree-dimensional (3D) surface imaging devices designed to capture and quantify craniofacial surface morphology are becoming more common in clinical environments. Such scanners overcome the limitations of two-dimensional photographs while avoiding the ionizing radiation of computed

  8. Three-dimensional surface scanners compared with standard anthropometric measurements for head shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, C.A.A. (Caroline A.A.); Knoops, P.G.M. (Paul G.M.); Borghi, A. (Alessandro); Jeelani, N.U.O. (N.U. Owase); M.J. Koudstaal (Maarten); S. Schievano (Silvia); D.J. Dunaway (David); Rodriguez-Florez, N. (Naiara)


    textabstractThree-dimensional (3D) surface imaging devices designed to capture and quantify craniofacial surface morphology are becoming more common in clinical environments. Such scanners overcome the limitations of two-dimensional photographs while avoiding the ionizing radiation of computed

  9. Translation surfaces in the three-dimensional simply isotropic space 𝕀31 (United States)

    Karacan, Murat Kemal; Yoon, Dae Won; Bukcu, Bahaddin


    In this paper, we classify translation surfaces in the three-dimensional simply isotropic space 𝕀31 under the condition Δix i = λixi where Δ is the Laplace operator with respect to the first and second fundamental forms and λ is a real number. We also give explicit forms of these surfaces.

  10. Computing the Surface Area of Three-Dimensional Scanned Human Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Yoon


    Full Text Available An efficient surface area evaluation method is introduced by using smooth surface reconstruction for three-dimensional scanned human body data. Surface area evaluations for various body parts are compared with the results from the traditional alginate-based method, and quite high similarity between the two results is obtained. We expect that our surface area evaluation method can be an alternative to measuring surface area by the cumbersome alginate method.

  11. Stream Surface Strip Element Method and Simulation of Three-Dimensional Deformation of Continuous Hot Rolled Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-min; WANG Ying-rui


    A new method, the stream surface strip element method, for simulating the three-dimensional deformation of plate and strip rolling process was proposed. The rolling deformation zone was divided into a number of stream surface (curved surface) strip elements along metal flow traces, and the stream surface strip elements were mapped into the corresponding plane strip elements for analysis and computation. The longitudinal distributions of the lateral displacement and the altitudinal displacement of metal were respectively constructed to be a quartic curve and a quadratic curve, of which the lateral distributions were expressed as the third-power spline function, and the altitudinal distributions were fitted in the quadratic curve. From the flow theory of plastic mechanics, the mathematical models of the three-dimensional deformations and stresses of the deformation zone were constructed. Compared with the streamline strip element method proposed by the first author of this paper, the stream surface strip element method takes into account the uneven distributions of stresses and deformations along altitudinal direction, and realizes the precise three-dimensional analysis and computation. The simulation example of continuous hot rolled strip indicates that the method and the model accord with facts and provide a new reliable engineering-computation method for the three-dimensional mechanics simulation of plate and strip rolling process.

  12. A numerical study of three-dimensional surface tension driven convection with fre surface deformation (United States)

    Hsieh, Kwang-Chung


    The steady three-dimensional thermocapillary motion with a deformable free surface is studied numerically in both normal and zero gravity environments. Flow configurations consist of a square cavity heated from the side. In the analysis, the free surface is allowed to deform and the grid distribution is adapted to the surface deformation. The divergence-free condition is satisfied by using a dual time-stepping approach in the numerical scheme. Convective flux derivatives are evaluated using a third-order accurate upwind-biased flux-split differencing technique. The numerical solutions at the midplane of the square cavity are compared with the results from two-dimensional calculations. In addition, numerial results for cases under zero and normal gravity conditions are compared. Significantly different flow structures and surface deformation have been observed. The comparison of calculated results will be compared with experimental data in the updated version of this paper.

  13. Three-dimensional localization of implanted biomaterials in anatomical and histological specimens using combined X-ray computed tomography and three-dimensional surface reconstruction: a technical note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, V.M.J.I.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J.A.


    For adequate histological processing of implanted biomaterials or tissue-engineered constructs, it is sometimes essential to obtain insight into the localization of structures inside the tissue samples. Observation of three-dimensional (3D) surface reconstruction, including basic photorealistic text

  14. Accuracy of three-dimensional, paper-based models generated using a low-cost, three-dimensional printer. (United States)

    Olszewski, Raphael; Szymor, Piotr; Kozakiewicz, Marcin


    Our study aimed to determine the accuracy of a low-cost, paper-based 3D printer by comparing a dry human mandible to its corresponding three-dimensional (3D) model using a 3D measuring arm. One dry human mandible and its corresponding printed model were evaluated. The model was produced using DICOM data from cone beam computed tomography. The data were imported into Maxilim software, wherein automatic segmentation was performed, and the STL file was saved. These data were subsequently analysed, repaired, cut and prepared for printing with netfabb software. These prepared data were used to create a paper-based model of a mandible with an MCor Matrix 300 printer. Seventy-six anatomical landmarks were chosen and measured 20 times on the mandible and the model using a MicroScribe G2X 3D measuring arm. The distances between all the selected landmarks were measured and compared. Only landmarks with a point inaccuracy less than 30% were used in further analyses. The mean absolute difference for the selected 2016 measurements was 0.36 ± 0.29 mm. The mean relative difference was 1.87 ± 3.14%; however, the measurement length significantly influenced the relative difference. The accuracy of the 3D model printed using the paper-based, low-cost 3D Matrix 300 printer was acceptable. The average error was no greater than that measured with other types of 3D printers. The mean relative difference should not be considered the best way to compare studies. The point inaccuracy methodology proposed in this study may be helpful in future studies concerned with evaluating the accuracy of 3D rapid prototyping models. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Study on the methods for establishing virtual three-dimensional models of cerebral arteries with the three-dimensional moulding software]. (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Chaohua


    This study was conducted to establish the methods of virtual three-dimensional cerebral arteries models by use of three-dimensional moulding software. The virtual models of the cerebral arteries were established using the three-dimensional moulding software of 3D Studio MAX R3 with 46 cases of normal cerebral DSA image as the original. The results showed there was similarity in appearance between the virtual cerebral arteries and DSA image. This is of benefit to understanding the vascular three-dimensional spatial relation in visual sense. Several models of different variant anatomy could be easily established on the copy files of the virtual cerebral arteries model. The virtual model could help learners to create and increase the three-dimensional space concept of arteries and aneurysms in clinical teaching. The results indicated that the virtual three-dimensional cerebral arteries models could display the three-dimensional spatial relation of the cerebral arterial system distinctly, and could serve as a morphologic foundation in the researches on vascular disease.

  16. Rapid Creation of Three-Dimensional, Tactile Models from Crystallographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan B. Fisher


    Full Text Available A method for the conversion of crystallographic information framework (CIF files to stereo lithographic data files suitable for printing on three-dimensional printers is presented. Crystallographic information framework or CIF files are capable of being manipulated in virtual space by a variety of computer programs, but their visual representations are limited to the two-dimensional surface of the computer screen. Tactile molecular models that demonstrate critical ideas, such as symmetry elements, play a critical role in enabling new students to fully visualize crystallographic concepts. In the past five years, major developments in three-dimensional printing has lowered the cost and complexity of these systems to a level where three-dimensional molecular models may be easily created provided that the data exists in a suitable format. Herein a method is described for the conversion of CIF file data using existing free software that allows for the rapid creation of inexpensive molecular models. This approach has numerous potential applications in basic research, education, visualization, and crystallography.

  17. Evaluation of optical flow algorithms for tracking endocardial surfaces on three-dimensional ultrasound data (United States)

    Duan, Qi; Angelini, Elsa D.; Herz, Susan L.; Ingrassia, Christopher M.; Gerard, Olivier; Costa, Kevin D.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.; Laine, Andrew F.


    With relatively high frame rates and the ability to acquire volume data sets with a stationary transducer, 3D ultrasound systems, based on matrix phased array transducers, provide valuable three-dimensional information, from which quantitative measures of cardiac function can be extracted. Such analyses require segmentation and visual tracking of the left ventricular endocardial border. Due to the large size of the volumetric data sets, manual tracing of the endocardial border is tedious and impractical for clinical applications. Therefore the development of automatic methods for tracking three-dimensional endocardial motion is essential. In this study, we evaluate a four-dimensional optical flow motion tracking algorithm to determine its capability to follow the endocardial border in three dimensional ultrasound data through time. The four-dimensional optical flow method was implemented using three-dimensional correlation. We tested the algorithm on an experimental open-chest dog data set and a clinical data set acquired with a Philips' iE33 three-dimensional ultrasound machine. Initialized with left ventricular endocardial data points obtained from manual tracing at end-diastole, the algorithm automatically tracked these points frame by frame through the whole cardiac cycle. A finite element surface was fitted through the data points obtained by both optical flow tracking and manual tracing by an experienced observer for quantitative comparison of the results. Parameterization of the finite element surfaces was performed and maps displaying relative differences between the manual and semi-automatic methods were compared. The results showed good consistency between manual tracing and optical flow estimation on 73% of the entire surface with fewer than 10% difference. In addition, the optical flow motion tracking algorithm greatly reduced processing time (about 94% reduction compared to human involvement per cardiac cycle) for analyzing cardiac function in three-dimensional

  18. A three dimensional Dirichlet-to-Neumann map for surface waves over topography (United States)

    Nachbin, Andre; Andrade, David


    We consider three dimensional surface water waves in the potential theory regime. The bottom topography can have a quite general profile. In the case of linear waves the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator is formulated in a matrix decomposition form. Computational simulations illustrate the performance of the method. Two dimensional periodic bottom variations are considered in both the Bragg resonance regime as well as the rapidly varying (homogenized) regime. In the three-dimensional case we use the Luneburg lens-shaped submerged mound, which promotes the focusing of the underlying rays. FAPERJ Cientistas do Nosso Estado Grant 102917/2011 and ANP/PRH-32.

  19. A Novel Three-Dimensional Mouse Embryonic Implantation Model In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yu-xuan; CAO Bin-yun


    To regenerate three-dimensional endometrium in vitro as a novel model for studying the mechanism of implantation of embryos, the luminal epithelial cells and stromal cells of the rabbit uterus were separated and cultured in vitro. The type Ⅰ mouse tail collagen was used as scaffolding material. The stromal cells were inoculated in the type Ⅰ mouse tail collagen, and the luminal epithelial cells were inoculated on the type Ⅰ mouse tail collagen to regenerate the endometrium in vitro. The regenerated endometrium was cultured in DMEM-F/12 media containing 100 nmol L-1 progesterone, 10 nM β-estradiol, and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 3 d. The media were then replaced with CZB containing 100 nM progesterone, 10 nmol L-1 β-estradiol, and 10% FBS, and the mouse blastulas were co-cultured with it. The results of scanning electronic micrography showed that the epithelial cells on the surface of the reconstructed endometrium were covered with numerous slender microvilli and some epithelial cells protruded pinopodes. After culturing for 12 h with the mouse blastula, the shedding, attachment, and implantation of the blastula were observed. The blastula can escape from zona pellucida and attach to the three-dimensional endometrium and is then implanted into it. Thisstudy showed that the reconstructed three-dimensional endometrium can serve as a robust embryo implantation model in vitro.

  20. Three-dimensional surface inspection for semiconductor components with fringe projection profilometry (United States)

    Deng, Fuqin; Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Xi, Jiangtao; Yin, Yongkai; Zhu, Ziqi


    With the increasing integration level of components in modern electronic devices, three-dimensional automated optical inspection has been widely used in the manufacturing process of electronic and communication industries to improve the product quality. In this paper, we develop a three-dimensional inspection and metrology system for semiconductor components with fringe projection profilometry, which is composed of industry camera, telecentric lens and projection module. This system is used to measure the height, flatness, volume, shape, coplanarity for quality checking. To detect the discontinuous parts in the internal surface of semiconductor components, we employ the fringes with multiple spatial frequencies to avoid the measurement ambiguity. The complete three-dimensional information of semiconductor component is obtained by fusing the absolute phase maps from different views. The practical inspection results show that the depth resolution of our system reaches 10 μm . This system can be further embedded for the online inspection of various electronic and communication products.

  1. Surface waves in three-dimensional electromagnetic composites and their effect on homogenization. (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoyan Y Z; Jiang, Li Jun; Markel, Vadim A; Tsukerman, Igor


    Reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves at the boundaries of periodic composites (electromagnetic/optical metamaterials) depends in general on both bulk and surface waves. We investigate the interplay of these two contributions using three-dimensional full-wave numerical simulations and a recently developed non-asymptotic homogenization theory.

  2. Manipulation of fluids in three-dimensional porous photonic structures with patterned surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Burgess, Ian B.; Mishchenko, Lidiya; Hatton, Benjamin; Loncar, Marko


    A three-dimensional porous photonic structure, whose internal pore surfaces can be provided with desired surface properties in a spatially selective manner with arbitrary patterns, and methods for making the same are described. When exposed to a fluid (e.g., via immersion or wicking), the fluid can selectively penetrate the regions of the structure with compatible surface properties. Broad applications, for example in security, encryption and document authentication, as well as in areas such as simple microfluidics and diagnostics, are anticipated.

  3. Manipulation of fluids in three-dimensional porous photonic structures with patterned surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Burgess, Ian B.; Mishchenko, Lidiya; Hatton, Benjamin; Loncar, Marko


    A three-dimensional porous photonic structure, whose internal pore surfaces can be provided with desired surface properties in a spatially selective manner with arbitrary patterns, and methods for making the same are described. When exposed to a fluid (e.g., via immersion or wicking), the fluid can selectively penetrate the regions of the structure with compatible surface properties. Broad applications, for example in security, encryption and document authentication, as well as in areas such as simple microfluidics and diagnostics, are anticipated.

  4. [Sutural physical model building in the three-dimensional finite-element model of maxillofacial bones]. (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Zhu, Xian-chun; Zhang, Xing; Tai, Yin-xia; Yan, Sen


    To build the physical model of four suturae which are related to the growth of maxilla in the three-dimensional finite-element model of maxillofacial bones. A 16 years old volunteer with individual normal occlusion, good periodontium health condition and without diseases of temporomandibular joint was chosen to be the material of modeling. The three-dimensional finite-element model of the volunteer's maxillofacial bones was built using the CT scan and the finite-element modeling method. Finally we built the physical model of four suturae which were related to the growth of maxilla in the model of maxillofacial bones. The model of maxillofacial bones with 86,575 nodes and 485,915 elements was generated. This model contained four suturae including sutura frontomaxillaris, sutura zygomaticomaxillaris, sutura temporozygomatica and sutura pterygopalatine. A three-dimensional finite-element model of maxillofacial bones with good biological similarity was developed.

  5. A microfluidically perfused three dimensional human liver model. (United States)

    Rennert, Knut; Steinborn, Sandra; Gröger, Marko; Ungerböck, Birgit; Jank, Anne-Marie; Ehgartner, Josef; Nietzsche, Sandor; Dinger, Julia; Kiehntopf, Michael; Funke, Harald; Peters, Frank T; Lupp, Amelie; Gärtner, Claudia; Mayr, Torsten; Bauer, Michael; Huber, Otmar; Mosig, Alexander S


    Within the liver, non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) are critically involved in the regulation of hepatocyte polarization and maintenance of metabolic function. We here report the establishment of a liver organoid that integrates NPCs in a vascular layer composed of endothelial cells and tissue macrophages and a hepatic layer comprising stellate cells co-cultured with hepatocytes. The three-dimensional liver organoid is embedded in a microfluidically perfused biochip that enables sufficient nutrition supply and resembles morphological aspects of the human liver sinusoid. It utilizes a suspended membrane as a cell substrate mimicking the space of Disse. Luminescence-based sensor spots were integrated into the chip to allow online measurement of cellular oxygen consumption. Application of microfluidic flow induces defined expression of ZO-1, transferrin, ASGPR-1 along with an increased expression of MRP-2 transporter protein within the liver organoids. Moreover, perfusion was accompanied by an increased hepatobiliary secretion of 5(6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein and an enhanced formation of hepatocyte microvilli. From this we conclude that the perfused liver organoid shares relevant morphological and functional characteristics with the human liver and represents a new in vitro research tool to study human hepatocellular physiology at the cellular level under conditions close to the physiological situation.

  6. Preliminary results of a three-dimensional radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hirok, W. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)


    Clouds act as the primary modulator of the Earth`s radiation at the top of the atmosphere, within the atmospheric column, and at the Earth`s surface. They interact with both shortwave and longwave radiation, but it is primarily in the case of shortwave where most of the uncertainty lies because of the difficulties in treating scattered solar radiation. To understand cloud-radiative interactions, radiative transfer models portray clouds as plane-parallel homogeneous entities to ease the computational physics. Unfortunately, clouds are far from being homogeneous, and large differences between measurement and theory point to a stronger need to understand and model cloud macrophysical properties. In an attempt to better comprehend the role of cloud morphology on the 3-dimensional radiation field, a Monte Carlo model has been developed. This model can simulate broadband shortwave radiation fluxes while incorporating all of the major atmospheric constituents. The model is used to investigate the cloud absorption anomaly where cloud absorption measurements exceed theoretical estimates and to examine the efficacy of ERBE measurements and cloud field experiments. 3 figs.

  7. Accuracy assessment of three-dimensional surface reconstructions of teeth from cone beam computed tomography scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Rawi, B.; Hassan, B.; Vandenberge, B.; Jacobs, R.


    The use of three-dimensional (3D) models of the dentition obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is becoming increasingly more popular in dentistry. A recent trend is to replace the traditional dental casts with digital CBCT models for diagnosis, treatment planning and simulation. The ac

  8. Ultrafast photocurrents at the surface of the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Se3 (United States)

    Braun, Lukas; Mussler, Gregor; Hruban, Andrzej; Konczykowski, Marcin; Schumann, Thomas; Wolf, Martin; Münzenberg, Markus; Perfetti, Luca; Kampfrath, Tobias


    Three-dimensional topological insulators are fascinating materials with insulating bulk yet metallic surfaces that host highly mobile charge carriers with locked spin and momentum. Remarkably, surface currents with tunable direction and magnitude can be launched with tailored light beams. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, the current dynamics need to be resolved on the timescale of elementary scattering events (∼10 fs). Here, we excite and measure photocurrents in the model topological insulator Bi2Se3 with a time resolution of 20 fs by sampling the concomitantly emitted broadband terahertz (THz) electromagnetic field from 0.3 to 40 THz. Strikingly, the surface current response is dominated by an ultrafast charge transfer along the Se–Bi bonds. In contrast, photon-helicity-dependent photocurrents are found to be orders of magnitude smaller than expected from generation scenarios based on asymmetric depopulation of the Dirac cone. Our findings are of direct relevance for broadband optoelectronic devices based on topological-insulator surface currents. PMID:27796297

  9. Subwavelength three-dimensional frequency selective surface based on surface wave tunneling. (United States)

    Liang, Bingyuan; Bai, Ming


    We propose a new type of three-dimensional frequency selective structure (3D-FSS) in form of subwavelength staggered metallic frames, and demonstrate a new design concept of confining and guiding surface wave propagation through the transmission tunnels for spacial filters. Both qualitative analysis by current loops and full-wave simulations show that the strong coupling along metallic frames can enhance the performance of frequency response, such as a sharper roll-off, clean out-of-band rejection, as well as angle and polarization insensitivity. Moreover, different unit cell shapes are introduced to confirm the universality of the design concept. Finally, a 3D-FSS with staggered rectangular frames was realized by experiment.

  10. [Individualized three-dimensional finite element model of facial soft tissue and preliminary application in orthodontics]. (United States)

    Chen, Si; Xu, Tian-min; Lou, Hang-di; Rong, Qi-guo


    To get individualized facial three-dimensional finite element (FE) model from transformation of a generic one to assist orthodontic analysis and prediction of treatment-related morphological change of facial soft tissue. A generic three-dimensional FE model of craniofacial soft and hard tissue was constructed based on a volunteer's spiral CT data. Seven pairs of main peri-oral muscles were constructed based on a combination of CT image and anatomical method. Individualized model could be obtained through transformation of the generic model based on selection of corresponding anatomical landmarks and radial basis functions (RBF) method. Validation was analyzed through superimposition of the transformed model and cone-beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction data. Pre- and post-treatment CBCT data of two patients were collected, which were superimposed to gain the amount of anterior teeth retraction and anterior alveolar surface remodeling that could be used as boundary condition. Different values of Poisson ratio ν and Young's modulus E were tested during simulation. Average deviation was 0.47 mm and 0.75 mm in the soft and hard tissue respectively. It could be decreased to a range of +0.29 mm and -0.21 mm after a second transformation at the lip-mouth region. The best correspondence between simulation and post-treatment result was found with elastic properties of soft tissues defined as follows. Poisson ratio ν for skin, muscle and fat being set as 0.45 while Young's modulus being set as 90.0 kPa, 6.2 kPa and 2.0 kPa respectively. Individualized three-dimensional facial FE model could be obtained through mathematical model transformation. With boundary condition defined according to treatment plan such FE model could be used to analyze the effect of orthodontic treatment on facial soft tissue.

  11. Three-dimensional Simulation and Pattern Making of Collar Using Geometric Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Mingjie(张明杰); Hou Dongyu(侯东昱); Zhou Aiying(周爱英); Yoshio Shimizu


    An algorithm is presented for computationally simulating collars and drafting patterns. The collar shape was modeled by three-dimensional Bezier patch. Changing the position of consol points of the patch can interactively control the collar shape. Using triangular surface developing method, patterns of various styles of stand collar and separating collar were drafted. As the subsystem of 3D apparel design system, an interactive collar design system is constructed. To inspect the practical usage, we reproduced the collars using these patterns drafted by the interactive collar design system.Comparing with simulated collars, the system demonstrated well and we found it is more reliable and accurate than the method of handwork.

  12. Selective three-dimensional hydrophilization of microstructured polymer surfaces through confined photocatalytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammosova, Lena; Jiang, Yu; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A., E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Microstructured polymer surfaces with selective 3-D anisotropy were created. • Selective UV treatment was performed to alter surface wettability. • Removable meshes resembling a photomask were applied during UV treatment. • Micropatterning by viscous polymer on solid surface was performed. - Abstract: While the conventional photomask technique gives only two-dimensional anisotropies, in this study we fabricated microstructured polymer surfaces with a selective three-dimensional anisotropy. With the applied removable mesh, we were able to confine the contacting area between the surface and photoinitiator and provide three-dimensional wettability anisotropies. Different types of meshes were used depending on the desired micropatterns shape, size and substrate material. The results revealed the three-dimensional anisotropic micropits pattern with depth profiles, which would be applicable for the confinement and patterning of cells and biomolecules. In addition, the proposed method is applicable for creating selectively activated polymer surface as a substrate for further atomic layer deposition. Moreover, we demonstrate a low cost and fast mass productive method for patterning a viscous polymer liquid in a micro-sized scale.

  13. Giant magnetoresistance, three-dimensional Fermi surface and origin of resistivity plateau in YSb semimetal (United States)

    Pavlosiuk, Orest; Swatek, Przemysław; Wiśniewski, Piotr


    Very strong magnetoresistance and a resistivity plateau impeding low temperature divergence due to insulating bulk are hallmarks of topological insulators and are also present in topological semimetals where the plateau is induced by magnetic field, when time-reversal symmetry (protecting surface states in topological insulators) is broken. Similar features were observed in a simple rock-salt-structure LaSb, leading to a suggestion of the possible non-trivial topology of 2D states in this compound. We show that its sister compound YSb is also characterized by giant magnetoresistance exceeding one thousand percent and low-temperature plateau of resistivity. We thus performed in-depth analysis of YSb Fermi surface by band calculations, magnetoresistance, and Shubnikov-de Haas effect measurements, which reveals only three-dimensional Fermi sheets. Kohler scaling applied to magnetoresistance data accounts very well for its low-temperature upturn behavior. The field-angle-dependent magnetoresistance demonstrates a 3D-scaling yielding effective mass anisotropy perfectly agreeing with electronic structure and quantum oscillations analysis, thus providing further support for 3D-Fermi surface scenario of magnetotransport, without necessity of invoking topologically non-trivial 2D states. We discuss data implying that analogous field-induced properties of LaSb can also be well understood in the framework of 3D multiband model.

  14. Three-dimensional facial surface analysis of patients with skeletal malocclusion. (United States)

    Alves, Patrícia Valéria Milanezi; Zhao, Linping; Patel, Pravin K; Bolognese, Ana M


    Three-dimensional (3D) laser surface scanning analysis has taken hold in orthodontics, as well as craniomaxillofacial and plastic surgery as a new tool that can navigate away from the limitations of conventional two-dimensional methods. Various techniques for 3D reconstruction of the face have been used in diagnosis, treatment planning and simulation, and outcomes follow-up. The aim of the current prospective study was to present some technical aspects for the assessment of facial changes after orthodontic and orthognathic surgery treatment using 3D laser surface scanning. The technique proposed for facial surface shape analysis represented three-dimensionally the expected surgical changes, and the reduction of the postoperative swelling was verified. This study provides technical information from the data collection to the 3D virtual soft-tissue analysis that can be useful for diagnostic information, treatment planning, future comparisons of treatment stability or facial postoperative swelling, and soft-tissue profile assessment.

  15. Heterocercal tail function in leopard sharks: a three-dimensional kinematic analysis of two models (United States)

    Ferry; Lauder


    Two different models have been proposed to explain the function of the heterocercal tail in shark locomotion. The classical model proposes that, as a result of lift generated by the tail as it beats, the net force acting on the tail is directed dorsally and anteriorly. In contrast, Thomson's model suggests that the tail generates a net force directed through the shark's center of gravity, i.e. ventrally and anteriorly. In this study, we evaluate these two models by describing the three-dimensional kinematics of the heterocercal tail in the leopard shark Triakis semifasciata during swimming. Lateral and posterior views of the tail were examined from four individuals swimming in a flow tank at 1.2 L s-1 (where L is total length) using two high-speed video cameras filming simultaneously at 250 fields s-1. These two simultaneous views allowed eight landmarks on the tail to be followed in three dimensions through time. These landmarks allowed the tail to be divided into separate surfaces whose orientation over time was calculated. Points located anteriorly on the tail go through significantly smaller excursions and reach their maximum lateral excursion significantly earlier in the beat cycle than points on the trailing edge of the tail. Three-dimensional angle calculations show that the terminal lobe leads the ventral lobe through a beat, as predicted by the classical model. Dye-stream visualizations confirmed that this pattern of movement deflects water ventrally and posteriorly to the moving tail, providing strong support for the classical model. Additionally, our results show that a three-dimensional analysis is critical to understanding the function of the heterocercal tail.

  16. Three Dimensional Modeling via Photographs for Documentation of a Village Bath (United States)

    Balta, H. B.; Hamamcioglu-Turan, M.; Ocali, O.


    The aim of this study is supporting the conceptual discussions of architectural restoration with three dimensional modeling of monuments based on photogrammetric survey. In this study, a 16th century village bath in Ulamış, Seferihisar, and Izmir is modeled for documentation. Ulamış is one of the historical villages within which Turkish population first settled in the region of Seferihisar - Urla. The methodology was tested on an antique monument; a bath with a cubical form. Within the limits of this study, only the exterior of the bath was modeled. The presentation scale for the bath was determined as 1 / 50, considering the necessities of designing structural interventions and architectural ones within the scope of a restoration project. The three dimensional model produced is a realistic document presenting the present situation of the ruin. Traditional plan, elevation and perspective drawings may be produced from the model, in addition to the realistic textured renderings and wireframe representations. The model developed in this study provides opportunity for presenting photorealistic details of historical morphologies in scale. Compared to conventional drawings, the renders based on the 3d models provide an opportunity for conceiving architectural details such as color, material and texture. From these documents, relatively more detailed restitution hypothesis can be developed and intervention decisions can be taken. Finally, the principles derived from the case study can be used for 3d documentation of historical structures with irregular surfaces.

  17. Continuum modeling of three-dimensional truss-like space structures (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Hefzy, M. S.


    A mathematical and computational analysis capability has been developed for calculating the effective mechanical properties of three-dimensional periodic truss-like structures. Two models are studied in detail. The first, called the octetruss model, is a three-dimensional extension of a two-dimensional model, and the second is a cubic model. Symmetry considerations are employed as a first step to show that the specific octetruss model has four independent constants and that the cubic model has two. The actual values of these constants are determined by averaging the contributions of each rod element to the overall structure stiffness. The individual rod member contribution to the overall stiffness is obtained by a three-dimensional coordinate transformation. The analysis shows that the effective three-dimensional elastic properties of both models are relatively close to each other.

  18. Three-dimensional modeling of supine human and transport system under whole-body vibration. (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Rahmatalla, Salam


    The development of predictive computer human models in whole-body vibration has shown some success in predicting simple types of motion, mostly for seated positions and in the uniaxial vertical direction. The literature revealed only a handful of papers that tackled supine human modeling in response to vertical vibration. The objective of this work is to develop a predictive, multibody, three-dimensional human model to simulate the supine human and underlying transport system in response to multidirectional whole-body vibration. A three-dimensional dynamic model of a supine human and its underlying transport system is presented in this work to predict supine-human biodynamic response under three-dimensional input random whole-body vibration. The proposed supine-human model consists of three interconnected segments representing the head, torso-arms, and pelvis-legs. The segments are connected via rotational and translational joints that have spring-damper components simulating the three-dimensional muscles and tissuelike connecting elements in the three x, y, and z directions. Two types of transport systems are considered in this work, a rigid support and a long spinal board attached to a standard military litter. The contact surfaces between the supine human and the underlying transport system are modeled using spring-damper components. Eight healthy supine human subjects were tested under combined-axis vibration files with a magnitude of 0.5 m/s2 (rms) and a frequency content of 0.5-16 Hz. The data from seven subjects were used in parameter identification for the dynamic model using optimization schemes in the frequency domain that minimize the differences between the magnitude and phase of the predicted and experimental transmissibility. The predicted accelerations in the time and frequency domains were comparable to those gathered from experiments under different anthropometric, input vibration, and transport conditions under investigation. Based on the

  19. Assessing waveform predictions of recent three-dimensional velocity models of Tibet (United States)

    Bao, X.; Shen, Y.


    High-resolution tomographic models are essential for understanding the physical and compositional properties in the lithosphere and obtaining accurate earthquake source locations and moment tensors. Yet, there are significant disagreements in recent three-dimensional velocity models of the crust and uppermost mantle in Tibet. Question also remains as to whether models constructed from one type of seismic waves (body or surface waves) can be used to predict travel times and waveforms of another. In this study, six global or regional models are selected for Tibet, most of which became publically available in the past five years. A three-dimensional finite-difference method in the spherical coordinates is applied to simulate full-wave propagation of regional Pn (with periods longer than 1 second) and Rayleigh waves (20-75 s period) for ground-truth events located at regional distances. The models are evaluated based on the phase delays and cross-correlation coefficients between synthetic and observed waveforms. A model generated from full-wave ambient noise tomography by Shen and Zhang (2012) consistently produces the best predictions for Rayleigh waves throughout the dataset and the Pn waves for the paths from the Tarim Basin to central Tibet. LITHO1.0, inverted from surface wave dispersions, shows a relatively stable but intermediate performance in predicting Pn and Rayleigh waves. None of the models provide the best matches to both waves throughout the region. Furthermore, the models constructed from surface waves are not well suited to predict Pn, and vice versa. We attribute this mainly to lack of accurate constraints on radial anisotropy and Vp/Vs ratios in the upper mantle, and Moho topography. We conclude that simultaneous prediction for P, S, and surface waves requires an integrated velocity model constructed with multiple seismic waveforms and consideration of other important properties, such as anisotropy and attenuation.

  20. A three-dimensional model of fungal morphogenesis based on the vesicle supply center concept. (United States)

    Gierz, G; Bartnicki-Garcia, S


    We developed a three-dimensional model of hyphal morphogenesis under the same basic assumption used for the construction of a two-dimensional model. Namely, that the polarized growth of tubular cells (hyphoids) arises from a gradient of wall-building vesicles generated by a vesicle supply center (VSC). Contrary to the 2-D mathematical formulation, the three-dimensional derivation led to an indetermination whose solution required defining a priori the pattern of expansion of the wall, i.e. defining the overall spatial movement of the wall as the newly inserted wall elements displace the existing wall fabric. The patterns of wall expansion can be described by tracing the movement of marker points on the cell surface (point trajectories). Point trajectories were computed for three different modes of wall expansion of the VSC-generated hyphoids: orthogonal, isometric, and rotational. The 3-D VSC models allowed us to either stipulate or calculate the degree of anisotropy for each type of wall expansion. Wireframe models were built to visualize growth anisotropy in each model. Although the overall shape of the three hyphoid models is similar, they differ substantially in point trajectories and anisotropy. Point trajectories are experimentally testable and were the basis for the conclusion that hyphae grow in orthogonal fashion. (Bartnicki-Garcia et al., 2000. Biophys. J.79, 2382-2390.)

  1. Semiautomated biventricular segmentation in three-dimensional echocardiography by coupled deformable surfaces. (United States)

    Bersvendsen, Jørn; Orderud, Fredrik; Lie, Øyvind; Massey, Richard John; Fosså, Kristian; Estépar, Raúl San José; Urheim, Stig; Samset, Eigil


    With the advancement of three-dimensional (3-D) real-time echocardiography in recent years, automatic creation of patient specific geometric models is becoming feasible and important in clinical decision making. However, the vast majority of echocardiographic segmentation methods presented in the literature focus on the left ventricle (LV) endocardial border, leaving segmentation of the right ventricle (RV) a largely unexplored problem, despite the increasing recognition of the RV's role in cardiovascular disease. We present a method for coupled segmentation of the endo- and epicardial borders of both the LV and RV in 3-D ultrasound images. To solve the segmentation problem, we propose an extension of a successful state-estimation segmentation framework with a geometrical representation of coupled surfaces, as well as the introduction of myocardial incompressibility to regularize the segmentation. The method was validated against manual measurements and segmentations in images of 16 patients. Mean absolute distances of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] between the proposed and reference segmentations were observed for the LV endocardium, RV endocardium, and LV epicardium surfaces, respectively. The method was computationally efficient, with a computation time of [Formula: see text].

  2. An accurate three-dimensional potential energy surface for the He-Na2 complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yue; HUANG WuYing; FENG ErYin; CUI ZhiFeng


    An accurate three-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the He-Na2 van der Waals complex was calculated at the coupled cluster singles-and-doubles with noniterative inclusion of connected triple (CCSD(T)) level of theory. A mixed basis set, aug-cc-pVQZ for the He atom and cc-pCVQZ for the sodium atom, and an additional (3s3p2dlf) set of midbond functions were used. The computed inter-action energies in 819 configurations were fitted to a 96-parameter analytic potential model by least squares fitting. The PES has two shallow wells corresponding to the T-shaped structure and the linear configuration, which are located at 12.5a0 and 14 a0 with depths of 1.769 and 1.684 cm-1, respectively. The whole potential energy surface exhibits weak anisotropy. Based on the fitted PES, state-to-state differential cross sections were calculated.

  3. Regional surface geometry of the rat stomach based on three-dimensional curvature analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Donghua [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark); Zhao Jingbo [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark); Gregersen, Hans [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark)


    A better understanding of gastric accommodation and gastric perception requires knowledge of regional gastric geometry and local gastric tension throughout the stomach. An analytic method based on medical imaging data was developed in this study to describe the three-dimensional (3D) rat stomach geometry and tension distribution. The surface principal radii of curvatures were simulated and the surface tension was calculated in the glandular and non-glandular region of the stomach at pressures from 0 Pa to 800 Pa. The radii of curvature and tension distribution in the stomach were non-homogeneous. The radii of curvature in the glandular stomach were larger than those in the non-glandular region at pressures less than 100 Pa (P < 0.001). When the pressure increased to more than 200 Pa, the radii of curvature in the non-glandular stomach was larger than in the glandular stomach (P < 0.05). The curvature and tension distribution mapping using medical imaging technology and 3D models can be used to characterize and distinguish the physical behaviour in separate regions of the stomach.

  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction of tubulin sheets and re-investigation of microtubule surface lattice. (United States)

    Schultheiss, R; Mandelkow, E


    Sheets are incomplete microtubule walls observed as polymorphic variants of microtubule assembly. Their substructure is similar to that of microtubules, as shown by two-dimensional optical and computer reconstruction. We have extended earlier studies by computing a three-dimensional reconstruction. From a re-investigation of the surface lattice it appears that the three-start helix of microtubules is right-handed rather than left-handed.

  5. Three-Dimensional Electro-Thermal Verilog-A Model of Power MOSFET for Circuit Simulation (United States)

    Chvála, A.; Donoval, D.; Marek, J.; Príbytný, P.; Molnár, M.; Mikolášek, M.


    New original circuit model for the power device based on interactive coupling of electrical and thermal properties is described. The thermal equivalent network for a three-dimensional heat flow is presented. Designed electro-thermal MOSFET model for circuit simulations with distributed properties and three-dimensional thermal equivalent network is used for simulation of multipulse unclamped inductive switching (UIS) test of device robustness. The features and the limitations of the new model are analyzed and presented.

  6. Three dimensional mathematical model of tooth for finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškar Tatjana


    Full Text Available Introduction. The mathematical model of the abutment tooth is the starting point of the finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The simplest and easiest way is to form a model according to the literature data of dimensions and morphological characteristics of teeth. Our method is based on forming 3D models using standard geometrical forms (objects in programmes for solid modeling. Objective. Forming the mathematical model of abutment of the second upper premolar for finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. Methods. The abutment tooth has a form of a complex geometric object. It is suitable for modeling in programs for solid modeling SolidWorks. After analyzing the literature data about the morphological characteristics of teeth, we started the modeling dividing the tooth (complex geometric body into simple geometric bodies (cylinder, cone, pyramid,.... Connecting simple geometric bodies together or substricting bodies from the basic body, we formed complex geometric body, tooth. The model is then transferred into Abaqus, a computational programme for finite element analysis. Transferring the data was done by standard file format for transferring 3D models ACIS SAT. Results. Using the programme for solid modeling SolidWorks, we developed three models of abutment of the second maxillary premolar: the model of the intact abutment, the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining cavity walls and the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining walls and inserted post. Conclusion Mathematical models of the abutment made according to the literature data are very similar with the real abutment and the simplifications are minimal. These models enable calculations of stress and deformation of the dental structures. The finite element analysis provides useful information in understanding biomechanical problems and gives guidance for clinical research.

  7. [Three dimensional mathematical model of tooth for finite element analysis]. (United States)

    Puskar, Tatjana; Vasiljević, Darko; Marković, Dubravka; Jevremović, Danimir; Pantelić, Dejan; Savić-Sević, Svetlana; Murić, Branka


    The mathematical model of the abutment tooth is the starting point of the finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The simplest and easiest way is to form a model according to the literature data of dimensions and morphological characteristics of teeth. Our method is based on forming 3D models using standard geometrical forms (objects) in programmes for solid modeling. Forming the mathematical model of abutment of the second upper premolar for finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The abutment tooth has a form of a complex geometric object. It is suitable for modeling in programs for solid modeling SolidWorks. After analysing the literature data about the morphological characteristics of teeth, we started the modeling dividing the tooth (complex geometric body) into simple geometric bodies (cylinder, cone, pyramid,...). Connecting simple geometric bodies together or substricting bodies from the basic body, we formed complex geometric body, tooth. The model is then transferred into Abaqus, a computational programme for finite element analysis. Transferring the data was done by standard file format for transferring 3D models ACIS SAT. Using the programme for solid modeling SolidWorks, we developed three models of abutment of the second maxillary premolar: the model of the intact abutment, the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining cavity walls and the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining walls and inserted post. Mathematical models of the abutment made according to the literature data are very similar with the real abutment and the simplifications are minimal. These models enable calculations of stress and deformation of the dental structures. The finite element analysis provides useful information in understanding biomechanical problems and gives guidance for clinical research.

  8. Kinematic active region formation in a three-dimensional solar dynamo model

    CERN Document Server

    Yeates, A R


    We propose a phenomenological technique for modelling the emergence of active regions within a three-dimensional, kinematic dynamo framework. By imposing localised velocity perturbations, we create emergent flux-tubes out of toroidal magnetic field at the base of the convection zone, leading to the eruption of active regions at the solar surface. The velocity perturbations are calibrated to reproduce observed active region properties (including the size and flux of active regions, and the distribution of tilt angle with latitude), resulting in a more consistent treatment of flux-tube emergence in kinematic dynamo models than artificial flux deposition. We demonstrate how this technique can be used to assimilate observations and drive a kinematic 3D model, and use it to study the characteristics of active region emergence and decay as a source of poloidal field. We find that the poloidal components are strongest not at the solar surface, but in the middle convection zone, in contrast with the common assumption...

  9. The First Three Dimensional Digital Models of Shatter Cones (United States)

    Baratoux, D.; Bouley, S.; Reimold, W. U.; Baratoux, L.


    Shatter cones are used as a diagnostic evidence for impact, but model of formation is unclear. Geometrical parameters may offer critical tests. The first 3-D models of 30 shatter cones from 16 different impact structures are reported here.

  10. Three dimensional model for surgical planning in resection of thoracic tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min P. Kim


    Conclusion: Three-dimensional printed model provide better visualization of complex thoracic tumors, aid in counseling the patient about the surgical procedure and assisted in surgical resection of thoracic malignancy.

  11. Three-Dimensional Transient Electromagnetic Modeling Based on Fictitious Wave Domain Methods (United States)

    Ji, Yanju; Hu, Yanpu; Imamura, Naoto


    Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) methods, which have been widely employed in three-dimensional transient electromagnetic (TEM) modeling, require very small time steps to simulate the electromagnetic fields and this will be time consuming. We present an efficient numerical method for three-dimensional TEM forward modeling. Its key features are based on a correspondence principle between the diffusive and fictitious wave fields. The diffusive Maxwell's equations are transformed and solved in a so-called fictitious wave domain. This scheme allows larger time steps than conventional FDTD methods, allows including air layers, and allows simulating topography. The need for initial field calculations is avoided by including an electric current source in the governing equations. This also avoids a traditional assumption of a flat earth surface in TEM modeling. We test the accuracy of the electromagnetic fields' responses using our method with the spectral differential difference (SLDM) solutions. The results show good agreement even under the existence of air layers and topography in the model.

  12. Digital three-dimensional models of Drosophila development. (United States)

    Pereanu, Wayne; Hartenstein, Volker


    Digital models of organs, cells and subcellular structures have become important tools in biological and medical research. Reaching far beyond their traditional widespread use as didactic tools, computer-generated models serve as electronic atlases to identify specific elements in complex patterns, and as analytical tools that reveal relationships between such pattern elements that would remain obscure in two-dimensional sections. Digital models also offer the unique opportunity to store and display gene-expression patterns, and pilot studies have been made in several genetic model organisms, including mouse, Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, to construct digital graphic databases intended as repositories for gene-expression data.

  13. On three-dimensional geological modeling and visualization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qiang; XU; Hua


    The technology of 3D geological modeling will bring about great changes in the methods of geological data acquiring, storing, processing and displaying. However, no perfect or convenient software systems have been developed up to now since the geologic data which reflect geological entities bear the feature of diversity, uncertainty and complexity. Some supervoxel models, mathematical models of fault and geometrical models of fold have been contrived so as to show the space geometric configuration of the complicated geologic structures.The application-oriented system architecture for 3D geological modeling is established; and a novel design concept based on spatial data processing is also proposed with the technology of solid modeling as its core and the application of models as its objective. Theories and methods for 3D geological modeling will hopefully be enriched and developed. In the light of these theories and methods, a feature-based navigation visualization technique is also put forward in the paper.By integrating geo-database, graphics libraries and KBS with 3D dynamic simulation systems,geologists will be able to capture the partial characteristics and whole structure embodied in the geological data in a direct-viewing, figurative and accurate manner.

  14. Development of a Three-Dimensional Hand Model Using Three-Dimensional Stereophotogrammetry: Assessment of Image Reproducibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge A Hoevenaren

    Full Text Available Using three-dimensional (3D stereophotogrammetry precise images and reconstructions of the human body can be produced. Over the last few years, this technique is mainly being developed in the field of maxillofacial reconstructive surgery, creating fusion images with computed tomography (CT data for precise planning and prediction of treatment outcome. Though, in hand surgery 3D stereophotogrammetry is not yet being used in clinical settings.A total of 34 three-dimensional hand photographs were analyzed to investigate the reproducibility. For every individual, 3D photographs were captured at two different time points (baseline T0 and one week later T1. Using two different registration methods, the reproducibility of the methods was analyzed. Furthermore, the differences between 3D photos of men and women were compared in a distance map as a first clinical pilot testing our registration method.The absolute mean registration error for the complete hand was 1.46 mm. This reduced to an error of 0.56 mm isolating the region to the palm of the hand. When comparing hands of both sexes, it was seen that the male hand was larger (broader base and longer fingers than the female hand.This study shows that 3D stereophotogrammetry can produce reproducible images of the hand without harmful side effects for the patient, so proving to be a reliable method for soft tissue analysis. Its potential use in everyday practice of hand surgery needs to be further explored.

  15. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Glass Lens Molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    The required accuracy for the final dimensions of the molded lenses in wafer-based precision glass molding as well as the need for elimination of costly experimental trial and error calls for numerical simulations. This study deals with 3D thermo-mechanical modeling of the wafer-based precision...... glass lens molding process. First, a comprehensive 3D thermo-mechanical model of glass is implemented into a FORTRAN user subroutine (UMAT) in the FE program ABAQUS, and the developed FE model is validated with both a well-known sandwich seal test and experimental results of precision molding of several...... glass rings. Afterward, 3D thermo-mechanical modeling of the wafer-based glass lens manufacturing is performed to suggest a proper molding program (i.e., the proper set of process parameters including preset force-time and temperature-time histories) for molding a wafer to a desired dimension...

  16. Three-dimensional effects for radio frequency antenna modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; Stallings, D.C.


    Electromagnetic field calculations for radio frequency (rf) antennas in two dimensions (2-D) neglect finite antenna length effects as well as the feeders leading to the main current strap. Comparisons with experiments indicate that these 2-D calculations can overestimate the loading of the antenna and fail to give the correct reactive behavior. To study the validity of the 2-D approximation, the Multiple Antenna Implementation System (MAntIS) has been used to perform 3-D modeling of the power spectrum, plasma loading, and inductance for a relevant loop antenna design. Effects on antenna performance caused by feeders to the main current strap, conducting sidewalls, and finite phase velocity are considered. The plasma impedance matrix for the loading calculation is generated by use of the ORION-1D code. The 3-D model is benchmarked with the 2-D model in the 2-D limit. For finite-length antennas, inductance calculations are found to be in much more reasonable agreement with experiments for 3-D modeling than for the 2-D estimates. The modeling shows that the feeders affect the launched power spectrum in an indirect way by forcing the driven rf current to return in the antenna sidewalls rather than in the plasma as in the 2-D model. Thus, the feeders have much more influence than the plasma on the currents that return in the sidewall. It has also been found that poloidal dependencies in the plasma impedance matrix can reduce the loading from that predicted in the 2-D model. For some plasma parameters, the combined 3-D effects can lead to a reduction in the predicted loading by as much as a factor of 2 from that given by the 2-D model.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUANG Wei-Liang; HSIAO Shih-Chun


    The hydrodynamics of a pump sump consisting of a main channel, pump sump, and intake pipe is examined using Truchas,a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver, with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model. The numerical results of streamwise velocity profiles and flow patterns are discussed and compared with experimental data of Ansar and Nakato. Fairly good agreement is obtained. Furthermore, unlike Ansar et al.'s inviscid solution, the proposed numerical model includes the effect of fluid viscosity and considers more realistic simulation conditions. Simulation results show that viscosity affects the prediction of flow patterns and that the streamwise velocity can be better captured by including cross flow. The effects of the submergence Froude number on the free surface and streamwise velocity are also examined. The free surface significantly fluctuates at high submergence Froude number flows and the corresponding distribution of streamwise velocity profiles exhibits a trend different from that obtained for low submergence Froude number flows.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇迪; 陆汉城


    Forecasts and simulations are varied owing to different allocation of 3-dimensional variables in mesoscale models. No attempts have been made to address the issue of optimizing the simulation with a 3-dimensional variables distribution that should come to be. On the basis of linear nonhydrostatic anelastic equations, the paper hereby compares, mainly graphically, the computational dispersion with analytical solutions for four kinds of 3-dimensional meshes commonly found in mesoscale models, in terms of frequency, horizontal and vertical group velocities. The result indicates that the 3-D mesh C/CP has the best computational dispersion, followed by Z/LZ and Z/LY, with the C/L having the worst performance. It is then known that the C/CP mesh is the most desirable allocation in the design of nonhydrostatic baroclinic models. The mesh has, however, larger errors when dealing with shorter horizontal wavelengths. For the simulation of smaller horizontal scales, the horizontal grid intervals have to be shortened to reduce the errors. Additionally, in view of the dominant use of C/CP mesh in finite-difference models, it should be used in conjunction with the Z/LZ or Z/LY mesh if variables are allocated in spectral models.

  19. Three-dimensional environment models from airborne laser radar data (United States)

    Soderman, Ulf; Ahlberg, Simon; Elmqvist, Magnus; Persson, Asa


    Detailed 3D environment models for visualization and computer based analyses are important in many defence and homeland security applications, e.g. crisis management, mission planning and rehearsal, damage assessment, etc. The high resolution data from airborne laser radar systems for 3D sensing provide an excellent source of data for obtaining the information needed for many of these models. To utilise the 3D data provided by the laser radar systems however, efficient methods for data processing and environment model construction needs to be developed. In this paper we will present some results on the development of laser data processing methods, including methods for data classification, bare earth extraction, 3D-reconstruction of buildings, and identification of single trees and estimation of their position, height, canopy size and species. We will also show how the results can be used for the construction of detailed 3D environment models for military modelling and simulation applications. The methods use data from discrete return airborne laser radar systems and digital cameras.

  20. Three-Dimensional Gravity Model Applied to Underwater Navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Lei; FENG Hao; DENG Zhongliang; GAO Zhengbing


    At present, new integrated navigation, which usesthe location function of reference gravity anomaly map to control the errors of the inertial navigation system (INS), has been developed in marine navigation. It is named the gravityaided INS. Both the INS and real-time computation of gravity anomalies need a 3-D marine normal gravity model.Conventionally, a reduction method applied in geophysical survey is directly introduced to observed data processing. This reduction does not separate anomaly from normal gravity in the observed data, so errors cannot be avoided. The 3-D marine normal gravity model was derived from the J2 gravity model, and is suitable for the region whose depth is less than 1000 m.

  1. Three-dimensional bioremediation modeling in heterogeneous porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, M.F. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Roberson, K.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Chilakapati, A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Recently Price University and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have begun a collaborative research effort that involves laboratory, field, and simulation work directed toward validating remediation strategies, including both natural and in situ bioremediation at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites such as Hanford. Because of chemical, biological, geologic and physical complexities of modeling these DOE sites, one of the major simulation goals of the project is to formulate and implement accurate and efficient (parallel) algorithms for modeling multiphase/multicomponent mow and reactive transport. In this paper we first describe the physical problem that needs to be modeled. Because of the emergence of concurrent supercomputing, we propose accurate numerical algorithms that are based on operator-splitting in time and domain decomposition iterative techniques. In particular reference is made to the biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride.

  2. SARC Model for Three-Dimensional Coordinate Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jili; WANG Shuguang; SUN Yating


    In this paper, a transformation model named SARC(static-filter adjustment with restricted condition) is presented, which is more practical and more rigorous in theory and fitting any angle of rotation parameter. The transformation procedure is divided into 4 steps: ① the original and object coordinates can be regarded as observations with errors; ② rigorous formula is firstly deduced in order to compute the first approximation of the transformation parameters by use of four common points and the transformation equation is linearized; ③ calculate the most probable values and variances of the seven transformation parameters by SARC model; ④ to demonstrate validity of SARC , an example is given.

  3. The Acceptance of Exceptionality: A Three Dimensional Model. (United States)

    Martin, Larry L.; Nivens, Maryruth K.

    A model extrapolates from E. Kubler-Ross' conception of the stages of grief to apply to parent and family reactions when an exceptionality is identified. A chart lists possible parent feelings and reactions, possible school reactions to the parent in grief, and the child's reactions during each of five stages: denial, rage and anger, bargaining,…

  4. Three-dimensional Microstructure Simulation Model of Cement Based Materials,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.


    This paper describes a computer-based numerical model for the simulation of the development of microstructure during cement hydration. Special emphasis is on the algorithm for characterizing the pores. This includes the porosity and the pore size distribution and the topological properties of the po

  5. Three-dimensional point-cloud room model in room acoustics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hammershøi, Dorte


    and rotated around the vertical axis while for the second one the device is moved within the room. Benefits of both approaches were analyzed. The device's depth sensor provides a set of points in a three-dimensional coordinate system which represents scanned surfaces of the room interior. These data are used...... to build a 3D point-cloud model of the room. Several models are created to meet requirements of different room acoustics simulation algorithms: plane fitting and uniform voxel grid for geometric methods and triangulation mesh for the numerical methods. Advantages of the proposed method over the traditional...... acquisition and its representation with a 3D point-cloud model, as well as utilization of such a model for the room acoustics simulations. A room is scanned with a commercially available input device (Kinect for Xbox360) in two different ways; the first one involves the device placed in the middle of the room...

  6. Three-dimensional point-cloud room model for room acoustics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hammershøi, Dorte


    and rotated around the vertical axis while for the second one the device is moved within the room. Benefits of both approaches were analyzed. The device's depth sensor provides a set of points in a three-dimensional coordinate system which represents scanned surfaces of the room interior. These data are used...... to build a 3D point-cloud model of the room. Several models are created to meet requirements of different room acoustics simulation algorithms: plane fitting and uniform voxel grid for geometric methods and triangulation mesh for the numerical methods. Advantages of the proposed method over the traditional...... acquisition and its representation with a 3D point-cloud model, as well as utilization of such a model for the room acoustics simulations. A room is scanned with a commercially available input device (Kinect for Xbox360) in two different ways; the first one involves the device placed in the middle of the room...

  7. A three dimensional MHD model of the earth's magnetosphere (United States)

    Wu, C. C.; Walker, R. J.; Dawson, J. M.


    The results of a global MHD calculation of the steady state solar wind interaction with a dipole magnetic field are presented. The computer code used, being much faster than previous codes, makes it possible to increase the number of grid points in the system by an order of magnitude. The resulting model qualitatively reproduces many of the observed features of the quiet time magnetosphere including the bow shock, magnetopause, and plasma sheet.

  8. Development of a three-dimensional, regional, coupled wave, current, and sediment-transport model (United States)

    Warner, J.C.; Sherwood, C.R.; Signell, R.P.; Harris, C.K.; Arango, H.G.


    We are developing a three-dimensional numerical model that implements algorithms for sediment transport and evolution of bottom morphology in the coastal-circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v3.0), and provides a two-way link between ROMS and the wave model Simulating Waves in the Nearshore (SWAN) via the Model-Coupling Toolkit. The coupled model is applicable for fluvial, estuarine, shelf, and nearshore (surfzone) environments. Three-dimensional radiation-stress terms have been included in the momentum equations, along with effects of a surface wave roller model. The sediment-transport algorithms are implemented for an unlimited number of user-defined non-cohesive sediment classes. Each class has attributes of grain diameter, density, settling velocity, critical stress threshold for erosion, and erodibility constant. Suspended-sediment transport in the water column is computed with the same advection-diffusion algorithm used for all passive tracers and an additional algorithm for vertical settling that is not limited by the CFL criterion. Erosion and deposition are based on flux formulations. A multi-level bed framework tracks the distribution of every size class in each layer and stores bulk properties including layer thickness, porosity, and mass, allowing computation of bed morphology and stratigraphy. Also tracked are bed-surface properties including active-layer thickness, ripple geometry, and bed roughness. Bedload transport is calculated for mobile sediment classes in the top layer. Bottom-boundary layer submodels parameterize wave-current interactions that enhance bottom stresses and thereby facilitate sediment transport and increase bottom drag, creating a feedback to the circulation. The model is demonstrated in a series of simple test cases and a realistic application in Massachusetts Bay. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Probabilistic Three-Dimensional Model of an offshore Monopile Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    shear strength of the soil. Typically, measurement, statistical and model uncertainties are not taken into account in code - based, deterministic design. Hence, current methodology based design may be expensive, but the reliability of the foundation is unknown. Instead, a reliability - based design...... process based on stochastic analysis of the soil parameters is proposed to obtain an efficient design with known reliability and smaller costs for tests and construction. In this study a monopile foundation in undrained, over -consolidated clay is considered as an example. A three –dimensional (3D) finite...

  10. Computer modeling of a three-dimensional steam injection experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, S.; Castanier, L.M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Petroleum Research Inst.


    The experimental results and CT scans obtained during a steam-flooding experiment with the SUPRI 3-D steam injection laboratory model are compared with the results obtained from a numerical simulator for the same experiment. Simulation studies were carried out using the STARS (Steam and Additives Reservoir Simulator) compositional simulator. The saturation and temperature distributions obtained and heat-loss rates measured in the experimental model at different stages of steam-flooding were compared with those calculated from the numerical simulator. There is a fairly good agreement between the experimental results and the simulator output. However, the experimental scans show a greater degree of gravity override than that obtained with the simulator for the same heat-loss rates. Symmetric sides of the experimental 5-spot show asymmetric heat-loss rates contrary to theory and simulator results. Some utility programs have been written for extracting, processing and outputting the required grid data from the STARS simulator. These are general in nature and can be useful for other STARS users.

  11. Sustainable three-dimensional tissue model of human adipose tissue. (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Marra, Kacey G; Kaplan, David L


    The need for physiologically relevant sustainable human adipose tissue models is crucial for understanding tissue development, disease progression, in vitro drug development and soft tissue regeneration. The coculture of adipocytes differentiated from human adipose-derived stem cells, with endothelial cells, on porous silk protein matrices for at least 6 months is reported, while maintaining adipose-like outcomes. Cultures were assessed for structure and morphology (Oil Red O content and CD31 expression), metabolic functions (leptin, glycerol production, gene expression for GLUT4, and PPARγ) and cell replication (DNA content). The cocultures maintained size and shape over this extended period in static cultures, while increasing in diameter by 12.5% in spinner flask culture. Spinner flask cultures yielded improved adipose tissue outcomes overall, based on structure and function, when compared to the static cultures. This work establishes a tissue model system that can be applied to the development of chronic metabolic dysfunction systems associated with human adipose tissue, such as obesity and diabetes, due to the long term sustainable functions demonstrated here.

  12. Three-Dimensional Flow Separation Induced by a Model Vocal Fold Polyp (United States)

    Stewart, Kelley C.; Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.


    The fluid-structure energy exchange process for normal speech has been studied extensively, but it is not well understood for pathological conditions. Polyps and nodules, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, can disrupt vocal fold dynamics and thus can have devastating consequences on a patient's ability to communicate. A recent in-vitro investigation of a model polyp in a driven vocal fold apparatus demonstrated that such a geometric abnormality considerably disrupts the glottal jet behavior and that this flow field adjustment was a likely reason for the severe degradation of the vocal quality in patients. Understanding of the formation and propagation of vortical structures from a geometric protuberance, and their subsequent impact on the aerodynamic loadings that drive vocal fold dynamic, is a critical component in advancing the treatment of this pathological condition. The present investigation concerns the three-dimensional flow separation induced by a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, i.e. a model vocal fold polyp. Unsteady three-dimensional flow separation and its impact of the wall pressure loading are examined using skin friction line visualization and wall pressure measurements. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  13. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Macrosegregation in Continuously Cast Billets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qipeng Dong


    Full Text Available Macrosegregation, serving as a major defect in billets, can severely degrade material homogeneity. Better understanding of the physical characteristics of macrosegregation through numerical simulation could significantly contribute to the segregation control. The main purpose of this study was to predict macrosegregation in continuously cast billets with a newly developed three-dimensional macrosegregation model. The fluid flow, solidification, and solute transport in the entire billet region were solved and analyzed. Flow patterns, revealing a typical melt recirculation at the upper region of mold and thermosolutal convection at the secondary cooling zone, significantly affect the solidification and solute distribution. The solute redistribution occurring with thermosolutal convection at the solidification front contributes significantly to continued macrosegregation as solidification proceeds. The results of this study show that the equilibrium partition coefficient is mostly responsible for the magnitude of macrosegregation, while comparison between solute P and S indicated that diffusion coefficients also have some amount of influence. Typical macrosegregation patterns containing a positively segregated peak at the centerline and negatively segregated minima at either side were obtained via the proposed three-dimensional macrosegregation model, which validated by the measured surface temperatures and segregation degree.

  14. Three-dimensional modeling of radiative disks in binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Picogna, Giovanni


    Circumstellar disks in binaries are perturbed by the companion gravity causing significant alterations of the disk morphology. Spiral waves due to the companion tidal force also develop in the vertical direction and affect the disk temperature profile. These effects may significantly influence the process of planet formation. We perform 3D numerical simulations of disks in binaries with different initial dynamical configurations and physical parameters. Our goal is to investigate their evolution and their propensity to grow planets. We use an improved version of the SPH code VINE modified to better account for momentum and energy conservation. The energy equation includes a flux--limited radiative transfer algorithm and the disk cooling is obtained via "boundary particles". We model a system made of star/disk + star/disk where the secondary star (and relative disk) is less massive than the primary. The numerical simulations performed for different values of binary separation and disk density show that the dis...

  15. Transport signatures of surface potentials on three-dimensional topological insulators (United States)

    Roy, Sthitadhi; Das, Sourin


    The spin-momentum-locked nature of the robust surface states of three-dimensional topological insulators (3D TIs) makes them promising candidates for spintronics applications. Surface potentials which respect time-reversal symmetry can exist at the surface between a 3D TI and the trivial vacuum. These potentials can distort the spin texture of the surface states while retaining their gapless nature. In this work, the effect of all such surface potentials on the spin textures is studied. Since a tunnel magnetoresistance signal carries the information of the spin texture, it is proposed that spin-polarized tunneling of electrons to a 3D TI surface can be used to uniquely identify the surface potentials and quantitatively characterize them.

  16. A new three-dimensional electromechanical impedance model for an embedded dual-PZT transducer (United States)

    Wang, Dansheng; Li, Zhi; Zhu, Hongping


    In the past twenty years, the electromechanical (EM) impedance technique has been investigated extensively in the mechanical, aviation and civil engineering fields. Many different EM impedance models have been proposed to characterize the interaction between the surface-bonded PZT transducer and the host structure. This paper formulates a new three-dimensional EM impedance model characterizing the interaction between an embedded circle dual-PZT transducer and the host structure based on the effective impedance concept. The proposed model is validated by experimental results from a group of smart cement cubes, in which three circle dual-PZT transducers are embedded respectively. In addition, a new EM impedance measuring method for the dual-PZT transducer is also introduced. In the measuring method, only a common signal generator and an oscilloscope are needed, by which the exciting and receiving voltage signals are obtained respectively. Combined with fast Fourier transform the EM impedance signatures of the dual-PZT transducers are obtained.

  17. Three dimensional modeling of fractures in rock: From data to a regionalized parent-daughter model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hestir, K.; Chiles, J.P.; Long, J.; Billaux, D.


    We introduce a stochastic model for fracture systems called the parent-daughter model. The model uses circular discs to represent fractures. The discs are placed in three-dimensional space according to a random process called the parent-daughter point process. This process will give a clustering of fractures that cannot be produced with the usual Poisson process. We then outline a procedure for fitting the model to a particular data set.

  18. Testing photogrammetry-based techniques for three-dimensional surface documentation in forensic pathology. (United States)

    Urbanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr; Jurda, Mikoláš


    Three-dimensional surface technologies particularly close range photogrammetry and optical surface scanning have recently advanced into affordable, flexible and accurate techniques. Forensic postmortem investigation as performed on a daily basis, however, has not yet fully benefited from their potentials. In the present paper, we tested two approaches to 3D external body documentation - digital camera-based photogrammetry combined with commercial Agisoft PhotoScan(®) software and stereophotogrammetry-based Vectra H1(®), a portable handheld surface scanner. In order to conduct the study three human subjects were selected, a living person, a 25-year-old female, and two forensic cases admitted for postmortem examination at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic (both 63-year-old males), one dead to traumatic, self-inflicted, injuries (suicide by hanging), the other diagnosed with the heart failure. All three cases were photographed in 360° manner with a Nikon 7000 digital camera and simultaneously documented with the handheld scanner. In addition to having recorded the pre-autopsy phase of the forensic cases, both techniques were employed in various stages of autopsy. The sets of collected digital images (approximately 100 per case) were further processed to generate point clouds and 3D meshes. Final 3D models (a pair per individual) were counted for numbers of points and polygons, then assessed visually and compared quantitatively using ICP alignment algorithm and a cloud point comparison technique based on closest point to point distances. Both techniques were proven to be easy to handle and equally laborious. While collecting the images at autopsy took around 20min, the post-processing was much more time-demanding and required up to 10h of computation time. Moreover, for the full-body scanning the post-processing of the handheld scanner required rather time-consuming manual image alignment. In all instances the applied approaches

  19. Assessing waveform predictions of recent three-dimensional velocity models of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Bao, Xueyang; Shen, Yang


    Accurate velocity models are essential for both the determination of earthquake locations and source moments and the interpretation of Earth structures. With the increasing number of three-dimensional velocity models, it has become necessary to assess the models for accuracy in predicting seismic observations. Six models of the crustal and uppermost mantle structures in Tibet and surrounding regions are investigated in this study. Regional Rayleigh and Pn (or Pnl) waveforms from two ground truth events, including one nuclear explosion and one natural earthquake located in the study area, are simulated by using a three-dimensional finite-difference method. Synthetics are compared to observed waveforms in multiple period bands of 20-75 s for Rayleigh waves and 1-20 s for Pn/Pnl waves. The models are evaluated based on the phase delays and cross-correlation coefficients between synthetic and observed waveforms. A model generated from full-wave ambient noise tomography best predicts Rayleigh waves throughout the data set, as well as Pn/Pnl waves traveling from the Tarim Basin to the stations located in central Tibet. In general, the models constructed from P wave tomography are not well suited to predict Rayleigh waves, and vice versa. Possible causes of the differences between observed and synthetic waveforms, and frequency-dependent variations of the "best matching" models with the smallest prediction errors are discussed. This study suggests that simultaneous prediction for body and surface waves requires an integrated velocity model constructed with multiple seismic waveforms and consideration of other important properties, such as anisotropy.

  20. Three-dimensional structure of the surface layer protein of Aquaspirilium serpens VHA determined by electron crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, M.R.; Downing, K.H.; Wu, W.H.; Glaeser, R.M.


    The three-dimensional structure of the protein which forms the S layer of Aquaspirilium serpens strain VHA has been determined by electron microscopy. Structures have been reconstructed to a resolution of about 1.6 nm for single-layered specimens and about 4 nm for two-layered specimens. The structure, which has hexagonal symmetry, consists of a core in the shape of a cup, with six projections arising from the rim of the cup to join adjacent subunits at the threefold symmetry axes. The model is consistent with edge views of the S layer which have been obtained in this and other work. It is now clear from this work and from three-dimensional reconstructions of other bacterial S layers that a wide diversity exists in the morphology of surface layers.

  1. Three-dimensional structure of the surface layer protein of Aquaspirillum serpens VHA determined by electron crystallography. (United States)

    Dickson, M R; Downing, K H; Wu, W H; Glaeser, R M


    The three-dimensional structure of the protein which forms the S layer of Aquaspirillum serpens strain VHA has been determined by electron microscopy. Structures have been reconstructed to a resolution of about 1.6 nm for single-layered specimens and about 4 nm for two-layered specimens. The structure, which has hexagonal symmetry, consists of a core in the shape of a cup, with six projections arising from the rim of the cup to join adjacent subunits at the threefold symmetry axes. The model is consistent with edge views of the S layer which have been obtained in this and other work. It is now clear from this work and from three-dimensional reconstructions of other bacterial S layers that a wide diversity exists in the morphology of surface layers. Images PMID:3745114

  2. A system for quantitative morphological measurement and electronic modelling of neurons: three-dimensional reconstruction. (United States)

    Stockley, E W; Cole, H M; Brown, A D; Wheal, H V


    A system for accurately reconstructing neurones from optical sections taken at high magnification is described. Cells are digitised on a 68000-based microcomputer to form a database consisting of a series of linked nodes each consisting of x, y, z coordinates and an estimate of dendritic diameter. This database is used to generate three-dimensional (3-D) displays of the neurone and allows quantitative analysis of the cell volume, surface area and dendritic length. Images of the cell can be manipulated locally or transferred to an IBM 3090 mainframe where a wireframe model can be displayed on an IBM 5080 graphics terminal and rotated interactively in real time, allowing visualisation of the cell from all angles. Space-filling models can also be produced. Reconstructions can also provide morphological data for passive electrical simulations of hippocampal pyramidal cells.

  3. Three-dimensional Oldroyd-B fluid flow with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model (United States)

    Shehzad, S. A.; Hayat, T.; Abbasi, F. M.; Javed, Tariq; Kutbi, M. A.


    The impact of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux in three-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface is explored in this article. The boundary layer flow of an incompressible fluid is considered. Heat transfer analysis is discussed via the Cattaneo-Christov model of heat flux. Similarity transformations lead to the nonlinear ordinary differential systems. Convergent solutions of dimensionless velocities and temperature have been computed. Convergence analysis is presented graphically and numerically. The influence of physical parameters on the velocities and temperature are plotted and discussed. We observed that the values of temperature gradient are higher for the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model when we compare it with the values obtained by the simple Fourier's law of heat conduction.

  4. Development of a three dimensional circulation model based on fractional step method (United States)

    Abualtayef, Mazen; Kuroiwa, Masamitsu; Seif, Ahmed Khaled; Matsubara, Yuhei; Aly, Ahmed M.; Sayed, Ahmed A.; Sambe, Alioune Nar


    A numerical model was developed for simulating a three-dimensional multilayer hydrodynamic and thermodynamic model in domains with irregular bottom topography. The model was designed for examining the interactions between flow and topography. The model was based on the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and was solved using the fractional step method, which combines the finite difference method in the horizontal plane and the finite element method in the vertical plane. The numerical techniques were described and the model test and application were presented. For the model application to the northern part of Ariake Sea, the hydrodynamic.

  5. Verification and transfer of thermal pollution model. Volume 4: User's manual for three-dimensional rigid-lid model (United States)

    Lee, S. S.; Nwadike, E. V.; Sinha, S. E.


    The theory of a three dimensional (3-D) mathematical thermal discharge model and a related one dimensional (1-D) model are described. Model verification at two sites, a separate user's manual for each model are included. The 3-D model has two forms: free surface and rigid lid. The former allows a free air/water interface and is suited for significant surface wave heights compared to mean water depth, estuaries and coastal regions. The latter is suited for small surface wave heights compared to depth because surface elevation was removed as a parameter. These models allow computation of time dependent velocity and temperature fields for given initial conditions and time-varying boundary conditions. The free surface model also provides surface height variations with time.

  6. Evaluation of the Fish Passage Effectiveness of the Bonneville I Prototype Surface Collector using Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Fish Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Moursund, Robert; Carlson, Thomas J.; Adams, Noah; Rhondorf, D.


    This report describes tests conducted at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River in the spring of 2000 using three-dimensional acoustic telemetry and computational fluid dynamics hydraulic modeling to observe the response of outmigrating juvenile steelhead and yearling chinook to a prototype surface collector installed at the Powerhouse. The study described in this report was one of several conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to prepare a decision document on which of two bypass methods: surface flow bypass or extended-length submersible bar screens to use to help smolts pass around Bonneville dams without going through the turbines.

  7. Three-dimensional oil dispersion model in the Campos Basin, Brazil. (United States)

    Oliveira, Bernardo Lopes Almeida de; Netto, Theodoro Antoun; Assad, Luiz Paulo de Freitas


    This paper presents the physical and mathematical formulation of a three-dimensional oil dispersion model that calculates the trajectory from the seafloor to the sea surface, its assumptions and constraints. It was developed by researchers who are familiar with oil spill dispersion and mathematical analysis. Oil dispersion is calculated through two computational routines. The first calculates the vertical dispersion along the water column and resamples the droplets when the oil reaches the surface. The second calculates the surface displacement of the spill. This model is based on the Eulerian approach, and it uses numerical solution schemes in time and in space to solve the equation for advective-diffusive transport. A case study based on an actual accident that happened in the Campos Basin, in Rio de Janeiro state, considering the instant spill of 1000 m(3) was used to evaluate the proposed model. After calculating the vertical transport, it was estimated that the area covered by the oil spill on the surface was about 35,685 m². After calculating the dispersion at the surface, the plume area was estimated as 20% of the initial area, resulting in a final area of 28,548 m².

  8. Three-dimensional assessment of dental casts' occlusal surfaces using two impression materials. (United States)

    Tarawneh, F M; Panos, P G; Athanasiou, A E


    The aim of this study was to assess by means of a three-dimensional computed tomography scanning system the occlusal surface characteristics of dental casts made using two different impression materials. Alginate and polyvinyl siloxane impressions were taken of 20 dental students resulting in 40 dental casts. The casts were paired for each student separately so that each pair consisted of an alginate poured cast and a polyvinyl siloxane poured out cast. The casts were scanned using FlashCT scanner and for each cast, a three-dimensional digital image was obtained. The digitized casts were processed using the three-dimensional imaging software Geomagic Studio 9. A total of 464 paired teeth were digitally separated and superimposed. For each tooth, two measurements were obtained corresponding to the two different impression materials used. The two sets of volumes for all digitally separated teeth were compared and analysed using the Wilcoxon signed test. Larger volume measurements were obtained for teeth separated from alginate poured out casts than from their corresponding ones from polyvinyl siloxane casts (P = 0.005). When the teeth were divided into the groups of incisors, canines and premolars/molars, only the last one exhibited significant difference (P = 0.00). The mean difference between the volumes measured for all 464 teeth separated was 0.041 mm(3) (+/-0.33). The occlusal surfaces of teeth appear differently in dental casts depending on the impression materials used. Impressions of dental casts should be utilized with caution in relation to their research application and in reference with dental wear studies.

  9. Three-dimensional plotter technology for fabricating polymeric scaffolds with micro-grooved surfaces. (United States)

    Son, JoonGon; Kim, GeunHyung


    Various mechanical techniques have been used to fabricate biomedical scaffolds, including rapid prototyping (RP) devices that operate from CAD files of the target feature information. The three-dimensional (3-D) bio-plotter is one RP system that can produce design-based scaffolds with good mechanical properties for mimicking cartilage and bones. However, the scaffolds fabricated by RP have very smooth surfaces, which tend to discourage initial cell attachment. Initial cell attachment, migration, differentiation and proliferation are strongly dependent on the chemical and physical characteristics of the scaffold surface. In this study, we propose a new 3-D plotting method supplemented with a piezoelectric system for fabricating surface-modified scaffolds. The effects of the physically-modified surface on the mechanical and hydrophilic properties were investigated, and the results of cell culturing of chondrocytes indicate that this technique is a feasible new method for fabricating high-quality 3-D polymeric scaffolds.

  10. Quantitative facial asymmetry: using three-dimensional photogrammetry to measure baseline facial surface symmetry. (United States)

    Taylor, Helena O; Morrison, Clinton S; Linden, Olivia; Phillips, Benjamin; Chang, Johnny; Byrne, Margaret E; Sullivan, Stephen R; Forrest, Christopher R


    Although symmetry is hailed as a fundamental goal of aesthetic and reconstructive surgery, our tools for measuring this outcome have been limited and subjective. With the advent of three-dimensional photogrammetry, surface geometry can be captured, manipulated, and measured quantitatively. Until now, few normative data existed with regard to facial surface symmetry. Here, we present a method for reproducibly calculating overall facial symmetry and present normative data on 100 subjects. We enrolled 100 volunteers who underwent three-dimensional photogrammetry of their faces in repose. We collected demographic data on age, sex, and race and subjectively scored facial symmetry. We calculated the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the native and reflected faces, reflecting about a plane of maximum symmetry. We analyzed the interobserver reliability of the subjective assessment of facial asymmetry and the quantitative measurements and compared the subjective and objective values. We also classified areas of greatest asymmetry as localized to the upper, middle, or lower facial thirds. This cluster of normative data was compared with a group of patients with subtle but increasing amounts of facial asymmetry. We imaged 100 subjects by three-dimensional photogrammetry. There was a poor interobserver correlation between subjective assessments of asymmetry (r = 0.56). There was a high interobserver reliability for quantitative measurements of facial symmetry RMSD calculations (r = 0.91-0.95). The mean RMSD for this normative population was found to be 0.80 ± 0.24 mm. Areas of greatest asymmetry were distributed as follows: 10% upper facial third, 49% central facial third, and 41% lower facial third. Precise measurement permitted discrimination of subtle facial asymmetry within this normative group and distinguished norms from patients with subtle facial asymmetry, with placement of RMSDs along an asymmetry ruler. Facial surface symmetry, which is poorly assessed

  11. Three-dimensional geologic model of the southeastern Espanola Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, Scott A.


    This multimedia model and report show and describe digital three-dimensional faulted surfaces and volumes of lithologic units that confine and constrain the basin-fill aquifers within the Espanola Basin of north-central New Mexico. These aquifers are the primary groundwater resource for the cities of Santa Fe and Espanola, six Pueblo nations, and the surrounding areas. The model presented in this report is a synthesis of geologic information that includes (1) aeromagnetic and gravity data and seismic cross sections; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from selected drill holes; (3) geologic maps, geologic cross sections, and interpretations; and (4) mapped faults and interpreted faults from geophysical data. Modeled faults individually or collectively affect the continuity of the rocks that contain the basin aquifers; they also help define the form of this rift basin. Structure, trend, and dip data not previously published were added; these structures are derived from interpretations of geophysical information and recent field observations. Where possible, data were compared and validated and reflect the complex relations of structures in this part of the Rio Grande rift. This interactive geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Espanola Basin, to show the connectivity of geologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults, and to show approximate dips of the lithologic units. The viewing software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, within this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  12. Geostatistical three-dimensional modeling of oolite shoals, St. Louis Limestone, southwest Kansas (United States)

    Qi, L.; Carr, T.R.; Goldstein, R.H.


    In the Hugoton embayment of southwestern Kansas, reservoirs composed of relatively thin (oil. The geometry and distribution of oolitic deposits control the heterogeneity of the reservoirs, resulting in exploration challenges and relatively low recovery. Geostatistical three-dimensional (3-D) models were constructed to quantify the geometry and spatial distribution of oolitic reservoirs, and the continuity of flow units within Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields. Lithofacies in uncored wells were predicted from digital logs using a neural network. The tilting effect from the Laramide orogeny was removed to construct restored structural surfaces at the time of deposition. Well data and structural maps were integrated to build 3-D models of oolitic reservoirs using stochastic simulations with geometry data. Three-dimensional models provide insights into the distribution, the external and internal geometry of oolitic deposits, and the sedimentologic processes that generated reservoir intervals. The structural highs and general structural trend had a significant impact on the distribution and orientation of the oolitic complexes. The depositional pattern and connectivity analysis suggest an overall aggradation of shallow-marine deposits during pulses of relative sea level rise followed by deepening near the top of the St. Louis Limestone. Cemented oolitic deposits were modeled as barriers and baffles and tend to concentrate at the edge of oolitic complexes. Spatial distribution of porous oolitic deposits controls the internal geometry of rock properties. Integrated geostatistical modeling methods can be applicable to other complex carbonate or siliciclastic reservoirs in shallow-marine settings. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Simple analytic functions for modeling three-dimensional flow in layered aquifers (United States)

    Fitts, Charles R.


    Analytic functions are presented for modeling three-dimensional steady groundwater flow in stratified aquifers. The functions create discontinuity in the potential across an infinite plane while maintaining continuity of the potential gradient across the plane. These functions may be superimposed with other analytic functions to model three-dimensional flow in stratified aquifers under a variety of boundary conditions. An interface between two layers of different hydraulic conductivity, an impermeable boundary, or a thin leaky layer may be modeled using such functions. These functions are simple compared to functions for doublet distributions over finite plane panels and are suitable for efficient modeling.

  14. Three-dimensional Physical Modeling: Applications and Experience at Mayo Clinic. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Jane S; Morris, Jonathan M; Foley, Thomas A; Williamson, Eric E; Leng, Shuai; McGee, Kiaran P; Kuhlmann, Joel L; Nesberg, Linda E; Vrtiska, Terri J


    Radiologists will be at the center of the rapid technologic expansion of three-dimensional (3D) printing of medical models, as accurate models depend on well-planned, high-quality imaging studies. This article outlines the available technology and the processes necessary to create 3D models from the radiologist's perspective. We review the published medical literature regarding the use of 3D models in various surgical practices and share our experience in creating a hospital-based three-dimensional printing laboratory to aid in the planning of complex surgeries.

  15. Chemical functionalization of surfaces for building three-dimensional engineered biosensors (United States)

    Marques, Marco E.; Mansur, Alexandra A. P.; Mansur, Herman S.


    This study presents a new approach for developing biosensors based on enzymatic systems with designed three-dimensional structures. Silica glass slides were chemically functionalized at surfaces by reacting with organosilanes, 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTES), and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), using sol-gel process at room temperature. The functionalization of the supports was characterized by contact angle measurements and FTIR spectroscopy. The first enzyme layer was covalently immobilized to the support by a bi-functional linker (glutaraldehyde). The second enzyme layer was deposited using the protein conjugation method based on the high affinity "avidin-biotin" interactions. Each enzyme was biotinylated before being added to the nanostructured system and avidin was used as the binder between consecutive enzyme layers. The biochemical response was assayed at all stages to certify that the enzymatic bioactivity was retained throughout the entire layer-by-layer (LBL) process. The model of building 3D-enzymatic systems was evaluated using the enzymatic structure with glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). It was verified that the amino-modified support presented the highest bioactivity response compared to the other chemical functionalities. Moreover, the bienzyme nanostructure demonstrated relevant biochemical activity upon injecting the glucose substrate into the system. Finally, as a proof of concept, the bienzyme systems were assayed using real samples of regular and sugar-free soft drinks where they effectively behaved as structured biosensor for glucose with the built-in 3D hybrid architecture. Based on the results, it can be foreseen the development of promising new nanomaterials for several analytical applications such as monitoring the quality of food and beverages for nutrition purposes.

  16. Development Report on the Idaho National Laboratory Sitewide Three-Dimensional Aquifer Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas R. Wood; Catherine M. Helm-Clark; Hai Huang; Swen Magnuson; Travis McLing; Brennon Orr; Michael J. Rohe; Mitchell A. Plummer; Robert Podgorney; Erik Whitmore; Michael S. Roddy


    A sub-regional scale, three-dimensional flow model of the Snake River Plain Aquifer was developed to support remediation decisions for Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10 08 at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. This model has been calibrated primarily to water levels and secondarily to groundwater velocities interpreted from stable isotope disequilibrium studies and the movement of anthropogenic contaminants in the aquifer from facilities at the INL. The three-dimensional flow model described in this report is one step in the process of constructing a fully three-dimensional groundwater flow and contaminant transport model as prescribed in the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide Groundwater Model Work Plan. An updated three-dimensional hydrogeologic conceptual model is presented along with the geologic basis for the conceptual model. Sediment-dominated three-dimensional volumes were used to represent the geology and constrain groundwater flow as part of the conceptual model. Hydrological, geochemical, and geological data were summarized and evaluated to infer aquifer behavior. A primary observation from development and evaluation of the conceptual model was that relative to flow on a regional scale, the aquifer can be treated with steady-state conditions. Boundary conditions developed for the three-dimensional flow model are presented along with inverse simulations that estimate parameterization of hydraulic conductivity. Inverse simulations were performed using the pilot-point method to estimate permeability distributions. Thermal modeling at the regional aquifer scale and at the sub-regional scale using the inverted permeabilities is presented to corroborate the results of the flow model. The results from the flow model show good agreement with simulated and observed water levels almost always within 1 meter. Simulated velocities show generally good agreement with some discrepancies in an interpreted low

  17. Creating physically-based three-dimensional microstructures: Bridging phase-field and crystal plasticity models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hojun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Owen, Steven J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdeljawad, Fadi F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanks, Byron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Battaile, Corbett Chandler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    In order to better incorporate microstructures in continuum scale models, we use a novel finite element (FE) meshing technique to generate three-dimensional polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field grain growth model of grain microstructures. The proposed meshing technique creates hexahedral FE meshes that capture smooth interfaces between adjacent grains. Three dimensional realizations of grain microstructures from the phase field model are used in crystal plasticity-finite element (CP-FE) simulations of polycrystalline a -iron. We show that the interface conformal meshes significantly reduce artificial stress localizations in voxelated meshes that exhibit the so-called "wedding cake" interfaces. This framework provides a direct link between two mesoscale models - phase field and crystal plasticity - and for the first time allows mechanics simulations of polycrystalline materials using three-dimensional hexahedral finite element meshes with realistic topological features.

  18. Three-Dimensional Geometrical Modelling of Wild Boar Head by Reverse Engineering Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Xu; Min-xu Lin; Jian-qiao Li; Zhao-liang Wang; B. Chirende


    In this paper, a wild boar head was taken as the bionic research object for the development of new ridgers, a kind of plough."The reverse engineering technology was adopted to obtain the surface geometrical information of the head. Several three-dimensional (3D) point clouds of the head were captured first using a non-touch laser scanner, and an integrated point cloud was generated by aligning these point clouds using UG/Imageware. Then, the digital surface model of the head was rebuilt by means of CATIA. The characteristic curves of the surface model were analyzed. The results show that the average error between the rebuilt surface and the point cloud is -0.431 mm. The max curvature of the ridge on the neb of the head is 0.187 mm-1, and the max and rain Gauss curvatures on the surface are 0.008 mm-2 and -0.002 mm-2. These geometrical information are the essential parameters for biomimetics study of the ridger.

  19. The Three-Dimensional Finite-Volume Non-Hydrostatic Icosahedral Model (NIM) (United States)

    Lee, J. L.; MacDonald, A. E.


    A multi-scales Non-hydrostatic Icosahedral Model (NIM) has been developed at Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) to meet NOAA's future prediction mission ranging from mesoscale short-range, high-impact weather forecasts to longer-term intra-seasonal climate prediction. NIM formulates the latest numerical innovation of the three-dimensional finite-volume control volume on the quasi-uniform icosahedral grid suitable for ultra-high resolution simulations. NIM is designed to utilize the state-of-art computing architecture such as Graphic Processing Units (GPU) processors to run globally at kilometer scale resolution to explicitly resolve convective storms and complex terrains. The novel features of NIM numerical design include: 1.1. A local coordinate system upon which finite-volume integrations are undertaken. The use of a local Cartesian coordinate greatly simplifies the mathematic formulation of the finite-volume operators and leads to the finite-volume integration along straight lines on the plane, rather than along curved lines on the spherical surface. 1.2. A general indirect addressing scheme developed for modeling on irregular grid. It arranges the icosahedral grid with a one-dimensional vector loop structure, table specified memory order, and an indirect addressing scheme that yields very compact code despite the complexities of this grid. 1.3. Use of three-dimensional finite-volume integration over control volumes constructed on the height coordinates. Three-dimensional finite-volume integration accurately represents the Newton Third Law over terrain and improves pressure gradient force over complex terrain. 1.4. Use of the Runge-Kutta 4th order conservative and positive-definite transport scheme 1.5. NIM dynamical solver has been implemented on CPU as well as GPU. As one of the potential candidates for NWS next generation models, NIM dynamical core has been successfully verified with various benchmark test cases including those proposed by DCMIP

  20. Development of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model for solar corona and solar wind simulation (United States)

    Yuan, Xingqiu; Trichtchenko, Larisa; Boteler, David

    Propagation of coronal mass ejections from solar surface to the Earth magnetosphere is strongly influenced by the conditions in solar corona and ambient solar wind. Thus, reliable simulation of the background solar wind is the primary task toward the development of numerical model for the transient events. In this paper we introduce a new numerical model which has been specifically designed for numerical study of the solar corona and ambient solar wind. This model is based on our recently developed three-dimensional Spherical Coordinate Adaptive Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) code (SCA-MHD-3D) [Yuan et al., 2009]. Modifications has been done to include the observed magnetic field at the photosphere as inner boundary conditions. The energy source term together with reduced plasma gamma are used in the nonlinear MHD equations in order to simulate the solar wind acceleration from subsonic speed at solar surface to supersonic speed at the inter-heliosphere region, and the absorbing boundary conditions are used at the solar surface. This model has been applied to simulate the background solar wind condition for several different solar rotations, and comparison between the observation and model output have shown that it reproduces many features of solar wind, including open and closed magnetic fields, fast and slow solar wind speed, sector boundaries, etc.

  1. A three-dimensional digital visualization model of cervical nerves in a healthy person*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaming Cao; Dong Fu; Sen Li


    Three-dimensional reconstruction nerve models are classically obtained from two-dimensional ages of “visible human” frozen sections. However, because of the flexibility of nerve tissues and smal color differences compared with surrounding tissues, the integrity and validity of nerve tissues can be impaired during mil ing. Thus, in the present study, we obtained two-dimensional data from a healthy volunteer based on continuous CT angiography and magnetic resonance myelography. Semi-automatic segmentation and reconstruction were then conducted at different thresholds in different tissues using Mimics software. Smal anatomical structures such as muscles and cervical nerves were reconstructed using the medical computer aided design module. Three-dimensional digital models of the cervical nerves and their surrounding structures were successful y developed, which al owed visualization of the spatial relation of anatomical structures with a strong three-dimensional effect, distinct appearance, clear distribution, and good continuity, precision, and integrality. These results indicate the validity of a three-dimensional digital visualization model of healthy human cervical nerves, which overcomes the disadvantages of mil ing, avoids data loss, and exhibits a realistic appearance and three-dimensional image.

  2. A three-dimensional digital visualization model of cervical nerves in a healthy person. (United States)

    Cao, Jiaming; Fu, Dong; Li, Sen


    Three-dimensional reconstruction nerve models are classically obtained from two-dimensional ages of "visible human" frozen sections. However, because of the flexibility of nerve tissues and small color differences compared with surrounding tissues, the integrity and validity of nerve tissues can be impaired during milling. Thus, in the present study, we obtained two-dimensional data from a healthy volunteer based on continuous CT angiography and magnetic resonance myelography. Semi-automatic segmentation and reconstruction were then conducted at different thresholds in different tissues using Mimics software. Small anatomical structures such as muscles and cervical nerves were reconstructed using the medical computer aided design module. Three-dimensional digital models of the cervical nerves and their surrounding structures were successfully developed, which allowed visualization of the spatial relation of anatomical structures with a strong three-dimensional effect, distinct appearance, clear distribution, and good continuity, precision, and integrality. These results indicate the validity of a three-dimensional digital visualization model of healthy human cervical nerves, which overcomes the disadvantages of milling, avoids data loss, and exhibits a realistic appearance and three-dimensional image.

  3. Coupled Models and Parallel Simulations for Three-Dimensional Full-Stokes Ice Sheet Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huai; Ju, Lili


    A three-dimensional full-Stokes computational model is considered for determining the dynamics, temperature, and thickness of ice sheets. The governing thermomechanical equations consist of the three-dimensional full-Stokes system with nonlinear rheology for the momentum, an advective-diffusion energy equation for temperature evolution, and a mass conservation equation for icethickness changes. Here, we discuss the variable resolution meshes, the finite element discretizations, and the parallel algorithms employed by the model components. The solvers are integrated through a well-designed coupler for the exchange of parametric data between components. The discretization utilizes high-quality, variable-resolution centroidal Voronoi Delaunay triangulation meshing and existing parallel solvers. We demonstrate the gridding technology, discretization schemes, and the efficiency and scalability of the parallel solvers through computational experiments using both simplified geometries arising from benchmark test problems and a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry.

  4. A Three-Dimensional Enormous Surface Area Aluminum Microneedle Array with Nanoporous Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Chun Chen


    Full Text Available We proposed fabricating an aluminum microneedle array with a nanochannel structure on the surface by combining micromachining, electrolyte polishing, and anodization methods. The microneedle array provides a three-dimensional (3D structure that possesses several hundred times more surface area than a traditional nanochannel template. Therefore, the microneedle array can potentially be used in many technology applications. This 3D microneedle array device can not only be used for painless injection or extraction, but also for storage, highly sensitive detection, drug delivery, and microelectrodes. From the calculation we made, the microneedle array not only increases surface area, but also enlarges the capacity of the device. Therefore, the microneedle array can further be used on many detecting, storing, or drug delivering applications.

  5. A three-dimensional deformable model for segmentation of human prostate from ultrasound images. (United States)

    Ghanei, A; Soltanian-Zadeh, H; Ratkewicz, A; Yin, F F


    Segmentation of human prostate from ultrasound (US) images is a crucial step in radiation therapy, especially in real-time planning for US image-guided prostate seed implant. This step is critical to determine the radioactive seed placement and to ensure the adequate dose coverage of prostate. However, due to the low contrast of prostate and very low signal-to-noise ratio in US images, this task remains as an obstacle. The manual segmentation of this object is time consuming and highly subjective. In this work, we have proposed a three-dimensional (3D) deformable surface model for automatic segmentation of prostate. The model has a discrete structure made from a set of vertices in the 3D space that form triangle facets. The model converges from an initial shape to its equilibrium iteratively, by a weighted sum of the internal and external forces. Internal forces are based on the local curvature of the surface and external forces are extracted from the volumetric image data by applying an appropriate edge filter. We have also developed a method for initialization of the model from a few initial contours that are drawn on different slices. During the deformation, a resampling procedure is used to maintain the resolution of the model. The entire model is applied in a multiscale scheme, which increases the robustness and speed, and guarantees a better convergence. The model is tested on real clinical data and initial results are very promising.

  6. A three-dimensional cellular automaton model for simulation of dendritic growth of magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengwu WU; Shoumei XIONG


    A numerical model based on the cellular automaton method for the three-dimensional simulation of dendritic growth of magnesium alloy was developed.The growth kinetics was calculated from the complete solution of the transport equations.By constructing a three-dimensional anisotropy model with the cubic CA cells,simulation of dendritic growth of magnesium alloy with six-fold symmetry in the basal plane was achieved.The model was applied to simulate the equiaxed dendritic growth and columnar dendritic growth under directional solidification,and its capability was addressed by comparing the simulated results to experimental results and those in the previously published works.Meanwhile,the three-dimensional simulated results were also compared with that of in two dimensions,offering a deep insight into the microstructure formation of magnesium alloy during solidification.

  7. Compensation in Root Water Uptake Models Combined with Three-Dimensional Root Length Density Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.


    A three-dimensional root length density distribution function is introduced that made it possible to compare two empirical uptake models with a more mechanistic uptake model. Adding a compensation component to the more empirical model resulted in predictions of root water uptake distributions

  8. Three-dimensional semi-idealized model for tidal motion in tidal estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, M.; Schuttelaars, H.M.; Roos, P.C.; Möller, M.


    In this paper, a three-dimensional semi-idealized model for tidal motion in a tidal estuary of arbitrary shape and bathymetry is presented. This model aims at bridging the gap between idealized and complex models. The vertical profiles of the velocities are obtained analytically in terms of the firs

  9. Three dimensional assessment of condylar surface changes and remodeling after orthognathic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Hye; Lee, Jin Woo; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae Myung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    This study was performed to evaluate condylar surface changes and remodeling after orthognathic surgery using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) imaging, including comparisons between the right and left sides and between the sexes. Forty patients (20 males and 20 females) who underwent multi-detector CT examinations before and after surgery were selected. Three-dimensional images comprising thousands of points on the condylar surface were obtained before and after surgery. For the quantitative assessment of condylar surface changes, point-to-point (preoperative-to-postoperative) distances were calculated using D processing software. These point-to-point distances were converted to a color map. In order to evaluate the types of condylar remodeling, the condylar head was divided into six areas (anteromedial, anteromiddle, anterolateral, posteromedial, posteromiddle, and posterolateral areas) and each area was classified into three types of condylar remodeling (bone formation, no change, and bone resorption) based on the color map. Additionally, comparative analyses were performed between the right and left sides and according to sex. The mean of the average point-to-point distances on condylar surface was 0.11±0.03 mm. Bone resorption occurred more frequently than other types of condylar remodeling, especially in the lateral areas. However, bone formation in the anteromedial area was particularly prominent. No significant difference was found between the right and left condyles, but condylar surface changes in males were significantly larger than in females. This study revealed that condylar remodeling exhibited a tendency towards bone resorption, especially in the lateral areas. Condylar surface changes occurred, but were small.

  10. Cause-effect relationship between vocal fold physiology and voice production in a three-dimensional phonation model


    Zhang, Zhaoyan


    The goal of this study is to better understand the cause-effect relation between vocal fold physiology and the resulting vibration pattern and voice acoustics. Using a three-dimensional continuum model of phonation, the effects of changes in vocal fold stiffness, medial surface thickness in the vertical direction, resting glottal opening, and subglottal pressure on vocal fold vibration and different acoustic measures are investigated. The results show that the medial surface thickness has dom...

  11. Creating Three-dimensional Printed Models of Acetabular Fractures for Use as Educational Tools. (United States)

    Manganaro, Matthew S; Morag, Yoav; Weadock, William J; Yablon, Corrie M; Gaetke-Udager, Kara; Stein, Erica B


    Acetabular fractures are frequently encountered in some clinical practices, and the precise classification of these fractures greatly influences treatments and outcomes. The authors identified the need for an educational aid when teaching acetabular fracture classifications, given the complex spatial anatomy and the nonintuitive classification system that is commonly used. Three-dimensional ( 3D three-dimensional ) printing is an evolving technique that has applications as an educational aid, providing the student with a tangible object to interact with and learn from. In this article, the authors review their experience creating 3D three-dimensional printed models of the hip for educational purposes. Their goal was to create 3D three-dimensional printed models for use as educational aids when teaching acetabular fracture classifications. Complex cases involving a combination of fracture types, subtle nondisplaced fractures, and/or fractures with associated osteopenia or artifacts were excluded. The selected computed tomographic (CT) scans were loaded into a medical 3D three-dimensional volume-rendering program, and a 3D three-dimensional volumetric model was created. Standard Tessellation Language ( STL Standard Tessellation Language ) files were then exported to STL Standard Tessellation Language model-editing software and edited to retain only the involved hemipelvis. In some cases, the proximal femur and ipsilateral hemisacrum may be included to emphasize hip alignment or disruption of the force transfer. Displaced fracture fragments can be printed as separate segments or a single unit after the addition of struts. Printing was performed by using an additive manufacturing principle, with approximately 36-48 hours needed for printing, postprocessing, and drying. The cost to print a 1:1 scale model was approximately $100-$200, depending on the amount of plastic material used. These models can then be painted according to the two-column theory regarding acetabular

  12. The Three-dimensional Geodynamic Model of The Pechenga Ore District (baltic Shield, Russia) (United States)

    Lobanov, K.; Kazansky, V.

    The drilling and investigation of the Kola superdeep borehole SG-3 for the first time provided direct data on the structure and composition of the ancient continental crust at previously inaccessible depths. They stimulated the elaboration of alternative three- dimensional models of the Pechenga ore district equally. These models consider the Pechenga structure that hosts large sulfide copper-nickel deposits as a graben-syncline, asymmetrical syncline, explosive volcanic center, and two-continent collision suture zone. The paper comprises the reappraisal of the alternative models and the charac- teristics of an integrated three-dimensional geodynamic model of the Pechenga ore district. Rock density and their anisotropy in elastic properties were used as the main parameters for the formalized description of the borehole SG-3 section and the refer- ence profile on the day surface. The first parameter reflects the rocks' lithology, the second accounts for the intensity of synmetamorphic tectonic deformations. In addi- tion, new age datings and morphology of the gravity field of the Pechenga district were considered. The computer-based technology insured reappraisal of the alterna- tive models by comparison of observed and calculated gravity profiles going through the borehole SG-3. The constraints of the proposed integrated model are based both on the investigations of the borehole SG-3 and on the additional surface studies. The model regards the Pechenga ore district as a horizontal section of a mantle-derived volcano-plutonic ore-forming system of the central type. The model defines the north- ern limb of the Pechenga structure as an imbricated fragment of a volcanic caldera and describes its southern limb as a combination of a sheeted monocline in a jux- taposition with rheomorphic granitoid domes. Development of the system was pre- ceded by rifting of the consolidated sialic crust. The model implies a co-genetic re- lationship between the Early Proterozoic

  13. A novel wide-range precision instrument for measuring three-dimensional surface topography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xu-dong; CHEN Yu-rong; XIE Tie-bang


    We developed a measuring instrument that had wide range, high precision, small measuring touch force. The instrument for three-dimensional (3D) surface topography measurement was composed of a high precision displacement sensor based on the Michelson interference principle, a 3D platform based on vertical scanning, a measuring and control circuit, and an industrial control computer. It was a closed loop control system, which changed the traditional moving stylus scanning style into a moving platform scanning style. When the workpiece was measured, the lever of the displacement sensor returned to the balanced position in every sample interval according to the zero offset of the displacement sensor. The non-linear error caused by the rotation of the lever was, therefore, very small even if the measuring range was wide. The instrument can measure the roughness and the profile size of a curved surface.

  14. Three-dimensional loading model for periodontal ligament regeneration in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.D.; Smit, T.H.; Walboomers, X.F.; Everts, V.; Jansen, J.A.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.


    In this study we present a new three-dimensional (3D) model to study effects of mechanical loading on tendon/ligament formation in vitro. The model mimics a functional periodontal ligament (PDL), which anchors dental roots to the jaw bone and transfers the axial load of mastication to the jaw bone.

  15. Three-dimensional loading model for periodontal ligament regeneration in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.D.; Smit, T.H.; Walboomers, X.F.; Everts, V.; Jansen, J.A.; Bronckers, A.L.


    In this study we present a new three-dimensional (3D) model to study effects of mechanical loading on tendon/ligament formation in vitro. The model mimics a functional periodontal ligament (PDL), which anchors dental roots to the jaw bone and transfers the axial load of mastication to the jaw bone.

  16. Three-dimensional loading model for periodontal ligament regeneration in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.D.; Smit, T.H.; Walboomers, X.F.; Everts, V.; Jansen, J.A.; Bronckers, A.L.


    In this study we present a new three-dimensional (3D) model to study effects of mechanical loading on tendon/ligament formation in vitro. The model mimics a functional periodontal ligament (PDL), which anchors dental roots to the jaw bone and transfers the axial load of mastication to the jaw bone.

  17. Three-dimensional loading model for periodontal ligament regeneration in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Berendsen; T.H. Smit; X.F. Walboomers; V. Everts; J.A. Jansen; A.L.J.J. Bronckers


    In this study we present a new three-dimensional (3D) model to study effects of mechanical loading on tendon/ligament formation in vitro. The model mimics a functional periodontal ligament (PDL), which anchors dental roots to the jaw bone and transfers the axial load of mastication to the jaw bone.

  18. Three-Dimensional Model Test Study of Xbloc Armoured Breakwaters at Punta Catalina, Dominican Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Mads Sønderstrup; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    The present report presents results from a three-dimensional model test study carried out at Aalborg University in the period June 2015 – August 2015. The objectives of the model tests were to study the stability of the Xbloc armoured breakwaters at Punta Catalina under short-crested wave attack...

  19. Three Dimensional Thermal Modeling of Li-Ion Battery Pack Based on Multiphysics and Calorimetric Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen


    A three-dimensional multiphysics-based thermal model of a battery pack is presented. The model is intended to demonstrate the cooling mechanism inside the battery pack. Heat transfer (HT) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) physics are coupled for both time-dependent and steady-state simulatio...

  20. Parallel Simulation of Three-Dimensional Free Surface Fluid Flow Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Simulation of viscous three-dimensional fluid flow typically involves a large number of unknowns. When free surfaces are included, the number of unknowns increases dramatically. Consequently, this class of problem is an obvious application of parallel high performance computing. We describe parallel computation of viscous, incompressible, free surface, Newtonian fluid flow problems that include dynamic contact fines. The Galerkin finite element method was used to discretize the fully-coupled governing conservation equations and a ''pseudo-solid'' mesh mapping approach was used to determine the shape of the free surface. In this approach, the finite element mesh is allowed to deform to satisfy quasi-static solid mechanics equations subject to geometric or kinematic constraints on the boundaries. As a result, nodal displacements must be included in the set of unknowns. Other issues discussed are the proper constraints appearing along the dynamic contact line in three dimensions. Issues affecting efficient parallel simulations include problem decomposition to equally distribute computational work among a SPMD computer and determination of robust, scalable preconditioners for the distributed matrix systems that must be solved. Solution continuation strategies important for serial simulations have an enhanced relevance in a parallel coquting environment due to the difficulty of solving large scale systems. Parallel computations will be demonstrated on an example taken from the coating flow industry: flow in the vicinity of a slot coater edge. This is a three dimensional free surface problem possessing a contact line that advances at the web speed in one region but transitions to static behavior in another region. As such, a significant fraction of the computational time is devoted to processing boundary data. Discussion focuses on parallel speed ups for fixed problem size, a class of problems of immediate practical importance.

  1. A three-dimensional finite element model for biomechanical analysis of the hip. (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Xing; Yang, Liu; Li, Kai; He, Rui; Yang, Bin; Zhan, Yan; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Yu, Bing-Nin; Jian, Zhe


    The objective of this study was to construct a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the hip. The images of the hip were obtained from Chinese visible human dataset. The hip model includes acetabular bone, cartilage, labrum, and bone. The cartilage of femoral head was constructed using the AutoCAD and Solidworks software. The hip model was imported into ABAQUS analysis system. The contact surface of the hip joint was meshed. To verify the model, the single leg peak force was loaded, and contact area of the cartilage and labrum of the hip and pressure distribution in these structures were observed. The constructed 3D hip model reflected the real hip anatomy. Further, this model reflected biomechanical behavior similar to previous studies. In conclusion, this 3D finite element hip model avoids the disadvantages of other construction methods, such as imprecision of cartilage construction and the absence of labrum. Further, it provides basic data critical for accurately modeling normal and abnormal loads, and the effects of abnormal loads on the hip.

  2. Accuracy of three-dimensional glacier surface volocities derived from radar interfeometry and ice-soundin radar measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Reeh, Niels; Madsen, Søren Nørvang


    We present a method for analyzing the errors involved in measuring three-dimensional glacier velocities with interferometric radar. We address the surface-parallel flow assumption and an augmented approach with a flux-divergence (FD) term. The errors in an interferometric ERS-1/-2 satellite radar...... dataset with ascending- and descending-orbit data covering Storstrommen glacier, northeast Greenland, are assessed. The FD error assessment is carried out on airborne 60 MHz ice-sounding radar data from the same area. A simple model of an interferometric radar system is developed and analyzed. The error...

  3. Three-dimensional critical slip surface locating and slope stability assessment for lava lobe of Unzen volcano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Even Unzen volcano has been declared to be in a state of relative dormancy,the latest formed lava lobe No.11 now represents a potential slope failure mass based on the latest research.This paper concentrates on the stability of the lava lobe No.11 and its possible critical sliding mass.It proposes geographic information systems (GIS) based three-dimensional (3D) slope stability analysis models.It uses a 3D locating approach to identify the 3D critical slip surface and to analyze the 3D stability of the lava...

  4. Accuracy of three-dimensional glacier surface volocities derived from radar interfeometry and ice-soundin radar measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Reeh, Niels; Madsen, Søren Nørvang


    We present a method for analyzing the errors involved in measuring three-dimensional glacier velocities with interferometric radar. We address the surface-parallel flow assumption and an augmented approach with a flux-divergence (FD) term. The errors in an interferometric ERS-1/-2 satellite radar...... dataset with ascending- and descending-orbit data covering Storstrommen glacier, northeast Greenland, are assessed. The FD error assessment is carried out on airborne 60 MHz ice-sounding radar data from the same area. A simple model of an interferometric radar system is developed and analyzed. The error...

  5. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flow simulations. (United States)

    Liu, Haihu; Valocchi, Albert J; Kang, Qinjun


    We present an improved three-dimensional 19-velocity lattice Boltzmann model for immisicible binary fluids with variable viscosity and density ratios. This model uses a perturbation step to generate the interfacial tension and a recoloring step to promote phase segregation and maintain surfaces. A generalized perturbation operator is derived using the concept of a continuum surface force together with the constraints of mass and momentum conservation. A theoretical expression for the interfacial tension is determined directly without any additional analysis and assumptions. The recoloring algorithm proposed by Latva-Kokko and Rothman is applied for phase segregation, which minimizes the spurious velocities and removes lattice pinning. This model is first validated against the Laplace law for a stationary bubble. It is found that the interfacial tension is predicted well for density ratios up to 1000. The model is then used to simulate droplet deformation and breakup in simple shear flow. We compute droplet deformation at small capillary numbers in the Stokes regime and find excellent agreement with the theoretical Taylor relation for the segregation parameter β=0.7. In the limit of creeping flow, droplet breakup occurs at a critical capillary number 0.35Droplet breakup can also be promoted by increasing the Reynolds number. Finally, we numerically investigate a single bubble rising under buoyancy force in viscous fluids for a wide range of Eötvös and Morton numbers. Numerical results are compared with theoretical predictions and experimental results, and satisfactory agreement is shown.

  6. Development of a percentile based three-dimensional model of the buttocks in computer system (United States)

    Wang, Lijing; He, Xueli; Li, Hongpeng


    There are diverse products related to human buttocks, which need to be designed, manufactured and evaluated with 3D buttock model. The 3D buttock model used in present research field is just simple approximate model similar to human buttocks. The 3D buttock percentile model is highly desired in the ergonomics design and evaluation for these products. So far, there is no research on the percentile sizing system of human 3D buttock model. So the purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for building three-dimensional buttock percentile model in computer system. After scanning the 3D shape of buttocks, the cloud data of 3D points is imported into the reverse engineering software (Geomagic) for the reconstructing of the buttock surface model. Five characteristic dimensions of the buttock are measured through mark-points after models being imported into engineering software CATIA. A series of space points are obtained by the intersecting of the cutting slices and 3D buttock surface model, and then are ordered based on the sequence number of the horizontal and vertical slices. The 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, 99th percentile values of the five dimensions and the spatial coordinate values of the space points are obtained, and used to reconstruct percentile buttock models. This research proposes a establishing method of percentile sizing system of buttock 3D model based on the percentile values of the ischial tuberosities diameter, the distances from margin to ischial tuberosity and the space coordinates value of coordinate points, for establishing the Nth percentile 3D buttock model and every special buttock types model. The proposed method also serves as a useful guidance for the other 3D percentile models establishment for other part in human body with characteristic points.

  7. Three-dimensional finite element modeling of a magnet array spinning above a conductor (United States)

    Lorimer, W. L.; Lieu, D. K.; Hull, J. R.; Mulcahy, T. M.; Rossing, T. D.

    Drag forces due to eddy currents induced by the relative motion of a conductor and a magnetic field occur in many practical devices: motors, brakes, magnetic bearings, and magnetically levitated vehicles. Recently, finite element codes have included solvers for three dimensional eddy current geometries and have the potential to be very useful in the design and analysis of these devices. In this paper, numerical results from three dimensional modeling of a magnet array spinning above a conductor are compared to experimental results in order to assess the capabilities of these codes.

  8. Analysis of the three-dimensional tongue shape using a three-index factor analysis model (United States)

    Zheng, Yanli; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Pizza, Shamala


    Three-dimensional tongue shape during vowel production is analyzed using the three-mode PARAFAC (parallel factors) model. Three-dimensional MRI images of five speakers (9 vowels) are analyzed. Sixty-five virtual fleshpoints (13 segments along the rostral-caudal dimension and 5 segments along the right-left direction) are chosen based on the interpolated tongue shape images. Methods used to adjust the alignment of MRI images, to set up the fleshpoints, and to measure the position of the fleshpoints are presented. PARAFAC analysis of this 3D coordinate data results in a stable two-factor solution that explains about 70% of the variance.

  9. Microstructure modeling and virtual test of asphalt mixture based on three-dimensional discrete element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛; 张德育; 张垚; 赵永利; 黄晓明


    The objective of this work is to model the microstructure of asphalt mixture and build virtual test for asphalt mixture by using Particle Flow Code in three dimensions (PFC3D) based on three-dimensional discrete element method. A randomly generating algorithm was proposed to capture the three-dimensional irregular shape of coarse aggregate. And then, modeling algorithm and method for graded aggregates were built. Based on the combination of modeling of coarse aggregates, asphalt mastic and air voids, three-dimensional virtual sample of asphalt mixture was modeled by using PFC3D. Virtual tests for penetration test of aggregate and uniaxial creep test of asphalt mixture were built and conducted by using PFC3D. By comparison of the testing results between virtual tests and actual laboratory tests, the validity of the microstructure modeling and virtual test built in this study was verified. Additionally, compared with laboratory test, the virtual test is easier to conduct and has less variability. It is proved that microstructure modeling and virtual test based on three-dimensional discrete element method is a promising way to conduct research of asphalt mixture.

  10. Three-dimensional virtual model and animation of penile lengthening surgery. (United States)

    Wang, Ruiheng; Yang, Dongyun; Li, Shirong


    Three-dimensional digital models, animations, and simulations have been used in the plastic surgical field for surgical education and training and patient education. In penile lengthening surgery, proper patient selection and well-designed surgical interventions are necessary; however, no such surgical or patient education tool exists. Using magnetic resonance images as references, a preliminary three-dimensional digital model of the penis with its adjacent structures was constructed using Amira 5. This preliminary model was imported into Maya 2009, a computer modeling and animation software program, for processing to correct many defects. The refined model was used to create digital animation of penile lengthening surgery, including ordered steps of the procedure, using Maya 2009 and Adobe After Effects CS4. A three-dimensional digital animation was created to illustrate penile lengthening surgery. All major surgical steps were demonstrated, including exposure, transversal incision of the fundiform ligament, partial division and release of the suspensory ligament. Three-dimensional digital models and animations of penile lengthening surgery may serve as resources for patient education to facilitate patient selection and resident education outside the operating room. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A bio-inspired device for drag reduction on a three-dimensional model vehicle. (United States)

    Kim, Dongri; Lee, Hoon; Yi, Wook; Choi, Haecheon


    In this paper, we introduce a bio-mimetic device for the reduction of the drag force on a three-dimensional model vehicle, the Ahmed body (Ahmed et al 1984 SAE Technical Paper 840300). The device, called automatic moving deflector (AMD), is designed inspired by the movement of secondary feathers on bird's wing suction surface: i.e., secondary feathers pop up when massive separation occurs on bird's wing suction surface at high angles of attack, which increases the lift force at landing. The AMD is applied to the rear slanted surface of the Ahmed body to control the flow separation there. The angle of the slanted surface considered is 25° at which the drag coefficient on the Ahmed body is highest. The wind tunnel experiment is conducted at Re H  = 1.0 × 10(5)-3.8 × 10(5), based on the height of the Ahmed body (H) and the free-stream velocity (U ∞). Several AMDs of different sizes and materials are tested by measuring the drag force on the Ahmed body, and showed drag reductions up to 19%. The velocity and surface-pressure measurements show that AMD starts to pop up when the pressure in the thin gap between the slanted surface and AMD is much larger than that on the upper surface of AMD. We also derive an empirical formula that predicts the critical free-stream velocity at which AMD starts to operate. Finally, it is shown that the drag reduction by AMD is mainly attributed to a pressure recovery on the slanted surface by delaying the flow separation and suppressing the strength of the longitudinal vortices emanating from the lateral edges of the slanted surface.

  12. Numerical study of three-dimensional sound reflection from corrugated surface waves. (United States)

    Choo, Youngmin; Song, H C; Seong, Woojae


    When a sound wave propagates in a water medium bounded by a smooth surface wave, reflection from a wave crest can lead to focusing and result in rapid variation of the received waveform as the surface wave moves [Tindle, Deane, and Preisig, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 66-72 (2009)]. In prior work, propagation paths have been constrained to be in a plane parallel to the direction of corrugated surface waves, i.e., a two-dimensional (2-D) propagation problem. In this paper, the azimuthal dependence of sound propagation as a three-dimensional (3-D) problem is investigated using an efficient, time-domain Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral formulation. When the source and receiver are in the plane orthogonal to the surface wave direction, the surface wave curvature vanishes in conventional 2-D treatments and the flat surface simply moves up and down, resulting in minimal temporal variation of the reflected signal intensity. On the other hand, the 3-D propagation analysis reveals that a focusing phenomenon occurs in the reflected signal due to the surface wave curvature formed along the orthogonal plane, i.e., out-of-plane scattering.

  13. Three Dimensional Large Eddy Simulation Model of Turbulence in a Meandering Channel (United States)

    Akahori, R.; Schmeeckle, M. W.


    Recent research has shown that intermittency caused by large-scale turbulence structures in rivers can be critical to accurate prediction of the sediment transport field. These large-scale turbulence structures are inherently three-dimensional. This is especially true in a river meander where strong secondary flows affect not only the three-dimensional, time-averaged flow structure, but also the process of large-scale turbulent eddy generation. It is very difficult to directly measure the turbulence field in a river except at the water surface or a few points in the interior of the flow. Numerical simulation of turbulence is a powerful tool, because it can provide information about the non-averaged flow at each grid point. Many previous researchers have calculated the time-averaged flow in a meandering channel, and obtained useful results. However, simulations of turbulence in meandering channels have been restricted to two dimensions. Therefore, they have a problem in accurately reproducing important features of the flow. We present a 3-dimenstional turbulent model for the numerical calculation of channel flow. The turbulence cannot be resolved at scales smaller than the channel grid, and we therefore parameterize the effects of small scale turbulence using standard Large Eddy Simulation (LES) assumptions. A Body Fitted Coordinate (BFC) system is employed to fit the irregular boundaries of natural channels. To solve the Navier-Stokes equations on the finite difference mesh, we employ the Cubic-Interpolated Propagation (CIP) method. The CIP method precisely solves the convective acceleration terms without numerical diffusion.

  14. Transient three-dimensional thermal model for batteries with thin electrodes (United States)

    Taheri, Peyman; Yazdanpour, Maryam; Bahrami, Majid


    A three-dimensional analytical model is proposed to investigate the thermal response of batteries, with a plurality of thin electrodes, to heat generation during their operation. The model is based on integral-transform technique that gives a closed-form solution for the fundamental problem of unsteady heat conduction in batteries with orthotropic thermal conductivities, where the heat generation is a function of both temperature and depth-of-discharge. The full-field solutions take the form of a rapidly converging triple infinite sum whose leading terms provide a very simple yet accurate approximation of the battery thermal behavior with modest numerical effort. The accuracy of the proposed model is tested through comparison with numerical simulations. The method is used to describe spatial and temporal temperature evolution in a sample pouch type lithium-ion polymer battery during galvanostatic discharge processes while subjected to convective-radiative cooling at its surfaces (the most practical case is considered, when surrounding medium is at a constant ambient temperature). In the simulations, emphasis is placed on the maintenance of the battery operational temperature below a critical temperature. Through definition of a surface-averaged Biot number, certain conditions are highlighted, under which a two-dimensional thermal analysis is applicable.

  15. Three-dimensional Modelling Of Nitrate Tranfer In A Flooded Alluvial Zone (United States)

    Trémolières, M.; Lachenal, C.; Sánchez-Pérez, J. M.

    In the groundwater of a flooded alluvial forest in Alsace (Illwald forest, Eastern France), upstream of the forest nitrate concentrations (close to 40 mg/l) are largely higher than those downstream (lower than 5 mg/l). The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of two factors which could be responsible for nitrogen elim- ination : drainage by streams and river (very significant in the area) and reduction by the groundwater U plant complex (bacterial denitrification and root uptake). A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was used to estimate horizontal and vertical flows of water in the aquifer. The conception of this model required data of hydraulic conductivity, surface water - groundwater exchanges and nitrate concentrations. The model was validated with the three following variables, which were measured locally : piezometric level, volume exported by streams and chloride concentrations in ground- water (used as an hydrological tracer). The main results showed that the drainage by streams contributed to the elimination of polluted groundwater to a depth of at least 40 m. The balance input-output of the system was calculated acroos the whole surface (2100ha) over a period of three years. The total purifying capacity of this wetland was close to 240 kgN/ha/year and only 40kg/ha/year were eliminated by stream drainage, the greater part of the rest was eliminated by denitrification and/or root uptake.

  16. New efficient algorithm for the isometric embedding of 2-surface metrics in three dimensional Euclidean space (United States)

    Tichy, Wolfgang; McDonald, Jonathan R.; Miller, Warner A.


    We present a new numerical method for the isometric embedding of 2-geometries specified by their 2-metrics in three-dimensional Euclidean space. Our approach is to directly solve the fundamental embedding equation supplemented by six conditions that fix translations and rotations of the embedded surface. This set of equations is discretized by means of a pseudospectral collocation point method. The resulting nonlinear system of equations are then solved by a Newton-Raphson scheme. We explain our numerical algorithm in detail. By studying several examples we show that our method converges provided we start the Newton-Raphson scheme from a suitable initial guess. Our novel method is very efficient for smooth 2-metrics.

  17. Review of three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery. (United States)

    O'Connell, Rachel L; Stevens, Roger J G; Harris, Paul A; Rusby, Jennifer E


    Three-dimensional surface imaging (3D-SI) is being marketed as a tool in aesthetic breast surgery. It has recently also been studied in the objective evaluation of cosmetic outcome of oncological procedures. The aim of this review is to summarise the use of 3D-SI in oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery. An extensive literature review was undertaken to identify published studies. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts and selected relevant articles using specific inclusion criteria. Seventy two articles relating to 3D-SI for breast surgery were identified. These covered endpoints such as image acquisition, calculations and data obtainable, comparison of 3D and 2D imaging and clinical research applications of 3D-SI. The literature provides a favourable view of 3D-SI. However, evidence of its superiority over current methods of clinical decision making, surgical planning, communication and evaluation of outcome is required before it can be accepted into mainstream practice.

  18. Three-dimensional analysis of elastic stress distribution of indented ceramic surface by finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatsuyuki NEZU


    The three-dimensional stress distributions in the area surrounding indentation pattern for three different materials,Al2O3,Si3N4 and SiC were analyzed by finite element method(FEM). Those theoretical results were also compared with the experimental ones by Rockwell hardness test. The effect of loading stress on the plastic deformation in specimens,surface was investigated on the assumption of shear strain energy theory by Huber-Mises when the materials were indented. The distributions of nomal stress,shear stress,and Mises stress were analysed with variations of loading conditions. It is clear that the analytical results for the stress distributions,the crack length and its density of probability are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Three-dimensional topographies of water surface dimples formed by superhydrophobic water strider legs (United States)

    Yin, W.; Zheng, Y. L.; Lu, H. Y.; Zhang, X. J.; Tian, Y.


    A water strider has a remarkable capability to stand and walk freely on water. Supporting forces of a water strider and a bionic robot have been calculated from the side view of pressed depth of legs to reconstruct the water surface dimples. However, in situ measurements of the multiple leg forces and significantly small leg/water contact dimples have not been realized yet. In this study, a shadow method was proposed to reconstruct the in situ three-dimensional topographies of leg/water contact dimples and their corresponding supporting forces. Results indicated that the supporting forces were affected by the depth, width, and length of the dimple, and that the maximum dimple depth was not proportional to the supporting forces. The shadow method also has advantages in disclosing tiny supporting force of legs in their subtle actions. These results are helpful for understanding the locomotion principles of water-walking insects and the design of biomimetic aquatic devices.

  20. On two-dimensionalization of three-dimensional turbulence in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Sagar; Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Sarkar, A.


    Applying a modified version of the Gledzer-Ohkitani-Yamada (GOY) shell model, the signatures of so-called two-dimensionalization effect of three-dimensional incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic fully developed unforced turbulence have been studied and reproduced. Within the framework of shell...

  1. Correlation of experimental data and three-dimensional finite element modeling of a spinning quadrupole (United States)

    Lorimer, W. L.; Lieu, D. K.; Hull, J. R.; Mulcahy, T. M.; Rossing, T. D.

    A permanent magnet quadrupole spinning over an aluminum disk was constructed, and drag torque was measured for various speeds and gap sizes. The experiment was modeled using a three-dimensional finite element program. Experimental and analytical results were compared, and the effect of magnet polarity was determined.

  2. Numerical evidence of spin-chirality decoupling in the three-dimensional heisenberg spin glass model. (United States)

    Viet, Dao Xuan; Kawamura, Hikaru


    Ordering of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with Gaussian coupling is studied by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The model undergoes successive chiral-glass and spin-glass transitions at nonzero temperatures T_{CG}>T_{SG}>0, exhibiting spin-chirality decoupling.

  3. Preliminary Monte Carlo Results for the Three-Dimensional Holstein Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴焰立; 刘川; 罗强


    Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the three-dimensional Holstein model. The relationship between the band filling and the chemical potential is obtained for various phonon frequencies and temperatures. The energy of a single electron or a hole is also calculated as a function of the lattice momenta.

  4. Three-dimensional Modeling of Anode-supported Planar SOFC with Direct Internal Reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Z.; Aravind, P.V.; Ye, H.; Dekker, N.J.J.; Woudstra, N.; Verkooijen, A.H.M.


    This paper presents a three-dimensional model of an anode-supported planar SOFC with corrugated bipolar plates serving as gas channels and current collector above the active area of the cell, based on the direct internal reforming reaction of methane and the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen. A c

  5. Three-dimensional modelling of thrust-controlled foreland basin stratigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevis, Q. (Quintijn)


    In this thesis a tectono-sedimentary forward model has been presented, devised to simulate sediment erosion and deposition in a coupled drainage basin - foreland system, as well as accumulating a three-dimensional stratigraphy. The aim of the research was to investigate which features recorded in th

  6. Fusing range and intensity images for generating dense models of three-dimensional environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Miró, Jaime Valls; Dissanayake., Gamini

    This paper presents a novel strategy for the construction of dense three-dimensional environment models by combining images from a conventional camera and a range imager. Ro- bust data association is ?rst accomplished by exploiting the Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) technique...

  7. Surprising convergence of the Monte Carlo renormalization group for the three-dimensional Ising model. (United States)

    Ron, Dorit; Brandt, Achi; Swendsen, Robert H


    We present a surprisingly simple approach to high-accuracy calculations of the critical properties of the three-dimensional Ising model. The method uses a modified block-spin transformation with a tunable parameter to improve convergence in the Monte Carlo renormalization group. The block-spin parameter must be tuned differently for different exponents to produce optimal convergence.

  8. Articular contact in a three-dimensional model of the knee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankevoort, L.; Kuiper, J.H.; Huiskes, R.; Grootenboer, H.J.


    This study is aimed at the analysis of articular contact in a three-dimensional mathematical model of the human knee-joint. In particular the effect of articular contact on the passive motion characteristics is assessed in relation to experimentally obtained joint kinematics. Two basically different

  9. A three-dimensional finite element model of the polymerization process in dental restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barink, M.; Mark, P.C. van der; Fennis, W.M.M.; Kuys, R.H.; Kreulen, C.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.


    Restoration of dental restorations with resin composite is hampered by shrinkage of the material during the polymerization process. In this study, we simulated the polymerization process in a detailed three-dimensional finite element model of a human upper premolar with a cusp-replacing restoration.

  10. Comparison of inverse dynamics calculated by two- and three-dimensional models during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, T; Simonsen, E B; Dyhre-Poulsen, P


    The purpose of the study was to compare joint moments calculated by a two- (2D) and a three-dimensional (3D) inverse dynamics model to examine how the different approaches influenced the joint moment profiles. Fifteen healthy male subjects participated in the study. A five-camera video system rec...

  11. Three-Dimensional Modeling with CAD%CAD下三维建模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯选; 闫野; 魏来


    In this paper, the first example of Liaoning Engineering Applications Auto CAD 2007 campus on campus buildings, grounds, lawn and ancillary facilities in three-dimensional modeling, and research through the operation to three-dimensional Auto CAD 2007 modeling techniques and methods more sophisticated and flexible, after the three-dimensional model of Auto CAD 2007 application, built a good model classification after adding a good layer in the Arc GIS 9.2 software loaded into the Arc GIS 9.2 to achieve three-dimensional digital campus. Finally, three-dimensional modeling of operations and research and in the Arc GIS 9.2 software, 3D Digital Campus to three-dimensional modeling and Auto CAD 2007modeling of a detailed comparison 3DS MAX three-dimensional modeling identify than other 3D software is more suitable for the advantages of GIS.%以辽宁工程技术大学校园为例首先应用Auto CAD 2007对校园内建筑物、场地、草坪及附属设施进行三维建模,通过操作和研究使Auto CAD 2007三维建模技术和方法更加成熟和灵活,之后研究AUTO CAD 2007三维模型的应用,将建好的三维模型分类添加好图层以后加载到Arc GIS 9.2软件中,在Arc GIS 9.2软件中实现三维数字校园.最后通过三维建模的操作和研究及在Arc GIS 9.2软件三维数字校园的实现把Auto CAD 2007三维建模与3DS MAX建模做详细对比找出Auto CAD 2007三维建模比其他3D软件更加适合应用于GIS的优势.

  12. Software Package \\Nesvetay-3D" for modeling three-dimensional flows of monatomic rarefied gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Titarev


    integral is guaranteed by means of a special procedure to calculate macroscopic variables. Another important part of the numerical method is the fast solution of the linear system for time increments of the distribution function. The solution is based on the LU-SGS approach so that the number of operations is linearly proportional to the number of cells in the spatial mesh. Large problems can be solved on hundreds of CPU cores using the Message Passing Interface (MPI.Performance and robustness of the numerical method and computer code are illustrated on a number of problems, including rarefied gas flows through microchannels into vacuum and external flows over re-entry vehicles on the high altitude of flight. Rarefied gas flows through simple and composite channels of circular cross sectional area are considered. Comparisons with the results of other authors and experimental data are shown.Good spatial mesh convergence of the method is demonstrated. For the flow in a composite channel the formation of a Mach disk is shown. One of the examples of external flow calculation is the analysis of rarefied gas flow over model winged re-entry space vehicle (RSV, which is a three-dimensional object of a very complex shape. The RSV is proposed by Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI. Its geometry includes a blunt fuselage, sweptwings, keel and flap. The flow pattern over the RSV and surface pressure distribution are shown.At present the work is under way to incorporate an implicit numerical scheme for time-dependent rarefied gas flows, an adaptation algorithm for the efficient modelling of hypersonic flows over complex objects and extension to the diatomic gas modelling on the bases of the Rykov kinetic model.

  13. SLC4A11 Three-Dimensional Homology Model Rationalizes Corneal Dystrophy-Causing Mutations. (United States)

    Badior, Katherine E; Alka, Kumari; Casey, Joseph R


    We studied the structural effects of point mutations of a membrane protein that cause genetic disease. SLC4A11 is a membrane transport protein (OH(-) /H(+) /NH3 /H2 O) of basolateral corneal endothelium, whose mutations cause some cases of congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. We created a three-dimensional homology model of SLC4A11 membrane domain, using Band 3 (SLC4A1) crystal structure as template. The homology model was assessed in silico and by analysis of mutants designed on the basis of the model. Catalytic pathway mutants p.Glu675Gln, p.His724Arg, and p.His724Ala impaired SLC4A11 transport. p.Ala720Leu, in a region of extended structure of the proposed translocation pore, failed to mature to the cell surface. p.Gly509Lys, located in an open region at the core domain/gate domain interface, had wild-type level of transport function. The molecular phenotype of 37 corneal dystrophy-causing point mutants was rationalized, based on their location in the homology model. Four map to the substrate translocation pathway, 25 to regions of close transmembrane helix packing, three to the dimeric interface, and five lie in extramembraneous loops. The model provides a view of the spectrum of effects of disease mutations on membrane protein structure and provides a tool to analyze pathogenicity of additional newly discovered SLC4A11 mutants. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  14. A three-dimensional finite element model for the mechanics of cell-cell interactions. (United States)

    Viens, Denis; Brodland, G Wayne


    Technical challenges, including significant ones associated with cell rearrangement, have hampered the development of three-dimensional finite element models for the mechanics of embryonic cells. These challenges have been overcome by a new formulation in which the contents of each cell, assumed to have a viscosity mu, are modeled using a system of orthogonal dashpots. This approach overcomes a stiffening artifact that affects more traditional models, in which space-filling viscous elements are used to model the cytoplasm. Cells are assumed to be polyhedral in geometry, and each n-sided polygonal face is subdivided into n triangles with a common node at the face center so that it needs not remain flat. A constant tension gamma is assumed to act along each cell-cell interface, and cell rearrangements occur through one of two complementary topological transformations. The formulation predicts mechanical interactions between pairs of similar or dissimilar cells that are consistent with experiments, two-dimensional simulations, contact angle theory, and intracellular pressure calculations. Simulations of the partial engulfment of one tissue type by another show that the formulation is able to model aggregates of several hundred cells without difficulty. Simulations carried out using this formulation suggest new experimental approaches for measuring cell surface tensions and interfacial tensions. The formulation holds promise as a tool for gaining insight into the mechanics of isolated or aggregated embryonic cells and for the design and interpretation of experiments that involve them.

  15. Three-dimensional contact analysis of coupled surfaces by a novel contact transformation method based on localized Lagrange multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tsung Lin


    Full Text Available Instead of obsessively emphasizing to reduce the number of time increments and reshape the models, a novel surface contact transformation to increase efficiency is presented in this study. Wear on the bearing surfaces was investigated following the coupled regions from the pressure distribution, computed by means of three-dimensional finite element method models; an approximate analytical model and formulation in three-dimensional frictional contact problems based on modified localized Lagrange multiplier method have also been developed and discussed. Understanding wear behavior patterns in mechanical components is a significant task in engineering design. The proposed approach provides a complete and effective solution to the wear problem in a quasi-dynamic manner. However, expensive computing time is needed in the incremental procedures. In this article, an alternative and efficient finite element approach is introduced to reduce the computation costs of wear prediction. Through the successful verification of wear depth and volume loss of the pin-on-plate, block-on-ring, and metal-on-plastic artificial hip joint wear behaviors, the numerical calculations are shown to be both valid and feasible. Furthermore, the results also show that the central processing unit time required by the proposed method is nearly half that of the previous methods without loss of accuracy.

  16. Three-dimensional FDTD Modeling of Earth-ionosphere Cavity Resonances (United States)

    Yang, H.; Pasko, V. P.


    Resonance properties of the earth-ionosphere cavity were first predicted by W. O. Schumann in 1952 [Schumann, Z. Naturforsch. A, 7, 149, 1952]. Since then observations of extremely low frequency (ELF) signals in the frequency range 1-500 Hz have become a powerful tool for monitoring of global lightning activity and planetary scale variability of the lower ionosphere, as well as, in recent years, for location and remote sensing of sprites, jets and elves and associated lightning discharges [e.g., Sato et al., JASTP, 65, 607, 2003; Su et al., Nature, 423, 974, 2003; and references cited therein]. The simplicity and flexibility of finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique for finding first principles solutions of electromagnetic problems in a medium with arbitrary inhomogeneities and ever-increasing computer power make FDTD an excellent candidate to be the technique of the future in development of realistic numerical models of VLF/ELF propagation in Earth-ionosphere waveguide [Cummer, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 48, 1420, 2000], and several reports about successful application of the FDTD technique for solution of related problems have recently appeared in the literature [e.g., Thevenot et al., Ann. Telecommun., 54, 297, 1999; Cummer, 2000; Berenger, Ann. Telecommun., 57, 1059, 2002, Simpson and Taflove, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett., 1, 53, 2002]. In this talk we will present results from a new three-dimensional spherical FDTD model, which is designed for studies of ELF electromagnetic signals under 100 Hz in the earth-ionosphere cavity. The model accounts for a realistic latitudinal and longitudinal variation of ground conductivity (i.e., for the boundaries between oceans and continents) by employing a broadband surface impedance technique proposed in [Breggs et al., IEEE Trans. Antenna Propagat., 41, 118, 1993]. The realistic distributions of atmospheric/lower ionospheric conductivity are derived from the international reference ionosphere model

  17. In vitro three dimensional morphometry of the lateral atlantoaxial articular surfaces. (United States)

    Cattrysse, Erik; Provyn, Steven; Gagey, Olivier; Kool, Patrick; Clarys, Jan Pieter; Van Roy, Peter


    The present study verifies the 3-dimensional anatomic features of the lateral atlantoaxial joints with reference to a local reference frame using a direct in vitro approach. To study the concordance between the axial and atlantal articular surfaces. Detailed information of joint-configurations is imperative for understanding the complex kinematics of the upper cervical joint. Data on the quantitative morphology of the human spinal facet joints has been published, but did not include the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints. In 20 fresh spine specimens, metal markers were implanted on the cranium, the atlas, and the axis. After registration of the intact specimens, the bony segments were separated and markers and anatomic landmarks were digitized. The size, shape, and orientation relative to the local reference frame of the axis were derived from the relative position data of the joint surface landmarks. The diameters and surface areas of the inferior articular surfaces of the atlas are slightly smaller than the corresponding surfaces on the superior aspects of the axis (17.7 mm and 235 mm vs. 17.0 and 212 mm). In this sample of older-aged specimens, the curvature of the articulating surfaces is nearly flat. The absolute angle between the left and right surface areas is about 130 degrees and corresponds well between axis and atlas. The orientation of the joint surfaces of axis and atlas with respect to the sagittal plane of the axis indicates a good congruency. There seems to be a strong relationship between the anatomic features of the lateral articulating surfaces of atlas and axis. Differences in the orientation of joint surfaces to the frontal plane may be related to deviations from the neutral position. This issue raises the problem of the definition of three-dimensional-neutral joint positions.

  18. Validating the MYSTIC three-dimensional radiative transfer model with observations from the complex topography of Arizona's Meteor Crater


    Mayer, B; Hoch, S. W.; Whiteman, C.D.


    The MYSTIC three-dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer model has been extended to simulate solar and thermal irradiances with a rigorous consideration of topography. Forward as well as backward Monte Carlo simulations are possible for arbitrarily oriented surfaces and we demonstrate that the backward Monte Carlo technique is superior to the forward method for applications involving topography, by greatly reducing the computational demands. MYSTIC is used to simulate the short- and longwa...

  19. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies (United States)

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu


    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed “virtual surgeries”. The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research.

  20. Manufactured solutions and the verification of three-dimensional Stokes ice-sheet models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Leng


    Full Text Available The manufactured solution technique is used for the verification of computational models in many fields. In this paper, we construct manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional, isothermal, nonlinear Stokes model for flows in glaciers and ice sheets. The solution construction procedure starts with kinematic boundary conditions and is mainly based on the solution of a first-order partial differential equation for the ice velocity that satisfies the incompressibility condition. The manufactured solutions depend on the geometry of the ice sheet, basal sliding parameters, and ice softness. Initial conditions are taken from the periodic geometry of a standard problem of the ISMIP-HOM benchmark tests. The upper surface is altered through the manufactured solution procedure to generate an analytic solution for the time-dependent flow problem. We then use this manufactured solution to verify a parallel, high-order accurate, finite element Stokes ice-sheet model. Simulation results from the computational model show good convergence to the manufactured analytic solution.

  1. Evaluation of three-dimensional anisotropic head model for mapping realistic electromagnetic fields of brain tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Chul Jeong


    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields provide fundamental data for the imaging of electrical tissue properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, in recent magnetic resonance (MR-based tissue property mapping. The induced voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density caused by externally injected current are critical factors for determining the image quality of electrical tissue conductivity. As a useful tool to identify bio-electromagnetic phenomena, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subject to an injected currents. In this study, we provide the numerical simulation results of electromagnetic field mapping of brain tissues using a MR-based conductivity imaging method. First, we implemented a realistic three-dimensional human anisotropic head model using high-resolution anatomical and diffusion tensor MR images. The voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density of brain tissues were imaged by injecting 1 mA of current through pairs of electrodes on the surface of our head model. The current density map of anisotropic brain tissues was calculated from the measured magnetic flux density based on the linear relationship between the water diffusion tensor and the electrical conductivity tensor. Comparing the current density to the previous isotropic model, the anisotropic model clearly showed the differences between the brain tissues. This originates from the enhanced signals by the inherent conductivity contrast as well as the actual tissue condition resulting from the injected currents.

  2. Evaluation of three-dimensional anisotropic head model for mapping realistic electromagnetic fields of brain tissues (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Chul; Wi, Hun; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je


    Electromagnetic fields provide fundamental data for the imaging of electrical tissue properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, in recent magnetic resonance (MR)-based tissue property mapping. The induced voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density caused by externally injected current are critical factors for determining the image quality of electrical tissue conductivity. As a useful tool to identify bio-electromagnetic phenomena, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subject to an injected currents. In this study, we provide the numerical simulation results of electromagnetic field mapping of brain tissues using a MR-based conductivity imaging method. First, we implemented a realistic three-dimensional human anisotropic head model using high-resolution anatomical and diffusion tensor MR images. The voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density of brain tissues were imaged by injecting 1 mA of current through pairs of electrodes on the surface of our head model. The current density map of anisotropic brain tissues was calculated from the measured magnetic flux density based on the linear relationship between the water diffusion tensor and the electrical conductivity tensor. Comparing the current density to the previous isotropic model, the anisotropic model clearly showed the differences between the brain tissues. This originates from the enhanced signals by the inherent conductivity contrast as well as the actual tissue condition resulting from the injected currents.

  3. Coupled Plasticity and Damage Modeling and Their Applications in a Three-Dimensional Eulerian Hydrocode (United States)

    Burkett, Michael W.; Clancy, Sean P.; Maudlin, Paul J.; Holian, Kathleen S.


    Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for continuum-level anisotropic elastoplastic material strength and an isotropic damage model TEPLA have been implemented in the three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamics code known as CONEJO. The anisotropic constitutive modeling is posed in an unrotated material frame of reference using the theorem of polar decomposition to compute rigid-body rotation. TEPLA is based upon the Gurson flow surface (a potential function used in conjunction with the associated flow law). The original TEPLA equation set has been extended to include anisotropic elastoplasticity and has been recast into a new implicit solution algorithm based upon an eigenvalue scheme to accommodate the anisotropy. This algorithm solves a two-by-two system of nonlinear equations using a Newton-Raphson iteration scheme. Simulations of a shaped-charge jet formation, a Taylor cylinder impact, and an explosively loaded hemishell were selected to demonstrate the utility of this modeling capability. The predicted deformation topology, plastic strain, and porosity distributions are shown for the three simulations.

  4. Predicting crystal growth via a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model. (United States)

    Anderson, Michael W; Gebbie-Rayet, James T; Hill, Adam R; Farida, Nani; Attfield, Martin P; Cubillas, Pablo; Blatov, Vladislav A; Proserpio, Davide M; Akporiaye, Duncan; Arstad, Bjørnar; Gale, Julian D


    Understanding and predicting crystal growth is fundamental to the control of functionality in modern materials. Despite investigations for more than one hundred years, it is only recently that the molecular intricacies of these processes have been revealed by scanning probe microscopy. To organize and understand this large amount of new information, new rules for crystal growth need to be developed and tested. However, because of the complexity and variety of different crystal systems, attempts to understand crystal growth in detail have so far relied on developing models that are usually applicable to only one system. Such models cannot be used to achieve the wide scope of understanding that is required to create a unified model across crystal types and crystal structures. Here we describe a general approach to understanding and, in theory, predicting the growth of a wide range of crystal types, including the incorporation of defect structures, by simultaneous molecular-scale simulation of crystal habit and surface topology using a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model. This entails dividing the structure into 'natural tiles' or Voronoi polyhedra that are metastable and, consequently, temporally persistent. As such, these units are then suitable for re-construction of the crystal via a Monte Carlo algorithm. We demonstrate our approach by predicting the crystal growth of a diverse set of crystal types, including zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, calcite, urea and l-cystine.

  5. A Three-Dimensional Picture of the Delayed-Detonation Model of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Bravo, Eduardo


    Deflagration models poorly explain the observed diversity of SNIa. Current multidimensional simulations of SNIa predict a significant amount of, so far unobserved, carbon and oxygen moving at low velocities. It has been proposed that these drawbacks can be resolved if there is a sudden jump to a detonation (delayed detonation), but this kind of models has been explored mainly in one dimension. Here we present new three-dimensional delayed detonation models in which the deflagraton-to-detonation transition (DDT) takes place in conditions like those favored by one-dimensional models. We have used a SPH code adapted to SNIa with algorithms devised to handle subsonic as well as supersonic combustion fronts. The starting point was a C-O white dwarf of 1.38 solar masses. When the average density on the flame surface reached 2-3x10^7 g/cm^3 a detonation was launched. The detonation wave processed more than 0.3 solar masses of carbon and oxygen, emptying the central regions of the ejecta of unburned fuel and raising ...

  6. Challenging Issues on fog forecast with a three-dimensional fog forecast model (United States)

    Masbou, M.


    Fog has a significant impact on economical aspect (traffic management and safety) as well as on environmental issues (fresh water source for the population and the biosphere in arid region). However, reliable fog and visibility forecasts stay challenging issue. Fog is generally a small scale phenomenon which is mostly affected by local advective transport, radiation, topography, vegetation, turbulent mixing at the surface as well as its microphysical structure. In order to consider these intertwined processes, the three-dimensional fog forecast model, COSMO-FOG, with a high vertical resolution with different microphysical complexity has been developed. This model includes a microphysical parameterisation based on the one-dimensional fog forecast model. The implementation of the cloud water droplets as a new prognostic variable allows a detailed definition of the sedimentation processes and the variations in visibility. Moreover, the turbulence scheme, based on a Mellor-Yamada 2.5 order and a closure of a 2nd order has been modified to improve the model behaviour in case of a stable atmosphere structure, occurring typically during night radiative fog episodes. The potential of COSMO-FOG will be presented in some realistic fog situations (flat, bumpy and complex terrain). The fog spatial extension will be compared with MSG satellite products for fog and low cloud. The interplays between dynamical, thermodynamical patterns and the soil-atmosphere interactions will be presented.

  7. A three-dimensional gravity model of the geologic structure of Long Valley caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, S.F.; Goldstein, N.E.


    Several attempts to define and interpret this anomaly have been made in the past using 2-D and 3-D models. None of the previous interpretations have yielded definitive results, but in fairness, the interpretation here has benefited from a larger gravity data base and more subsurface control than available to previous workers. All published 3-D models simplistically assumed constant density of fill. All 2-D models suffered from the inherent three-dimensionality of the complicated density structure of Long Valley caldera. In addition, previous interpreters have lacked access to geological data, such as well lithologies and density logs, seismic refraction interpretations, suface geology, and structural geology interpretations. The purpose of this study is to use all available gravity data and geological information to constrain a multi-unit, 3-D density model based on the geology of Long Valley caldera and its vicinity. Insights on the geologic structure of the caldera fill can help other geophysical interpretations in determining near-surface effects so that deeper structure may be resolved. With adequate control on the structure of the caldera fill, we are able to examine the gravity data for the presence of deeper density anomalies in the crust. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Predicting crystal growth via a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model (United States)

    Anderson, Michael W.; Gebbie-Rayet, James T.; Hill, Adam R.; Farida, Nani; Attfield, Martin P.; Cubillas, Pablo; Blatov, Vladislav A.; Proserpio, Davide M.; Akporiaye, Duncan; Arstad, Bjørnar; Gale, Julian D.


    Understanding and predicting crystal growth is fundamental to the control of functionality in modern materials. Despite investigations for more than one hundred years, it is only recently that the molecular intricacies of these processes have been revealed by scanning probe microscopy. To organize and understand this large amount of new information, new rules for crystal growth need to be developed and tested. However, because of the complexity and variety of different crystal systems, attempts to understand crystal growth in detail have so far relied on developing models that are usually applicable to only one system. Such models cannot be used to achieve the wide scope of understanding that is required to create a unified model across crystal types and crystal structures. Here we describe a general approach to understanding and, in theory, predicting the growth of a wide range of crystal types, including the incorporation of defect structures, by simultaneous molecular-scale simulation of crystal habit and surface topology using a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model. This entails dividing the structure into ‘natural tiles’ or Voronoi polyhedra that are metastable and, consequently, temporally persistent. As such, these units are then suitable for re-construction of the crystal via a Monte Carlo algorithm. We demonstrate our approach by predicting the crystal growth of a diverse set of crystal types, including zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, calcite, urea and L-cystine.

  9. A spectral formalism for computing three-dimensional deformations due to surface loads. 1: Theory (United States)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Davis, J. L.; Shapiro, I. I.


    We outline a complete spectral formalism for computing high spatial resolution three-dimensional deformations arising from the surface mass loading of a spherically symmetric planet. The main advantages of the formalism are that all surface mass loads are always described using a consistent mathematical representation and that calculations of deformation fields for various spatial resolutions can be performed by simpley altering the spherical harmonic degree truncation level of the procedure. The latter may be important when incorporating improved observational constraints on a particular surface mass load, when considering potential errors in the computed field associated with mass loading having a spatial scale unresolved by the observational constraints, or when treating a number of global surface mass loads constrained with different spatial resolutions. The advantages do not extend to traditional 'Green's function' approaches which involve surface element discretizations of the global mass loads. Another advantage of the spectral formalism, over the Green's function approach, is that a posteriori analyses of the computed deformation fields are easily performed. In developing the spectral formalism, we consider specific cases where the Earth's mantle is assumed to respond as an elastic, slightly anelastic, or linear viscoelastic medium. In the case of an elastic or slightly anelastic mantle rheology the spectral response equations incorporate frequency dependent Love numbers. The formalism can therefore be used, for example, to compute the potentially resonant deformational response associated with the free core nutation and Chandler wobble eigenfunctions. For completeness, the spectral response equations include both body forces, as arise from the gravitational attraction of the Sun and the Moon, and surface mass loads. In either case, and for both elastic and anelastic mantle rheologies, we outline a pseudo-spectral technique for computing the ocean

  10. Effect of bulk charged impurities on the bulk and surface transport in three-dimensional topological insulators



    In the three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), the physics of doped semiconductors exists literally side-by-side with the physics of ultra-relativistic Dirac fermions. This unusual pairing creates a novel playground for studying the interplay between disorder and electronic transport. In this mini-review we focus on the disorder caused by the three-dimensionally distributed charged impurities that are ubiquitous in TIs, and we outline the effects it has on both the bulk and surface tran...

  11. A three-dimensional pelvic model made with a three-dimensional printer: applications for laparoscopic surgery to treat rectal cancer. (United States)

    Hamabe, A; Ito, M


    To help understand the three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships among the highly complex structures of the pelvis, we made a novel 3D pelvic model with a 3D printing system. We created two pelvic models including the muscles, vessels, nerves, and urogenital organs; the first based on the pelvic anatomy of a healthy male volunteer and the second on the pelvic anatomy of a female volunteer with rectal cancer. The models clearly demonstrated the complicated spatial relationships between anatomical structures in the pelvis. Surgeons could use these models to improve their spatial understanding of pelvic anatomy, which could consequently improve the safety and efficiency of laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery.

  12. Three-dimensional quantification of facial symmetry in adolescents using laser surface scanning (United States)

    Toma, Arshed M.; Zhurov, Alexei I.; Richmond, Stephen


    Laser scanning is a non-invasive method for three-dimensional assessment of facial morphology and symmetry. The aim of this study was to quantify facial symmetry in healthy adolescents and explore if there is any gender difference. Facial scans of 270 subjects, 123 males and 147 females (aged 15.3 ± 0.1 years, range 14.6–15.6), were randomly selected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Facial scans were processed and analysed using in-house developed subroutines for commercial software. The surface matching between the original face and its mirror image was measured for the whole face, upper, middle, and lower facial thirds. In addition, 3 angular and 14 linear parameters were measured. The percentage of symmetry of the whole face was significantly lower in males (53.49 ± 10.73 per cent) than in females (58.50 ± 10.27 per cent; P 0.05). Average values of linear parameters were less than 1 mm and did not differ significantly between genders (P > 0.05). One angular parameter showed slight lip line asymmetry in both genders. Faces of male 15-year-old adolescents were less symmetric than those of females, but the difference in the amount of symmetry, albeit statistically significant, may not be clinically relevant. Upper, middle, and lower thirds of the face did not differ in the amount of three-dimensional symmetry. Angular and linear parameters of facial symmetry did not show any gender difference. PMID:21795753

  13. Reducing interior temperature resulting from solar energy using three-dimensional surface patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiang-Jiun Lin


    Full Text Available Excessive solar energy can significantly increase interior temperatures and yield great energy demands for air conditioning. Whereas reducing energy consumptions is very crucial today, this article employs patterned glass technology which incorporates linear patterns throughout the exterior surface of glass to attenuate the solar effect on the interior thermal field based on theoretical and experimental studies. By periodically imposing linearly three-dimensional patterns over the outer surface of window glass, the analytical results indicate that the interior solar heat is able to be reduced, as the surface patterns increase the incident angle and/or decrease the solar energy loading on the patterned glass material. Moreover, the interior solar heat can be strongly affected by the pattern design. According to thermally measured results, the trapezoidal patterned glass having 3-mm-top-edged patterned members yields lower temperature on the interior surface of glass comparing with that for the trapezoidal patterns having 6-mm-top edges. Therefore, making the least non-sloped feature or flat plane appearing on the patterned glass helps decrease the interior temperature resulting from solar energy.

  14. Three-dimensional surface measurement based on the projected defocused pattern technique using imaging fiber optics (United States)

    Parra Escamilla, Geliztle A.; Kobayashi, Fumio; Otani, Yukitoshi


    We present a three-dimensional surface measurement system using imaging fiber endoscope and the measurement is based on the focus technique in uniaxial configuration. The surface height variation of the sample is retrieved by taking into account the contrast modulation change obtained from a projected fringe pattern on the sample. The technique takes into account the defocus change of the fringe pattern due to the height variation of the sample and by a Gaussian fitting process the height reconstruction can be retrieved. A baseline signal procedure was implemented to remove back reflection light coming from the two fiber-surfaces (inlet and outlet) and also a Fourier transform filter was used to remove the pixelated appearance of the images. The depth range of the system is 1.1 mm and a lateral range of 2 mm by 2 mm. The novelties of the implementation are that the system uses the same imaging fiber as illumination and measurement and offers the advantage of the transportability to the measurement to a confined space having potential application on medical or industrial endoscopes systems. We demonstrate the technique by showing the surface profile of a measured object.

  15. Controllable load sharing for soft adhesive interfaces on three-dimensional surfaces (United States)

    Song, Sukho; Drotlef, Dirk-Michael; Majidi, Carmel; Sitti, Metin


    For adhering to three-dimensional (3D) surfaces or objects, current adhesion systems are limited by a fundamental trade-off between 3D surface conformability and high adhesion strength. This limitation arises from the need for a soft, mechanically compliant interface, which enables conformability to nonflat and irregularly shaped surfaces but significantly reduces the interfacial fracture strength. In this work, we overcome this trade-off with an adhesion-based soft-gripping system that exhibits enhanced fracture strength without sacrificing conformability to nonplanar 3D surfaces. Composed of a gecko-inspired elastomeric microfibrillar adhesive membrane supported by a pressure-controlled deformable gripper body, the proposed soft-gripping system controls the bonding strength by changing its internal pressure and exploiting the mechanics of interfacial equal load sharing. The soft adhesion system can use up to ˜26% of the maximum adhesion of the fibrillar membrane, which is 14× higher than the adhering membrane without load sharing. Our proposed load-sharing method suggests a paradigm for soft adhesion-based gripping and transfer-printing systems that achieves area scaling similar to that of a natural gecko footpad.

  16. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model for TMDL development of Lake Fuxian, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhao; Xiaoling Zhang; Yong Liu; Bin He; Xiang Zhu; Rui Zou; Yuanguan Zhu


    Lake Fuxian is the largest deep freshwater lake in China.Although its average water quality meets Class Ⅰ of the China National Water Quality Standard(CNWQS),i.e.,GB3838-2002,monitoring data indicate that the water quality approaches the Class Ⅱ threshold in some areas.Thus it is urgent to reduce the watershed load through the total maximum daily load(TMDL)program.A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was developed for Lake Fuxian,simulating flow circulation and pollutant fate and transport.The model development process consists of several steps,including grid generation,initial and boundary condition configurations,and model calibration processes.The model accurately reproduced the observed water surface elevation,spatiotemporal variations in temperature,and total nitrogen(TN),total phosphorus(TP),and chemical oxygen demand(COD)concentrations,suggesting a reasonable numerical representation of the prototype system for further TMDL analyses.The TMDL was calculated using two interpretations of the water quality standards for Class Ⅰ of the CNWQS based on the maximum instantaneous surface and annual average surface water concentrations.Analysis of the first scenario indicated that the TN,TP and COD loads should be reduced by 66%,68% and 57%,respectively.Water quality was the highest priority; however,local economic development and cost feasibility for load reduction can pose significant issues.In the second interpretation,the model results showed that,under the existing conditions,the average water quality meets the Class Ⅰ standard and therefore load reduction is unnecessary.Future studies are needed to conduct risk and cost assessments for realistic decision-making.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wei; YAN Zhong-min


    Saline intrusion into sewage outfalls will greatly decrease the efficiency of the structures. The numerical model for this flow has been limited to one- and two-dimensional ones. In this article, a three-dimensional numerical model for saline intrusion and purging in sewage outfalls was developed. The flow was modeled in three dimensions under turbulent conditions with the RNG turbulence model. The numerical results provided quantitative evidence of the fundamental flow mechanisms that took place during saline intrusion and purging. The comparisons of the results with that of two-dimensional model and that of experiments indicate that the three-dimensional numerical model developed in this article is more effective in predicting the internal flow in outfalls.

  18. A three-dimensional constitutive model for magnetic shape memory alloys under magneto-mechanical loadings (United States)

    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza; Arghavani, Jamal


    This paper presents a three-dimensional phenomenological constitutive model for magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs), developed within the framework of irreversible continuum thermodynamics. To this end, a proper set of internal variables is introduced to reflect the microstructural consequences on the material macroscopic behavior. Moreover, a stress-dependent thermodynamic force threshold for variant reorientation is introduced which improves the model accuracy. Preassumed kinetic equations for magnetic domain volume fractions, decoupled equations for magnetization unit vectors and appropriate presentation of the limit function for martensite variant reorientation lead to a simple formulation of the proposed constitutive model. To show the model capability in reproducing the main features of MSMAs, several numerical examples are solved and compared with available experimental data as well as available three-dimensional constitutive models in the literature. Demonstrating good agreement with experimental data besides possessing computational advantages, the proposed constitutive model can be used for analysis of MSMA-based smart structures.

  19. Three-dimensional Modelling Technology for City Indoor Positioning and Navigation Applications (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Chen, Yongxin; Wang, Weisheng


    For city indoor positioning and navigation applications, there are two technical problems should be solved, which are the modelling efficiency and the validity and accuracy of the spatial models. In this paper, the quick modelling technology is introduced which uses the multi-angle remote sensing based on the unmanned aerial vehicle measurement. To enhance the validity and accuracy of the spatial models, we proposed an algorithm to remove the line style and planar style foreground occlusions before reconstructing backgrounds. The three-dimensional models can only provide the spatial framework for the city indoor positioning. Furthermore, the simple indoor three-dimensional modelling technology which is based on the building design drawings. In the end, the application in the public safety emergency rescue is introduced.

  20. Development of a three dimensional circulation model based on fractional step method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Abualtayef


    Full Text Available A numerical model was developed for simulating a three-dimensional multilayer hydrodynamic and thermodynamic model in domains with irregular bottom topography. The model was designed for examining the interactions between flow and topography. The model was based on the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and was solved using the fractional step method, which combines the finite difference method in the horizontal plane and the finite element method in the vertical plane. The numerical techniques were described and the model test and application were presented. For the model application to the northern part of Ariake Sea, the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic results were predicted. The numerically predicted amplitudes and phase angles were well consistent with the field observations.

  1. Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux Model for MHD Three-Dimensional Flow of Maxwell Fluid over a Stretching Sheet. (United States)

    Rubab, Khansa; Mustafa, M


    This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM). It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here.

  2. Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux Model for MHD Three-Dimensional Flow of Maxwell Fluid over a Stretching Sheet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khansa Rubab

    Full Text Available This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM. It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here.

  3. Three-Dimensional Animation Technology: a New Interactive Model Designed for the Teaching of Cryospheric Science (United States)

    Porter, P. R.; Marunchak, A.


    One of the key challenges facing educators in the cryospheric sciences is to explain to students the processes that operate and the landforms that exist in relatively unfamiliar glacial environments. In many cases these environments are also largely inaccessible which can hinder field-based teaching. This is particularly the case for en-glacial and sub-glacial hydrology and the closely related topic of sub-glacial glacier dynamics, yet a full understanding of these subject areas is pivotal to overall student understanding of glaciology. An ability to visualise these unfamiliar and inaccessible environments offers a potentially powerful tool to assist student conceptualisation and comprehension. To address this we have developed a three-dimensional interactive 'virtual glacier' simulation model. Based on standards and technology established by the rapidly evolving video gaming industry, the user is presented with an interactive real-time three-dimensional environment designed to accurately portray multiple aspects of glacial environments. The user can move in all directions in the fore-field area, on the glacier surface and within en-glacial and sub-glacial drainage networks. Descent into the glacier hydrological system is via a moulin, from which the user can explore en-glacial channels linking to this moulin and ultimately descend into the sub-glacial drainage system. Various sub-glacial drainage network morphologies can then be 'explored' to aid conceptualisation and understanding and the user can navigate through drainage networks both up- and down-glacier and ultimately emerge at the portal into the fore-field environment. Interactive icons relating to features of interest are presented to the user throughout the model, prompting multimedia dialogue boxes to open. Dialogue box content (e.g. text, links to online resources, videos, journal papers, etc.) is fully customisable by the educator. This facilitates the use of the model at different academic levels

  4. Inferring three-dimensional surface displacement field by combining SAR interferometric phase and amplitude information of ascending and descending orbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Conventional Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar(InSAR) technology can only measure one-dimensional surface displacement(along the radar line-of-sight(LOS) direction).Here we presents a method to infer three-dimensional surface displacement field by combining SAR interferometric phase and amplitude information of ascending and descending orbits.The method is realized in three steps:(1) measuring surface displacements along the LOS directions of both ascending and descending orbits based on interferometric phases;(2) measuring surface displacements along the azimuth directions of both the ascending and descending orbits based on the SAR amplitude data;and(3) estimating the three-dimensional(3D) surface displacement field by combining the above four independent one-dimensional displacements using the method of least squares and Helmert variance component estimation.We apply the method to infer the 3D surface displacement field caused by the 2003 Bam,Iran,earthquake.The results reveal that in the northern part of Bam the ground surface experienced both subsidence and southwestward horizontal movement,while in the southern part uplift and southeastward horizontal movement occurred.The displacement field thus determined matches the location of the fault very well with the maximal displacements reaching 22,40,and 30 cm,respectively in the up,northing and easting directions.Finally,we compare the 3D displacement field with that simulated from the Okada model.The results demonstrate that the method presented here can be used to generate reliable and highly accurate 3D surface displacement fields.

  5. Improved water resource management for a highly complex environment using three-dimensional groundwater modelling (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Affolter, Annette; Radny, Dirk; Dressmann, Horst; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Huggenberger, Peter; Schirmer, Mario


    A three-dimensional groundwater model was used to improve water resource management for a study area in north-west Switzerland, where drinking-water production is close to former landfills and industrial areas. To avoid drinking-water contamination, artificial groundwater recharge with surface water is used to create a hydraulic barrier between the contaminated sites and drinking-water extraction wells. The model was used for simulating existing and proposed water management strategies as a tool to ensure the utmost security for drinking water. A systematic evaluation of the flow direction between existing observation points using a developed three-point estimation method for a large number of scenarios was carried out. It is demonstrated that systematically applying the developed methodology helps to identify vulnerable locations which are sensitive to changing boundary conditions such as those arising from changes to artificial groundwater recharge rates. At these locations, additional investigations and protection are required. The presented integrated approach, using the groundwater flow direction between observation points, can be easily transferred to a variety of hydrological settings to systematically evaluate groundwater modelling scenarios.

  6. Analytical real-time measurement of a three-dimensional weld pool surface (United States)

    Zhang, WeiJie; Wang, XueWu; Zhang, YuMing


    The ability to observe and measure weld pool surfaces in real-time is the core of the foundation for next generation intelligent welding that can partially imitate skilled welders who observe the weld pool to acquire information on the welding process. This study aims at the real-time measurement of the specular three-dimensional (3D) weld pool surface under a strong arc in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). An innovative vision system is utilized in this study to project a dot-matrix laser pattern on the specular weld pool surface. Its reflection from the surface is intercepted at a distance from the arc by a diffuse plane. The intercepted laser dots illuminate this plane producing an image showing the reflection pattern. The deformation of this reflection pattern from the projected pattern (e.g. the dot matrix) is used to derive the 3D shape of the reflection surface, i.e., the weld pool surface. Based on careful analysis, the underlying reconstruction problem is formulated mathematically. An analytic solution is proposed to solve this formulated problem resulting in the weld pool surface being reconstructed on average in 3.04 ms during welding experiments. A vision-based monitoring system is thus established to measure the weld pool surface in GTAW in real-time. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm, first numerical simulation is conducted. The proposed algorithm is then tested on a spherical convex mirror with a priori knowledge of its geometry. The detailed analysis of the measurement error validates the accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Results from the real-time experiments verify the robustness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm.

  7. Three-dimensional (3D) structure model and its parameters for poplar shelterbelts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The spatial functions of surface area density(vegetative surface area per unit canopy volume) and cubic density(vegetative volume per unit canopy volume) have been used as two three-dimensional(3D) structural descriptors for shelterbelt.The functions were defined by models as a general case.However,sub-models such as surface area,volume,and corresponding distributions were not explicitly defined for poplar trees,which are a dominant woody species in shelterbelts all over China,and this limits applications of the models in China and elsewhere.In order to define and develop these sub-models for shelterbelts,poplar trees were destructively sampled from multiple-row shelterbelts and then were measured for their surface area and volume.Using these measurements,we estimated parameters to define their equations explicitly.Based on the architecture and planting patterns of trees in shelterbelts,the distribution of the surface areas and volumes vertically and across the width for different tree heights were constructed for the three components of trunks,branches and leaves.Incorporating the defined equations into the models,we described the 3D structure of a multiple-row poplar shelterbelt.The results showed that,the spatial change in magnitude of surface area density(0.215-10.131 m2/m3) or cubic density(0.00007-0.04667 m3/m3) in shelterbelts is large and their distributions are not uniform.The assumption for boundary-layer flow modeling efforts that the 3D distribution of shelterbelt structure was uniform is not the case in field.The 3D structure model not only can be used to model the flow field as influenced by each tree component,but also can express the entire aerodynamic characteristics of a shelterbelt.The methodologies and equations that are developed in this study can be applied to estimate the 3D structure of a shelterbelt with a design similar to our studied poplar shelterbelts in terms of species composition and planting patterns.The fitted models can be used to

  8. Fully three-dimensional simulation and modeling of a dense plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, B. T.; Niederhaus, J. H. J.


    A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a pulsed-power machine that electromagnetically accelerates and cylindrically compresses a shocked plasma in a Z-pinch. The pinch results in a brief (~ 100 ns) pulse of X-rays, and, for some working gases, also a pulse of neutrons. A great deal of experimental research has been done into the physics of DPF reactions, and there exist mathematical models describing its behavior during the different time phases of the reaction. Two of the phases, known as the inverse pinch and the rundown, are approximately governed by magnetohydrodynamics, and there are a number of well-established codes for simulating these phases in two dimensions or in three dimensions under the assumption of axial symmetry. There has been little success, however, in developing fully three-dimensional simulations. In this work we present three-dimensional simulations of DPF reactions and demonstrate that three-dimensional simulations predict qualitatively and quantitatively different behavior than their two-dimensional counterparts. One of the most important quantities to predict is the time duration between the formation of the gas shock and Z-pinch, and the three-dimensional simulations more faithfully represent experimental results for this time duration and are essential for accurate prediction of future experiments.

  9. Research on Parametric Process Planning Technology Based on Three-dimensional Part Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yufeng; WEI Zhongling


    CAPP(Computer Aided Process Planning) has already become the bottleneck of CAD/CAM system. Present two-dimensional CAPP system which is used in the enterprise needs to be input information and data again, because it can not draw data from CAD(Computer Aided Design)model automatically after building CAD model and drawing. This has influenced extensive use of CAPP system because of its low efficiency. In this paper, three-dimensional model is built by using the parametric method, the process file can be produced directly through drawing corresponding characteristic and parameter from the model with the aid of process database. This improves the efficiency of product development. Visual C++ 6.0 and SQL Server 2000 are used to develop WTJDCAPP prototype system based on component model and SolidWorks three-dimensional CAD platform. Engine valve-seat is taken as concrete object to validate of the technology.

  10. Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Terrestrial Ecosystems of China: Revised Estimation on Three-Dimensional Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhou


    Full Text Available The estimation of soil organic carbon (SOC stock in terrestrial ecosystems of China is of particular importance because it exerts a major influence on worldwide terrestrial carbon (C storage and global climate change. Map-based estimates of SOC stocks conducted in previous studies have typically been applied on planimetric areas, which led to the underestimation of SOC stock. In the present study, SOC stock in China was estimated using a revised method on three-dimensional (3-D surfaces, which considered the undulation of the landforms. Data were collected from the 1:4 M China Soil Map and a search work from the Second Soil Survey in China. Results indicated that the SOC stocks were 28.8 Pg C and 88.5 Pg C in soils at depths of 0–20 cm and 0–100 cm, corresponding to significant increases of 5.66% and 5.44%, respectively. Regression analysis revealed that the SOC stock accumulated with the increase of areas on 3-D surfaces. These results provide more reasonable estimates and new references about SOC stocks in terrestrial ecosystems of China. The method of estimation on 3-D surfaces has scientific meaning to promote the development of new approaches to estimate accurate SOC stocks.

  11. Three-dimensional surface scanners compared with standard anthropometric measurements for head shape. (United States)

    Beaumont, Caroline A A; Knoops, Paul G M; Borghi, Alessandro; Jeelani, N U Owase; Koudstaal, Maarten J; Schievano, Silvia; Dunaway, David J; Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara


    Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging devices designed to capture and quantify craniofacial surface morphology are becoming more common in clinical environments. Such scanners overcome the limitations of two-dimensional photographs while avoiding the ionizing radiation of computed tomography. The purpose of this study was to compare standard anthropometric cranial measurements with measurements taken from images acquired with 3D surface scanners. Two 3D scanners of different cost were used to acquire head shape data from thirteen adult volunteers: M4D scan and Structure Sensor. Head circumference and cephalic index were measured directly on the patients as well as on 3D scans acquired with the two scanners. To compare head volume measurements with a gold standard, magnetic resonance imaging scans were used. Repeatability and accuracy of both devices were evaluated. Intra-rater repeatability for both scanners was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.99, p < 0.001). Direct and digital measures of head circumference, cephalic index and head volume were strongly correlated (0.85 < r < 0.91, p < 0.001). Compared to direct measurements, accuracy was highest for M4D scan. Both 3D scanners provide reproducible data of head circumference, cephalic index and head volume and show a strong correlation with traditional measurements. However, care must be taken when using absolute values. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Half-filled Landau level, topological insulator surfaces, and three-dimensional quantum spin liquids (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Senthil, T.


    We synthesize and partly review recent developments relating the physics of the half-filled Landau level in two dimensions to correlated surface states of topological insulators in three dimensions. The latter are in turn related to the physics of certain three-dimensional quantum spin liquid states. The resulting insights provide an interesting answer to the old question of how particle-hole symmetry is realized in composite fermion liquids. Specifically the metallic state at filling ν =1/2 —described originally in pioneering work by Halperin, Lee, and Read as a liquid of composite fermions—was proposed recently by Son to be described by a particle-hole symmetric effective field theory distinct from that in the prior literature. We show how the relation to topological insulator surface states leads to a physical understanding of the correctness of this proposal. We develop a simple picture of the particle-hole symmetric composite fermion through a modification of older pictures as electrically neutral "dipolar" particles. We revisit the phenomenology of composite fermi liquids (with or without particle-hole symmetry), and show that their heat/electrical transport dramatically violates the conventional Wiedemann-Franz law but satisfies a modified one. We also discuss the implications of these insights for finding physical realizations of correlated topological insulator surfaces.

  13. Fast three-dimensional measurements for dynamic scenes with shiny surfaces (United States)

    Feng, Shijie; Chen, Qian; Zuo, Chao; Asundi, Anand


    This paper presents a novel fringe projection technique for fast three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurements of moving highly reflective objects. By combining the standard three-step phase-shifting fringe patterns with a digital speckle image, dynamic 3-D reconstructions of shiny surfaces can be efficiently achieved with only four projected patterns. The phase measurement is performed by three-step phase-shifting algorithm as it uses the theoretical minimum number of fringe patterns for phase-shifting profilometry. To avoid the camera saturation, a dual-camera fringe projection system is built to measure shiny objects from two different directions. The erroneous phase obtained from a saturated pixel is corrected by the phase of its corresponding pixel in the other view which is free from the saturation problem. To achieve high measurement accuracy, the corresponding high light intensity areas in cameras are found by sub-pixel matches of the speckle pattern in either view. Benefited from the trifocal tensor constraint, the corresponding points in the two wrapped phase maps can be directly established, and thus, the difficulties in determining the correct fringe order for the discontinuous or isolated surfaces can be effectively bypassed. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is able to successfully measure highly reflective surfaces for both stationary and dynamic scenes.

  14. Computational modeling of three-dimensional electrodiffusion in biological systems: application to the node of Ranvier. (United States)

    Lopreore, Courtney L; Bartol, Thomas M; Coggan, Jay S; Keller, Daniel X; Sosinsky, Gina E; Ellisman, Mark H; Sejnowski, Terrence J


    A computational model is presented for the simulation of three-dimensional electrodiffusion of ions. Finite volume techniques were used to solve the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation, and a dual Delaunay-Voronoi mesh was constructed to evaluate fluxes of ions, as well as resulting electric potentials. The algorithm has been validated and applied to a generalized node of Ranvier, where numerical results for computed action potentials agree well with cable model predictions for large clusters of voltage-gated ion channels. At smaller channel clusters, however, the three-dimensional electrodiffusion predictions diverge from the cable model predictions and show a broadening of the action potential, indicating a significant effect due to each channel's own local electric field. The node of Ranvier complex is an elaborate organization of membrane-bound aqueous compartments, and the model presented here represents what we believe is a significant first step in simulating electrophysiological events with combined realistic structural and physiological data.

  15. Three-dimensional transient mathematical model to predict the heat transfer rate of a heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Boothaisong


    Full Text Available A three-dimensional model was developed to simulate the heat transfer rate on a heat pipe in a transient condition. This article presents the details of a calculation domain consisting of a wall, a wick, and a vapor core. The governing equation based on the shape of the pipe was numerically simulated using the finite element method. The developed three-dimensional model attempted to predict the transient temperature, the velocity, and the heat transfer rate profiles at any domain. The values obtained from the model calculation were then compared with the actual results from the experiments. The experiment showed that the time required to attain a steady state (where transient temperature is constant was reasonably consistent with the model. The working fluid r134a (tetrafluoroethane was the quickest to reach the steady state and transferred the greatest amount of heat.

  16. Three-dimensional thermal finite element modeling of lithium-ion battery in thermal abuse application (United States)

    Guo, Guifang; Long, Bo; Cheng, Bo; Zhou, Shiqiong; Xu, Peng; Cao, Binggang

    In order to better understand the thermal abuse behavior of high capacities and large power lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicle application, a three-dimensional thermal model has been developed for analyzing the temperature distribution under abuse conditions. The model takes into account the effects of heat generation, internal conduction and convection, and external heat dissipation to predict the temperature distribution in a battery. Three-dimensional model also considers the geometrical features to simulate oven test, which are significant in larger cells for electric vehicle application. The model predictions are compared to oven test results for VLP 50/62/100S-Fe (3.2 V/55 Ah) LiFePO 4/graphite cells and shown to be in great agreement.

  17. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of thermal regime and slab dehydration beneath Kanto and Tohoku, Japan (United States)

    Ji, Yingfeng; Yoshioka, Shoichi; Manea, Vlad Constantin; Manea, Marina; Matsumoto, Takumi


    Although the thermal regime of the interface between two overlapping subducting plates, such as those beneath Kanto, Japan, is thought to play an important role in affecting the distribution of interplate and intraslab earthquakes, the estimation of the thermal regime remains challenging to date. We constructed a three-dimensional (3-D) thermal convection model to simulate the subduction of the Pacific plate along the Japan Trench and Izu-Bonin Trench, including the subduction of the Philippine Sea beneath Kanto and investigated the slab thermal regime and slab water contents in this complex tectonic setting. Based on the subduction parameters tested in generic models with two flat oceanic plates, a faster or thicker plate subducting in a more trench-normal direction produces a colder slab thermal regime. The interplate temperature of the cold anomaly beneath offshore Kanto was approximately 300°C colder than that beneath offshore Tohoku at a same depth of 40 km and approximately 600°C colder at a depth of 70 km. The convergence between the two subducting plates produces an asymmetric thermal structure in the slab contact zone beneath Kanto, which is characterized by clustered seismicity in the colder southwestern half. The thermo-dehydration state of the mid-ocean ridge basalt near the upper surface of the subducted Pacific plate controls the interplate seismicity beneath the Kanto-Tohoku region according to the spatial concurrence of the thermo-dehydration and seismicity along the megathrust fault zone of the subducted Pacific plate.

  18. Automated recovery of three-dimensional models of plant shoots from multiple color images. (United States)

    Pound, Michael P; French, Andrew P; Murchie, Erik H; Pridmore, Tony P


    Increased adoption of the systems approach to biological research has focused attention on the use of quantitative models of biological objects. This includes a need for realistic three-dimensional (3D) representations of plant shoots for quantification and modeling. Previous limitations in single-view or multiple-view stereo algorithms have led to a reliance on volumetric methods or expensive hardware to record plant structure. We present a fully automatic approach to image-based 3D plant reconstruction that can be achieved using a single low-cost camera. The reconstructed plants are represented as a series of small planar sections that together model the more complex architecture of the leaf surfaces. The boundary of each leaf patch is refined using the level-set method, optimizing the model based on image information, curvature constraints, and the position of neighboring surfaces. The reconstruction process makes few assumptions about the nature of the plant material being reconstructed and, as such, is applicable to a wide variety of plant species and topologies and can be extended to canopy-scale imaging. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on data sets of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa) plants as well as a unique virtual data set that allows us to compute quantitative measures of reconstruction accuracy. The output is a 3D mesh structure that is suitable for modeling applications in a format that can be imported in the majority of 3D graphics and software packages. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Experimental investigation of three-dimensional propagation process from surface fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Experimental study of the formation and propagation of three-dimensional (3D) faults is of great sig- nificance in the understanding of the propagation process developing from initial natural faults. In the study described in this paper, experimental investigations of 3D propagation processes of a type of surface fault are carried out under biaxial compression. The strain field near the surface fault is dy- namically measured and fully analyzed with a high-density Multi-Channel Digital Strain Gauge (MCDSG) and Digital Speckle Correlation Method (DSCM) based on the white-light image analysis. Simultane- ously the micro-fracture process involved in fault formation is observed by a 3D acoustic emission (AE) location system with a set of multi-channel whole-wave record equipment. The experimental results show that the 3D propagation process of surface fault differs greatly from that of the two-dimensional (2D) state and that a new more complicated type of 3D morphological characters and deformation mechanisms are produced. The 3D propagation process of surface faults may be divided into three stages: 1) the first stage of crack propagation initiated by wing cracks; 2) the conversion stage propa- gated by petal cracks; and 3) the second stage of crack propagation formed by shell-shaped fracture surface. The primary propagation patterns of the three stages are different. The corresponding defor- mation fields and micro-fracture distributions are likewise different. The fracture activities from petal cracks especially are of vital importance during surface fault propagation. This is also a key conversion state and marks an intrinsic difference between 2D-like and the 3D state in fault development.

  20. Three-Dimensional Scale-Model Tank Experiment of the Hudson Canyon Region (United States)


    Three-Dimensional Scale-Model Tank Experiment of the Hudson Canyon Region Jason D. Sagers Applied Research Laboratories at The University of...planning for future experiments in ocean environments with slopes and canyons . APPROACH The development of fully 3D numerical acoustic propagation models...Experiment of the Hudson Canyon Region 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  1. Three-dimensional Solute Transport Modeling in Coupled Soil and Plant Root Systems



    Many environmental and agricultural challenges rely on the proper understanding of water flow and solute transport in soils, for example the carbon cycle, crop growth, irrigation scheduling or fate of pollutants in subsoil. Current modeling approaches typically simulate plant uptake via empirical approaches, which neglect the three-dimensional (3D) root architecture. Yet, nowadays 3D soil-root water and solute models on plant-scale exist, which can be used for assessing the impact of root arc...

  2. Pakal: A Three-dimensional Model to Solve the Radiative Transfer Equation


    De la Luz, Victor; Lara, Alejandro; Mendoza-Torres, J. E.; Selhorst, Caius L.


    We present a new numerical model called "Pakal" intended to solve the radiative transfer equation in a three-dimensional (3D) geometry, using the approximation for a locally plane-parallel atmosphere. Pakal uses pre-calculated radial profiles of density and temperature (based on hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, or MHD models) to compute the emission from 3D source structures with high spatial resolution. Then, Pakal solves the radiative transfer equation in a set of (3D) ray paths, going from the s...

  3. Three-Dimensional Simulation of SOFC Anode Polarization Characteristics Based on Sub-Grid Scale Model



    Three-dimensional numerical simulation of SOFC anode polarization is conducted with a structure obtained by a focused ion beam and scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM). Electronic, ionic and gaseous transports with electrochemical reaction are considered. A sub-grid scale model is newly developed and effectively used to evaluate the transport flux in the porous structure. The proposed SGS model shows its potential to reasonably evaluate the transport flux considering the microstructure smal...

  4. Documentation of finite-difference model for simulation of three-dimensional ground-water flow (United States)

    Trescott, Peter C.; Larson, S.P.


    User experience has indicated that the documentation of the model of three-dimensional ground-water flow (Trescott and Larson, 1975) should be expanded. This supplement is intended to fulfill that need. The original report emphasized the theory of the strongly implicit procedure, instructions for using the groundwater-flow model, and practical considerations for application. (See also W76-02962 and W76-13085) (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Three-dimensional semi-idealized model for tidal motion in tidal estuaries. An application to the Ems estuary (United States)

    Kumar, Mohit; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Roos, Pieter C.; Möller, Matthias


    In this paper, a three-dimensional semi-idealized model for tidal motion in a tidal estuary of arbitrary shape and bathymetry is presented. This model aims at bridging the gap between idealized and complex models. The vertical profiles of the velocities are obtained analytically in terms of the first-order and the second-order partial derivatives of surface elevation, which itself follows from an elliptic partial differential equation. The surface elevation is computed numerically using the finite element method and its partial derivatives are obtained using various methods. The newly developed semi-idealized model allows for a systematic investigation of the influence of geometry and bathymetry on the tidal motion which was not possible in previously developed idealized models. The new model also retains the flexibility and computational efficiency of previous idealized models, essential for sensitivity analysis. As a first step, the accuracy of the semi-idealized model is investigated. To this end, an extensive comparison is made between the model results of the semi-idealized model and two other idealized models: a width-averaged model and a three-dimensional idealized model. Finally, the semi-idealized model is used to understand the influence of local geometrical effects on the tidal motion in the Ems estuary. The model shows that local convergence and meandering effects can have a significant influence on the tidal motion. Finally, the model is applied to the Ems estuary. The model results agree well with observations and results from a complex numerical model.

  6. Breath-hold gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional MR thoracic aortography. Higher spatial resolution imaging with phased-array coil and three-dimensional surface display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Tadashi; Hata, Ryoichiro; Tamura, Akihisa; Kohata, Minako; Miyasaka, Kenji; Kajima, Toshio; Fukuoka, Haruhito; Ito, Katsuhide [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine


    The aim of this study was to examine signal intensities of data sets from MR thoracic aortography and to evaluate three-dimensional surface display (3DSD) for postprocessing. Twenty-five patients were imaged with gadolinium-enhanced 3D fast gradient echo sequence. The intensity at the aortic arch was significantly higher than that at the mediastinal fat (p<0.0001). The signal-to-noise ratio was lower at the aortic arch than at the ascending and descending aorta, whereas the contrast-to-noise ratio was fairly high at the aortic arch. Although in one case (4%) the intensity at the arch was smaller than that at the mediastinal fat, 3DSD was successfully performed in all cases. Superiority of 3DSD over maximum intensity projection was obtained in 67% of the cases. 3DSD was evaluated to be superior to maximum intensity projection in all cases of thoracic aortic aneurysm and coarctation of aorta. Higher resolution MR thoracic aortography could be successfully performed with phased-array coil and 3DSD. (author)

  7. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui


    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  8. Three-dimensional modeling of Mount Vesuvius with sequential integrated inversion (United States)

    Tondi, Rosaria; de Franco, Roberto


    A new image of Mount Vesuvius and the surrounding area is recovered from the tomographic inversion of 693 first P wave arrivals recorded by 314 receivers deployed along five profiles which intersect the crater, and gravity data collected in 17,598 stations on land and offshore. The final three-dimensional (3-D) velocity model presented here is determined by interpolation of five 2-D velocity sections obtained from sequential integrated inversion (SII) of seismic and gravity data. The inversion procedure adopts the "maximum likelihood" scheme in order to jointly optimize seismic velocities and densities. In this way we recover velocity and density models both consistent with seismic and gravity data information. The model parameterization of these 2-D models is chosen in order to keep the diagonal elements of the seismic resolution matrix in the order of 0.2-0.8. The highest values of resolution are detected under the volcano edifice. The imaged 6-km-thick crustal volume underlies a 25 × 45 km2 area. The interpolation is performed by choosing the right grid for a smoothing algorithm which prepares optimum models for asymptotic ray theory methods. Hence this model can be used as a reference model for a 3-D tomographic inversion of seismic data. The 3-D gravity modeling is straightforward. The results of this study clearly image the continuous structure of the Mesozoic carbonate basement top and the connection of the volcano conduit structure to two shallow depressions, which in terms of hazard prevention are the regions through which magma may more easily flow toward the surface and cause possible eruptions.

  9. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction via a robust binary shape-coded structured light method (United States)

    Tang, Suming; Zhang, Xu; Song, Zhan; Jiang, Hualie; Nie, Lei


    A binary shape-coded structured light method for single-shot three-dimensional reconstruction is presented. The projected structured pattern is composed with eight geometrical shapes with a coding window size of 2×2. The pattern element is designed as rhombic with embedded geometrical shapes. The pattern feature point is defined as the intersection of two adjacent rhombic shapes, and a multitemplate-based feature detector is presented for its robust detection and precise localization. Based on the extracted grid-points, a topological structure is constructed to separate the pattern elements from the obtained image. In the decoding stage, a training dataset is first established from training samples that are collected from a variety of target surfaces. Then, the deep neural network technique is applied for the classification of pattern elements. Finally, an error correction algorithm is introduced based on the epipolar and neighboring constraints to refine the decoding results. The experimental results show that the proposed method not only owns high measurement precision but also has strong robustness to surface color and texture.

  10. Development of a three-dimensional surface imaging system for melanocytic skin lesion evaluation (United States)

    Tosca, Androniki; Kokolakis, Athanasios; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Zabulis, Xenophon; Marnelakis, Ioannis; Ripoll, Jorge; Stephanidis, Constantine


    Even though surface morphology is always taken into account when assessing clinically pigmented skin lesions, it is not captured by most modern imaging systems using digital imaging. Our aim is to develop a novel three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique to record detailed information of the surface anatomy of melanocytic lesions that will enable improved classification through digital imaging. The apparatus consists of three high-resolution cameras, a light source, and accompanying software. Volume measurements of specific phantoms using volumetric tubes render slightly lower values than those obtained by our 3D imaging system (mean%±SD, 3.8%±0.98, P<0.05). To examine the reproducibility of the method, sequential imaging of melanocytic lesions is carried out. The mean%±SD differences of area, major axis length, volume, and maximum height are 2.1%±1.1, 0.9%±0.8, 3.8%±2.9, and 2.5%±3.5, respectively. Thirty melanocytic lesions are assessed, including common and dysplastic nevi and melanomas. There is a significant difference between nevi and melanomas in terms of variance in height and boundary asymmetry (P<0.001). Moreover, dysplastic nevi have significantly higher variances in pigment density values than common nevi (P<0.001). Preliminary data suggest that our instrument has great potential in the evaluation of the melanocytic lesions. However, these findings should be confirmed in larger-scale studies.

  11. A three-dimensional thermal abuse model for lithium-ion cells (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Pesaran, Ahmad; Spotnitz, Robert

    To understand further the thermal abuse behavior of large format Li-ion batteries for automotive applications, the one-dimensional modeling approach formulated by Hatchard et al. [T.D. Hatchard, D.D. MacNeil, A. Basu, J.R. Dahn, J. Electrochem. Soc. 148(7) (2001) A755-A761] was reproduced. Then it was extended to three dimensions so we could consider the geometrical features, which are critical in large cells for automotive applications. The three-dimensional model captures the shapes and dimensions of cell components and the spatial distributions of materials and temperatures, and is used to simulate oven tests, and to determine how a local hot spot can propagate through the cell. In simulations of oven abuse testing of cells with cobalt oxide cathode and graphite anode with standard LiPF 6 electrolyte, the three-dimensional model predicts that thermal runaway will occur sooner or later than the lumped model, depending on the size of the cell. The model results showed that smaller cells reject heat faster than larger cells; this may prevent them from going into thermal runaway under identical abuse conditions. In simulations of local hot spots inside a large cylindrical cell, the three-dimensional model predicts that the reactions initially propagate in the azimuthal and longitudinal directions to form a hollow cylinder-shaped reaction zone.

  12. Experiments with three-dimensional riblets as an idealized model of shark skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechert, D.W.; Bruse, M.; Hage, W. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Turbulence Res.


    The skin of fast sharks exhibits a rather intriguing three-dimensional rib pattern. Therefore, the question arises whether or not such three-dimensional riblet surfaces may produce an equivalent or even higher drag reduction than straight two-dimensional riblets. Previously, the latter have been shown to reduce turbulent wall shear stress by up to 10%. Hence, the drag reduction by three-dimensional riblet surfaces is investigated experimentally. Our idealized 3D-surface consists of sharp-edged fin-shaped elements arranged in an interlocking array. The turbulent wall shear stress on this surface is measured using direct force balances. In a first attempt, wind tunnel experiments with about 365000 tiny fin elements per test surface have been carried out. Due to the complexity of the surface manufacturing process, a comprehensive parametric study was not possible. These initial wind tunnel data, however, hinted at an appreciable drag reduction. Subsequently, in order to have a better judgement on the potential of these 3D-surfaces, oil channel experiments are carried out. In our new oil channel, the geometrical dimensions of the fins can be magnified 10 times in size as compared to the initial wind tunnel experiments, i.e., from typically 0.5 mm to 5 mm. For these latter oil channel experiments, novel test plates with variable fin configuration have been manufactured, with 1920-4000 fins. This enhanced variability permits measurements with a comparatively large parameter range. As a result of our measurements, it can be concluded, that 3D-riblet surfaces do indeed produce an appreciable drag reduction. We found as much as 7.3% decreased turbulent shear stress, as compared to a smooth reference plate.

  13. A Surface-Based Spatial Registration Method Based on Sense Three-Dimensional Scanner. (United States)

    Fan, Yifeng; Xu, Xiufang; Wang, Manning


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a surface-based registration method based on a low-cost, hand-held Sense three-dimensional (3D) scanner in image-guided neurosurgery system. The scanner was calibrated prior and fixed on a tripod before registration. During registration, a part of the head surface was scanned at first and the spatial position of the adapter was recorded. Then the scanner was taken off from the tripod and the entire head surface was scanned by moving the scanner around the patient's head. All the scan points were aligned to the recorded spatial position to form a unique point cloud of the head by the automatic mosaic function of the scanner. The coordinates of the scan points were transformed from the device space to the adapter space by a calibration matrix, and then to the patient space. A 2-step patient-to-image registration method was then performed to register the patient space to the image space. The experimental results showed that the mean target registration error of 15 targets on the surface of the phantom was 1.61±0.09 mm. In a clinical experiment, the mean target registration error of 7 targets on the patient's head surface was 2.50±0.31 mm, which was sufficient to meet clinical requirements. It is feasible to use the Sense 3D scanner for patient-to-image registration, and the low-cost Sense 3D scanner can take the place of the current used scanner in the image-guided neurosurgery system.

  14. Insights on slab-driven mantle flow from advances in three-dimensional modelling (United States)

    Jadamec, Margarete A.


    The wealth of seismic observations collected over the past 20 years has raised intriguing questions about the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the mantle flow field close to subduction zones and provided a valuable constraint for how the plate geometry may influence mantle flow proximal to the slab. In geodynamics, there has been a new direction of subduction zone modelling that has explored the 3D nature of slab-driven mantle flow, motivated in part by the observations from shear wave splitting, but also by the observed variations in slab geometries worldwide. Advances in high-performance computing are now allowing for an unprecedented level of detail to be incorporated into numerical models of subduction. This paper summarizes recent advances from 3D geodynamic models that reveal the complex nature of slab-driven mantle flow, including trench parallel flow, toroidal flow around slab edges, mantle upwelling at lateral slab edges, and small scale convection within the mantle wedge. This implies slab-driven mantle deformation zones occur in the asthenosphere proximal to the slab, wherein the mantle may commonly flow in a different direction and rate than the surface plates, implying laterally variable plate-mantle coupling. The 3D slab-driven mantle flow can explain, in part, the lateral transport of geochemical signatures in subduction zones. In addition, high-resolution geographically referenced models can inform the interpretation of slab structure, where seismic data are lacking. The incorporation of complex plate boundaries into high-resolution, 3D numerical models opens the door to a new avenue of research in model construction, data assimilation, and modelling workflows, and gives 3D immersive visualization a new role in scientific discovery.

  15. The correction of the distortion of human face based on three-dimensional modeling methods (United States)

    Ye, Qingmin; Chen, Kuo; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi


    When the human face is on the edge of field of the camera which has a large view, serious deformation will be captured. To correct the distortion of the human face, we present an approach based on setting up a 3D model. Firstly, we construct 3D target face modeling by using the data and depth information of the standard human face, which is set up by the three-dimensional model with three-dimensional Gaussian function with sectional type. According to the size of the face in the image and the parameters of the camera, we can obtain the information of relative position and depth of the human face. Then by translating the virtual camera axis to the center of the face, we can achieve the goal to correct the distortion of the face based on the theory of three-dimensional imaging. Finally, we have made a lot of experiments, and we study the influence of parameters of the 3D model of human face. The result indicates that the method presented by this paper can play an effective role in correcting the distortion of the face in the edge of the view, and we can get better results if the model appreciates the real human face.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Saline Intrusion and Purging in Long Sea Outfalls with Three-Dimensional Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wei; YAN Zhong-min; WU Long-hua


    Saline intrusion into marine sewage outfalls will greatly decrease the efficiency of sewage disposal. In order to investigate the mechanisms of this flow, in this paper, a three-dimensional numerical model based on FVM (Finite Volume Method) is established. The RNG k-ε model is selected for turbulence modeling. The time-averaged volume fraction equations are introduced to simulate the stratification and interfacial exchange of sewage and seawater in outfalls. Validity of the established three-dimensional numerical model is evaluated by comparisons of numerical results with experimental data. With this three-dimensional numerical model, the internal flow characteristics in outfalls for different sewage discharges are simulated. The results indicate that for a low sewage discharge, saline circulates in the outfall due to intrusion and both the inflowing momentum and the interfacial turbulent mixing are important mechanisms to extrude the saline. For a high sewage discharge, saline intrusion could be avoided. The inflow momentum is the main mechanism to extrude the saline and the interfacial turbulent mixing is not important relatively. Even at a high sewage discharge, the saline wedge would be retained in the main outfall pipe after the risers are purged. It takes a long time for this saline wedge to be extruded by interfacial turbulent mixing.

  17. Three-dimensional ab initio dipole moment surfaces and stretching vibrational band intensities of the XH3 molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu An-Wen; Hu Shui-Ming; Ding Yun; Zhu Qing-Shi


    Stretching vibrational band intensities of XH3 (X=N, Sb) molecules are investigated employing three-dimensional dipole moment surfaces combined with the local mode Hamiltonian model. The dipole moment surfaces of NH3 and SbH3 are calculated with the density functional theory and at the correlated MP2 level, respectively. The calculated band intensities are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The contribution to the band intensities from the different terms in the polynomial expansion of the dipole moments of four group V hydrides (NH3, PH3, AsH3 and SbH3) are discussed. It is concluded that the breakdown of the bond dipole approximation must be considered.The intensity "borrowing" effect due to the wave function mixing among the stretching vibrational states is found to be less significant for the molecules that reach the local mode limit.

  18. Three-dimensional laboratory modeling of the Tonga trench and Samoan plume interaction (United States)

    Druken, K. A.; Kincaid, C. R.; Pockalny, R. A.; Griffiths, R. W.; Hart, S. R.


    Plume processes occurring near ridge centers (e.g. Iceland) or mid-plate (e.g. Hawaii) have been well studied; however, the behavior of a plume near a subducting plate is still poorly understood and may in fact differ from the typical expected plume surfacing patterns. We investigate how three-dimensional subduction-driven flow relates to the deformation and dispersal of nearby upwelling plume material and the associated geochemical spatial patterns, with site-specific comparisons to the Tonga trench and Samoan plume system. Eighteen plume-trench laboratory experiments were conducted with varied combinations of subduction motions (down-dip, trench rollback, slab steepening and back-arc extension) and plume parameters (position and temperature.) A phenolic plate and glucose syrup, with a temperature dependent viscosity, are used to model the slab and upper mantle, respectively. Hydraulic pistons control longitudinal, translational and steepening motions of the slab as a simplified kinematic approach to mimic dynamic experiments. Results show that the subduction-induced flow dominates the upwelling strength of the plume, causing a significant portion of the plume head to subduct before reaching the melt zone. The remaining material is entrained around the slab edge into the mantle wedge by the trench rollback-induced flow. The proportion of subducted verses entrained material is predominantly dependent on plume location (relative to the trench) and thermal strength, with additional effects from back-arc extension and plate steepening.

  19. Improved water resource management using three dimensional groundwater modelling for a highly complex environmental (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Affolter, Annette; Radny, Dirk; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Huggenberger, Peter; Schirmer, Mario


    Proper allocation and management of groundwater is an important and critical challenge under rising water demands of various environmental sectors but good groundwater quality is often limited because of urbanization and contamination of aquifers. Given the predictive capability of groundwater models, they are often the only viable means of providing input to water management decisions. However, modelling flow and transport processes can be difficult due to their unknown subsurface heterogeneity and typically unknown distribution of contaminants. As a result water resource management tasks are based on uncertain assumption on contaminants patterns and this uncertainty is typically not incorporated into the assessment of risks associated with different proposed management scenarios. A three-dimensional groundwater model was used to improve water resource management for a study area, where drinking water production is close to different former landfills and industrial areas. To avoid drinking water contamination, artificial groundwater recharge with surface water into the gravel aquifer is used to create a hydraulic barrier between contaminated sites and drinking water extraction wells. The model was used for simulating existing and proposed water management strategies as a tool to ensure the utmost security for drinking water. A systematic evaluation of the flow direction and magnitude between existing observation points using a newly developed three point estimation method for a large amount of scenarios was carried out. Due to the numerous observation points 32 triangles (three-points) were created which cover the entire area around the Hardwald. We demonstrated that systematically applying our developed methodology helps to identify important locations which are sensitive to changing boundary conditions and where additional protection is required without highly computational demanding transport modelling. The presented integrated approach using the flow direction

  20. Modeling Vehicle Collision Angle in Traffic Crashes Based on Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengchao Lyu


    Full Text Available In road traffic accidents, the analysis of a vehicle’s collision angle plays a key role in identifying a traffic accident’s form and cause. However, because accurate estimation of vehicle collision angle involves many factors, it is difficult to accurately determine it in cases in which less physical evidence is available and there is a lack of monitoring. This paper establishes the mathematical relation model between collision angle, deformation, and normal vector in the collision region according to the equations of particle deformation and force in Hooke’s law of classical mechanics. At the same time, the surface reconstruction method suitable for a normal vector solution is studied. Finally, the estimation model of vehicle collision angle is presented. In order to verify the correctness of the model, verification of multi-angle collision experiments and sensitivity analysis of laser scanning precision for the angle have been carried out using three-dimensional (3D data obtained by a 3D laser scanner in the collision deformation zone. Under the conditions with which the model has been defined, validation results show that the collision angle is a result of the weighted synthesis of the normal vector of the collision point and the weight value is the deformation of the collision point corresponding to normal vectors. These conclusions prove the applicability of the model. The collision angle model proposed in this paper can be used as the theoretical basis for traffic accident identification and cause analysis. It can also be used as a theoretical reference for the study of the impact deformation of elastic materials.

  1. Fan-shaped jets in three dimensional reconnection simulation as a model of ubiquitous solar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Rong Lin; Isobe, Hiroaki; Fang, Cheng


    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process in space and astrophysical plasmas in which oppositely directed magnetic fields changes its connectivity and eventually converts its energy into kinetic and thermal energy of the plasma. Recently, ubiquitous jets (for example, chromospheric anemone jets, penumbral microjets, umbral light bridge jets) have been observed by Solar Optical Telescope on board the satellite Hinode. These tiny and frequently occurring jets are considered to be a possible evidence of small-scale ubiquitous reconnection in the solar atmosphere. However, the details of three dimensional magnetic configuration are still not very clear. Here we propose a new model based on three dimensional simulations of magnetic reconnection using a typical current sheet magnetic configuration with a strong guide field. The most interesting feature is that the jets produced by the reconnection eventually move along the guide field lines. This model provides a fresh understanding of newly discovered ubiquit...

  2. Three-Dimensional Modeling and Indoor Positioning for Urban Emergency Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional modeling of building environments and indoor positioning is essential for emergency response in cities. Traditional ground-based measurement methods, such as geodetic astronomy, total stations, and global positioning system (GPS receivers, cannot meet the demand for high precision positioning and it is therefore essential to conduct multiple-angle data-acquisition and establish three-dimensional spatial models. In this paper, a rapid modeling technology is introduced, which includes multiple-angle remote sensing image acquisition based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, an algorithm to remove linear and planar foregrounds before reconstructing the backgrounds, and a three-dimensional modeling (3DM framework. Additionally, an indoor 3DM technology is introduced based on building design drawings, and an indoor positioning technology is developed using iBeacon technology. Finally, a prototype system of the indoor and outdoor positioning-service system in an urban firefighting rescue scenario is introduced to demonstrate the value of the method proposed in this paper.

  3. An application of the three-dimensional q-deformed harmonic oscillator to the shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raychev, P.P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Monte S Angelo, via Cintia, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigrad Road, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Roussev, R.P.; Terziev, P.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigrad Road, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Lo Iudice, N. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Monte S Angelo, via Cintia, I-80125 Napoli (Italy)


    A procedure for the construction of a q-deformed version of the Hamiltonian of the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator (HO), based on the application of q-deformed algebras, is presented. The spectrum of this Hamiltonian is not degenerated in the quantum number of the q-deformed angular momentum. The results together with their applicability to the shell model are compared with the predictions of the modified HO. (author)

  4. Three-dimensional optical metamaterials as model systems for longitudinal and transverse magnetic coupling. (United States)

    Liu, Na; Giessen, Harald


    In this paper, we demonstrate that metamaterials represent model systems for longitudinal and transverse magnetic coupling in the optical domain. In particular, such coupling can lead to fully parallel or antiparallel alignment of the magnetic dipoles at the lowest frequency resonance. Also, we present the design scheme for constructing three-dimensional metamaterials with solely magnetic interaction. Our concept could pave the way for achieving rather complicated magnetic materials with desired arrangements of magnetic dipoles at optical frequencies.

  5. Three-dimensional simulations of phase separation in model binary alloy systems with elasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlikowski, D.; Roland, C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Sagui, C. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Somoza, A.S. [Univ. de Murcia (Spain). Dept. de Fisica


    The authors report on large-scale three-dimensional simulations of phase separation in model binary alloy systems in the presence of elastic fields. The elastic field has several important effects on the morphology of the system: the ordered domains are subject to shape transformations, and spatial ordering. In contrast to two-dimensional system, no significant slowing down in the growth is observed. There is also no evidence of any reverse coarsening of the domains.

  6. An algorithm of multi-model spatial overlay based on three-dimensional terrain model TIN and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-an; ZHANG Zi-ping; GONG Jian-ya


    3D-GIS spatial overlay analysis is being broadly concerned about in in ternational academe and is a research focus. It is one of the important function s of spatial analysis using GIS technology. An algorithm of multi-model spatial overlay based on three-dimensional terrain model TIN is introduced in this pape r which can be used to solve the TIN-based three-dimensional overlay operation in spatial analysis. The feasibility and validity of this algorithm is identified. This algorithm is used successfully in three-dimensional overlay and region va riation overlay analysis.

  7. Three Dimensional P Wave Velocity Model for the Crust Containing Aftershocks of the Bhuj, India Earthquake (United States)

    Powell, C. A.; Vlahovic, G.; Bodin, P.; Horton, S.


    A three-dimensional P wave velocity model has been constructed for the crust in the vicinity of the Mw=7.7 January 26th Bhuj, India earthquake using aftershock data obtained by CERI away teams. Aftershocks were recorded by 8 portable, digital K2 seismographs (the MAEC/ISTAR network) and by a continuously recording Guralp CMG40TD broad-band seismometer. Station spacing is roughly 30 km. The network was in place for 18 days and recorded ground motions from about 2000 aftershocks located within about 100 km of all stations. The 3-D velocity model is based upon an initial subset of 461 earthquakes with 2848 P wave arrivals. The initial 1-D velocity model was determined using VELEST and the 3-D model was determined using the nonlinear travel time tomography method of Benz et al. [1996]. Block size was set at 2 by 2 by 2 km. A 45% reduction in RMS travel time residuals was obtained after 10 iterations holding hypocenters fixed. We imaged velocity anomalies in the range -2 to 4%. Low velocities were found in the upper 6 km and the anomalies follow surface features such as the Rann of Kutch. High velocity features were imaged at depth and are associated with the aftershock hypocenters. High crustal velocities are present at depths exceeding 20 km with the exception of the crust below the Rann of Kutch. The imaged velocity anomaly pattern does not change when different starting models are used and when hypocenters are relocated using P wave arrivals only. The analysis will be extended to an expanded data set of 941 aftershocks.

  8. An orthogonal coordinate grid following the three-dimensional viscous flow over a concave surface (United States)

    Dagenhart, J. R; Saric, W. S.


    Swept wings designed for laminar flow control exhibit both centrifugal and crossflow instabilities which produce streamwise vortices that can lead to early transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the presence of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. This paper outlines an iterative algorithm for generation of an orthogonal, curvilinear, coordinate grid following the streamlines of the three-dimensional viscous flow over a swept, concave surface. The governing equations for the metric tensor are derived from the Riemann-Christoffel tensor for an Euclidian geometry. Unit vectors along streamline, normal and binormal directions are determined. The governing equations are not solved directly, but are employed only as compatibility equations. The scale factor for the streamline coordinate is obtained by an iterative integration scheme on a 200 x 100 x 5 grid, while the other two scale factors are determined from definitions. Sample results are obtained which indicate that the compatibility equation error decreases linearly with grid step size. Grids smaller than 200 x 100 x 5 are found to be inadequate to resolve the grid curvature.

  9. Three-Dimensional Clustered Nanostructures for Microfluidic Surface-Enhanced Raman Detection. (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Li, Kerui; Purcell, Francis J; Zhao, De; Zhang, Wei; He, Zhongyuan; Tan, Shuai; Tang, Zhenguan; Wang, Hongzhi; Reichmanis, Elsa


    A materials fabrication concept based on a fluid-construction strategy to create three-dimensional (3D) ZnO@ZnS-Ag active nanostructures at arbitrary position within confined microchannels to form an integrated microfluidic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) system is presented. The fluid-construction process allowed facile construction of the nanostructured substrates, which were shown to possess a substantial number of integrated hot spots that support SERS activity. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis suggested that the 3D clustered geometry facilitated hot spot formation. High sensitivity and good recycle performance were demonstrated using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) and a mixture of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and 4-MBA as target organic pollutants to evaluate the SERS microfluidic device performance. The 3D clustered nanostructures were also effective in the detection of a representative nerve agent and biomolecule. The results of this investigation provide a materials and process approach to the fabrication of requisite nanostructures for the online detection of organic pollutants, devices for real-time observation of environmental hazards, and personal-health monitoring.

  10. High performance computing for three-dimensional agent-based molecular models. (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, G; Pérez-Pérez, M; Fdez-Riverola, F; Lourenço, A


    Agent-based simulations are increasingly popular in exploring and understanding cellular systems, but the natural complexity of these systems and the desire to grasp different modelling levels demand cost-effective simulation strategies and tools. In this context, the present paper introduces novel sequential and distributed approaches for the three-dimensional agent-based simulation of individual molecules in cellular events. These approaches are able to describe the dimensions and position of the molecules with high accuracy and thus, study the critical effect of spatial distribution on cellular events. Moreover, two of the approaches allow multi-thread high performance simulations, distributing the three-dimensional model in a platform independent and computationally efficient way. Evaluation addressed the reproduction of molecular scenarios and different scalability aspects of agent creation and agent interaction. The three approaches simulate common biophysical and biochemical laws faithfully. The distributed approaches show improved performance when dealing with large agent populations while the sequential approach is better suited for small to medium size agent populations. Overall, the main new contribution of the approaches is the ability to simulate three-dimensional agent-based models at the molecular level with reduced implementation effort and moderate-level computational capacity. Since these approaches have a generic design, they have the major potential of being used in any event-driven agent-based tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Three-dimensional quasistatic model for high brightness beam dynamics simulation (United States)

    Qiang, Ji; Lidia, Steve; Ryne, Robert D.; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile


    In this paper, we present a three-dimensional quasistatic model for high brightness beam dynamics simulation in rf/dc photoinjectors, rf linacs, and similar devices on parallel computers. In this model, electrostatic space-charge forces within a charged particle beam are calculated self-consistently at each time step by solving the three-dimensional Poisson equation in the beam frame and then transforming back to the laboratory frame. When the beam has a large energy spread, it is divided into a number of energy bins or slices so that the space-charge forces are calculated from the contribution of each bin and summed together. Image-charge effects from conducting photocathode are also included efficiently using a shifted-Green function method. For a beam with large aspect ratio, e.g., during emission, an integrated Green function method is used to solve the three-dimensional Poisson equation. Using this model, we studied beam transport in one Linac Coherent Light Sources photoinjector design through the first traveling wave linac with initial misalignment with respect to the accelerating axis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Dev


    Full Text Available The Shikimate pathway is an attractive target for herbicides and antimicrobial agents because it is essential in microbes and plants but absent in animals. The 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS is the first enzyme of this pathway, which is involved in the condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP and D-erythrose 4-phosphate (E4P to produce 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP. DAHPS enzymes have been divided into two types, class I and class II, based on their primary amino acid sequence and three dimensional structures. The plant DAHPS belongs to class II and is regulated differently than DAHPS from microorganisms. To understand the structural basis of such differences in DAHPS from plants and its catalytic mechanism, we have used sequence analysis, homology modeling and docking approach to generate the three dimensional models of DAHP synthase from Brachypodium distachyon (Bd-DAHPS complexed with substrate PEP for the first time. The three dimensional models of Bd-DAHPS provides a detailed knowledge of the active site and the important secondary structural regions that play significant roles in the regulatory mechanism and further may be helpful for design of specific inhibitors towards herbicide development.

  13. A spectral formalism for computing three-dimensional deformations due to surface loads. 2: Present-day glacial isostatic adjustment (United States)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Davis, J. L.; Shapiro, I. I.


    Using a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating, linear viscoelastic Earth model, we predict present-day three-dimensional surface deformation rates and baseline evolutions arising as a consequence of the late Pleistocene glacial cycles. In general, we use realistic models for the space-time geometry of the final late Pleistocene deglaciation event and incorporate a gravitationally self-consistent ocean meltwater redistribution. The predictions of horizontal velocity presented differ significantly, in both their amplitude and their spatial variation, from those presented in earlier analysis of others which adopted simplified models of both the late Pleistocene ice history and the Earth rheology. An important characteristic of our predicted velocity fields is that the melting of the Laurentide ice sheet over Canada is capable of contributing appreciably to the adjustment in Europe. The sensitivity of the predictions to variations in mantle rheology is investigated by considering a number of different Earth models, and by computing appropriate Frechet kernels. These calculations suggest that the sensitivity of the deformations to the Earth's rheology is significant and strongly dependent on the location of the site relative to the ancient ice sheet. The effects on the predictions of three-dimensional deformation rates of altering the ice history or adopting approximate models for the ocean meltwater redistribution have also been considered and found to be important (the former especially so). Finally, for a suite of Earth models we provide predictions of the velocity of a number of baselines in North America and Europe. We find that, in general, both radial and tangential motions contribute significantly to baseline length changes, and that these contributions are a strong function of the Earth model. We have, furthermore, found a set of Earth models which, together with the ICE-3G deglaciation chronology, produce predictions of baseline length changes that are

  14. Phase analysis for three-dimensional surface reconstruction of apples using structured-illumination reflectance imaging (United States)

    Lu, Yuzhen; Lu, Renfu


    Three-dimensional (3-D) shape information is valuable for fruit quality evaluation. This study was aimed at developing phase analysis techniques for reconstruction of the 3-D surface of fruit from the pattern images acquired by a structuredillumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) system. Phase-shifted sinusoidal patterns, distorted by the fruit geometry, were acquired and processed through phase demodulation, phase unwrapping and other post-processing procedures to obtain phase difference maps relative to the phase of a reference plane. The phase maps were then transformed into height profiles and 3-D shapes in a world coordinate system based on phase-to-height and in-plane calibrations. A reference plane-based approach, coupled with the curve fitting technique using polynomials of order 3 or higher, was utilized for phase-to-height calibrations, which achieved superior accuracies with the root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) of 0.027- 0.033 mm for a height measurement range of 0-91 mm. The 3rd-order polynomial curve fitting technique was further tested on two reference blocks with known heights, resulting in relative errors of 3.75% and 4.16%. In-plane calibrations were performed by solving a linear system formed by a number of control points in a calibration object, which yielded a RMSE of 0.311 mm. Tests of the calibrated system for reconstructing the surface of apple samples showed that surface concavities (i.e., stem/calyx regions) could be easily discriminated from bruises from the phase difference maps, reconstructed height profiles and the 3-D shape of apples. This study has laid a foundation for using SIRI for 3-D shape measurement, and thus expanded the capability of the technique for quality evaluation of horticultural products. Further research is needed to utilize the phase analysis techniques for stem/calyx detection of apples, and optimize the phase demodulation and unwrapping algorithms for faster and more reliable detection.

  15. Three-Dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation for Liquid Droplet with Surface Tension


    Terissa, Hanifa; Barecasco, Agra; Naa, Christian Fredy


    We provide a basic method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate liquid droplet with surface tension in three dimensions. Liquid droplet is a simple case for surface tension modeling. Surface tension works only on fluid surface. In SPH method, we simply apply the surface tension on the boundary particles of liquid. The particle on the 3D boundary was detected dynamically using Free-Surface Detection algorithm. The normal vector and curvature of the boundary surface were calculat...

  16. Three dimensional loop quantum gravity: physical scalar product and spin foam models

    CERN Document Server

    Noui, K; Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro


    In this paper, we address the problem of the dynamics in three dimensional loop quantum gravity with zero cosmological constant. We construct a rigorous definition of Rovelli's generalized projection operator from the kinematical Hilbert space--corresponding to the quantization of the infinite dimensional kinematical configuration space of the theory--to the physical Hilbert space. In particular, we provide the definition of the physical scalar product which can be represented in terms of a sum over (finite) spin-foam amplitudes. Therefore, we establish a clear-cut connection between the canonical quantization of three dimensional gravity and spin-foam models. We emphasize two main properties of the result: first that no cut-off in the kinematical degrees of freedom of the theory is introduced (in contrast to standard `lattice' methods), and second that no ill-defined sum over spins (`bubble' divergences) are present in the spin foam representation.

  17. Three-dimensional loop quantum gravity: physical scalar product and spin-foam models (United States)

    Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro


    In this paper, we address the problem of the dynamics in three-dimensional loop quantum gravity with zero cosmological constant. We construct a rigorous definition of Rovelli's generalized projection operator from the kinematical Hilbert space—corresponding to the quantization of the infinite-dimensional kinematical configuration space of the theory—to the physical Hilbert space. In particular, we provide the definition of the physical scalar product which can be represented in terms of a sum over (finite) spin-foam amplitudes. Therefore, we establish a clear-cut connection between the canonical quantization of three-dimensional gravity and spin-foam models. We emphasize two main properties of the result: first that no cut-off in the kinematical degrees of freedom of the theory is introduced (in contrast to standard 'lattice' methods), and second that no ill-defined sum over spins ('bubble' divergences) are present in the spin-foam representation.

  18. About Dark Energy and Dark Matter in a Three-Dimensional Quantum Vacuum Model (United States)

    Fiscaletti, Davide


    A model of a three-dimensional quantum vacuum based on Planck energy density as a universal property of a granular space is suggested. The possibility to provide an unifying explanation of dark matter and dark energy as phenomena linked with the fluctuations of the three-dimensional quantum vacuum is explored. The changes and fluctuations of the quantum vacuum energy density generate a curvature of space-time similar to the curvature produced by a "dark energy" density. The formation of large scale structures in the universe associated to the flattening of the orbital speeds of the spiral galaxies can be explained in terms of primary fluctuations of the quantum vacuum energy density without attracting the idea of dark matter.

  19. Three-dimensional modelling of horizontal chemical vapor deposition. I - MOCVD at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Ouazzani, Jalil; Rosenberger, Franz


    A systematic numerical study of the MOCVD of GaAs from trimethylgallium and arsine in hydrogen or nitrogen carrier gas at atmospheric pressure is reported. Three-dimensional effects are explored for CVD reactors with large and small cross-sectional aspect ratios, and the effects on growth rate uniformity of tilting the susceptor are investigated for various input flow rates. It is found that, for light carrier gases, thermal diffusion must be included in the model. Buoyancy-driven three-dimensional flow effects can greatly influence the growth rate distribution through the reactor. The importance of the proper design of the lateral thermal boundary conditions for obtaining layers of uniform thickness is emphasized.

  20. Integration of a Three-Dimensional Process-Based Hydrological Model into the Object Modeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Formetta


    Full Text Available The integration of a spatial process model into an environmental modeling framework can enhance the model’s capabilities. This paper describes a general methodology for integrating environmental models into the Object Modeling System (OMS regardless of the model’s complexity, the programming language, and the operating system used. We present the integration of the GEOtop model into the OMS version 3.0 and illustrate its application in a small watershed. OMS is an environmental modeling framework that facilitates model development, calibration, evaluation, and maintenance. It provides innovative techniques in software design such as multithreading, implicit parallelism, calibration and sensitivity analysis algorithms, and cloud-services. GEOtop is a physically based, spatially distributed rainfall-runoff model that performs three-dimensional finite volume calculations of water and energy budgets. Executing GEOtop as an OMS model component allows it to: (1 interact directly with the open-source geographical information system (GIS uDig-JGrass to access geo-processing, visualization, and other modeling components; and (2 use OMS components for automatic calibration, sensitivity analysis, or meteorological data interpolation. A case study of the model in a semi-arid agricultural catchment is presented for illustration and proof-of-concept. Simulated soil water content and soil temperature results are compared with measured data, and model performance is evaluated using goodness-of-fit indices. This study serves as a template for future integration of process models into OMS.

  1. Molecular Modeling of the Three-Dimensional Structure of Human Sphingomyelin Synthase%Molecular Modeling of the Three-Dimensional Structure of Human Sphingomyelin Synthase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚; 林赋; 邓晓东; 王任小; 叶德泳


    Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) produces sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol from ceramide and phosphatidyl- choline. It plays an important role in cell survival and apoptosis, inflammation, and lipid homeostasis, and therefore has been noticed in recent years as a novel potential drug target. In this study, we combined homology modeling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and normal mode analysis to derive a three-dimensional struc- ture of human sphingomyelin synthase (hSMS 1) in complex with sphingomyelin. Our model provides a reasonable explanation on the catalytic mechanism of hSMS 1. It can also explain the high selectivity of hSMS 1 towards phos- phocholine and sphingomyelin as well as some other known experimental results about hSMS1. Moreover, we also derived a complex model of D609, the only known small-molecule inhibitor of hSMS 1 so far. Our hSMS 1 model may serve as a reasonable structural basis for the discovery of more effective small-molecule inhibitors of hSMS 1.

  2. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Crustal Growth at Active Continental Margins (United States)

    Zhu, G.; Gerya, T.; Tackley, P. J.


    Active margins are important sites of new continental crust formation by magmatic processes related to the subduction of oceanic plates. We investigate these phenomena using a three-dimensional coupled petrological-geochemical-thermomechanical numerical model, which combines a finite-difference flow solver with a non-diffusive marker-in-cell technique for advection (I3ELVIS code, Gerya and Yuen, PEPI,2007). The model includes mantle flow associated with the subducting plate, water release from the slab, fluid propagation that triggers partial melting at the slab surface, melt extraction and the resulting volcanic crustal growth at the surface. The model also accounts for variations in physical properties (mainly density and viscosity) of both fluids and rocks as a function of local conditions in temperature, pressure, deformation, nature of the rocks, and chemical exchanges. Our results show different patterns of crustal growth and surface topography, which are comparable to nature, during subduction at active continental margins. Often, two trench-parallel lines of magmatic activity, which reflect two maxima of melt production atop the slab, are formed on the surface. The melt extraction rate controls the patterns of new crust at different ages. Moving free water reflects the path of fluids, and the velocity of free water shows the trend of two parallel lines of magmatic activity. The formation of new crust in particular time intervals is distributed in finger-like shapes, corresponding to finger-like and ridge-like cold plumes developed atop the subducting slabs (Zhu et al., G-cubed,2009; PEPI,2011). Most of the new crust is basaltic, formed from peridotitic mantle. Granitic crust extracted from melted sediment and upper crust forms in a line closer to the trench, and its distribution reflects the finger-like cold plumes. Dacitic crust extracted from the melted lower crust forms in a line farther away from the trench, and its distribution is anticorrelated with

  3. Three-dimensional force model of the low-back for simple computer programming. (United States)

    Tracy, M F


    A three-dimensional static model is described to evaluate the forces on low-back muscles and on the spine during manual handling tasks and other forceful activities. It is simple to use either with a calculator or programmed onto a micro-computer, whilst being more accurate than existing simple models. Comparisons are made with a more sophisticated model that requires mathematical libraries and programming skills. As predictions are similar, so is the area of validity: the proposed model's accuracy is good for light tasks but poorer for strenuous ones.

  4. Penetration analytical model of three dimensional welding temperature field and experiment rectification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A three-dimensional analytical model for heat conduction in a plate of finite size with a Gaussian distributed moving heat source, is obtained using the Heat Cumulating Principle and the Method of Image in arc welding, and an estimated method of back width of seam is introduced by making use of the model and the measured top face information of temperature field . To prove the validity of the model, a series of GTA bead-on-plate welding were performed on a medium carbon steel under various welding conditions, the experimental results show that the theoretical prediction can provide acceptable accuracy, so the next penetration control will be based on the model.

  5. Three-dimensional modeling of flow and deformation in idealized mild and moderate arterial vessels. (United States)

    Gu, Xi; Yeoh, Guan Heng; Timchenko, Victoria


    Three-dimensional numerical calculations of mild and moderate stenosed blood vessels have been performed. Large eddy simulation through a dynamic subgrid scale Smagorinsky model is applied to model the transitional and turbulent pulsatile flow. For the compliant stenosed model, fluid-structure interaction is realized through a two-way coupling between the fluid flow and the deforming vessel through the change in the external diameter due to the increment of circumferential pressure via a novel moving boundary approach. Model predictions compare very well against measured and numerical data for the centerline velocities, thickness of the flow separation zones and radial wall displacements.

  6. Maintenance Optimization Model for One kind of Three-Dimensional Radar Antenna Array (United States)

    Wang, Min; Yang, Jiang-ping; Wang, Yong-pan; Liu, Wei-jian


    For three-dimensional radar, maintenance cost is high and maintenance time is difficult to be determined. What’s more, model simulation computing is significantly complex. The subject of this paper is a new generation of meter wave active, phased array 3D radar. We put forth a concept that maintenance should be done after dividing into several regions to the asymmetrical distribution planar array antenna. First, a failure model of array elements is built to analyze the influence from the element to antenna. Second, the maintenance optimization model is established. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model.

  7. Three-Dimensional Models for Analyzing the Cyclic Variations in a Lean Burn CNG Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-xiu; YU Yu-song; LIU Jian-ying


    Three-dimensional models, consisting of the flame kernel formation model, flame kernel development model and natural gas single step reaction model, are used to analyze the contribution of cyclic equivalence ratio variations to cyclic variations in the compressed natural gas (CNG) lean burn spark ignition engine. Computational results including the contributions of equivalence ratio cyclic variations to each combustion stage and effects of engine speed to the extent of combustion variations are discussed. It is concluded that the equivalence ratio variations affect mostly the main stage of combustion and hardly influence initial kernel development stage.

  8. Explorable Three-Dimensional Digital Model of the Female Pelvis, Pelvic Contents, and Perineum for Anatomical Education (United States)

    Sergovich, Aimee; Johnson, Marjorie; Wilson, Timothy D.


    The anatomy of the pelvis is complex, multilayered, and its three-dimensional organization is conceptually difficult for students to grasp. The aim of this project was to create an explorable and projectable stereoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) model of the female pelvis and pelvic contents for anatomical education. The model was created using…

  9. Characteristics of Hydraulic Shock Waves in an Inclined Chute Contraction by Using Three Dimensional Numerical Model (United States)

    Hsiao, Kai-Wen; Hsu, Yu-Chao; Jan, Chyan-Deng; Su, Yu-Wen


    The inclined rectangular chute construction is a common structure used in hydraulic engineering for typical reasons such as the increase of bottom slope, the transition from side channel intakes to tunnel spillways, the drainage construction, and the reduction of chute width due to bridges, flood diversion structures or irrigation systems. The converging vertical sidewalls of a chute contraction deflect the supercritical flow to form hydraulic shock waves. Hydraulic shock waves have narrow and locally extreme wavy surfaces, which commonly results in the requirement of higher height of sidewalls. Therefore, predicting the possible height and position of maximum hydraulic shock wave are necessary to design the required height of sidewalls to prevent flow overtopping. In this study, we used a three-dimensional computation fluid dynamics model (i.e., FLOW-3D) to simulate the characteristics of hydraulic shock waves in an inclined chute contraction. For this purpose, the parameters of simulated hydraulic shock wave, such as the shock angle, maximum shock wave height and maximum shock wave position in various conditions are compared with those calculated by the empirical relations obtained from literatures. We showed that the simulated results are extremely close to the experimental results. The numerical results validated the applicability of these empirical relations and extend their applicability to higher approach Froude numbers from 3.51 to 7.27. Furthermore, we also applied the Yuan-Shan-Tsu flood diversion channel under 200-year peak flow condition to FLOW-3D model to simulate the hydraulic shock waves and validate the effect of the installation of a diversion pier in the channel on promoting the stability of flow fluid. The results revealed that a diversion pier installed in the Yuan-Shan-Tsu flood diversion channel is helpful for improving the stability of flow field. In summary, this study demonstrates that FLOW-3D model can be used to simulate the

  10. A three-dimensional, wave-current coupled, sediment transport model for POM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua


    In the high-energy environment of coastal seas and estuaries,strong sediment resuspension/ deposition events are driven by surface waves,tides,winds and buoyancy driven currents.In recent years,A POM based three-dimensional ,wave-current coupled ,sediment transport model has been developed by the University of New South Wales.This paper presents several examples of the model applications to study sediment dynamics in the environments where forcings such as waves,tides, and winds are equally important to affect sediment fluxes and distributions.Firstly,the sediment transport model coupled to the Yellow Sea general circulation model and a third generation wave model SWAN was implemented in the Yellow Sea to study the dynamics of the sediment transport and resuspension in the northern Jiangsu shoal-water(NJSW).The sediment distributions and fluxes and their inter-annual variability were studied by realistic numerical simulations.The study found that the surface waves played a dominant role over the tides to form the turbidity maxima along the muddy coast of NJSW. Secondly,the sediment transport model was used to explore the effect of suspended sediment-induced stratificationin the bottom boundary layer(BBL).The model uses a re-parameterized bottom drag coefficient Cd that incorporates a linear stability function of flux Richardson number RsThe study has shown that the sediment induced stratification in the BBL reduces the vertical eddy viscosity and bottom shear stress in comparison with the model prediction in a neutrally stratified BBL.In response to these apparent reductions,the tidal current shear is increased and sediments are abnormally concentrated within a thin wall layer that is overlain by a thicker layer with much smaller concentration.The formation of this fluid-mud layer near the seabed has led to a significant reduction in the total sediment transport.This study contributes to the understanding of formations of tidal flats along the coasts of turbid seas

  11. Three-dimensional in vitro cancer spheroid models for Photodynamic Therapy: Strengths and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Evans


    Full Text Available Three dimensional, in vitro spheroid cultures offer considerable utility for the development and testing of anticancer photodynamic therapy regimens. More complex than monolayer cultures, three-dimensional spheroid systems replicate many of the important cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions that modulate treatment response in vivo. Simple enough to be grown by the thousands and small enough to be optically interrogated, spheroid cultures lend themselves to high-content and high-throughput imaging approaches. These advantages have enabled studies investigating photosensitizer uptake, spatiotemporal patterns of therapeutic response, alterations in oxygen diffusion and consumption during therapy, and the exploration of mechanisms that underlie therapeutic synergy. The use of quantitative imaging methods, in particular, has accelerated the pace of three-dimensional in vitro photodynamic therapy studies, enabling the rapid compilation of multiple treatment response parameters in a single experiment. Improvements in model cultures, the creation of new molecular probes of cell state and function, and innovations in imaging toolkits will be important for the advancement of spheroid culture systems for future photodynamic therapy studies.

  12. A three-dimensional thermal and electromagnetic model of whole limb heating with a MAPA. (United States)

    Charny, C K; Levin, R L


    Previous studies by the authors have shown that if properly implemented, the Pennes assumptions can be applied to quantify bioheat transfer during extremity heating. Given its relative numerical simplicity and its ability to predict temperatures in thermoregulated tissue, the Pennes model of bioheat transfer was utilized in a three-dimensional thermal model of limb heating. While the arterial blood temperature was assumed to be radially uniform within a cross section of the limb, axial gradients in the arterial and venous blood temperatures were computed with this three-dimensional model. A realistically shaped, three-dimensional finite element model of a tumor-bearing human lower leg was constructed and was "attached" mathematically to the whole body thermal model of man described in previous studies by the authors. The central as well as local thermoregulatory feedback control mechanisms which determine blood perfusion to the various tissues and rate of evaporation by sweating were input into the limb model. In addition, the temperature of the arterial blood which feeds into the most proximal section of the lower leg was computed by the whole body thermal model. The variations in the shape of the tissues which comprise the limb were obtained from computerized tomography scans. Axial variations in the energy deposition patterns along the length of the limb exposed to a miniannular phased array (MAPA) applicator were also input into this model of limb heating. Results indicate that proper positioning of the limb relative to the MAPA is a significant factor in determining the effectiveness of the treatment. A patient-specific hyperthermia protocol can be designed using this coupled electromagnetic and thermal model.

  13. Three-Dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation for Liquid Droplet with Surface Tension

    CERN Document Server

    Terissa, Hanifa; Naa, Christian Fredy


    We provide a basic method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate liquid droplet with surface tension in three dimensions. Liquid droplet is a simple case for surface tension modeling. Surface tension works only on fluid surface. In SPH method, we simply apply the surface tension on the boundary particles of liquid. The particle on the 3D boundary was detected dynamically using Free-Surface Detection algorithm. The normal vector and curvature of the boundary surface were calculated simultaneously with 3D boundary surface reconstruction using Moving Least-Squares (MLS) method. Before the reconstruction, the coordinate system was transformed into a local coordinate system. Afterwards, the surface tension force which depends on curvature of the surface, was calculated and applied on the boundary particles of the droplet. We present the simulation result of droplet motion with gravity force. By using the basic method of SPH for fluid modeling, and a combination of 3D Free-Surface Detection algorithm ...

  14. Heat Transfer Enhancement By Three-Dimensional Surface Roughness Technique In Nuclear Fuel Rod Bundles (United States)

    Najeeb, Umair

    This thesis experimentally investigates the enhancement of single-phase heat transfer, frictional loss and pressure drop characteristics in a Single Heater Element Loop Tester (SHELT). The heater element simulates a single fuel rod for Pressurized Nuclear reactor. In this experimental investigation, the effect of the outer surface roughness of a simulated nuclear rod bundle was studied. The outer surface of a simulated fuel rod was created with a three-dimensional (Diamond-shaped blocks) surface roughness. The angle of corrugation for each diamond was 45 degrees. The length of each side of a diamond block is 1 mm. The depth of each diamond block was 0.3 mm. The pitch of the pattern was 1.614 mm. The simulated fuel rod had an outside diameter of 9.5 mm and wall thickness of 1.5 mm and was placed in a test-section made of 38.1 mm inner diameter, wall thickness 6.35 mm aluminum pipe. The Simulated fuel rod was made of Nickel 200 and Inconel 625 materials. The fuel rod was connected to 10 KW DC power supply. The Inconel 625 material of the rod with an electrical resistance of 32.3 kO was used to generate heat inside the test-section. The heat energy dissipated from the Inconel tube due to the flow of electrical current flows into the working fluid across the rod at constant heat flux conditions. The DI water was employed as working fluid for this experimental investigation. The temperature and pressure readings for both smooth and rough regions of the fuel rod were recorded and compared later to find enhancement in heat transfer coefficient and increment in the pressure drops. Tests were conducted for Reynold's Numbers ranging from 10e4 to 10e5. Enhancement in heat transfer coefficient at all Re was recorded. The maximum heat transfer co-efficient enhancement recorded was 86% at Re = 4.18e5. It was also observed that the pressure drop and friction factor increased by 14.7% due to the increased surface roughness.

  15. Use of three-dimensional medical modeling methods for precise planning of orthognathic surgery. (United States)

    Mavili, Mehmet Emin; Canter, Halil Ibrahim; Saglam-Aydinatay, Banu; Kamaci, Soner; Kocadereli, Ilken


    Stereolithographic (medical rapid prototyping) biomodeling allows three-dimensional computed tomography to be used to generate solid plastic replicas of anatomic structures. Reports in the literature suggest that such biomodels may have a use in maxillofacial surgery, craniofacial surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, otology, vascular, and nasal research. A prospective trial to assess the usefulness of biomodeling in orthognathic surgery has been performed. In 12 patients with mandibular prognathism and/or maxillary retrusion, in addition to routine preoperative cephalometric analysis, preoperative high-resolution (cutting slice thickness of 1 mm) three-dimensional computed tomography scan of the patients was obtained. Raw data obtained from computed tomography scanning was processed with a Mimics 9.22 Software (Materialise's Interactive Medical Image Control System, Belgium). Fabrication of three-dimensional medical models was obtained through a process called powder depositional modeling by use of a Spectrum Z 510 3D Color Printer (Z Corporation, Burlington, MA). Alveolar arches of the maxilla and mandibula of the models were replaced with orthodontic dental cast models. Temporomandibular joints of the models were fixed with Kirschner wire. Maxillary and mandibular bony segments were mobilized according to preoperative orthodontic planning done by analysis of cephalometric plain radiographs. The relation between proximal and distal mandibular segments after bilateral sagittal split osteotomies were evaluated on models preoperatively. The same surgeon had a role in both model cutting preoperatively and as an instructor preoperatively. The same bony relation was observed both in preoperative modelsand in the perioperative surgical field in all patients. Condylar malpositioning was not observed in any of the patients. Studying preoperative planned movements of osteotomized bone segments and observing relations of osteotomized segments of mandibula and maxilla in

  16. Nanoscale effects in the characterization of viscoelastic materials with atomic force microscopy: coupling of a quasi-three-dimensional standard linear solid model with in-plane surface interactions (United States)


    Summary Significant progress has been accomplished in the development of experimental contact-mode and dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods designed to measure surface material properties. However, current methods are based on one-dimensional (1D) descriptions of the tip–sample interaction forces, thus neglecting the intricacies involved in the material behavior of complex samples (such as soft viscoelastic materials) as well as the differences in material response between the surface and the bulk. In order to begin to address this gap, a computational study is presented where the sample is simulated using an enhanced version of a recently introduced model that treats the surface as a collection of standard-linear-solid viscoelastic elements. The enhanced model introduces in-plane surface elastic forces that can be approximately related to a two-dimensional (2D) Young’s modulus. Relevant cases are discussed for single- and multifrequency intermittent-contact AFM imaging, with focus on the calculated surface indentation profiles and tip–sample interaction force curves, as well as their implications with regards to experimental interpretation. A variety of phenomena are examined in detail, which highlight the need for further development of more physically accurate sample models that are specifically designed for AFM simulation. A multifrequency AFM simulation tool based on the above sample model is provided as supporting information. PMID:27335746

  17. Nanoscale effects in the characterization of viscoelastic materials with atomic force microscopy: coupling of a quasi-three-dimensional standard linear solid model with in-plane surface interactions. (United States)

    Solares, Santiago D


    Significant progress has been accomplished in the development of experimental contact-mode and dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods designed to measure surface material properties. However, current methods are based on one-dimensional (1D) descriptions of the tip-sample interaction forces, thus neglecting the intricacies involved in the material behavior of complex samples (such as soft viscoelastic materials) as well as the differences in material response between the surface and the bulk. In order to begin to address this gap, a computational study is presented where the sample is simulated using an enhanced version of a recently introduced model that treats the surface as a collection of standard-linear-solid viscoelastic elements. The enhanced model introduces in-plane surface elastic forces that can be approximately related to a two-dimensional (2D) Young's modulus. Relevant cases are discussed for single- and multifrequency intermittent-contact AFM imaging, with focus on the calculated surface indentation profiles and tip-sample interaction force curves, as well as their implications with regards to experimental interpretation. A variety of phenomena are examined in detail, which highlight the need for further development of more physically accurate sample models that are specifically designed for AFM simulation. A multifrequency AFM simulation tool based on the above sample model is provided as supporting information.

  18. STRATAQ: A three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model of the stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grassi

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3-D Chemical Transport Model (CTM of the stratosphere has been developed and used for a test study of the evolution of chemical species in the arctic lower stratosphere during winter 1996/97. This particular winter has been chosen for testing the model’s capabilities for its remarkable dynamical situation (very cold and strong polar vortex along with the availability of sparse chlorine, HNO3 and O3 data, showing also very low O3 values in late March/April. Due to those unusual features, the winter 1996/97 can be considered an excellent example of the impact of both dynamics and heterogeneous reactions on the chemistry of the stratosphere. Model integration has been performed from January to March 1997 and the resulting long-lived and short-lived tracer fields compared with available measurements. The model includes a detailed gas phase chemical scheme and a parameterization of the heterogeneous reactions occurring on liquid aerosol and polar stratospheric cloud (PSC surfaces. The transport is calculated using a semi-lagrangian flux scheme, forced by meteorological analyses. In such form, the STRATAQ CTM model is suitable for short-term integrations to study transport and chemical evolution related to "real" meteorological situations. Model simulation during the chosen winter shows intense PSC formation, with noticeable local HNO3 capture by PSCs, and the activation of vortex air leading to chlorine production and subsequent O3 destruction. The resulting model fields show generally good agreement with satellite data (MLS and TOMS, although the available observations, due to their limited number and time/space sparse nature, are not enough to effectively constraint the model. In particular, the model seems to perform well in reproducing the rapid processing of air inside the polar vortex on PSC converting reservoir species in active chlorine. In addition, it

  19. Formation of three-dimensional surface waves on deep-water using elliptic solutions of nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Sajjadi, Shahrdad G; Drullion, Frederique


    A review of three-dimensional waves on deep-water is presented. Three forms of three dimensionality, namely oblique, forced and spontaneous type, are identified. An alternative formulation for these three-dimensional waves is given through cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. The periodic solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation are found using Weierstrass elliptic $\\wp$ functions. It is shown that the classification of solutions depends on the boundary conditions, wavenumber and frequency. For certain parameters, Weierstrass $\\wp$ functions are reduced to periodic, hyperbolic or Jacobi elliptic functions. It is demonstrated that some of these solutions do not have any physical significance. An analytical solution of cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with wind forcing is also obtained which results in how groups of waves are generated on the surface of deep water in the ocean. In this case the dependency on the energy-transfer parameter, from wind to waves, make either the groups of wav...

  20. [Three-dimensional morphological modeling and visualization of wheat root system]. (United States)

    Tan, Feng; Tang, Liang; Hu, Jun-Cheng; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Cao, Wei-Xing; Zhu, Yan


    Crop three-dimensional (3D) morphological modeling and visualization is an important part of digital plant study. This paper aimed to develop a 3D morphological model of wheat root system based on the parameters of wheat root morphological features, and to realize the visualization of wheat root growth. According to the framework of visualization technology for wheat root growth, a 3D visualization model of wheat root axis, including root axis growth model, branch geometric model, and root axis curve model, was developed firstly. Then, by integrating root topology, the corresponding pixel was determined, and the whole wheat root system was three-dimensionally re-constructed by using the morphological feature parameters in the root morphological model. Finally, based on the platform of OpenGL, and by integrating the technologies of texture mapping, lighting rendering, and collision detection, the 3D visualization of wheat root growth was realized. The 3D output of wheat root system from the model was vivid, which could realize the 3D root system visualization of different wheat cultivars under different water regimes and nitrogen application rates. This study could lay a technical foundation for further development of an integral visualization system of wheat plant.

  1. Use of a Three Dimensional Printed Cardiac Model to Assess Suitability for Biventricular Repair. (United States)

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Gonzalez-Lengua, Carlos; Shenoy, Rajesh; Sanz, Javier; Nguyen, Khanh


    Three dimensional (3D) printing is rapidly gaining interest in the medical field for use in presurgical planning. We present the case of a seven-year-old boy with double outlet right ventricle who underwent a bidirectional Glenn anastomosis. We used a 3D cardiac model to assess his suitability for a biventricular repair. He underwent a left ventricle-to-aorta baffle with a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit placement. He did well postoperatively and was discharged home with no evidence of baffle obstruction and good biventricular function. A 3D printed model can provide invaluable intracardiac spatial information in these complex patients.

  2. Spin transport in the frustrated anisotropic three-dimensional XY model (United States)

    Lima, L. S.


    We use the SU(3) Schwinger's boson theory to study the spin transport in the frustrated anisotropic three-dimensional XY model at T=0 with single ion anisotropy. We have investigated the behavior of the spin conductivity for this model that presents exchange interactions J1, J2 and J ‧ . We study the spin transport in the Bose-Einstein regime where we have that the tz bosons are condensed i.e. = = t . Our results show a metallic spin transport for ω > 0 and a superconductor spin transport in the limit of DC conductivity.

  3. Three-dimensional fluid and electrodynamic modeling for MHD DCW channels (United States)

    Liu, B. L.; Lineberry, J. T.; Schmidt, H. J.


    A three dimensional, numerical solution for modeling diagonal conducting wall (DCW) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators is developed and discussed. Cross plane gasdynamic and electrodynamic profiles are computed considering coupled MHD flow and electrical phenomena. A turbulent transport model based on the mixing length theory is used to deal with wall roughness generated turbulence effects. The infinitely fine electrode segmentation formulation is applied to simplify the governing electrical equations. Calculations show the development of distorted temperature and velocity profiles under influence of magnetohydrodynamic interaction. Since both sidewall and electrode wall boundary losses are treated, the results furnish a realistic representation of MHD generator behavior.

  4. A numerical code for a three-dimensional magnetospheric MHD equilibrium model (United States)

    Voigt, G.-H.


    Two dimensional and three dimensional MHD equilibrium models were begun for Earth's magnetosphere. The original proposal was motivated by realizing that global, purely data based models of Earth's magnetosphere are inadequate for studying the underlying plasma physical principles according to which the magnetosphere evolves on the quasi-static convection time scale. Complex numerical grid generation schemes were established for a 3-D Poisson solver, and a robust Grad-Shafranov solver was coded for high beta MHD equilibria. Thus, the effects were calculated of both the magnetopause geometry and boundary conditions on the magnetotail current distribution.

  5. Smarr formula for BTZ black holes in general three-dimensional gravity models (United States)

    Liang, Chao; Gong, Li; Zhang, Baocheng


    Recent studies have presented the interpretation of thermodynamic enthalpy for the mass of BTZ black holes and the corresponding Smarr formula. All these are made in the background of three-dimensional (3D) general relativity. In this paper, we extend such interpretation into general 3D gravity models. It is found that the direct extension is unfeasible and some extra conditions are required to preserve both the Smarr formula and the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Thus, BTZ black hole thermodynamics enforces some constraints for general 3D gravity models, and these constraints are consistent with all previous discussions.

  6. Three-Dimensional Model for Preservation and Restoration of Architectural Heritage (United States)

    Marchis, Elena


    Thc aim of the research will be to create a model, three-dimensional mathematical. implementation. consultation and assistance to "large" restoration projects that will assist the structural analysis, allowing easier display of dynamic strain. analysis and lighting noise. It could also be a valuable tool for decision support. therefore. may simulate several possible scenarios for intervention, This model appears therefore an excellent support for recovering. ordering and monitoring information about materials and data (stage of restoration. photographs. sampling points. results of diagnostic tests, etc.) collected dynamically during the "life" of the cultural heritage. allowing to document its complete history

  7. A three-dimensional slope stability model based on GRASS GIS and its application to the Collazzone area, Central Italy (United States)

    Mergili, M.; Marchesini, I.; Fellin, W.; Rossi, M.; Raia, S.; Guzzetti, F.


    Landslide risk depends on landslide hazard, i.e. the probability of occurrence of a slope failure of a given magnitude within a specified period and in a given area. The occurrence probability of slope failures in an area characterized by a set of geo-environmental parameters gives the landslide susceptibility. Statistical and deterministic methods are used to assess landslide susceptibility. Deterministic models based on limit equilibrium techniques are applied for the analysis of particular types of landslides (e.g., shallow soil slips, debris flows, rock falls), or to investigate the effects of specific triggers, i.e., an intense rainfall event or an earthquake. In particular, infinite slope stability models are used to calculate the spatial probability of shallow slope failures. In these models, the factor of safety is computed on a pixel basis, assuming a slope-parallel, infinite slip surface. Since shallow slope failures coexist locally with deep-seated landslides, infinite slope stability models fail to describe the complexity of the landslide phenomena. Limit equilibrium models with curved sliding surfaces are geometrically more complex, and their implementation with raster-based GIS is a challenging task. Only few attempts were made to develop GIS-based three-dimensional applications of such methods. We present a preliminary implementation of a GIS-based, three-dimensional slope stability model capable of dealing with deep-seated and shallow rotational slope failures. The model is implemented as a raster module (r.rotstab) in the Open Source GIS package GRASS GIS, and makes use of the three-dimensional sliding surface model proposed by Hovland (1977). Given a DEM and a set of thematic layers of geotechnical and hydraulic parameters, the model tests a large number of randomly determined potential ellipsoidal slip surfaces. In addition to ellipsoidal slip surfaces, truncated ellipsoids are tested, which can occur in the presence of weak layers or hard

  8. Three-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface with prescribed surface temperature and prescribed surface heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Tasawar


    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the mathematical modelling for three-dimensional flow of an incompressible Oldroyd- B fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. Mathematical formulation incorporates the effect of internal heat source/sink. Two cases of heat transfer namely the prescribed surface temperature (PST and prescribed surface heat flux (PHF are considered. Computations for the governing nonlinear flow are presented using homotopy analysis method. Comparison of the present analysis is shown with the previous limiting result. The obtained results are discussed by plots of interesting parameters for both PST and PHF cases. We examine that an increase in Prandtl number leads to a reduction in PST and PHF. It is noted that both PST and PHF are increased with an increase in source parameter. Further we have seen that the temperature is an increasing function of ratio parameter

  9. Three-dimensional in vitro co-culture model of breast tumor using magnetic levitation. (United States)

    Jaganathan, Hamsa; Gage, Jacob; Leonard, Fransisca; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Souza, Glauco R; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Godin, Biana


    In this study, we investigate a novel in vitro model to mimic heterogeneous breast tumors without the use of a scaffold while allowing for cell-cell and tumor-fibroblast interactions. Previous studies have shown that magnetic levitation system under conventional culturing conditions results in the formation of three-dimensional (3D) structures, closely resembling in vivo tissues (fat tissue, vasculature, etc.). Three-dimensional heterogeneous tumor models for breast cancer were designed to effectively model the influences of the tumor microenvironment on drug efficiency. Various breast cancer cells were co-cultured with fibroblasts and then magnetically levitated. Size and cell density of the resulting tumors were measured. The model was phenotypically compared to in vivo tumors and examined for the presence of ECM proteins. Lastly, the effects of tumor stroma in the 3D in vitro model on drug transport and efficiency were assessed. Our data suggest that the proposed 3D in vitro breast tumor is advantageous due to the ability to: (1) form large-sized (millimeter in diameter) breast tumor models within 24 h; (2) control tumor cell composition and density; (3) accurately mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment; and (4) test drug efficiency in an in vitro model that is comparable to in vivo tumors.

  10. Three-dimensional visualization of nanostructured surfaces and bacterial attachment using Autodesk® Maya® (United States)

    Boshkovikj, Veselin; Fluke, Christopher J.; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.


    There has been a growing interest in understanding the ways in which bacteria interact with nano-structured surfaces. As a result, there is a need for innovative approaches to enable researchers to visualize the biological processes taking place, despite the fact that it is not possible to directly observe these processes. We present a novel approach for the three-dimensional visualization of bacterial interactions with nano-structured surfaces using the software package Autodesk Maya. Our approach comprises a semi-automated stage, where actual surface topographic parameters, obtained using an atomic force microscope, are imported into Maya via a custom Python script, followed by a `creative stage', where the bacterial cells and their interactions with the surfaces are visualized using available experimental data. The `Dynamics' and `nDynamics' capabilities of the Maya software allowed the construction and visualization of plausible interaction scenarios. This capability provides a practical aid to knowledge discovery, assists in the dissemination of research results, and provides an opportunity for an improved public understanding. We validated our approach by graphically depicting the interactions between the two bacteria being used for modeling purposes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with different titanium substrate surfaces that are routinely used in the production of biomedical devices.

  11. Three-dimensional visualization of nanostructured surfaces and bacterial attachment using Autodesk® Maya®. (United States)

    Boshkovikj, Veselin; Fluke, Christopher J; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P


    There has been a growing interest in understanding the ways in which bacteria interact with nano-structured surfaces. As a result, there is a need for innovative approaches to enable researchers to visualize the biological processes taking place, despite the fact that it is not possible to directly observe these processes. We present a novel approach for the three-dimensional visualization of bacterial interactions with nano-structured surfaces using the software package Autodesk Maya. Our approach comprises a semi-automated stage, where actual surface topographic parameters, obtained using an atomic force microscope, are imported into Maya via a custom Python script, followed by a 'creative stage', where the bacterial cells and their interactions with the surfaces are visualized using available experimental data. The 'Dynamics' and 'nDynamics' capabilities of the Maya software allowed the construction and visualization of plausible interaction scenarios. This capability provides a practical aid to knowledge discovery, assists in the dissemination of research results, and provides an opportunity for an improved public understanding. We validated our approach by graphically depicting the interactions between the two bacteria being used for modeling purposes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with different titanium substrate surfaces that are routinely used in the production of biomedical devices.

  12. Role of positive ions on the surface production of negative ions in a fusion plasma reactor type negative ion source—Insights from a three dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fubiani, G.; Boeuf, J. P. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)


    Results from a 3D self-consistent Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC MCC) model of a high power fusion-type negative ion source are presented for the first time. The model is used to calculate the plasma characteristics of the ITER prototype BATMAN ion source developed in Garching. Special emphasis is put on the production of negative ions on the plasma grid surface. The question of the relative roles of the impact of neutral hydrogen atoms and positive ions on the cesiated grid surface has attracted much attention recently and the 3D PIC MCC model is used to address this question. The results show that the production of negative ions by positive ion impact on the plasma grid is small with respect to the production by atomic hydrogen or deuterium bombardment (less than 10%)

  13. Numerical Simulation on Hydromechanical Coupling in Porous Media Adopting Three-Dimensional Pore-Scale Model (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Song, Rui; Cui, Mengmeng


    A novel approach of simulating hydromechanical coupling in pore-scale models of porous media is presented in this paper. Parameters of the sandstone samples, such as the stress-strain curve, Poisson's ratio, and permeability under different pore pressure and confining pressure, are tested in laboratory scale. The micro-CT scanner is employed to scan the samples for three-dimensional images, as input to construct the model. Accordingly, four physical models possessing the same pore and rock matrix characteristics as the natural sandstones are developed. Based on the micro-CT images, the three-dimensional finite element models of both rock matrix and pore space are established by MIMICS and ICEM software platform. Navier-Stokes equation and elastic constitutive equation are used as the mathematical model for simulation. A hydromechanical coupling analysis in pore-scale finite element model of porous media is simulated by ANSYS and CFX software. Hereby, permeability of sandstone samples under different pore pressure and confining pressure has been predicted. The simulation results agree well with the benchmark data. Through reproducing its stress state underground, the prediction accuracy of the porous rock permeability in pore-scale simulation is promoted. Consequently, the effects of pore pressure and confining pressure on permeability are revealed from the microscopic view. PMID:24955384

  14. Quasi-three-dimensional refined modelling of turbulent flow and water quality in coastal waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈永明; 李玉成; AllenT.CHWANG


    The water quality in Victoria Harbour.Hong Kong is dominated by strong seasonal effects resulting from the variation in freshwater discharge into the Pearl Estuary.The quasi-three-dimensional water quality model has been developed to simulate the variations in water quality and the ecosystem in the harbour.The model is unique in that it completely integrates the refined modelling of the hydrodynamics,biochemical reactions and the ecosystem in the harbour.It is a quasi-three-dimensional segmented model which is capable of resolving mean daily variations in all the parameters relevant to pollution control.It predicts daily fluctuations in the oxygen content at different depths in water throughout the year.It takes into account transport and settling of pollutant particles.It predicts light penetration from computed turbidity variations.It includes interactions between the ecosystem and water quality,through nutrient cycling and photosynthesis.The model has been calibrated well against the data set of hist

  15. Verification and Validation of a Three-Dimensional Orthotropic Plasticity Constitutive Model Using a Unidirectional Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canio Hoffarth


    Full Text Available A three-dimensional constitutive model has been developed for modeling orthotropic composites subject to impact loads. It has three distinct components—a deformation model involving elastic and plastic deformations; a damage model; and a failure model. The model is driven by tabular data that is generated either using laboratory tests or via virtual testing. A unidirectional composite—T800/F3900, commonly used in the aerospace industry, is used in the verification and validation tests. While the failure model is under development, these tests indicate that the implementation of the deformation and damage models in a commercial finite element program, LS-DYNA, is efficient, robust and accurate.

  16. Quasi-three-dimensional modelling of the morphology of longshore bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dronen, N.; Deigaard, Rolf


    A morphological quasi-three-dimensional (Q3D) area model for bar-red coasts has been developed. The model combines a two-dimensional depth integrated model for wave-driven currents with a model for under-tow circulation currents. The combined model makes a simultaneous simulation of the bar......-forming processes associated with the undertow and the horizontal wave-driven circulation currents, which may cause instabilities of the bar and the formation of rip channels. Situations with normal and oblique wave incidence are considered. Compared to the depth integrated approach the Q3D model produces less...... pronounced alongshore irregularities for obliquely incident waves. For normal incident waves the Q3D model produces a crescentic bar while the depth integrated model predicts almost straight sections of the bar interrupted by rip channels. The sensitivity to variation of wave angle and beach slope is further...

  17. Nonperturbative renormalization group in light-front three-dimensional real scalar model

    CERN Document Server

    Sugihara, T; Sugihara, Takanori; Yahiro, Masanobu


    The three-dimensional real scalar model, in which the $Z_2$ symmetry spontaneously breaks, is renormalized in a nonperturbative manner based on the Tamm-Dancoff truncation of the Fock space. A critical line is calculated by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian regularized with basis functions. In the broken phase the canonical Hamiltonian is tachyonic, so the field is shifted as running mass and coupling so that the mass of the ground state vanishes. The marginal ($\\phi^6$) coupling dependence of the critical line is weak.

  18. Chaos Control in Three Dimensional Cancer Model by State Space Exact Linearization Based on Lie Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahzad


    Full Text Available This study deals with the control of chaotic dynamics of tumor cells, healthy host cells, and effector immune cells in a chaotic Three Dimensional Cancer Model (TDCM by State Space Exact Linearization (SSEL technique based on Lie algebra. A non-linear feedback control law is designed which induces a coordinate transformation thereby changing the original chaotic TDCM system into a controlled one linear system. Numerical simulation has been carried using Mathematica that witness the robustness of the technique implemented on the chosen chaotic system.

  19. Finite-size scaling study of the three-dimensional classical Heisenberg model

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, C; Holm, Christian; Janke, Wolfhard


    We use the single-cluster Monte Carlo update algorithm to simulate the three-dimensional classical Heisenberg model in the critical region on simple cubic lattices of size $L^3$ with $L=12, 16, 20, 24, 32, 40$, and $48$. By means of finite-size scaling analyses we compute high-precision estimates of the critical temperature and the critical exponents, using extensively histogram reweighting and optimization techniques. Measurements of the autocorrelation time show the expected reduction of critical slowing down at the phase transition. This allows simulations on significantly larger lattices than in previous studies and consequently a better control over systematic errors in finite-size scaling analyses.

  20. Critical behaviour and scaling functions of the three-dimensional O(6) model

    CERN Document Server

    Holtmann, S; Schulze, Thomas


    We numerically investigate the three-dimensional O(6) model on 12^3 to 120^3 lattices within the critical region at zero magnetic field, as well as at finite magnetic field on the critical isotherm and for several fixed couplings in the broken and the symmetric phase. We obtain from the Binder cumulant at vanishing magnetic field the critical coupling J_c=1.42865(3). The universal value of the Binder cumulant at this point is g_r(J_c)=-1.94456(10). At the critical coupling, the critical exponents \\gamma=1.604(6), \\beta=0.425(2) and \

  1. Two- and three-dimensional models for analysis of optical absorption in tungsten disulphide single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhairya A Dholakia; G K Solanki; S G Patel; M K Agarwal


    The optical energy gaps of WS2 single crystal were determined from the analysis of the absorption spectrum near the fundamental absorption edge at room temperature using light parallel to -axis incident normally on the basal plane. On the basis of two- and three-dimensional models it was found that both direct and indirect band transitions took place in WS2 and the indirect transition was of the allowed type. The optical energy gaps corresponding to both transitions were determined and the phonon energies associated with the indirect transitions estimated. The implications of the results have been discussed.

  2. Anomalous magnetic moment of anyons in three dimensional CP$^{N-1}$ model

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, D K; Hong, Deog Ki; Kim, Jin Young


    We calculate the anomalous magnetic moment of anyons in three dimensional CP^{N-1} model with a Chern-Simons term in various limits in 1/N expansion. We have found that for anyons of infinite mass the gyromagnetic ratio (g-factor) is 2 up to the next-to-leading order in 1/N. Our result supports a recent claim that the g-factor of nonrelativistic anyons is exactly two. We also found that for -{8\\over\\pi }<\\theta<0, the electromagnetic interation between two identical aynons of large mass are attractive.

  3. Development of three-dimensional numerical model for combustion-flow in interior ballistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Oh, Seok Hawn; Roh, Tae Seong [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Interior ballistics analysis is required for the development of the gun system. Interior ballistics is a complex phenomenon containing the propellant combustion and gas flow and is completed in tens of milliseconds during gun firing. Thus, some data cannot be directly measured by experiment. Numerical analysis is therefore traditionally used to understand the complex gun firing phenomena. In previous studies, the two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical method for interior ballistics using the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach has been developed. There are some limits in depicting the actual phenomena with two-dimensional models. Therefore, a three-dimensional numerical model has been built in the present study. Unlike the conventional method, the calculation has been conducted by separating the physical phenomena into the combustion part and the flow part for simplicity and efficiency. The internal flow in the gun barrel has been calculated by using the STAR-CCM+ and the source terms produced by the propellant combustion has been computed by utilizing the existing code. The developed numerical model has been compared with the AGARD gun results and the simulation of 40 mm gun firings. The reliability of the developed model has been confirmed because the results of the numerical analysis greatly agree with the simulation results. The basis of the three-dimensional analysis of the interior ballistics has been formed through this study.

  4. Electronic transport on the spatial structure of the protein: Three-dimensional lattice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, R.G. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Piauí, 64800-000 Floriano, PI (Brazil); Frazão, N.F. [Centro de Educação e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 581750-000 Cuité, PB (Brazil); Macedo-Filho, A., E-mail: [Campus Prof. Antonio Geovanne Alves de Sousa, Universidade Estadual do Piauí, 64260-000 Piripiri, PI (Brazil)


    Highlights: • The electronic transport on the structure of the three-dimensional lattice model of the protein is studied. • The signing of the current–voltage is directly affected by permutations of the weak bonds in the structure. • Semiconductor behave of the proteins suggest a potential application in the development of novel biosensors. - Abstract: We report a numerical analysis of the electronic transport in protein chain consisting of thirty-six standard amino acids. The protein chains studied have three-dimensional structure, which can present itself in three distinct conformations and the difference consist in the presence or absence of thirteen hydrogen-bondings. Our theoretical method uses an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian model, appropriate to describe the protein segments modeled by the amino acid chain. We note that the presence and the permutations between weak bonds in the structure of proteins are directly related to the signing of the current–voltage. Furthermore, the electronic transport depends on the effect of temperature. In addition, we have found a semiconductor behave in the models investigated and it suggest a potential application in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  5. Three-dimensional delayed-detonation models with nucleosynthesis for Type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Seitenzahl, Ivo R; Roepke, Friedrich K; Fink, Michael; Hillebrandt, Wolfgang; Kromer, Markus; Pakmor, Ruediger; Ruiter, Ashley J; Sim, Stuart A; Taubenberger, Stefan


    We present results for a suite of fourteen three-dimensional, high resolution hydrodynamical simulations of delayed-detonation modelsof Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosions. This model suite comprises the first set of three-dimensional SN Ia simulations with detailed isotopic yield information. As such, it may serve as a database for Chandrasekhar-mass delayed-detonation model nucleosynthetic yields and for deriving synthetic observables such as spectra and light curves. We employ a physically motivated, stochastic model based on turbulent velocity fluctuations and fuel density to calculate in situ the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) probabilities. To obtain different strengths of the deflagration phase and thereby different degrees of pre-expansion, we have chosen a sequence of initial models with 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40, 100, 150, 200, 300, and 1600 (two different realizations) ignition kernels in a hydrostatic white dwarf with central density of 2.9 x 10^9 gcc, plus in addition one high central den...

  6. Experiment and simulation study on construction of a three-dimensional network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The construction of a network model is one of the key techniques in organic com-bination of microscopic flow experiment and simulation. The construction method of a three-dimensional network model is presented on the basis of CT scanning images in this paper. A series of CT slice images describing microscopic pore structure and fluid distribution of actual rock is obtained with the help of the in-dustrial microfocus CT system. Based on the extraction of pore space skeleton, pore and throat information, the corresponding network model is established, and the conversion from three-dimensional CT image information to pore-throat size distribution and topological information is also achieved. The feature of this me-thod lies in the fact that complicated pore space of rock may be characterized by pores and throats with a simple shape while keeping the geometry and flow char-acteristics. It is indicated that the calculated results of porosity, permeability, rela-tive permeability curve and microscopic remaining oil distribution match very well the experimental results of water flooding and polymer flooding. This network model may fairly well characterize the rock microscopic pore-throat size and topo-logical characteristics.

  7. Three-dimensional conceptual model for the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1994 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Vermeul, V.R.; Macdonald, Q.C.; Schubert, S.E.


    This report documents work conducted during the fiscal year 1994 to development an improved three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system across the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, which is managed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The main objective of the ongoing effort to develop an improved conceptual model of ground-water flow is to provide the basis for improved numerical report models that will be capable of accurately predicting the movement of radioactive and chemical contaminant plumes in the aquifer beneath Hanford. More accurate ground-water flow models will also be useful in assessing the impacts of changes in facilities and operations. For example, decreasing volumes of operational waste-water discharge are resulting in a declining water table in parts of the unconfined aquifer. In addition to supporting numerical modeling, the conceptual model also provides a qualitative understanding of the movement of ground water and contaminants in the aquifer.

  8. Parameterized Designing of Gears' Three-dimensional Model Based on Pro/E

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhihui; CHEN Jing; SUN Yaomin


    This paper took Pro/ENGINEER wildfire2.0 as the development environment and realized the involute helical gears' three-dimensional model parameterized designing which made use of the parameter and relation function of Pro/E. This paper also provided a method of editing the equation of the tooth curve. and it can ensure the high precision of the involute helical gear model. It developed the man-machine interactive parameterized designing interface making use of the secondary development function offered by Pro/TOOLKIT. The users can revise the involute helical gear easily by this man-machine interactive. It detailedly introduced the method of designing the man-machine interactive interface Using Pro/TOOLKIT and Visual C++. When the users input correlation parameters according to the prompt of the man-machine interactive interface, the three-dimensional model of the involute helical gear is auto-generated. This method simplified the product design process, shortened the period of developing and improved the design efficiency of the gear greatly.

  9. A three-dimensional nonlinear reduced-order predictive joint model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Mechanical joints can have significant effects on the dynamics of assembled structures. However, the lack of efficacious predictive dynamic models for joints hinders accurate prediction of their dynamic behavior. The goal of our work is to develop physics-based, reduced-order, finite element models that are capable of replicating the effects of joints on vibrating structures. The authors recently developed the so-called two-dimensional adjusted Iwan beam element (2-D AIBE) to simulate the hysteretic behavior of bolted joints in 2-D beam structures. In this paper, 2-D AIBE is extended to three-dimensional cases by formulating a three-dimensional adjusted Iwan beam element (3-D AIBE). Impulsive loading experiments are applied to a jointed frame structure and a beam structure containing the same joint. The frame is subjected to excitation out of plane so that the joint is under rotation and single axis bending. By assuming that the rotation in the joint is linear elastic, the parameters of the joint associated with bending in the frame are identified from acceleration responses of the jointed beam structure, using a multi-layer feed-forward neural network (MLFF). Numerical simulation is then performed on the frame structure using the identified parameters. The good agreement between the simulated and experimental impulsive acceleration responses of the frame structure validates the efficacy of the presented 3-D AIBE, and indicates that the model can potentially be applied to more complex structural systems with joint parameters identified from a relatively simple structure.

  10. A three-dimensional meso-macroscopic model for Li-Ion intercalation batteries (United States)

    Allu, S.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Nanda, J.; Turner, J. A.; Pannala, S.


    In this paper we present a three-dimensional computational formulation for electrode-electrolyte-electrode system of Li-Ion batteries. The physical consistency between electrical, thermal and chemical equations is enforced at each time increment by driving the residual of the resulting coupled system of nonlinear equations to zero. The formulation utilizes a rigorous volume averaging approach typical of multiphase formulations used in other fields and recently extended to modeling of supercapacitors [1]. Unlike existing battery modeling methods which use segregated solution of conservation equations and idealized geometries, our unified approach can model arbitrary battery and electrode configurations. The consistency of multi-physics solution also allows for consideration of a wide array of initial conditions and load cases. The formulation accounts for spatio-temporal variations of material and state properties such as electrode/void volume fractions and anisotropic conductivities. The governing differential equations are discretized using the finite element method and solved using a nonlinearly consistent approach that provides robust stability and convergence. The new formulation was validated for standard Li-ion cells and compared against experiments. Its scope and ability to capture spatio-temporal variations of potential and lithium distribution is demonstrated on a prototypical three-dimensional electrode problem.

  11. Three-dimensional pure deflagration models with nucleosynthesis and synthetic observables for Type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, M; Seitenzahl, I R; Ciaraldi-Schoolmann, F; Roepke, F K; Sim, S A; Pakmor, R; Ruiter, A J; Hillebrandt, W


    We investigate whether pure deflagration models of Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf stars can account for one or more sub-class of the observed population of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosions. We compute a set of three-dimensional full-star hydrodynamic explosion models, in which the deflagration strength is parametrized using the multi-spot ignition approach. For each model, we calculate detailed nucleosynthesis yields in a post-processing step with a 384 nuclide nuclear network. We also compute synthetic observables with our three-dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code for comparison with observations. For weak and intermediate deflagration strengths (energy release E_nuc <~ 1.1 x 10^51 erg), we find that the explosion leaves behind a bound remnant enriched with 3 to 10 per cent (by mass) of deflagration ashes. However, we do not obtain the large kick velocities recently reported in the literature. We find that weak deflagrations with E_nuc ~ 0.5 x 10^51 erg fit well both the ligh...

  12. A Three-Dimensional Scale-adaptive Turbulent Kinetic Energy Model in ARW-WRF Model (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Bao, Jian-Wen; Chen, Baode


    A new three-dimensional (3D) turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) subgrid mixing model is developed to address the problem of simulating the convective boundary layer (CBL) across the terra incognita in the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW-WRF). The new model combines the horizontal and vertical subgrid turbulent mixing into a single energetically consistent framework, in contrast to the convectional one-dimensional (1D) planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes. The transition between large-eddy simulation (LES) and mesoscale limit is accomplished in the new scale-adaptive model. A series of dry CBL and real-time simulations using the WRF model are carried out, in which the newly-developed, scale-adaptive, more general and energetically consistent TKE-based model is compared with the conventional 1D TKE-based PBL schemes for parameterizing vertical subgrid turbulent mixing against the WRF LES dataset and observations. The characteristics of the WRF-simulated results using the new and conventional schemes are compared. The importance of including the nonlocal component in the vertical buoyancy specification in the newly-developed general TKE-based scheme is illustrated. The improvements of the new scheme over convectional PBL schemes across the terra incognita can be seen in the partitioning of vertical flux profiles. Through comparing the results from the simulations against the WRF LES dataset and observations, we will show the feasibility of using the new scheme in the WRF model in the lieu of the conventional PBL parameterization schemes.

  13. Numerical Filling Simulation of Injection Molding Using Three-Dimensional Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GengTie; LiDequn; ZhouHuamin


    Most injection molded parts are three-dimensional, with complex geometrical configurations and thick/thin wall sections. A 3D simulation model will predict more accurately the filling process than a 2.5D model. This paper gives a mathematical model and numeric method based on 3D model, in which an equal-order velocity-pressure interpolation method is employed successfully. The relation between velocity and pressure is obtained from the discretized momentum equations in order to derive the pressure equation. A 3D control volume scheme is employed to track the flow front. The validity of the model has been tested through the analysis of the flow in cavity.

  14. Three-dimensional hydrological and thermal property models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A.; McKenna, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.


    This report describes the creation of three-dimensional numerical models of selected rock-matrix properties for the region of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, which is located in southern Nevada. The models have been generated for a majority of the unsaturated and shallow saturated zone within an area referred to within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization project as the site area. They comprise a number of material properties of importance both to detailed process-level modeling activities and to more summary-style performance assessment modeling. The material properties within these models are both spatially variable (heterogeneous) and spatially correlated, as the rocks are understood from data obtained from site-characterization drill holes widely scattered across the site area.

  15. Interplay between sign problem and Z3 symmetry in three-dimensional Potts models (United States)

    Hirakida, Takehiro; Kouno, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Junichi; Yahiro, Masanobu


    We construct four kinds of Z3 -symmetric three-dimensional (3D) Potts models, each with a different number of states at each site on a 3D lattice, by extending the 3D 3-state Potts model. Comparing the ordinary Potts model with the four Z3-symmetric Potts models, we investigate how Z3 symmetry affects the sign problem and see how the deconfinement transition line changes in the μ -κ plane as the number of states increases, where μ (κ ) plays a role of chemical potential (temperature) in the models. We find that the sign problem is almost cured by imposing Z3 symmetry. This mechanism may happen in Z3-symmetric QCD-like theory. We also show that the deconfinement transition line has stronger μ dependence with respect to increasing the number of states.

  16. Three-dimensional model and simulation of vacuum arcs under axial magnetic fields (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Jia, Shenli; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Haijing; Shi, Zongqian


    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3d) magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) model of axial magnetic field vacuum arcs (AMFVAs) is established. Based on this model, AMFVAs are simulated and analyzed. Three-dimensional spatial distributions of many important plasma parameters and electric characteristics in AMFVAs can be obtained, such as ion number density, ion temperature, electron temperature, plasma pressure, current densities along different directions (x, y, and z), ion velocities along different directions, electric fields strength along different directions, and so on. Simulation results show that there exist significant spiral-shaped rotational phenomena in the AMFVAs, this kind of rotational phenomenon also can be verified by the many related experiments (AMFVAs photographs, especially for stronger AMF strength). For current simulation results of AMFVAs, the maximal rotational velocity at anode side is about 1100 m/s. Radial electric field is increased from arc center to arc edge; axial electric field is decreased from cathode side to anode side. Radial electric field at arc edge can be larger than axial electric field. Azimuthal electric field in most regions is much smaller than radial and axial electric field, but it can reach about 1.19 kV/m. Radial magnetic field is the smallest one compared with other components, it reaches to maximum value at the position near to anode, it can influence arc characteristics.

  17. Three-dimensional surface convection simulations of metal-poor stars -- The effect of scattering on the photospheric temperature stratification

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, R; Asplund, M; Nordlund, Å; Trampedach, R; Gudiksen, B


    Three-dimensional (3D) radiative hydrodynamic model atmospheres of metal-poor late-type stars are characterized by cooler upper photospheric layers than their 1D counterparts. This property of 3D models can dramatically affect elemental abundances derived from temperature-sensitive spectral lines. We investigate whether the cool surface temperatures predicted by metal-poor 3D models can be ascribed to the approximated treatment of scattering in the radiative transfer. We use the Bifrost code to test three different ways to handle scattering in 3D model atmospheres of metal-poor stars. First, we solve self-consistently the radiative transfer equation for a source function with a coherent scattering term. Second, we solve the radiative transfer equation for a Planckian source function, neglecting the contribution of continuum scattering to extinction in the optically thin layers; this has been the default mode in previous models of ours. Third, we treat scattering as pure absorption everywhere, which is the sta...

  18. Accuracy and precision of the three-dimensional assessment of the facial surface using a 3-D laser scanner. (United States)

    Kovacs, L; Zimmermann, A; Brockmann, G; Baurecht, H; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, K; Papadopulos, N A; Papadopoulos, M A; Sader, R; Biemer, E; Zeilhofer, H F


    Three-dimensional (3-D) recording of the surface of the human body or anatomical areas has gained importance in many medical specialties. Thus, it is important to determine scanner precision and accuracy in defined medical applications and to establish standards for the recording procedure. Here we evaluated the precision and accuracy of 3-D assessment of the facial area with the Minolta Vivid 910 3D Laser Scanner. We also investigated the influence of factors related to the recording procedure and the processing of scanner data on final results. These factors include lighting, alignment of scanner and object, the examiner, and the software used to convert measurements into virtual images. To assess scanner accuracy, we compared scanner data to those obtained by manual measurements on a dummy. Less than 7% of all results with the scanner method were outside a range of error of 2 mm when compared to corresponding reference measurements. Accuracy, thus, proved to be good enough to satisfy requirements for numerous clinical applications. Moreover, the experiments completed with the dummy yielded valuable information for optimizing recording parameters for best results. Thus, under defined conditions, precision and accuracy of surface models of the human face recorded with the Minolta Vivid 910 3D Scanner presumably can also be enhanced. Future studies will involve verification of our findings using test persons. The current findings indicate that the Minolta Vivid 910 3D Scanner might be used with benefit in medicine when recording the 3-D surface structures of the face.

  19. Implementation of Localized Ensemble Assimilation for a Three-Dimensional Radiation Belt Model (Invited) (United States)

    Godinez, H. C.; Chen, Y.; Kellerman, A. C.; Subbotin, D.; Shprits, Y.


    Earth's outer radiation belt is very dynamic and energetic electrons therein undergo constant changes due to acceleration, loss, and trans- port processes. In this work we improve the accuracy of simulated electron phase space density (PSD) of the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, a three-dimensional radiation belt model, by implementing the localized ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) assimilation method. Assimilation methods based on Kalman filtering have been successfully applied to one-dimensional radial diffusion radiation belt models, where it has been shown to greatly improve the model estimation of electron phase space density (PSD). This work expands upon previous research by implementing the LETKF method to assimilate observed electron density into VERB, a three-dimensional radiation belt model. In particular, the LETKF will perform the assimilation locally, where the size of the local region is defined by the diffusion of electrons in the model. This will enable the optimal assimilation of data throughout the model consistently with the flow of electrons. Two sets of assimilation experiments are presented. The first is an identical-twin experiment, where artificial data is generated from the same model, with the purpose of verifying the assimilation method. In the second set of experiments, real PSD observational data from missions such as CRRES and/or the Van Allen Probes are assimilated into VERB. The results show that data assimilation significantly improves the accuracy of the VERB model by efficiently including the available observations at the appropriate pitch angles, energy levels, and L-shell regions throughout the model.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金心; 石广玉


    A three-dimensional ocean carbon cycle model which is a general circulation model couple.d with simple biogeochemical processes is used to simulate CO2 uptake by the ocean. The OGCM used is a modified version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory modular ocean model (MOM2). The ocean chemistry and a simple ocean biota model are included. Principal variables are .total CO2, alkalinity and phosphate. The vertical profile of POC flux observed by sediment traps is adopted, the rain ratio, a ratio of production rate of calcite against that of POC, and the bio-production efficiency should be 0. 06 and 2 per year, separately. The uptake of anthropogenicCO2 by the ocean is studied. Calculated oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 during the 1980s is 2. 05× 10 15g (Pg) per year. The regional distributions of global oceanic CO2 are discussed.

  1. Two multilayered plate models with transverse shear warping functions issued from three dimensional elasticity equations

    CERN Document Server

    Loredo, Alexandre


    A multilayered plate theory which uses transverse shear warping functions issued from three-dimensional elasticity is presented. Two methods to obtain these transverse shear warping functions are detailed. The warping functions are issued from the variations of transverse shear stresses computed at special location points for a simply supported bending problem. The first method considers an exact 3D solution of the problem. The second method uses the solution provided by the model itself: the transverse shear stresses are computed by the integration of equilibrium equations. Hence, an iterative process is applied, the model being updated with the new warping functions, and so on. These two models are compared to other models and to analytical solutions for the bending of simply supported plates. Four different laminates and a sandwich are considered, length-to-thickness values varying from 2 to 100. An additional analytical solution that simulates the behavior of laminates under the plane stress hypothesis - ...

  2. Three-dimensional models of conventional and vertical junction laser-photovoltaic energy converters (United States)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Walker, Gilbert H.


    Three-dimensional models of both conventional planar junction and vertical junction photovoltaic energy converters have been constructed. The models are a set of linear partial differential equations and take into account many photoconverter design parameters. The model is applied to Si photoconverters; however, the model may be used with other semiconductors. When used with a Nd laser, the conversion efficiency of the Si vertical junction photoconverter is 47 percent, whereas the efficiency for the conventional planar Si photoconverter is only 17 percent. A parametric study of the Si vertical junction photoconverter is then done in order to describe the optimum converter for use with the 1.06-micron Nd laser. The efficiency of this optimized vertical junction converter is 44 percent at 1 kW/sq cm.

  3. Three-dimensional simulation of impingement of a liquid droplet on a flat surface in the Leidenfrost regime (United States)

    Ge, Yang; Fan, L.-S.


    The hydrodynamics and heat transfer phenomena of a liquid droplet impacting upon a hot flat surface are analyzed based on three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation considering film-boiling behavior. The 3D level-set method is employed to portray the droplet surface variation during its deformation. The governing equations for the droplet and the surrounding gas phase are solved utilizing the finite-volume method with the arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian technique. To account for the lubrication resistant effects of the vapor cushion formed by the film-boiling evaporation, a separate vapor flow model is developed to simulate the pressure and velocity distribution along the vapor layer between the droplet and the surface. The temperature fields in all phases and the local evaporation rate on the droplet surface are determined by using a full field heat transfer model. Both the water and n-heptane droplets impacting on the solid wall with different Weber numbers are investigated. The comparisons of the simulation results with the experimental results reported in the literatures are made to substantiate the model presented in this study. Specially, the spreading and recoiling motions of the impacting droplets are reproduced accurately for a wide range of the Weber number. The oscillation of the thickness of the vapor layer and the temperature distribution across the interface are also calculated and compared favorably with the experimental results. As the Weber number increases, the extent of the droplet spreading increases, but the residence time of the droplet on the surface is almost unchanged. Compared to the saturated impacts, the subcooled impact yields a thinner vapor layer and a higher heat transfer rate.

  4. Roscovitine inhibits differentiation and invasion in a three-dimensional skin reconstruction model of metastatic melanoma. (United States)

    Mohapatra, Subhra; Coppola, Domenico; Riker, Adam I; Pledger, W Jack


    The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, roscovitine, in cultured melanoma cells and a three-dimensional skin reconstruction model of metastatic melanoma. The modulatory effects of roscovitine on the growth and survival of normal melanocytes and cultured melanoma cell lines were tested. Additionally, we investigated the potential of roscovitine to regulate the growth and differentiation of a metastatic melanoma cell line (A375) in a three-dimensional skin reconstruction culture consisting of A375 cells admixed with normal human keratinocytes embedded within a collagen-constricted fibroblast matrix. We show that roscovitine is able to induce apoptosis in the melanoma cell lines A375, 888, and 624 but not in normal human cultured epithelial melanocytes. The degree of apoptosis within these cell lines correlated with the accumulation of p53 protein and concomitant reduction of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, with no change in the proteins Bcl-2 and survivin. We also found that roscovitine inhibited the growth and differentiation of A375 melanoma cells within the dermal layer of the skin. The results of this study show that roscovitine has the potential to inhibit the differentiation and invasion of metastatic melanoma and may be useful as a therapy for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma.

  5. Damaging effects of gliadin on three-dimensional cell culture model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ersilia Dolfini; Maria Letizia Falini; Maria Teresa Bardella; Luca Elli; Leda Roncoroni; Barbara Costa; Maria Pia Colleoni; Vito Lorusso; Simona Ramponi; Paola Braidotti; Stefano Ferrero


    AIM: To evaluate the effects of gliadin on the oxidative environment in the"in vivo-like" model of a three-dimensional cell culture system.METHODS: LoVo cell line (intestinal adenocarcinoma)multicellular spheroids were treated with digested gliadin (with albumin used as a control). Spheroid volumes, cell viability and morphology, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)release, content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of GSH-related enzymes were examined. The data were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test (P<0.05).was considered statistically significant.RESULTS: Gliadin reduced cell viability (from 20% to 60%)and led to morphological alterations characterized by apoptotic findings and cytoskeletal injuries. LDH activity increased. The content of GSH reduced (-20% vs controls),and activity of GSH-related enzymes was significantly inhibited.CONCLUSION: Gliadin treatment induces an imbalance in the antioxidative mechanism of cells cultured by the three-dimensional technique. This alteration may explain the cell damage directly caused by gliadin and the subsequent morphological abnormalities.

  6. Faults simulations for three-dimensional reservoir-geomechanical models with the extended finite element method (United States)

    Prévost, Jean H.; Sukumar, N.


    Faults are geological entities with thicknesses several orders of magnitude smaller than the grid blocks typically used to discretize reservoir and/or over-under-burden geological formations. Introducing faults in a complex reservoir and/or geomechanical mesh therefore poses significant meshing difficulties. In this paper, we consider the strong-coupling of solid displacement and fluid pressure in a three-dimensional poro-mechanical (reservoir-geomechanical) model. We introduce faults in the mesh without meshing them explicitly, by using the extended finite element method (X-FEM) in which the nodes whose basis function support intersects the fault are enriched within the framework of partition of unity. For the geomechanics, the fault is treated as an internal displacement discontinuity that allows slipping to occur using a Mohr-Coulomb type criterion. For the reservoir, the fault is either an internal fluid flow conduit that allows fluid flow in the fault as well as to enter/leave the fault or is a barrier to flow (sealing fault). For internal fluid flow conduits, the continuous fluid pressure approximation admits a discontinuity in its normal derivative across the fault, whereas for an impermeable fault, the pressure approximation is discontinuous across the fault. Equal-order displacement and pressure approximations are used. Two- and three-dimensional benchmark computations are presented to verify the accuracy of the approach, and simulations are presented that reveal the influence of the rate of loading on the activation of faults.

  7. Vestibular coriolis effect differences modeled with three-dimensional linear-angular interactions. (United States)

    Holly, Jan E


    The vestibular coriolis (or "cross-coupling") effect is traditionally explained by cross-coupled angular vectors, which, however, do not explain the differences in perceptual disturbance under different acceleration conditions. For example, during head roll tilt in a rotating chair, the magnitude of perceptual disturbance is affected by a number of factors, including acceleration or deceleration of the chair rotation or a zero-g environment. Therefore, it has been suggested that linear-angular interactions play a role. The present research investigated whether these perceptual differences and others involving linear coriolis accelerations could be explained under one common framework: the laws of motion in three dimensions, which include all linear-angular interactions among all six components of motion (three angular and three linear). The results show that the three-dimensional laws of motion predict the differences in perceptual disturbance. No special properties of the vestibular system or nervous system are required. In addition, simulations were performed with angular, linear, and tilt time constants inserted into the model, giving the same predictions. Three-dimensional graphics were used to highlight the manner in which linear-angular interaction causes perceptual disturbance, and a crucial component is the Stretch Factor, which measures the "unexpected" linear component.

  8. Fully Three-dimensional Simulation and Modeling of a Dense Plasma Focus

    CERN Document Server

    Meehan, B T


    A Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) is a pulsed-power machine that electromagnetically accelerates and cylindrically compresses a shocked plasma in a Z-pinch. The pinch results in a brief (about 100 nanosecond) pulse of X-rays, and, for some working gases, also a pulse of neutrons. A great deal of experimental research has been done into the physics of DPF reactions, and there exist mathematical models describing its behavior during the different time phases of the reaction. Two of the phases, known as the inverse pinch and the rundown, are approximately governed by magnetohydrodynamics, and there are a number of well-established codes for simulating these phases in two dimensions or in three dimensions under the assumption of axial symmetry. There has been little success, however, in developing fully three-dimensional simulations. In this work we present three-dimensional simulations of DPF reactions and demonstrate that 3D simulations predict qualitatively and quantitatively different behavior than their 2D counterp...

  9. A three-dimensional model of tidal currents in the mouth of the Tagus estuary (United States)

    Fortunato, AndréB.; Baptista, António M.; Luettich, Richard A.


    Three-dimensional simulations of barotropic tides are used to investigate the complex circulation at the mouth of the Tagus estuary. Comparison with field data shows that elevations are well represented in the main area of interest, but velocities are slightly over-predicted due to a simplified treatment of intertidal flats. Model results show the existence of strong velocity phase lags (up to 1.75 hours for the semi-diurnal constituents) between the shallow areas and the deep channel. These phase lags are partially responsible for the generation by advective accelerations of a strong residual velocity field (velocities reach 0.5 m s -1) with well defined eddies. The interaction between the residual and tidal velocity fields in turn generates strong chaotic stirring. Localized sigma coordinates (LSC), a recently proposed method which allows the number of nodes per vertical to vary horizontally, are used for the first time in a three-dimensional application. A previously proposed criterion for the horizontal distribution of the total number of vertical nodes is shown to be inadequate when advective accelerations are important. However, with an alternative criterion, the use of LSC reduces maximum errors by a factor of two relative to traditional sigma coordinates.

  10. Rigorous joining of advanced reduced-dimensional beam models to three-dimensional finite element models (United States)

    Song, Huimin

    In the aerospace and automotive industries, many finite element analyses use lower-dimensional finite elements such as beams, plates and shells, to simplify the modeling. These simplified models can greatly reduce the computation time and cost; however, reduced-dimensional models may introduce inaccuracies, particularly near boundaries and near portions of the structure where reduced-dimensional models may not apply. Another factor in creation of such models is that beam-like structures frequently have complex geometry, boundaries and loading conditions, which may make them unsuitable for modeling with single type of element. The goal of this dissertation is to develop a method that can accurately and efficiently capture the response of a structure by rigorous combination of a reduced-dimensional beam finite element model with a model based on full two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) finite elements. The first chapter of the thesis gives the background of the present work and some related previous work. The second chapter is focused on formulating a system of equations that govern the joining of a 2D model with a beam model for planar deformation. The essential aspect of this formulation is to find the transformation matrices to achieve deflection and load continuity on the interface. Three approaches are provided to obtain the transformation matrices. An example based on joining a beam to a 2D finite element model is examined, and the accuracy of the analysis is studied by comparing joint results with the full 2D analysis. The third chapter is focused on formulating the system of equations for joining a beam to a 3D finite element model for static and free-vibration problems. The transition between the 3D elements and beam elements is achieved by use of the stress recovery technique of the variational-asymptotic method as implemented in VABS (the Variational Asymptotic Beam Section analysis). The formulations for an interface transformation matrix and

  11. Three-Dimensional Surface Parameters and Multi-Fractal Spectrum of Corroded Steel. (United States)

    Shanhua, Xu; Songbo, Ren; Youde, Wang


    To study multi-fractal behavior of corroded steel surface, a range of fractal surfaces of corroded surfaces of Q235 steel were constructed by using the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot method under a high total accuracy. The multi-fractal spectrum of fractal surface of corroded steel was calculated to study the multi-fractal characteristics of the W-M corroded surface. Based on the shape feature of the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded steel surface, the least squares method was applied to the quadratic fitting of the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded surface. The fitting function was quantitatively analyzed to simplify the calculation of multi-fractal characteristics of corroded surface. The results showed that the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded surface was fitted well with the method using quadratic curve fitting, and the evolution rules and trends were forecasted accurately. The findings can be applied to research on the mechanisms of corroded surface formation of steel and provide a new approach for the establishment of corrosion damage constitutive models of steel.

  12. Three-Dimensional Surface Parameters and Multi-Fractal Spectrum of Corroded Steel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Shanhua

    Full Text Available To study multi-fractal behavior of corroded steel surface, a range of fractal surfaces of corroded surfaces of Q235 steel were constructed by using the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot method under a high total accuracy. The multi-fractal spectrum of fractal surface of corroded steel was calculated to study the multi-fractal characteristics of the W-M corroded surface. Based on the shape feature of the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded steel surface, the least squares method was applied to the quadratic fitting of the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded surface. The fitting function was quantitatively analyzed to simplify the calculation of multi-fractal characteristics of corroded surface. The results showed that the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded surface was fitted well with the method using quadratic curve fitting, and the evolution rules and trends were forecasted accurately. The findings can be applied to research on the mechanisms of corroded surface formation of steel and provide a new approach for the establishment of corrosion damage constitutive models of steel.

  13. Numerical simulation of hydraulic fracturing using a three-dimensional fracture model coupled with an adaptive mesh fluid model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, G.L.; Vire, A.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C.


    A three-dimensional fracture model developed in the context of the combined finite-discrete element method is incorporated into a two-way fluid-solid coupling model. The fracture model is capable of simulating the whole fracturing process. It includes pre-peak hardening deformation, post-peak strain

  14. Three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model with eddy viscosity and turbulent resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Goldstein, Melvyn L., E-mail: [Code 672, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are

  15. Heterogeneous slip and rupture models of the San Andreas fault zone based upon three-dimensional earthquake tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxall, William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Crystal fault zones exhibit spatially heterogeneous slip behavior at all scales, slip being partitioned between stable frictional sliding, or fault creep, and unstable earthquake rupture. An understanding the mechanisms underlying slip segmentation is fundamental to research into fault dynamics and the physics of earthquake generation. This thesis investigates the influence that large-scale along-strike heterogeneity in fault zone lithology has on slip segmentation. Large-scale transitions from the stable block sliding of the Central 4D Creeping Section of the San Andreas, fault to the locked 1906 and 1857 earthquake segments takes place along the Loma Prieta and Parkfield sections of the fault, respectively, the transitions being accomplished in part by the generation of earthquakes in the magnitude range 6 (Parkfield) to 7 (Loma Prieta). Information on sub-surface lithology interpreted from the Loma Prieta and Parkfield three-dimensional crustal velocity models computed by Michelini (1991) is integrated with information on slip behavior provided by the distributions of earthquakes located using, the three-dimensional models and by surface creep data to study the relationships between large-scale lithological heterogeneity and slip segmentation along these two sections of the fault zone.

  16. A simplified transient three-dimensional model for estimating the thermal performance of the vapor chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yen-Shu; Pei, Bau-Shei [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, (Taiwan); Chien, Kuo-Hsiang; Wang, Chi-Chuan [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, (Taiwan); Hung, Tzu-Chen [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung County 840, (Taiwan)


    The vapor chambers (flat plate heat pipes) have been applied on the electronic cooling recently. To satisfy the quick-response requirement of the industries, a simplified transient three-dimensional linear model has been developed and tested in this study. In the proposed model, the vapor is assumed as a single interface between the evaporator and condenser wicks, and this assumption enables the vapor chamber to be analyzed by being split into small control volumes. Comparing with the previous available results, the calculated transient responses have shown good agreements with the existing results. For further validation of the proposed model, a water-cooling experiment was conducted. In addition to the vapor chamber, the heating block is also taken into account in the simulation. It is found that the inclusion of the capacitance of heating block shows a better agreement with the measurements. (author)

  17. Three Dimensional Baroclinic Numerical Model for Simulating Fresh and Salt Water Mixing in the Yangtze Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金海; 严以新; 诸裕良


    For simulating fresh and salt water mixing in estuaries, a three dimensional nonlinear baroclinic numerical model isdeveloped, in which the gradients of horizontal pressure contain the gradient of barotropic pressure arising from the gradi-ent of tidal level and the gradient of baroclinic pressure due to the gradient of salinity. The Eulerian-Lagrangian method isemployed to descretize both the momentum equations of tidal motion and the equation of salt water diffusion so as to im-prove the computational stability and accuracy. The methods to provide the boundary conditions and the initial conditionsare proposed, and the criterion for computational stability of the salinity fields is presented. The present model is used formodeling fresh and salt water mixing in the Yangtze Estuary. Computations show that the salinity distribution has thecharacteristics of partial mixing pattern, and that the present model is suitable for simulation of fresh and salt water mixing in the Yangtze Estuary.

  18. Scene analysis for effective visual search in rough three-dimensional-modeling scenes (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Hu, Xiaopeng


    Visual search is a fundamental technology in the computer vision community. It is difficult to find an object in complex scenes when there exist similar distracters in the background. We propose a target search method in rough three-dimensional-modeling scenes based on a vision salience theory and camera imaging model. We give the definition of salience of objects (or features) and explain the way that salience measurements of objects are calculated. Also, we present one type of search path that guides to the target through salience objects. Along the search path, when the previous objects are localized, the search region of each subsequent object decreases, which is calculated through imaging model and an optimization method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is capable of resolving the ambiguities resulting from distracters containing similar visual features with the target, leading to an improvement of search speed by over 50%.

  19. Intracellular Ca 2+ nonlinear wave behaviours in a three dimensional ventricular cell model (United States)

    Li, Pan; Holden, Arun V.


    Intracellular Ca 2+ activity regulates a wide range of cellular biochemical processes; in muscle cells, it links membrane excitation to contraction. Ca 2+ dynamics includes both synchronous oscillations, and nonlinear wave phenomena, both arising from the superposition of spatially localised stochastic events, such as Ca 2+ sparks. We incorporated individualised cell geometry reconstructed from confocal microscopy with realistic spatial distribution of RyR clusters into the three dimensional ventricular cell model, and reproduced complex spatio-temporal intracellular wave patterns from Ca 2+ sparks. We also introduced a detailed nuclear Ca 2+ handing model to simulate prolonged nuclear Ca 2+ transient, and study the effects of cytosolic-nuclear coupling on intracellular Ca 2+ dynamics. The model provides a computational platform to study intracellular Ca 2+ with the ability to interact with experimental measurements of subcellular structures, and can be modified for other cell types.

  20. Conversion of the Big Hill geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur


    The Big Hill salt dome, located in southeastern Texas, is home to one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Big Hill site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 14 oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the Big Hill site that can be used in support of future work.

  1. A three-dimensional multi-agent-based model for the evolution of Chagas' disease. (United States)

    Galvão, Viviane; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas


    A better understanding of Chagas' disease is important because the knowledge about the progression and the participation of the different types of cells in this disease are still lacking. To clarify this system, the kinetics of inflammatory cells and parasite nests was shown in an experiment. Using this experimental data, we have developed a three-dimensional multi-agent-based computational model for the evolution of Chagas' disease. Our model includes five different types of agents: inflammatory cell, fibrosis, cardiomyocyte, fibroblast, and Trypanosoma cruzi. Fibrosis is fixed and the other types of agents can move through the empty space. They move randomly by using the Moore neighborhood. This model reproduces the acute and chronic phases of Chagas' disease and the volume occupied by all different types of cells in the cardiac tissue.

  2. Observations and three-dimensional photoionization modelling of the Wolf-Rayet planetary nebula Abell 48

    CERN Document Server

    Danehkar, A; Ercolano, B; Kniazev, A Y


    Recent observations reveal that the central star of the planetary nebula Abell 48 exhibits spectral features similar to massive nitrogen-sequence Wolf-Rayet stars. This raises a pertinent question, whether it is still a planetary nebula or rather a ring nebula of a massive star. In this study, we have constructed a three-dimensional photoionization model of Abell 48, constrained by our new optical integral field spectroscopy. An analysis of the spatially resolved velocity distributions allowed us to constrain the geometry of Abell 48. We used the collisionally excited lines to obtain the nebular physical conditions and ionic abundances of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulphur and argon, relative to hydrogen. We also determined helium temperatures and ionic abundances of helium and carbon from the optical recombination lines. We obtained a good fit to the observations for most of the emission-line fluxes in our photoionization model. The ionic abundances deduced from our model are in decent agreement with those deri...

  3. Abundance analysis of the halo giant HD 122563 with three-dimensional model stellar atmospheres (United States)

    Collet, R.; Nordlund, Å.; Asplund, M.; Hayek, W.; Trampedach, R.

    We present a preliminary local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance analysis of the template halo red giant HD122563 based on a realistic, three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, hydrodynamical model atmosphere of the very metal-poor star. We compare the results of the 3D analysis with the abundances derived by means of a standard LTE analysis based on a classical, 1D, hydrostatic model atmosphere of the star. Due to the different upper photospheric temperature stratifications predicted by 1D and 3D models, we find large, negative, 3D-1D LTE abundance differences for low-excitation OH and Fe I lines. We also find trends with lower excitation potential in the derived Fe LTE abundances from Fe I lines, in both the 1D and 3D analyses. Such trends may be attributed to the neglected departures from LTE in the spectral line formation calculations.

  4. Abundance Analysis of the Halo Giant HD122563 with Three-Dimensional Model Stellar Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, R; Asplund, M; Hayek, W; Trampedach, R


    We present a preliminary local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance analysis of the template halo red giant HD122563 based on a realistic, three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, hydrodynamical model atmosphere of the very metal-poor star. We compare the results of the 3D analysis with the abundances derived by means of a standard LTE analysis based on a classical, 1D, hydrostatic model atmosphere of the star. Due to the different upper photospheric temperature stratifications predicted by 1D and 3D models, we find large, negative, 3D-1D LTE abundance differences for low-excitation OH and Fe I lines. We also find trends with lower excitation potential in the derived Fe LTE abundances from Fe I lines, in both the 1D and 3D analyses. Such trends may be attributed to the neglected departures from LTE in the spectral line formation calculations.

  5. An eddy-current model for three-dimensional nondestructive evaluation of advanced composites (United States)

    Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H.


    We have developed a rigorous electromagnetic model and an inversion algorithm for the three-dimensional NDE of advanced composite materials. This approach extends Victor Technologies' work in eddy-current NDE of conventional metals, and allows one to determine in localized regions the fiber-resin ratio in graphite-epoxy, and to determine those anomalies, e.g., delaminations, broken fibers, moisture content, etc., that can be reconstructed by our inversion method. In developing the model, we apply rigorous electromagnetic theory to determine a Green's function for a slab of anisotropic composite material, and then determine the integral relations for the forward and inverse problems using the Green's function. We will give examples of the solution of forward problems using this model.

  6. An unstructured grid, three-dimensional model based on the shallow water equations (United States)

    Casulli, V.; Walters, R.A.


    A semi-implicit finite difference model based on the three-dimensional shallow water equations is modified to use unstructured grids. There are obvious advantages in using unstructured grids in problems with a complicated geometry. In this development, the concept of unstructured orthogonal grids is introduced and applied to this model. The governing differential equations are discretized by means of a semi-implicit algorithm that is robust, stable and very efficient. The resulting model is relatively simple, conserves mass, can fit complicated boundaries and yet is sufficiently flexible to permit local mesh refinements in areas of interest. Moreover, the simulation of the flooding and drying is included in a natural and straightforward manner. These features are illustrated by a test case for studies of convergence rates and by examples of flooding on a river plain and flow in a shallow estuary. Copyright ?? 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Application of SketchUp in Coke Oven Three-Dimensional Digital Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuguang Ouyang


    Full Text Available Coke oven, which is a large industrial furnace, is complex in structure. A two-dimensional structure diagram can hardly help one observe the inner structure of a coke oven or master its working principle comprehensively. In order to solve this problem, a complete 3D digital model of a coke oven is generated by assembling the three-dimensional models of coke oven components created with SketchUp. It enables users to section the various components of the cove oven. The outer appearance and inner structure of the oven components also can be displayed visually from several different orientations. Moreover, it is convenient to storage and carry, operation easily and fast. It can be displayed on an ordinary computer and occupies no space at the laboratory. Meanwhile, a large sum of money that used for purchasing a physical coke oven model can be saved.

  8. Modification of three dimensional topography of the machined KDP crystal surface using wavelet analysis method (United States)

    Wang, H. X.; Zong, W. J.; Sun, T.; Liu, Q.


    The wavelet analysis method has been extensively employed to analyze the surface structures and evaluate the surface roughness. In this work, however, the wavelet analysis method was introduced to decompose and reconstruct the sampled surface profile signals in the cutting direction that achieved by SPDT (single point diamond turning) operation, and the surface profile signals in tool feeding direction were reconstructed with the approximate harmonic functions directly. And moreover, the orthogonal design method, i.e. the combination design of general rotary method, was resorted to model the variations of the independent frequency and amplitude of different simulated harmonic signals in the cutting and tool feeding directions. As expected resultantly, a novel 3D surface topography modeling solution was established, which aims to predict and modify the finished KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate or KH 2PO 4) crystal surfaces. The validation tests were carried out finally under different cutting conditions, and the collected average surface roughness in any case was compared with the corresponding value as predicted. The results indicated the experimental data were well consistent with the predictions, and only an average relative error of 11.4% occurred in predicting the average surface roughness.

  9. Three-Dimensional Electron Optics Model Developed for Traveling-Wave Tubes (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.


    A three-dimensional traveling-wave tube (TWT) electron beam optics model including periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. This accurate model allows a TWT designer to develop a focusing structure while reducing the expensive and time-consuming task of building the TWT and hot-testing it (with the electron beam). In addition, the model allows, for the first time, an investigation of the effect on TWT operation of the important azimuthally asymmetric features of the focusing stack. The TWT is a vacuum device that amplifies signals by transferring energy from an electron beam to a radiofrequency (RF) signal. A critically important component is the focusing structure, which keeps the electron beam from diverging and intercepting the RF slow wave circuit. Such an interception can result in excessive circuit heating and decreased efficiency, whereas excessive growth in the beam diameter can lead to backward wave oscillations and premature saturation, indicating a serious reduction in tube performance. The most commonly used focusing structure is the PPM stack, which consists of a sequence of cylindrical iron pole pieces and opposite-polarity magnets. Typically, two-dimensional electron optics codes are used in the design of magnetic focusing devices. In general, these codes track the beam from the gun downstream by solving equations of motion for the electron beam in static-electric and magnetic fields in an azimuthally symmetric structure. Because these two-dimensional codes cannot adequately simulate a number of important effects, the simulation code MAFIA (solution of Maxwell's equations by the Finite-Integration-Algorithm) was used at Glenn to develop a three-dimensional electron optics model. First, a PPM stack was modeled in three dimensions. Then, the fields obtained using the magnetostatic solver were loaded into a particle-in-cell solver where the fully three-dimensional behavior of the beam

  10. The Coupling of Finite Element and Integral Equation Representations for Efficient Three-Dimensional Modeling of Electromagnetic Scattering and Radiation (United States)

    Cwik, Tom; Zuffada, Cinzia; Jamnejad, Vahraz


    Finite element modeling has proven useful for accurtely simulating scattered or radiated fields from complex three-dimensional objects whose geometry varies on the scale of a fraction of a wavelength.

  11. Finite element analysis of stresses in fixed prosthesis and cement layer using a three-dimensional model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunachalam Sangeetha


    Full Text Available Context: To understand the effect of masticatory and parafunctional forces on the integrity of the prosthesis and the underlying cement layer. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress pattern in the cement layer and the fixed prosthesis, on subjecting a three-dimensional finite element model to simulated occlusal loading. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element model was simulated to replace missing mandibular first molar with second premolar and second molar as abutments. The model was subjected to a range of occlusal loads (20, 30, 40 MPa in two different directions - vertical and 30° to the vertical. The cements (zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer, and composite were modeled with two cement thicknesses - 25 and 100 μm. Stresses were determined in certain reference points in fixed prosthesis and the cement layer. Statistical Analysis Used: The stress values are mathematic calculations without variance; hence, statistical analysis is not routinely required. Results: Stress levels were calculated according to Von Mises criteria for each node. Maximum stresses were recorded at the occlusal surface, axio-gingival corners, followed by axial wall. The stresses were greater with lateral load and with 100-μm cement thickness. Results revealed higher stresses for zinc phosphate cement, followed by composites. Conclusions: The thinner cement interfaces favor the success of the prosthesis. The stresses in the prosthesis suggest rounding of axio-gingival corners and a well-established finish line as important factors in maintaining the integrity of the prosthesis.

  12. Confocal microscopy-based three-dimensional cell-specific modeling for large deformation analyses in cellular mechanics. (United States)

    Slomka, Noa; Gefen, Amit


    This study introduces a new confocal microscopy-based three-dimensional cell-specific finite element (FE) modeling methodology for simulating cellular mechanics experiments involving large cell deformations. Three-dimensional FE models of undifferentiated skeletal muscle cells were developed by scanning C2C12 myoblasts using a confocal microscope, and then building FE model geometries from the z-stack images. Strain magnitudes and distributions in two cells were studied when the cells were subjected to compression and stretching, which are used in pressure ulcer and deep tissue injury research to induce large cell deformations. Localized plasma membrane and nuclear surface area (NSA) stretches were observed for both the cell compression and stretching simulation configurations. It was found that in order to induce large tensile strains (>5%) in the plasma membrane and NSA, one needs to apply more than approximately 15% of global cell deformation in cell compression tests, or more than approximately 3% of tensile strains in the elastic plate substrate in cell stretching experiments. Utilization of our modeling can substantially enrich experimental cellular mechanics studies in classic cell loading designs that typically involve large cell deformations, such as static and cyclic stretching, cell compression, micropipette aspiration, shear flow and hydrostatic pressure, by providing magnitudes and distributions of the localized cellular strains specific to each setup and cell type, which could then be associated with the applied stimuli.

  13. Three-dimensional lake water quality modeling: sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. (United States)

    Missaghi, Shahram; Hondzo, Miki; Melching, Charles


    Two sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methods are applied to a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model (ELCOM-CAEDYM) of a morphologically complex lake. The primary goals of the analyses are to increase confidence in the model predictions, identify influential model parameters, quantify the uncertainty of model prediction, and explore the spatial and temporal variabilities of model predictions. The influence of model parameters on four model-predicted variables (model output) and the contributions of each of the model-predicted variables to the total variations in model output are presented. The contributions of predicted water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, and algal biomass contributed 3, 13, 26, and 58% of total model output variance, respectively. The fraction of variance resulting from model parameter uncertainty was calculated by two methods and used for evaluation and ranking of the most influential model parameters. Nine out of the top 10 parameters identified by each method agreed, but their ranks were different. Spatial and temporal changes of model uncertainty were investigated and visualized. Model uncertainty appeared to be concentrated around specific water depths and dates that corresponded to significant storm events. The results suggest that spatial and temporal variations in the predicted water quality variables are sensitive to the hydrodynamics of physical perturbations such as those caused by stream inflows generated by storm events. The sensitivity and uncertainty analyses identified the mineralization of dissolved organic carbon, sediment phosphorus release rate, algal metabolic loss rate, internal phosphorus concentration, and phosphorus uptake rate as the most influential model parameters.

  14. Three-Dimensional, Laminar Flow Past a Short, Surface-Mounted Cylinder (United States)

    Liakos, Anastasios; Malamataris, Nikolaos


    The topology and evolution of three-dimensional flow past a cylinder of slenderness ratio SR = 1 mounted in a wind tunnel is examined for 0 . 1 segmented to upper and lower parts, whereas the topology of the flow on the solid boundaries remains unaltered. Pressure distributions show that pressure, the key physical parameter in the flow, decreases everywhere except immediately upstream from the cylinder. In addition, creation of critical points from saddle-node-type bifurcations occur when the streamwise component of the pressure gradient changes sign. Finally, at Re = 325 , an additional horseshoe vorrtex is formed at the wake of the cylinder

  15. Monte Carlo modelling of photodynamic therapy treatments comparing clustered three dimensional tumour structures with homogeneous tissue structures (United States)

    Campbell, C. L.; Wood, K.; Brown, C. T. A.; Moseley, H.


    We explore the effects of three dimensional (3D) tumour structures on depth dependent fluence rates, photodynamic doses (PDD) and fluorescence images through Monte Carlo radiation transfer modelling of photodynamic therapy. The aim with this work was to compare the commonly used uniform tumour densities with non-uniform densities to determine the importance of including 3D models in theoretical investigations. It was found that fractal 3D models resulted in deeper penetration on average of therapeutic radiation and higher PDD. An increase in effective treatment depth of 1 mm was observed for one of the investigated fractal structures, when comparing to the equivalent smooth model. Wide field fluorescence images were simulated, revealing information about the relationship between tumour structure and the appearance of the fluorescence intensity. Our models indicate that the 3D tumour structure strongly affects the spatial distribution of therapeutic light, the PDD and the wide field appearance of surface fluorescence images.

  16. An algorithm of multi-model spatial overlay based on three-dimensional terrain model TIN and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少安; 张子平; 龚健雅


    3D-GIS spatial overlay analysis is being broadly concerned about in international academe and is a research focus. It is one of the important functions of spatial analysis using GIS technology. An algorithm of multi-model spatial overlay based on three-dimensional terrain model TIN is introduced in this paper which can be used to solve the TIN-based thrcc-dimensional overlay operation in spatial analysis. The feasibility arid validity of this algorithm is identified. This algorithm is used successfully in three-dimensional overlay and region variation overlay analysis.

  17. The refinement of hypocenter parameters on the basis of three-dimensional velocity models of focal zones (United States)

    Slavina, L. B.; Pivovarova, N. B.


    A complex approach to the processing of seismological data to determine hypocenter coordinates and to construct three-dimensional velocity fields of focal zones is considered. The iterative process includes the determination of focal coordinates under the assumption of a laterally homogeneous medium, the construction of a three-dimensional velocity model, and subsequent redefinition of the focal coordinates taking into account the inhomogeneous structure of the medium. The principal results of calculations of three-dimensional velocity fields and refined earthquake hypocenters are presented for focal zones in Vrancea (Carpathians), the Caucasus, and Kamchatka.

  18. Analysis on three-dimensional flow and heat transfer in a cross wavy primary surface recuperator for a microturbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Xiaohong


    Full Text Available In this paper, three-dimensional periodic numerical model for fully developed flow in a cross wavy primary surface recuperator for a microturbine system is built. The performance of flow and heat transfer is analyzed. The fields of flow and temperature in a gas and air channel are obtained. Different working conditions are numerically simulated. Numerical results are compared with experimental data concerned. Analysis results show that the flow in the gas and air channel is anti-symmetry along the centre of channel. The flow of fluid is fluctuant. The flow velocity of gas is much higher than that of air. The thermal ratio of cross wavy primary surface recuperator can reach 95.2%. The thermal ratio decreases with the improvement of gas inlet temperature. When gas inlet temperature increases by 100 K, the thermal ratio decreases by about 1%. The thermal ratio increases with the reduction of flow rate in the channel. When flow rate reduces by 40%, the thermal ratio increases by about 4%. The research results can be used to guide checking the performance of a recuperator.

  19. Simulation study on reconstruction model of three-dimensional temperature distribution within visible range in furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dong; Wang Fei; Huang Qun-Xing; Yan Jian-Hua; Chi Yong; Cen Ke-Fa


    This paper presents a reconstruction model of three-dimensional temperature distribution in furnace based on radiative energy images captured by charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras within the visible wavelength range. Numerical simulation case was used in this study and a zigzag eccentric temperature distribution was assumed to verify the model. Least square QR-factorization (LSQR) method was introduced to deal with reconstruction equation. It is found that the reconstructed temperature distributions in low-temperature areas had some fluctuations and high-temperature areas were reconstructed well The whole reconstruction relative error was mainly due to errors in low-temperature areas and the relative error for highest-temperature reconstruction was quite small.

  20. A new method for three-dimensional laparoscopic ultrasound model reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, C W; Pless, T; Durup, J;


    was to perform a volumetric test and a clinical feasibility test of a new 3D method using standard laparoscopic ultrasound equipment. METHODS: Three-dimensional models were reconstructed from a series of two-dimensional ultrasound images using either electromagnetic tracking or a new 3D method. The volumetric...... accuracy of the new method was tested ex vivo, and the clinical feasibility was tested on a small series of patients. RESULTS: Both electromagnetic tracked reconstructions and the new 3D method gave good volumetric information with no significant difference. Clinical use of the new 3D method showed...... accurate models comparable to findings at surgery and pathology. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the new 3D method is technically feasible, and its volumetrically, accurate compared to 3D with electromagnetic tracking....

  1. Three-dimensional sound localisation with a lizard peripheral auditory model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Kjær; Shaikh, Danish


    sensorimotor approach to three-dimensional sound source localisation employing two microphones, where directed movements of the microphones resolve the location of an acoustic target in three dimensions. The approach utilises a model of the peripheral auditory system of lizards coupled with a multi......-layer perceptron neural network. The peripheral auditory model provides sound direction information in a single plane which by itself is insufficient to localise the acoustic target in three dimensions. Two spatial orientations of this plane by rotating the microphones −45 degrees and +45 degrees along...... the sagittal axis generate two maps of sound direction. Weighted superposition of these two maps results in a map that encodes sound direction information in three dimensions. Two independent but neural networks with respectively one and two hidden layers are trained on these maps via supervised learning...

  2. Emergent O(n ) symmetry in a series of three-dimensional Potts models (United States)

    Ding, Chengxiang; Blöte, Henk W. J.; Deng, Youjin


    We study the q -state Potts model on a simple cubic lattice with ferromagnetic interactions in one lattice direction, and antiferromagnetic interactions in the other two directions. As the temperature T decreases, the system undergoes a second-order phase transition that fits in the universality class of the three-dimensional O (n ) model with n =q -1 . This conclusion is based on the estimated critical exponents, and histograms of the order parameter. At even smaller T we find, for q =4 and 5, a first-order transition to a phase with a different type of long-range order. This long-range order dissolves at T =0 , and the system effectively reduces to a disordered two-dimensional Potts antiferromagnet. These results are obtained by means of Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling.

  3. Three-dimensional wavelet transform and multiresolution surface reconstruction from volume data (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Sloan, Kenneth R., Jr.


    Multiresolution surface reconstruction from volume data is very useful in medical imaging, data compression and multiresolution modeling. This paper presents a hierarchical structure for extracting multiresolution surfaces from volume data by using a 3-D wavelet transform. The hierarchical scheme is used to visualize different levels of detail of the surface and allows a user to explore different features of the surface at different scales. We use 3-D surface curvature as a smoothness condition to control the hierarchical level and the distance error between the reconstructed surface and the original data as the stopping criteria. A 3-D wavelet transform provides an appropriate hierarchical structure to build the volume pyramid. It can be constructed by the tensor products of 1-D wavelet transforms in three subspaces. We choose the symmetric and smoothing filters such as Haar, linear, pseudoCoiflet, cubic B-spline and their corresponding orthogonal wavelets to build the volume pyramid. The surface is reconstructed at each level of volume data by using the cell interpolation method. Some experimental results are shown through the comparison of the different filters based on the distance errors of the surfaces.

  4. Three-dimensional homology model of GlcNAc-TV glycosyltransferase. (United States)

    Janoš, Pavel; Kozmon, Stanislav; Tvaroška, Igor; Koca, Jaroslav


    The enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: α-d-mannoside β-1-6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V) catalyzes the transfer of GlcNAc from the UDP-GlcNAc donor to the α-1-6-linked mannose of the trimannosyl core structure of glycoproteins to produce the β-1-6-linked branching of N-linked oligosaccharides. β-1-6-GlcNAc-branched N-glycans are associated with cancer growth and metastasis. Therefore, the inhibition of GnT-V represents a key target for anti-cancer drug development. However, the development of potent and specific inhibitors of GnT-V is hampered by the lack of information on the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and on the binding characteristics of its substrates. Here we present the first 3D structure of GnT-V as a result of homology modeling. Various alignment methods, docking the donor and acceptor substrates, and molecular dynamics simulation were used to construct seven homology models of GnT-V and characterize the binding of its substrates. The best homology model is consistent with available experimental data. The three-dimensional model, the structure of the enzyme catalytic site and binding information obtained for the donor and acceptor can be useful in studies of the catalytic mechanism and design of inhibitors of GnT-V. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  5. Slab1.0: A three-dimensional model of global subduction zone geometries (United States)

    Hayes, G.P.; Wald, D.J.; Johnson, R.L.


    We describe and present a new model of global subduction zone geometries, called Slab1.0. An extension of previous efforts to constrain the two-dimensional non-planar geometry of subduction zones around the focus of large earthquakes, Slab1.0 describes the detailed, non-planar, three-dimensional geometry of approximately 85% of subduction zones worldwide. While the model focuses on the detailed form of each slab from their trenches through the seismogenic zone, where it combines data sets from active source and passive seismology, it also continues to the limits of their seismic extent in the upper-mid mantle, providing a uniform approach to the definition of the entire seismically active slab geometry. Examples are shown for two well-constrained global locations; models for many other regions are available and can be freely downloaded in several formats from our new Slab1.0 website, d9ARbS. We describe improvements in our two-dimensional geometry constraint inversion, including the use of average active source seismic data profiles in the shallow trench regions where data are otherwise lacking, derived from the interpolation between other active source seismic data along-strike in the same subduction zone. We include several analyses of the uncertainty and robustness of our three-dimensional interpolation methods. In addition, we use the filtered, subduction-related earthquake data sets compiled to build Slab1.0 in a reassessment of previous analyses of the deep limit of the thrust interface seismogenic zone for all subduction zones included in our global model thus far, concluding that the width of these seismogenic zones is on average 30% larger than previous studies have suggested. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Three-dimensional surface current loops in broadband responsive negative refractive metamaterial with isotropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Xun-Jun; Wang Yue; Mei Jin-Shuo; Gui Tai-Long; Yin Jing-Hua


    We propose a bulk negative refractive index (NRI) metamaterial composed of periodic array of tightly coupled metallic cross-pairs printed on the six sides of a cube for applications of superlenses.The structural characteristics of the three-dimensional (3D) metamaterial consist in the high symmetry and the superposition of metallic cross-pairs,which can increase the magnetic inductive coupling between adjacent cross-pairs and realize a broadband and isotropic NRI.The proposed 3D structure is simulated using the CST Microwave Studio 2006 to verify the design validity.The simulation results show that the proposed structure can not only realize simultaneously an electric and magnetic response to an incident electromagnetic (EM) wave,but also exhibit a broadband NRI whose relative bandwidth can reach up to 56.7%.In addition,the NRI band is insensitive to the polarization and the incident angle of the incident EM wave.Therefore,the proposed metamaterial is a good candidate material as three-dimensional broadband isotropic NRI metamaterial.

  7. Protein-Protein Interaction Site Predictions with Three-Dimensional Probability Distributions of Interacting Atoms on Protein Surfaces (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Tai; Peng, Hung-Pin; Jian, Jhih-Wei; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Yang, Ei-Wen; Chen, Jun-Bo; Ho, Shinn-Ying; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, An-Suei


    Protein-protein interactions are key to many biological processes. Computational methodologies devised to predict protein-protein interaction (PPI) sites on protein surfaces are important tools in providing insights into the biological functions of proteins and in developing therapeutics targeting the protein-protein interaction sites. One of the general features of PPI sites is that the core regions from the two interacting protein surfaces are complementary to each other, similar to the interior of proteins in packing density and in the physicochemical nature of the amino acid composition. In this work, we simulated the physicochemical complementarities by constructing three-dimensional probability density maps of non-covalent interacting atoms on the protein surfaces. The interacting probabilities were derived from the interior of known structures. Machine learning algorithms were applied to learn the characteristic patterns of the probability density maps specific to the PPI sites. The trained predictors for PPI sites were cross-validated with the training cases (consisting of 432 proteins) and were tested on an independent dataset (consisting of 142 proteins). The residue-based Matthews correlation coefficient for the independent test set was 0.423; the accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity were 0.753, 0.519, 0.677, and 0.779 respectively. The benchmark results indicate that the optimized machine learning models are among the best predictors in identifying PPI sites on protein surfaces. In particular, the PPI site prediction accuracy increases with increasing size of the PPI site and with increasing hydrophobicity in amino acid composition of the PPI interface; the core interface regions are more likely to be recognized with high prediction confidence. The results indicate that the physicochemical complementarity patterns on protein surfaces are important determinants in PPIs, and a substantial portion of the PPI sites can be predicted correctly with

  8. A minimally disruptive model and three-dimensional evaluation of Lisfranc joint diastasis. (United States)

    Panchbhavi, Vinod K; Andersen, Clark R; Vallurupalli, Santaram; Yang, Jinping


    There is no model that can reproduce the diastasis at the Lisfranc joint after isolated transection of the Lisfranc ligament. Prior models required extensive sectioning of ligaments in the midfoot and represent injuries that cause extensive tarsometatarsal fracture-dislocations. They do not represent a subset of injuries that cause subtle or limited disruption at the Lisfranc joint. The purpose of this study was to create a model with the minimum amount of ligamentous disruption and loading necessary to consistently observe diastasis at the Lisfranc joint. Fourteen fresh-frozen paired cadaver feet were dissected to expose the dorsum. Three screws were inserted into each first cuneiform and second metatarsal to create a pair of registration triads. A digitizer was utilized to record the three-dimensional positions of the screws and their displacement under loaded and unloaded conditions before and after the Lisfranc ligament was cut (intact and cut conditions). The first and second cuneiforms and their metatarsals were removed, and the attachment sites of the dorsal and the Lisfranc ligament were digitized. The three-dimensional positions of the bones and ligament displacement were determined. The significance of differences between conditions was tested with analysis of variance, and linear regression analysis was used to test the correlation between dorsal and plantar displacements. There was a significant difference, of 1.3 mm, in the mean displacement between the cut loaded and intact loaded conditions (p < 0.0001). A modest correlation (r(2) = 0.60) was found between dorsal displacement and displacement at the site of the Lisfranc ligament, possibly attributable to rotations between the first cuneiform and second metatarsal. Isolated sectioning of the Lisfranc ligament is sufficient to consistently create diastasis at the Lisfranc joint. Dorsal displacements between the first cuneiform and second metatarsal are a modest predictor of plantar displacements.

  9. Comparison between iteration schemes for three-dimensional coordinate-transformed saturated-unsaturated flow model (United States)

    An, Hyunuk; Ichikawa, Yutaka; Tachikawa, Yasuto; Shiiba, Michiharu


    SummaryThree different iteration methods for a three-dimensional coordinate-transformed saturated-unsaturated flow model are compared in this study. The Picard and Newton iteration methods are the common approaches for solving Richards' equation. The Picard method is simple to implement and cost-efficient (on an individual iteration basis). However it converges slower than the Newton method. On the other hand, although the Newton method converges faster, it is more complex to implement and consumes more CPU resources per iteration than the Picard method. The comparison of the two methods in finite-element model (FEM) for saturated-unsaturated flow has been well evaluated in previous studies. However, two iteration methods might exhibit different behavior in the coordinate-transformed finite-difference model (FDM). In addition, the Newton-Krylov method could be a suitable alternative for the coordinate-transformed FDM because it requires the evaluation of a 19-point stencil matrix. The formation of a 19-point stencil is quite a complex and laborious procedure. Instead, the Newton-Krylov method calculates the matrix-vector product, which can be easily approximated by calculating the differences of the original nonlinear function. In this respect, the Newton-Krylov method might be the most appropriate iteration method for coordinate-transformed FDM. However, this method involves the additional cost of taking an approximation at each Krylov iteration in the Newton-Krylov method. In this paper, we evaluated the efficiency and robustness of three iteration methods—the Picard, Newton, and Newton-Krylov methods—for simulating saturated-unsaturated flow through porous media using a three-dimensional coordinate-transformed FDM.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Xiao-hui; Li C. W.; Chen Bi-hong


    A three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulation (LES) has been performed of hydrodynamic behavior of turbulent flow in open channel that the lower part of the domain is occupied by a drag force layer to represent vegetation.One equation model is used to closing the resolvable scale equations.The turbulent characteristic length is parameterized by a k-l model.A phenomenal model is employed to express the performance of vegetation in the open channel.The result reveals that the present model has the capacity of describing three-dimensional structure of large eddy appearing in turbulent flow in open channel with vegetation region and has the capacity of tracing the development of large eddies.

  11. Three-dimensional Numerical Models of Mantle Flow Through the Cocos-Nazca Slab Gap (United States)

    Jadamec, M.; Fischer, K. M.


    Global slab geometry models suggest a 350 km to 1000 km spacing between the southern extent of the Cocos slab and the northern extent of the Nazca slab (Gudmundsson and Sambridge, 1998; Syracuse and Abers, 2006; Hayes et al., 2012). The apparent gap between the east-dipping Cocos and Nazca slabs at depth correlates to several tectonic features on the Pacific side of Central and northern South America that may limit subduction, namely the (a) Panama Fault zone, (b) incoming young lithosphere associated with the Cocos-Nazca spreading center, and (c) the Cocos, Coiba, Malpelo, and Carnegie ridges associated with the Galapogos hotspot and Cocos-Nazca spreading center (Protti et al., 1994; Johnston and Thorkelson, 1997; Gutscher et al., 1999; Abratis and Worner, 2001; Sdrolias and Muller, 2006; Mann et al., 2007; Gazel et al., 2011). In addition, on the Caribbean side of Central and northern South America, seismic data suggest that part of the Caribbean plate is subducting and dipping in a direction opposite to the Cocos and Nazca slabs (van der Hilst and Mann, 1994; Camacho et al., 2010). We construct high-resolution three-dimensional numerical models of the Cocos-Nazca subduction system to test the effects of a slab gap and variable overriding plate thickness on surface plate motion and mantle flow. The 3D tectonic configuration is generated with SlabGenerator (Jadamec and Billen, 2010, 2012) and the mantle convection code CitcomCU is used to solve for the viscous flow (Moresi and Solomatov, 1995; Zhong, 2006). The negative thermal buoyancy of the slabs drive the flow. No driving velocities are applied to the plates or any of the slabs in the model. The detailed geometries of the Cocos and Nazca slabs are constructed from seismicity and seismic tomography (Protti et al., 1994; Colombo et al., 1997; Gudmundsson and Sambridge, 1998; Rogers et al., 2002; Husen et al., 2003; Syracuse and Abers, 2006; Syracuse et al., 2008; Dzierma et al., 2011). Seismic tomography

  12. Production of accurate skeletal models of domestic animals using three-dimensional scanning and printing technology. (United States)

    Li, Fangzheng; Liu, Chunying; Song, Xuexiong; Huan, Yanjun; Gao, Shansong; Jiang, Zhongling


    Access to adequate anatomical specimens can be an important aspect in learning the anatomy of domestic animals. In this study, the authors utilized a structured light scanner and fused deposition modeling (FDM) printer to produce highly accurate animal skeletal models. First, various components of the bovine skeleton, including the femur, the fifth rib, and the sixth cervical (C6) vertebra were used to produce digital models. These were then used to produce 1:1 scale physical models with the FDM printer. The anatomical features of the digital models and three-dimensional (3D) printed models were then compared with those of the original skeletal specimens. The results of this study demonstrated that both digital and physical scale models of animal skeletal components could be rapidly produced using 3D printing technology. In terms of accuracy between models and original specimens, the standard deviations of the femur and the fifth rib measurements were 0.0351 and 0.0572, respectively. All of the features except the nutrient foramina on the original bone specimens could be identified in the digital and 3D printed models. Moreover, the 3D printed models could serve as a viable alternative to original bone specimens when used in anatomy education, as determined from student surveys. This study demonstrated an important example of reproducing bone models to be used in anatomy education and veterinary clinical training. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Three-Dimensional Soil Landscape Modeling: A Potential Earth Science Teaching Tool (United States)

    Schmid, Brian M.; Manu, Andrew; Norton, Amy E.


    Three-dimensional visualization is helpful in understanding soils, and three dimensional (3-D) tools are gaining popularity in teaching earth sciences. Those tools are still somewhat underused in soil science, yet soil properties such as texture, color, and organic carbon content vary both vertically and horizontally across the landscape. These…

  14. Which animal model for understanding human navigation in a three-dimensional world? (United States)

    Orban, Guy A


    Single-cell studies of monkey posterior parietal cortex (PPC) have revealed the extensive neuronal representations of three-dimensional subject motion and three-dimensional layout of the environment. I propose that navigational planning integrates this PPC information, including gravity signals, with horizontal-plane based information provided by the hippocampal formation, modified in primates by expansion of the ventral stream.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeel Al-Surmi


    Full Text Available The 3D reconstruction from a single-view image is a longstanding issue in computer vision literature, especially in the medical field. Traditional medical imaging techniques that provide information about the heart and which are used to reconstruct the heart model, include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Computed Tomography (CT images. However, in some cases, they are not available and the applications that use these techniques to model the human heart only produce acceptable results after a long process, which involves acquiring the input data, as well as the segmentation process, the matching process, effort and cost. Therefore, it would be useful to be able to use a 2D single image to reconstruct the 3D heart surface model. We introduce an image-based human heart surface reconstruction from a single image as input. To model the surface of the heart, the proposed method, first, detects and corrects the specular reflection from the heart’s surface, which causes deformation of the surface in the R3. Second, it extrudes the three axes for each image pixel (e.g., x, y and z axes from the input image, in which the z-axis is calculated using the intensity value. Finally, a 3D reconstruction of the heart surface is created to help the novice cardiac surgeon to reduce the period of time in learning cardiac surgery and to enhance their perception of the operating theatre. The experimental results for images of the heart show the efficiency of the proposed method compared to the existing methods.

  16. Three-dimensional soil moisture profile retrieval by assimilation of near-surface measurements: Simplified Kalman filter covariance forecasting and field application (United States)

    Walker, Jeffrey P.; Willgoose, Garry R.; Kalma, Jetse D.


    The Kalman filter data assimilation technique is applied to a distributed three-dimensional soil moisture model for retrieval of the soil moisture profile in a 6 ha catchment using near-surface soil moisture measurements. A simplified Kalman filter covariance forecasting methodology is developed based on forecasting of the state correlations and imposed state variances. This covariance forecasting technique, termed the modified Kalman filter, was then used in a 1 month three-dimensional field application. Two updating scenarios were tested: (1) updating every 2 to 3 days and (2) a single update. The data used were from the Nerrigundah field site, near Newcastle, Australia. This study demonstrates the feasibility of data assimilation in a quasi three-dimensional distributed soil moisture model, provided simplified covariance forecasting techniques are used. It also identifies that (1) the soil moisture profile cannot be retrieved from near-surface soil moisture measurements when the near-surface and deep soil layers become decoupled, such as during extreme drying events; (2) if simulation of the soil moisture profile is already good, the assimilation can result in a slight degradation, but if the simulation is poor, assimilation can yield a significant improvement; (3) soil moisture profile retrieval results are independent of initial conditions; and (4) the required update frequency is a function of the errors in model physics and forcing data.

  17. Global climate changes as forecast by Goddard Institute for Space Studies three-dimensional model (United States)

    Hansen, J.; Fung, I.; Lacis, A.; Rind, D.; Lebedeff, S.; Ruedy, R.; Russell, G.


    The global climate effects of time-dependent atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variations are simulated by NASA-Goddard's three-dimensional climate model II, which possesses 8 x 10-deg horizontal resolution, for the cases of a 100-year control run and three different atmospheric composition scenarios in which trace gas growth is respectively a continuation of current exponential trends, a reduced linear growth, and a rapid curtailment of emissions due to which net climate forcing no longer increases after the year 2000. The experiments begin in 1958, run to the present, and encompass measured or estimated changes in CO2, CH4, N2O, chlorofluorocarbons, and stratospheric aerosols. It is shown that the greenhouse warming effect may be clearly identifiable in the 1990s.

  18. Parallelization of a Three-Dimensional Shallow-Water Estuary Model on the KSR-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. FalcÓ Korn


    Full Text Available Flows in estuarial and coastal regions may be described by the shallow-water equations. The processes of pollution transport, sediment transport, and plume dispersion are driven by the underlying hydrodynamics. Accurate resolution of these processes requires a three-dimensional formulation with turbulence modeling, which is very demanding computationally. A numerical scheme has been developed which is both stable and accurate – we show that this scheme is also well suited to parallel processing, making the solution of massive complex problems a practical computing possibility. We describe the implementation of the numerical scheme on a Kendall Square Research KSR-1 multiprocessor, and present experimental results which demonstrate that a problem requiring 600,000 mesh points and 6,000 time steps can be solved in under 8 hours using 32 processors.

  19. Three-dimensional finite element modelling of the uniaxial tension test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik


    Experimental determination of the stress-crack opening relationship (σ-w) for concrete as defined in the fictitious crack model has proven to be difficult. This is due to the problems that may arise from application of the inverse analysis method necessary for the derivation of the relationship....... One of the most direct methods for determination of the σ-w relationship is the uniaxial tension test, where a notched specimen is pulled apart while the tensile load and the crack opening displacement is observed. This method is appealing since the interpretation is straightforward. The method...... is examined in this paper through three dimensional finite element analyses. It is concluded that the interpretation of the uniaxial tension test is indeed straightforward, if the testing machine stiffness is sufficiently high....

  20. Segmentation of Three Dimensional Cell Culture Models from aSingle Focal Plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hang; Parvin, Bahram


    Three dimensional cell culture models offer new opportunities for development of computational techniques for segmentation and localization. These assays have a unique signature of a clump of cells that correspond to a functioning colony. Often the nuclear compartment is labeled and then imaged with fluorescent microscopy to provide context for protein localization. These colonies are first delineated from background using the level set method. Within each colony, nuclear regions are then bounded by their center of mass through radial voting, and a local neighborhood for each nucleus is established through Voronoi tessellation. Finally, the level set method is applied again within each Voronoi region to delineate the nuclear compartment. The paper concludes with the application of the proposed method to a dataset of experimental data demonstrating a stable solution when iterative radial voting and level set methods are used synergistically.

  1. A recapitulative three-dimensional model of breast carcinoma requires perfusion for multi-week growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla F Goliwas


    Full Text Available Breast carcinomas are complex, three-dimensional tissues composed of cancer epithelial cells and stromal components, including fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. In vitro models that more faithfully recapitulate this dimensionality and stromal microenvironment should more accurately elucidate the processes driving carcinogenesis, tumor progression, and therapeutic response. Herein, novel in vitro breast carcinoma surrogates, distinguished by a relevant dimensionality and stromal microenvironment, are described and characterized. A perfusion bioreactor system was used to deliver medium to surrogates containing engineered microchannels and the effects of perfusion, medium composition, and the method of cell incorporation and density of initial cell seeding on the growth and morphology of surrogates were assessed. Perfused surrogates demonstrated significantly greater cell density and proliferation and were more histologically recapitulative of human breast carcinoma than surrogates maintained without perfusion. Although other parameters of the surrogate system, such as medium composition and cell seeding density, affected cell growth, perfusion was the most influential parameter.

  2. Three-dimensional modeling of a patent ductus arteriosus in a cat. (United States)

    Saunders, A B; Birch, S A


    A left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed in a 13-week-old, 2.5 kg, male, domestic Shorthair cat with a continuous murmur. Echocardiographic abnormalities were identified, including: cardiomegaly, wide and presumably short ductal ampulla, and a large right branch pulmonary artery. When these findings were combined with the small patient size, additional imaging was considered prior to surgical ligation, and computed tomography angiography was preferred over standard angiography to provide multi-dimensional appreciation of the anatomy prior to surgery. The dataset from a computed tomography angiographic study performed prior to surgical ligation was used to create a three-dimensional model of the heart and great vessels. The rendered images accurately depicted the cardiac anatomy in situ, which can be utilized for surgical procedural planning and to enhance visuospatial understanding of the anatomy at all levels of training.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jin-hai; LIU Ying-qi; YAN Yi-xin; ZHU Yu-liang


    Submerged dikes were frequently built in curved estuarine channels to improve navigational conditions. A three-dimensional numerical model of tidal motions was developed to simulate flows through the submerged dike alignment in curved estuarine reach of complex bathymetry on the basis of satisfactory calibrations. Through the analysis of the morphological characteristics of the curved channel of the Huangpu River mouth in the Yangtze River Delta, a submerged dike alignment project was examined. The effect of the navigation channel improvement project and its influence on the flow regimes, the navigational conditions, the flood control and the operating conditions of harbours within the adjacent water area were evaluated, and the technical feasibility of the navigation channel improvement scheme was demonstrated.

  4. Modelling the dynamics of condensation and evaporation of fluids in three-dimensional slit pores (United States)

    Casselman, Joshua A.; Desouza, Anish; Monson, Peter A.


    We present an application of dynamic mean field theory (DMFT) for lattice gas models of confined fluids to the case of a fluid in a three-dimensional narrow slit between two plates. We consider a process where the slit is in contact with a subcritical bulk vapour and the bulk chemical potential is changed from a dilute gas value to a value close to that of the bulk saturated vapour so that capillary condensation occurs in the pore. DMFT predicts that the nucleation process during the condensation occurs by the formation of multiple liquid bridges spanning the pore walls, starting in the corners of the slit. These bridges eventually coalesce and the condensation transition terminates through the shrinkage and disappearance of a vapour bubble. We find that the density distribution is sensitive to the dimensions of the slit, with the number of bridges increasing with the slit area.

  5. Coherent Network Analysis of Gravitational Waves from Three-Dimensional Core-Collapse Supernova Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya


    Using predictions from three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics simulations of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), we present a coherent network analysis to detection, reconstruction, and the source localization of the gravitational-wave (GW) signals. By combining with the GW spectrogram analysis, we show that several important hydrodynamics features imprinted in the original waveforms persist in the waveforms of the reconstructed signals. The characteristic excess in the GW spectrograms originates not only from rotating core-collapse and bounce, the subsequent ring down of the proto-neutron star (PNS) as previously identified, but also from the formation of magnetohydrodynamics jets and non-axisymmetric instabilities in the vicinity of the PNS. Regarding the GW signals emitted near at the rotating core bounce, the horizon distance, which we set by a SNR exceeding 8, extends up to $\\sim$ 18 kpc for the most rapidly rotating 3D model among the employed waveform libraries. Following the rotating core bounce, the domi...

  6. Three-Dimensional Modelling inside a Differential Pressure Laminar Flow Bioreactor Filled with Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Weyand


    Full Text Available A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics- (CFD- model based on a differential pressure laminar flow bioreactor prototype was developed to further examine performance under changing culture conditions. Cell growth inside scaffolds was simulated by decreasing intrinsic permeability values and led to pressure build-up in the upper culture chamber. Pressure release by an integrated bypass system allowed continuation of culture. The specific shape of the bioreactor culture vessel supported a homogenous flow profile and mass flux at the scaffold level at various scaffold permeabilities. Experimental data showed an increase in oxygen concentration measured inside a collagen scaffold seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells when cultured in the perfusion bioreactor after 24 h compared to static culture in a Petri dish (dynamic: 11% O2 versus static: 3% O2. Computational fluid simulation can support design of bioreactor systems for tissue engineering application.

  7. The three-dimensional, three state Potts model in a negative external field

    CERN Document Server

    Bonati, Claudio


    We investigate the critical behaviour of the three-dimensional, three state Potts model in presence of a negative external field $h$, i.e. disfavouring one of the three states. A genuine phase transition is present for all values of $|h|$, corresponding to the spontaneous breaking of a residual $Z_2$ symmetry. The transition is first/second order respectively for small/large values of $|h|$, with a tricritical field $h_{\\rm tric}$ separating the two regimes. We provide, using different and consistent approaches, a precise determination of $h_{\\rm tric}$; we also compare with previous studies and discuss the relevance of our investigation to analogous studies of the QCD phase diagram in presence of an imaginary chemical potential.

  8. A three-dimensional turbulent compressible flow model for ejector and fluted mixers (United States)

    Rushmore, W. L.; Zelazny, S. W.


    A three dimensional finite element computer code was developed to analyze ejector and axisymmetric fluted mixer systems whose flow fields are not significantly influenced by streamwise diffusion effects. A two equation turbulence model was used to make comparisons between theory and data for various flow fields which are components of the ejector system, i.e., (1) turbulent boundary layer in a duct; (2) rectangular nozzle (free jet); (3) axisymmetric nozzle (free jet); (4) hypermixing nozzle (free jet); and (5) plane wall jet. Likewise, comparisons of the code with analytical results and/or other numerical solutions were made for components of the axisymmetric fluted mixer system. These included: (1) developing pipe flow; (2) developing flow in an annular pipe; (3) developing flow in an axisymmetric pipe with conical center body and no fluting and (4) developing fluted pipe flow. Finally, two demonstration cases are presented which show the code's ability to analyze both the ejector and axisymmetric fluted mixers.

  9. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of a bird model in unsteady flight (United States)

    Lin-Lin, Zhu; Hui, Guan; Chui-Jie, Wu


    In this paper, a type of numerical simulation of a three-dimensional (3D) bionic bird with flapping wings in a viscous flow is studied. The model is a self-propelled flying bird capable of free rotation and translation whose flying motion follows the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum. The bird is propelled and lifted through flapping and rotating wings and most of thrust force and lift force are exerted on both wings. Both the vortex structures and the flight characteristics are also presented. The relationship between both wings' movement and the vortex structures as well as that between both wings' movement and flight characteristics are also analyzed in this paper. The study uses a 3D computational fluid dynamics package that includes the combined immersed boundary method, volume of fluid method, adaptive multigrid finite volume method, and control strategy for swimming and flying.

  10. Three-dimensional model of the honeybee venom allergen Api m 7: structural and functional insights. (United States)

    Georgieva, Dessislava; Greunke, Kerstin; Betzel, Christian


    Api m 7 is one of the major protease allergens of the honeybee venom. It consists of a serine protease-like (SPL) and a CUB domain. The knowledge about the structure and function of Api m 7 is limited mainly to its amino acid sequence. Three-dimensional models of the two structural domains were constructed using their amino acid sequences and the crystallographic coordinates of prophenoloxidase-activating factor (PPAF-II) as a template for the SPL domain and the coordinates of porcine spermadhesin PSP-II for the CUB domain. The structural organization of Api m 7 suggests that the CUB domain is involved in interactions with natural substrates while the SPL domain probably activates zymogens. IgE epitopes and antigenic sites were predicted. Api m 7 shows structural and functional similarity to the members of the PPAF-II family. Possible substrates, function and evolution of the enzyme are discussed in the paper.

  11. Three-dimensional photoionization modelling of the planetary nebula NGC 3918 (United States)

    Ercolano, B.; Morisset, C.; Barlow, M. J.; Storey, P. J.; Liu, X.-W.


    The three-dimensional Monte Carlo photoionization code MOCASSIN has been applied to construct a realistic model of the planetary nebula NGC 3918. Three different geometric models were tried, the first being the biconical density distribution already used some years ago by Clegg et al. In this model the nebula is approximated by a biconical structure of enhanced density, embedded in a lower-density spherical region. Spindle-like density distributions were used for the other two models (models A and B). Model A used a mass distribution slightly modified from one of Mellema's hydrodynamical models that had already been adopted by Corradi et al. for their observational analysis of NGC 3918. Our spindle-like model B instead used an analytical expression to describe the shape of the inner shell of this object as consisting of an ellipsoid embedded in a sphere. The effects of the interaction of the diffuse fields coming from two adjacent regions of different densities were investigated. These are found to be non-negligible, even for the relatively uncomplicated case of a biconical geometry. We found that the ionization structure of low-ionization species near the boundaries is particularly affected. It is found that all three models provided acceptable matches to the integrated nebular optical and ultraviolet spectrum. Large discrepancies were found between all of the model predictions of infrared fine-structure line fluxes and ISO SWS measurements. This was found to be largely due to an offset of ~14 arcsec from the centre of the nebula that affected all of the ISO observations of NGC 3918. For each model, we also produced projected emission-line maps and position-velocity diagrams from synthetic long-slit spectra, which could be compared to recent HST images and ground-based long-slit echelle spectra. This comparison showed that spindle-like model B provided the best match to the observations. Although the integrated emission-line spectrum of NGC 3918 can be reproduced

  12. Conversion of the Bayou Choctaw geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Rautman, Christopher Arthur


    The geologic model implicit in the original site characterization report for the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, has been converted to a numerical, computer-based three-dimensional model. The original site characterization model was successfully converted with minimal modifications and use of new information. The geometries of the salt diapir, selected adjacent sedimentary horizons, and a number of faults have been modeled. Models of a partial set of the several storage caverns that have been solution-mined within the salt mass are also included. Collectively, the converted model appears to be a relatively realistic representation of the geology of the Bayou Choctaw site as known from existing data. A small number of geometric inconsistencies and other problems inherent in 2-D vs. 3-D modeling have been noted. Most of the major inconsistencies involve faults inferred from drill hole data only. Modem computer software allows visualization of the resulting site model and its component submodels with a degree of detail and flexibility that was not possible with conventional, two-dimensional and paper-based geologic maps and cross sections. The enhanced visualizations may be of particular value in conveying geologic concepts involved in the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve site to a lay audience. A Microsoft WindowsTM PC-based viewer and user-manipulable model files illustrating selected features of the converted model are included in this report.

  13. Three-dimensional resistivity modeling of GREATEM survey data from Ontake Volcano, northwest Japan (United States)

    Abd Allah, Sabry; Mogi, Toru


    Ontake Volcano is located in central Japan, 200 km northwest of Tokyo and erupted on September 27, 2014. To study the structure of Ontake Volcano and discuss the process of its phreatic eruption, which can help in future eruptions mitigation, airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys using the grounded electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) system were conducted over Ontake Volcano. Field measurements and data analysis were done by OYO Company under the Sabo project managed by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. Processed data and 1D resistivity models were provided by this project. We performed numerical forward modeling to generate a three-dimensional (3D) resistivity structure model that fits the GREATEM data where a composite of 1D resistivity models was used as the starting model. A 3D electromagnetic forward-modeling scheme based on a staggered-grid finite-difference method was modified and used to calculate the response of the 3D resistivity model along each survey line. We verified the model by examining the fit of magnetic-transient responses between the field data and 3D forward-model computed data. The preferred 3D resistivity models show that a moderately resistive structure (30-200 Ω m) is characteristic of most of the volcano, and were able to delineate a hydrothermal zone within the volcanic edifice. This hydrothermal zone may be caused by a previous large sector collapse.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A three-dimensional nonlinear numerical model with inclined pressure was developed to compute the saltwater intrusion at the Yangtze River Estuary. The σ-transformation was introduced in the vertical plane to achieve the same lattices in the whole domain of interest. The mode-splitting technique splits the three-dimensional governing equations into the surface gravity waves (external mode) and the internal gravity waves (internal mode). And the external mode was solved by the improved double-sweep-implicit (DSI) finite difference method and the internal mode was solved by the Eulerian-Lagrangian method. The Eulerian-Lagrangian method could not only reduce the numerical diffusion but also increase the computational accuracy by the improvement of the finite difference scheme in the vertical direction. Application of the model to the Yangtze River Estuary was carried out for the calculation of the saltwater intrusion and the null point. Results of the temporal and spatial distribution of the flow velocity and the salinity coincide with the measured data quite well. The formation and location of the underwater sandbars in the North Channel of the Yangtze River Estuary are closely related to the local salinity, the null point, the predominant current and the residual flow.

  15. Lifetime prediction for the subsurface crack propagation using three-dimensional dynamic FEA model (United States)

    Yin, Yuan; Chen, Yun-Xia; Liu, Le


    The subsurface crack propagation is one of the major interests for gear system research. The subsurface crack propagation lifetime is the number of cycles remaining for a spall to appear, which can be obtained through either stress intensity factor or accumulated plastic strain analysis. In this paper, the heavy loads are applied to the gear system. When choosing stress intensity factor, the high compressive stress suppresses Mode I stress intensities and severely reduces Mode II stress intensities in the heavily loaded lubricated contacts. Such that, the accumulated plastic strain is selected to calculate the subsurface crack propagation lifetime from the three-dimensional FEA model through ANSYS Workbench transient analysis. The three-dimensional gear FEA dynamic model with the subsurface crack is built through dividing the gears into several small elements. The calculation of the total cycles of the elements is proposed based on the time-varying accumulated plastic strain, which then will be used to calculate the subsurface crack propagation lifetime. During this process, the demonstration from a subsurface crack to a spall can be uncovered. In addition, different sizes of the elements around the subsurface crack are compared in this paper. The influences of the frictional coefficient and external torque on the crack propagation lifetime are also discussed. The results show that the lifetime of crack propagation decreases significantly when the external load T increasing from 100 N m to 150 N m. Given from the distributions of the accumulated plastic strain, the lifetime shares no significant difference when the frictional coefficient f ranging in 0.04-0.06.

  16. Investigation on a gas-liquid ejector using three-dimensional CFD model (United States)

    Kang, S. H.; Song, X. G.; Park, Y. C.


    This paper is focusing on the numeral study of a gas-liquid ejector used for ballast water treatment. The gasliquid ejector is investigated through steady three-dimensional multiphase CFD analysis with commercial software ANSYS-CFX 13.0. Water as the primary fluid is driven through the driving nozzle and air is ejected into as the second gas instead of the ozone in real application. Several turbulence models such as Standard k-ɛ model, RNG k-ɛ model, SST model and k-ω model, and different mesh size and compared extensively with the experimental results to eliminate the influence of the auxiliary system, turbulence models and mesh generation. The appropriate numerical model in terms of the best combination of turbulence model and mesh size are used in the subsequent research the study the influence of the operating condition such as the driving pressure/velocity and the back pressure of the ejector on its performance. The results provide deep insight on the influence of various factors on the performance of gas-liquid ejector. And the proposed numerical model will be very helpful in the further design optimization of the gas-liquid ejectors.

  17. Building a three-dimensional model of the upper gastrointestinal tract for computer simulations of swallowing. (United States)

    Gastelum, Alfonso; Mata, Lucely; Brito-de-la-Fuente, Edmundo; Delmas, Patrice; Vicente, William; Salinas-Vázquez, Martín; Ascanio, Gabriel; Marquez, Jorge


    We aimed to provide realistic three-dimensional (3D) models to be used in numerical simulations of peristaltic flow in patients exhibiting difficulty in swallowing, also known as dysphagia. To this end, a 3D model of the upper gastrointestinal tract was built from the color cryosection images of the Visible Human Project dataset. Regional color heterogeneities were corrected by centering local histograms of the image difference between slices. A voxel-based model was generated by stacking contours from the color images. A triangle mesh was built, smoothed and simplified. Visualization tools were developed for browsing the model at different stages and for virtual endoscopy navigation. As result, a computer model of the esophagus and the stomach was obtained, mainly for modeling swallowing disorders. A central-axis curve was also obtained for virtual navigation and to replicate conditions relevant to swallowing disorders modeling. We show renderings of the model and discuss its use for simulating swallowing as a function of bolus rheological properties. The information obtained from simulation studies with our model could be useful for physicians in selecting the correct nutritional emulsions for patients with dysphagia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Kоshev


    Full Text Available The mathematical model of electrochemical processes distribution within the three-dimensional flow-through electrode for the system Fe(III/Fe(II/Fe is described in this paper, considering also the electrochemical reactions of hydrogen and molecular oxygen reduction. Possible dynamic changes in the parameters of electrode, electrolyte and the process are taken into account in the mathematical model, such as electro-conductivity of electrode material, electrolyte flow rate, material porosity and specific electrode surface, concentrations of electro-active substances and other characteristics within the local volume of electrode. Electrode and process characteristics are treated as time and coordinate functions within the electrode volume. The results of calculations and experimental studies of iron electro-reduction are given, the analysis of the numerical modeling is provided.

  19. Quadratic resonance in the three-dimensional oscillations of inviscid drops with surface tension (United States)

    Natarajan, R.; Brown, R. A.


    The moderate-amplitude, three-dimensional oscillations of an inviscid drop are described in terms of spherical harmonics. Specific oscillation modes are resonantly coupled by quadratic nonlinearities caused by inertia, capillarity, and drop deformation. The equations describing the interactions of these modes are derived from the variational principle for the appropriate Lagrangian by expressing the modal amplitudes to be functions of a slow time scale and by preaveraging the Lagrangian over the time scale of the primary oscillations. Stochastic motions are predicted for nonaxisymmetric deformations starting from most initial conditions, even those arbitrarily close to the axisymmetric shapes. The stochasticity is characterized by a redistribution of the energy contained in the initial deformation over all the degrees of freedom of the interacting modes.

  20. Three-dimensional surface analysis system using a compact nuclear microprobe (United States)

    Kishimoto, T.; Mimura, R.; Sawaragi, H.; Aihara, R.; Takai, M.


    A nondestructive three-dimensional Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) analysis system with a compact 200 kV focused ion beam column has been developed. A liquid metal ion source (LMIS) such as lithium and/or beryllium (from Au/Si/Be eutectic alloy) was mounted on the short column. A high-vacuum sample chamber with a six-axis goniometer stage and an electrostatic toroidal analyzer for channeling and RBS analysis was connected to the acceleration column. The beam spot size was evaluated by microprobe-induced secondary electron image and a knife edge method using a thin gold pattern on a Si wafer. The beam current of 47 pA was obtained with a beam-spot diameter of 80 × 100 nm 2 for 400 keV Be ++ microprobes.