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Sample records for model takes advantage

  1. Monitoring mangrove forests: Are we taking full advantage of technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes Cárdenas, Nicolás; Joyce, Karen E.; Maier, Stefan W.

    2017-12-01

    Mangrove forests grow in the estuaries of 124 tropical countries around the world. Because in-situ monitoring of mangroves is difficult and time-consuming, remote sensing technologies are commonly used to monitor these ecosystems. Landsat satellites have provided regular and systematic images of mangrove ecosystems for over 30 years, yet researchers often cite budget and infrastructure constraints to justify the underuse this resource. Since 2001, over 50 studies have used Landsat or ASTER imagery for mangrove monitoring, and most focus on the spatial extent of mangroves, rarely using more than five images. Even after the Landsat archive was made free for public use, few studies used more than five images, despite the clear advantages of using more images (e.g. lower signal-to-noise ratios). The main argument of this paper is that, with freely available imagery and high performance computing facilities around the world, it is up to researchers to acquire the necessary programming skills to use these resources. Programming skills allow researchers to automate repetitive and time-consuming tasks, such as image acquisition and processing, consequently reducing up to 60% of the time dedicated to these activities. These skills also help scientists to review and re-use algorithms, hence making mangrove research more agile. This paper contributes to the debate on why scientists need to learn to program, not only to challenge prevailing approaches to mangrove research, but also to expand the temporal and spatial extents that are commonly used for mangrove research.

  2. Bacterial mechanosensitive ion channels : Taking advantage of homologues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Macdonald

    2015-01-01

    In dit proefschrift geven we inzicht geven in het gating mechanisme van MscL. Onze strategie was om een aantal pertinente vragen te beandwoorden met betrekking tot de opening en het sluiten van het kanaal MscL. Is het hydrofobe poort model universeel? Hebben vergelijkbare mutaties in de hydrofobe

  3. Neural Correlates of Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Advantageous Risk-Taking Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tiffany M. Y.; Guo, Li-guo; Shi, Hong-zhi; Li, Yong-zhi; Luo, Yue-jia; Sung, Connie Y. Y.; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2009-01-01

    This fMRI study examined the neural correlates of the observed improvement in advantageous risk-taking behavior, as measured by the number of adjusted pumps in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), following a 60-day course of a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) recipe, specifically designed to regulate impulsiveness in order to modulate…

  4. Taking Advantage of Agile while Minimizing Risk: User Stories and Other Fables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    Carnegie Mellon University Scaling Agile Brings in More Variation Scaled Agile Framework • Kanban, SCRUM , Value Stream Mapping Disciplined Agile ...Delivery • RUP, XP, SCRUM DSDM • Popular scaling approach in Europe https://www.thecsiac.com/spruce/resources/ref_documents/ agile -scale-aas...2013 Carnegie Mellon University Taking Advantage of Agile while Minimizing Risk: User Stories and Other Fables Presenter: Dr. Dave Zubrow

  5. Innovating in the teaching of Chemical Equilibrium: Taking effective advantage of Information and Communication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Susana Cristina Morais da

    Chemical Equilibrium (CE) is a good example of the specific nature of chemistry. The understanding of this theme requires the conceptualization of macroscopic events, as well as explanations of sub microscopic nature, application of symbolic language and mathematics. CE is commonly identified as a topic suitable for the pedagogical use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). However, the growth in the roll of digital resources for the teaching of CE, that took place in the last decades, was not accompanied by a decrease in the signalling of students' difficulties and misconceptions in the subject. This fact, points out the relevance of clarifying the circumstances under which digital resources turn out to be useful in the teaching of CE and develop educative modules that take into account the findings and recommendations from the literature. This project aims to bring a contribution to take advantage form ICT potential in the teaching of CE. The objectives underlying the main purpose of the project were defined according to literature review, which crosses three fundamental dimensions (scientific, pedagogical and technological). The project also benefited from the previous experience of the group and the collaboration with an European project (CROSSNET). The level of abstraction necessary for the understanding of the scientific model is pointed out as the major source of difficulties in the learning of CE, while also referred as a privileged target for the intervention of ICT. In this context, we introduce the expression "facilitating abstraction" to summarize the idea of supporting students' abstract thinking process during the learning of formal concepts. This idea has gained importance throughout the project leading to the development of a pedagogical approach to facilitate abstraction in the learning of CE. Although based on the use of ICT, the main purpose wasn't to introduce new digital resources in the saturated field of CE. Instead, the

  6. Deployment technique that takes advantage of the characteristics of Enterprise VRD2: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Hideo; Ishii, Akira; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Arai, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2017-10-01

    Enterprise VRD, a stent frequently used to assist coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms, has been upgraded to reduce the risk of incomplete stent apposition (ISA), a known risk factor for thromboembolic complications. To compare the performances of Enterprise VRD and Enterprise VRD2 in curved vessels, and to investigate a deployment method that takes advantage of the features of Enterprise VRD2 to achieve better vessel wall apposition. A silicone vascular model connected to a temperature-adjustable perfusion circuit was used. First, Enterprise VRD and Enterprise VRD2 were deployed under fluoroscopy and then ISA was evaluated as the stent cross-sectional area ratio at the curved segment of the vessel. For the measurements, each stent was deployed in vessels with different angles of curvature. Second, the incidence of ISA after insertion of Enterprise VRD2 by the 'pushing over outer curve technique', in which stents are deployed along the outer curve of vessels with continuous wire advancement, was compared with 'Heller's push and pull technique'. For all stents, the cross-sectional area ratio decreased with acute curvature of the vessel. Comparisons of the two stents showed that Enterprise VRD2 was better than Enterprise VRD in maintaining a greater cross-sectional area ratio in curved vessels. In addition, kinking with an acute curvature was also minimized with Enterprise VRD2. Furthermore, ISA was reduced using our technique with Enterprise VRD2. Enterprise VRD2 is superior to Enterprise VRD in reducing ISA in curved vessels and can alter ISA according to the deployment technique used. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Student Perceptions of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Geologic Note-taking with iPads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohaney, J. A.; Kennedy, B.; Gravley, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    During fieldwork, students and professionals record information and hypotheses into their geologic notebook. In a pilot study, students on an upper-level volcanology field trip were given iPads, with an open-source geology note-taking application (GeoFieldBook) and volunteered to record notes at two sites (i.e., Tongariro Volcanic Complex and Orakei Korako) in New Zealand. A group of students (n=9) were interviewed several weeks after fieldwork to reflect on using this technology. We aimed to characterise their experiences, strategies and examine the perceived benefits and challenges of hardcopy and digital note-taking. Students reported having a diverse range of strategies when taking notes but the most common strategies mentioned were: a) looking for/describing the differences, b) supporting note-taking with sketches, c) writing everything down, and d) focusing first on structure, texture and then composition of an outcrop. Additionally, students said they that the strategies they used were context-dependent (i.e., bedrock mapping versus detailed outcrop descriptions). When using the iPad, students reported that they specifically used different strategies: varying the length of text (from more to less), increasing the number of sites described (i.e., preferring to describe sites in more spatial detail rather than summarising several features in close proximity), and taking advantage of the 'editability' of iPad notes (abandoning rigid, systematic approaches). Overall, the reported advantages to iPad note-taking included allowing the user to be more efficient, organised and using the GPS mapping function to help them make observations and interpretations in real-time. Students also reported a range of disadvantages, but focused predominantly on the inability to annotate/draw sketches with the iPad in the same manner as pen and paper methods. These differences likely encourage different overall approaches to note-taking and cognition in the field environment, and

  8. Taking advantage of ground data systems attributes to achieve quality results in testing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.; Hageman, Barbara H.

    1994-01-01

    During the software development life cycle process, basic testing starts with the development team. At the end of the development process, an acceptance test is performed for the user to ensure that the deliverable is acceptable. Ideally, the delivery is an operational product with zero defects. However, the goal of zero defects is normally not achieved but is successful to various degrees. With the emphasis on building low cost ground support systems while maintaining a quality product, a key element in the test process is simulator capability. This paper reviews the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) test tool that is used in the acceptance test process for unmanned satellite operations control centers. The TASS is designed to support the development, test and operational environments of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operations control centers. The TASS uses the same basic architecture as the operations control center. This architecture is characterized by its use of distributed processing, industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components, and reusable software. The TASS uses much of the same TPOCC architecture and reusable software that the operations control center developer uses. The TASS also makes use of reusable simulator software in the mission specific versions of the TASS. Very little new software needs to be developed, mainly mission specific telemetry communication and command processing software. By taking advantage of the ground data system attributes, successful software reuse for operational systems provides the opportunity to extend the reuse concept into the test area. Consistency in test approach is a major step in achieving quality results.

  9. Taking Advantage of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) Popularity to Enhance Student/Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    . Our goal is to expand the use of these modules to a more broad public audience, including at a future campus/public event know as "All Things Water". We have also organized a walking tour/demo with 3rd-5th graders in a small mining town west of Boulder where we hiked to an old historical mine site, measured water quality (pH, dissolved lead, conductivity), and coated the inside of small bottles with silver. Organizing and hosting a conference can also be a great way to facilitate a discussion of ideas within the community. "All Things STEM" organized a broad student research conference related to water quality and water treatment which included research from 22 students from 11 different countries. We worked with 12 local engineering consultants, municipalities, and local businesses to provide 2000 for student awards. Our presentation will focus on lessons we have learned on how to take advantage of student energy, excitement, and time on campus to receive funding opportunities for planning events that engage the public. We will also talk about our experiences in using student energy to develop partnerships with K-12 schools, community groups, and industry professionals.

  10. Transnational nursing programs: models, advantages and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael

    2002-07-01

    Conducting transnational programs can be a very rewarding activity for a School, Faculty or University. Apart from increasing the profile of the university, the conduct of transnational programs can also provide the university with openings for business opportunities, consultative activities, and collaborative research. It can also be a costly exercise placing an enormous strain on limited resources with little reward for the provider. Transnational ventures can become nonviable entities in a very short period of time due to unanticipated global economic trends. Transnational courses offered by Faculties of Business and Computing are commonplace, however, there is a growing number of health science programs, particularly nursing that are being offered transnational. This paper plans an overview of several models employed for the delivery of transnational nursing courses and discusses several key issues pertaining to conducting courses outside the host university's country.

  11. The pen is mightier than the keyboard: advantages of longhand over laptop note taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Pam A; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

    2014-06-01

    Taking notes on laptops rather than in longhand is increasingly common. Many researchers have suggested that laptop note taking is less effective than longhand note taking for learning. Prior studies have primarily focused on students' capacity for multitasking and distraction when using laptops. The present research suggests that even when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing. In three studies, we found that students who took notes on laptops performed worse on conceptual questions than students who took notes longhand. We show that whereas taking more notes can be beneficial, laptop note takers' tendency to transcribe lectures verbatim rather than processing information and reframing it in their own words is detrimental to learning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Social customer relationship management: taking advantage of Web 2.0 and Big Data technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenga-Roglá, Sergio; Chalmeta, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Web 2.0 and Big Data technologies has allowed a new customer relationship strategy based on interactivity and collaboration called Social Customer Relationship Management (Social CRM) to be created. This enhances customer engagement and satisfaction. The implementation of Social CRM is a complex task that involves different organisational, human and technological aspects. However, there is a lack of methodologies to assist companies in these processes. This paper shows a novel methodology that helps companies to implement Social CRM, taking into account different aspects such as social customer strategy, the Social CRM performance measurement system, the Social CRM business processes, or the Social CRM computer system. The methodology was applied to one company in order to validate and refine it.

  13. Taking Advantages of Technologies:Using the Socrative in English Language Teaching Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of technology cannot be ignored and new technological applications come into our life almost every day. In this sense, it is inevitable to use those technological devices in the field of education for efficient teaching and learning. This paper deals with the attitudes of prep school students toward using Socrative in the classroom as a tool of response system in real time. Socrative is a smart student response system that enables instructors to discover or assess what students have learned in their lectures in real time. The study was conducted at the beginning of the second semester of 2014-2015 academic year in a university prep school. The survey was applied after the Socrative being practiced for a five-month period of first semester. The survey instrument which was previously used by Dervan (2014 was used to reveal students’ attitudes toward Socrative. The result of this study indicated that Socrative is a right tool that can help to improve users’ engagement in the classroom. Moreover, statistical analysis showed that there was no difference between the attitudes across gender.

  14. Modelling home advantage in the Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, N J; Nevill, A M; Williams, A M

    2003-06-01

    Home advantage in team games is well proven and the influence of the crowd upon officials' decisions has been identified as a plausible cause. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of home advantage for five event groups selected from the Summer Olympic Games between 1896 and 1996, and put home advantage in team games in context with other sports. The five event groups were athletics and weightlifting (predominantly objectively judged), boxing and gymnastics (predominantly subjectively judged) and team games (involving subjective decisions). The proportion of points won was analysed as a binomial response variable using generalized linear interactive modelling. Preliminary exploration of the data highlighted the need to control for the proportion of competitors entered and to split the analysis pre- and post-war. Highly significant home advantage was found in event groups that were either subjectively judged or rely on subjective decisions. In contrast, little or no home advantage (and even away advantage) was observed for the two objectively judged groups. Officiating system was vital to both the existence and extent of home advantage. Our findings suggest that crowd noise has a greater influence upon officials' decisions than players' performances, as events with greater officiating input enjoyed significantly greater home advantage.

  15. Energy strategy of the 21st century taking advantage of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Norihiro

    2002-01-01

    There is some general concern that economic development in developing countries will hasten global warning. In terms of reducing CO 2 emissions, fusion will have great potential as a primary energy in the late 21st century according to the results of WING model simulations based on scenario analysis, if the cost of fusion with hydrogen generation would become competitive compared with those of other substitutive energies. However, securing social acceptance is very important to maintain the fossil research funded by the government suffering from cumulative debt. (author)

  16. How HIV-1 Takes Advantage of the Cytoskeleton during Replication and Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Martin; Nikolic, Damjan S.; Piguet, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infects T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells and can manipulate their cytoskeleton structures at multiple steps during its replication cycle. Based on pharmacological and genetic targeting of cytoskeleton modulators, new imaging approaches and primary cell culture models, important roles for actin and microtubules during entry and cell-to-cell transfer have been established. Virological synapses and actin-containing membrane extensions can mediate HIV-1 transfer from dendritic cells or macrophage cells to T cells and between T cells. We will review the role of the cytoskeleton in HIV-1 entry, cellular trafficking and cell-to-cell transfer between primary cells. PMID:21994805

  17. Taking advantage of reduced droplet-surface interaction to optimize transport of bioanalytes in digital microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Sergio L S; Thorne, Nathaniel; Wutkowski, Michael; Dao, Selina

    2014-11-10

    Digital microfluidics (DMF), a technique for manipulation of droplets, is a promising alternative for the development of "lab-on-a-chip" platforms. Often, droplet motion relies on the wetting of a surface, directly associated with the application of an electric field; surface interactions, however, make motion dependent on droplet contents, limiting the breadth of applications of the technique. Some alternatives have been presented to minimize this dependence. However, they rely on the addition of extra chemical species to the droplet or its surroundings, which could potentially interact with droplet moieties. Addressing this challenge, our group recently developed Field-DW devices to allow the transport of cells and proteins in DMF, without extra additives. Here, the protocol for device fabrication and operation is provided, including the electronic interface for motion control. We also continue the studies with the devices, showing that multicellular, relatively large, model organisms can also be transported, arguably unaffected by the electric fields required for device operation.

  18. Solar Wear Tattoo – Combining Functional Materials Taking Advantage of Different UPF of Textiles, to Create Healthier Tattooing Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tattooing process can be a painful experience whether achieving a permanent or temporary body art on skin, and there can be horrible consequences. By taking advantage of UV protection factor variables of fashion clothing materials, it is possible to create this kind of body art in a much healthier way. The material performance is key, besides UPF materials that relies on the material behaviour when combined, layer sequence of these materials used for the desired function is equally as important, if not, even more important so. When properly combined in the correct order, making use of the right technology it may be possible to test different combinations. The advantages are, besides creating a temporary tattoo, that the user can benefit from moderate sun bathing advantages, that can provide the desired body art design on skin and the sunbathing health benefits. All of this can only be possible with a deep understanding of the UV protection factor of fashion materials, and how it can be tested and used in the manufacturing process for the desired function.

  19. Electronic Business Development as a Sustainable Competitive Advantage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narimantas Kazimieras Paliulis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the practical usefulness of information technologies in business reviewing electronic business concepts provided in science literature and also the newest tendencies of electronic business development. The paper offers a review of various authors works on e-strategies and IT influence on companies’ functionality. An analysis of disadvantages in various electronic business development models is provided. On the basis of analyses done on the theory of electronic business development and on disadvantages of e-business models, the main aspects of e-business development as sustainable competitive advantage are identified. A fully – formed model of electronic business development as sustainable competitive advantage is presented. Conclusions are provided.Article in Lithuanian

  20. EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL.COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OR ECONOMIC HANDICAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovitu Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available “Corporative social responsibility” (CSR represents equally a very actual debate, but also an appraisal criteria of the dynamic of eco-social integration quality process at European level. Especially that the protection need is demanded by the current economic crisis. This concept is meant to combine the position, attitude and behaviour of the trade-unions with the interests of employer’s organisations in search of possible influential mechanisms of the competitive advantage at European level. Due to the current economic crisis, the implications on the labour force market are causing an explainable anxiety. The attention of the decision takers is oriented towards joining the objectives “social well being with economic well being” in view of an expected economic come back. This approach proves a significant change at the level of economic and social policies within the European Union.

  1. Sequential Sampling Models in Cognitive Neuroscience: Advantages, Applications, and Extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmann, B U; Ratcliff, R; Wagenmakers, E-J

    2016-01-01

    Sequential sampling models assume that people make speeded decisions by gradually accumulating noisy information until a threshold of evidence is reached. In cognitive science, one such model--the diffusion decision model--is now regularly used to decompose task performance into underlying processes such as the quality of information processing, response caution, and a priori bias. In the cognitive neurosciences, the diffusion decision model has recently been adopted as a quantitative tool to study the neural basis of decision making under time pressure. We present a selective overview of several recent applications and extensions of the diffusion decision model in the cognitive neurosciences.

  2. Transgenic mouse models of hormonal mammary carcinogenesis: advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirma, Nameer B; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R

    2012-09-01

    Mouse models of breast cancer, especially transgenic and knockout mice, have been established as valuable tools in shedding light on factors involved in preneoplastic changes, tumor development and malignant progression. The majority of mouse transgenic models develop estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors. This is seen as a drawback because the majority of human breast cancers present an ER positive phenotype. On the other hand, several transgenic mouse models have been developed that produce ER positive mammary tumors. These include mice over-expressing aromatase, ERα, PELP-1 and AIB-1. In this review, we will discuss the value of these models as physiologically relevant in vivo systems to understand breast cancer as well as some of the pitfalls involving these models. In all, we argue that the use of transgenic models has improved our understanding of the molecular aspects and biology of breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A strategy for the economic optimization of combined cycle gas turbine power plants by taking advantage of useful thermodynamic relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, E.; Benz, S.J.; Scenna, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Optimal combined cycle gas turbine power plants characterized by minimum specific annual cost values are here determined for wide ranges of market conditions as given by the relative weights of capital investment and operative costs, by means of a non-linear mathematical programming model. On the other hand, as the technical optimization allows identifying trends in the system behavior and unveiling optimization opportunities, selected functional relationships are obtained as the thermodynamic optimal values of the decision variables are systematically linked to the ratio between the total heat transfer area and the net power production (here named as specific transfer area). A strategy for simplifying the resolution of the rigorous economic optimization problem of power plants is proposed based on the economic optima distinctive characteristics which describe the behavior of the decision variables of the power plant on its optima. Such approach results in a novel mathematical formulation shaped as a system of non-linear equations and additional constraints that is able to easily provide accurate estimations of the optimal values of the power plant design and operative variables. Research highlights: → We achieve relationships between power plants' economic and thermodynamic optima. → We achieve functionalities among thermodynamic optimal values of decision variables. → The rigorous optimization problem is reduced to a non-linear equations system. → Accurate estimations of power plants' design and operative variables are obtained.

  4. Advantage of Chernobyl radionuclides at modelling of geochemical landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsonenka, I.P.

    2002-01-01

    Any human activity causes a chemical alteration of environment. It occurs as a result of both the immediate emission of pollutants, and of violation of the ecosystems homeostasis. Under technogenic effect a geochemical field becomes still more variegated. This phenomenon is formed by subjective processes. In this case the unconditional application of statistical methods is not correct. Efficiently a contamination patchiness is scrutinised by method of a radioactive label, as some pollutants are allocated on a surface similarly artificial radionuclides. During 10 years the radioecological investigation like this was carried out in the moderate contamination area of Chernobyl zone. Nuclide 137Cs predominant on this terrain was used as a tracer. It turned out that the pollution field heterogeneity is depended on structure of landscape most intimately. The modelling of 137Cs allocation allowed to establish the attitude of background and anomalous zone. Principal premise of beginnings of an anomaly is the interplay of migration streams with geochemical barriers. Combination of these factors determines the radiological and geochemical parameters. The behaviour of other pollutants (Sr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co) in discrete segments of elementary landscape also rather differs. Within test area six types of positive going local geochemical anomalies are being discovered. The detailed analysis of them has resulted in creation of new technique of account of pollutants total inventory. This parameter is computed with the use of correction for a natural patchiness. For example the stoichiometric relationship show that an average of 0.73 % of the total 137Cs inventory was involved in the processes of secondary redistribution. More than on third of this value (0.26 %) was fixed at local geochemical barriers within eluvial landscapes and formed radiogeochemical anomalies at the intra facies level. The other portion of 137Cs inventory (0.47 %) was removed outside the boundaries of

  5. Competitive Advantages of Indonesian Plywood Industry: A Perspective from Porter???s Five Forces Model

    OpenAIRE

    Makkarennu

    2015-01-01

    The Understanding industry structure is of great concern to industry strategic since depending against the competitive forces and shaping them in a company???s favor area essential to strategy. Competitive advantages provide the framework for assessing strategy and understanding the source of competitive advantage. This paper applies Porter Five Forces Model to identify the positioning of competitive advantages of plywood industry in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Qualitative research was carried...

  6. Lifelong Competence Development: On the Advantages of Formal Competence-Performance Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kickmeier-Rust, Michael D.; Albert, Dietrich; Steiner, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Kickmeier-Rust, M.D., Albert, D., & Steiner, C. (2006). Lifelong Competence Development: On the Advantages of Formal Competence-Performance Modeling. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence

  7. Mathematical modeling of phase interaction taking place in materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinigrad, M.

    2002-01-01

    The quality of metallic products depends on their composition and structure. The composition and the structure are determined by various physico-chemical and technological factors. One of the most important and complicated problems in the modern industry is to obtain materials with required composition, structure and properties. For example, deep refining is a difficult task by itself, but the problem of obtaining the material with the required specific level of refining is much more complicated. It will take a lot of time and will require a lot of expanses to solve this problem empirically and the result will be far from the optimal solution. The most effective way to solve such problems is to carry out research in two parallel direction. Comprehensive analysis of thermodynamics, kinetics and mechanisms of the processes taking place at solid-liquid-gaseous phase interface and building of the clear well-based physico-chemical model of the above processes taking into account their interaction. Development of mathematical models of the specific technologies which would allow to optimize technological processes and to ensure obtaining of the required properties of the products by choosing the optimal composition of the raw materials. We apply the above unique methods. We developed unique methods of mathematical modeling of phase interaction at high temperatures. These methods allows us to build models taking into account: thermodynamic characteristics of the processes, influence of the initial composition and temperature on the equilibrium state of the reactions, kinetics of homogeneous and heterogeneous processes, influence of the temperature, composition, speed of the gas flows, hydrodynamic and thermal factors on the velocity of the chemical and diffusion processes. The models can be implemented in optimization of various metallurgical processes in manufacturing of steels and non-ferrous alloys as well as in materials refining, alloying with special additives

  8. The Assessment of Patient Clinical Outcome: Advantages, Models, Features of an Ideal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou’ath Hourani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of patient clinical outcome focuses on measuring various aspects of the health status of a patient who is under healthcare intervention. Patient clinical outcome assessment is a very significant process in the clinical field as it allows health care professionals to better understand the effectiveness of their health care programs and thus for enhancing the health care quality in general. It is thus vital that a high quality, informative review of current issues regarding the assessment of patient clinical outcome should be conducted. Aims & Objectives: 1 Summarizes the advantages of the assessment of patient clinical outcome; 2 reviews some of the existing patient clinical outcome assessment models namely: Simulation, Markov, Bayesian belief networks, Bayesian statistics and Conventional statistics, and Kaplan-Meier analysis models; and 3 demonstrates the desired features that should be fulfilled by a well-established ideal patient clinical outcome assessment model. Material & Methods: An integrative review of the literature has been performed using the Google Scholar to explore the field of patient clinical outcome assessment. Conclusion: This paper will directly support researchers, clinicians and health care professionals in their understanding of developments in the domain of the assessment of patient clinical outcome, thus enabling them to propose ideal assessment models.

  9. The Development of KHI'S Business Model to Enhance Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Firdaus, Anton; Hamsal, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This research about how PT KHI make an improvement in Business model by offering EPC (Engineering, Procurement & Construction) services to costumer to gain a better profit margin. Research result suggests PT KHI to improve its Business Model in order to enhance sustainable competitive advantage. Many competitors have the same business model in industry. PT KHI should offer different business model to stay ahead and winning the competition. The research result indicate based on current con...

  10. Computational modeling of turn-taking dynamics in spoken conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Shammur Absar

    2017-01-01

    The study of human interaction dynamics has been at the center for multiple research disciplines in- cluding computer and social sciences, conversational analysis and psychology, for over decades. Recent interest has been shown with the aim of designing computational models to improve human-machine interaction system as well as support humans in their decision-making process. Turn-taking is one of the key aspects of conversational dynamics in dyadic conversations and is an integral part of hu...

  11. Business statistics for competitive advantage with Excel 2016 basics, model building, simulation and cases

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The revised Fourth Edition of this popular textbook is redesigned with Excel 2016 to encourage business students to develop competitive advantages for use in their future careers as decision makers. Students learn to build models using logic and experience, produce statistics using Excel 2016 with shortcuts, and translate results into implications for decision makers. The textbook features new examples and assignments on global markets, including cases featuring Chipotle and Costco. Exceptional managers know that they can create competitive advantages by basing decisions on performance response under alternative scenarios, and managers need to understand how to use statistics to create such advantages. Statistics, from basic to sophisticated models, are illustrated with examples using real data such as students will encounter in their roles as managers. A number of examples focus on business in emerging global markets with particular emphasis on emerging markets in Latin America, China, and India. Results are...

  12. Model construction of “earning money by taking photos”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingmei

    2018-03-01

    In the era of information, with the increasingly developed network, “to earn money by taking photos” is a self-service model under the mobile Internet. The user downloads the APP, registers as a member of the APP, and then takes a task that needs to take photographs from the APP and earns the reward of the task on the APP. The article uses the task data and membership information data of an already completed project, including the member’s location and reputation value. On the basis of reasonable assumption, the data was processed with the MATLAB, SPSS and Excel software. This article mainly studied problems of the function relationship between the task performance, task position (GPS latitude and GPS longitude) and task price of users, analyzed the project’s task pricing rules and the reasons why the task is not completed, and applied multivariate regression function and GeoQ software to analyze the data, studied the task pricing rules, applied the chart method to solve the complex data, clear and easy to understand, and also reality simulation is applied to analyze why the tasks are not completed. Also, compared with the previous program, a new task pricing program is designed for the project to obtain the confidence level by means of the SPSS software, to estimate the reasonable range of the task pricing, predict and design a new pricing program on the reasonable price range.

  13. ADVANTAGES AND CONSTRAINTS OF INNOVATIVE BUSINESS MODELS FOR FOOD SECURITY: CASE STUDY IN SMOLYAN DISTRICT, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitre NIKOLOV

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The market access has been often defined as a factor having the strongest impact on agriculturalsector activity. Its importance is particularly critical for the small farms, which could not offer theirproduction on the market through single and sporadic sales. They could overcome these weaknessesof their business through participation in cooperative marketing. This article goal is to establish theadvantages and the constraints of cooperative business marketing model for food security in farmsof Smolyan district, Bulgaria. Farmers expect some advantages from the participation in such cooperationform. Three are the main approved advantages: 1 better awareness of market requirements; 2 marketaccess facilitation; 3 realization of higher profit from the activity. These advantages are expectedas a result form the direct contact with the final consumers, without external mediators. The implementationof cooperative marketing has its challenges embarrassing its effective use. The main constraints are relatedto the efficiency of processes management and to the coordination of activities of different economic entities.

  14. Initiative-taking, Improvisational Capability and Business Model Innovation in Emerging Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yangfeng

    . Many prior researches have shown that the foreign subsidiaries play important role in shaping the overall strategy of the parent company. However, little is known about how subsidiary specifically facilitates business model innovation (BMI) in emerging markets. Adopting the method of comparative......Business model innovation plays a very important role in developing competitive advantage when multinational small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from developed country enter into emerging markets because of the large contextual distances or gaps between the emerging and developed economies...... innovation in emerging markets. We find that high initiative-taking and strong improvisational capability can accelerate the business model innovation. Our research contributes to the literatures on international and strategic entrepreneurship....

  15. Initiative-taking, Improvisational Capability and Business Model Innovation in Emerging Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yangfeng

    Business model innovation plays a very important role in developing competitive advantage when multinational small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from developed country enter into emerging markets because of the large contextual distances or gaps between the emerging and developed economies....... Many prior researches have shown that the foreign subsidiaries play important role in shaping the overall strategy of the parent company. However, little is known about how subsidiary specifically facilitates business model innovation (BMI) in emerging markets. Adopting the method of comparative...... and longitudinal case study, we tracked the BMI processes of four SMEs from Denmark operating in China. Using resource-based view (RBV), we develop one theoretical framework which indicates that initiative-taking and improvisational capability of subsidiary are the two primary facilitators of business model...

  16. Creating competitive poles – the sustainable model for obtaining the competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Mihaela MATEI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In a global economy that has as its own competitive advantage the transfer of information and goods around the world in real time, the annexes that surround the ecosystem are the centers for innovation founded on hedge & mutual funds, investment scenarios and the development of biotechnology (for developed countries or for the development of aircrafts or equipment used for the manufacturing of tangible goods (in emergent countries. For these to create synergy there is the idea of clusters, because they offer to the companies the possibility to change and to add dynamism to the microeconomic open system. Although globalization offers the power of global trading, clusters are found in developed countries with economies that can support multidisciplinary interactions, and their creation must be followed by the emergent countries that want to progress in this area. This paper represents a review and a research in progress on creating competitive poles (or clusters as a sustainable model for obtaining the competitive advantage.

  17. A Twin Protection Effect? Explaining Twin Survival Advantages with a Two-Process Mortality Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Sharrow

    Full Text Available Twin studies that focus on the correlation in age-at-death between twin pairs have yielded important insights into the heritability and role of genetic factors in determining lifespan, but less attention is paid to the biological and social role of zygosity itself in determining survival across the entire life course. Using data from the Danish Twin Registry and the Human Mortality Database, we show that monozygotic twins have greater cumulative survival proportions at nearly every age compared to dizygotic twins and the Danish general population. We examine this survival advantage by fitting these data with a two-process mortality model that partitions survivorship patterns into extrinsic and intrinsic mortality processes roughly corresponding to acute, environmental and chronic, biological origins. We find intrinsic processes confer a survival advantage at older ages for males, while at younger ages, all monozygotic twins show a health protection effect against extrinsic death akin to a marriage protection effect. While existing research suggests an increasingly important role for genetic factors at very advanced ages, we conclude that the social closeness of monozygotic twins is a plausible driver of the survival advantage at ages <65.

  18. A Twin Protection Effect? Explaining Twin Survival Advantages with a Two-Process Mortality Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrow, David J; Anderson, James J

    2016-01-01

    Twin studies that focus on the correlation in age-at-death between twin pairs have yielded important insights into the heritability and role of genetic factors in determining lifespan, but less attention is paid to the biological and social role of zygosity itself in determining survival across the entire life course. Using data from the Danish Twin Registry and the Human Mortality Database, we show that monozygotic twins have greater cumulative survival proportions at nearly every age compared to dizygotic twins and the Danish general population. We examine this survival advantage by fitting these data with a two-process mortality model that partitions survivorship patterns into extrinsic and intrinsic mortality processes roughly corresponding to acute, environmental and chronic, biological origins. We find intrinsic processes confer a survival advantage at older ages for males, while at younger ages, all monozygotic twins show a health protection effect against extrinsic death akin to a marriage protection effect. While existing research suggests an increasingly important role for genetic factors at very advanced ages, we conclude that the social closeness of monozygotic twins is a plausible driver of the survival advantage at ages <65.

  19. An Individual-Based Diploid Model Predicts Limited Conditions Under Which Stochastic Gene Expression Becomes Advantageous

    KAUST Repository

    Matsumoto, Tomotaka

    2015-11-24

    Recent studies suggest the existence of a stochasticity in gene expression (SGE) in many organisms, and its non-negligible effect on their phenotype and fitness. To date, however, how SGE affects the key parameters of population genetics are not well understood. SGE can increase the phenotypic variation and act as a load for individuals, if they are at the adaptive optimum in a stable environment. On the other hand, part of the phenotypic variation caused by SGE might become advantageous if individuals at the adaptive optimum become genetically less-adaptive, for example due to an environmental change. Furthermore, SGE of unimportant genes might have little or no fitness consequences. Thus, SGE can be advantageous, disadvantageous, or selectively neutral depending on its context. In addition, there might be a genetic basis that regulates magnitude of SGE, which is often referred to as “modifier genes,” but little is known about the conditions under which such an SGE-modifier gene evolves. In the present study, we conducted individual-based computer simulations to examine these conditions in a diploid model. In the simulations, we considered a single locus that determines organismal fitness for simplicity, and that SGE on the locus creates fitness variation in a stochastic manner. We also considered another locus that modifies the magnitude of SGE. Our results suggested that SGE was always deleterious in stable environments and increased the fixation probability of deleterious mutations in this model. Even under frequently changing environmental conditions, only very strong natural selection made SGE adaptive. These results suggest that the evolution of SGE-modifier genes requires strict balance among the strength of natural selection, magnitude of SGE, and frequency of environmental changes. However, the degree of dominance affected the condition under which SGE becomes advantageous, indicating a better opportunity for the evolution of SGE in different genetic

  20. In vitro tumor models: advantages, disadvantages, variables, and selecting the right platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriah eKatt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tumor models have provided important tools for cancer research and serve as low-cost screening platforms for drug therapies; however, cancer recurrence remains largely unchecked due to metastasis, which is the cause of the majority of cancer related deaths. The need for an improved understanding of the progression and treatment of cancer has pushed for increased accuracy and physiological relevance of in vitro tumor models. As a result, in vitro tumor models have concurrently increased in complexity and their output parameters further diversified, since these models have progressed beyond simple proliferation, invasion, and cytotoxicity screens and have begun recapitulating critical steps in the metastatic cascade, such as intravasation, extravasation, angiogenesis, matrix remodeling, and tumor cell dormancy. Advances in tumor cell biology, 3D cell culture, tissue engineering, biomaterials, microfabrication, and microfluidics have enabled rapid development of new in vitro tumor models that often incorporate multiple cell types, extracellular matrix materials, and spatial and temporal introduction of soluble factors. Other innovations include the incorporation of perfusable microvessels to simulate the tumor vasculature and model intravasation and extravasation. The drive towards precision medicine has increased interest in adapting in vitro tumor models for patient-specific therapies, clinical management, and assessment of metastatic potential. Here, we review the wide range of current in vitro tumor models and summarize their advantages, disadvantages, and suitability in modeling specific aspects of the metastatic cascade and drug treatment.

  1. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  2. Risk taking and the triarchic model of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Robert J; Smith, Chloe; Gray, Nicola S

    2017-12-01

    High risk behaviors, such as aggression, criminality, sexual promiscuity, drug use, and gambling, are often associated with psychopathic traits. Such behaviors might arise due to a lack of fear of the consequences (boldness) or due to impulsive actions (disinhibition). We examined risk taking behavior in the laboratory setting using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), where an individual can inflate a balloon to earn a reward, but will lose this accumulated reward if the balloon bursts. The task reflects the willingness to take risks under conditions where the risk-taking behavior is understood and is made clear to the individual. BART performance was measured in a mixed community and offender sample, and psychopathy was characterized via the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy, which proposes that psychopathy is a combination of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Total psychopathy score was correlated with greater risk taking on the BART, and this effect was mainly due to the Boldness scale rather than the Meanness or Disinhibition scales. These relationships were not moderated by the nature of the sample (offender vs. community) or by gender. Individuals with high psychopathy scores appear more willing to take risks on this simple laboratory task, and this behavior appears due to boldness rather than being related to an impulsive disposition.

  3. Advantages of integration of uranium exploration data in GIS and models as tools for decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusveld, M.C.L.

    1997-01-01

    In many areas where uranium has been or is explored, an enormous amount of data on geology and hydrogeology is available. When these uranium exploration data are stored in a structured way, they can be made useful for other purposes dm uranium exploration only. For instance, in case of environmental pollution, which is often a side-effect of uranium activities such as mining and leaching, the data can be used to develop a computer model of the environment. With such a model impacts can be calculated of different scenarios for cleaning up or isolation of the pollution. A GIS can be used to store the data, to visualize the data (map production) and to analyse the data, but also to calculate input for the models. The advantages of using GIS and models as tools for decision support are explained with the Contaminant Transport Information System (CTIS) as a case study. The CTIS has been developed for remediation operations in the uranium mining area Straz pod Ralskem and Hamr in the Czech Republic. The CTIS consists of a GIS database, a regional groundwater flow model and a local contaminant transport model as well as interfaces for data transfer between the components of the information system. The power of the CTIS lies in the fact that the modelling necessary for the design of a remediation operation can be carried out efficiently by using one of the two models, depending on the specific question. Thus alternative remediation scenarios can be judged easily and fairly on their consequences and effectiveness. (author)

  4. The IT Advantage Assessment Model: Applying an Expanded Value Chain Model to Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Walter L.; Stylianou, Antonis C.

    2004-01-01

    Academia faces an uncertain future as the 21st century unfolds. New demands, discerning students, increased competition from non-traditional competitors are just a few of the forces demanding a response. The use of information technology (IT) in academia has not kept pace with its use in industry. What has been lacking is a model for the strategic…

  5. Assessment of potential advantages of relevant ions for particle therapy: A model based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grün, Rebecca, E-mail: r.gruen@gsi.de [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences Gießen, Gießen 35390 (Germany); Medical Faculty of Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg 35032 (Germany); Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Zink, Klemens [Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences Gießen, Gießen 35390, Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Marburg 35043 (Germany); Durante, Marco [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291, Germany and Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt 64289 (Germany); Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita [Medical Faculty of Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg 35032, Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Marburg 35043 (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Different ion types offer different physical and biological advantages for therapeutic applications. The purpose of this work is to assess the advantages of the most commonly used ions in particle therapy, i.e., carbon ({sup 12}C), helium ({sup 4}He), and protons ({sup 1}H) for different treatment scenarios. Methods: A treatment planning analysis based on idealized target geometries was performed using the treatment planning software TRiP98. For the prediction of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that is required for biological optimization in treatment planning the local effect model (LEM IV) was used. To compare the three ion types, the peak-to-entrance ratio (PER) was determined for the physical dose (PER{sub PHY} {sub S}), the RBE (PER{sub RBE}), and the RBE-weighted dose (PER{sub BIO}) resulting for different dose-levels, field configurations, and tissue types. Further, the dose contribution to artificial organs at risk (OAR) was assessed and a comparison of the dose distribution for the different ion types was performed for a patient with chordoma of the skull base. Results: The study showed that the advantages of the ions depend on the physical and biological properties and the interplay of both. In the case of protons, the consideration of a variable RBE instead of the clinically applied generic RBE of 1.1 indicates an advantage in terms of an increased PER{sub RBE} for the analyzed configurations. Due to the fact that protons show a somewhat better PER{sub PHY} {sub S} compared to helium and carbon ions whereas helium shows a higher PER{sub RBE} compared to protons, both protons and helium ions show a similar RBE-weighted dose distribution. Carbon ions show the largest variation of the PER{sub RBE} with tissue type and a benefit for radioresistant tumor types due to their higher LET. Furthermore, in the case of a two-field irradiation, an additional gain in terms of PER{sub BIO} is observed when using an orthogonal field configuration

  6. Open Access Papers Have a Greater Citation Advantage in the Author-Pays Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Sullo

    2016-03-01

    ; they also verified that the journals were using the APC model by visiting each journal’s website. Because of the large number of subject areas of the identified journals, the researchers decided to classify the journals into four broader categories: Health Sciences, Life Sciences, Natural Sciences, and Social Sciences and Humanities. To calculate the impact of OA papers, citation per paper (CPP was calculated for each subject area. Impact values were calculated on an annual basis as well. The researchers calculated the citation advantage of OA articles as the “difference between the open access and toll access impacts in terms of a percentage of the latter” (p. 585. Main Results – The authors categorized their findings according to three themes: the growth of APC funded OA papers, the number of OA papers by discipline, and citation advantage of OA vs. TA in general and by subject area. Together, Springer and Elsevier published 18,654 OA papers in the APC journals; this number represents 4.7% of the 396,760 papers published between 2007 and 2011. While the number of OA and TA papers has been growing annually, the number of OA papers has been growing more rapidly compared to the TA papers. In terms of subject areas, Life Sciences had the largest number of OA and TA papers (184,315, followed by Health Sciences (149,341, Natural Sciences (121,274, and Social Sciences and Humanities (42,824. Natural Sciences had the most OA papers (5.7% in terms of the number of papers in this subject area being OA papers, followed by Social Sciences and Humanities (5.2%, Health Sciences (4.6% and Life Sciences (3.6%. Overall, the researchers found that the impact values of OA papers were larger than those of the TA papers for each year examined. In considering subject areas, in all disciplines except Life Sciences, the most highly cited paper in the field is an OA paper. In Life Sciences, the most highly cited TA paper had 2,215 citations, compared to the OA paper, which had 1

  7. Bridging the gap between science and public health: taking advantage of tobacco control experience in Brazil to inform policies to counter risk factors for non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa e Silva, Vera Luiza; Pantani, Daniela; Andreis, Mônica; Sparks, Robert; Pinsky, Ilana

    2013-08-01

    The historical and economic involvement of Brazil with tobacco, as a major producer and exporter, was considered an insurmountable obstacle to controlling the consumption of this product. Nevertheless, the country was able to achieve significant progress in implementing public policies and to take an international leadership position, meeting its constitutional commitment to protect public health. In this paper we provide a brief historical overview of tobacco control (TC) in Brazil, and analyse the factors that contributed to the major decline in tobacco consumption in the country over the last 20 years, as well as identify the challenges that had to be overcome and those still at play. The Brazilian case demonstrates how cross-sectorial collaborations among health-related groups that capitalize on their respective strengths and capacities can help to influence public policy and overcome industry and population resistance to change. Although Brazil still lags behind some leading TC nations, the country has an extensive collaborative TC network that was built over time and continues to focus upon this issue. The tobacco experience can serve as an example for other fields, such as alcoholic beverages, of how networks can be formed to influence the legislative process and the development of public policies. Brazilian statistics show that problems related to non-communicable diseases are a pressing public health issue, and advocacy groups, policy-makers and government departments can benefit from tobacco control history to fashion their own strategies. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. A significant advantage for trapped field magnet applications—A failure of the critical state model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Roy; Parks, Drew; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Carpenter, Keith; Davey, Kent

    2015-10-01

    Ongoing research has increased achievable field in trapped field magnets (TFMs) to multi-Tesla levels. This has greatly increased the attractiveness of TFMs for applications. However, it also increases the already very difficult problem of in situ activation and reactivation of the TFMs. The pulsed zero-field-cool (ZFC) method of activation is used in most applications because it can be accomplished with much lower power and more modest equipment than field-cool activation. The critical state model (CSM) has been a reliable theoretical tool for experimental analysis and engineering design of TFMs and their applications for over a half-century. The activating field, BA, required to fully magnetize a TFM to its maximum trappable field, BT,max, using pulsed-ZFC is predicted by CSM to be R ≡ BA/BT,max ≥ 2.0. We report here experiments on R as a function of Jc, which find a monotonic decrease of R to 1.0 as Jc increases. The reduction to R = 1.0 reduces the power needed to magnetize TFMs by about an order of magnitude. This is a critical advantage for TFM applications. The results also indicate the limits of applicability of CSM, and shed light on the physics omitted from the model. The experimental results rule out heating effects and pinning center geometry as causes of the decrease in R. A possible physical cause is proposed.

  9. The diverse effects of intraspecific competition on the selective advantage to resistance: A model and its predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weis, A.E.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    We constructed a model to investigate conditions under which intraspecific competition amplifies or diminishes the selective advantage to resistance. The growth trajectories of competing individual plants were depicted by logistic difference equations that incorporated basic costs (lowered growth

  10. Generic Advantages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Generic Advantages. Scalability an incremental coverage. Standardization. Business Plan Flexibility. Lifecycle Flexibility. Reliability. Service Interoperability. Changed Industry dynamics.

  11. Accumulating approach to the life-cycle pension model: practical advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Azoulay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we make an effort to enhance the practical advantages of the life-cycle pension model. We observe that previous studies are based on a “switching”approach, that is, on the assumption that when a pension fund member reaches a certain age, his accumulated savings are fully switched to another fund with a lower risk profile; we suggest an “accumulating” approach, according to which, at the same age, the member’s previously accumulated wealth continues to be invested in the same fund, while his new regular pension contributions start being directed to another (less risky fund. We consider a hypothetical (average Israeli employee, analyze two age-dependent life-cycle investment distributions of his pension savings, and perform a comparison between the two approaches to the life-cycle model by employing an estimation-based and a simulation-based technique. The results demonstrate that the “accumulating” approach provides: (i higher estimated annualized real returns and real accumulated savings; (ii significantly higher simulated mean and median values of real accumulated savings. Moreover, we document that, though the “accumulating” approach increases the standard deviation of total savings, it does not lead to critically low pension wealth levels even for relatively unfavorable sequences of financial assets’ returns. Therefore, we conclude that the “accumulating” approach to the life-cycle model has a potential significantly to increase pension fund members’ total accumulated wealth relatively to the common “switching” approach, without significantly increasing the members’ risk.

  12. The biogas market. Which perspectives for the methanation market by 2017? Who are the best positioned actors to take advantage of opportunities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    As biogas is the most promising but also disregarded segment of renewable energies, this report first proposes an analysis of this market and its perspectives by discussing the determining factors of activity, by analysing the evolution of the activity between 2010 and 2014 in France (final consumption, consumption per segment, number of installations, number of installations per segment), and by applying three forecast scenarios to the market evolution by 2020. The second part proposes an analysis of the main consumer sectors. The next part discusses business models implemented by operators, and the competition structure. Highlights and supply evolution are then presented and discussed in terms of prospect diversification, supply safety, and improvement of installation efficiency. Synthetic sheets of 158 operators are then provided, containing management, economic and financial data for the 2008-2012 period, and proposing comparisons through 5 main indicators

  13. Fortune Favours the Bold: An Agent-Based Model Reveals Adaptive Advantages of Overconfidence in War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dominic D. P.; Weidmann, Nils B.; Cederman, Lars-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Overconfidence has long been considered a cause of war. Like other decision-making biases, overconfidence seems detrimental because it increases the frequency and costs of fighting. However, evolutionary biologists have proposed that overconfidence may also confer adaptive advantages: increasing ambition, resolve, persistence, bluffing opponents, and winning net payoffs from risky opportunities despite occasional failures. We report the results of an agent-based model of inter-state conflict, which allows us to evaluate the performance of different strategies in competition with each other. Counter-intuitively, we find that overconfident states predominate in the population at the expense of unbiased or underconfident states. Overconfident states win because: (1) they are more likely to accumulate resources from frequent attempts at conquest; (2) they are more likely to gang up on weak states, forcing victims to split their defences; and (3) when the decision threshold for attacking requires an overwhelming asymmetry of power, unbiased and underconfident states shirk many conflicts they are actually likely to win. These “adaptive advantages” of overconfidence may, via selection effects, learning, or evolved psychology, have spread and become entrenched among modern states, organizations and decision-makers. This would help to explain the frequent association of overconfidence and war, even if it no longer brings benefits today. PMID:21731627

  14. MARINE-EXPRESS: taking advantage of high throughput cloning and expression strategies for the post-genomic analysis of marine organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Power Déborah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of stable and soluble proteins is one of the most important steps prior to structural and functional studies of biological importance. We investigated the parallel production in a medium throughput strategy of genes coding for proteins from various marine organisms, using protocols that involved recombinatorial cloning, protein expression screening and batch purification. This strategy was applied in order to respond to the need for post-genomic validation of the recent success of a large number of marine genomic projects. Indeed, the upcoming challenge is to go beyond the bioinformatic data, since the bias introduced through the genomes of the so called model organisms leads to numerous proteins of unknown function in the still unexplored world of the oceanic organisms. Results We present here the results of expression tests for 192 targets using a 96-well plate format. Genes were PCR amplified and cloned in parallel into expression vectors pFO4 and pGEX-4T-1, in order to express proteins N-terminally fused to a six-histidine-tag and to a GST-tag, respectively. Small-scale expression and purification permitted isolation of 84 soluble proteins and 34 insoluble proteins, which could also be used in refolding assays. Selected examples of proteins expressed and purified to a larger scale are presented. Conclusions The objective of this program was to get around the bottlenecks of soluble, active protein expression and crystallization for post-genomic validation of a number of proteins that come from various marine organisms. Multiplying the constructions, vectors and targets treated in parallel is important for the success of a medium throughput strategy and considerably increases the chances to get rapid access to pure and soluble protein samples, needed for the subsequent biochemical characterizations. Our set up of a medium throughput strategy applied to genes from marine organisms had a mean success rate of 44

  15. MARINE-EXPRESS: taking advantage of high throughput cloning and expression strategies for the post-genomic analysis of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisillier, Agnès; Hervé, Cécile; Jeudy, Alexandra; Rebuffet, Etienne; Pluchon, Pierre F; Chevolot, Yann; Flament, Didier; Geslin, Claire; Morgado, Isabel M; Power, Déborah; Branno, Margherita; Moreau, Hervé; Michel, Gurvan; Boyen, Catherine; Czjzek, Mirjam

    2010-06-14

    The production of stable and soluble proteins is one of the most important steps prior to structural and functional studies of biological importance. We investigated the parallel production in a medium throughput strategy of genes coding for proteins from various marine organisms, using protocols that involved recombinatorial cloning, protein expression screening and batch purification. This strategy was applied in order to respond to the need for post-genomic validation of the recent success of a large number of marine genomic projects. Indeed, the upcoming challenge is to go beyond the bioinformatic data, since the bias introduced through the genomes of the so called model organisms leads to numerous proteins of unknown function in the still unexplored world of the oceanic organisms. We present here the results of expression tests for 192 targets using a 96-well plate format. Genes were PCR amplified and cloned in parallel into expression vectors pFO4 and pGEX-4T-1, in order to express proteins N-terminally fused to a six-histidine-tag and to a GST-tag, respectively. Small-scale expression and purification permitted isolation of 84 soluble proteins and 34 insoluble proteins, which could also be used in refolding assays. Selected examples of proteins expressed and purified to a larger scale are presented. The objective of this program was to get around the bottlenecks of soluble, active protein expression and crystallization for post-genomic validation of a number of proteins that come from various marine organisms. Multiplying the constructions, vectors and targets treated in parallel is important for the success of a medium throughput strategy and considerably increases the chances to get rapid access to pure and soluble protein samples, needed for the subsequent biochemical characterizations. Our set up of a medium throughput strategy applied to genes from marine organisms had a mean success rate of 44% soluble protein expression from marine bacteria, archaea

  16. Investigation the impact of outsourcing on competitive advantages' creation by considering Porter's model; Case study: Zamyad Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Kasrai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitive advantage is an important factor in boosting companies' success and is considered more emphatically in management and strategic marketing literature in recent years. There are many different ideas about effective factors in creation of competitive advantages. Also fast rate of change in business, is forcing CEOs to utilize some strategies, which have the best impact on current organizational circumstances and the future trend of investigation in organizational trades. Outsourcing is one of the best strategies, which are widely utilized by CEOs in different organizations. Many managers believe that outsourcing is the solitary way for preserving the balance of organization in 21 century. Based on Porter competitive advantage model, there are three strategies, which lead a company to reach competitive advantage. These strategies are cost leadership, differentiation strategy and segmentation strategy. In this article, we are investigating outsourcing effects on creation of competitive advantages through Porter model in an automotive factory in Iran. We design a questionnaire for gathering necessary information about the role of outsourcing in creation of different strategies as competitive advantages in managers' point of view. We analyze the questionnaires and implement a goodness of fit test to recognize the distribution of data and the statistical method. Preliminary results show that nonparametric statistic methods can be utilized for testing our hypothesis. We use a Wilcoxon test to consider the null hypothesis and a Friedman test to estimate the rank of means. Our findings verify an undeniable effect of outsourcing on creation of competitive advantage and the ranking list is presented.

  17. International Students Take Up the Model Solar Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an event in which two school teams from Argentina and Vietnam joined those from each Australian state in a race of model cars powered by the sun that provides a challenging and exciting approach for students to apply their scientific and technological knowledge to design and build the most efficient vehicles possible to gain hands-on…

  18. P2-8: Applications of the Magnocellular Advantage Model: Developmental Aspects of Dorsal Stream Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Murphy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Differential timing of the development of the dorsal and ventral visual streams is well accepted, with the latency of the M pathway to V1 not reaching adult levels until 10 years of age (Crewther et al., 1999 Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 49 123–128. This could have major consequences for how children perceive and attend to the environment. Thus, how the later development of the dorsal visual stream impacts the transient visual processing abilities in children was investigated within a framework of the Magnocellular Advantage model of the mature visual system. Typically developing participants (N= 110 grouped as Younger Children (4–7 yrs, Older Children (10–13 yrs, and Adults (18–30 yrs completed a series of customised computer motion and form coherence tasks designed to provide a functional measure of dorsal/ventral pathway performance. Dorsal involvement in a traditionally ventrally dominated object-recognition task was achieved by biasing onset/offset conditions to preferentially stimulate the temporal characteristics of both pathways. Adults performed better than children on all tasks except motion coherence thresholds. A significant improvement in performance was seen between younger children and older groups on dorsal tasks (Motion Coherence and Navon Global Accuracy but not on all ventral tasks (Form Coherence and Navon Local Exposure Time. Results support earlier psychophysical and electrophysiological investigations indicating that the dorsal stream matures later than the ventral stream. Therefore, in young children the underdeveloped dorsal visual pathway may rely more on slower ventral stream visual processing, which has important implications for the perception and attentional processing of transient events.

  19. Taking advantage of luminescent lanthanide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünzli, Jean-Claude G; Piguet, Claude

    2005-12-01

    Lanthanide ions possess fascinating optical properties and their discovery, first industrial uses and present high technological applications are largely governed by their interaction with light. Lighting devices (economical luminescent lamps, light emitting diodes), television and computer displays, optical fibres, optical amplifiers, lasers, as well as responsive luminescent stains for biomedical analysis, medical diagnosis, and cell imaging rely heavily on lanthanide ions. This critical review has been tailored for a broad audience of chemists, biochemists and materials scientists; the basics of lanthanide photophysics are highlighted together with the synthetic strategies used to insert these ions into mono- and polymetallic molecular edifices. Recent advances in NIR-emitting materials, including liquid crystals, and in the control of luminescent properties in polymetallic assemblies are also presented. (210 references.).

  20. Taking Full Advantage of Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Teachers need a deeper understanding of the texts being discussed, in particular the various textual and visual aspects of picturebooks themselves, including the images, written text and design elements, to support how readers made sense of these texts. As teachers become familiar with aspects of literary criticism, art history, visual grammar,…

  1. "Let's get physical": advantages of a physical model over 3D computer models and textbooks in learning imaging anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Daniel; Williams, Sarah B; Lam, Richard; Weller, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information plays an important part in medical and veterinary education. Appreciating complex 3D spatial relationships requires a strong foundational understanding of anatomy and mental 3D visualization skills. Novel learning resources have been introduced to anatomy training to achieve this. Objective evaluation of their comparative efficacies remains scarce in the literature. This study developed and evaluated the use of a physical model in demonstrating the complex spatial relationships of the equine foot. It was hypothesized that the newly developed physical model would be more effective for students to learn magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy of the foot than textbooks or computer-based 3D models. Third year veterinary medicine students were randomly assigned to one of three teaching aid groups (physical model; textbooks; 3D computer model). The comparative efficacies of the three teaching aids were assessed through students' abilities to identify anatomical structures on MR images. Overall mean MRI assessment scores were significantly higher in students utilizing the physical model (86.39%) compared with students using textbooks (62.61%) and the 3D computer model (63.68%) (P < 0.001), with no significant difference between the textbook and 3D computer model groups (P = 0.685). Student feedback was also more positive in the physical model group compared with both the textbook and 3D computer model groups. Our results suggest that physical models may hold a significant advantage over alternative learning resources in enhancing visuospatial and 3D understanding of complex anatomical architecture, and that 3D computer models have significant limitations with regards to 3D learning. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Off-take Model of the SPACE Code and Its Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Myung Taek; Park, Chan Eok; Sohn, Jong Joo

    2011-01-01

    Liquid entrainment and vapor pull-through models of horizontal pipe have been implemented in the SPACE code. The model of SPACE accounts for the phase separation phenomena and computes the flux of mass and energy through an off-take attached to a horizontal pipe when stratified conditions occur in the horizontal pipe. This model is referred to as the off-take model. The importance of predicting the fluid conditions through an off-take in a small-break LOCA has been well known. In this case, the occurrence of the stratification can affect the break node void fraction and thus the break flow discharged from the primary system. In order to validate the off-take model newly developed for the SPACE code, a simulation of the HDU experiments has been performed. The main feature of the off-take model and its application results will be presented in this paper

  3. Computational models of social and emotional turn-taking for embodied conversational agents: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bruijnes, Merijn

    2012-01-01

    The emotional involvement of participants in a conversation not only shows in the words they speak and in the way they speak and gesture but also in their turn-taking behavior. This paper reviews research into computational models of embodied conversational agents. We focus on models for turn-taking

  4. The Relationships among Leadership, Entrepreneurial Mindset, Innovation and Competitive Advantage (A Conceptual Model of Logistics Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, improvement of competitive advantage is an important and urgent issue facing logistics service companies in Indonesia. Some previous researches showed that to improve the competitive advantage could be conducted through improvement of leadership, entrepreneurial mindset and innovation variables. This research intended to recognize relationships among the variables. The research used causal-explanatory method. The results of research encompass a conceptual model, status of each variable and hypotheses. The conceptual model could be further verified through verification research. 

  5. A model for the advantage of early electron cyclotron current drive in the suppression of neoclassical tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaros, Avrilios; Maraschek, Marc; Zohm, Hartmut

    2007-01-01

    An analytic model for the advantage of the early application of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in the suppression of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) is presented. The improved performance of early ECCD is attributed to the second (smaller) saturation island width, which appears for sufficiently small (relative to the ECCD deposition width) critical island widths, in the strongly nonlinear growth rate profile. The operational range for the advantage of early ECCD is obtained, and it is shown that it is favored by broad deposition profiles. The preliminary experimental results in ASDEX Upgrade [H. Zohm et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 197 (2001)] are consistent with the present model

  6. Modelling home advantage for individual teams in UEFA Champions League football

    OpenAIRE

    Goumas, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: Home advantage (HA) is well documented in a wide range of team sports including association football (soccer). Although much attention has been paid to differences in the overall magnitude of HA between football competitions and across time, few studies have investigated HA at the team level. Methods: A novel method of estimating HA for individual teams, based solely on home performance, was used to compare HA between the highest performing teams and countries in the Union of E...

  7. Modeling take-over performance in level 3 conditionally automated vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Happee, Riender; Bengler, Klaus

    2017-11-28

    Taking over vehicle control from a Level 3 conditionally automated vehicle can be a demanding task for a driver. The take-over determines the controllability of automated vehicle functions and thereby also traffic safety. This paper presents models predicting the main take-over performance variables take-over time, minimum time-to-collision, brake application and crash probability. These variables are considered in relation to the situational and driver-related factors time-budget, traffic density, non-driving-related task, repetition, the current lane and driver's age. Regression models were developed using 753 take-over situations recorded in a series of driving simulator experiments. The models were validated with data from five other driving simulator experiments of mostly unrelated authors with another 729 take-over situations. The models accurately captured take-over time, time-to-collision and crash probability, and moderately predicted the brake application. Especially the time-budget, traffic density and the repetition strongly influenced the take-over performance, while the non-driving-related tasks, the lane and drivers' age explained a minor portion of the variance in the take-over performances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Flexing dual-systems models: How variable cognitive control in children informs our understanding of risk-taking across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rosa

    2017-10-01

    Prevailing models of the development of decision-making propose that peak risk-taking occurs in adolescence due to a neural imbalance between two processes: gradual, linearly developing cognitive control and rapid, non-linearly developing reward-processing. Though many studies have found neural evidence supporting this dual-systems imbalance model, its behavioral predictions have been surprisingly difficult to document. Most laboratory studies have not found adolescents to exhibit greater risk-taking than children, and public health data show everyday risk-taking to peak in late adolescence/early adulthood. Moreover, when adolescents are provided detailed information about decision options and consequences, they evince similar behavior to adults. Such findings point to a critical feature of the development of decision-making that is missed by imbalance models. Specifically, the engagement of cognitive control is context dependent, such that cognitive control and therefore advantageous decision-making increases when available information is high and decreases when available information is low. Furthermore, the context dependence of cognitive control varies across development, such that increased information availability benefits children more than adolescents, who benefit more than adults. This review advances a flexible dual-systems model that is only imbalanced under certain conditions; explains disparities between neural, behavioral, and public health findings; and provides testable hypotheses for future research. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrodynamic modeling of urban flooding taking into account detailed data about city infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Vitaly; Norin, Sergey; Aleksyuk, Andrey; Krylenko, Inna; Borisova, Natalya; Rumyantsev, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    Flood waves moving across urban areas have specific features. Thus, the linear objects of infrastructure (such as embankments, roads, dams) can change the direction of flow or block the water movement. On the contrary, paved avenues and wide streets in the cities contribute to the concentration of flood waters. Buildings create an additional resistance to the movement of water, which depends on the urban density and the type of constructions; this effect cannot be completely described by Manning's resistance law. In addition, part of the earth surface, occupied by buildings, is excluded from the flooded area, which results in a substantial (relative to undeveloped areas) increase of the depth of flooding, especially for unsteady flow conditions. An approach to numerical simulation of urban areas flooding that consists in direct allocating of all buildings and structures on the computational grid are proposed. This can be done in almost full automatic way with usage of modern software. Real geometry of all objects of infrastructure can be taken into account on the base of highly detailed digital maps and satellite images. The calculations based on two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations on irregular adaptive computational meshes, which can contain millions of cells and take into account tens of thousands of buildings and other objects of infrastructure. Flood maps, received as result of modeling, are the basis for the damage and risk assessment for urban areas. The main advantage of the developed method is high-precision calculations, realistic modeling results and appropriate graphical display of the flood dynamics and dam-break wave's propagation on urban areas. Verification of this method has been done on the experimental data and real events simulations, including catastrophic flooding of the Krymsk city in 2012 year.

  10. A fuzzy model for achieving lean attributes for competitive advantages development using AHP-QFD-PROMETHEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghanian, E.; Alipour, Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    Lean production has become an integral part of the manufacturing landscape as its link with superior performance and its ability to provide competitive advantage is well accepted among academics and practitioners. Lean production helps producers in overcoming the challenges organizations face through using powerful tools and enablers. However, most companies are faced with restricted resources such as financial and human resources, time, etc., in using these enablers, and are not capable of implementing all these techniques. Therefore, identifying and selecting the most appropriate and efficient tool can be a significant challenge for many companies. Hence, this literature seeks to combine competitive advantages, lean attributes, and lean enablers to determine the most appropriate enablers for improvement of lean attributes. Quality function deployment in fuzzy environment and house of quality matrix are implemented. Throughout the methodology, fuzzy logic is the basis for translating linguistic judgments required for the relationships and correlation matrix to numerical values. Moreover, for final ranking of lean enablers, a multi-criteria decision-making method (PROMETHEE) is adopted. Finally, a case study in automotive industry is presented to illustrate the implementation of the proposed methodology.

  11. Teachers' modeling advantage and their modeling effects on college students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes: a case of collaborative teaching in technical courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Yang, Chao-Chin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, modeling advantage that depicts the likelihood of a teacher model being imitated by students over other competing models in a particular class was developed to differentiate the rival modeling of two kinds of teachers (the technical teachers vs. the lecturing teachers) between college students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes in the collaborative teaching of technical courses. Results of a one-semester longitudinal study indicated that the students perceived a greater modeling advantage of the technical teachers than that of the lecturing teachers. Both the students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes were in accordance with those teachers as their role models. In general, the impact of the teachers' learning styles and occupational stereotypes on students appeared to be mediated by the teachers' modeling advantage. Administrators and curriculum designers should pay attention to the fact that the technical teachers appeared to exhibit greater modeling effects than the lecturing teachers in collaborative teaching.

  12. Multinationals without Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Motta, Massimo

    1996-01-01

    We propose a simple model to analyze the widespread idea that a necessary condition for firms to make foreign direct investments is that they have firm-specific advantages with respect to host country firms. We show that no such advantages are necessary to become multinationals. Further, firms might be induced to invest abroad to acquire new advantages, rather than exploiting existing ones. For this reason, foreign direct investment might occur even in the absence of exporting costs and lower...

  13. Cellular modelling of river catchments and reaches: Advantages, limitations and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, T. J.; Hicks, D. M.; Van De Wiel, M. J.

    2007-10-01

    The last decade has witnessed the development of a series of cellular models that simulate the processes operating within river channels and drive their geomorphic evolution. Their proliferation can be partly attributed to the relative simplicity of cellular models and their ability to address some of the shortcomings of other numerical models. By using relaxed interpretations of the equations determining fluid flow, cellular models allow rapid solutions of water depths and velocities. These can then be used to drive (usually) conventional sediment transport relations to determine erosion and deposition and alter the channel form. The key advance of using these physically based yet simplified approaches is that they allow us to apply models to a range of spatial scales (1-100 km 2) and time periods (1-100 years) that are especially relevant to contemporary management and fluvial studies. However, these approaches are not without their limitations and technical problems. This paper reviews the findings of nearly 10 years of research into modelling fluvial systems with cellular techniques, principally focusing on improvements in routing water and how fluvial erosion and deposition (including lateral erosion) are represented. These ideas are illustrated using sample simulations of the River Teifi, Wales. A detailed case study is then presented, demonstrating how cellular models can explore the interactions between vegetation and the morphological dynamics of the braided Waitaki River, New Zealand. Finally, difficulties associated with model validation and the problems, prospects and future issues important to the further development and application of these cellular fluvial models are outlined.

  14. Advantages and Challenges of Using Physics Curricula as a Model for Reforming an Undergraduate Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, D. A.; Atkins, L. J.; Salter, I. Y.; Gallagher, D. J.; Kratz, R. F.; Rousseau, J. V.; Nelson, G. D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of a life sciences curriculum, targeted to undergraduate students, which was modeled after a commercially available physics curriculum and based on aspects of how people learn. Our paper describes the collaborative development process and necessary modifications required to apply a physics pedagogical model in a life…

  15. Modelling the survival of bacteria in drylands: the advantage of being dormant.

    OpenAIRE

    Bär, M; von Hardenberg, J; Meron, E; Provenzale, A

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a simple mathematical model for the description of 'dormancy', a survival strategy used by some bacterial populations that are intermittently exposed to external stress. We focus on the case of the cyanobacterial crust in drylands, exposed to severe water shortage, and compare the fate of ideal populations that are, respectively, capable or incapable of becoming dormant. The results of the simple model introduced here indicate that under a constant, even though low, supply of wat...

  16. The advantage of flexible neuronal tunings in neural network models for motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongelli, Ellisha N; Thoroughman, Kurt A

    2013-01-01

    Human motor adaptation to novel environments is often modeled by a basis function network that transforms desired movement properties into estimated forces. This network employs a layer of nodes that have fixed broad tunings that generalize across the input domain. Learning is achieved by updating the weights of these nodes in response to training experience. This conventional model is unable to account for rapid flexibility observed in human spatial generalization during motor adaptation. However, added plasticity in the widths of the basis function tunings can achieve this flexibility, and several neurophysiological experiments have revealed flexibility in tunings of sensorimotor neurons. We found a model, Locally Weighted Projection Regression (LWPR), which uniquely possesses the structure of a basis function network in which both the weights and tuning widths of the nodes are updated incrementally during adaptation. We presented this LWPR model with training functions of different spatial complexities and monitored incremental updates to receptive field widths. An inverse pattern of dependence of receptive field adaptation on experienced error became evident, underlying both a relationship between generalization and complexity, and a unique behavior in which generalization always narrows after a sudden switch in environmental complexity. These results implicate a model that is flexible in both basis function widths and weights, like LWPR, as a viable alternative model for human motor adaptation that can account for previously observed plasticity in spatial generalization. This theory can be tested by using the behaviors observed in our experiments as novel hypotheses in human studies.

  17. The advantage of flexible neuronal tunings in neural network models for motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellisha N Marongelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human motor adaptation to novel environments is often modeled by a basis function network that transforms desired movement properties into estimated forces. This network employs a layer of nodes that have fixed broad tunings that generalize across the input domain. Learning is achieved by updating the weights of these nodes in response to training experience. This conventional model is unable to account for rapid flexibility observed in human spatial generalization during motor adaptation. However, added plasticity in the breadths of the basis function tunings can achieve this flexibility, and several neurophysiological experiments have revealed flexibility in tunings of sensorimotor neurons. We found a model, Locally Weighted Projection Regression (LWPR, which uniquely possesses the structure of a basis function network in which both the weights and tuning widths of the nodes are updated incrementally during adaptation. We presented this LWPR model with training functions of different spatial complexities and monitored incremental updates to receptive field sizes. An inverse pattern of dependence of receptive field adaptation on experienced error became evident, underlying both a relationship between generalization and complexity, and a unique behavior in which generalization always narrows after a sudden switch in environmental complexity. These results implicate a model with a flexible structure, like LWPR, as a viable alternative model for human motor adaptation that can account for previously observed plasticity in spatial generalization. This theory can be tested by using the behaviors observed in our experiments as novel hypotheses in human studies.

  18. D Modelling and Visualization Based on the Unity Game Engine - Advantages and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuksalih, I.; Bayburt, S.; Buyuksalih, G.; Baskaraca, A. P.; Karim, H.; Rahman, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    3D City modelling is increasingly popular and becoming valuable tools in managing big cities. Urban and energy planning, landscape, noise-sewage modelling, underground mapping and navigation are among the applications/fields which really depend on 3D modelling for their effectiveness operations. Several research areas and implementation projects had been carried out to provide the most reliable 3D data format for sharing and functionalities as well as visualization platform and analysis. For instance, BIMTAS company has recently completed a project to estimate potential solar energy on 3D buildings for the whole Istanbul and now focussing on 3D utility underground mapping for a pilot case study. The research and implementation standard on 3D City Model domain (3D data sharing and visualization schema) is based on CityGML schema version 2.0. However, there are some limitations and issues in implementation phase for large dataset. Most of the limitations were due to the visualization, database integration and analysis platform (Unity3D game engine) as highlighted in this paper.

  19. 3D MODELLING AND VISUALIZATION BASED ON THE UNITY GAME ENGINE – ADVANTAGES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Buyuksalih

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available 3D City modelling is increasingly popular and becoming valuable tools in managing big cities. Urban and energy planning, landscape, noise-sewage modelling, underground mapping and navigation are among the applications/fields which really depend on 3D modelling for their effectiveness operations. Several research areas and implementation projects had been carried out to provide the most reliable 3D data format for sharing and functionalities as well as visualization platform and analysis. For instance, BIMTAS company has recently completed a project to estimate potential solar energy on 3D buildings for the whole Istanbul and now focussing on 3D utility underground mapping for a pilot case study. The research and implementation standard on 3D City Model domain (3D data sharing and visualization schema is based on CityGML schema version 2.0. However, there are some limitations and issues in implementation phase for large dataset. Most of the limitations were due to the visualization, database integration and analysis platform (Unity3D game engine as highlighted in this paper.

  20. Towards Ocean Grazer's Modular Power Take-Off System Modeling : A Port-Hamiltonian Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas-Berglind, J. J.; Muñoz Arias, M.; Wei, Y.; Prins, W.A.; Vakis, A.I.; Jayawardhana, B.; Dochain, Denis; Henrion, Didier; Peaucelle, Dimitri

    This paper presents a modular modeling framework for the Ocean Grazer's Power Take-Off (PTO) system, which operates as an array of point-absorber type devices connected to a hydraulic system. The modeling is based on the port-Hamiltonian (PH) framework that enables energy-based analysis and control

  1. Sensation seeking, risk-taking, and the HEXACO model of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.E.; de Vries, A.; Feij, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has related sensation seeking and risk-taking to the Big Five or Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality. Recently, based on a reanalysis of the main lexical studies, a six-dimensional HEXACO model of personality has been proposed. In three studies, the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS)

  2. Modeling PD pathogenesis in mice: advantages of a chronic MPTP protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, Gloria E.; Totterdell, Susan; Potashkin, Judith A.; Surmeier, D. James

    2008-01-01

    Formidable challenges for Parkinson's disease (PD) research are to understand the processes underlying nigrostriatal degeneration and how to protect the dopamine neurons. Fundamental research relies on good animal models that demonstrate the pathological hallmarks and motor deficits of PD. Using a chronic regimen of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and probenecid (MPTP/p) in mice, dopamine cell loss exceeds 60%, extracellular glutamate is elevated, cytoplasmic inclusions are forme...

  3. Advantages and challenges of using physics curricula as a model for reforming an undergraduate biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, D A; Atkins, L J; Salter, I Y; Gallagher, D J; Kratz, R F; Rousseau, J V; Nelson, G D

    2013-06-01

    We report on the development of a life sciences curriculum, targeted to undergraduate students, which was modeled after a commercially available physics curriculum and based on aspects of how people learn. Our paper describes the collaborative development process and necessary modifications required to apply a physics pedagogical model in a life sciences context. While some approaches were easily adapted, others provided significant challenges. Among these challenges were: representations of energy, introducing definitions, the placement of Scientists' Ideas, and the replicability of data. In modifying the curriculum to address these challenges, we have come to see them as speaking to deeper differences between the disciplines, namely that introductory physics--for example, Newton's laws, magnetism, light--is a science of pairwise interaction, while introductory biology--for example, photosynthesis, evolution, cycling of matter in ecosystems--is a science of linked processes, and we suggest that this is how the two disciplines are presented in introductory classes. We illustrate this tension through an analysis of our adaptations of the physics curriculum for instruction on the cycling of matter and energy; we show that modifications of the physics curriculum to address the biological framework promotes strong gains in student understanding of these topics, as evidenced by analysis of student work.

  4. Preclinical stroke research--advantages and disadvantages of the most common rodent models of focal ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, I M

    2011-10-01

    This review describes the most commonly used rodent models and outcome measures in preclinical stroke research and discusses their strengths and limitations. Most models involve permanent or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion with therapeutic agents tested for their ability to reduce stroke-induced infarcts and improve neurological deficits. Many drugs have demonstrated preclinical efficacy but, other than thrombolytics, which restore blood flow, none have demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials. This failure to translate efficacy from bench to bedside is discussed alongside achievable steps to improve the ability of preclinical research to predict clinical efficacy: (i) Improvements in study quality and reporting. Study design must include randomization, blinding and predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria, and journal editors have the power to ensure statements on these and mortality data are included in preclinical publications. (ii) Negative and neutral studies must be published to enable preclinical meta-analyses and systematic reviews to more accurately predict drug efficacy in man. (iii) Preclinical groups should work within networks and agree on standardized procedures for assessing final infarct and functional outcome. This will improve research quality, timeliness and translational capacity. (iv) Greater uptake and improvements in non-invasive diagnostic imaging to detect and study potentially salvageable penumbral tissue, the target for acute neuroprotection. Drug effects on penumbra lifespan studied serially, followed by assessment of behavioural outcome and infarct within in the same animal group, will increase the power to detect drug efficacy preclinically. Similar progress in detecting drug efficacy clinically will follow from patient recruitment into acute stroke trials based on evidence of remaining penumbra. © 2011 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Variance Distribution in Sibling Relationships: Advantages of Multilevel Modeling Using Full Sibling Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Karyn

    2017-03-01

    The majority of research on sibling relationships has investigated only one or two siblings in a family, but there are many theoretical and methodological limitations to this single dyadic perspective. This study uses multiple siblings (541 adults) in 184 families, where 96 of these families had all siblings complete the study, to demonstrate the value in including full sibling groups when conducting research on sibling relationships. Two scales, positivity and willingness to sacrifice, are evaluated with a multilevel model to account for the nested nature of family relationships. The distribution of variance across three levels: relationship, individual, and family are computed, and results indicate that the relationship level explains the most variance in positivity, whereas the individual level explains the majority of variance in willingness to sacrifice. These distributions are affected by gender composition and family size. The results of this study highlight an important and often overlooked element of family research: The meaning of a scale changes based on its distribution of variance at these three levels. Researchers are encouraged to be cognizant of the variance distribution of their scales when studying sibling relationships and to incorporate more full sibling groups into their research methods and study design. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  6. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary sect...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.......This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...

  7. You cannot speak and listen at the same time: a probabilistic model of turn-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Francesco; Dindo, Haris; Iodice, Pierpaolo; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Turn-taking is a preverbal skill whose mastering constitutes an important precondition for many social interactions and joint actions. However, the cognitive mechanisms supporting turn-taking abilities are still poorly understood. Here, we propose a computational analysis of turn-taking in terms of two general mechanisms supporting joint actions: action prediction (e.g., recognizing the interlocutor's message and predicting the end of turn) and signaling (e.g., modifying one's own speech to make it more predictable and discriminable). We test the hypothesis that in a simulated conversational scenario dyads using these two mechanisms can recognize the utterances of their co-actors faster, which in turn permits them to give and take turns more efficiently. Furthermore, we discuss how turn-taking dynamics depend on the fact that agents cannot simultaneously use their internal models for both action (or messages) prediction and production, as these have different requirements-or, in other words, they cannot speak and listen at the same time with the same level of accuracy. Our results provide a computational-level characterization of turn-taking in terms of cognitive mechanisms of action prediction and signaling that are shared across various interaction and joint action domains.

  8. Model of Nanostructuring Burnishing by a Spherical Indenter Taking into Consideration Plastic Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashenko, Ya. A.; Popov, V. L.

    2018-01-01

    A dynamic model of the nanostructuring burnishing of a surface of metallic details taking into consideration plastic deformations has been suggested. To describe the plasticity, the ideology of dimension reduction method supplemented with the plasticity criterion is used. The model considers the action of the normal burnishing force and the tangential friction force. The effect of the coefficient of friction and the periodical oscillation of the burnishing force on the burnishing kinetics are investigated.

  9. Modeling Malicious Domain Name Take-down Dynamics: Why eCrime Pays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    of take-down measures per unit of resources devoted. It is estimable by observa- tion, in principle . Block listing has been observed to be reasonably...6). The lack of non-technical aspects would be most important to the model in (6), so here this modeling choice is most acutely felt. In principle ...Wilkins company, 1925. [6] J. Henderson and R. Quandt, Microeconomic the- ory: A mathematical approach. McGraw-Hill New York, third ed., 1980. [7] T

  10. Advantages of frequency-domain modeling in dynamic-susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance cerebral blood flow quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jean J; Smith, Michael R; Frayne, Richard

    2005-03-01

    In dynamic-susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance perfusion imaging, the cerebral blood flow (CBF) is estimated from the tissue residue function obtained through deconvolution of the contrast concentration functions. However, the reliability of CBF estimates obtained by deconvolution is sensitive to various distortions including high-frequency noise amplification. The frequency-domain Fourier transform-based and the time-domain singular-value decomposition-based (SVD) algorithms both have biases introduced into their CBF estimates when noise stability criteria are applied or when contrast recirculation is present. The recovery of the desired signal components from amid these distortions by modeling the residue function in the frequency domain is demonstrated. The basic advantages and applicability of the frequency-domain modeling concept are explored through a simple frequency-domain Lorentzian model (FDLM); with results compared to standard SVD-based approaches. The performance of the FDLM method is model dependent, well representing residue functions in the exponential family while less accurately representing other functions. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. [Logic model of the Franche-Comté Regional Health Project: advantages and limitations for the evaluation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Claude; Sannino, Nadine; Duboudin, Cédric; Baudier, François; Guillin, Caroline; Billondeau, Christine; Mansion, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The French "Hospitals, patients, health and territories" law of July 2009 created the Regional Health Project (PRS) to support regional health policy, and requires evaluation of these projects. The construction of these projects, which includes prevention planning, care planning, and medical and social welfare planning, presents an unprecedented complexity in France, where evaluation programmes are still in their infancy. To support future evaluations, the Franche-Comté Regional Health Agency (ARS FC), assisted by the expertise of EFECT Consultants, decided to reconstruct the PRS logic model. This article analyzes the advantages and limitations of this approach. The resulting logic model allows visualization of the strategy adopted to achieve the Franche-Comté PRS ambitions and expected results. The model highlights four main aspects of structural change to the health system, often poorly visible in PRS presentation documents. This model also establishes links with the usual public policy evaluation issues and facilitates their prioritization. This approach also provides a better understanding of the importance of analysis of the programme construction in order to be effective rather than direct analysis of the effects, which constitutes the natural tendency of current practice. The main controversial limit concerns the retrospective design of the PRS framework, both in terms of the reliability of interpretation and adoption by actors not directly involved in this initiative.

  12. Analysis of a microscopic model of taking into account 2p2h configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.; Tkachev, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    The Green's-function method has been used to obtain a general equation for the effective field in a nucleus, taking into account both 1p1h and 2p2h configurations. This equation has been used as the starting point for derivation of a previously developed microscopic model of taking 1p1h+phonon configurations into account in magic nuclei. The equation for the density matrix is analyzed in this model. It is shown that the number of quasiparticles is conserved. An equation is obtained for the effective field in the coordinate representation, which provides a formulation of the problem in the 1p1h+2p2h+continuum approximation. The equation is derived and quantitatively analyzed in the space of one-phonon states

  13. [Application of detecting and taking overdispersion into account in Poisson regression model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouche, G; Lepage, B; Migeot, V; Ingrand, P

    2009-08-01

    Researchers often use the Poisson regression model to analyze count data. Overdispersion can occur when a Poisson regression model is used, resulting in an underestimation of variance of the regression model parameters. Our objective was to take overdispersion into account and assess its impact with an illustration based on the data of a study investigating the relationship between use of the Internet to seek health information and number of primary care consultations. Three methods, overdispersed Poisson, a robust estimator, and negative binomial regression, were performed to take overdispersion into account in explaining variation in the number (Y) of primary care consultations. We tested overdispersion in the Poisson regression model using the ratio of the sum of Pearson residuals over the number of degrees of freedom (chi(2)/df). We then fitted the three models and compared parameter estimation to the estimations given by Poisson regression model. Variance of the number of primary care consultations (Var[Y]=21.03) was greater than the mean (E[Y]=5.93) and the chi(2)/df ratio was 3.26, which confirmed overdispersion. Standard errors of the parameters varied greatly between the Poisson regression model and the three other regression models. Interpretation of estimates from two variables (using the Internet to seek health information and single parent family) would have changed according to the model retained, with significant levels of 0.06 and 0.002 (Poisson), 0.29 and 0.09 (overdispersed Poisson), 0.29 and 0.13 (use of a robust estimator) and 0.45 and 0.13 (negative binomial) respectively. Different methods exist to solve the problem of underestimating variance in the Poisson regression model when overdispersion is present. The negative binomial regression model seems to be particularly accurate because of its theorical distribution ; in addition this regression is easy to perform with ordinary statistical software packages.

  14. Advantages of a dual-tracer model over reference tissue models for binding potential measurement in tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichauer, K M; Samkoe, K S; Klubben, W S; Hasan, T; Pogue, B W

    2012-01-01

    The quantification of tumor molecular expression in vivo could have a significant impact for informing and monitoring immerging targeted therapies in oncology. Molecular imaging of targeted tracers can be used to quantify receptor expression in the form of a binding potential (BP) if the arterial input curve or a surrogate of it is also measured. However, the assumptions of the most common approaches (reference tissue models) may not be valid for use in tumors. In this study, the validity of reference tissue models is investigated for use in tumors experimentally and in simulations. Three different tumor lines were grown subcutaneously in athymic mice and the mice were injected with a mixture of an epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR-) targeted fluorescent tracer and an untargeted fluorescent tracer. A one-compartment plasma input model demonstrated that the transport kinetics of both tracers were significantly different between tumors and all potential reference tissues, and using the reference tissue model resulted in a theoretical underestimation in BP of 50 ± 37%. On the other hand, the targeted and untargeted tracers demonstrated similar transport kinetics, allowing a dual-tracer approach to be employed to accurately estimate binding potential (with a theoretical error of 0.23 ± 9.07%). These findings highlight the potential for using a dual-tracer approach to quantify receptor expression in tumors with abnormal hemodynamics, possibly to inform the choice or progress of molecular cancer therapies. PMID:23022732

  15. Binary Logistic Predictive Model in Determining Students’ Intention to Take Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin S. Daguplo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Students’ choice to take higher education is defined by the interaction among behavior and cognition, personal factors, and environmental factors. Using data mining technique and binary regression analysis, this study aims to uncover factors that significantly predict the likelihood for a student to take higher education. Analysis revealed that (i students whose parents are educated with high income are 1.77 times more likely to pursue higher education than not; and (ii Older Female Students are less likely to pursue higher education. The model explains that parents should encouraged their young children to embrace education to its highest level by capacitating themselves economically to provide their basic educational and financial needs. Lastly, the study concludes that the pursuit for higher education among young students can be defined primarily by their parents’ educational and financial capability.

  16. Hierarchical Winner-Take-All Particle Swarm Optimization Social Network for Neural Model Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, Brandon S.; Parthasarathy, Aravindakshan; Sommer, Alexandra L.; Bartlett, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has gained widespread use as a general mathematical programming paradigm and seen use in a wide variety of optimization and machine learning problems. In this work, we introduce a new variant on the PSO social network and apply this method to the inverse problem of input parameter selection from recorded auditory neuron tuning curves. The topology of a PSO social network is a major contributor to optimization success. Here we propose a new social network which draws influence from winner-take-all coding found in visual cortical neurons. We show that the winner-take-all network performs exceptionally well on optimization problems with greater than 5 dimensions and runs at a lower iteration count as compared to other PSO topologies. Finally we show that this variant of PSO is able to recreate auditory frequency tuning curves and modulation transfer functions, making it a potentially useful tool for computational neuroscience models. PMID:27726048

  17. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Ecological Risk Based on Cloud Model: Taking Chengchao Iron Mine as Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jinghua; Chen, Yong; Xiao, Xiao; Yong, Gan; Huang, Ranran; Miao, Zuohua

    2018-01-01

    Aimed at the fuzziness and randomness during the evaluation process, this paper constructed a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method based on cloud model. The evaluation index system was established based on the inherent risk, present level and control situation, which had been proved to be able to convey the main contradictions of ecological risk in mine on the macro level, and be advantageous for comparison among mines. The comment sets and membership functions improved by cloud model could reflect the uniformity of ambiguity and randomness effectively. In addition, the concept of fuzzy entropy was introduced to further characterize the fuzziness of assessments results and the complexities of ecological problems in target mine. A practical example in Chengchao Iron Mine evidenced that, the assessments results can reflect actual situations appropriately and provide a new theoretic guidance for comprehensive ecological risk evaluation of underground iron mine.

  18. Take the Reins on Model Quality with ModelCHECK and Gatekeeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey

    2012-01-01

    Model quality and consistency has been an issue for us due to the diverse experience level and imaginative modeling techniques of our users. Fortunately, setting up ModelCHECK and Gatekeeper to enforce our best practices has helped greatly, but it wasn't easy. There were many challenges associated with setting up ModelCHECK and Gatekeeper including: limited documentation, restrictions within ModelCHECK, and resistance from end users. However, we consider ours a success story. In this presentation we will describe how we overcame these obstacles and present some of the details of how we configured them to work for us.

  19. Assessing Individual Weather Risk-Taking and Its Role in Modeling Likelihood of Hurricane Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    This research focuses upon measuring an individual's level of perceived risk of different severe and extreme weather conditions using a new self-report measure, the Weather Risk-Taking Scale (WRTS). For 32 severe and extreme situations in which people could perform an unsafe behavior (e. g., remaining outside with lightning striking close by, driving over roadways covered with water, not evacuating ahead of an approaching hurricane, etc.), people rated: 1.their likelihood of performing the behavior, 2. The perceived risk of performing the behavior, 3. the expected benefits of performing the behavior, and 4. whether the behavior has actually been performed in the past. Initial development research with the measure using 246 undergraduate students examined its psychometric properties and found that it was internally consistent (Cronbach's a ranged from .87 to .93 for the four scales) and that the scales possessed good temporal (test-retest) reliability (r's ranged from .84 to .91). A second regression study involving 86 undergraduate students found that taking weather risks was associated with having taken similar risks in one's past and with the personality trait of sensation-seeking. Being more attentive to the weather and perceiving its risks when it became extreme was associated with lower likelihoods of taking weather risks (overall regression model, R2adj = 0.60). A third study involving 334 people examined the contributions of weather risk perceptions and risk-taking in modeling the self-reported likelihood of complying with a recommended evacuation ahead of a hurricane. Here, higher perceptions of hurricane risks and lower perceived benefits of risk-taking along with fear of severe weather and hurricane personal self-efficacy ratings were all statistically significant contributors to the likelihood of evacuating ahead of a hurricane. Psychological rootedness and attachment to one's home also tend to predict lack of evacuation. This research highlights the

  20. Modeling the dynamic behavior of railway track taking into account the occurrence of defects in the system wheel-rail

    OpenAIRE

    Loktev Alexey; Sychev Vyacheslav; Gluzberg Boris; Gridasova Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of wheel defects on the development of rail defects up to a state where rail prompt replacement becomes necessary taking into account different models of the dynamic contact between a wheel and a rail. In particular, the quasistatic Hertz model, the linear elastic model and the elastoplastic Aleksandrov-Kadomtsev model. Based on the model of the wheel-rail contact the maximum stresses are determined which take place in the rail in the presence of wheel de...

  1. Can moral convictions motivate the advantaged to challenge social inequality? Extending the social identity model of collective action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zomeren, M.; Postmes, T.; Spears, R.; Bettache, K.

    This article examines whether and how moral convictions, defined as strong and absolute stances on moralized issues, motivate advantaged group members to challenge social inequality. Specifically, we propose that violations of moral convictions against social inequality motivate collective action

  2. STDP Installs in Winner-Take-All Circuits an Online Approximation to Hidden Markov Model Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, David; Nessler, Bernhard; Maass, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In order to cross a street without being run over, we need to be able to extract very fast hidden causes of dynamically changing multi-modal sensory stimuli, and to predict their future evolution. We show here that a generic cortical microcircuit motif, pyramidal cells with lateral excitation and inhibition, provides the basis for this difficult but all-important information processing capability. This capability emerges in the presence of noise automatically through effects of STDP on connections between pyramidal cells in Winner-Take-All circuits with lateral excitation. In fact, one can show that these motifs endow cortical microcircuits with functional properties of a hidden Markov model, a generic model for solving such tasks through probabilistic inference. Whereas in engineering applications this model is adapted to specific tasks through offline learning, we show here that a major portion of the functionality of hidden Markov models arises already from online applications of STDP, without any supervision or rewards. We demonstrate the emergent computing capabilities of the model through several computer simulations. The full power of hidden Markov model learning can be attained through reward-gated STDP. This is due to the fact that these mechanisms enable a rejection sampling approximation to theoretically optimal learning. We investigate the possible performance gain that can be achieved with this more accurate learning method for an artificial grammar task. PMID:24675787

  3. Computer-assisted design and computer-assisted modeling technique optimization and advantages over traditional methods of osseous flap reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matros, Evan; Albornoz, Claudia R; Rensberger, Michael; Weimer, Katherine; Garfein, Evan S

    2014-06-01

    There is increased clinical use of computer-assisted design (CAD) and computer-assisted modeling (CAM) for osseous flap reconstruction, particularly in the head and neck region. Limited information exists about methods to optimize the application of this new technology and for cases in which it may be advantageous over existing methods of osseous flap shaping. A consecutive series of osseous reconstructions planned with CAD/CAM over the past 5 years was analyzed. Conceptual considerations and refinements in the CAD/CAM process were evaluated. A total of 48 reconstructions were performed using CAD/CAM. The majority of cases were performed for head and neck tumor reconstruction or related complications whereas the remainder (4%) were performed for penetrating trauma. Defect location was the mandible (85%), maxilla (12.5%), and pelvis (2%). Reconstruction was performed immediately in 73% of the cases and delayed in 27% of the cases. The mean number of osseous flap bone segments used in reconstruction was 2.41. Areas of optimization include the following: mandible cutting guide placement, osteotomy creation, alternative planning, and saw blade optimization. Identified benefits of CAD/CAM over current techniques include the following: delayed timing, anterior mandible defects, specimen distortion, osteotomy creation in three dimensions, osteotomy junction overlap, plate adaptation, and maxillary reconstruction. Experience with CAD/CAM for osseous reconstruction has identified tools for technique optimization and cases where this technology may prove beneficial over existing methods. Knowledge of these facts may contribute to improved use and main-stream adoption of CAD/CAM virtual surgical planning by reconstructive surgeons. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Final Report for High Latitude Climate Modeling: ARM Takes Us Beyond Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Lynn M [Scripps/UCSD; Lubin, Dan [Scripps/UCSD

    2013-06-18

    The main thrust of this project was to devise a method by which the majority of North Slope of Alaska (NSA) meteorological and radiometric data, collected on a daily basis, could be used to evaluate and improve global climate model (GCM) simulations and their parameterizations, particularly for cloud microphysics. Although the standard ARM Program sensors for a less complete suite of instruments for cloud and aerosol studies than the instruments on an intensive field program such as the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), the advantage they offer lies in the long time base and large volume of data that covers a wide range of meteorological and climatological conditions. The challenge has been devising a method to interpret the NSA data in a practical way, so that a wide variety of meteorological conditions in all seasons can be examined with climate models. If successful, climate modelers would have a robust alternative to the usual “case study” approach (i.e., from intensive field programs only) for testing and evaluating their parameterizations’ performance. Understanding climate change on regional scales requires a broad scientific consideration of anthropogenic influences that goes beyond greenhouse gas emissions to also include aerosol-induced changes in cloud properties. For instance, it is now clear that on small scales, human-induced aerosol plumes can exert microclimatic radiative and hydrologic forcing that rivals that of greenhouse gas–forced warming. This project has made significant scientific progress by investigating what causes successive versions of climate models continue to exhibit errors in cloud amount, cloud microphysical and radiative properties, precipitation, and radiation balance, as compared with observations and, in particular, in Arctic regions. To find out what is going wrong, we have tested the models' cloud representation over the full range of meteorological conditions found in the Arctic using the

  5. Modeling of ethylbenzene dehydrogenation kinetics process taking into account deactivation of catalyst bed of the reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bityukov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Styrene synthesis process occurring in a two-stage continuous adiabatic reactor is a complex chemical engineering system. It is characterized by indeterminacy, nonstationarity and occurs in permanent uncontrolled disturbances. Therefore, the task of developing the predictive control system of the main product concentration of the dehydrogenation reaction - styrene to maintain this value within a predetermined range throughout the period of operation is important. This solution is impossible without the development of the process model on the basis of the kinetic revised scheme, taking into account the drop of the reactor catalytic bed activity due to coke formation on the surface. The article justifies and proposes: the drop changes dependence of catalyst bed activity as a time of reactor block operation function and improved model of chemical reactions kinetics. The synthesized mathematical model of the process is a system of ordinary differential equations and allows you: to calculate the concentration profiles of reaction mixture components during the passage of the charge through the adiabatic reactor stage, to determine the contact gas composition at the outlet of the reactor stages throughout the cycle of catalytic system, taking into account temperature changes and drop of the catalyst bed activity. The compensation of the decreased catalyst bed activity is carried out by raising the temperature in the reactor block for the duration of the operation. The estimation of the values of chemical reactions rate constants, as well as the calculation and analysis of the main and by-products concentrations of dehydrogenation reactions at the outlet of the reactor plant is curried out. Simulation results show that the change of temperature of the reactor, carried out by the exponential law considering deactivation of the catalyst bed allows the yield in a given range of technological regulations throughout the operation cycle of the reactor block.

  6. Modelling of gas-metal arc welding taking into account metal vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnick, M; Fuessel, U; Hertel, M; Haessler, M [Institute of Surface and Manufacturing Technology, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Spille-Kohoff, A [CFX Berlin Software GmbH, Karl-Marx-Allee 90, 10243 Berlin (Germany); Murphy, A B [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2010-11-03

    The most advanced numerical models of gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) neglect vaporization of metal, and assume an argon atmosphere for the arc region, as is also common practice for models of gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW). These models predict temperatures above 20 000 K and a temperature distribution similar to GTAW arcs. However, spectroscopic temperature measurements in GMAW arcs demonstrate much lower arc temperatures. In contrast to measurements of GTAW arcs, they have shown the presence of a central local minimum of the radial temperature distribution. This paper presents a GMAW model that takes into account metal vapour and that is able to predict the local central minimum in the radial distributions of temperature and electric current density. The influence of different values for the net radiative emission coefficient of iron vapour, which vary by up to a factor of hundred, is examined. It is shown that these net emission coefficients cause differences in the magnitudes, but not in the overall trends, of the radial distribution of temperature and current density. Further, the influence of the metal vaporization rate is investigated. We present evidence that, for higher vaporization rates, the central flow velocity inside the arc is decreased and can even change direction so that it is directed from the workpiece towards the wire, although the outer plasma flow is still directed towards the workpiece. In support of this thesis, we have attempted to reproduce the measurements of Zielinska et al for spray-transfer mode GMAW numerically, and have obtained reasonable agreement.

  7. A Thermodamage Strength Theoretical Model of Ceramic Materials Taking into Account the Effect of Residual Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodamage strength theoretical model taking into account the effect of residual stress was established and applied to each temperature phase based on the study of effects of various physical mechanisms on the fracture strength of ultrahigh-temperature ceramics. The effects of SiC particle size, crack size, and SiC particle volume fraction on strength corresponding to different temperatures were studied in detail. This study showed that when flaw size is not large, the bigger SiC particle size results in the greater effect of tensile residual stress in the matrix grains on strength reduction, and this prediction coincides with experimental results; and the residual stress and the combined effort of particle size and crack size play important roles in controlling material strength.

  8. Supply-demand 3D dynamic model in water resources evaluation: taking Lebanon as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hong; Hou, Zhimin

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, supply-demand 3D dynamic model is adopted to create a measurement of a region’s capacity to provide available water to meet the needs of its population. First of all, we draw a diagram between supply and demand. Then taking the main dynamic factors into account, we establish an index to evaluate the balance of supply and demand. The three dimension vector reflects the scarcity of industrial, agricultural and residential water. Lebanon is chosen as the object of case study, and we do quantitative analysis of its current situation. After data collecting and processing, we calculate the 3D vector in 2012, which reveals that agriculture is susceptible to water scarcity. Water resources of Lebanon are “physical rich” but “economic scarcity” according to the correlation chart and other statistical analysis.

  9. Model Predictive Control of a Wave Energy Converter with Discrete Fluid Power Power Take-Off System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Asmussen, Magnus Færing; Bech, Michael Møller

    2018-01-01

    Wave power extraction algorithms for wave energy converters are normally designed without taking system losses into account leading to suboptimal power extraction. In the current work, a model predictive power extraction algorithm is designed for a discretized power take of system. It is shown ho...

  10. Effect of taking dietary supplement on hematological and biochemical parameters in male bodybuilders an equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Maracy, Mohammad; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Yeroshalmi, Shemouil; Zamani-Moghaddam, Ali; Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza Aghaye

    2015-01-01

    Background: The improved physical action following administration of supplements to bodybuilders was supported by changes in laboratory parameters. Despite the fact that these supplements are sometimes associated both advantage and side effects, this study were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the possible effects of some commonly used supplements in bodybuilders on the hematological and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included 40 male bodybuilders as cases and 40 controls in the age group of 20-40 years. They used different kinds of supplements for 1 year. In general, all the supplements used were classified into two groups: hormonal and non-hormonal. Laboratory tests were requested for evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Results: In an equation model, we found that weight (P = 0.024), duration of bodybuilding (P bodybuilders. The available supplements are unchecked and not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). More studies should be designed for a better and precise administration of each supplement in athletes. PMID:26793253

  11. Competition, Innovation, Risk-Taking, and Profitability in the Chinese Banking Sector: An Empirical Analysis Based on Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ti Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new perspective to systematically investigate the cause-and-effect relationships among competition, innovation, risk-taking, and profitability in the Chinese banking industry. Our hypotheses are tested by the structural equation modeling (SEM, and the empirical results show that (i risk-taking is positively related to profitability; (ii innovation positively affects both risk-taking and profitability, and the effect of innovation on profitability works both directly and indirectly; (iii competition negatively affects risk-taking but positively affects both innovation and profitability, and the effects of competition on risk-taking and profitability work both directly and indirectly; (iv there is a cascading relationship among market competition and bank innovation, risk-taking, and profitability.

  12. To Take the Stairs or Not to Take the Stairs? Employing the Reflective–Impulsive Model to Predict Spontaneous Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Daou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The reflective–impulsive model (RIM has been employed to explain various health behaviors. The present study used RIM to predict a spontaneous physical activity behavior. Specifically, 107 participants (75 females; Mage = 20.6 years, SD = 1.92 years completed measures of (1 reflections about spontaneous physical activity, as indexed by self-report questionnaire; (2 impulse toward physical activity, as indexed by the manikin task; and (3 (state self-control, as indexed by the Stroop task. The dependent variable was whether participants took the stairs or the elevator to the study laboratory. Results revealed reflections toward spontaneous physical activity positively predicted stair-taking. Further, a significant impulse toward physical activity × self-control interaction was observed. This interaction revealed that participants with high self-control who had a high impulse toward PA were more likely to take the stairs than their counterparts with a low impulse toward PA, whereas the opposite was the case for participants with low self-control. However, the impulse × self-control interaction was not significant when employing a self-report measure of trait self-control. Thus, RIM may be a good framework with which to consider spontaneous physical activity, but careful consideration must be given when examining variables within RIM (e.g., the boundary condition of self-control.

  13. Accelerating a Network Model of Care: Taking a Social Innovation to Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Byrne

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Government-funded systems of health and social care are facing enormous fiscal and human-resource challenges. The space for innovation in care is wide open and new disruptive patterns are emerging. These include self-management and personal budgets, participatory and integrated care, supported decision making and a renewed focus on prevention. Taking these disruptive patterns to scale can be accelerated by a technologically enabled shift to a network model of care to co-create the best outcomes for individuals, family caregivers, and health and social care organizations. The connections, relationships, and activities within an individual’s personal network lay the foundation for care that health and social care systems/policy must simultaneously support and draw on for positive outcomes. Practical tools, adequate information, and tangible resources are required to coordinate and sustain care. Tyze Personal Networks is a social venture that uses technology to engage and inform the individual, their personal networks, and their care providers to co-create the best outcomes. In this article, we demonstrate how Tyze contributes to a shift to a network model of care by strengthening our networks and enhancing partnerships between care providers, individuals, and family and friends.

  14. Achieving Competitive Advantage through Using an Integrated Multi-selling Model. The Case from Romanian Linjerie Producer: Jolidon

    OpenAIRE

    CUC Sunhilde

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technologies applications and services have greatly influenced the behavior of both retailers andconsumers. In order to win new markets, to increase the sales and gain competitive advantages, e-commerce has been widely adopted in the fashion industry, particularly in the lingerie sector. The purposes of the paper were to examine the retailing formats in relation to e-business, to determine which were significantfactors affecting e-commerce and the distinctive asp...

  15. DESIGNING A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE MODEL WITH TECHNOLOGY ORIENTED APPROACH USING FAHP TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY IN COIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOLHAMID S. GHADIKOLAEI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinctive attributes of today’s successful companies is having at least one competitive advantage in one known area. Technological competency is an important advantage which helps improve the firm’s competitiveness. In fact, suitable use of new technologies can dramatically influence the innovation speed, decrease the time of product development cycle and also increase the rate of new product introduction. Firm-specific technological competencies help explain why a firm is different, how it changes over time, and whether it is capable of remaining competitive. In this study, technological competency factors (technology management, process technology, product technology are prioritized according to the competitive advantage levels(customer satisfaction, brand reputation, new product introduction, market share and competitive priorities (cost, price, quality, flexibility, time using fuzzy Analytic hierarchy process (FAHP with the aim of maximizing the nonfinancial performance at coil manufacture industry. The results indicate that within Iran coil industry, process technology is of greater importance than technology management and product technology.

  16. Power Take-Off Simulation for Scale Model Testing of Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Beatty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Small scale testing in controlled environments is a key stage in the development of potential wave energy conversion technology. Furthermore, it is well known that the physical design and operational quality of the power-take off (PTO used on the small scale model can have vast effects on the tank testing results. Passive mechanical elements such as friction brakes and air dampers or oil filled dashpots are fraught with nonlinear behaviors such as static friction, temperature dependency, and backlash, the effects of which propagate into the wave energy converter (WEC power production data, causing very high uncertainty in the extrapolation of the tank test results to the meaningful full ocean scale. The lack of quality in PTO simulators is an identified barrier to the development of WECs worldwide. A solution to this problem is to use actively controlled actuators for PTO simulation on small scale model wave energy converters. This can be done using force (or torque-controlled feedback systems with suitable instrumentation, enabling the PTO to exert any desired time and/or state dependent reaction force. In this paper, two working experimental PTO simulators on two different wave energy converters are described. The first implementation is on a 1:25 scale self-reacting point absorber wave energy converter with optimum reactive control. The real-time control system, described in detail, is implemented in LabVIEW. The second implementation is on a 1:20 scale single body point absorber under model-predictive control, implemented with a real-time controller in MATLAB/Simulink. Details on the physical hardware, software, and feedback control methods, as well as results, are described for each PTO. Lastly, both sets of real-time control code are to be web-hosted, free for download, modified and used by other researchers and WEC developers.

  17. Integrated Approach to Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Ragelskaja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes and globalization of markets make an impact on intense competition in almost all business sectors. Evolutionary changes influence companies to learn, adequately react, adapt to environmental changes and to change themselves. Such a situation has revealed the problems of competitive advan­tage of industry companies. Therefore the focus to the factors impacting competitive advantage is seen as timely and relevant. The authors of the paper analyze approaches to competitive advantage and the factors impacting competitive advantage. The integrated model of competitive advantage is proposed in the paper.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Advantages of using a fast urban boundary layer model as compared to a full mesoscale model to simulate the urban heat island of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díez, Markel; Lauwaet, Dirk; Hooyberghs, Hans; Ballester, Joan; De Ridder, Koen; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    As most of the population lives in urban environments, the simulation of the urban climate has become a key problem in the framework of the climate change impact assessment. However, the high computational power required by high-resolution (sub-kilometre) fully coupled land-atmosphere simulations using urban canopy parameterisations is a severe limitation. Here we present a study on the performance of UrbClim, an urban boundary layer model designed to be several orders of magnitude faster than a full-fledged mesoscale model. The simulations are evaluated with station data and land surface temperature observations from satellites, focusing on the urban heat island (UHI). To explore the advantages of using a simple model like UrbClim, the results are compared with a simulation carried out with a state-of-the-art mesoscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, which includes an urban canopy model. This comparison is performed with driving data from ERA-Interim reanalysis (70 km). In addition, the effect of using driving data from a higher-resolution forecast model (15 km) is explored in the case of UrbClim. The results show that the performance of reproducing the average UHI in the simple model is generally comparable to the one in the mesoscale model when driven with reanalysis data (70 km). However, the simple model needs higher-resolution data from the forecast model (15 km) to correctly reproduce the variability of the UHI at a daily scale, which is related to the wind speed. This lack of accuracy in reproducing the wind speed, especially the sea-breeze daily cycle, which is strong in Barcelona, also causes a warm bias in the reanalysis driven UrbClim run. We conclude that medium-complexity models as UrbClim are a suitable tool to simulate the urban climate, but that they are sensitive to the ability of the input data to represent the local wind regime. UrbClim is a well suited model for impact and adaptation studies at city scale without high

  19. Advantages of a Laplace transform filtering integration scheme over semi-implicit methods in a global shallow water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Colm; Lynch, Peter

    2010-05-01

    A filtering numerical time-integration scheme is being developed. Using a modified inversion to the Laplace Transform (LT), the scheme is designed to remove spurious noise while faithfully simulating low frequency atmospheric modes. The method has been compared with traditional semi-implicit schemes in a shallow water framework and shows a number of advantages. In particular we are investigating the behaviour of a semi-Lagrangian formulation of the LT scheme in the presence of orography. We will also discuss its effects on the energy spectra of atmospheric simulations.

  20. Environmental modulation of drug taking: Nonhuman primate models of cocaine abuse and PET neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Michael A; Banks, Matthew L

    2014-01-01

    The current review highlights the importance of environmental variables on cocaine self-administration in nonhuman primate models of drug abuse. In addition to describing the behavioral consequences, potential mechanisms of action are discussed, based on imaging results using the non-invasive and translational technique of positron emission tomography (PET). In this review, the role of three environmental variables - both positive and negative - are described: alternative non-drug reinforcers; social rank (as an independent variable) and punishment of cocaine self-administration. These environmental stimuli can profoundly influence brain function and drug self-administration. We focus on environmental manipulations involving non-drug alternatives (e.g., food reinforcement) using choice paradigms. Manipulations such as response cost and social variables (e.g., social rank, social stress) also influence the behavioral effects of drugs. Importantly, these manipulations are amenable to brain imaging studies. Taken together, these studies emphasize the profound impact environmental variables can have on drug taking, which should provide important information related to individual-subject variability in treatment responsiveness, and the imaging work may highlight pharmacological targets for medications related to treating drug abuse. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Timing in turn-taking and its implications for processing models of language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Stephen C.; Torreira, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The core niche for language use is in verbal interaction, involving the rapid exchange of turns at talking. This paper reviews the extensive literature about this system, adding new statistical analyses of behavioral data where they have been missing, demonstrating that turn-taking has the systematic properties originally noted by Sacks et al. (1974; hereafter SSJ). This system poses some significant puzzles for current theories of language processing: the gaps between turns are short (of the order of 200 ms), but the latencies involved in language production are much longer (over 600 ms). This seems to imply that participants in conversation must predict (or ‘project’ as SSJ have it) the end of the current speaker’s turn in order to prepare their response in advance. This in turn implies some overlap between production and comprehension despite their use of common processing resources. Collecting together what is known behaviorally and experimentally about the system, the space for systematic explanations of language processing for conversation can be significantly narrowed, and we sketch some first model of the mental processes involved for the participant preparing to speak next. PMID:26124727

  2. Taking into account hydrological modelling uncertainty in Mediterranean flash-floods forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Simon; Béatrice, Vincendon; Véronique, Ducrocq

    2015-04-01

    Title : Taking into account hydrological modelling uncertainty in Mediterranean flash-floods forecasting Authors : Simon EDOUARD*, Béatrice VINCENDON*, Véronique Ducrocq* * : GAME/CNRM(Météo-France, CNRS)Toulouse,France Mediterranean intense weather events often lead to devastating flash-floods (FF). Increasing the lead time of FF forecasts would permit to better anticipate their catastrophic consequences. These events are one part of Mediterranean hydrological cycle. HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in the Mediterranean EXperiment) aims at a better understanding and quantification of the hydrological cycle and related processes in the Mediterranean. In order to get a lot of data, measurement campaigns were conducted. The first special observing period (SOP1) of these campaigns, served as a test-bed for a real-time hydrological ensemble prediction system (HEPS) dedicated to FF forecasting. It produced an ensemble of quantitative discharge forecasts (QDF) using the ISBA-TOP system. ISBATOP is a coupling between the surface scheme ISBA and a version of TOPMODEL dedicated to Mediterranean fast responding rivers. ISBA-TOP was driven with several quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) ensembles based on AROME atmospheric convection-permitting model. This permitted to take into account the uncertainty that affects QPF and that propagates up to the QDF. This uncertainty is major for discharge forecasting especially in the case of Mediterranean flash-floods. But other sources of uncertainty need to be sampled in HEPS systems. One of them is inherent to the hydrological modelling. The ISBA-TOP coupled system has been improved since the initial version, that was used for instance during Hymex SOP1. The initial ISBA-TOP consisted into coupling a TOPMODEL approach with ISBA-3L, which represented the soil stratification with 3 layers. The new version consists into coupling the same TOPMODEL approach with a version of ISBA where more than ten layers describe the soil vertical

  3. Writing induces a right hemisphere linguistic advantage in dysphonetic dyslexic children: implications for attention and capacity models of laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, J; Henninger, P; Cooke, W

    1984-01-01

    An experiment demonstrated a complete hemispheric processing reversal in 10 male, dysphonetic dyslexic children that occurred during a dichotic listening test of their verbal working memory. Requiring a written response to dichotic digits produced a right hemisphere/left ear superiority in the dysphonetic dyslexics whereas normal subjects and other dyslexics maintained a left hemisphere/right ear advantage. This reversal was unaffected by changes in task difficulty. A second experiment assessed the influence on producing the reversal of concurrent manual interference with left hemisphere verbal processing (responding orally vs. manually) and selective right hemisphere priming (Forward Writing vs. Backward Writing). The dysphonetic children reverted to a strong left hemisphere superiority when recalling the dichotic digits orally. Backward writing produced no ear advantage in either direction. The findings suggest that dysphonetic dyslexia may be related to (1) left hemisphere processing demands that exceed capacity, (2) easily activated right hemisphere processing strategies and (3) failure to coordinate linguistic processing interhemispherically. The results supported a novel hybrid conceptualization of dyslexia consisting of a synthesis of selective activation, and dual processor-limited capacity, theories.

  4. Features of formation of competitive advantages: a strategic dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Р. Pashchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of formation of competitive advantages, the depth of theoretical and methodological basis for the formation of competitive advantages at an enterprise. The author has reviewed the approaches to the formation of stable and long-term competitive advantages. The author has also overviewed the requirements which are to be met by competitive advantages of a company and the factors that affect the possibility of competitive advantages. The author develops her own approach to the definition of «competitive enterprise strategy», suggests to understand the concept as the perspective of company development, the way of achieving the goals a company sets for itself guided by its policy, using internal and external competitive advantages. The author implements the model of strategic management of enterprise development based on competitive advantage creating. The suggested model will take into account the maximum possible factors that impact on the development and implementation of strategies. Due to the model risks will also be reduced. The paper determines that the important stage of enterprise development strategic management based on competitive advantage creating is the management of changes and the management of resistance to changes caused by the influence of factors of external and internal environment.

  5. Model Predictive Control of a Wave Energy Converter with Discrete Fluid Power Power Take-Off System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Hedegaard Hansen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wave power extraction algorithms for wave energy converters are normally designed without taking system losses into account leading to suboptimal power extraction. In the current work, a model predictive power extraction algorithm is designed for a discretized power take of system. It is shown how the quantized nature of a discrete fluid power system may be included in a new model predictive control algorithm leading to a significant increase in the harvested power. A detailed investigation of the influence of the prediction horizon and the time step is reported. Furthermore, it is shown how the inclusion of a loss model may increase the energy output. Based on the presented results it is concluded that power extraction algorithms based on model predictive control principles are both feasible and favorable for use in a discrete fluid power power take-off system for point absorber wave energy converters.

  6. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    , the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...

  7. THE APPLICATION OF TYPOLOGY METHOD IN HISTORICAL BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING (HBIM TAKING THE INFORMATION SURVEYING AND MAPPING OF JIAYUGUAN FORTRESS TOWN AS AN EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the promotion of fine degree of the heritage building surveying and mapping, building information modelling technology(BIM begins to be used in surveying and mapping, renovation, recording and research of heritage building, called historical building information modelling(HBIM. The hierarchical frameworks of parametric component library of BIM, belonging to the same type with the same parameters, has the same internal logic with archaeological typology which is more and more popular in the age identification of ancient buildings. Compared with the common materials, 2D drawings and photos, typology with HBIM has two advantages — (1 comprehensive building information both in collection and representation and (2 uniform and reasonable classification criteria This paper will take the information surveying and mapping of Jiayuguan Fortress Town as an example to introduce the field work method of information surveying and mapping based on HBIM technology and the construction of Revit family library.And then in order to prove the feasibility and advantage of HBIM technology used in typology method, this paper will identify the age of Guanghua gate tower, Rouyuan gate tower, Wenchang pavilion and the theater building of Jiayuguan Fortress Town with HBIM technology and typology method.

  8. The Application of Typology Method in Historical Building Information Modelling (hbim) Taking the Information Surveying and Mapping of Jiayuguan Fortress Town as AN Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. Y.; Li, K.; Wu, C.

    2017-08-01

    With the promotion of fine degree of the heritage building surveying and mapping, building information modelling technology(BIM) begins to be used in surveying and mapping, renovation, recording and research of heritage building, called historical building information modelling(HBIM). The hierarchical frameworks of parametric component library of BIM, belonging to the same type with the same parameters, has the same internal logic with archaeological typology which is more and more popular in the age identification of ancient buildings. Compared with the common materials, 2D drawings and photos, typology with HBIM has two advantages — (1) comprehensive building information both in collection and representation and (2) uniform and reasonable classification criteria This paper will take the information surveying and mapping of Jiayuguan Fortress Town as an example to introduce the field work method of information surveying and mapping based on HBIM technology and the construction of Revit family library.And then in order to prove the feasibility and advantage of HBIM technology used in typology method, this paper will identify the age of Guanghua gate tower, Rouyuan gate tower, Wenchang pavilion and the theater building of Jiayuguan Fortress Town with HBIM technology and typology method.

  9. PolarTREC—A Model Program for Taking Polar Literacy into the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Timm, K.; Larson, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Polar TREC—Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, is a three-year (2007-2009) NSF-funded International Polar Year (IPY) teacher professional development program that advances Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education by improving teacher content knowledge and instructional practices through Teacher Research Experiences (TRE) in the Arctic and Antarctic. Leveraging profound changes and fascinating science taking place in the polar regions, PolarTREC broadly disseminates activities and products to students, educators, researchers, and the public, connecting them with the Arctic and Antarctica and sustaining the widespread interest in the polar regions and building on the enthusiasm that was generated through IPY. Central to the PolarTREC Teacher Research Experience Model, over 40 teachers have spent two to eight weeks participating in hands-on research in the polar regions and sharing their experiences with diverse audiences via live events, online multimedia journals, and interactive bulletin boards. The Connecting Arctic/Antarctic Researchers and Educators (CARE) Network unifies learning community members participants, alumni, and others, developing a sustainable association of education professionals networking to share and apply polar STEM content and pedagogical skills. Educator and student feedback from preliminary results of the program evaluation has shown that PolarTREC’s comprehensive program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes in key areas including amount of time spent in school exploring research activities, importance of understanding science for future work, importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today’s world, as well as increased self-reported knowledge and interest in numerous science content areas. Building

  10. Therapeutic advantage of inhaled tacrolimus-bound albumin nanoparticles in a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jisoo; Lee, Changkyu; Hwang, Ha Shin; Kim, Bomi; Thao, Le Quang; Lee, Eun Seong; Oh, Kyung Taek; Lim, Jong-Lae; Choi, Han-Gon; Youn, Yu Seok

    2016-02-01

    Tacrolimus (Tac) is an immunosuppressant that inhibits translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells and has therapeutic potential for pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a sustained-release type inhaled Tac formulation for treating bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Inhalation has many meaningful advantages over injections, such as improved patient compliance, safety, and therapeutic effect. To this end, we fabricated inhalable albumin nanoparticles with bound Tac (Tac Alb-NPs) at a daily therapeutic dose (60 μg/mouse) using a high-pressure homogenizer via nanoparticle albumin-bound technology. The Tac Alb-NPs were spherical, ∼ 182.1 ± 28.5 nm in size, with a zeta potential of -34.5 ± 0.3 mV, and the Tac incorporation efficiency was as high as ∼ 85.3%. The bound tacrolimus was released gradually from Tac Alb-NPs for ∼ 24 h, which was sufficient time for pulmonary delivery. Most of all, the inhaled Tac Alb-NPs displayed remarkable anti-fibrotic efficacy in mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, which was much better than the efficacy resulting from intraperitoneal administration of Tac (60 μg/mouse) based on histopathological results (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining). Furthermore, the inhaled Cy5.5-labelled Tac Alb-NPs were visualized throughout the lungs of mice for ∼ 48 h, indicating direct exposure to fibrotic tissues in lung lesions. In conclusion, Tac Alb-NPs offer great potential as an inhalation delivery formulation for treating pulmonary fibrosis. Additionally, these NPs would be particularly useful as an effective and safe prototype for delivering practically insoluble therapeutic agents into the lungs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Advantages of Relative versus Absolute Data for the Development of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Classification Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Irene Luque; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel

    2017-11-27

    The appropriate selection of a chemical space represented by the data set, the selection of its chemical data representation, the development of a correct modeling process using a robust and reproducible algorithm, and the performance of an exhaustive training and external validation determine the usability and reproducibility of a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) classification model. In this paper, we show that the use of relative versus absolute data in the representation of the data sets produces better classification models when the other processes are not modified. Relative data considers a reference frame to measure the chemical characteristics involved in the classification model, refining the data set representation and smoothing the lack of chemical information. Three data sets with different characteristics have been used in this study, and classifications models have been built applying the support vector machine algorithm. For randomly selected training and test sets, values of accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve close to 100% have been obtained for the generation of the models and external validations in all cases.

  12. Taking Advantage of Alice to Teach Programming Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Learning the fundamentals of programming languages has always been a difficult task for students. It is equally challenging for lecturers to teach these concepts. A number of methods have been deployed by teachers to teach these concepts. This article analyses the result of a class test to identify fundamental programming concepts that students…

  13. TAKING ADVANTAGES OF KAIZEN TO IMPROVE LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kostenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper encapsulates the essence of kaizen system, its main elements and the possibility of use it in enhancing labour productivity. The study examines a specific of kaizen implementation in Japan, the U.S. and Europe as well as in Ukraine and Russia. The comparative analysis of traditional and kaizen management is presented.

  14. Towards a sustainable community database: taking advantage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The Road-to-Health (RTH) card has served as a tool for monitoring nutrition and vaccination status individual child for several decades. The card has the potential to serve as a community database for research if kept by the caretaker for a considerable period. This study aimed to assess whether the magnitude of.

  15. Closing the Gaps : Taking into Account the Effects of Heat stress and Fatique Modeling in an Operational Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodill, G.; Barbier, R.R.; Fiamingo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional, combat model based analysis of Dismounted Combatant Operations (DCO) has focused on the ‘lethal’ aspects in an engagement, and to a limited extent the environment in which the engagement takes place. These are however only two of the factors that should be taken into account when

  16. Therapeutic advantage of pro-electrophilic drugs to activate the Nrf2/ARE pathway in Alzheimer's disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Stuart A; Rezaie, Tayebeh; Nutter, Anthony; Lopez, Kevin M; Parker, James; Kosaka, Kunio; Satoh, Takumi; McKercher, Scott R; Masliah, Eliezer; Nakanishi, Nobuki

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by synaptic and neuronal loss, which occurs at least partially through oxidative stress induced by oligomeric amyloid-β (Aβ)-peptide. Carnosic acid (CA), a chemical found in rosemary and sage, is a pro-electrophilic compound that is converted to its active form by oxidative stress. The active form stimulates the Keap1/Nrf2 transcriptional pathway and thus production of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes. We used both in vitro and in vivo models. For in vitro studies, we evaluated protective effects of CA on primary neurons exposed to oligomeric Aβ. For in vivo studies, we used two transgenic mouse models of AD, human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP)-J20 mice and triple transgenic (3xTg AD) mice. We treated these mice trans-nasally with CA twice weekly for 3 months. Subsequently, we performed neurobehavioral tests and quantitative immunohistochemistry to assess effects on AD-related phenotypes, including learning and memory, and synaptic damage. In vitro, CA reduced dendritic spine loss in rat neurons exposed to oligomeric Aβ. In vivo, CA treatment of hAPP-J20 mice improved learning and memory in the Morris water maze test. Histologically, CA increased dendritic and synaptic markers, and decreased astrogliosis, Aβ plaque number, and phospho-tau staining in the hippocampus. We conclude that CA exhibits therapeutic benefits in rodent AD models and since the FDA has placed CA on the 'generally regarded as safe' (GRAS) list, thus obviating the need for safety studies, human clinical trials will be greatly expedited.

  17. A red fluorescent nude mouse model of human endometriosis: advantages of a non-invasive imaging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningning; Hong, Shanshan; Tan, Jinfeng; Ke, Peiqi; Liang, Lili; Fei, Hui; Liu, Bin; Liu, Liqun; Liu, Yongdong; Yu, Bingjun

    2014-05-01

    To establish red fluorescent human endometriosis lesions in a nude mouse model and dynamically and non-invasively to compare intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injection models. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and epithelial cells (EECs) isolated from 24 patients with a normal uterine cavity were transfected with 2.5×10(8) (Group 1) and 1.25×10(8) (Group 2) plaque-forming units (PFU) of adenovirus encoding red fluorescent protein (Ad-RFP). Transfection efficiencies, fluorescence intensity and apoptosis rate of the two types of cells were compared in vitro. A mixture of 2.5×10(8) PFU Ad-RFP-infected approximately 400 EECs cell mass and 2×10(6) ESCs for 36h was injected individually into 24 female nude mice subcutaneously (Group A) or intraperitoneally (Group B). From Day 5 after injection, an in vivo imaging system (IVIS) was used to non-invasively observe and compare the lesions of the two groups every week until Day 33. Specifically, the fluorescent intensity, positive rates, persistence time and lesion weight in the implanted human endometriosis lesions were compared. A parametric Student's t-test and two-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Compared with 1.25×10(8) PFU RFP, a titre of 2.5×10(8) PFU RFP ESCs and EECs incubated for 36h exhibited higher transfection efficiencies and higher fluorescence intensities in vitro. In vivo imaging of the fluorescent human endometriosis lesions originating from an RFP titre of 2.5×10(8) PFU showed that the intensity and lesion weight in Group A were significantly higher than in Group B. However, the two groups had the same RFP-positive rates and fluorescence persistence. The structure of each lesion was evaluated by immunohistochemistry to confirm its human endometrial origin. The red fluorescent human endometriosis model established by subcutaneously injecting 2.5×10(8) PFU RFP-transfected stromal cells and epithelial cells into nude mice had a higher fluorescent positive

  18. Advertising Dynamics and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Doraszelski; Sarit Markovich

    2004-01-01

    Can advertising lead to a sustainable competitive advantage? To answer this question, we propose a dynamic model of advertising competition where firms repeatedly advertise, compete in the product market, and make entry as well as exit decisions. Within this dynamic framework, we study two different models of advertising: In the first model, advertising influences the goodwill consumers extend towards a firm ("goodwill advertising"), whereas in the second model it influences the share of cons...

  19. Development of the Mathematical Model of Diesel Fuel Catalytic Dewaxing Process Taking into Account Factors of Nonstationarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantsina Evgeniya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the results of mathematical modelling of diesel fuel catalytic dewaxing process, performed taking into account the factors of process nonstationarity driven by changes in process technological parameters, feedstock composition and catalyst deactivation. The error of hydrocarbon contents calculation via the use of the developed model does not exceed 1.6 wt.%. This makes it possible to apply the model for solution to optimization and forecasting problems occurred in catalytic systems under industrial conditions. It was shown through the model calculation that temperature in the dewaxing reactor without catalyst deactivation is lower by 19 °C than actual and catalyst deactivation degree accounts for 32 %.

  20. Taking the mystery out of mathematical model applications to karst aquifers—A primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in mathematical model applications toward the understanding of the complex flow, characterization, and water-supply management issues for karst aquifers have occurred in recent years. Different types of mathematical models can be applied successfully if appropriate information is available and the problems are adequately identified. The mathematical approaches discussed in this paper are divided into three major categories: 1) distributed parameter models, 2) lumped parameter models, and 3) fitting models. The modeling approaches are described conceptually with examples (but without equations) to help non-mathematicians understand the applications.

  1. Hidden Markov model analysis reveals the advantage of analytic eye movement patterns in face recognition across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuk, Tim; Crookes, Kate; Hayward, William G; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H

    2017-12-01

    It remains controversial whether culture modulates eye movement behavior in face recognition. Inconsistent results have been reported regarding whether cultural differences in eye movement patterns exist, whether these differences affect recognition performance, and whether participants use similar eye movement patterns when viewing faces from different ethnicities. These inconsistencies may be due to substantial individual differences in eye movement patterns within a cultural group. Here we addressed this issue by conducting individual-level eye movement data analysis using hidden Markov models (HMMs). Each individual's eye movements were modeled with an HMM. We clustered the individual HMMs according to their similarities and discovered three common patterns in both Asian and Caucasian participants: holistic (looking mostly at the face center), left-eye-biased analytic (looking mostly at the two individual eyes in addition to the face center with a slight bias to the left eye), and right-eye-based analytic (looking mostly at the right eye in addition to the face center). The frequency of participants adopting the three patterns did not differ significantly between Asians and Caucasians, suggesting little modulation from culture. Significantly more participants (75%) showed similar eye movement patterns when viewing own- and other-race faces than different patterns. Most importantly, participants with left-eye-biased analytic patterns performed significantly better than those using either holistic or right-eye-biased analytic patterns. These results suggest that active retrieval of facial feature information through an analytic eye movement pattern may be optimal for face recognition regardless of culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  3. Spherical Detector Device Mathematical Modelling with Taking into Account Detector Module Symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyj, V.G.; Fedorchenko, D.V.; Prokopets, S.I.; Prokopets, I.M.; Kazhmuradov, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Model for spherical detector device accounting to symmetry properties is considered. Exact algorithm for simulation of measurement procedure with multiple radiation sources is developed. Modelling results are shown to have perfect agreement with calibration measurements

  4. The Model Of One-Type Aircraft Fleet Behaviour While Service And Advantages SHM V. NDT Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewitowicz Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper defines the essence of durability characteristics of the designing structure of an airframe in terms of flight safety. Particular attention is drawn to one of the main factors influencing the durability characteristics of the airframe – diagnostics system for the health assessment of the airframe during the process of operation. The effectiveness of the use of integrated solutions to the structure of the airframe providing a continuous assessment of the technical condition is presented. Continuous diagnostics system integrated with the airframe, SHM, is classified as an intelligent solution. This paper presents a model of the behavior of one-type aircraft operating in the air operator’s fleet in terms of susceptibility to failure. Justified assumption in the description of this behavior, in the form of a “bathtub curve”. The analysis is supported by real data of failures. The benefits of using a continuous diagnostics system integrated with the airframe, SHM, is interpreted in relation to the classical approach with the use of non-destructive testing, NDT, for the three phases of the bathtub curve.

  5. Take it NP-easy: Bounded model construction for duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Following the recent successes of bounded model-checking, we reconsider the problem of constructing models of discrete-time Duration Calculus formulae. While this problem is known to be non-elementary when arbitrary length models are considered [Hansen94], it turns out to be only NP-complete when...... constrained to bounded length. As a corollary we obtain that model construction is in NP for the formulae actually encountered in case studies using Duration Calculus, as these have a certain small-model property. First experiments with a prototype implementation of the procedures demonstrate a competitive...

  6. Alternative biosphere modeling for safety assessment of HLW disposal taking account of geosphere-biosphere interface of marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Naito, Morimasa; Ikeda, Takao; Little, Richard

    2001-03-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system, it is required to estimate radiological impacts on future human beings arising from potential radionuclide releases from a deep repository into the surface environment. In order to estimated the impacts, a biosphere model is developed by reasonably assuming radionuclide migration processes in the surface environment and relevant human lifestyles. It is important to modify the present biosphere models or to develop alternative biosphere models applying the biosphere models according to quality and quantify of the information acquired through the siting process for constructing the repository. In this study, alternative biosphere models were developed taking geosphere-biosphere interface of marine environment into account. Moreover, the flux to dose conversion factors calculated by these alternative biosphere models was compared with those by the present basic biosphere models. (author)

  7. Much damage for little advantage: Field studies and morphodynamic modelling highlight the environmental impact of an apparently minor coastal mismanagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagna, Roberta; Montefalcone, Monica; Albertelli, Giancarlo; Corradi, Nicola; Ferrari, Marco; Morri, Carla; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2011-09-01

    While coastal management activities have long been known to exert a strong influence on the health of marine ecosystems, neither scientists nor administrators have realized that small interventions may lead to disproportionately larger impacts. This study investigated the broad and long-lasting environmental consequences of the construction of an ill-planned, although small (only 12 m long) jetty for pleasure crafts on the hydrodynamic conditions and on the meadow of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica of an embayed cove in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). There, P. oceanica used to develop on a high (>1.5 m) matte (a lignified terrace causing seafloor elevation) in which the leaves reach the surface and form a compact natural barrier to waves in front of the beach. Such a so-called 'fringing reef' of P. oceanica is today recognized of high ecological value and specific conservation efforts are required. The construction of the jetty implied the cutting of the matte, which directly destroyed part of the fringing reef. In addition, meadow mapping and sedimentological analyses coupled with morphodynamic modelling showed that the ecosystem of the whole cove had been greatly altered by the jetty. We used the geometric planform approach, a proper tool in the study of headland-controlled embayment, both to characterise the present situation of Prelo cove and to simulate the original one, before the jetty was built. In the long term, such a small jetty completely altered the configuration and the hydrodynamic conditions of the whole cove, splitting the original pocket beach into two smaller ones and creating strong rip-currents flowing seaward along the jetty. These rip-currents enhanced erosion of residual shallow portions of the meadow and further modified the sedimentary fluxes in shallow waters. A century after the construction of the jetty, an irreversible environmental damage has occurred, as the slow growing rate of P. oceanica implies that the high matte terrace

  8. Leveraging Diversity Of Thought Through Inclusion: Advantages, Disadvantages, And Taking Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    program meant to prevent or reverse the effects of discrimination . Furthermore, diversity is not synonymous with equal opportunity, which is another...program targeted to prevent or respond to discrimination .3 Rather, diversity is the state of variety within a system that, when leveraged properly, may...and “similarities” are not limited to physical demographics.2 While race and gender may be the primary demographics often associated with

  9. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  10. Taking individual scaling differences into account by analyzing profile data with the Mixed Assessor Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per Bruun; Schlich, Pascal; Skovgaard, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Scale range differences between individual assessors will often constitute a non-trivial part of the assessor-by-product interaction in sensory profile data (Brockhoff, 2003, 1998; Brockhoff and Skovgaard, 1994). We suggest a new mixed model ANOVA analysis approach, the Mixed Assessor Model (MAM...

  11. Model based design of efficient power take-off systems for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2011-01-01

    an essential part of the PTO, being the only technology having the required force densities. The focus of this paper is to show the achievable efficiency of a PTO system based on a conventional hydro-static transmission topology. The design is performed using a model based approach. Generic component models...

  12. Matematical modeling of galophytic plants productivity taking into account the temperature factor and soil salinity level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia, Slyusar; Pisman, Tamara; Pechurkin, Nikolai S.

    Among the most challenging tasks faced by contemporary ecology is modeling of biological production process in different plant communities. The difficulty of the task is determined by the complexity of the study material. Models showing the influence of climate and climate change on plant growth, which would also involve soil site parameters, could be of both practical and theoretical interest. In this work a mathematical model has been constructed to describe the growth dynamics of different plant communities of halophytic meadows as dependent upon the temperature factor and soil salinity level, which could be further used to predict yields of these plant communities. The study was performed on plants of halophytic meadows in the coastal area of Lake of the Republic of Khakasia in 2004 - 2006. Every plant community grew on the soil of a different level of salinity - the amount of the solid residue of the saline soil aqueous extract. The mathematical model was analyzed using field data of 2004 and 2006, the years of contrasting air temperatures. Results of model investigations show that there is a correlation between plant growth and the temperature of the air for plant communities growing on soils containing the lowest (0.1Thus, results of our study, in which we used a mathematical model describing the development of plant communities of halophytic meadows and field measurements, suggest that both climate conditions (temperature) and ecological factors of the plants' habitat (soil salinity level) should be taken into account when constructing models for predicting crop yields.

  13. Accessing offshoring advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    of the work include using only the offshoring strategy elements and only their limited variety as factors potentially influencing access to offshoring advantages. Also, the findings are limited to Scandinavian companies. Originality/value – The paper introduces a new concept of access, which can help to more......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to advance the understanding of factors that affect offshoring performance results. To do so, this paper focuses on the access to location-specific advantages, rather than solely on the properties of the offshoring company, its strategy or environment....... Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...

  14. A method for improving predictive modeling by taking into account lag time: Example of selenium bioaccumulation in a flowing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckon, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for estimating response time in cause-effect relationships is demonstrated. • Predictive modeling is appreciably improved by taking into account this lag time. • Bioaccumulation lag is greater for organisms at higher trophic levels. • This methodology may be widely applicable in disparate disciplines. - Abstract: For bioaccumulative substances, efforts to predict concentrations in organisms at upper trophic levels, based on measurements of environmental exposure, have been confounded by the appreciable but hitherto unknown amount of time it may take for bioaccumulation to occur through various pathways and across several trophic transfers. The study summarized here demonstrates an objective method of estimating this lag time by testing a large array of potential lag times for selenium bioaccumulation, selecting the lag that provides the best regression between environmental exposure (concentration in ambient water) and concentration in the tissue of the target organism. Bioaccumulation lag is generally greater for organisms at higher trophic levels, reaching times of more than a year in piscivorous fish. Predictive modeling of bioaccumulation is improved appreciably by taking into account this lag. More generally, the method demonstrated here may improve the accuracy of predictive modeling in a wide variety of other cause-effect relationships in which lag time is substantial but inadequately known, in disciplines as diverse as climatology (e.g., the effect of greenhouse gases on sea levels) and economics (e.g., the effects of fiscal stimulus on employment).

  15. A method for improving predictive modeling by taking into account lag time: Example of selenium bioaccumulation in a flowing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckon, William N., E-mail: William_Beckon@fws.gov

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A method for estimating response time in cause-effect relationships is demonstrated. • Predictive modeling is appreciably improved by taking into account this lag time. • Bioaccumulation lag is greater for organisms at higher trophic levels. • This methodology may be widely applicable in disparate disciplines. - Abstract: For bioaccumulative substances, efforts to predict concentrations in organisms at upper trophic levels, based on measurements of environmental exposure, have been confounded by the appreciable but hitherto unknown amount of time it may take for bioaccumulation to occur through various pathways and across several trophic transfers. The study summarized here demonstrates an objective method of estimating this lag time by testing a large array of potential lag times for selenium bioaccumulation, selecting the lag that provides the best regression between environmental exposure (concentration in ambient water) and concentration in the tissue of the target organism. Bioaccumulation lag is generally greater for organisms at higher trophic levels, reaching times of more than a year in piscivorous fish. Predictive modeling of bioaccumulation is improved appreciably by taking into account this lag. More generally, the method demonstrated here may improve the accuracy of predictive modeling in a wide variety of other cause-effect relationships in which lag time is substantial but inadequately known, in disciplines as diverse as climatology (e.g., the effect of greenhouse gases on sea levels) and economics (e.g., the effects of fiscal stimulus on employment).

  16. Modeling Innovative Power Take-Off Based on Double-Acting Hydraulic Cylinders Array for Wave Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Antolín-Urbaneja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the key systems of a Wave Energy Converter for extraction of wave energy is the Power Take-Off (PTO device. This device transforms the mechanical energy of a moving body into electrical energy. This paper describes the model of an innovative PTO based on independently activated double-acting hydraulic cylinders array. The model has been developed using a simulation tool, based on a port-based approach to model hydraulics systems. The components and subsystems used in the model have been parameterized as real components and their values experimentally obtained from an existing prototype. In fact, the model takes into account most of the hydraulic losses of each component. The simulations show the flexibility to apply different restraining torques to the input movement depending on the geometrical configuration and the hydraulic cylinders on duty, easily modified by a control law. The combination of these two actions allows suitable flexibility to adapt the device to different sea states whilst optimizing the energy extraction. The model has been validated using a real test bench showing good correlations between simulation and experimental tests.

  17. Mathematical modeling of pigment dispersion taking into account the full agglomerate particle size distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2017-01-01

    . The only adjustable parameter used was an apparent rate constant for the linear agglomerate erosion rate. Model simulations, at selected values of time, for the full agglomerate particle size distribution were in good qualitative agreement with the measured values. A quantitative match of the experimental...... particle size distribution was simulated. Data from two previous experimental investigations were used for model validation. The first concerns two different yellow organic pigments dispersed in nitrocellulose/ethanol vehicles in a ball mill and the second a red organic pigment dispersed in a solvent...... particle size distributions could be obtained using time-dependent fragment distributions, but this resulted in a very slight improvement in the simulated transient mean diameter only. The model provides a mechanistic understanding of the agglomerate breakage process that can be used, e...

  18. Taking dietary habits into account: A computational method for modeling food choices that goes beyond price.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Beheshti

    Full Text Available Computational models have gained popularity as a predictive tool for assessing proposed policy changes affecting dietary choice. Specifically, they have been used for modeling dietary changes in response to economic interventions, such as price and income changes. Herein, we present a novel addition to this type of model by incorporating habitual behaviors that drive individuals to maintain or conform to prior eating patterns. We examine our method in a simulated case study of food choice behaviors of low-income adults in the US. We use data from several national datasets, including the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and the USDA, to parameterize our model and develop predictive capabilities in 1 quantifying the influence of prior diet preferences when food budgets are increased and 2 simulating the income elasticities of demand for four food categories. Food budgets can increase because of greater affordability (due to food aid and other nutritional assistance programs, or because of higher income. Our model predictions indicate that low-income adults consume unhealthy diets when they have highly constrained budgets, but that even after budget constraints are relaxed, these unhealthy eating behaviors are maintained. Specifically, diets in this population, before and after changes in food budgets, are characterized by relatively low consumption of fruits and vegetables and high consumption of fat. The model results for income elasticities also show almost no change in consumption of fruit and fat in response to changes in income, which is in agreement with data from the World Bank's International Comparison Program (ICP. Hence, the proposed method can be used in assessing the influences of habitual dietary patterns on the effectiveness of food policies.

  19. Taking dietary habits into account: A computational method for modeling food choices that goes beyond price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Igusa, Takeru

    2017-01-01

    Computational models have gained popularity as a predictive tool for assessing proposed policy changes affecting dietary choice. Specifically, they have been used for modeling dietary changes in response to economic interventions, such as price and income changes. Herein, we present a novel addition to this type of model by incorporating habitual behaviors that drive individuals to maintain or conform to prior eating patterns. We examine our method in a simulated case study of food choice behaviors of low-income adults in the US. We use data from several national datasets, including the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and the USDA, to parameterize our model and develop predictive capabilities in 1) quantifying the influence of prior diet preferences when food budgets are increased and 2) simulating the income elasticities of demand for four food categories. Food budgets can increase because of greater affordability (due to food aid and other nutritional assistance programs), or because of higher income. Our model predictions indicate that low-income adults consume unhealthy diets when they have highly constrained budgets, but that even after budget constraints are relaxed, these unhealthy eating behaviors are maintained. Specifically, diets in this population, before and after changes in food budgets, are characterized by relatively low consumption of fruits and vegetables and high consumption of fat. The model results for income elasticities also show almost no change in consumption of fruit and fat in response to changes in income, which is in agreement with data from the World Bank's International Comparison Program (ICP). Hence, the proposed method can be used in assessing the influences of habitual dietary patterns on the effectiveness of food policies.

  20. Structuring the competitive advantage of printing company

    OpenAIRE

    Kukharuk A. D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the concept of "competitive advantage of the company" if analyzed. The concept of "structuring a competitive advantage" is suggested. The model of structuring of printing company’s competitive advantage based on fundamentals of stakeholder theory is developed.

  1. SpxB is a suicide gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae and confers a selective advantage in an in vivo competitive colonization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev-Yochay, Gili; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Thompson, Claudette M; Lipsitch, Marc; Malley, Richard

    2007-09-01

    The human bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae dies spontaneously upon reaching stationary phase. The extent of S. pneumoniae death at stationary phase is unusual in bacteria and has been conventionally attributed to autolysis by the LytA amidase. In this study, we show that spontaneous pneumococcal death is due to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), not LytA, and that the gene responsible for H(2)O(2) production (spxB) also confers a survival advantage in colonization. Survival of S. pneumoniae in stationary phase was significantly prolonged by eliminating H(2)O(2) in any of three ways: chemically by supplementing the media with catalase, metabolically by growing the bacteria under anaerobic conditions, or genetically by constructing DeltaspxB mutants that do not produce H(2)O(2). Likewise, addition of H(2)O(2) to exponentially growing S. pneumoniae resulted in a death rate similar to that of cells in stationary phase. While DeltalytA mutants did not lyse at stationary phase, they died at a rate similar to that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we show that the death process induced by H(2)O(2) has features of apoptosis, as evidenced by increased annexin V staining, decreased DNA content, and appearance as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Finally, in an in vivo rat model of competitive colonization, the presence of spxB conferred a selective advantage over the DeltaspxB mutant, suggesting an explanation for the persistence of this gene. We conclude that a suicide gene of pneumococcus is spxB, which induces an apoptosis-like death in pneumococci and confers a selective advantage in nasopharyngeal cocolonization.

  2. It takes two to tango: Equilibria in a model of sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Baye (Michael); D. Kovenock (Dan); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe show that the Varian model of sales with more than two firms has two types of equilibria: a unique symmetric equilibrium, and a continuum of asymmetric equilibria. In contrast, the 2-firm game has a unique equilibrium that is symmetric. For the n-firm case the asymmetric equilibria

  3. It Takes One to Know One: A Class Exercise in Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    An active learning class exercise is presented that gives students the personal experience of the decision-making limitations of mental models. This innovative exercise was shown to increase student learning through greater understanding of the concept and higher retention of knowledge. The results suggest that student critical thinking skills…

  4. Rethinking (New) Economic Geography Models : Taking Geography and History More Seriously

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, Harry; Martin, Ron

    Two aspects of New Economic Geography models are often singled out for criticism, especially by geographers: the treatment of geography, typically as a pre-given, fixed and highly idealized abstract geometric space; and the treatment of history, typically as 'logical' time (the movement to

  5. Modeling the dynamic behavior of railway track taking into account the occurrence of defects in the system wheel-rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of wheel defects on the development of rail defects up to a state where rail prompt replacement becomes necessary taking into account different models of the dynamic contact between a wheel and a rail. In particular, the quasistatic Hertz model, the linear elastic model and the elastoplastic Aleksandrov-Kadomtsev model. Based on the model of the wheel-rail contact the maximum stresses are determined which take place in the rail in the presence of wheel defects (e.g. flat spot, weld-on deposit, etc.. In this paper, the solution of the inverse problem is presented, i.e., investigation of the influence of the strength of a wheel impact upon rails on wheel defects as well as evaluation of the stresses emerging in rails. During the motion of a railway vehicle, the wheel pair position in relation to rails changes significantly, which causes various combinations of wheel-rail contact areas. Even provided the constant axial load, the normal stresses will substantially change due to the differences in the radii of curvature of contact surfaces of these areas, as well as movement velocities of railway vehicles.

  6. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  7. When the Brain Takes a Break: A Model-Based Analysis of Mind Wandering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekel, Wouter; Tucker, Adrienne M.; Turner, Brandon M.; Heathcote, Andrew; Forstmann, Birte U.

    2014-01-01

    Mind wandering is an ubiquitous phenomenon in everyday life. In the cognitive neurosciences, mind wandering has been associated with several distinct neural processes, most notably increased activity in the default mode network (DMN), suppressed activity within the anti-correlated (task-positive) network (ACN), and changes in neuromodulation. By using an integrative multimodal approach combining machine-learning techniques with modeling of latent cognitive processes, we show that mind wandering in humans is characterized by inefficiencies in executive control (task-monitoring) processes. This failure is predicted by a single-trial signature of (co)activations in the DMN, ACN, and neuromodulation, and accompanied by a decreased rate of evidence accumulation and response thresholds in the cognitive model. PMID:25471568

  8. Mathematical modeling of pigment dispersion taking into account the full agglomerate particle size distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model that can quantify the dispersion of pigments, with a focus on the mechanical breakage of pigment agglomerates. The underlying physical mechanism was assumed to be surface erosion of spherical pigment agglomerates. The full agglomerate......-based acrylic vehicle in a three-roll mill. When the linear rate of agglomerate surface erosion was taken to be proportional to the external agglomerate surface area, simulations of the volume-moment mean diameter over time were in good quantitative agreement with experimental data for all three pigments....... The only adjustable parameter used was an apparent rate constant for the linear agglomerate erosion rate. Model simulations, at selected values of time, for the full agglomerate particle size distribution were in good qualitative agreement with the measured values. A quantitative match of the experimental...

  9. MODELLING OF THERMOELASTIC TRANSIENT CONTACT INTERACTION FOR BINARY BEARING TAKING INTO ACCOUNT CONVECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor KOLESNIKOV

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Serviceability of metal-polymeric "dry-friction" sliding bearings depends on many parameters, including the rotational speed, friction coefficient, thermal and mechanical properties of the bearing system and, as a result, the value of contact temperature. The objective of this study is to develop a computational model for the metallic-polymer bearing, determination on the basis of this model temperature distribution, equivalent and contact stresses for elements of the bearing arrangement and selection of the optimal parameters for the bearing system to achieve thermal balance. Static problem for the combined sliding bearing with the account of heat generation due to friction has been studied in [1]; the dynamic thermoelastic problem of the shaft rotation in a single and double layer bronze bearings were investigated in [2, 3].

  10. Taking error into account when fitting models using Approximate Bayesian Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vaart, Elske; Prangle, Dennis; Sibly, Richard M

    2018-03-01

    Stochastic computer simulations are often the only practical way of answering questions relating to ecological management. However, due to their complexity, such models are difficult to calibrate and evaluate. Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) offers an increasingly popular approach to this problem, widely applied across a variety of fields. However, ensuring the accuracy of ABC's estimates has been difficult. Here, we obtain more accurate estimates by incorporating estimation of error into the ABC protocol. We show how this can be done where the data consist of repeated measures of the same quantity and errors may be assumed to be normally distributed and independent. We then derive the correct acceptance probabilities for a probabilistic ABC algorithm, and update the coverage test with which accuracy is assessed. We apply this method, which we call error-calibrated ABC, to a toy example and a realistic 14-parameter simulation model of earthworms that is used in environmental risk assessment. A comparison with exact methods and the diagnostic coverage test show that our approach improves estimation of parameter values and their credible intervals for both models. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some......In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...

  12. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance......In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...

  13. Comparison Between Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Point Absorber WEC Using Linear Power Take-Off System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri

    2012-01-01

    and the response of the device for regular and irregular waves were measured. Good correspondence is found between the numerical and the physical model for relatively mild wave conditions. For higher waves the numerical model seems to underestimate the response of the device due to its linear fluidstructure......Currently, a number of wave energy converters are being analyzed by means of numerical models in order to predict the electrical power generation under given wave conditions. A common characteristic of this procedure is to integrate the loadings from the hydrodynamics, power take-off and mooring...... systems into a central wave to wire model. The power production then depends on the control strategy which is applied to the device. The objective of this paper is to develop numerical methods for motion analysis of marine structures with a special emphasis on wave energy converters. Two different time...

  14. Slow Steps towards Dual Earner/Dual Carer Family Model: Why Do Fathers Not Take Parental Leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marre Karu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/dual carer family model and focuses on fathers’ decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of ‘good parenting’ that play a role in the fathers’ intention to take parental leave. First, there is an image of an outcome-oriented ‘project manager’ affected by failure anxiety, and second, there is a much more relaxed image of a ‘good parent’ as a ‘companion’ who values everyday contact and a close relationship with the child(ren.

  15. Optimization model of energy mix taking into account the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, O.; Oprea, D.

    2012-01-01

    At present, the energy system in the Czech Republic needs to decide some important issues regarding limited fossil resources, greater efficiency in producing of electrical energy and reducing emission levels of pollutants. These problems can be decided only by formulating and implementing an energy mix that will meet these conditions: rational, reliable, sustainable and competitive. The aim of this article is to find a new way of determining an optimal mix for the energy system in the Czech Republic. To achieve the aim, the linear optimization model comprising several economics, environmental and technical aspects will be applied. (Authors)

  16. The primary care amplification model: taking the best of primary care forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson Caroline

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care internationally is approaching a new paradigm. The change agenda implicit in this threatens to de-stabilise and challenge established general practice and primary care. Discussion The Primary Care Amplification Model offers a means to harness the change agenda by 'amplifying' the strengths of established general practices around a 'beacon' practice. Conclusion Such 'beacon' practices can provide a mustering point for an expanded scope of practice for primary care, integrated primary/secondary service delivery, interprofessional learning, relevant local clinical research, and a focus on local service innovation, enhancing rather than fragmenting the collective capacity of existing primary care.

  17. Hyperspectral water quality retrieval model: taking Malaysia inshore sea area as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tingwei; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Yi; Li, Jing; Lim, Boonleong; Roslinah, Samad

    2007-11-01

    Remote sensing technique provides the possibility of rapid and synchronous monitoring in a large area of the water quality, which is an important element for the aquatic ecosystem quality assessment of islands and coastal zones, especially for the nearshore and tourism sea area. Tioman Island of Malaysia is regarded as one of ten of the best islands in the world and attracts tourists from all over the world for its clear sea, beautiful seashore and charming scenery. In this paper, on the basis of in situ dataset in the study area, distribution discipline of water quality parameters is analyzed to find that phytoplankton pigment, rather than suspended sediment is the main water quality parameter in the study area; seawater there is clean but not very oligotrophic; seawater spectra contains distinct features. Then water quality hyperspectral retrieval models are developed based on in situ data to calculate the chlorophyll a concentration ([chl-a]), transparency (SD) with satisfactory performance. It's suggested that model precision should be validated further using more in-situ data.

  18. What it takes to get proactive: An integrative multilevel model of the antecedents of personal initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying; Liao, Hui; Raub, Steffen; Han, Joo Hun

    2016-05-01

    Building upon and extending Parker, Bindl, and Strauss's (2010) theory of proactive motivation, we develop an integrated, multilevel model to examine how contextual factors shape employees' proactive motivational states and, through these proactive motivational states, influence their personal initiative behavior. Using data from a sample of hotels collected from 3 sources and over 2 time periods, we show that establishment-level initiative-enhancing human resource management (HRM) systems were positively related to departmental initiative climate, which was positively related to employee personal initiative through employee role-breadth self-efficacy. Further, department-level empowering leadership was positively related to initiative climate only when initiative-enhancing HRM systems were low. These findings offer interesting implications for research on personal initiative and for the management of employee proactivity in organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Taking it to the streets: The case for modeling in the geosciences undergraduate curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen; Overeem, Irina; Berlin, Maureen

    2013-04-01

    The United States faces a crisis in education: a dire shortage of students sufficiently prepared in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) disciplines to competitively enter the workforce (National Education Technology Plan, 2010). At the same time, there is increasing demand for well-trained geoscientists in a variety of careers related to the environment and natural resources. Many efforts, including the recently released Earth Science and Climate Literacy Principles, seek to promote better Earth science education, as well as to strengthen the Earth science literacy of the entire US population. Yet even those undergraduate students who choose to major in geology or related geoscience disciplines rarely acquire sufficient quantitative skills to be truly competitive graduate students or professionals. Experience with modeling, during their undergraduate careers, could greatly increase the quantitative literacy of geoscience majors and help them appreciate the real world applicability of mathematics and computational methods in their future careers in the geosciences.

  20. Taking the lag out of jet lag through model-based schedule design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Dennis A; Forger, Daniel B; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2009-06-01

    Travel across multiple time zones results in desynchronization of environmental time cues and the sleep-wake schedule from their normal phase relationships with the endogenous circadian system. Circadian misalignment can result in poor neurobehavioral performance, decreased sleep efficiency, and inappropriately timed physiological signals including gastrointestinal activity and hormone release. Frequent and repeated transmeridian travel is associated with long-term cognitive deficits, and rodents experimentally exposed to repeated schedule shifts have increased death rates. One approach to reduce the short-term circadian, sleep-wake, and performance problems is to use mathematical models of the circadian pacemaker to design countermeasures that rapidly shift the circadian pacemaker to align with the new schedule. In this paper, the use of mathematical models to design sleep-wake and countermeasure schedules for improved performance is demonstrated. We present an approach to designing interventions that combines an algorithm for optimal placement of countermeasures with a novel mode of schedule representation. With these methods, rapid circadian resynchrony and the resulting improvement in neurobehavioral performance can be quickly achieved even after moderate to large shifts in the sleep-wake schedule. The key schedule design inputs are endogenous circadian period length, desired sleep-wake schedule, length of intervention, background light level, and countermeasure strength. The new schedule representation facilitates schedule design, simulation studies, and experiment design and significantly decreases the amount of time to design an appropriate intervention. The method presented in this paper has direct implications for designing jet lag, shift-work, and non-24-hour schedules, including scheduling for extreme environments, such as in space, undersea, or in polar regions.

  1. Taking the lag out of jet lag through model-based schedule design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis A Dean

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Travel across multiple time zones results in desynchronization of environmental time cues and the sleep-wake schedule from their normal phase relationships with the endogenous circadian system. Circadian misalignment can result in poor neurobehavioral performance, decreased sleep efficiency, and inappropriately timed physiological signals including gastrointestinal activity and hormone release. Frequent and repeated transmeridian travel is associated with long-term cognitive deficits, and rodents experimentally exposed to repeated schedule shifts have increased death rates. One approach to reduce the short-term circadian, sleep-wake, and performance problems is to use mathematical models of the circadian pacemaker to design countermeasures that rapidly shift the circadian pacemaker to align with the new schedule. In this paper, the use of mathematical models to design sleep-wake and countermeasure schedules for improved performance is demonstrated. We present an approach to designing interventions that combines an algorithm for optimal placement of countermeasures with a novel mode of schedule representation. With these methods, rapid circadian resynchrony and the resulting improvement in neurobehavioral performance can be quickly achieved even after moderate to large shifts in the sleep-wake schedule. The key schedule design inputs are endogenous circadian period length, desired sleep-wake schedule, length of intervention, background light level, and countermeasure strength. The new schedule representation facilitates schedule design, simulation studies, and experiment design and significantly decreases the amount of time to design an appropriate intervention. The method presented in this paper has direct implications for designing jet lag, shift-work, and non-24-hour schedules, including scheduling for extreme environments, such as in space, undersea, or in polar regions.

  2. Advantages of Team Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John

    1973-01-01

    Describes a high school biology program which successfully utilizes team teaching. Outlines the advantages of team teaching and how it is used in the large group lecture-discussion situation, with small groups in the laboratory and on field trips. (JR)

  3. Modelling of a mecanum wheel taking into account the geometry of road rollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Gwiazda, A.; Banaś, W.; Sękala, A.; Foit, K.

    2017-08-01

    During the process planning in a company one of the basic factors associated with the production costs is the operation time for particular technological jobs. The operation time consists of time units associated with the machining tasks of a workpiece as well as the time associated with loading and unloading and the transport operations of this workpiece between machining stands. Full automation of manufacturing in industry companies tends to a maximal reduction in machine downtimes, thereby the fixed costs simultaneously decreasing. The new construction of wheeled vehicles, using Mecanum wheels, reduces the transport time of materials and workpieces between machining stands. These vehicles have the ability to simultaneously move in two axes and thus more rapid positioning of the vehicle relative to the machining stand. The Mecanum wheel construction implies placing, around the wheel free rollers that are mounted at an angle 450, which allow the movement of the vehicle not only in its axis but also perpendicular thereto. The improper selection of the rollers can cause unwanted vertical movement of the vehicle, which may cause difficulty in positioning of the vehicle in relation to the machining stand and the need for stabilisation. Hence the proper design of the free rollers is essential in designing the whole Mecanum wheel construction. It allows avoiding the disadvantageous and unwanted vertical vibrations of a whole vehicle with these wheels. In the article the process of modelling the free rollers, in order to obtain the desired shape of unchanging, horizontal trajectory of the vehicle is presented. This shape depends on the desired diameter of the whole Mecanum wheel, together with the road rollers, and the width of the drive wheel. Another factor related with the curvature of the trajectory shape is the length of the road roller and its diameter decreases depending on the position with respect to its centre. The additional factor, limiting construction of

  4. Implementation of Wolsong Pump Model, Pressure Tube Deformation Model and Off-take Model into MARS Code for Regulatory Auditing of CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, C.; Rhee, B. W.; Chung, B. D.; Cho, Y. J.; Kim, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    Korea currently has four operating units of the CANDU-6 type reactor in Wolsong. However, the safety assessment system for CANDU reactors has not been fully established due to lack of self-reliance technology. Although the CATHENA code had been introduced from AECL, it is undesirable to use vendor's code for regulatory auditing analysis. In Korea, the MARS code has been developed for decades and is being considered by KINS as a thermal hydraulic regulatory auditing tool for nuclear power plants. Before this decision, KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) had developed RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU code for CANDU safety analyses by modifying the model of existing PWR auditing tool, RELAP5/MOD3. The main purpose of this study is to transplant the CANDU models of RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU code to MARS code including quality assurance of the developed models. This first part of the research series presents the implementation and verification of the Wolsong pump model, the pressure tube deformation model, and the off-take model for arbitrary-angled branch pipes

  5. Method for determining the duration of construction basing on evolutionary modeling taking into account random organizational expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseytsev Anatoliy Viktorovich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems of construction planning is failure to meet time constraints and increase of workflow duration. In the recent years informational technologies are efficiently used to solve the problem of estimation of construction period. The issue of optimal estimate of the duration of construction, taking into account the possible organizational expectations is considered in the article. In order to solve this problem the iteration scheme of evolutionary modeling, in which random values of organizational expectations are used as variable parameters is developed. Adjustable genetic operators are used to improve the efficiency of the search for solutions. The reliability of the proposed approach is illustrated by an example of formation of construction schedules of monolithic foundations for buildings, taking into account possible disruptions of supply of concrete and reinforcement cages. Application of the presented methodology enables automated acquisition of several alternative scheduling of construction in accordance with standard or directive duration. Application of this computational procedure has the prospects of taking into account of construction downtime due to weather, accidents related to construction machinery breakdowns or local emergency collapses of the structures being erected.

  6. Physarum polycephalum—a new take on a classic model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettmeier, Christina; Brix, Klaudia; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther

    2017-10-01

    Physarum polycephalum, literally the ‘many-headed’ slime mold, is a giant multi-nucleated but unicellular protist. Since the time of its first description, it has been the subject of a multitude of cell biological, biochemical, genetic, and lately physical studies. The enormous size of the cell, the easy method of in vitro cultivation, the unique life cycle and its highly visible internal cytoplasmic streaming have made it invaluable for investigations on cell cycle regulation, differentiation, cytoskeleton and locomotion. Research on P. polycephalum lost its prominent role when animal cell culture and genetic techniques became more advanced, thereby replacing the slime mold as a state-of-the-art model. However, research continued, driven by a small number of groups, resulting in full sequencing of the slime mold’s genome, hence reviving interest in studying molecular processes that enable the astounding features of P. polycephalum. In recent years, research on P. polycephalum has again become cutting-edge. In 2000, Japanese researcher Toshiyuki Nakagaki performed a seminal experiment showing that the slime mold is able to find the shortest route through a maze. Ever since, smart problem-solving P. polycephalum has returned from the shadows and is nowadays back to center-stage when questions regarding the origins of intelligence and cognition are discussed. The basic mechanisms with which organisms perceive their environment, integrate this information and make decisions based on this input are investigated. The aim is to find underlying universal mechanisms of decision making and awareness. If those mechanisms can be found in as primordial an organism as a slime mold, it could fundamentally change our perception of the nature and evolution of cognition.

  7. Advantage of make-to-stock strategy based on linear mixed-effect model: a comparison with regression, autoregressive, times series, and exponential smoothing models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pin Liao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, demand forecasting has become relatively difficult due to rapid changes in the global environment. This research illustrates the use of the make-to-stock (MTS production strategy in order to explain how forecasting plays an essential role in business management. The linear mixed-effect (LME model has been extensively developed and is widely applied in various fields. However, no study has used the LME model for business forecasting. We suggest that the LME model be used as a tool for prediction and to overcome environment complexity. The data analysis is based on real data in an international display company, where the company needs accurate demand forecasting before adopting a MTS strategy. The forecasting result from the LME model is compared to the commonly used approaches, including the regression model, autoregressive model, times series model, and exponential smoothing model, with the results revealing that prediction performance provided by the LME model is more stable than using the other methods. Furthermore, product types in the data are regarded as a random effect in the LME model, hence demands of all types can be predicted simultaneously using a single LME model. However, some approaches require splitting the data into different type categories, and then predicting the type demand by establishing a model for each type. This feature also demonstrates the practicability of the LME model in real business operations.

  8. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    to failure several times. Before the current situation of the company, it remains challenging in the future as well. Hence, the Nespresso story provides interesting space for discussion and learning about what innovation is, how innovation emerges, and under which circumstances innovation can serve...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...... offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and the success of a company on the long term. The case is designed to give practitioners a better understanding on what an innovation as, and how competitive advantages can be linked to innovation. Originality/value This case of Nespresso...

  9. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    Drawing upon extant alliance literature, this article substantiates the argument that we need to look beyond mere structural and formative aspects of cooperation in order to fully understand the performance antecedents of public-private partnerships. Currently, scholarly work on operational......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...... is that public management research can benefit from drawing upon existing alliance research. Alliance scholars have during the past couple of decades accumulated an impressive amount of knowledge on different aspects of inter-firm cooperation, and therefore the learning potential for public management scholars...

  10. Cooperative resources lead to sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze how organizational resources contribute to cooperatives achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The theoretical approach of this study is the Resource Based View and VRIO model advocated by Barney and Hesterly (2007. The research was characterized as descriptive and quantitative, through data collection from secondary sources and a survey. The data collection tool was a questionnaire devised by Peacock, Sehnem and Hoffmann (2011. Data collection took place between the months of September 2014 and March 2015. The study sample was composed of a total of 215 cooperatives from across the country, divided into 13 segments. Secondary data was subjected to content analysis. The primary data was analyzed using statistical inference, namely: descriptive statistics, mean, Pearson correlation, Varimax rotation and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results showed that human resources are seen as important to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. This research contributed to and enables new studies concerning the growth of cooperatives taking into account the use of internal resources.

  11. Hysteresis modelling of GO laminations for arbitrary in-plane directions taking into account the dynamics of orthogonal domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghel, A.P.S.; Sai Ram, B. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chwastek, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland); Daniel, L. [Group of Electrical Engineering-Paris (GeePs), CNRS(UMR8507)/CentraleSupelec/UPMC/Univ Paris-Sud, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kulkarni, S.V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-11-15

    The anisotropy of magnetic properties in grain-oriented steels is related to their microstructure. It results from the anisotropy of the single crystal properties combined to crystallographic texture. The magnetization process along arbitrary directions can be explained using phase equilibrium for domain patterns, which can be described using Neel's phase theory. According to the theory the fractions of 180° and 90° domain walls depend on the direction of magnetization. This paper presents an approach to model hysteresis loops of grain-oriented steels along arbitrary in-plane directions. The considered description is based on a modification of the Jiles–Atherton model. It includes a modified expression for the anhysteretic magnetization which takes into account contributions of two types of domain walls. The computed hysteresis curves for different directions are in good agreement with experimental results. - Highlights: • An extended Jiles–Atherton description is used to model hysteresis loops in GO steels. • The model stresses the role of material anisotropy and different contributions of the two types of domain walls. • Hysteresis loops can be modeled along arbitrary in-plane directions. • Modeling results are in good agreement with experiments.

  12. Advantages of joint modeling of component HIV risk behaviors and non-response: application to randomized trials in cocaine-dependent and methamphetamine-dependent populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyson H Holmes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The HIV risk-taking behavior scale (HRBS is an 11-item instrument designed to assess the risks of HIV infection due self-reported injection drug use and sexual behavior. A retrospective analysis was performed on HRBS data collected from approximately 1,000 participants pooled across seven clinical trials of pharmacotherapies for either the treatment of cocaine-dependence or methamphetamine-dependence. Analysis faced three important challenges. The sample contained a high proportion of missing assessments after randomization. Also, the HRBS scale consists of two distinct behavioral components which may or may not coincide in response patterns. In addition, distributions of responses on the subscales were highly concentrated at just a few values (e.g., 0, 6. To address these challenges, a single probit regression model was fit to three outcomes variables simultaneously—the two subscale totals plus an indicator variable for assessments not obtained (non-response. This joint-outcome regression model was able to identify that those who left assessment early had higher self-reported risk of injection-drug use and lower self-reported risky sexual behavior because the model was able to draw on information on associations among the three outcomes collectively. These findings were not identified in analyses performed on each outcome separately. No evidence for an effect of pharmacotherapies was observed, except to reduce missing assessments. Univariate-outcome modeling is not recommended for the HRBS.

  13. A 2D finite element procedure for magnetic field analysis taking into account a vector Preisach model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupré Luc R.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to incorporate a refined hysteresis model, viz. a vector Preisach model, in 2D magnetic field computations. To this end the governing Maxwell equations are rewritten in a suitable way, which allows to take into account the proper magnetic material parameters and, moreover, to pass to a variational formulation. The variational problem is solved numerically by a FE approximation, using a quadratic mesh, followed by the time discretisation based upon a modified Cranck Nicholson algorithm. The latter includes a suitable iteration procedure to deal with the nonlinear hysteresis behaviour. Finally, the effectiveness of the presented mathematical tool has been confirmed by several numerical experiments.

  14. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  15. Model of whooping crane energetics as foundation for development of a method to assess potential take during migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Selbo, Sarena M.

    2012-01-01

    A whooping crane energetic model was developed as a component of a larger effort to ascertain potential take, as defined by the Endangered Species Act, of whooping cranes from proposed development of wind-energy infrastructure in the Great Plains of North America. The primary objectives of this energetic model were to (1) predict extra flight energy that whooping cranes may require to find suitable migration stopover sites if they are unable to use a primary site; and (2) express energy expended as additional time required to replenish lipid reserves used to fuel flight. The energetic model is based on three elements related to energy: expenditure of energy, intake of energy, and constraints to energy intake. The energetic model estimates each element and recognizes interactions among them. This framework will be most useful when integrated into a migration model that predicts incidence of avoidance of wind towers by whooping cranes and distances they might fly to find alternative stopover habitat. This report details work conducted in accordance with the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Quick Response Program funded in fiscal year 2011 and will serve as a final report.

  16. MODEL OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE BUDGET OF THE PORTFOLIO OF IT PROJECTS TAKING IN-TO ACCOUNT THEIR PRIORITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita V. Sotnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to a problem of effective distribution of the general budget of a portfolio between the IT projects which are its part taking into ac-count their priority. The designated problem is actual in view of low results of activity of the consulting companies in the sphere of information technologies.For determination of priority of IT projects the method of analytical networks developed by T. Saati is used. For the purpose of application of this method the system of criteria (indicators reflecting influence of IT projects of a portfolio on the most significant purposes of implementation of IT projects of a portfolio is developed. As system of criteria the key indicators of efficiency defined when developing the Balanced system of indicators which meet above-mentioned requirements are used. The essence of a method of analytical net-works consists in paired comparison of key indicators of efficiency concerning the purpose of realization of a portfolio and IT projects which are a part of a portfolio. Result of use of a method of analytical networks are coefficients of priority of each IT project of a portfolio. The received coefficients of priority of IT projects are used in the offered model of distribution of the budget of a portfolio between IT projects. Thus, the budget of a portfolio of IT projects is distributed between them taking into account not only the income from implementation of each IT project, but also other criteria, important for the IT company, for example: the degree of compliance of the IT project to strategic objectives of the IT company defining expediency of implementation of the IT project; the term of implementation of the IT project determined by the customer. The developed model of distribution of the budget of a portfolio between IT projects is approved on the example of distribution of the budget between IT projects of the portfolio consisting of three IT projects. Taking into account the received

  17. Ensemble-based flash-flood modelling: Taking into account hydrodynamic parameters and initial soil moisture uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Simon; Vincendon, Béatrice; Ducrocq, Véronique

    2018-05-01

    Intense precipitation events in the Mediterranean often lead to devastating flash floods (FF). FF modelling is affected by several kinds of uncertainties and Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems (HEPS) are designed to take those uncertainties into account. The major source of uncertainty comes from rainfall forcing and convective-scale meteorological ensemble prediction systems can manage it for forecasting purpose. But other sources are related to the hydrological modelling part of the HEPS. This study focuses on the uncertainties arising from the hydrological model parameters and initial soil moisture with aim to design an ensemble-based version of an hydrological model dedicated to Mediterranean fast responding rivers simulations, the ISBA-TOP coupled system. The first step consists in identifying the parameters that have the strongest influence on FF simulations by assuming perfect precipitation. A sensitivity study is carried out first using a synthetic framework and then for several real events and several catchments. Perturbation methods varying the most sensitive parameters as well as initial soil moisture allow designing an ensemble-based version of ISBA-TOP. The first results of this system on some real events are presented. The direct perspective of this work will be to drive this ensemble-based version with the members of a convective-scale meteorological ensemble prediction system to design a complete HEPS for FF forecasting.

  18. Do we have to take action today in front of climate change? The contribution of integrated models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Ha-Duong; Hourcade, J.Ch.

    2007-03-01

    What shall we do in front of climatic change? Considering the potential seriousness of global risks, shall we start drastic policies of abatement of greenhouse gas emissions? Taking into account the cost of these policies and the uncertainties about the reality of risks, should we postpone the action? Do the efforts of emissions abatement make a good use of rare resources when the stake is only to gain few degrees of temperature and while we need today urgent developments to fight against poverty? One of the priorities of CIRED, a mixed research unit involved in the sustainable development issue, is to clarify the terms of the debate in order to avoid its transformation into a conflict which would paralyze any significant action. To do so, CIRED has elaborated 'integrated' models which allow to study the optimal answer to be adopted considering the size of uncertainties and the forcefulness of the controversies which characterize this subject. (J.S.)

  19. Conditioning factors of test-taking engagement in PIAAC: an exploratory IRT modelling approach considering person and item characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Goldhammer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A potential problem of low-stakes large-scale assessments such as the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC is low test-taking engagement. The present study pursued two goals in order to better understand conditioning factors of test-taking disengagement: First, a model-based approach was used to investigate whether item indicators of disengagement constitute a continuous latent person variable by domain. Second, the effects of person and item characteristics were jointly tested using explanatory item response models. Methods Analyses were based on the Canadian sample of Round 1 of the PIAAC, with N = 26,683 participants completing test items in the domains of literacy, numeracy, and problem solving. Binary item disengagement indicators were created by means of item response time thresholds. Results The results showed that disengagement indicators define a latent dimension by domain. Disengagement increased with lower educational attainment, lower cognitive skills, and when the test language was not the participant’s native language. Gender did not exert any effect on disengagement, while age had a positive effect for problem solving only. An item’s location in the second of two assessment modules was positively related to disengagement, as was item difficulty. The latter effect was negatively moderated by cognitive skill, suggesting that poor test-takers are especially likely to disengage with more difficult items. Conclusions The negative effect of cognitive skill, the positive effect of item difficulty, and their negative interaction effect support the assumption that disengagement is the outcome of individual expectations about success (informed disengagement.

  20. Canadian competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, J.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of the Canadian petrochemical industry was outlined, emphasizing the proximity to feedstocks as the principal advantage enjoyed by the industry over its international competitors. Annual sales statistics for 1995 were provided. Key players in the Canadian petrochemical industry (Nova, Dow, DuPont, Methanex, Esso, Union Carbide, Shell and Celanese), their share of the market and key products were noted. Manufacturing facilities are located primarily in Alberta, southern Ontario and Quebec. The feedstock supply infrastructure, historical and alternative ethane pricing in Canada and the US, the North American market for petrochemicals, the competitiveness of the industry, tax competitiveness among Canadian provinces and the US, the Canada - US unit labour cost ratio, ethylene facility construction costs in Canada relative to the US Gulf Coast, and projected 1997 financial requirements were reviewed. 19 figs

  1. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  2. Design of a non-linear power take-off simulator for model testing of rotating wave energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M.F.P.; Henriques, J.C.C.; Lopes, Miguel C.; Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC - Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Dente Antonio [CIE3 - Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    Eddy current brakes provide a versatile way of simulating the power take-off system (PTO) in the model testing of wave energy converters at small scale. These are based on the principle that a conductive material moving perpendicularly to a magnetic field generates a braking force proportional to its velocity. This was applied in the design of the PTO simulator of a bottom-hinged flap wave energy converter model, at 1/16 scale. The efforts put into the accurate dynamic simulation of the device led to the development of a controllable PTO simulator, which can be applied to other small scale rotating wave energy device models. A special power source was built to provide the required controllable current intensity to feed the magnetic field generating coils. Different non-linear damping PTO characteristic curves can be simulated by basing the current control on real-time velocity measurement. The calibration of the system was done by connecting the device to a constant rotating speed motor and measuring the resistent torque produced by the PTO with a torquemeter for different values of current intensity through the coils.

  3. A Conceptual Mapping Resource Advantage Theory, Competitive Advantage Theory, and Transient Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanta PERANGINANGIN

    2015-01-01

    Competitive advantage is the main purposed of the business entity focusing on market base view. Resource advantage theorists put their concern to empowering resources development with resources based view, in the other side needs to redefining competitive advantage. All the competitive advantage are transient, concluded the end of competitive advantage. Redefining competitive advantage by selling migration and shrewdness outward. This research to emphasize innovation capability rarely appears...

  4. Political Cycles : The Opposition Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Pascal; Soubeyran, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    We propose a two dimensional infinite horizon model of public consumption in which investments are decided by a winner-take-all election. Investments in the two public goods create a linkage across periods and parties have different specialities. We show that the incumbent party vote share decreases the longer it stays in power. Parties chances of winning do not converge and, when the median voter is moderate enough, no party can maintain itself in power for ever. Finally, the more parties ar...

  5. BUSINESS COMPETITORS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of competition, both from the perspective of the economic sector –where it is characteristic for pure monopole, oligopoly, monopole competition and pure competition, as well asfrom the market’s point of view – where it determines the strategies, objectives, advantages and weaknesses of acompany. The main point of the paper is the criticism of the pure and perfect competition theory. Concluding,the author insists on innovation, especially on the model of open innovation.

  6. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, David; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2018-02-01

    Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  7. Modeling liquid-vapor equilibria with an equation of state taking into account dipolar interactions and association by hydrogen bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfetti, E.

    2006-11-01

    Modelling fluid-rock interactions as well as mixing and unmixing phenomena in geological processes requires robust equations of state (EOS) which must be applicable to systems containing water, gases over a broad range of temperatures and pressures. Cubic equations of state based on the Van der Waals theory (e. g. Soave-Redlich-Kwong or Peng-Robinson) allow simple modelling from the critical parameters of the studied fluid components. However, the accuracy of such equations becomes poor when water is a major component of the fluid since neither association trough hydrogen bonding nor dipolar interactions are accounted for. The Helmholtz energy of a fluid may be written as the sum of different energetic contributions by factorization of partition function. The model developed in this thesis for the pure H 2 O and H 2 S considers three contributions. The first contribution represents the reference Van der Waals fluid which is modelled by the SRK cubic EOS. The second contribution accounts for association through hydrogen bonding and is modelled by a term derived from Cubic Plus Association (CPA) theory. The third contribution corresponds to the dipolar interactions and is modelled by the Mean Spherical Approximation (MSA) theory. The resulting CPAMSA equation has six adjustable parameters, which three represent physical terms whose values are close to their experimental counterpart. This equation results in a better reproduction of the thermodynamic properties of pure water than obtained using the classical CPA equation along the vapour-liquid equilibrium. In addition, extrapolation to higher temperatures and pressure is satisfactory. Similarly, taking into account dipolar interactions together with the SRK cubic equation of state for calculating molar volume of H 2 S as a function of pressure and temperature results in a significant improvement compared to the SRK equation alone. Simple mixing rules between dipolar molecules are proposed to model the H 2 O-H 2 S

  8. Modelling of the physico-chemical behaviour of clay minerals with a thermo-kinetic model taking into account particles morphology in compacted material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sali, D.; Fritz, B.; Clément, C.; Michau, N.

    2003-04-01

    Modelling of fluid-mineral interactions is largely used in Earth Sciences studies to better understand the involved physicochemical processes and their long-term effect on the materials behaviour. Numerical models simplify the processes but try to preserve their main characteristics. Therefore the modelling results strongly depend on the data quality describing initial physicochemical conditions for rock materials, fluids and gases, and on the realistic way of processes representations. The current geo-chemical models do not well take into account rock porosity and permeability and the particle morphology of clay minerals. In compacted materials like those considered as barriers in waste repositories, low permeability rocks like mudstones or compacted powders will be used : they contain mainly fine particles and the geochemical models used for predicting their interactions with fluids tend to misjudge their surface areas, which are fundamental parameters in kinetic modelling. The purpose of this study was to improve how to take into account the particles morphology in the thermo-kinetic code KINDIS and the reactive transport code KIRMAT. A new function was integrated in these codes, considering the reaction surface area as a volume depending parameter and the calculated evolution of the mass balance in the system was coupled with the evolution of reactive surface areas. We made application exercises for numerical validation of these new versions of the codes and the results were compared with those of the pre-existing thermo-kinetic code KINDIS. Several points are highlighted. Taking into account reactive surface area evolution during simulation modifies the predicted mass transfers related to fluid-minerals interactions. Different secondary mineral phases are also observed during modelling. The evolution of the reactive surface parameter helps to solve the competition effects between different phases present in the system which are all able to fix the chemical

  9. Stochastic inverse modelling of hydraulic conductivity fields taking into account independent stochastic structures: A 3D case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Albert, C.; Capilla, J. E.

    2010-09-01

    SummaryMajor factors affecting groundwater flow through fractured rocks include the geometry of each fracture, its properties and the fracture-network connectivity together with the porosity and conductivity of the rock matrix. When modelling fractured rocks this is translated into attaining a characterization of the hydraulic conductivity ( K) as adequately as possible, despite its high heterogeneity. This links with the main goal of this paper, which is to present an improvement of a stochastic inverse model, named as Gradual Conditioning (GC) method, to better characterise K in a fractured rock medium by considering different K stochastic structures, belonging to independent K statistical populations (SP) of fracture families and the rock matrix, each one with its own statistical properties. The new methodology is carried out by applying independent deformations to each SP during the conditioning process for constraining stochastic simulations to data. This allows that the statistical properties of each SPs tend to be preserved during the iterative optimization process. It is worthwhile mentioning that so far, no other stochastic inverse modelling technique, with the whole capabilities implemented in the GC method, is able to work with a domain covered by several different stochastic structures taking into account the independence of different populations. The GC method is based on a procedure that gradually changes an initial K field, which is conditioned only to K data, to approximate the reproduction of other types of information, i.e., piezometric head and solute concentration data. The approach is applied to the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden, where, since the middle nineties, many experiments have been carried out to increase confidence in alternative radionuclide transport modelling approaches. Because the description of fracture locations and the distribution of hydrodynamic parameters within them are not accurate enough, we address the

  10. Help Others and Yourself Eventually: Exploring the Relationship between Help-Giving and Employee Creativity under the Model of Perspective Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si; Liao, Shudi

    2017-01-01

    Although a plethora of studies have examined the antecedents of creativity, empirical studies exploring the role of individual behaviors in relation to creativity are relatively scarce. Drawing on the model of perspective taking, this study examines the relationship between help-giving during creative problem solving process and employee creativity. Specifically, we test perspective taking as an explanatory mechanism and propose organization-based self-esteem as the moderator. In a sample collected from a field survey of 247 supervisor-subordinate dyads from 2 large organizations in China at 3 time points, we find that help-giving during creative problem solving process positively related with perspective taking; perspective taking positively related with employees' creativity; employees' organization-based self-esteem strengthened the link between perspective taking and creativity; besides, there existed a moderated mediation effect. We conclude this paper with discussions on the implications for theory, research, and practice.

  11. Help Others and Yourself Eventually: Exploring the Relationship between Help-Giving and Employee Creativity under the Model of Perspective Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although a plethora of studies have examined the antecedents of creativity, empirical studies exploring the role of individual behaviors in relation to creativity are relatively scarce. Drawing on the model of perspective taking, this study examines the relationship between help-giving during creative problem solving process and employee creativity. Specifically, we test perspective taking as an explanatory mechanism and propose organization-based self-esteem as the moderator. In a sample collected from a field survey of 247 supervisor-subordinate dyads from 2 large organizations in China at 3 time points, we find that help-giving during creative problem solving process positively related with perspective taking; perspective taking positively related with employees’ creativity; employees’ organization-based self-esteem strengthened the link between perspective taking and creativity; besides, there existed a moderated mediation effect. We conclude this paper with discussions on the implications for theory, research, and practice.

  12. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskova, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don't provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers' behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  13. Home advantage in professional tennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in

  14. From the Consulting Room to the Court Room? Taking the Clinical Model of Responsibility Without Blame into the Legal Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Nicola; Pickard, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Within contemporary penal philosophy, the view that punishment can only be justified if the offender is a moral agent who is responsible and hence blameworthy for their offence is one of the few areas on which a consensus prevails. In recent literature, this precept is associated with the retributive tradition, in the modern form of ‘just deserts’. Turning its back on the rehabilitative ideal, this tradition forges a strong association between the justification of punishment, the attribution of responsible agency in relation to the offence, and the appropriateness of blame. By contrast, effective clinical treatment of disorders of agency employs a conceptual framework in which ideas of responsibility and blameworthiness are clearly separated from what we call ‘affective blame’: the range of hostile, negative attitudes and emotions that are typical human responses to criminal or immoral conduct. We argue that taking this clinical model of ‘responsibility without blame’ into the legal realm offers new possibilities. Theoretically, it allows for the reconciliation of the idea of ‘just deserts’ with a rehabilitative ideal in penal philosophy. Punishment can be reconceived as consequences—typically negative but occasionally not, so long as they are serious and appropriate to the crime and the context—imposed in response to, by reason of, and in proportion to responsibility and blameworthiness, but without the hard treatment and stigma typical of affective blame. Practically, it suggests how sentencing and punishment can better avoid affective blame and instead further rehabilitative and related ends, while yet serving the demands of justice. PMID:24771953

  15. Advantages and Challenges of a Home- and Clinic-Based Model of Behavioral Intervention for Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Cihon, Joseph H; Ferguson, Julia L

    2017-12-20

    Researchers have demonstrated that comprehensive behavioral intervention can result in significant improvements in the lives of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; e.g.; Lovaas, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55(1):3-9, 1987; McEachin et al., American Journal of Mental Retardation 97(4):359-372, 1993). This intervention has occurred in a variety of settings (e.g., school, home, and clinic). Even though procedures based upon the principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA) can be implemented across a variety of settings, there is often confusion about the differences and relative advantages of home- versus clinic-based settings. The purpose of this paper is to provide a discussion of home- and clinic-based intervention within the context of a progressive approach to ABA and discus possible advantages of each type of setting.

  16. CONCEPTUALIZING THE CO-CREATION OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN TECHNOLOGY-INTENSIVE B2B MARKETS: AGENT-BASED MODELING APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    MARKUS A. JÄÄSKELÄINEN; SAMULI KORTELAINEN; JUHA J. HINKKANEN

    2013-01-01

    The importance and challenges of supplier–customer cooperation has been widely recognized in the academic literature but the dynamics of such relationship remain understudied. We do not yet fully understand how customer–supplier relationship should be pursued in order to co-create mutual competitive advantage. Our simulation results show that there are differences in absolute profitability and profit distribution between cooperation partners when moving from individual firm-level management t...

  17. Model of Wagons’ Placing-In and Taking-Out Problem in a Railway Station and Its Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuijiang Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Placing-in and taking-out wagons timely can decrease wagons’ dwell time in railway stations, improve the efficiency of railway transportation, and reduce the cost of goods transportation. We took the locomotive running times between goods operation sites as weights, so the wagons’ placing-in and taking-out problem could be regarded as a single machine scheduling problem, 1pijCmax, which could be transformed into the shortest circle problem in a Hamilton graph whose relaxation problem was an assignment problem. We used a Hungarian algorithm to calculate the optimal solution of the assignment problem. Then we applied a broken circle and connection method, whose computational complexity was O(n2, to find the available satisfactory order of wagons’ placing-in and taking-out. Complex problems, such as placing-in and transferring combined, taking-out and transferring combined, placing-in and taking-out combined, or placing-in, transferring, and taking-out combined, could also be resolved with the extended algorithm. A representative instance was given to illustrate the reliability and efficiency of our results.

  18. Nontraditional or noncentralized models of diabetes care: models in which other HCPs take on a leading role in managing patients' diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, K C

    2011-11-01

    Nurse practitioners (NPs) are advanced practice nurses who have increased responsibility,such as prescribing authority. In the NP-led model, the NP is the primary care provider for clinic patients and takes on an autonomous role in patient management. In some states, NP-led clinics are required to have a supervising or collaborating physician. There is evidence that NP-led and physician-led primary care is comparable for multiple health outcomes. The NP-led model emphasizes the strong interaction between health care provider and patient. Challenges of NP-led care include physician resistance, legal restrictions, inaccessibility and cost of malpractice insurance, and limited payouts from insurance companies

  19. Building a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Srivastava

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes cross-industrial best practices and future trends in the context of the contemporary resource based competitive advantage model of the firm. It identifies key managerial levers, tools and systems that can be used to build and sustain a Hi-Technology company’s core competences in order to facilitate a more innovative, collaborative 21st century corporate culture. A qualitative and quantitative assessment is made of how a firm’s leadership, human capital management, organizational culture, design and systems can all collectively merge to create a more dynamic and responsive organization which is far more adept at building unique resources and capabilities, which can then be leveraged to create new market opportunities with high competitive entry barriers.

  20. Mechanistic Basis of Cocrystal Dissolution Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fengjuan; Amidon, Gordon L; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír; Amidon, Gregory E

    2018-01-01

    Current interest in cocrystal development resides in the advantages that the cocrystal may have in solubility and dissolution compared with the parent drug. This work provides a mechanistic analysis and comparison of the dissolution behavior of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its 2 cocrystals, carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) and carbamazepine-salicylic acid (CBZ-SLC) under the influence of pH and micellar solubilization. A simple mathematical equation is derived based on the mass transport analyses to describe the dissolution advantage of cocrystals. The dissolution advantage is the ratio of the cocrystal flux to drug flux and is defined as the solubility advantage (cocrystal to drug solubility ratio) times the diffusivity advantage (cocrystal to drug diffusivity ratio). In this work, the effective diffusivity of CBZ in the presence of surfactant was determined to be different and less than those of the cocrystals. The higher effective diffusivity of drug from the dissolved cocrystals, the diffusivity advantage, can impart a dissolution advantage to cocrystals with lower solubility than the parent drug while still maintaining thermodynamic stability. Dissolution conditions where cocrystals can display both thermodynamic stability and a dissolution advantage can be obtained from the mass transport models, and this information is useful for both cocrystal selection and formulation development. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Is Batting Last an Advantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore L. Turocy

    2003-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of zero-sum stochastic games to assess the validity of baseball's ancient wisdom that batting last confers a strategic advantage. Results from numerical calculation of Markov perfect equilibrium suggest that the team that bats last will have an advantage if in fact the offense has, in some sense, more useful strategic actions available than the defense. An example is provided where the advantage depends on details of the teams playing. Regardless of which team ha...

  2. Risk-Taking Tendencies and Radon Messages: A Field Experiment Testing an Information Processing Model for Risk Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, M. A.; Valenti, JoAnn Myer

    Using radon (a naturally-occurring radioactive gas linked to lung cancer) as the health risk factor, a study examined which risk-taking tendencies interact with different health-risk message strategies. A phone survey pretested 837 randomly selected homeowners from three Florida counties with the highest levels of radon in the state (706 agreed to…

  3. Advantages and disadvantages of franchising as a form of business

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesova, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the features of the development of franchising in Russia. Franchising has a number of advantages and it is a perspective form of interaction between small and large businesses. However, in taking a decision to contract with the franchise network, in addition to understanding the forms of doing business, the advantages of the system, you should also take into account that the franchise system is associated with some risks.

  4. Study on the application of 3D modeling based on UAV photography in urban planning — Taking Yi Jiequ area in Du Jiangyan as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingshuang; Zhang, Lingqing

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposed a new technique combining UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) with 3D (three-dimension) modeling to integrate and analyze a large amount of information and to guide urban planning. This paper expounded the status and methods of UAV applying to 3D modeling, verified the practical values of this technique and summarized the future development trend by taking Yi Jiequ area in Du Jiangyan as an example.

  5. Online commerce: advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    SNOPOK E.V.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the online commerce. Presents the advantages and disadvantages purchases on the Internet, considered the purpose and object of. online trading. Conclusions are made about possible directions of further improvement and development of this type of commerce.

  6. Multinational team. Advantages and disadvantages.

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Alena

    2014-01-01

    The topic of the tesis is advantages and disadvantages of work in russian-czech multicultural teams. The research then analyzes the efficiency of such teams primarily from the side of partners and clients of such projects.

  7. Practical advantages of evolutionary computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, David B.

    1997-10-01

    Evolutionary computation is becoming a common technique for solving difficult, real-world problems in industry, medicine, and defense. This paper reviews some of the practical advantages to using evolutionary algorithms as compared with classic methods of optimization or artificial intelligence. Specific advantages include the flexibility of the procedures, as well as their ability to self-adapt the search for optimum solutions on the fly. As desktop computers increase in speed, the application of evolutionary algorithms will become routine.

  8. Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Lage Hansen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a general framework for examining how governance choice affects competitive advantage. I argue that firms rely on assets for competing, and that these assets can be accessed by different governance structures (i.e., they can be in- or outsourced). The transaction cost economics framework is used to expose strengths and weaknesses of governance structures with respect to creating and sustaining competitive advantage. The result is a tradeoff to consider when choosing how to ...

  9. Mitigating BeiDou Satellite-Induced Code Bias: Taking into Account the Stochastic Model of Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Guo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The BeiDou satellite-induced code biases have been confirmed to be orbit type-, frequency-, and elevation-dependent. Such code-phase divergences (code bias variations severely affect absolute precise applications which use code measurements. To reduce their adverse effects, an improved correction model is proposed in this paper. Different from the model proposed by Wanninger and Beer (2015, more datasets (a time span of almost two years were used to produce the correction values. More importantly, the stochastic information, i.e., the precision indexes, were given together with correction values in the improved model. However, only correction values were given while the precision indexes were completely missing in the traditional model. With the improved correction model, users may have a better understanding of their corrections, especially the uncertainty of corrections. Thus, it is helpful for refining the stochastic model of code observations. Validation tests in precise point positioning (PPP reveal that a proper stochastic model is critical. The actual precision of the corrected code observations can be reflected in a more objective manner if the stochastic model of the corrections is taken into account. As a consequence, PPP solutions with the improved model outperforms the traditional one in terms of positioning accuracy, as well as convergence speed. In addition, the Melbourne-Wübbena (MW combination which serves for ambiguity fixing were verified as well. The uncorrected MW values show strong systematic variations with an amplitude of half a wide-lane cycle, which prevents precise ambiguity determination and successful ambiguity resolution. After application of the code bias correction models, the systematic variations can be greatly removed, and the resulting wide lane ambiguities are more likely to be fixed. Moreover, the code residuals show more reasonable distributions after code bias corrections with either the traditional or the

  10. Biosphere modelling for safety assessment of geological disposal taking account of denudation of contaminated soils. Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko

    2003-03-01

    Biosphere models for safety assessment of geological disposal have been developed on the assumption that the repository-derived radionuclides reach surface environment by groundwater. In the modelling, river, deep well and marine have been considered as geosphere-biosphere (GBIs) and some Japanese-specific ''reference biospheres'' have been developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II/BIOMASS Reference Biosphere Methodology. In this study, it is assumed that the repository-derived radionuclide would reach surface environment in the form of solid phase by uplift and erosion of contaminated soil and sediment. The radionuclides entered into the surface environment by these processes could be distributed between solid and liquid phases and could spread within the biosphere via solid phase and also liquid phase. Based on these concepts, biosphere model that considers variably saturated zone under surface soil (VSZ) as a GBI was developed for calculating the flux-to-dose conversion factors of three exposure groups (farming, freshwater fishing, marine fishing) based on the Reference Biosphere Methodology. The flux-to-dose conversion factors for faming exposure group were the highest, and ''inhalation of dust'', external irradiation from soil'' and ''ingestion of soil'' were the dominant exposure pathways for most of radionuclides considered in this model. It is impossible to compare the flux-to-dose conversion factors calculated by the biosphere model in this study with those calculated by the biosphere models developed in the previous studies because the migration processes considered when the radionuclides entered the surface environment through the aquifer are different among the models; i.e. it has been assumed that the repository-derived radionuclides entered the GBIs such as river, deep well and marine via groundwater without dilution and retardation at the aquifer in the previous biosphere models. Consequently, it must be modelled the migration of

  11. Take away body parts! An investigation into the use of 3D-printed anatomical models in undergraduate anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Tollemache, Nicholas; Covill, Derek; Johnston, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the human form is imperative for effective medical practice and the emergence of 3D printing creates numerous opportunities to enhance aspects of medical and healthcare training. A recently deceased, un-embalmed donor was scanned through high-resolution computed tomography. The scan data underwent segmentation and post-processing and a range of 3D-printed anatomical models were produced. A four-stage mixed-methods study was conducted to evaluate the educational value of the models in a medical program. (1) A quantitative pre/post-test to assess change in learner knowledge following 3D-printed model usage in a small group tutorial; (2) student focus group (3) a qualitative student questionnaire regarding personal student model usage (4) teaching faculty evaluation. The use of 3D-printed models in small-group anatomy teaching session resulted in a significant increase in knowledge (P = 0.0001) when compared to didactic 2D-image based teaching methods. Student focus groups yielded six key themes regarding the use of 3D-printed anatomical models: model properties, teaching integration, resource integration, assessment, clinical imaging, and pathology and anatomical variation. Questionnaires detailed how students used the models in the home environment and integrated them with anatomical learning resources such as textbooks and anatomy lectures. In conclusion, 3D-printed anatomical models can be successfully produced from the CT data set of a recently deceased donor. These models can be used in anatomy education as a teaching tool in their own right, as well as a method for augmenting the curriculum and complementing established learning modalities, such as dissection-based teaching. Anat Sci Educ 11: 44-53. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Development of Off-take Model, Subcooled Boiling Model, and Radiation Heat Transfer Input Model into the MARS Code for a Regulatory Auditing of CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, C.; Rhee, B. W.; Chung, B. D.; Ahn, S. H.; Kim, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    Korea currently has four operating units of the CANDU-6 type reactor in Wolsong. However, the safety assessment system for CANDU reactors has not been fully established due to a lack of self-reliance technology. Although the CATHENA code had been introduced from AECL, it is undesirable to use a vendor's code for a regulatory auditing analysis. In Korea, the MARS code has been developed for decades and is being considered by KINS as a thermal hydraulic regulatory auditing tool for nuclear power plants. Before this decision, KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) had developed the RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU code for CANDU safety analyses by modifying the model of the existing PWR auditing tool, RELAP5/MOD3. The main purpose of this study is to transplant the CANDU models of the RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU code to the MARS code including a quality assurance of the developed models

  13. Multi-wall cask advantages with quarter-scale model drop test results for the NAC-STC Storable Transport Cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danner, T.A.; Thompson, T.C.; Yaksh, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Physical drop test results for a quarter-scale model multi-wall cask are presented for the 9 meter end, side and oblique drops with impact limiters, and for the 1 meter side and closure lid pin puncture drops. Lessons learned and final cask test qualification are presented. (J.P.N.)

  14. Modeling of the cesium 137 air transfer taking account of dust-making distinction on arable and long-fallow lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A.P.; Zhmura, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical model for air transfer of cesium 137 out from the contaminated regions which takes into account of dust-making distinction on arable and long-fallow lands is suggested. The calculation results of near-ground concentrations of cesium 137 for several towns of Belarus are presented. The sources of the contamination of the atmosphere in each calculated point have been analysed

  15. 'The challenge to take charge of life with long-term illness': nurses' experiences of supporting patients' learning with the didactic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Susanne; Svanström, Rune; Ek, Kristina; Rosén, Helena; Berglund, Mia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this implementation study is to describe nurses' experiences of supporting patient learning using the model called 'The challenge to take charge of life with long-term illness'. Supporting patient learning for those suffering from a long-term illness is a complex art in nursing. Genuine learning occurs at a deep and existential level. If the patient's resistance to illness can be challenged and reflected upon, the patient may take charge of his/her life. The project lasted for 2 years and was initiated by a former patient on an assisted haemodialysis ward and involved 14 registered nurses. The project began with a session to review patients' learning and the didactic model. Monthly reflective meetings and group supervisions were held that focused on the nurses' experiences of supporting patient learning. Notes were written during these reflective meetings and group sessions. Data collected from interviews, notes and written stories were subjected to phenomenological analysis. Three aspects of nurses' experiences of the learning support approach were assessed: To have the courage to listen sincerely, a movement from providing information to supporting learning, and to let the patient indicate the direction. The approach resulted in an increased focus on genuine dialogue and the courage to encourage patients to take charge of their health process. The changes in nurses' approach to learning support reveal that they shift from providing information on the disease, illness and treatment to strengthening and supporting the patient in making decisions and taking responsibility. For nurses, the change entails accepting the patient's goals and regarding their own role as supportive rather than controlling. The didactic model and involved supervision contributed to the change in the nurses' approach. The didactic model might be useful in caring for persons with long-term illness, making the care more person-centred and enhancing the patient's self-care ability.

  16. Taking off the training wheels: the properties of a dynamic vegetation model without climate envelopes, CLM4.5(ED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R. A.; Muszala, S.; Verteinstein, M.; Lawrence, P.; Xu, C.; McDowell, N. G.; Knox, R. G.; Koven, C.; Holm, J.; Rogers, B. M.; Spessa, A.; Lawrence, D.; Bonan, G.

    2015-11-01

    We describe an implementation of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) concept in the Community Land Model. The structure of CLM(ED) and the physiological and structural modifications applied to the CLM are presented. A major motivation of this development is to allow the prediction of biome boundaries directly from plant physiological traits via their competitive interactions. Here we investigate the performance of the model for an example biome boundary in eastern North America. We explore the sensitivity of the predicted biome boundaries and ecosystem properties to the variation of leaf properties using the parameter space defined by the GLOPNET global leaf trait database. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of four sequential alterations to the structural assumptions in the model governing the relative carbon economy of deciduous and evergreen plants. The default assumption is that the costs and benefits of deciduous vs. evergreen leaf strategies, in terms of carbon assimilation and expenditure, can reproduce the geographical structure of biome boundaries and ecosystem functioning. We find some support for this assumption, but only under particular combinations of model traits and structural assumptions. Many questions remain regarding the preferred methods for deployment of plant trait information in land surface models. In some cases, plant traits might best be closely linked to each other, but we also find support for direct linkages to environmental conditions. We advocate intensified study of the costs and benefits of plant life history strategies in different environments and the increased use of parametric and structural ensembles in the development and analysis of complex vegetation models.

  17. Home advantage in Greek football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage.

  18. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk - Roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglione, Alberto; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Brandimarte, Luigia; Kuil, Linda; Carr, Gemma; Salinas, José Luis; Scolobig, Anna; Blöschl, Günter

    2014-10-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in the development of urban floodplains. In this paper we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep risk awareness high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk the community is collectively willing to be exposed to; and (iii) trust of the community in risk reduction measures. To this end, we use a dynamic model that represents the feedback between the hydrological and social system components. Model results indicate that, on the one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-taking attitude, community development is severely limited because of high damages caused by flooding. On the other hand, overestimation of risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many scenarios of favourable development resulting from a trade-off between collective memory and trust in risk reduction measures combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to community growth or recession.

  19. Coupling hydrologic and hydraulic models to take into consideration retention effects on extreme peak discharges in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Guido; Zischg, Andreas; Weingartner, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Estimating peak discharges with very low probabilities is still accompanied by large uncertainties. Common estimation methods are usually based on extreme value statistics applied to observed time series or to hydrological model outputs. However, such methods assume the system to be stationary and do not specifically consider non-stationary effects. Observed time series may exclude events where peak discharge is damped by retention effects, as this process does not occur until specific thresholds, possibly beyond those of the highest measured event, are exceeded. Hydrological models can be complemented and parameterized with non-linear functions. However, in such cases calibration depends on observed data and non-stationary behaviour is not deterministically calculated. Our study discusses the option of considering retention effects on extreme peak discharges by coupling hydrological and hydraulic models. This possibility is tested by forcing the semi-distributed deterministic hydrological model PREVAH with randomly generated, physically plausible extreme precipitation patterns. The resulting hydrographs are then used to force the hydraulic model BASEMENT-ETH (riverbed in 1D, potential inundation areas in 2D). The procedure ensures that the estimated extreme peak discharge does not exceed the physical limit given by the riverbed capacity and that the dampening effect of inundation processes on peak discharge is considered.

  20. Beyond dual systems: A genetically-informed, latent factor model of behavioral and self-report measures related to adolescent risk-taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Paige Harden

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The dual systems model posits that adolescent risk-taking results from an imbalance between a cognitive control system and an incentive processing system. Researchers interested in understanding the development of adolescent risk-taking use a diverse array of behavioral and self-report measures to index cognitive control and incentive processing. It is currently unclear whether different measures commonly interpreted as indicators of the same psychological construct do, in fact, tap the same underlying dimension of individual differences. In a diverse sample of 810 adolescent twins and triplets (M age = 15.9 years, SD = 1.4 years from the Texas Twin Project, we investigated the factor structure of fifteen self-report and task-based measures relevant to adolescent risk-taking. These measures can be organized into four factors, which we labeled premeditation, fearlessness, cognitive dyscontrol, and reward seeking. Most behavioral measures contained large amounts of task-specific variance; however, most genetic variance in each measure was shared with other measures of the corresponding factor. Behavior genetic analyses further indicated that genetic influences on cognitive dyscontrol overlapped nearly perfectly with genetic influences on IQ (rA = −0.91. These findings underscore the limitations of using single laboratory tasks in isolation, and indicate that the study of adolescent risk taking will benefit from applying multimethod approaches.

  1. Analysis of Advantages and Disadvantages of Current Operational Risk Management Models (AS/NZS 4360, AS/NZS ISO 9000, AS/NZS ISO 14000, AS/NZS 4801, AS/NZS 3806, AS/NZS 4444

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Jie

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will describe about the analysis of advantages and disadvantages of current operational risk management models (AS/NZS 4360: Risk Management, AS/NZS 4801: Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems, AS/NZS ISO 9001: Quality Management System, AS/NZS ISO 14001: Environment Management System, AS/NZS 3806: Compliance Management System, AS/NZS 4444: Information Security Management  based on expert experiences and extracting the literature review. The advantages of most current models are widely adopted by industries of various of sizes as the basis for their operational risk management. In addition, they may help the organizations to improve the operations and competitiveness. However, there are some disadvantages of most current models such as the models are very general (guidance only, not specific to cover particular risks of industries.  And they don’t have the specific tools and processes.  In addition, they may not be able to integrate all elements of the management systems such as safety, health, environment, quality, security, and compliance. 

  2. Affective preclinical modeling of psychiatric disorders: taking imbalanced primal emotional feelings of animals seriously in our search for novel antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-12-01

    Preclinical animal models of psychiatric disorders are of critical importance for advances in development of new psychiatric medicine. Regrettably, behavior-only models have yielded no novel targeted treatments during the past half-century of vigorous deployment. This may reflect the general neglect of experiential aspects of animal emotions, since affective mental states of animals supposedly cannot be empirically monitored. This supposition is wrong-to the extent that the rewarding and punishing aspects of emotion circuit arousals reflect positive and negative affective states. During the past decade, the use of such affective neuroscience-based animal modeling has yielded three novel antidepressants (i) via the alleviation of psychic pain with low doses of buprenorphine; (ii) via the amplification of enthusiasm by direct stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle); and (iii) via the facilitation of the capacity for social joy with play facilitators such as rapastinel (GLYX13). All have progressed to successful human testing. For optimal progress, it may be useful for preclinical investigators to focus on the evolved affective foundations of psychiatrically relevant brain emotional disorders for optimal animal modeling.

  3. Multiparameter models in the management of the development of territories, taking into account the influence of hydrometeorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, E. P.; Popov, N. N.; Sokolov, A. G.; Fokicheva, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article considers the geoinformation management of the territory as a way to manage the organizational and technical systems and territories distributed in space. The article describes the main factors for the development and implementation of management decisions, requirements for the territorial management system and the structure of knowledge and data. Mathematical one-parameter and multiparameter models of risk assessment of management decisions applied to the natural and climatic potential of the development of the territory were considered.

  4. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  5. In vitro oral drug permeation models: the importance of taking physiological and physico-chemical factors into consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Ruan; Steyn, Johan Dewald; Heystek, Hendrik Jacobus; Steenekamp, Jan Harm; Du Preez, Jan Lourens; Hamman, Josias Hendrik

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of intestinal membrane permeability properties of new chemical entities is a crucial step in the drug discovery and development process and a variety of in vitro models, methods and techniques are available to estimate the extent of oral drug absorption in humans. However, variations in certain physiological and physico-chemical factors are often not reflected in the results and the complex dynamic interplay between these factors is sometimes oversimplified with in vitro models. Areas covered: In vitro models to evaluate drug pharmacokinetics are briefly outlined, while both physiological and physico-chemical factors that may have an influence on these techniques are critically reviewed. The shortcomings identified for some of the in vitro techniques are discussed in conjunction with novel ways to improve and thereby overcome some challenges. Expert opinion: Although conventional in vitro methods and theories are used as basic guidelines to predict drug absorption, critical evaluations have identified some shortcomings. Advancements in technology have made it possible to investigate and understand the role of physiological and physico-chemical factors in drug delivery more clearly, which can be used to improve and refine the techniques to more closely mimic the in vivo environment.

  6. Bacterial chemotaxis: introverted or extroverted? A comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of basic forms of metabolism-based and metabolism-independent behavior using a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Using a minimal model of metabolism, we examine the limitations of behavior that is (a) solely in response to environmental phenomena or (b) solely in response to metabolic dynamics, showing that basic forms of each of these kinds of behavior are incapable of driving survival-prolonging behavior in certain situations. Inspired by experimental evidence of concurrent metabolism-based and metabolism-independent chemotactic mechanisms in Escherichia coli and Rhodobacter sphaeroides, we then investigate how metabolism-independent and metabolism-based sensitivities can be integrated into a single behavioral response, demonstrating that a simple switching mechanism can be sufficient to effectively integrate metabolism-based and metabolism-independent behaviors. Finally, we use a spatial simulation of bacteria to show that the investigated forms of behavior produce different spatio-temporal patterns that are influenced by the metabolic-history of the bacteria. We suggest that these patterns could be a way to experimentally derive insight into the relationship between metabolism and chemotaxis in real bacteria.

  7. Taking into account the Coulomb effects in the four-body model in reactions of simultaneous two-neutron transfer induced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayumov, S.S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    1988-01-01

    In the four-body model for partial amplitudes of two-neutron transfer induced by heavy ions we derive in the approximation of the mechanism of simultaneous transfer the expression for the senior term for l→∞ taking into account the Coulomb effects. The senior singular term of the amplitude at z = zeta is singled out explicitly (z = cos θ, θ is the scattering angle in the c.m.s. and zeta is the singularity closest to the physical region which corresponds to the mechanism of simultaneous transfer). We calculate differential cross sections for the transfer of two neutrons between heavy ions and estimate the accuracy of taking into account the Coulomb effects in the traditional method of distorted waves

  8. First mover advantage in launch of platform based variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Singh, Kashi N

    2015-01-01

    Product choice and pricing are critical decisions taken by firms while launching new products. Firms need to consider the effect of competition while taking the above decisions. Extensive literature is available for pricing, positioning and launch sequence determination of differentiated products...... approach generates interesting insights on the competitive behavior of firms and shows that leaders can indeed enjoy first-mover advantage under certain conditions. Key Words: choice of product line, pricing, static and dynamic games, upper bound on prices......Product choice and pricing are critical decisions taken by firms while launching new products. Firms need to consider the effect of competition while taking the above decisions. Extensive literature is available for pricing, positioning and launch sequence determination of differentiated products...... under competition. But, there is need to understand the leader-follower behaviour of firms with differentiated products. The classical game theoretic models do not consider bounds on prices. Hence, applying these models for product choice and pricing decisions in a real-life industrial setting may...

  9. Sustainability in organizations: advantages and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Josende Paz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are currently seeking to adopt sustainable policies and practices, causing a greater search for and use of sustainable models. This article therefore aims to evaluate the advantages of using sustainability principles in organizations, as well as to detect the main difficulties in implementing a sustainable model, identifying the existence of the principles described by Oliveira et al. (2012 and other authors. Bibliographic research was used to understand the “state of the art” in relation to sustainability in organizations, and the data was collected from articles published in journals in the last eight years. The importance of sustainability to organizations, better financial performance, stimulus for innovation, better management and the involvement of stakeholders in their processes were all evident as advantages of using this methodology. Finally, the following challenges were identified: the need for an investigation into the organization’s maturity in the use of sustainable methods and preparation of human resources for organizational change.

  10. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value.

  11. Computational evolution: taking liberties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luís

    2010-09-01

    Evolution has, for a long time, inspired computer scientists to produce computer models mimicking its behavior. Evolutionary algorithm (EA) is one of the areas where this approach has flourished. EAs have been used to model and study evolution, but they have been especially developed for their aptitude as optimization tools for engineering. Developed models are quite simple in comparison with their natural sources of inspiration. However, since EAs run on computers, we have the freedom, especially in optimization models, to test approaches both realistic and outright speculative, from the biological point of view. In this article, we discuss different common evolutionary algorithm models, and then present some alternatives of interest. These include biologically inspired models, such as co-evolution and, in particular, symbiogenetics and outright artificial operators and representations. In each case, the advantages of the modifications to the standard model are identified. The other area of computational evolution, which has allowed us to study basic principles of evolution and ecology dynamics, is the development of artificial life platforms for open-ended evolution of artificial organisms. With these platforms, biologists can test theories by directly manipulating individuals and operators, observing the resulting effects in a realistic way. An overview of the most prominent of such environments is also presented. If instead of artificial platforms we use the real world for evolving artificial life, then we are dealing with evolutionary robotics (ERs). A brief description of this area is presented, analyzing its relations to biology. Finally, we present the conclusions and identify future research avenues in the frontier of computation and biology. Hopefully, this will help to draw the attention of more biologists and computer scientists to the benefits of such interdisciplinary research.

  12. Parenting Advantage in the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn

    2013-01-01

    What determines the value an MNC's headquarters adds to its own affiliates? In this paper, we shed light on this question by linking the embeddedness view of the multinational corporation to the literature on parenting advantage. We test our hypotheses on an original dataset of 124 manufacturing....... Furthermore, this relationship is stronger when the subsidiary itself is strongly embedded. We discuss implications for the MNC literature, embeddedness research, and the literature on parenting and headquarters' roles...

  13. Models of Non-Stationary Thermodynamic Processes in Rocket Engines Taking into Account a Chemical Equilibrium of Combustion Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Aliev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the two approach-based techniques for calculating the non-stationary intra-chamber processes in solid-propellant rocket engine (SPRE. The first approach assumes that the combustion products are a mechanical mix while the other one supposes it to be the mix, which is in chemical equilibrium. To enhance reliability of solution of the intra ballistic tasks, which assume a chemical equilibrium of combustion products, the computing algorithms to calculate a structure of the combustion products are changed. The algorithm for solving a system of the nonlinear equations of chemical equilibrium, when determining the iterative amendments, uses the orthogonal QR method instead of a method of Gauss. Besides, a possibility to apply genetic algorithms in a task about a structure of combustion products is considered.It is shown that in the tasks concerning the prediction of non-stationary intra ballistic characteristics in a solid propellant rocket engine, application of models of mechanical mix and chemically equilibrium structure of combustion products leads to qualitatively and quantitatively coinciding results. The maximum difference in parameters is 5-10%, at most. In tasks concerning the starting operation of a solid sustainer engine with high-temperature products of combustion difference in results is more essential, and can reach 20% and more.A technique to calculate the intra ballistic parameters, in which flotation of combustion products is considered in the light of a spatial statement, requires using the high-performance computer facilities. For these tasks it is offered to define structure of products of combustion and its thermo-physical characteristics, using the polynoms coefficients of which should be predefined.

  14. Funding Medical Research Projects: Taking into Account Referees' Severity and Consistency through Many-Faceted Rasch Modeling of Projects' Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesio, Luigi; Simone, Anna; Grzeda, Mariuzs T; Ponzio, Michela; Dati, Gabriele; Zaratin, Paola; Perucca, Laura; Battaglia, Mario A

    2015-01-01

    The funding policy of research projects often relies on scores assigned by a panel of experts (referees). The non-linear nature of raw scores and the severity and inconsistency of individual raters may generate unfair numeric project rankings. Rasch measurement (many-facets version, MFRM) provides a valid alternative to scoring. MFRM was applied to the scores achieved by 75 research projects on multiple sclerosis sent in response to a previous annual call by FISM-Italian Foundation for Multiple Sclerosis. This allowed to simulate, a posteriori, the impact of MFRM on the funding scenario. The applications were each scored by 2 to 4 independent referees (total = 131) on a 10-item, 0-3 rating scale called FISM-ProQual-P. The rotation plan assured "connection" of all pairs of projects through at least 1 shared referee.The questionnaire fulfilled satisfactorily the stringent criteria of Rasch measurement for psychometric quality (unidimensionality, reliability and data-model fit). Arbitrarily, 2 acceptability thresholds were set at a raw score of 21/30 and at the equivalent Rasch measure of 61.5/100, respectively. When the cut-off was switched from score to measure 8 out of 18 acceptable projects had to be rejected, while 15 rejected projects became eligible for funding. Some referees, of various severity, were grossly inconsistent (z-std fit indexes less than -1.9 or greater than 1.9). The FISM-ProQual-P questionnaire seems a valid and reliable scale. MFRM may help the decision-making process for allocating funds to MS research projects but also in other fields. In repeated assessment exercises it can help the selection of reliable referees. Their severity can be steadily calibrated, thus obviating the need to connect them with other referees assessing the same projects.

  15. Take Charge. Take the Test. PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 30 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  16. Home advantage in Turkish professional soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçkin, Aylin; Pollard, Richard

    2008-08-01

    Home advantage is known to play an important role in the outcome of professional soccer games and to vary considerably worldwide. In the Turkish Super League over the last 12 years, 61.5% of the total points gained have been won by the home team, a figure similar to the worldwide average and to the Premier League in England. It is lower (57.7%) for games played between teams from Istanbul and especially high for games involving teams from cities in the more remote and ethnically distinct parts of Turkey (Van and Diyarbakir). Match performance data show that although home teams in Turkey take 26% more shots at goal than away teams, the success rates for shots do not differ. For fouls and disciplinary cards, home and away teams do not differ significantly in Turkey, a finding that differs from games in England, perhaps due to less referee bias.

  17. Rethinking Marketing for Sustainable Competitive Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın KOÇAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When formal marketing thought developed in the early 1900s, dominant perspective of marketing was about taking things “to market”. After 1950 marketing thought moved to a “market to” orientation. This orientation reflects “product dominant logic”. After radical changes in information technology, knowledge asymmetry between firm and customer is decreased and customer becomes operant resource instead of a resource to be acted on. Therefore, new marketing paradigm has been emerged and main focus moved from “value in exchange” to “value in use” and customer becomes collaborative partner. Firm can only provide value proposition. New definition of marketing comprises “customer relationship”, “share holders”, and “value creation”. Apart from evolving of marketing thought, theories of competitive advantages have been also change form industry perspective to internal resource and dynamic capabilities.

  18. The environmental advantage in the competitive equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, T.J.; Blake, E.T.

    1992-01-01

    The role of environmental issues in the utility business has undergone a dramatic transition in the past few years and this new role is the basis for new definitions and new responses. Policies or products that protect the environment are now an advantage to those companies that properly capture environmental issues in their strategic planning process. This paper will focus on the underpinnings of this shift in the role of environmental protection in business and go beyond the issues of today to suggest some paradigms for the future. The current status of environmental concern is evident in the time and resources committed to environmental protection. Public officials take more proactive environmental positions; Corporations recognize environmental values in competitive equation; Citizens express willingness to pay for environmentally responsible services and products; Environmental issues tie business to the community; and Environmental planning tradeoffs are becoming more complex

  19. Helping hands : successful women take time out to be mentors to girls, fostering an advantage males take for granted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts by professional women in industry to encourage and mentor young women to study science and engineering and to raise the profile of women in industry are described. The case of Dr. Jane Cooley at Syncrude Research Centre is cited as an example of similar programs. Dr. Cooley provides guidance to third-year university students working on year-long internships at Syncrude. Reference is also made to the Alberta Women's Science Network (Internet address: www.awsn.com) where young women interested in careers in science and engineering can turn for advice. Female high school students unanimously complain of guidance counselors who even today discourage women from entering science and engineering programs. The general conclusion is that better guidance must start in the high schools, because missing out on the right courses in science and mathematics at that level can close career doors by the end of the twelfth grade

  20. Application of the transtheoretical model of behaviour change for identifying older clients' readiness for hearing rehabilitation during history-taking in audiology appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Katie; Grenness, Caitlin; Hickson, Louise

    2016-07-01

    The transtheoretical model (TTM) of behaviour change focuses on clients' readiness for adopting new health behaviours. This study explores how clients' readiness for change can be identified through their interactions with audiologists during history-taking in initial appointments; and whether clients' readiness has consequences for the rehabilitation decisions they make within the initial appointment. Conversation analysis (CA) was used to examine video-recorded initial audiology appointments with older adults with hearing impairment. The data corpus involved 62 recorded appointments with 26 audiologists and their older adult clients (aged 55+ years). Companions were present in 17 appointments. Clients' readiness for change could be observed through their interaction with the audiologist. Analysis demonstrated that the way clients described their hearing in the history-taking phase had systematic consequences for how they responded to rehabilitation recommendations (in particular, hearing aids) in the management phase of the appointment. In particular, clients identified as being in a pre-contemplation stage-of-change were more likely to display resistance to a recommendation of hearing aids (80% declined). The transtheoretical model of behaviour change can be useful for helping audiologists individualize management planning to be congruent with individual clients' needs, attitudes, desires, and psychological readiness for action in order to optimize clients' hearing outcomes.

  1. The Interleague Advantage: A Difference in Differences Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Volz

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that the introduction of interleague play in Major League Baseball provides an advantage to American League teams due to their use of the designated hitter. This paper examines whether this advantage actually exists and if so how large any advantage may be. The question is analyzed using a difference in differences model based on player performance data on interleague games from 1997 to 2008. It is shown that American League teams do have a small and statistically significa...

  2. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  3. Taking multiple medicines safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000883.htm Taking multiple medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... directed. Why You May Need More Than One Medicine You may take more than one medicine to ...

  4. The advantages of using photographs and video images in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the advantages of a telephone consultation with a specialist in paediatric surgery after taking photographs and video images by a general practitioner for the diagnosis of some diseases. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of the reliability of paediatric ...

  5. The Critical Advantage: Developing Critical Thinking Skills in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, William T., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    In "The Critical Advantage," noted scholar and early childhood expert William T. Gormley, Jr. takes a wide ranging look at the important role of critical thinking in preparing students for college, careers, and civic life. Drawing on research from psychology, philosophy, business, political science, neuroscience, and other disciplines,…

  6. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk: roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglione, A.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.; Kuil, L.; Carr, G.; Salinas, J.; Scolobig, A.

    2013-12-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in decision making in urban flood plains. While flood awareness is not necessarily linked to being prepared to face flooding at an individual level, the connection at the community level seems to be stronger through creating policy and initiating protection works. In this work we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep the awareness of flooding high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk a community is collectively willing to expose themselves to; and (iii) trust of people in risk protection measures. We use a dynamic model that represents the feedbacks between the hydrological and social system components. The model results indicate that, on one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-attitude, community survival is severely limited because of destruction caused by flooding. On the other hand, high perceived risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) relative to the actual risk leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many optimal scenarios for survival and economic growth, but greater certainty of survival plus economic growth can be achieved by ensuring community has accurate risk perception (memory neither too long nor too short and trust in flood protection neither too great nor too low) combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to its growth or recession. Schematic of human adjustments to flooding: (a) settling away from the river; (b) raising levees/dikes.

  7. Nuclear energy. Risk or advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettiger, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy is controversial. But what's all about really in the controversy? It's about more than safty or electricity prices. Nuclear energy is not only a technical or political question, but also a moral, a human. The discussion enter various rational and irrational arguments, beside straightforward arguments various misleading and mendacious exist. The present publication is comprehensively dedicated to the thema of nuclear energy - its pro and contra - and considers its risks and advantages. Thereby the sources of energy, the processes in the nuclear reactor, and the risk potentials (Harrisburg, Chernobyl, Fukushima) are illustratively and reproducibly presented. Extensively the text explains the forms of the radiation, its doses, and the tolerance of it. Also to the theme waste and final disposal an explaining chapter is dedicated and the question for the exit from nuclear energy elucidated. Finally the author appoints with the question ''How considers mankind nuclear energy world-wide'' the international comparison.

  8. Alliances: Their advantages and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolidge, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Contract alliances between operators and service companies, contractors, and suppliers in the drilling and production industry have helped cut costs and improve operational efficiency, but there are pitfalls to be aware of. Operators and service companies tend to form alliances for long-term pricing or efficiency gains rather than for continuous quality improvement or as a technology sharing agreements. A survey was sent to a total of 200 operators, contractors, and service companies to help identify the advantages nd pitfalls with current alliance strategies in the US petroleum industry. This article is the first of a two-part series on petroleum industry alliances. the second part, which will appear in an upcoming issue, covers the results of the alliance survey in detail

  9. Advantages of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanidis, P. K.; Bakhos, T.; Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing the subsurface is significant for most hydrogeologic studies, such as those involving site remediation and groundwater resource explo¬ration. A variety of hydraulic and geophysical methods have been developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Hydraulic methods based on the analysis of conventional pumping tests allow the estimation of conductivity and storage without need for approximate petrophysical relations, which is an advantage over most geophysical methods that first estimate other properties and then infer values of hydraulic parameters. However, hydraulic methods have the disadvantage that the head-change signal decays with distance from the pumping well and thus becomes difficult to separate from noise except in close proximity to the source. Oscillatory hydraulic tomography (OHT) is an emerging technology to im¬age the subsurface. This method utilizes the idea of imposing sinusoidally varying pressure or discharge signals at several points, collecting head observations at several other points, and then processing these data in a tomographic fashion to estimate conductivity and storage coefficients. After an overview of the methodology, including a description of the most important potential advantages and challenges associated with this approach, two key promising features of the approach will be discussed. First, the signal at an observation point is orthogonal to and thus can be separated from nuisance inputs like head fluctuation from production wells, evapotranspiration, irrigation, and changes in the level of adjacent streams. Second, although the signal amplitude may be weak, one can extract the phase and amplitude of the os¬cillatory signal by collecting measurements over a longer time, thus compensating for the effect of large distance through longer sampling period.

  10. micro-mechanical modeling and numerical simulation of creep in concrete taking into account the effects of micro-cracking and hygro-thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thai, M.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Concrete is a complex heterogeneous material whose deformations include a delayed part that is affected by a number of factors such as temperature, relative humidity and microstructure evolution. Taking into account differed deformations and in particular creep is essential in the computation of concrete structures such as those dedicated to radioactive waste storage. The present work aims: (1) at elaborating a simple and robust model of creep for concrete by using micro-mechanics and accounting for the effects of damage, temperature and relative humidity; (2) at numerically implementing the creep model developed in a finite element code so as to simulate the behavior of simple structural elements in concrete. To achieve this twofold objective, the present work is partitioned into three parts. In the first part the cement-based material at the microscopic scale is taken to consist of a linear viscoelastic matrix characterized by a generalized Maxwell model and of particulate phases representing elastic aggregates and pores. The Mori-Tanaka micro-mechanical scheme, the Laplace-Carson transform and its inversion are then used to obtain analytical or numerical estimates for the mechanical and hydro-mechanical parameters of the material. Next, the original micromechanical model of creep is coupled to the damage model of Mazars through the concept of pseudo-deformations introduced by Schapery. The parameters involved in the creep-damage model thus established are systematically identified using available experimental data. Finally, the effects of temperature and relative humidity are accounted for in the creep-damage model by using the equivalent time method; the efficiency of this approach is demonstrated and discussed in the case of simple creep tests. (author) [fr

  11. An evolutionary advantage for extravagant honesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Seth

    2012-01-07

    A game-theoretic model of handicap signalling over a pair of signalling channels is introduced in order to determine when one channel has an evolutionary advantage over the other. The stability conditions for honest handicap signalling are presented for a single channel and are shown to conform with the results of prior handicap signalling models. Evolutionary simulations are then used to show that, for a two-channel system in which honest signalling is possible on both channels, the channel featuring larger advertisements at equilibrium is favoured by evolution. This result helps to address a significant tension in the handicap principle literature. While the original theory was motivated by the prevalence of extravagant natural signalling, contemporary models have demonstrated that it is the cost associated with deception that stabilises honesty, and that the honest signals exhibited at equilibrium need not be extravagant at all. The current model suggests that while extravagant and wasteful signals are not required to ensure a signalling system's evolutionary stability, extravagant signalling systems may enjoy an advantage in terms of evolutionary attainability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hue opponency: chromatic valence functions, individual differences, cortical winner-take-all opponent modeling, and the relationship between spikes and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billock, Vincent A

    2018-04-01

    Neural spike rate data are more restricted in range than related psychophysical data. For example, several studies suggest a compressive (roughly cube root) nonlinear relationship between wavelength-opponent spike rates in primate midbrain and color appearance in humans, two rather widely separated domains. This presents an opportunity to partially bridge a chasm between these two domains and to probe the putative nonlinearity with other psychophysical data. Here neural wavelength-opponent data are used to create cortical competition models for hue opponency. This effort led to creation of useful models of spiking neuron winner-take-all (WTA) competition and MAX selection. When fed with actual primate data, the spiking WTA models generate reasonable wavelength-opponent spike rate behaviors. An average psychophysical observer for red-green and blue-yellow opponency is curated from eight applicable studies in the refereed and dissertation literatures, with cancellation data roughly every 10 nm in 18 subjects for yellow-blue opponency and 15 subjects for red-green opponency. A direct mapping between spiking neurons with broadband wavelength sensitivity and human psychophysical luminance yields a power law exponent of 0.27, similar to the cube root nonlinearity. Similarly, direct mapping between the WTA model opponent spike rates and psychophysical opponent data suggests power law relationships with exponents between 0.24 and 0.41.

  13. Development of dynamic models of wagons on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies taking into account wheel wear research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Saidova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Wear parameters clarification in wear simulation is an actual goal because of absence of corresponding data for freight cars in condition of using them on Russian railways. Research is devoted to development of dynamic models of wagons on three-peace two-axle models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies with maximum axle-loads 23,5 ts and 25 ts, and to choice of factors, with varying which parameters in the model of wheel wear can be identified. Methodology. The problem is solved by method of mathematic simulation in «MEDYNA» software. Wear calculation is based on abrasive wear theory (Archard’s theory. Findings. Clarification of wheels’ wear model may be done with varying of friction coefficient between wheel and rail for different wheel profile areas (flange and tread, wear coefficient in Archard’s model for mild and heavy wear and transition between them. Originality. Dynamic models of universal gondola on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies are developed. It is established, that rail treads irregularities size effect wheel wear insignificantly, when car is running on circle track of constant radius. Practical value. Developed dynamic models of wagons on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies may be used in wear simulation, determination of car running characteristics, interaction of car and rail of different type, construction, condition and etc. Research results of some factors influence on freight car wheel wear may be interesting for people, who study this problem.

  14. Efficient reinforcement learning of a reservoir network model of parametric working memory achieved with a cluster population winner-take-all readout mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenbo; Deng, Zhidong; Hu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Tianming

    2015-12-01

    The brain often has to make decisions based on information stored in working memory, but the neural circuitry underlying working memory is not fully understood. Many theoretical efforts have been focused on modeling the persistent delay period activity in the prefrontal areas that is believed to represent working memory. Recent experiments reveal that the delay period activity in the prefrontal cortex is neither static nor homogeneous as previously assumed. Models based on reservoir networks have been proposed to model such a dynamical activity pattern. The connections between neurons within a reservoir are random and do not require explicit tuning. Information storage does not depend on the stable states of the network. However, it is not clear how the encoded information can be retrieved for decision making with a biologically realistic algorithm. We therefore built a reservoir-based neural network to model the neuronal responses of the prefrontal cortex in a somatosensory delayed discrimination task. We first illustrate that the neurons in the reservoir exhibit a heterogeneous and dynamical delay period activity observed in previous experiments. Then we show that a cluster population circuit decodes the information from the reservoir with a winner-take-all mechanism and contributes to the decision making. Finally, we show that the model achieves a good performance rapidly by shaping only the readout with reinforcement learning. Our model reproduces important features of previous behavior and neurophysiology data. We illustrate for the first time how task-specific information stored in a reservoir network can be retrieved with a biologically plausible reinforcement learning training scheme. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages andLabour Market Performance@*In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered howimperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goodstrade. Easier goods trading...

  16. Home advantage in Australian soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumas, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the magnitude of home advantage (HA) in Australian soccer and to investigate how home-team crowd support and away-team travel may contribute to it. A paired design was used wherein each match contributed two observations, one for the home team and one for the away team. The data used in this study were all matches from the first seven seasons (2005/06-2011/12) of the Australian A-League - the major soccer league in Australia. Repeated measures Poisson regression analysis was used to investigate the effect that crowd size and density, distance and direction travelled by away teams, and crossing time zones may have on HA. HA in terms of the percentage of competition points gained by home teams in the A-League averaged 58% over the study period. HA increased significantly with increasing number of time zones crossed by away teams (pteam crowd support. Travel management programs aimed at reducing the effects of jet lag could significantly improve away team performance in Australian soccer. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THE EFFECT OF FAMILY THERAPY WITH SPIRITUAL APPROACH TOWARD FAMILY’S HEALTH BELIEF MODEL IN TAKING CARE OF PATIENT WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia is the problem with kognitive, mal-adaptive thought and behavior. Family who have a member with mental disorder can experience serious conflict, become an objective and subjective burden, blame each other, get involved in hostility among family members. Various negative effect faced by family can caused by wrong family’s health belief model about Schizophrenia, hence the failure on choosing the treatment and taking care of patient at home. Someone with severe stress will seek comfort and strength from God. But so far, the most effective spiritual models to improve the health belief model of the family in caring for patients with schizophrenia has not been found. Method: Design used in this study was experimental (pre post test control group design. The population was every family of patient with mental disorder in Menur Mental Hospital along the year of 2010, chosen by alocation simple random. Samples were 13 persons in each treatment and control group. The intervention was given in 60–120 minute in 8 times meeting with average interval about 1 week. Data analysis was done using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: There were significant changes in total of family’s health belief model (p=0,004, there was significantly change in aspects of (1 perceptions about bene fi ts (p=0,009, (2 perception about barriers (p=0,035 and perception about self efficacy (p=0,002. There were no significant changing in perception about susceptibility and severity (p=0,052. Discussion: Family believes that all events experienced by the patient and the family is God's will, hoping the patient can be more independent, and believe mental disorders can be changed for the better. The conclusion of this study is that family therapy with a spiritual approach can improve the health belief model of the family in caring for patients with mental disorders.

  18. On Assumptions in Development of a Mathematical Model of Thermo-gravitational Convection in the Large Volume Process Tanks Taking into Account Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Shkapov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a mathematical model of thermo-gravity convection in a large volume vertical cylinder. The heat is removed from the product via the cooling jacket at the top of the cylinder. We suppose that a laminar fluid motion takes place. The model is based on the NavierStokes equation, the equation of heat transfer through the wall, and the heat transfer equation. The peculiarity of the process in large volume tanks was the distribution of the physical parameters of the coordinates that was taken into account when constructing the model. The model corresponds to a process of wort beer fermentation in the cylindrical-conical tanks (CCT. The CCT volume is divided into three zones and for each zone model equations was obtained. The first zone has an annular cross-section and it is limited to the height by the cooling jacket. In this zone the heat flow from the cooling jacket to the product is uppermost. Model equation of the first zone describes the process of heat transfer through the wall and is presented by linear inhomogeneous differential equation in partial derivatives that is solved analytically. For the second and third zones description there was a number of engineering assumptions. The fluid was considered Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. Convective motion considered in the Boussinesq approximation. The effect of viscous dissipation is not considered. The topology of fluid motion is similar to the cylindrical Poiseuille. The second zone model consists of the Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates with the introduction of a simplified and the heat equation in the liquid layer. The volume that is occupied by an upward convective flow pertains to the third area. Convective flows do not mix and do not exchange heat. At the start of the process a medium has the same temperature and a zero initial velocity in the whole volume that allows us to specify the initial conditions for the process. The paper shows the

  19. It might take three: proxy system models as the missing link between proxies and climate models, and their potential for paleoclimate data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, S. G.; Steiger, N. J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Hakim, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, data assimilation (DA) has emerged as a competitive method for climate field reconstruction (CFR). DA blends information from climate models with proxy observations to estimate the most plausible climate state that could have given rise to a set of observations, together with uncertainties about this state. The DA framework allows one to explicitly represent proxy complexity via proxy system models (PSMs), which are physically-based, potentially nonlinear models of proxy systems. In contrast, most (regression-based) CFR approaches make a number of strong assumptions that may not be met in practice, including the use of linear temperature-proxy relationships, or ignoring the confounding effects of dating uncertainties in proxy data. In this study, we combine DA-based CFR techniques with proxy system modeling (PSM) to investigate uncertainties that arise as a result of these assumptions. We use PSM-generated pseudoproxy experiments to address three questions: (1) how much information is lost assuming proxies are linear, univariate responders to temperature? (2) does a misspecified proxy system contribute to poor climatic interpretations? and (3) given perfectly constrained proxy system parameters, what is the role of age uncertainties in blurring the retrieved climate signal? We find that employing linearized models for complex proxy systems contributes to substantial information loss in climate field reconstructions, while other complications (including age uncertainties) may not prove as problematic in a multi-proxy framework. We investigate the utility of embedding PSMs in DA techniques for paleoclimate state estimation, and use them to explore new uncertainties in paleodata-model comparison associated with linearity and nonstationarity. Implications for the potential of paleoclimate reanalyses are discussed.

  20. The Implementation of Knowledge Strategy-Based Entrepreneurial Capacity to Achieve Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a model of knowledge strategy-based entrepreneurial capacity to achieve sustainable competitive advantage of rurol banking in Central Java province. The sampling method is ‘‘Purposive sampling’’ by considering the characteristics of the population items, namely: operational experience for at least 5 years and representatives of each area of rurol banking in Semarang, Surakarta and Purwokerto. Then, the sample size is 150 of 251 (59.7% of top managers of rurol banking. To analyze the data in this study, it used the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, of the, AMOS software package. The findings of this study explain that 1. The first step in promoting a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge sharing is by prioritizing the quality of interaction, willingness and ability. 2. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by knowledge sharing are by prioritizing to actively accept changes and introduction, solve problems together, use and combine new knowledge in operation. 3. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through the knowledge exploitation built by risk-taking are by prioritizing a strong tendency for high-risk projects (with the possibility of gaining high-return, a high courage for the actions necessary to achieve the goal, having an aggressive attitude to optimize the possibility of utilizing existing potential opportunities and enjoying the challenge of the risk situation. 4. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by a pro-active are by prioritizing to anticipate problem more quickly than competitors, future oriented, addressed by technology, launching product selectively and systematically search for new ideas. 5. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by the innovativeness are by prioritizing the speed of developing products

  1. A population pharmacokinetic model taking into account protein binding for the sustained-release granule formulation of valproic acid in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Christelle; Chhun, Stéphanie; Chiron, Catherine; Dulac, Olivier; Rey, Elisabeth; Pons, Gérard; Jullien, Vincent

    2018-03-21

    The objective of this work was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for a prolonged-release granule formulation of valproic acid (VPA) in children with epilepsy and to determine the doses providing a VPA trough concentration (C trough ) within the target range (50-100 mg/L). Ninety-eight children (1-17.6 years, 325 plasma samples) were included in the study. The model was built with NONMEM 7.3. The probability to obtain C trough between 50 and 100 mg/L was determined by the Monte Carlo simulations for doses of 20, 30, 40, and 60 mg/kg/day and body weights between 10 and 70 kg. A one compartment model, with first-order absorption and flip-flop parameterization and linear elimination, but taking protein binding into account, was used to describe the data. Typical values for unbound VPA clearance and distribution volume were 6.24 L/h/70 kg and 130 L/h/70 kg respectively. Both parameters were related to body weight via allometric models. The highest probability to obtain a C trough within the target range for 10-kg children was obtained with a 40 mg/kg daily dose, whereas daily doses of 30 and 20 mg/kg were found appropriate for 20 to 30- and ≥ 40-kg children respectively. However, for these same doses, the exposure to unbound VPA could differ by 40%. If the present study supports the current dose recommendations of 20-30 mg/kg/day, except for children under 20 kg, who may need higher doses, it also highlights the need for further research on the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamic profile of unbound VPA.

  2. Will Smart Pricing Finally Take Off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    skills, mindset , and organization that can accomplish this are simply not tuned to antici- pating what the capricious public will want. Even when very...the crash of 2008 and the resulting action by monetary authorities to drive down interest rates.) Why don’t entrepreneurs take advantage of those

  3. Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…

  4. Nurses' creativity: advantage or disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari Isfahani, Sara; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood; Peyrovi, Hamid; Khanke, Hamid Reza

    2015-02-01

    Recently, global nursing experts have been aggressively encouraging nurses to pursue creativity and innovation in nursing to improve nursing outcomes. Nurses' creativity plays a significant role in health and well-being. In most health systems across the world, nurses provide up to 80% of the primary health care; therefore, they are critically positioned to provide creative solutions for current and future global health challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian nurses' perceptions and experiences toward the expression of creativity in clinical settings and the outcomes of their creativity for health care organizations. A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 nurses who were involved in the creative process in educational hospitals affiliated to Jahrom and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Four themes emerged from the data analysis, including a) Improvement in quality of patient care, b) Improvement in nurses' quality of work, personal and social life, c) Promotion of organization, and d) Unpleasant outcomes. The findings indicated that nurses' creativity in health care organizations can lead to major changes of nursing practice, improvement of care and organizational performance. Therefore, policymakers, nurse educators, nursing and hospital managers should provide a nurturing environment that is conducive to creative thinking, giving the nurses opportunity for flexibility, creativity, support for change, and risk taking.

  5. Nurses’ Creativity: Advantage or Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari Isfahani, Sara; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood; Peyrovi, Hamid; Khanke, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, global nursing experts have been aggressively encouraging nurses to pursue creativity and innovation in nursing to improve nursing outcomes. Nurses’ creativity plays a significant role in health and well-being. In most health systems across the world, nurses provide up to 80% of the primary health care; therefore, they are critically positioned to provide creative solutions for current and future global health challenges. Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian nurses’ perceptions and experiences toward the expression of creativity in clinical settings and the outcomes of their creativity for health care organizations. Patients and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 nurses who were involved in the creative process in educational hospitals affiliated to Jahrom and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Results Four themes emerged from the data analysis, including a) Improvement in quality of patient care, b) Improvement in nurses’ quality of work, personal and social life, c) Promotion of organization, and d) Unpleasant outcomes. Conclusions The findings indicated that nurses’ creativity in health care organizations can lead to major changes of nursing practice, improvement of care and organizational performance. Therefore, policymakers, nurse educators, nursing and hospital managers should provide a nurturing environment that is conducive to creative thinking, giving the nurses opportunity for flexibility, creativity, support for change, and risk taking. PMID:25793116

  6. Food irradiation: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandes, N.K.; Vital, H. de C.; Sabaa-Srur, A.U.O.

    2003-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical method of processing food (e.g. freezing, canning). It has been thoroughly researched over the last four decades and is recognized as a safe and wholesome method. It has the potential both of disinfesting dried food to reduce storage losses and disinfesting fruits and vegetables to meet quarantine requirements for export trade. Low doses of irradiation inhibit spoilage losses due to sprouting of root and tuber crops. Food- borne diseases due to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms and parasites of meat, poultry, fish, fishery products and spices are on the increase. Irradiation of these solid foods can decontaminate them of pathogenic organisms and thus provide safe food to the consumer. Irradiation can successfully replace the fumigation treatment of cocoa beans and coffee beans and disinfest dried fish, dates, dried fruits, etc. One of the most important advantages of food irradiation processing is that it is a coldprocess which does not significantly alter physico-chemical characters of the treated product. It can be applied to food after its final packaging. Similar to other physical processes of food processing, (e.g. canning, freezing), irradiation is a capital intensive process. Thus, adequate product volume must be made available in order to maximize the use of the facility and minimize the unit cost of treatment. Lack of harmonization of regulations among the countries which have approved irradiated foods hampers the introduction of this technique for international trade. Action at the international level has to be taken in order to remedy this situation. One of the important limitations of food irradiation processing is its slow acceptance by consumers, due inter alia to a perceived association with radioactivity. The food industry tends to be reluctant to use the technology in view of uncertainties regarding consumer acceptance of treated foods. Several market testing and consumer acceptance studies have been carried

  7. New rules for transient advantage, social business, breakthrough innovation, big data and information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Business models and processes are evolving in quicktime to take advantage of opportunities enabled by the rapid advance of digital technology. Meanwhile, the preferences of customers and the jobs they need to do are co-evolving. What's accelerating the transformation of markets is that, using digital networks, customers and other stakeholder can instantly influence the development of new offerings. As a result, upstart businesses that can connect with customers through new social channels burgeon and thrive and long-established segments suddenly wither and vanish. This book identifies several

  8. STRATEGIES FOR COMPETETIVE ADVANTAGE IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Azadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite rapid and sustained development of electronic commerce, many companies doing e-business are still in the investment and brand-building phase and have yet to show a profit. However, as e-businesses shift their focus from  building a customer base to increasing revenue growth and profitability, they should reevaluate their current business strategies, if any, and develop strategies that provide a clear path to profitability. This study uses McCarthy’s four marketing mix model and Porter’s five competitive forces model to identify strategies for Internet companies that respond to the five competitive forces and thereby achieve a competitive advantage. The study provides significant new insights into the development and implementation of e-business strategies that contribute to increased profit.

  9. Taking technological infrastructure seriously

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mair, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    Taking Technological Infrastructure Seriously attempts to take stock of a sea-change in the way modern infrastructural resources are provided. Unlike traditional infrastructure, such as roads and electricity cables, where the State has largely been responsible for its provision, much of the key

  10. Mathematics of Risk Taking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Mathematics of Risk Taking. K B Athreya and M G Nadkarni. Keywords. Investor, risk taking, fair game, martingale, random walk, gam- bling, population. (left) K B Athreya is a visiting professor at IMI,. Mathematics Department,. IISc, Bangalore and is also a professor of mathematics and statistics at Iowa State. University ...

  11. Digitization of medicine: how radiology can take advantage of the digital revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, King C; Marcovici, Peter; Phelps, Andrew; Potter, Christopher; Tillack, Allison; Tomich, Jennifer; Tridandapani, Srini

    2013-12-01

    In the era of medical cost containment, radiologists must continually maintain their actual and perceived value to patients, payers, and referring providers. Exploitation of current and future digital technologies may be the key to defining and promoting radiology's "brand" and assure our continued relevance in providing predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine. The Association of University of Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Digitization of Medicine Task Force was formed to explore the opportunities and challenges of the digitization of medicine that are relevant to radiologists, which include the reporting paradigm, computational biology, and imaging informatics. In addition to discussing these opportunities and challenges, we consider how change occurs in medicine, and how change may be effected in medical imaging community. This review article is a summary of the research of the task force and hopefully can be used as a stimulus for further discussions and development of action plans by radiology leaders. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social customer relationship management: taking advantage of Web 2.0 and Big Data technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Orenga-Rogl?, Sergio; Chalmeta, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Web 2.0 and Big Data technologies has allowed a new customer relationship strategy based on interactivity and collaboration called Social Customer Relationship Management (Social CRM) to be created. This enhances customer engagement and satisfaction. The implementation of Social CRM is a complex task that involves different organisational, human and technological aspects. However, there is a lack of methodologies to assist companies in these processes. This paper shows a nove...

  13. High Speed Rail Learning System (HSRLS – Taking Advantage of Online Technologies in Railway Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi T. Lautala, Ph.D., P.E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States has taken initial steps toward developing a high speed rail (HSR network, but the domestic workforce experience and institutional knowledge necessary for the planning, design, construction, and operations of HSR is underdeveloped. This paper describes and provides preliminary assessment of the High Speed Rail Learning System (HSRLS, a demonstration project that seeks to address gaps in HSR knowledge and skills in the US. The HSRLS developers designed an online education system to serve as a clearinghouse for rail-related information and content, connect teachers, trainers, and students at pre-, and postgraduate levels, and to collect demographic and professional information on groups and individuals interested in HSR. The paper explores the technology review, selection process, and content developed. Website visits and demographic information from over 4,000 unique individuals and 600 HSRLS course registrations are analyzed and assessed.

  14. SeDiCi: An Authentication Service Taking Advantage of Zero-Knowledge Proofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzonkowski, Sławomir

    Transmission of users' profiles over insecure communication means is a crucial task of today's ecommerce applications. In addition, the users have to createmany profiles and remember many credentials. Thus they retype the same information over and over again. Each time the users type their credentials, they expose them to phishing or eavesdropping attempts.These problems could be solved by using Single Sign-on (SSO). The idea of SSO is that the users keep using the same set of credentials when visiting different websites. For web-aplications, OpenID1. is the most prominent solution that partially impelemtns SSO. However, OpenID is prone to phishing attempts and it does not preserve users' privacy [1].

  15. How gas producers can position themselves to take advantage of a deregulated energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of Norcen Energy Resource's finances, their production of oil, natural gas liquids (NGL) and gas, and their approach to marketing was provided in this poster presentation. Formerly owned power projects and current opportunities for Norcen were summarized. The potential role of natural gas in electrical restructuring, and some possible marketing strategies were highlighted

  16. Impure and Multiple! Taking Full Advantage of Belk’s Extensions of Giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2014-01-01

    to be a person that extends and shares himself ‘out’ profusely. Following his generous example, I wish to share some thoughts on the ‘extensions’ that Belk’s work on gift giving and sharing achieves and/or helps us envision. I discuss five papers, beginning with the ‘Agapic love’ paper (Belk and Coon, 1993...

  17. How the new optoelectronic design automation industry is taking advantage of preexisting EDA standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Kevin A.; Carver, Susan

    2014-05-01

    With the advancements in design processes down to the sub 7nm levels, the Electronic Design Automation industry appears to be coming to an end of advancements, as the size of the silicon atom becomes the limiting factor. Or is it? The commercial viability of mass-producing silicon photonics is bringing about the Optoelectronic Design Automation (OEDA) industry. With the science of photonics in its infancy, adding these circuits to ever-increasing complex electronic designs, will allow for new generations of advancements. Learning from the past 50 years of the EDA industry's mistakes and missed opportunities, the photonics industry is starting with electronic standards and extending them to become photonically aware. Adapting the use of pre-existing standards into this relatively new industry will allow for easier integration into the present infrastructure and faster time to market.

  18. Who Takes Advantage of Free Flu Shots? Examining the Effects of an Expansion in Coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carman, K.G.; Mosca, I.

    2011-01-01

    Because of the high risk of costly complications (including death) and the externalities of contagious diseases, many countries provide free flu shots to certain populations free of charge. This paper examines the expansion of the free flu shot program in the Netherlands. This program expanded in

  19. Cognitive strategies take advantage of the cooperative potential of heterogeneous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukov, Jeromos; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the emergence and maintenance of cooperation is one of the most challenging topics of our time. Evolutionary game theory offers a very flexible framework within which to address this challenge. Here we use the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate the performance of individuals who are capable of adopting reactive strategies in communities structurally organized by means of Barabási-Albert scale-free networks. We find that basic cognitive abilities, such as the capability to distinguish their partners and act according to their previous actions, enable cooperation to thrive. This result is particularly significant whenever fear is the leading social tension, as this fosters retaliation, thus enforcing and sustaining cooperation. Being able to simultaneously reward fellow cooperators and punish defectors proves instrumental in achieving cooperation and the welfare of the community. As a result, central individuals can successfully lead the community and turn defective players into cooperative ones. Finally, even when participation costs—known to be detrimental to cooperation in scale-free networks—are explicitly included, we find that basic cognitive abilities have enough potential to help cooperation to prevail. (paper)

  20. Taking advantage of the Mobicents platform in the design of the SINGA environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available . This is equivalent to allowing the children to program their needs at a MASHUP level of the software development tier without them being aware of the low-level complexities involved....

  1. Supplemental Work at Home among Finnish Wage Earners: Involuntary Overtime or Taking the Advantage of Flexibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Ojala

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested, that the new flexible work practices are enhanced to meet the work-family demandsand therefore benefit especially women. In the article the focus is on informal flexibilitytaking place at home, for which field studies of the role of gender are rare. Against the assumptions,paid work at home is mostly informal, supplementary overtime by nature. In this article, I explorewhy employees undertake work in their private sphere during their free time and whether gendermakes a difference there. I carry out both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The qualitativedata consists of 21 interviews with white-collar employees and the quantitative data from theFinnish Quality of Work Life survey 2008 for which there are almost 4400 respondents. The methodsinclude content analysis, descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis.According to both the qualitative and quantitative data, job characteristics play the most importantrole for all who work at home; employees with higher education, or supervisory tasks, inparallel with having an autonomous and inspiring job predict both tele- and supplemental work.Importantly, gender plays only a minor role in the puzzles of choosing when and where to work.The social relations at the workplace, including the atmosphere and the support of superiors andthe work community, are only weakly related to work at home. At the same time, supplementalwork is associated with great time pressure and involuntary overtime.

  2. Nordic-Baltic interaction in European Union negotiations: taking advantage of institutionalized cooperation / Ilze Ruse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruse, Ilze

    2014-01-01

    Läänemere riikide koostööst, keskendutakse küsimusele, kuivõrd suudavad need riigid institutsionaalselt tegutsedes tugevdada oma positsioone läbirääkimistel EL-ga ning saavutada seatud eesmärke.

  3. How to take advantage of tablet computers : Effects of news structure on recall and comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Cauwenberge, Anna; d'Haenens, Leen; Beentjes, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In light of the growing use of tablets for news reading and mobile news consumption behaviors, this study examined whether an innovative way of structuring news on the tablet that mimics mobile news behaviors reinforced attention for, and learning from, news. Specifically, it was theorized that the

  4. Point-of-sale marketing of tobacco products: taking advantage of the socially disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Robert; Cheney, Marshall K; Azad, M Raihan

    2009-05-01

    With increasing regulation of tobacco industry marketing practices, point-of-sale advertising has become an important channel for promoting tobacco products. One hundred and ten convenience stores in Oklahoma County were surveyed for tobacco-related advertising. There were significantly more point-of-sale tobacco advertisements in low-income and minority neighborhoods than in better educated, higher-income, predominantly White neighborhoods. Storeowners or managers were also interviewed to determine who has decision-making power regarding store signage and placement, and to elicit perceptions of industry tactics. Contracts with tobacco companies leave storeowners with little or no control over promotion of tobacco products within their store, and many are unaware of the implications of the tobacco industry point-of-sale practices. Local ordinances that regulated outdoor signage reduced outdoor tobacco advertisements, as well as tobacco signage and promotions within the store. Policy change, rather than education targeting storeowners, is recommended as the most effective strategy for reducing point-of-sale tobacco advertising.

  5. Lynch, Urry and city marketing: Taking advantage of the city as a built and graphic image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, G-J.

    2009-01-01

    City marketing is usually addressed from the perspective of marketing theory. This article follows an alternative approach by exploring city marketing from the viewpoint of urban planning and the sociology of tourism. In his classic ‘The Image of the City’ (1960), planner Kevin Lynch found that

  6. Taking Advantage of Automated Assessment of Student-Constructed Graphs in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jonathan M.; Lai, Kevin; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new system for automated scoring of graph construction items that address complex science concepts, feature qualitative prompts, and support a range of possible solutions. This system utilizes analysis of spatial features (e.g., slope of a line) to evaluate potential student ideas represented within graphs. Student ideas are then…

  7. Taking Advantage of External Funding for Air Force Officer Ph.D. Candidates at Civilian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    career. Early education would also permit an officer to avoid the stigma of losing, due to time spent in school as a senior Captain or Field Grade...for an aborted Ph.D. program: ―The normal degree program in the Department leads to a Ph.D. in Physics. Only in special cases … are students admitted

  8. Competitive Advantage of Interconnected Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Andersson, Ulf

    We model the complex interplay between firm-level variables, notably capabilities and performance, and relationship-level variables: relationship-specific assets and network context. We test how the network context of individual exchange relationships as well as firm-level capabilities jointly af...

  9. Development of a module for taking remuneration under the Renewable Energy Law into account in a model for calculating the economic efficiency of smart electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Maximilian Uwe; Toprani, Vipul; Witte, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of the Law Giving Priority to Renewable Energies (EEG) in 2000 laid the cornerstone for the transformation of the German electricity supply. Since then the proportion of renewable energy in electricity production has grown dramatically, confronting the German network infrastructure, which was initially designed for a centralised supply system, with new problems and challenges. In order to achieve optimal coordination between volatile energy infeeds, electricity storage plants and consumers it is necessary to bring all components involved together in a smart grid. A small-scale grid of this description is currently being operated and investigated on the EUREF Campus in Berlin Schoeneberg. The task of achieving optimal allocation of energy flows and getting the micro smart grid to run accordingly, i.e. at a profit, poses new challenges to all involved. To be able to determine the economic efficiency of smart grids a calculation model was developed which simulates the operation of production and storage plants and takes the behaviour of real consumers into account. The model rates the profitability of investments made in terms of their capital value. In its current version the model still disregards the legal regulations for the remuneration of electricity produced from a mix of renewable resources. These cannot be considered as physically separate in a smart grid. In the present study a module based on EEG provisions was developed which calculates remuneration rates as a function of production and demand at a given moment. This is one of several factors which influence the economic efficiency of smart grids. The study undertakes to identify these factors and describe their influence on the profitability of the total investment.

  10. Assessing Risk-Taking in a Driving Simulator Study: Modeling Longitudinal Semi-Continuous Driving Data Using a Two-Part Regression Model with Correlated Random Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van; Liu, Danping; Pradhan, Anuj K; Li, Kaigang; Bingham, C Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Albert, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    Signalized intersection management is a common measure of risky driving in simulator studies. In a recent randomized trial, investigators were interested in whether teenage males exposed to a risk-accepting passenger took more intersection risks in a driving simulator compared with those exposed to a risk-averse peer passenger. Analyses in this trial are complicated by the longitudinal or repeated measures that are semi-continuous with clumping at zero. Specifically, the dependent variable in a randomized trial looking at the effect of risk-accepting versus risk-averse peer passengers on teenage simulator driving is comprised of two components. The discrete component measures whether the teen driver stops for a yellow light, and the continuous component measures the time the teen driver, who does not stop, spends in the intersection during a red light. To convey both components of this measure, we apply a two-part regression with correlated random effects model (CREM), consisting of a logistic regression to model whether the driver stops for a yellow light and a linear regression to model the time spent in the intersection during a red light. These two components are related through the correlation of their random effects. Using this novel analysis, we found that those exposed to a risk-averse passenger have a higher proportion of stopping at yellow lights and a longer mean time in the intersection during a red light when they did not stop at the light compared to those exposed to a risk-accepting passenger, consistent with the study hypotheses and previous analyses. Examining the statistical properties of the CREM approach through simulations, we found that in most situations, the CREM achieves greater power than competing approaches. We also examined whether the treatment effect changes across the length of the drive and provided a sample size recommendation for detecting such phenomenon in subsequent trials. Our findings suggest that CREM provides an efficient

  11. Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asheim, B.T.; Boschma, R.A.; Cooke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases, Regional Studies. This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related

  12. Advantages and Challenges of Radiative Liquid Lithium Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Steady-state fusion power plant designs present major divertor technology challenges, including high divertor heat flux both in steady-state and during transients. In addition to these concerns, there are the unresolved technology issues of long term dust accumulation and associated tritium inventory and safety issues. The application of lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power threshold reduction, and reduction in the divertor peak heat flux while maintaining essentially Li-free core plasma operation even during H-modes. These promising results in NSTX and related modeling calculations motivated the radiative liquid Li divertor (RLLD) concept and its variant, the active liquid Li divertor concept (ARLLD), taking advantage of the enhanced Li radiation in relatively poorly confined divertor plasmas. It has been suggested that radiation-based liquid lithium (LL) divertor concepts with a modest Li-loop could provide a possible solution for the outstanding fusion reactor technology issues such as divertor heat flux mitigation and real time dust removal, while potentially improving the reactor plasma performance. Laboratory tests are also planned to investigate the Li-T recover efficiency and other relevant research topics of the RLLD. This work supported by DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. 1. On note taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Alfred B J

    2005-02-01

    In this paper the author explores the theoretical and technical issues relating to taking notes of analytic sessions, using an introspective approach. The paper discusses the lack of a consistent approach to note taking amongst analysts and sets out to demonstrate that systematic note taking can be helpful to the analyst. The author describes his discovery that an initial phase where as much data was recorded as possible did not prove to be reliably helpful in clinical work and initially actively interfered with recall in subsequent sessions. The impact of the nature of the analytic session itself and the focus of the analyst's interest on recall is discussed. The author then describes how he modified his note taking technique to classify information from sessions into four categories which enabled the analyst to select which information to record in notes. The characteristics of memory and its constructive nature are discussed in relation to the problems that arise in making accurate notes of analytic sessions.

  14. Taking the Gloves off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srratr, James; Shelton, Stella

    2001-01-01

    One eager reporter plus a media-savvy parent can undermine a school system's image and educational mission. Districts are hampered by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, which prohibits open discussion of an issue concerning a student and his/her parents. Newsworthy incidents illustrate advantages of a waiver policy. (MLH)

  15. The Democratic Take

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehane, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 presidential election stands as a "change" election. The public's anxiety over the challenges globalization poses to the future of the American Dream is driving a desire for the country to change direction. The American people understand that what will give the nation a competitive advantage in a global marketplace are the…

  16. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  17. Mastering Tacit Corridors for Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glisby, Martin; Holden, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    In today's business world, knowledge is shaped in corporate relationships and diffused in networks. A major mode of knowledge is the tacit dimension, which refers to the elusive, uncodified knowledge that comes from experience, is hard to quantify, but gives an all-important mood and tone...... to explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is traditionally viewed as an important though hazily conceived organizational asset; however, here it is treated as something that is co-created in cross-cultural business relationships and as a knowledge resource of immense significance. Tacit knowledge is prone...... to serious misappreciation by managers, but understanding it for what it is can give firms a key edge that the authors term knowledge advantage. Here, they use case-study data from four international firms to introduce a model that makes use of the concepts of tacit corridors and coupling. Tacit corridors...

  18. Referee bias contributes to home advantage in English Premiership football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Mark G

    2007-09-01

    Officiating bias is thought to contribute to home advantage. Recent research has shown that sports with subjective officiating tend to experience greater home advantage and that referees' decisions can be influenced by crowd noise, but little work has been done to examine whether individual referees vary in their home bias or whether biased decisions contribute to overall home advantage. We develop an ordinal regression model to determine whether various measures of home advantage are affected by the official for the match and by crowd size while controlling for team ability. We examine 5244 English Premier League (EPL) match results involving 50 referees and find that home bias differs between referees. Individual referees give significantly different levels of home advantage, measured as goal differential between the home and away teams, although the significance of this result depends on one referee with a particularly high home advantage (an outlier). Referees vary significantly and robustly in their yellow card and penalty differentials even excluding the outlier. These results confirm that referees are responsible for some of the observed home advantage in the EPL and suggest that home advantage is dependent on the subjective decisions of referees that vary between individuals. We hypothesize that individual referees respond differently to factors such as crowd noise and suggest further research looking at referees' psychological and behavioural responses to biased crowds.

  19. Take-off Stability Characteristics of a 1/13-scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee Skate 7 Seaplane (TED No. NACA DE 338)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKann, Robert; Coffee, Claude W.; Abrabian, Donald D.

    1949-01-01

    The take-off stability characteristics of a Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation Skate 7 seaplane were determined in the Langley tank no. 2. Trim limits of stability, trim tracks, and elevator limits of stability are presented.

  20. A Study of Problems and Responses in the Development of Dual-Language Education Models in Tibetan Regions: Taking Xiahe County in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongzhi, Long

    2017-01-01

    Dual-language education models are theoretical and practical systems formed through the process of dual-language education and centered on study and teaching. The language environment is the basis for developing and reforming dual-language education models. The author takes Xiahe County in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture as an example and…

  1. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors.

  2. Irrelevance of competitive advantage for the benefits of international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Siggel, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    International competitiveness is often regarded as crucial for the attainment of gains from trade, which may lead policy makers to subsidize exports. This view is based on confusion between the concepts of competitive and comparative advantage. The paper argues that when comparative advantage is defined and measured appropriately, not limiting it to the Ricardian and Heckscher-Ohlin models, it becomes a necessary condition for the attainment of gains from trade and it applies to all forms of ...

  3. Company competitiveness and competitive advantages in tourism and hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Cetinski, Vinka; Milohnic, Ines

    2008-01-01

    Connection between competitive strategies and competitive advantages is described in details in this paper. Model of the research is located on the company level in tourism and hospitality. Applicative basis of the paper is founded on the Diamond of Competitiveness (Case Study) usage and is based on the qualitative research of small entrepreneurship in tourism and hospitality. The fact that every strategy is based on creating and sustaining competitive advantages implies that the principal...

  4. Is There an Islamist Political Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammett, Melani; Luong, Pauline Jones

    2014-01-25

    There is a widespread presumption that Islamists have an advantage over their opponents when it comes to generating mass appeal and winning elections. The question remains, however, as to whether these advantages-or, what we refer to collectively as an Islamist political advantage-actually exist. We argue that-to the extent that Islamists have a political advantage-the primary source of this advantage is reputation rather than the provision of social services, organizational capacity, or ideological hegemony. Our purpose is not to dismiss the main sources of the Islamist governance advantage identified in scholarly literature and media accounts, but to suggest a different causal path whereby each of these factors individually and sometimes jointly promotes a reputation for Islamists as competent, trustworthy, and pure. It is this reputation for good governance that enables Islamists to distinguish themselves in the streets and at the ballot box.

  5. Digital linear accelerator: The advantages for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andric, S.; Maksimovic, M.; Dekic, M.; Clark, T.

    1998-01-01

    Technical performances of Digital Linear Accelerator were presented to point out its advantages for clinical radiotherapy treatment. The accelerator installation is earned out at Military Medical Academy, Radiotherapy Department, by Medes and Elekta companies. The unit offers many technical advantages with possibility of introduction new conformal treatment techniques as stereotactic radiosurgery, total body and total skin irradiation. In the paper are underlined advantages in relation to running conventional accelerator units at Yugoslav radiotherapy departments, both from technical and medical point of view. (author)

  6. Comparative Advantage, Trade and Labour Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Busse

    2002-01-01

    This paper empirically explores the relationship between labour standards and comparative advantage. Focusing on unskilled-labour-intensive goods and core labour standards, the results show that the effects of low standards depend on the type of standard: Weaker basic union rights are associated with a stronger comparative advantage. Forced and child labour also lead to an increase in the endowment of unskilled labour, and hence improve comparative advantage in unskilled-labour-intensive good...

  7. Take Three: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting seasonal flu and spreading it to others by taking these three steps.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  8. Mathematics of Risk Taking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/014/01/0066-0079. Keywords. Investor; risk taking; fair game; martingale; random walk; gambling; population. Author Affiliations. K B Athreya1 2 M G Nadkarni3. Department of Mathematics Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa; I M I, Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, ...

  9. Rapid inventory taking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, P.S.S.F.

    1980-01-01

    A data processing system designed to facilitate inventory taking is described. The process depends upon the earliest possible application of computer techniques and the elimination of manual operations. Data is recorded in optical character recognition (OCR) 'A' form and read by a hand held wand reader. Limited validation checks are applied before recording on mini-tape cassettes. 5 refs

  10. Simulating Price-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Lucas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a price-takers' market simulation geared toward principles-level students. This simulation demonstrates that price-taking behavior is a natural result of the conditions that create perfect competition. In trials, there is a significant degree of price convergence in just three or four rounds. Students find this…

  11. Taking of history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Learning how to take a history is an extremely important discipline in the education of veterinary students. In our opinion the fact that this discipline is often neglected in traditional teaching is a big mistake. The mere thought of facing a real client can be almost paralysing to even the smar......Learning how to take a history is an extremely important discipline in the education of veterinary students. In our opinion the fact that this discipline is often neglected in traditional teaching is a big mistake. The mere thought of facing a real client can be almost paralysing to even...... the smartest student. So the more familiar a student can become with these situations the better. Since september 2006, veterinary students at Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, have received training in the discipline of history taking, using innovative educational methods: Online...... The students prepare themselves for the course by going online at home the day before class. Here they find a narrated PowerPoint presentation containing : 1) The principles of history taking 2) Client diversities – and the obstacles one might have to face with these different types of clients Video In class...

  12. Taking minutes of meetings

    CERN Document Server

    Gutmann, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    aking Minutes of Meetings guides you through the entire process behind minute taking: arranging the meeting; writing the agenda; creating the optimum environment; structuring the meeting and writing notes up accurately. The minute-taker is one of the most important and powerful people in a meeting and you can use this opportunity to develop your knowledge, broaden your horizons and build credibility within the organization. Taking Minutes of Meetings is an easy to read 'dip-in, dip-out' guide which shows you how to confidently arrange meetings and produce minutes. It provides hands-on advice about the sections of a meeting as well as tips on how to create an agenda, personal preparation, best practice advice on taking notes and how to improve your accuracy. Brand new chapters of this 4th edition include guidance on using technology to maximize effectiveness and practical help with taking minutes for a variety of different types of meetings. The creating success series of books... With over one million copi...

  13. The relation between proactive environmental strategies and competitive advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnariu, A.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    There are two distinct orientations of the environmental management that companies may adopt: the model of compliance and the strategic model. The strategic model treats environmental expenses as investments that will lead to competitive advantage for the company. Nevertheless, there are few scientific works that prove the relation between corporate environmental investments and competitive advantage. Thereby, in order to bring clarifications about the profound implications of environmental investments, in the first stage of our research we have proposed the hypothesis that the environmental investments would probably lead to competitive advantage by creating capabilities that are mediators of this relation. In the second stage we have tested this hypothesis, using the research method of survey. A questionnaire was sent to managers in textile Romanian industry, and 109 answers were received. The data was analysed using the linear multiple regression method and the results confirm our hypothesis.

  14. Analisis Dampak Servant Leadership Terhadap Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Oktavia, Pek Nike

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah terdapat dampak antara Servant Leadership terhadap Competitve Advantage, Employee Empowerment dan Organizational Learning. Variabel Servant Leadership diukur dari lima indikator, yaitu altruistic calling, emotional healing, wisdom, persuasive mapping, dan organizational stewardship. Variabel Competitive Advantage diukur dari lima indikator, yaitu price/cost, quality, delivery dependability, time to market, dan product innovation. Variabel Emplo...

  15. Home advantage in the Commonwealth Games | Ramchandani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Research examining the phenomenon of home advantage in international multi-sport competitions is limited to the Olympic Games. This paper investigates the prevalence of home advantage in the Commonwealth Games. The paper also explores the relative impact of travel on performance in the ...

  16. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  17. Competitive advantage, what does it really mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Haijing de Haan; Hongjue Yan

    2013-01-01

    Competitive advantage is probably the most popular business concept today (Mooney, 2007). This article aims to investigate critically the discourse on competitive advantage, as expressed by business literature, by locating its meanings in the public higher education sector. This research reveals

  18. Strategic Positioning for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, most literature has not clearly linked organizational learning with sustainable competitive advantage. This paper, therefore, explores and discusses the role of organizational learning in helping business firms to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. Specifically, it deals with how organizational learning ...

  19. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  20. 77 FR 6619 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...-Site Examinations. SBA's Office of Credit Risk Management (OCRM) will evaluate the CA Lender's level of... Community Advantage Pilot Program loan applications (or requests for loan numbers submitted under a lender's... Advantage Lenders (``CA Lenders'') to pledge loans made under the CA Pilot Program (``CA loans'') as...

  1. Mechanical design and modeling of a single-piston pump for the novel power take-off system of a wave energy converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakis, Antonis I.; Anagnostopoulos, John S.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-pump, multi-piston power take-off wave energy converter ((MPPTO)-P-2 WEC) has been proposed for use with a novel renewable energy harvester termed the Ocean Grazer. The (MPPTO)-P-2 WEC utilizes wave motion to pump via buoys connected to pistons working fluid within a closed circuit and store

  2. Producing Intellectual Labor in the Classroom: The Utilization of a Critical Thinking Model to Help Students Take Command of Their Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Phillip; Hale, Enoch; Harper, Sallie L.

    2011-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals that although the teaching of critical thinking skills is a significant aim of post-secondary pedagogy, much ambiguity exists regarding the topic. In fact, due to the lack of faculty familiarity with the concept compounded by student resistance to put forth the intellectual labor to take charge of their own…

  3. Take the "C" Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, the author recalls several of her experiences in which she successfully pulled her boats out of river holes by throwing herself to the water as a sea-anchor. She learned this trick from her senior guides at a spring training. Her guides told her, "When you're stuck in a hole, take the "C" train."" "Meaning?" The author asked her…

  4. Social Perspective Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    having testicular cancer , they can and do attempt the perspective taking leap (Halpern, 2001). Individuals can strive to know themselves better by...science, social science, psychology , and anthropological literature in the areas of education, medicine, and cross-cultural interactions. 2. Identify...experts in the fields of social psychology , intercultural research, and medicine in order to determine the critical KSAs to be included in a training

  5. Perspective Taking in Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zappalà Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Workplaces are often described as places in which individuals are motivated by their self-interests and in which negative events like time pressure, anxiety, conflict with co-workers, miscomprehensions, difficulties in solving problems, not-transmitted or not-exchanged information that lead to mistakes, and in some cases to injuries, stress or control, are part of everyday life (Dormann & Zapf, 2002; Schabracq, Winnubst and Cooper, 2003. Such situations are often the result of the limited comprehension of needs, skills, or information available to colleagues, supervisors, subordinates, clients or providers. However, workplaces are also places in which employees take care of clients, support colleagues and subordinates (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002, are enthusiastic about their job (Bakker et al., 2008, are motivated by leaders that encourage employees to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or the organization and provide them with the confidence to perform beyond expectations (Bass, 1997. Thus positive relationships at work are becoming a new interdisciplinary domain of inquiry (Dutton & Ragins, 2006. Within this positive relationships framework, in this paper we focus on a positive component of workplaces, and particularly on an individual cognitive and emotional process that has an important role in the workplace because it facilitates interpersonal relations and communications: it is the perspective taking process. In order to describe perspective taking, we will refer to some empirical studies and particularly to the review published by Parker, Atkins and Axtell in 2008 on the International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

  6. Take the monkey and run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Hambright, M. Karen; Hewes, Kelly; Schilder, Brian M.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small, New World primate that is used extensively in biomedical and behavioral research. This short-lived primate, with its small body size, ease of handling, and docile temperament, has emerged as a valuable model for aging and neurodegenerative research. A growing body of research has indicated exercise, aerobic exercise especially, imparts beneficial effects to normal aging. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these positive effects of exercise, and the degree to which exercise has neurotherapeutic effects, is an important research focus. Thus, developing techniques to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise would have great advantages. New method Here we describe the marmoset exercise ball (MEB) paradigm: a safe (for both experimenter and subjects), novel and effective means to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise. We trained young adult male marmosets to run on treadmills for 30 min a day, 3 days a week. Results Our training procedures allowed us to engage male marmosets in this aerobic exercise within 4 weeks, and subjects maintained this frequency of exercise for 3 months. Comparison with existing methods To our knowledge, this is the first described method to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise. A major advantage of this exercise paradigm is that while it was technically forced exercise, it did not appear to induce stress in the marmosets. Conclusions These techniques should be useful to researchers wishing to address physiological responses of exercise in a marmoset model. PMID:25835199

  7. Sampling vs. taking some - 59349

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois-Bongarcon, D.

    2012-01-01

    Collecting a sample is a delicate task that is Not naively equivalent to simply 'taking some of the material'. The question examined is: 'What is it exactly?' The problem of sampling in general, and for nuclear decontamination in particular, is properly defined. A theory is presented (Gy's Theory of Sampling, a.k.a. TOS) that brings all the answers and allows us to put them to work. The author draws form his lifelong experience in research, teaching and practical applications in this domain to emphasize the critical odds (i.e. risks) of not taking sampling explicitly into account when assessing grades and concentrations. The evolution of the acceptance of this theory in the nuclear industry is finally illustrated, and a hopeful glimpse into the future concludes the presentation. Equally interesting, however, besides what has already been achieved at the CEA along these years, is the realization of what could not be done with TOS, and therefore had to be treated in some other ways - e.g. using mapping tools (geostatistical). It is one the great side-advantages of using a consistent theory that it warns you, before it is too late, that what you are trying to do will not work: TOS, indeed, much like its Geo-statistics sister, besides preventing many a disaster, can provide pragmatic lessons in scientific humility that are best not being left ignored. In conclusion, there are great tools out there, such as TOS, that are well worth investing into, and that our community should be much more attuned to. (author)

  8. Take Five for Customer Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Ax-Fultz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Businesses leverage excellent customer service to improve profitability. Although not profit-driven, libraries should leverage excellent customer service to achieve their unique missions. Evaluating and improving customer service practices will help a library determine if it is successfully serving its customers. The library should review three areas to improve customer service: the physical space of the library, how library employees work with library policies, and the communication skills of the library staff. By using the Take Five model, the library can make immediate, no-cost changes or plan for future improvements by taking just five minutes, every day, to assess specific areas. Over a few weeks or months, these small changes will result in better customer service.

  9. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competitive advantage lies in the focus of the performance of companies in competitive markets and innovation is a source for obtaining and consolidating it. Companies will need to demonstrate the capacity to adapt to changes in the business environment so as to maintain the helded positions. This paper treats this aspect behavior that companies should adopt to get on the account of innovation a sustainable competitive advantage. I started of the work in the elaboration from the theory of developed by Michael Porter in his book "Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance" we applied methods listed thus trying to point out possible ways of creating competitive advantage by companies. We have presented the sources of competitive advantage and the factors on which depends its creation. Walking theoretical research revealed how lack of competitive advantage leads to a lack of competitiveness of companies and the benefits that arise with the creation of this type of asset. Among the most important benefits is to increase performances. Once the competitive advantage is achieved, it must be maintained and updated market conditions and the methods that can be created a sustainable competitive advantage represent the answers to many of the companies questions are fighting for survival in an environment of fierce competition. The implementation of methods for obtaining competitive advantages, but also exist dangers, that every company should know them

  10. Prochlorococcus: Advantages and Limits of Minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

  11. Advantages of GPU technology in DFT calculations of intercalated graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pešić, J; Gajić, R

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, the expansion of general-purpose graphic-processing unit (GPGPU) technology has had a great impact on computational science. GPGPU is the utilization of a graphics-processing unit (GPU) to perform calculations in applications usually handled by the central processing unit (CPU). Use of GPGPUs as a way to increase computational power in the material sciences has significantly decreased computational costs in already highly demanding calculations. A level of the acceleration and parallelization depends on the problem itself. Some problems can benefit from GPU acceleration and parallelization, such as the finite-difference time-domain algorithm (FTDT) and density-functional theory (DFT), while others cannot take advantage of these modern technologies. A number of GPU-supported applications had emerged in the past several years (www.nvidia.com/object/gpu-applications.html). Quantum Espresso (QE) is reported as an integrated suite of open source computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling at the nano-scale. It is based on DFT, the use of a plane-waves basis and a pseudopotential approach. Since the QE 5.0 version, it has been implemented as a plug-in component for standard QE packages that allows exploiting the capabilities of Nvidia GPU graphic cards (www.qe-forge.org/gf/proj). In this study, we have examined the impact of the usage of GPU acceleration and parallelization on the numerical performance of DFT calculations. Graphene has been attracting attention worldwide and has already shown some remarkable properties. We have studied an intercalated graphene, using the QE package PHonon, which employs GPU. The term ‘intercalation’ refers to a process whereby foreign adatoms are inserted onto a graphene lattice. In addition, by intercalating different atoms between graphene layers, it is possible to tune their physical properties. Our experiments have shown there are benefits from using GPUs, and we reached an

  12. Coarse-grid-CFD. An advantageous alternative to subchannel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Class, A.G.; Himmel, S.R.; Viellieber, M.O. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (DE). Inst. for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET)

    2011-07-01

    In the 1960{sup th} to 80{sup th} when current GEN II reactor technology was developed, the only possible approach was to use one-dimensional subchannel analysis to compute the flow inside a fuel bundle so that the subchannel scale could be resolved. For simulations of the whole reactor core either system codes or homogenization were employed. In system codes resolution of individual assemblies was the state of the art. Homogenization used porous media equations simulations and averaged the thermohydraulics on reactor core scale. Current potent computing power allows using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to simulate individual fuel assemblies. Yet the large number of fuel assemblies within the core forbids exploiting CFD for core wide simulation. We propose to combine ideas of subchannel analysis and CFD to develop a new methodology which takes advantage of the fast development of commercial CFD software and the efficiency of subchannel analysis. In this methodology was first applied to simulate a wire-wrap fuel bundle of the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR). Computations using an inviscid Euler solver on an extremely coarse grid were tuned to predict the true thermohydraulics by adding volumetric forces. These forces represent the non-resolved sub-grid physics. The volumetric forces cannot be measured directly. However, they can be accessed from detailed CFD simulations resolving all relevant physics. Parameterization of these subgrid forces can be realized analogous to models in subchannel codes. In the present work we extend the methodology to the open source solver OpenFOAM and a specific hexagonal fuel assembly which is studied in the framework of liquid metal cooled GEN IV reactor concepts. (orig.)

  13. Wind power takes over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    All over the industrialized world concentrated efforts are being made to make wind turbines cover some of the energy demand in the coming years. There is still a long way to go, however, towards a 'green revolution' as far as energy is concerned, for it is quite futile to use wind power for electric heating. The article deals with some of the advantages and disadvantages of developing wind power. In Norway, for instance, environmentalists fear that wind power plants along the coast may have serious consequences for the stocks of white-tailed eagle and golden eagle. An other factor that delays the large-scale application of wind power in Norway is the low price of electricity. Some experts, however, maintain that wind power may already compete with new hydroelectric power of intermediate cost. The investment costs are expected to go down with one third by 2020, when wind power may be the most competitive energy source to utilize

  14. Smooth-Water Landing Stability and Rough-Water Landing and Take-Off Behavior of a 1/13-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee Skate 7 Seaplane, TED No. NACA DE 338

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKann, Robert F.; Coffee, Claude W.; Arabian, Donald D.

    1949-01-01

    A model of the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation Skate 7 seaplane was tested in Langley tank no. 2. Presented without discussion in this paper are landing stability in smooth water, maximum normal accelerations occurring during rough-water landings, and take-off behavior in waves.

  15. Software exporting: a developing country advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Software exports have the potential to make a significant contribution to the economies of developing countries and to the global IT industry. Developing countries have demonstrated a comparative advantage in this export sector and the global IT industry can benefit from this developing country advantage. Today, IT is high investment, high risk, and high reward and has graduated from being a critical support function to a key partner, sometimes responsible for directing the strategy of an enterprise. Business and technology managers cannot afford to miss the opportunities provided by the comparative advantage of developing countries in the IT arena.

  16. Paedomorphic facial expressions give dogs a selective advantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M Waller

    Full Text Available How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process.

  17. Cost Discrepancy, Signaling, and Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Jim

    2005-01-01

    If risk taking is in some measure a signal to others by the person taking risks, the model of "costly signaling" predicts that the more the apparent cost of the risk to others exceeds the perceived cost of the risk to the risk taker, the more attractive that risk will be as a signal. One hundred and twelve visitors to youth…

  18. AquAdvantage Salmon Genetically modified organism

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Saurí, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Póster AquAdvantage Salmon is a genetically modified organism developed by AquBounty Technologies. The objective of this transgenic organism is to increase the growth rate to obtain the same of conventional salmon faster.

  19. Measuring Coding Intensity in Medicare Advantage - SUPP.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 2004, Medicare implemented a risk-adjustment system that pays Medicare Advantage (MA) plans based on diagnoses reported for their enrollees, giving the plans an...

  20. Overview of research in the ADVANTAGE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Cosovic, Mirsad; Kalalas, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    The European Marie Curie Project ADVANTAGE (Advanced Communications and Information processing in smart grid systems) was launched in 2014. It represents a major inter-disciplinary research project into the topic of Smart Grid technology. A key aspect of the project is to bring together and train...... in the project. The major research focus of the ADVANTAGE project is on advancing technologies for the smart grid, providing architectural solutions and developing innovative information and communications technology (ICT) solutions to support its operation....

  1. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competiti...

  2. MOLDOVA: MISSED ADVANTAGES OF EURASIAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Vasiljevna Fokina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to potentially missed advantages of Eurasian integration (EAEU for Moldova. Special attention is given to the branches in which the country could get evident advantages including agriculture, power engineering, external trade ties with the EAEU countries. Possible positive effects of Eurasian integration in solution of the Transnistrian problem, in the sphere of labour migration and other fields are also shown.

  3. Logistics potentials in business competitive advantage creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Matwiejczuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Companies constantly search for ways to achieve and sustain long-term competitive advantage. Among the factors influencing the competitive advantage creation there are so called logistics potentials, which constitute a component part of a business strategic potentials. Logistics resources, logistics capabilities and logistics competences are the main components of the logistics potentials structure and hierarchy. Methods: In order to recognize the logistics potentials which determine the competitive advantage creation one may use the assumptions and elements of contemporary management concepts, including strategic management. In particular the article deals with Resource-Based View (RBV, Dynamic Capabilities Concept (DCC and - first of all - Competence-Based Management (CBM. Results and conclusions: Several significant research projects have presented a wide scope and a large number of possibilities of logistics potentials (and logistics competences in particular influence on business competitive advantage creation. The article briefly presents the research results conducted by: (1 Michigan State University (USA, (2 European Logistics Association (ELA in cooperation with A.T. Kearney, (3 Computer Sciences Corporation and (4 Capgemini. The research results have pointed out to differentiated but at the same distinctive symptoms of logistics competences influence on competitive advantage creation. The article also refers to the results of the research carried out by the Chair of Logistics & Marketing at Opole University (Poland in companies operating in Poland. The research has been mainly dealing with the significance of logistics competences in competitive advantage creation.

  4. Taking action against violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, K

    1996-05-01

    Significant increase in violent crimes in recent years forced Icelandic men to take action against violence. Television was seen as a major contributory factor in increasing violence. Surveys indicate that 10-15 years after television broadcasting commences in a particular society, the incidence of crime can be expected to double. While the majority of the individuals arrested for violent crimes are men, being male does not necessarily mean being violent. The Men's Committee of the Icelandic Equal Rights Council initiated a week-long information and education campaign under the theme "Men Against Violence". This campaign involved several events including an art exhibit, speeches on violence in families, treatment sought by those who are likely to resort to violence, booklet distribution among students in secondary schools, and a mass media campaign to raise public awareness on this pressing problem.

  5. Taking Design Games Seriously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette Agger; Brandt, Eva; Mattelmäki, Tuuli

    2014-01-01

    Using design games at Participatory Design (PD) events is well acknowledged as a fruitful way of staging participation. As PD researchers, we have many such experiences, and we have argued that design games connect participants and promote equalizing power relations. However, in this paper, we...... will (self) critically re-connect and reflect on how people (humans) and materials (non-humans) continually participate and intertwine in various power relations in design game situations. The analysis is of detailed situated actions with one of our recent games, UrbanTransition. Core concepts mainly from...... Bruno Latour’s work on Actor-Network-Theory are applied. The aim is to take design games seriously by e.g. exploring how assemblages of humans and non-humans are intertwined in tacitly-but-tactically staging participation, and opening up for or hindering negotiations and decision-making, thus starting...

  6. Taking a Long View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss capitalism’s long-term prospects. To some extent I draw on material and arguments I have presented elsewhere (Ougaard, 2014; Ougaard, 2015a; Ougaard, 2015b); the present intention is to bring these elements together and combine them with other material...... to elaborate an argument about capitalism’s long term devel-opmental potential. On some points the argument resembles recent gloomy diagnoses for-warded by Wolfgang Streeck (Streeck, 2014a; Streeck, 2014b) and Andrew Gamble (Gamble, 2014), but is also offers an alternative to their interpretations by taking...... factors (CFs). The next step is, drawing on regulation theory, to relate the mobilization of such CFs to the successive stages of capitalist development after World War Two, up to the present crisis, and after this, in the final two sections I discuss the potential for mobilizing ‘surplus labour...

  7. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Competitive Advantage and the Existence of the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    This paper provides a counterpoint to Buckley and Hashai’s paper “Is competitive advantage a necessary condition for the emergence of the Multinational Enterprise?”. We agree with their conclusion that it is, in fact, not a necessary condition, but argue that the theoretical reasons behind...... this are different and more diverse than the ones they propose. We suggest that much extant economic theory is in fact consistent with their view that firms may internationalize without owning or achieving competitive advantages, and model various other ways in which imperfections can drive their overall result. We...

  9. Decision taking as a service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Decision taking can be performed as a service to other parties and it is amenable to outtasking rather than to outsourcing. Outtasking decision taking is compatible with selfsourcing of decision making activities carried out in preparation of decision taking. Decision taking as a service (DTaaS) is

  10. Ground Stereo Vision-Based Navigation for Autonomous Take-off and Landing of UAVs: A Chan-Vese Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengqing Tang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at flying target detection and localization of a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV autonomous take-off and landing within Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS-denied environments. A Chan-Vese model–based approach is proposed and developed for ground stereo vision detection. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is fused into state estimation to reduce the localization inaccuracy caused by measurement errors of object detection and Pan-Tilt unit (PTU attitudes. Furthermore, the region-of-interest (ROI setting up is conducted to improve the real-time capability. The present work contributes to real-time, accurate and robust features, compared with our previous works. Both offline and online experimental results validate the effectiveness and better performances of the proposed method against the traditional triangulation-based localization algorithm.

  11. Taking the plunge

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 8 and 15 October, 58 people took the plunge and headed to the Varembé swimming pool in Geneva for their first taste of scuba diving at one of the CERN scuba club’s free trial dives. Club president Alberto Pace, left, taking a new recruit on his first dive. The CERN scuba club was making waves down at the Varembe swimming pool on Wednesday 15 October. Thirty-six people turned up to the club’s second free trial dive. "It was fantastic," said Jörg, one of the new recruits, after his first ever dive. "I’ve always wanted to try diving and this was a free lesson, so I thought I would come and have a go." Fourteen of the club’s fully qualified instructors were there to give one-on-one tuition. After a first dive in the normal pool the new divers moved into the deep pool. Some took to the water like fish, and at one point an impromptu game of aqua-Frisbee broke out, five metres below the surface. Richard Catherall, who organi...

  12. An investigation into trends in Advanced Placement test taking in science and mathematics among student sub-populations using a longitudinal growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D. Michael

    The lack of preparation, participation, and equal access of students in mathematics and the science education continues to afflict America's high school system (Ratliff, 2001). Additionally, gender and ethnic status have become significant factors as females and minority subgroups such as African Americans and Hispanics continue to be underrepresented in these two subject fields. Recognizing and understanding these trends is extremely important for the future of this country. As fewer minorities and females become involved in advanced mathematics and science curriculum there will be a continued lack of minorities and females in mathematics and science careers. Additionally, this insufficient representation leads to fewer numbers of females and minorities in industry and educational leadership positions in mathematics and science to promote participation and equality in these fields. According to Brainard and Carlin (2003) as trends currently stand, these two groups will be under-represented in the fields of math and science and will continue to be denied economic and social power. Thus, a better understanding of these trends in participation in mathematics and science among these groups of students is warranted. This study is intended to accomplish four objectives. The first objective is to identify the extent to which opportunities are increasing or decreasing for students in high schools taking mathematics and science Advanced Placement exams by examining six years of student testing data from the College Board. A second objective is to identify features of high schools that relate to greater expansion in Advanced Placement test taking for females and minority groups in the areas of both math and science. A third objective is to explore whether, and to what extent, any social or educational features such as economic status, regional school and living locations, and ethnic backgrounds have enhanced or reduced Advanced Placement testing in these schools. Lastly

  13. Is There an Islamist Political Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammett, Melani; Luong, Pauline Jones

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread presumption that Islamists have an advantage over their opponents when it comes to generating mass appeal and winning elections. The question remains, however, as to whether these advantages—or, what we refer to collectively as an Islamist political advantage—actually exist. We argue that—to the extent that Islamists have a political advantage—the primary source of this advantage is reputation rather than the provision of social services, organizational capacity, or ideological hegemony. Our purpose is not to dismiss the main sources of the Islamist governance advantage identified in scholarly literature and media accounts, but to suggest a different causal path whereby each of these factors individually and sometimes jointly promotes a reputation for Islamists as competent, trustworthy, and pure. It is this reputation for good governance that enables Islamists to distinguish themselves in the streets and at the ballot box. PMID:25767370

  14. RELATIVE COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE IN TRADE DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalendu GUHA BIKA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era and process of free trade globalisation the classical and neo-classical theories of comparative and competitive advantages have become short-termed because of new actors and devices in the modern techno-economic advancement. Hence, a new approach seems necessary, respectively the one of relative advantages that are related to economies of scale and marketability, as today, the macroeconomic concept is the concept of Multinational or Transnational, and no longer a national one. At the same time, the micro-concept may be used as concept of an entire international economic sector or branch. Due to these new developments the relative advantages approach focuses more on cost-reduction functions of commodities and services and it plays an important role in both theoretical and practical investigation. The examples presented in the paper are built on three competing Asian countries: China, South Korea and post-emerged Japan.

  15. The Relational View of Interorganizational Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    Collaborating with external partners on R&D and forming strategic partnership for R&D have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories. Though the relational view of competitive advantage has been proposed for more than a decade, few in-depth empirical...... they generate relational rents (interorganizational competitive advantage) from this alliance? Based on this case study, we will propose some implications for the R&D collaboration between Chinese and Scandinavian countries. Also, the case will help us to test and enrich the existing theories...... on interorganizational competitive advantage. At the end of the paper, based on existing theories and the case study result, we will propose our conceptual framework on researching R&D strategic alliance between Scandinavian and Chinese firms....

  16. The optimal vertical structure in the electricity industry when the incumbent has a cost advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakawa, Yukihide

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies how the vertical structure of the electricity industry affects the social welfare when the incumbent has a cost advantage in generation relative to the entrants. The model consists of a generation sector and a transmission sector. In the generation sector the incumbent and entrants compete in a Cournot fashion taking as given the access charge to the transmission network set in advance by the regulator to maximize the social welfare. Two vertical structures, integration and separation, are considered. Under vertical separation the transmission network is established as an organization independent of every generator, whereas under vertical integration it is a part of the incumbent's organization. The optimal vertical structure is shown to depend on the number of entrants. If the number of entrants is smaller than a certain threshold, vertical separation is superior in welfare to vertical integration, and vice versa. This is because the choice of vertical structure produces a trade-off in the effects on competition promotion and production efficiency. If a break-even constraint is imposed in the transmission sector, however, vertical integration is shown to be always superior in welfare. - Highlights: • We examine the optimal vertical structure in the electricity industry. • We model a generation sector in which the incumbent has a cost advantage. • A trade-off between production efficiency and competition promotion occurs. • The optimal vertical structure depends on the number of entrants. • Vertical integration is always superior if a break-even constraint is imposed

  17. THE TAX ADVANTAGES OF INCOME TAX PAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the cost of financing through financial and operational leasing due to the deductibility of depreciation and interest. The shareholders of any company aim to obtain profit and to increase their ownership equity. In order for this to happen, the company must have profit, for which a corporate tax must be paid. A good management translates into choosing the most advantageous means of financing, which will lead to paying a lower corporate tax. Leasing and the non-taxation of reinvested profits are two means through which companies can obtain significant fiscal advantages, by increasing the deductible expenses, or by paying lower taxes.

  18. ELECTRONIC BANKING ADVANTAGES FOR FINANCIAL SERVICES DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Dragos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is a fully automatic service for traditionally banking customers products based on information technology platforms. E-banking services provide customer access to accounts, the ability to move their money between different accounts or making payments via e-channels. The advantages generated by this services have determined an accelerate developing of this industry over the entire world. This paper examines some of the advantages of electronic banking products together with the characteristic management issues generated by the implementation of this new channel for financial services delivery.

  19. Thoracoscopic versus robotic approaches: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benjamin; D'Amico, Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    The overall advantages of thoracoscopy over thoracotomy in terms of patient recovery have been fairly well established. The use of robotics, however, is a newer and less proven modality in the realm of thoracic surgery. Robotics offers distinct advantages and disadvantages in comparison with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Robotic technology is now used for a variety of complex cardiac, urologic, and gynecologic procedures including mitral valve repair and microsurgical treatment of male infertility. This article addresses the potential benefits and limitations of using the robotic platform for the performance of a variety of thoracic operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Component lifetime modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.F.; Verweij, J.F.; Brombacher, A.C.; Brombacher, A.C.; Lunenborg, M.M.; Lunenborg, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    There are two approaches to component lifetime modelling. The first one uses a reliability prediction method as described in the (military) handbooks with the appropriate models and parameters. The advantages are: (a) It takes into account all possible failure mechanisms. (b) It is easy to use. The

  1. THE EFFECT OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND HUMAN ADVANTAGE ON INDUSTRIAL COMPETITIVE STRATEGY (Case Study: SMIs in Gorontalo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifandi Lasalewo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Industries (SMIs have a strategic role in the Indonesian economy, as they earn 61.9 percent of the foreign exchange which goes to make up the nation’s Gross Domestic Product, and nationally they are able to absorb 97 percent of the workforce. The Global Competitiveness Report also notes that SMIs serve as the business units that affect every nation’s competitiveness. Considering this strategic role, the selection of a competitive strategy for these SMIs is absolutely necessary. Through an in-depth literature review, this study aims to explore what variables influence the competitive strategy of industries, particularly the SMIs. By using a Systematic Literature Review (SLR with a total of 31 main literature (articles, papers and books, this study has found two dominant factors that influence industrial competitive strategy: Competitive advantage and human advantage, which are subsequently developed into six independent variables (construct variables, i.e. cost, delivery, product quality, product variety, know-how and innovativeness, with a total of 44 indicators. The results of measurements of the sample of SMIs in Gorontalo Province, using Structural Equation Modeling, found that both competitive advantage and human advantage jointly influence 40.2 percent of the industrial competitive strategies. These results indicate that competitive strategies, such as creating products with unique features, on-time delivery, flexibility in production, and employee involvement in the innovations, are indispensable to SMIs in order for them to produce quality products and be able to maintain their advantage.

  2. Innovative care delivery model to address obesity in older African-American women: Senior Wellness Initiative and Take Off Pounds Sensibly collaboration for health (SWITCH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nia S; Polsky, Sarit

    2013-11-01

    To determine the feasibility and acceptability of integrating Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), a national nonprofit weight-loss program through which people have lost a clinically significant amount of weight, into a community program that serves African Americans (AAs) and to determine weight change. Single-group pilot design. Denver, Colorado. Community-dwelling participants aged 51 to 85. Participants were recruited through a program that serves AAs, and new TOPS chapters were started at a church, senior center, and senior residence for independent living. Feasibility was measured by determining the ease of recruitment and acceptability was measured according to retention. The secondary outcome was weight change. Sixty-four percent of people who were referred to the program or attended an information session participated in the study. The retention rate at 52 weeks was 79%. At 52 weeks, 16 of 48 participants had lost 5% or more of their initial weight, and 23 had lost 0% to 4.9% of their initial weight. Recruiting AA women through the Center for African American Health was feasible, and the program was acceptable. One-third of participants lost a clinically significant amount of weight. TOPS may be one way to combat the health disparity of obesity in AA women. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. On the measurement of comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, A.R.; Oosterhaven, J.

    This paper shows-that the standard measure of revealed comparative advantage (RCA), ranging from 0 to infinity, has problematic properties. Due to its multiplicative specification, it has a moving mean larger than its expected value of 1, while its distribution strongly depends on the number of

  4. Advantages of the production contractor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisvold, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some thoughts on the Production Contractor concept. It starts with an attempt to define the prerequisites for such contractorship to exist and develop, going on to examine the considerations that the oil company and the contractor respectively have to go through, and finally trying to summarize what emerges as the advantages of production contracting. Examples are given to emphasize particular points

  5. Comparative Economic Advantage Analysis of Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile country has comparative disadvantage ill production of northern highlands co.ffee and Morogoro maize. Wide variations in comparative advantage shown emanate from differences in resource and biophysical conditions, farming systems, technology levels and tenure arrangements. In general the measures of distortion ...

  6. Relative Advantage: Strength for Favorable Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    289. 92A commonly used code- word for the foreign-built air defense network. It is simply Iraq spelled backwards. 93Richard Hallion, Storm Over...are interconnected. The implication is that the Department of Defense, writ large, must integrate the concept of relative advantage and its connection

  7. Tanzania's Revealed Comparative Advantage and Structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agricultural products dominate Tanzania's comparative advantage for both years, although minerals assume the first rank in 2011. Specifically, 70% of the product groups are agricultural, with the rest being mineral products. These findings suggest that no structural transformation has occurred in the Tanzanian economy ...

  8. Advantages of Intelligent SDH/SONET Networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Advantages of Intelligent SDH/SONET Networks. GMPLS simplifies network management, thus reducing operating expenses (“staff”) and minimizing errors. Same benefits as computerization of banking, accounts, etc. Auto-discovery simplifies equipment installation ...

  9. Advantages and disadvantages of developing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhixin

    1987-01-01

    To solve the problem of the shortage of electricity in China, an objective assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of generating electricity from different energy sources is necessary. Nuclear power is evaluated against hydro-, oil-, gas- and coal-power. It is proposed to develop nuclear power in a planned way as a sensible long term strategy

  10. home advantage in the commonwealth games

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of home advantage in sport is generally well doc- umented and has been shown to exist in a ... there are 53 Commonwealth nations, there are at present 71. Commonwealth Games Associations ... market share values for each host nation were analysed relative to the distance travelled by them (in terms of ...

  11. Online Shopping: Advantages over the Offline Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Joshua Chang

    2003-01-01

    The advent of the Internet as a shopping medium has enabled shoppers to gain shopping benefits such as convenience and time-saving, better information, and price savings. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the benefits of Internet shopping by identifying and discussing the advantages of Internet shopping over traditional storefront shopping.

  12. Business Intelligence Solutions for Gaining Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence is the process for increasing the competitive advantage of a company by intelligent use of available data in decision-making. Only a revolutionary Business Intelligence solution, like the proposed portal-based, can solve the complex issues faced when evaluating decision support applications and ensures the availability of any business-critical information.

  13. Project safety as a sustainable competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenthin, David

    2004-01-01

    To be consistently profitable, a construction company must complete projects in scope, on schedule, and on budget. At the same time, the nature of the often high-risk work performed by construction companies can result in high accident rates. Clients and other stakeholders are placing increasing pressure on companies to decrease those accident rates. Clients routinely demand copies of safety plans and evidence of past results at the "pre-qualification" or "request for proposal" stages of the procurement process. Are high accident rates and the associated costs just a part of business? Companies that deliver on scope, schedule, and budget have a competitive advantage. Is it possible for projects with low accident rates to use it as a competitive advantage? Is the value added by safety just a temporary or parity issue, or does a successful safety program offer significant advantage to the company and the client? This article concludes that in the case of a high-risk industry, such as the construction industry, an organization with a successful safety program can promote safety performance as a sustainable competitive advantage. It is a choice the company can make.

  14. [The advantage of multidisciplinary treatment of presbycusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouccara, Didier; Madjlessi, Arach; Mosnier, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Attributable to the ageing of the hearing system, presbycusis presents a wide variability in the general population. Early detection is necessary in order to be able to provide the patient with a suitable hearing aid. Collaboration between otolaryngologists and geriatricians proves to be advantageous as a consultation for a memory complaint may be the opportunity to detect presbycusis and vice versa.

  15. Distance learning: its advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    KEGEYAN SVETLANA ERIHOVNA

    2016-01-01

    Distance learning has become popular in higher institutions because of its flexibility and availability to learners and teachers at anytime, regardless of geographic location. With so many definitions and phases of distance education, this paper only focuses on the delivery mode of distance education (the use of information technology), background, and its disadvantages and advantages for today’s learners.

  16. HOME ADVANTAGE IN HIGH-LEVEL VOLLEYBALL VARIES ACCORDING TO SET NUMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Marcelino

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify the probability of winning each Volleyball set according to game location (home, away. Archival data was obtained from 275 sets in the 2005 Men's Senior World League and 65,949 actions were analysed. Set result (win, loss, game location (home, away, set number (first, second, third, fourth and fifth and performance indicators (serve, reception, set, attack, dig and block were the variables considered in this study. In a first moment, performance indicators were used in a logistic model of set result, by binary logistic regression analysis. After finding the adjusted logistic model, the log-odds of winning the set were analysed according to game location and set number. The results showed that winning a set is significantly related to performance indicators (Chi-square(18=660.97, p<0.01. Analyses of log-odds of winning a set demonstrate that home teams always have more probability of winning the game than away teams, regardless of the set number. Home teams have more advantage at the beginning of the game (first set and in the two last sets of the game (fourth and fifth sets, probably due to facilities familiarity and crowd effects. Different game actions explain these advantages and showed that to win the first set is more important to take risk, through a better performance in the attack and block, and to win the final set is important to manage the risk through a better performance on the reception. These results may suggest intra-game variation in home advantage and can be most useful to better prepare and direct the competition

  17. Home advantage in high-level volleyball varies according to set number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Palao Andrés, José Manuel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the probability of winning each Volleyball set according to game location (home, away). Archival data was obtained from 275 sets in the 2005 Men's Senior World League and 65,949 actions were analysed. Set result (win, loss), game location (home, away), set number (first, second, third, fourth and fifth) and performance indicators (serve, reception, set, attack, dig and block) were the variables considered in this study. In a first moment, performance indicators were used in a logistic model of set result, by binary logistic regression analysis. After finding the adjusted logistic model, the log-odds of winning the set were analysed according to game location and set number. The results showed that winning a set is significantly related to performance indicators (Chisquare(18)=660.97, pteams always have more probability of winning the game than away teams, regardless of the set number. Home teams have more advantage at the beginning of the game (first set) and in the two last sets of the game (fourth and fifth sets), probably due to facilities familiarity and crowd effects. Different game actions explain these advantages and showed that to win the first set is more important to take risk, through a better performance in the attack and block, and to win the final set is important to manage the risk through a better performance on the reception. These results may suggest intra-game variation in home advantage and can be most useful to better prepare and direct the competition. Key pointsHome teams always have more probability of winning the game than away teams.Home teams have higher performance in reception, set and attack in the total of the sets.The advantage of home teams is more pronounced at the beginning of the game (first set) and in two last sets of the game (fourth and fifth sets) suggesting intra-game variation in home advantage.Analysis by sets showed that home teams have a better performance in the attack and

  18. A DGTD method for the numerical modeling of the interaction of light with nanometer scale metallic structures taking into account non-local dispersion effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Nikolai; Scheid, Claire; Lanteri, Stéphane; Moreau, Antoine; Viquerat, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    The interaction of light with metallic nanostructures is increasingly attracting interest because of numerous potential applications. Sub-wavelength metallic structures, when illuminated with a frequency close to the plasma frequency of the metal, present resonances that cause extreme local field enhancements. Exploiting the latter in applications of interest requires a detailed knowledge about the occurring fields which can actually not be obtained analytically. For the latter mentioned reason, numerical tools are thus an absolute necessity. The insight they provide is very often the only way to get a deep enough understanding of the very rich physics at play. For the numerical modeling of light-structure interaction on the nanoscale, the choice of an appropriate material model is a crucial point. Approaches that are adopted in a first instance are based on local (i.e. with no interaction between electrons) dispersive models, e.g. Drude or Drude-Lorentz models. From the mathematical point of view, when a time-domain modeling is considered, these models lead to an additional system of ordinary differential equations coupled to Maxwell's equations. However, recent experiments have shown that the repulsive interaction between electrons inside the metal makes the response of metals intrinsically non-local and that this effect cannot generally be overlooked. Technological achievements have enabled the consideration of metallic structures in a regime where such non-localities have a significant influence on the structures' optical response. This leads to an additional, in general non-linear, system of partial differential equations which is, when coupled to Maxwell's equations, significantly more difficult to treat. Nevertheless, dealing with a linearized non-local dispersion model already opens the route to numerous practical applications of plasmonics. In this work, we present a Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain (DGTD) method able to solve the system of Maxwell

  19. News and Views: Superbubble in the Large Magellanic Cloud; Model Milky Way - at last; Gaming takes to the skies; 2012 Kavli Prize; Astrophysics fellowship; Prize for Overbye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    It has proved difficult to make a galaxy that looks anything like our Milky Way in cosmological simulation. Now a cold dark matter model known as Eris has produced a spiral galaxy that looks right, thanks to better star formation models. Video-game technology, 2D and 3D images are helping NASA show off its science to the widest possible audience. Eyes on the Solar System is a new web interface that allows users to ride along with NASA spacecraft and explore the solar system.

  20. A DGTD method for the numerical modeling of the interaction of light with nanometer scale metallic structures taking into account non-local dispersion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Nikolai [Inria, 2004 Route des Lucioles, BP 93, 06902 Sophia Antipolis Cedex (France); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Schlossgartenstr. 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Scheid, Claire [Inria, 2004 Route des Lucioles, BP 93, 06902 Sophia Antipolis Cedex (France); University of Nice – Sophia Antipolis, Mathematics laboratory, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, Cedex 02 (France); Lanteri, Stéphane, E-mail: Stephane.Lanteri@inria.fr [Inria, 2004 Route des Lucioles, BP 93, 06902 Sophia Antipolis Cedex (France); Moreau, Antoine [Institut Pascal, Université Blaise Pascal, 24, avenue des Landais, 63171 Aubière Cedex (France); Viquerat, Jonathan [Inria, 2004 Route des Lucioles, BP 93, 06902 Sophia Antipolis Cedex (France)

    2016-07-01

    The interaction of light with metallic nanostructures is increasingly attracting interest because of numerous potential applications. Sub-wavelength metallic structures, when illuminated with a frequency close to the plasma frequency of the metal, present resonances that cause extreme local field enhancements. Exploiting the latter in applications of interest requires a detailed knowledge about the occurring fields which can actually not be obtained analytically. For the latter mentioned reason, numerical tools are thus an absolute necessity. The insight they provide is very often the only way to get a deep enough understanding of the very rich physics at play. For the numerical modeling of light-structure interaction on the nanoscale, the choice of an appropriate material model is a crucial point. Approaches that are adopted in a first instance are based on local (i.e. with no interaction between electrons) dispersive models, e.g. Drude or Drude–Lorentz models. From the mathematical point of view, when a time-domain modeling is considered, these models lead to an additional system of ordinary differential equations coupled to Maxwell's equations. However, recent experiments have shown that the repulsive interaction between electrons inside the metal makes the response of metals intrinsically non-local and that this effect cannot generally be overlooked. Technological achievements have enabled the consideration of metallic structures in a regime where such non-localities have a significant influence on the structures' optical response. This leads to an additional, in general non-linear, system of partial differential equations which is, when coupled to Maxwell's equations, significantly more difficult to treat. Nevertheless, dealing with a linearized non-local dispersion model already opens the route to numerous practical applications of plasmonics. In this work, we present a Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain (DGTD) method able to solve the system

  1. The half-truth of first-mover advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Fernando; Lanzolla, Gianvito

    2005-04-01

    Many executives take for granted that the first company in a new product category gets an unbeatable head start and reaps long-lasting benefits. But that doesn't always happen. The authors of this article discovered that much depends on the pace at which the category's technology is changing and the speed at which the market is evolving. By analyzing these two factors, companies can improve their odds of succeeding as first movers with the resources they possess. Gradual evolution in both the technology and the market provides a first mover with the best conditions for creating a dominant position that is long lasting (Hoover in the vacuum cleaner industry is a good example). In such calm waters, a company can defend its advantages even without exceptional skills or extensive financial resources. When the market is changing rapidly and the product isn't, a first entrant with extensive resources can obtain a long-lasting advantage (as Sony did with its Walkman personal stereo); a company with only limited resources probably must settle for a short-term benefit. When the market is static but the product is changing constantly, first-mover advantages of either kind--durable or short-lived--are unlikely. Only companies with very deep pockets can survive (think of Sony and the digital cameras it pioneered). Rapid churn in both the technology and the market creates the worst conditions. But if companies have an acute sense of when to exit-as Netscape demonstrated when it agreed to be acquired by AOL-a worthwhile short-term gain is possible. Before venturing into a newly forming market, you need to analyze the environment, assess your resources, then determine which type offirst-mover advantage is most achievable. Once you've gone into the water, you have no choice but to swim.

  2. [Psoriasis taking center stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, C; Lapointe, A-K

    2011-04-06

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, T cell-mediated auto-immune disease mainly affecting skin and joints. It is a multisystem disease associated with a multitude of co-morbidities and thus, has become increasingly important for all medical fields, beyond dermatology and rheumatology. Psoriasis has also become more and more important as a model disease for scientist working on chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. And psoriasis has become increasingly relevant as a first-choice disease for proof of concept studies investigating the efficacy of newer pathogenesis-based treatments.

  3. 77 FR 841 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... and the Single Ping Equivalent (SPE) To model potential impacts to marine animals from exposure to... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 218 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals... [Docket No. 110808485-1534-01] RIN 0648-BB14 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals...

  4. The Model and Numerical Algorithm to Research the Filtration Processes in Porous Media Taking Into Account the Phase Transitions of Multicomponent Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozim Kurbonov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An adequate mathematical model of process of filtration of gas, oil and water in porous media is developed for analyze the functioning, forecasting and control of hydrocarbons extraction under conditions of artificial influence on layers. The results of numerical computer calculations are presented.

  5. SEM-microphotogrammetry, a new take on an old method for generating high-resolution 3D models from SEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, A D; Job, P A; Walker, A E L

    2017-08-01

    The method we present here uses a scanning electron microscope programmed via macros to automatically capture dozens of images at suitable angles to generate accurate, detailed three-dimensional (3D) surface models with micron-scale resolution. We demonstrate that it is possible to use these Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images in conjunction with commercially available software originally developed for photogrammetry reconstructions from Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) cameras and to reconstruct 3D models of the specimen. These 3D models can then be exported as polygon meshes and eventually 3D printed. This technique offers the potential to obtain data suitable to reconstruct very tiny features (e.g. diatoms, butterfly scales and mineral fabrics) at nanometre resolution. Ultimately, we foresee this as being a useful tool for better understanding spatial relationships at very high resolution. However, our motivation is also to use it to produce 3D models to be used in public outreach events and exhibitions, especially for the blind or partially sighted. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Decision Taking versus Promise Issuing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    An alignment is developed between the terminology of outcome oriented decision taking and a terminology for promise issuing. Differences and correspondences are investigated between the concepts of decision and promise. For decision taking, two forms are distinguished: the external outcome

  7. Taking Care of Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Taking Care of Pressure Sores [Download this pamphlet: "Taking Care of Pressure ... may not show up right away. Stages of pressure sores and how to care for them: STAGE ...

  8. MARKET ORIENTATION IN DIGITAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: ADVANTAGES AND CHALLENGES IN A WEB 2.0 NETWORKED WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    NEIL HAIR; LYLE R. WETSCH; CLYDE EIRÍKUR HULL; VICTOR PEROTTI; YU-TING CAISY HUNG

    2012-01-01

    Strong market orientation is essential to firm success. In the diverse and dynamic digital environment, a strong market orientation philosophy is even more important to the digital entrepreneur. We explore the advantages and challenges that the networked world offers the market-oriented digital entrepreneur. In particular, we examine the role of electronic community and communication and how successful digital entrepreneurs takes advantage of electronic community technologies to facilitate mo...

  9. Discussion on geochemical characteristics, mechanism and prospecting model of gluey type sandstone uranium mineralization--taking Redwell uranium deposit as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinping

    1998-01-01

    Redwell uranium deposit hosted in the red clastic rock formation, is a typical example of gluey type uranium mineralization, which has not been reported so far in China. Based on the study of geochemical characteristics of Redwell deposit, the author discusses the genetic mechanism of this type deposits, and proposes the prospecting model of 4 in 1 of red bed-fault-oil gas-uranium source

  10. Will domestic consumers take up the renewable heat incentive? An analysis of the barriers to heat pump adoption using agent-based modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snape, J.R.; Boait, P.J.; Rylatt, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The UK Government introduced the tariff-based domestic Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) in April 2014 to encourage installation of renewable heat technologies as a key component of its carbon reduction policy. Of these, heat pumps are considered to be the most promising for widespread adoption and as such are the subject of this paper. Pilot studies prior to introduction of the policy identified non-financial barriers to uptake, such as the “hassle factor” involved, and initial figures indeed indicate that uptake is lower than expected. We analyse these non-financial barriers using an agent-based model and conclude that there is a tipping point beyond which adoption is likely to fall very sharply. We suggest that the RHI’s complex and stringent compliance requirements for home inspections and heat emitter performance may well have driven adoption past this point and that further intervention may be required if the key aims of the RHI are to be achieved. -- Highlights: •We examine the uptake of the UK Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI). •We use Agent-based modelling to simulate uptake in a heterogeneous population. •Simulation modelling suggests that uptake is sensitive to non-financial barriers. •Non-financial barriers were introduced after RHI policy impact assessment. •New barriers combined with sensitivity could explain observed lower than expected uptake

  11. Does cultural integration explain a mental health advantage for adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Lenguerrand, Erik; Maynard, Maria J; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Harding, Seeromanie

    2012-06-01

    A mental health advantage has been observed among adolescents in urban areas. This prospective study tests whether cultural integration measured by cross-cultural friendships explains a mental health advantage for adolescents. A prospective cohort of adolescents was recruited from 51 secondary schools in 10 London boroughs. Cultural identity was assessed by friendship choices within and across ethnic groups. Cultural integration is one of four categories of cultural identity. Using gender-specific linear-mixed models we tested whether cultural integration explained a mental health advantage, and whether gender and age were influential. Demographic and other relevant factors, such as ethnic group, socio-economic status, family structure, parenting styles and perceived racism were also measured and entered into the models. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as a 'total difficulties score' and by classification as a 'probable clinical case'. A total of 6643 pupils in first and second years of secondary school (ages 11-13 years) took part in the baseline survey (2003/04) and 4785 took part in the follow-up survey in 2005-06. Overall mental health improved with age, more so in male rather than female students. Cultural integration (friendships with own and other ethnic groups) was associated with the lowest levels of mental health problems especially among male students. This effect was sustained irrespective of age, ethnicity and other potential explanatory variables. There was a mental health advantage among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and Black African male students (Nigerian/Ghanaian origin) and female Indian students. This was not fully explained by cultural integration, although cultural integration was independently associated with better mental health. Cultural integration was associated with better mental health, independent of the mental health advantage found among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and

  12. Does cultural integration explain a mental health advantage for adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Lenguerrand, Erik; Maynard, Maria J; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Harding, Seeromanie

    2012-01-01

    Background A mental health advantage has been observed among adolescents in urban areas. This prospective study tests whether cultural integration measured by cross-cultural friendships explains a mental health advantage for adolescents. Methods A prospective cohort of adolescents was recruited from 51 secondary schools in 10 London boroughs. Cultural identity was assessed by friendship choices within and across ethnic groups. Cultural integration is one of four categories of cultural identity. Using gender-specific linear-mixed models we tested whether cultural integration explained a mental health advantage, and whether gender and age were influential. Demographic and other relevant factors, such as ethnic group, socio-economic status, family structure, parenting styles and perceived racism were also measured and entered into the models. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as a ‘total difficulties score’ and by classification as a ‘probable clinical case’. Results A total of 6643 pupils in first and second years of secondary school (ages 11–13 years) took part in the baseline survey (2003/04) and 4785 took part in the follow-up survey in 2005–06. Overall mental health improved with age, more so in male rather than female students. Cultural integration (friendships with own and other ethnic groups) was associated with the lowest levels of mental health problems especially among male students. This effect was sustained irrespective of age, ethnicity and other potential explanatory variables. There was a mental health advantage among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and Black African male students (Nigerian/Ghanaian origin) and female Indian students. This was not fully explained by cultural integration, although cultural integration was independently associated with better mental health. Conclusions Cultural integration was associated with better mental health, independent of the mental health advantage

  13. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES ENTERPRISES IN KOOPERATION RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mikitiuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Formation of new approaches to the definition of competitive advantage requires different ways to implement them according to market conditions. These paths can be cooperative relations entities that are implemented in the competitive advantage of enterprises in the new stage of development of a competitive society. The result of the interaction of small businesses with industrial and economic structures is the formation and development of such forms of cooperation entities as subcontracting, franchising, leasing, venture finance. The content of these forms is to integrate (interlacing of the functional areas of business including production of functional form is subcontracting relationships, forms of supply – franchising, industrial and financial shape – leasing as a form of innovative functional integration relations is venture financing.

  14. Were there evolutionary advantages to premenstrual syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillings, Michael R

    2014-09-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects up to 80% of women, often leading to significant personal, social and economic costs. When apparently maladaptive states are widespread, they sometimes confer a hidden advantage, or did so in our evolutionary past. We suggest that PMS had a selective advantage because it increased the chance that infertile pair bonds would dissolve, thus improving the reproductive outcomes of women in such partnerships. We confirm predictions arising from the hypothesis: PMS has high heritability; gene variants associated with PMS can be identified; animosity exhibited during PMS is preferentially directed at current partners; and behaviours exhibited during PMS may increase the chance of finding a new partner. Under this view, the prevalence of PMS might result from genes and behaviours that are adaptive in some societies, but are potentially less appropriate in modern cultures. Understanding this evolutionary mismatch might help depathologize PMS, and suggests solutions, including the choice to use cycle-stopping contraception.

  15. Logistics as a Competitive Warfighting Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-20

    Logistics as a Competitive Warfighting Advantage October 20, 2016 MajGen Arnold Punaro, USMC(ret), Chair Mr. Bill Phillips Mr. John...Background / Context  The Department of Defense operates one of the largest logistics enterprises in the world  Includes supply, maintenance, and...fully explore this, the Task Group worked to: – Understand the unique requirements, perceptions, and realities of logistics in the DoD from each of

  16. Advantages and disadvantages of digital education

    OpenAIRE

    Mąkosa, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The digitization of education in Poland is spreading into more and more areas. Therefore, it becomes necessary to analyse all its aspects, both advantages and disadvantages. In the performed reflection, an attempt to present the current state of the access to computers, the Internet and e-course books in Polish schools has been made. On the basis of the secondary analysis of various recent studies as well as own research performed, it has been determined that the level of digitization of educ...

  17. Advantages of polarization experiments at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    We point out various spin experiments that could be done if the polarized beam option is pursued at RHIC. The advantages of RHIC for investigating several current and future physics problems are discussed. In particular, the gluon spin dependent structure function of the nucleon could be measured cleanly and systematically. Relevant experience developed in conjunction with the Fermilab Polarized Beam program is also presented. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  18. The Employment Advantages of Skilled Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Escobar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether the agglomeration of human capital leads to social employment advantages in urban labor markets of a developing country: Colombia. I estimate the social effects of human capital agglomeration by comparing employment opportunities of individuals located in urban areas in which the level of education differs. Results show that employment opportunities are higher on average in skilled urban areas. Three explanations have been offered: human capital externalities, prod...

  19. The "Private School Advantage" in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo E. Fischman

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the secondary education sector.

  20. Comparative advantage in Bangladesh crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Shahabuddin, Quazi; Dorosh, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    "This study uses data from 1996/97 through 1998/99 to examine the relative efficiency of production of crops in Bangladesh and their comparative advantage in international trade as measured by net economic profitability (the profitability using economic, rather than financial costs and prices), and the domestic resource cost ratio, (the amount of value of non-tradable domestic resources used in production divided by the value of tradable products). The economic profitability analysis demonstr...

  1. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision.

  2. Hidden Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, Sébastien; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-01

    Three studies conducted among fifth and sixth graders examined how school contexts disrupt the achievement of working-class students by staging unfair comparison with their advantaged middle-class peers. In regular classrooms, differences in performance among students are usually showcased in a way that does not acknowledge the advantage (i.e., higher cultural capital) experienced by middle-class students, whose upbringing affords them more familiarity with the academic culture than their working-class peers have. Results of Study 1 revealed that rendering differences in performance visible in the classroom by having students raise their hands was enough to undermine the achievement of working-class students. In Studies 2 and 3, we manipulated students' familiarity with an arbitrary standard as a proxy for social class. Our results suggest that classroom settings that make differences in performance visible undermine the achievement of the students who are less familiar with academic culture. In Study 3, we showed that being aware of the advantage in familiarity with a task restores the performance of the students who have less familiarity with the task.

  3. Who takes precautionary action in the face of the new H1N1 influenza? Prediction of who collects a free hand sanitizer using a health behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tabea; Renner, Britta

    2011-01-01

    In order to fight the spread of the novel H1N1 influenza, health authorities worldwide called for a change in hygiene behavior. Within a longitudinal study, we examined who collected a free bottle of hand sanitizer towards the end of the first swine flu pandemic wave in December 2009. 629 participants took part in a longitudinal study assessing perceived likelihood and severity of an H1N1 infection, and H1N1 influenza related negative affect (i.e., feelings of threat, concern, and worry) at T1 (October 2009, week 43-44) and T2 (December 2009, week 51-52). Importantly, all participants received a voucher for a bottle of hand sanitizer at T2 which could be redeemed in a university office newly established for this occasion at T3 (ranging between 1-4 days after T2). Both a sequential longitudinal model (M2) as well as a change score model (M3) showed that greater perceived likelihood and severity at T1 (M2) or changes in perceived likelihood and severity between T1 and T2 (M3) did not directly drive protective behavior (T3), but showed a significant indirect impact on behavior through H1N1 influenza related negative affect. Specifically, increases in perceived likelihood (β = .12), severity (β = .24) and their interaction (β = .13) were associated with a more pronounced change in negative affect (M3). The more threatened, concerned and worried people felt (T2), the more likely they were to redeem the voucher at T3 (OR = 1.20). Affective components need to be considered in health behavior models. Perceived likelihood and severity of an influenza infection represent necessary but not sufficient self-referential knowledge for paving the way for preventive behaviors.

  4. Who takes precautionary action in the face of the new H1N1 influenza? Prediction of who collects a free hand sanitizer using a health behavior model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabea Reuter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to fight the spread of the novel H1N1 influenza, health authorities worldwide called for a change in hygiene behavior. Within a longitudinal study, we examined who collected a free bottle of hand sanitizer towards the end of the first swine flu pandemic wave in December 2009. METHODS: 629 participants took part in a longitudinal study assessing perceived likelihood and severity of an H1N1 infection, and H1N1 influenza related negative affect (i.e., feelings of threat, concern, and worry at T1 (October 2009, week 43-44 and T2 (December 2009, week 51-52. Importantly, all participants received a voucher for a bottle of hand sanitizer at T2 which could be redeemed in a university office newly established for this occasion at T3 (ranging between 1-4 days after T2. RESULTS: Both a sequential longitudinal model (M2 as well as a change score model (M3 showed that greater perceived likelihood and severity at T1 (M2 or changes in perceived likelihood and severity between T1 and T2 (M3 did not directly drive protective behavior (T3, but showed a significant indirect impact on behavior through H1N1 influenza related negative affect. Specifically, increases in perceived likelihood (β = .12, severity (β = .24 and their interaction (β = .13 were associated with a more pronounced change in negative affect (M3. The more threatened, concerned and worried people felt (T2, the more likely they were to redeem the voucher at T3 (OR = 1.20. CONCLUSIONS: Affective components need to be considered in health behavior models. Perceived likelihood and severity of an influenza infection represent necessary but not sufficient self-referential knowledge for paving the way for preventive behaviors.

  5. Multidimensional epistasis and the transitory advantage of sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nowak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and quantifying the benefits of sex and recombination is a long-standing problem in evolutionary theory. In particular, contradictory claims have been made about the existence of a benefit of recombination on high dimensional fitness landscapes in the presence of sign epistasis. Here we present a comparative numerical study of sexual and asexual evolutionary dynamics of haploids on tunably rugged model landscapes under strong selection, paying special attention to the temporal development of the evolutionary advantage of recombination and the link between population diversity and the rate of adaptation. We show that the adaptive advantage of recombination on static rugged landscapes is strictly transitory. At early times, an advantage of recombination arises through the possibility to combine individually occurring beneficial mutations, but this effect is reversed at longer times by the much more efficient trapping of recombining populations at local fitness peaks. These findings are explained by means of well-established results for a setup with only two loci. In accordance with the Red Queen hypothesis the transitory advantage can be prolonged indefinitely in fluctuating environments, and it is maximal when the environment fluctuates on the same time scale on which trapping at local optima typically occurs.

  6. Injuries and home advantage in the NFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marshall B

    2016-01-01

    In the first decade of this century players in the National Football League, the NFL community, fans, even the public at large, became aware that multiple concussions, heretofore considered inconsequential, could have devastating consequences later in life. Since 1978, each one of the 32 teams in the NFL plays 16 games in the regular season. In the 25 years from 1978 to 2004 home advantage in the regular season tended to increase with Game Number (1-16). Then in the following decade (2005-2014) it changed direction and tended clearly to decrease. The change in direction was highly reliable statistically. The result reported in this paper is an association in time between two striking events, a new consciousness regarding the long-term consequences of concussions in football, and a change in the course of home advantage in the regular season. The paper then advances a possible explanation for this association. The home advantage may be equally well treated as an away disadvantage, the disadvantage being that away players tend to feel on the defensive, that both the hometown crowd and the officials are against them. Injuries put players on both teams on the defensive. The higher the percentage of players on a team who are injured or playing hurt (injury prevalence) the less likely it is that as-yet-uninjured players will adopt an attacking style of play. Injury prevalence increases linearly with Game Number. It turns out, however, that formal considerations require that injury prevalence be the same or close to it for teams playing at home and teams playing away. Therefore, the away disadvantage in total defensiveness (defensiveness due to playing away plus defensiveness due to injury) starts at 1 in the first game of the season, decreases steeply at first, and then decelerates as it approaches .5. This downward course of the away disadvantage in total defensiveness leads directly to a corresponding downward course of the home advantage in game outcome (by the

  7. Using the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA) to examine leisure time as a stress coping resource: Taking into account stress severity and gender difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Affective complexity (AC) is a marker of psychological well-being. According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful experiences reduce AC while positive events increase AC. One type of positive events is leisure, which was also identified as a coping resource. This study extended the DMA and leisure coping research by assessing gender difference in how daily stress severity and leisure time influence AC. Analyzing eight-day diary data, we found that females, compared to males, experienced greater decrease in AC with increase in stress severity but also bigger increase in AC with increase in leisure time. The finding highlights gender difference in affective reactivity to and coping with daily stress, the value of the DMA, and the importance of severity appraisal. PMID:25242824

  8. Advantages and disadvantages on photosynthesis measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through photosynthesis, green plants and cyanobacteria are able to transfer sunlight energy to molecular reaction centers for conversion into chemical energy with nearly 100% efficiency. Speed is the key as the transfer of the solar energy takes place almost instantaneously such that little energy is wasted as heat.

  9. Advantages of Using Microwave Satellite Soil Moisture over Gridded Precipitation Products and Land Surface Model Output in Assessing Regional Vegetation Water Availability and Growth Dynamics for a Lateral Inflow Receiving Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; McVicar, T.R.; Wang, G.J.; Chen, X.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Liu, Y.; Shen, H.; Zhang, F.; Dolman, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    To improve the understanding of water-vegetation relationships, direct comparative studies assessing the utility of satellite remotely sensed soil moisture, gridded precipitation products, and land surface model output are needed. A case study was investigated for a water-limited, lateral inflow

  10. Hi-tech products marketing and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Jelena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The company today, in causes turbulent environment and intensive integrations must cooperate, accept and develop high technology in order to achieve needs of customers. It's only way that companies replay on challenge global environment, decrease costs of investment per capita, decrease the risk, captivate new market and held competitive in causes of global market. High tech technology marketing function is help that results of new technology transfer on economy. Their function is reach need of customers, too. Positive influence of technology is the highest in area of production costs and productivity. Speed years are in front of our and it demands larger productivity, which primary source must be technology changes. High technology marketing is the most provocative framework for take competitive advantage, answer on global change and way of permanent reach rigorous need of customers.

  11. [The patient billing cost in medical biology: advantages and disadvantages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Franck; Burnat, Pascal; Basin, Anne; Lebreton, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    Control of health expenditures in relation with staff reduction have led hospital or private labs to seek out growing productivity associated with limited costs. Consolidation and harmonization of equipment have to be implemented, as well as work positions, with the aid of computers. Analytical and preanalytical choices often converge towards the same manufacturer, and it is tempting to simplify also order, receipt and invoicing procedures. This cost optimization requires invoicing taking into account real activity of the lab, establishing "pay per patient" rather than "pay per kit". These changes may also apply to smaller analyzers such as those employed for haemostasis that are deployed in several sites, in aim to reduce costs. We describe the principles of this new mode of invoicing proposed by Roche Diagnostics, for which one may bring out main advantages and inconveniences.

  12. Advantages of floating covers with LLDPE Liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Gomez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Using floating covers in irrigation pounds and waste dam gives many advantages. It is a very interesting investment for those place with a high evaporation ratio. this is an easy system which improves several aspects in irrigation or drinkable water reservoirs, mainly it saves water and it saves clean-works (time and cost). It is also used in waste dam to deodorization. Time ago this application was developed with PVC liners and TPO liners, now the innovation is LLDPE liners which improve mechanical properties, durability and an easier installation. This paper develops the state of art of this design technology, and the back ground of our experience. (Author)

  13. Advantages of super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Super-light structures with pearl-chain reinforcement is a new revolutionary technology that opens possibilities of building load-bearing structures much cheaper and with several other advantages compared to traditional constructions of concrete and steel. Some benefits are: 1 Half price or less. 2...... Architectural expressions never seen before. 3 Material savings of more than 50 %. 4 Energy and CO2 savings of more than 50 %. 5 No Scaffolding and cheaper moulds. 6 Improved durability. 7 Extreme thermal insulation. 8 Better indoor-climate. 9 User friendly operation and maintenance. 10 Increased safety...

  14. Taking a closer look: disentangling effects of functional diversity on ecosystem functions with a trait-based model across hierarchy and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzwarth, Frédéric; Rüger, Nadja; Wirth, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) research has progressed from the detection of relationships to elucidating their drivers and underlying mechanisms. In this context, replacing taxonomic predictors by trait-based measures of functional composition (FC)-bridging functions of species and of ecosystems-is a widely used approach. The inherent challenge of trait-based approaches is the multi-faceted, dynamic and hierarchical nature of trait influence: (i) traits may act via different facets of their distribution in a community, (ii) their influence may change over time and (iii) traits may influence processes at different levels of the natural hierarchy of organization. Here, we made use of the forest ecosystem model 'LPJ-GUESS' parametrized with empirical trait data, which creates output of individual performance, community assembly, stand-level states and processes. To address the three challenges, we resolved the dynamics of the top-level ecosystem function 'annual biomass change' hierarchically into its various component processes (growth, leaf and root turnover, recruitment and mortality) and states (stand structures, water stress) and traced the influence of different facets of FC along this hierarchy in a path analysis. We found an independent influence of functional richness, dissimilarity and identity on ecosystem states and processes and hence biomass change. Biodiversity effects were only positive during early succession and later turned negative. Unexpectedly, resource acquisition (growth, recruitment) and conservation (mortality, turnover) played an equally important role throughout the succession. These results add to a mechanistic understanding of biodiversity effects and place a caveat on simplistic approaches omitting hierarchical levels when analysing BEF relationships. They support the view that BEF relationships experience dramatic shifts over successional time that should be acknowledged in mechanistic theories.

  15. Solving signal instability to maintain the second-order advantage in the resolution and determination of multi-analytes in complex systems by modeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data using alternating trilinear decomposition method assisted with piecewise direct standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hui-Wen; Wu, Hai-Long; Yin, Xiao-Li; Li, Shan-Shan; Liu, Ya-Juan; Xia, Hui; Xie, Li-Xia; Yu, Ru-Qin; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Lu, Hao-Jie

    2015-08-14

    The application of calibration transfer methods has been successful in combination with near-infrared spectroscopy or other tools for prediction of chemical composition. One of the developed methods that can provide accurate performances is the piecewise direct standardization (PDS) method, which in this paper is firstly applied to transfer from one day to another the second-order calibration model based on alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) method built for the interference-free resolution and determination of multi-analytes in complex systems by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in full scan mode. This is an example of LC-MS analysis in which interferences have been found, making necessary the use of second-order calibration because of its capacity for modeling this phenomenon, which implies analytes of interest can be resolved and quantified even in the presence of overlapped peaks and unknown interferences. Once the second-order calibration model based on ATLD method was built, the calibration transfer was conducted to compensate for the signal instability of LC-MS instrument over time. This allows one to reduce the volume of the heavy works for complete recalibration which is necessary for later accurate determinations. The root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) and average recovery were used to evaluate the performances of the proposed strategy. Results showed that the number of calibration samples used on the real LC-MS data was reduced by using the PDS method from 11 to 3 while producing comparable RMSEP values and recovery values that were statistically the same (F-test, 95% confidence level) to those obtained with 11 calibration samples. This methodology is in accordance with the highly recommended green analytical chemistry principles, since it can reduce the experimental efforts and cost with regard to the use of a new calibration model built in modified conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Complexity, Competitive Intelligence and the "First Mover" Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

    In the following paper we explore some of the ways in which competitive intelligence and game theory can be employed to assist firms in deciding whether or not to undertake international market diversification and whether or not there is an advantage to being a market leader or a market follower overseas. In attempting to answer these questions, we take a somewhat unconventional approach. We first examine how some of the most recent advances in the physical and biological sciences can contribute to the ways in which we understand how firms behave. Subsequently, we propose a formal methodology for competitive intelligence. While space considerations here do not allow for a complete game-theoretic treatment of competitive intelligence and its use with respect to understanding first and second mover advantage in firm internationalization, that treatment can be found in its entirety in the on-line proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Complex Systems at http://knowledgetoday.org/wiki/indec.php/ICCS06/89

  17. Information systems supported organizational learning as a competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Arias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics that make information systems useful in gathering and processing information with the aim of organizational learning and subsequent structural adaptation for better fitting to market requirements. Design/methodology/approach: Adaptation is a must when turning to foster the competitiveness and sustainability of the organization. Findings and Originality/value: It is clear that information systems can really create a difference in the way an organization acquires information from its environment and from itself in order to achieve a high-quality decision taking process. Research limitations/implications: Organizations have to look inside themselves in order to ensure the comprehension of their core competencies and the way they carry them out. Practical implications: Organizational learning is one of the means employed by organizations to get adapted to their surrounding environment. Social implications: Systems engineering techniques can be applied in order to leverage these core competencies and make organizations adaptable to the organizational environment requirements through the use of information systems. Originality/value: To obtain competitive advantages in the market. Keywords: competitive advantage, information systems, knowledge management, & the learning organization.

  18. Advantageous developmental outcomes of advancing paternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, M; Rijsdijk, F; Rai, D; Modabbernia, A; Reichenberg, A

    2017-06-20

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been associated with negative outcomes in offspring, raising concerns about increasing age at fatherhood. Evidence from evolutionary and psychological research, however, suggests possible link between APA and a phenotypic advantage. We defined such advantage as educational success, which is positively associated with future socioeconomic status. We hypothesised that high IQ, strong focus on the subject of interest and little concern about 'fitting in' will be associated with such success. Although these traits are continuously distributed in the population, they cluster together in so-called 'geeks'. We used these measures to compute a 'geek index' (GI), and showed it to be strongly predictive of future academic attainment, beyond the independent contribution of the individual traits. GI was associated with paternal age in male offspring only, and mediated the positive effects of APA on education outcomes, in a similar sexually dimorphic manner. The association between paternal age and GI was partly mediated by genetic factors not correlated with age at fatherhood, suggesting contribution of de novo factors to the 'geeky' phenotype. Our study sheds new light on the multifaceted nature of the APA effects and explores the intricate links between APA, autism and talent.

  19. Advantages of digital imaging for radiological diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapero, M. A.; Gonzalez, S.; Albillos, J. C.; Martel, J.; Rebollo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of radiological digital images in comparison with analogic ones are analyzed. We discuss three main topics: acquisition, post-procedure manipulation, and visualization, archive and communication. Digital acquisition with computed radiology systems present a global sensitivity very close to conventional film for diagnostic purposes. However, flat panel digital systems seems to achieve some advantages in particular clinical situations. A critical issue is the radiation dose-reduction that can be accomplished without reducing image quality nor diagnostic exactitude. The post-procedure manipulation allows, particularly in multiplanar modalities like CT or MR, to extract all implicit diagnostic information in the images: Main procedures are multiplanar and three-dimensional reformations, dynamic acquisitions, functional studies and image fusion. The use of PACS for visualization, archive and communication of images, improves the effectiveness and the efficiency of the workflow, allows a more comfortable diagnosis for the radiologist and gives way to improvements in the communication of images, allowing tele consulting and the tele radiology. (Author) 6 refs

  20. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  1. Competitive Advantage and the Existence of the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    This paper provides a counterpoint to Buckley and Hashai’s paper “Is competitive advantage a necessary condition for the emergence of the Multinational Enterprise?”. We agree with their conclusion that it is, in fact, not a necessary condition, but argue that the theoretical reasons behind...... this are different and more diverse than the ones they propose. We suggest that much extant economic theory is in fact consistent with their view that firms may internationalize without owning or achieving competitive advantages, and model various other ways in which imperfections can drive their overall result. We...... strongly applaud Buckley and Hashai’s attempt to add more rigor to International Business theory and call for future work to extend this debate....

  2. Competitive Advantage and the Existence of the Multinational Corporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a counterpoint to Hashai and Buckley's article ‘Is competitive advantage a necessary condition for the emergence of the multinational enterprise?’ We agree with their conclusion that it is, in fact, not a necessary condition, but argue that the theoretical reasons behind...... this are different and more diverse than the ones they propose. We suggest that much extant economic theory is, in fact, consistent with their view that firms may internationalize without owning or achieving competitive advantages, and we model various other ways in which imperfections can drive their overall result....... We strongly applaud Hashai and Buckley's attempt to add more rigor to international business theory and call for future work to extend this debate....

  3. Making business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Sune Klok; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Buur, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Well-established companies are currently struggling to secure profits due to the pressure from new players' business models as they take advantage of communication technology and new business-model configurations. Because of this, the business model research field flourishes currently; however, t...... illustrates how the application of participatory business model design toolsets can open up discussions on alternative scenarios through improvisation, mock-up making and design game playing, before qualitative judgment on the most promising scenario is carried out....

  4. Environmental Models as a Service: Enabling Interoperability through RESTful Endpoints and API Documentation (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieving interoperability in environmental modeling has evolved as software technology has progressed. The recent rise of cloud computing and proliferation of web services initiated a new stage for creating interoperable systems. Scientific programmers increasingly take advantag...

  5. Environmental Models as a Service: Enabling Interoperability through RESTful Endpoints and API Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieving interoperability in environmental modeling has evolved as software technology has progressed. The recent rise of cloud computing and proliferation of web services initiated a new stage for creating interoperable systems. Scientific programmers increasingly take advantag...

  6. [Computer program controlled perimetry, its advantages and disadvantages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbolzheimer, W G

    1986-10-01

    Following a short historical introduction and a description of basic methods of perimetry, computerized perimetry is described (taking the Octopus computerized perimeter as an example). The hardware-software concept and the three parts of the automatic perimeter, i.e., the controller, the measuring section, and the program section, are described. The technique of threshold determination, the programs (including the new Octopus programs), and the modes of representation of the results are explained. It is shown how one tries top take subjective criteria of the patient, such as attention, intelligence, and ability to concentrate into account during the measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of computerized perimetry are pointed out. It is emphasized that on average the range of scatter of measurements made with the automatic perimeter is smaller than when traditional manual methods are employed. In addition to the accuracy (scatter), the reproducibility (correlation) of the results is also better. Pathologic visual field defects are detected in greater detail and earlier by the automatic static perimeter than by manual perimetry. This applies in particular to early stages of retrobulbar neuritis and glaucoma.

  7. The Real Transformation: Building and Maintaining Long-Term Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    TERM COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE LTC EDWARD C. CARDON, USA A TRANFORMATION PAPER FOR THE CHAIRMAN OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF SEMINAR...SUBTITLE The Real Transformation: Building and Maintaining Long-Term Competitive Advantage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...long-term military competitive advantage in comparison to the rest of the world.4 This approach suggests a model that places competition as the

  8. A Model of Fuel Combustion Process in The Marine Reciprocating Engine Work Space Taking Into Account Load and Wear of Crankshaft-Piston Assembly and The Theory of Semi-Markov Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girtler Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the operation of reciprocal internal combustion engines, with marine engines used as an example. The analysis takes into account types of energy conversion in the work spaces (cylinders of these engines, loads of their crankshaft-piston assemblies, and types of fuel combustion which can take place in these spaces during engine operation. It is highlighted that the analysed time-dependent loads of marine internal combustion engine crankshaft-piston assemblies are random processes. It is also indicated that the wear of elements of those assemblies resulting from their load should also be considered a random process. A hypothesis is formulated which explains random nature of load and the absence of the theoretically expected detonation combustion in engines supplied with such fuels as Diesel Oil, Marine Diesel Oil, and Heavy Fuel Oil. A model is proposed for fuel combustion in an arbitrary work space of a marine Diesel engine, which has the form of a stochastic four-state process, discrete in states and continuous in time. The model is based on the theory of semi-Markov processes.

  9. Note Taking for Geography Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneale, Pauline E.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses geography students' questions about why, when, and how to take notes. Outlines a step-by-step process for taking notes from written sources and from class lectures. Discusses what types of notes are appropriate for various types of sources. Suggests some ideas for making notes useful for individual learning styles. (DSK)

  10. Informatics perspectives on decision taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A decision is an act or event of decision taking. Decision making always includes decision taking, the latter not involving significant exchanges with non-deciding agents. A decision outcome is a piece of storable information constituting the result of a decision. Decision outcomes are typed, for

  11. Taking Chances in Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Lindsey; Knox, David

    2016-01-01

    A 64 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 381 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess taking chances in romantic relationships. Almost three fourths (72%) self-identified as being a "person willing to take chances in my love relationship." Engaging in unprotected sex, involvement in a "friends with…

  12. Optical advantages in retinal scanning displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, Hakan

    2000-06-01

    Virtual Retinal DisplayTM technology is a retinal scanning display (RSD) technology being developed at Microvision, Inc., for a variety of applications including microdisplays. An RSD scans a modulated light beam onto a viewer's retina to produce a perceived image. Red, green and blue light sources, such as lasers, laser diodes or LEDs combine with Microvision's proprietary miniaturized scanner designs to make the RSD very well suited for head-worn and helmet-mounted displays (HMD). This paper compares the features of RSD technology to other display technologies such as the cathode ray tubes or matrix-based displays for HMD and other wearable display applications, and notes important performance advantages due to the number of pixel- generating elements. Also discussed are some fundamental optical limitations for virtual displays used in the HMD applications.

  13. Chalazion surgery: advantages of a subconjunctival approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana Filipa; Moreira, Elisabete; Nogueira, Ana; Santos, Paulo; Azevedo, Filomena

    2009-09-01

    The meibomian glands, present within the tarsus, produce an oily fluid which is part of the tear film. The obstruction of this gland is common, and results in a meibomian cyst or chalazion. Initially, a chalazion may spontaneously resolve, or respond to conservative measures such as warm compresses and topical antibiotics. However, sometimes the lesion becomes persistent and prominent, leading to visual and aesthetic problems, requiring a surgical solution. We report a 23-year-old man, with a right lower eyelid chalazion, persisting for more than 1 year, refractory to local measures that was submitted to surgical correction via the subconjunctival approach. This report emphasizes the advantages of this technique, namely the fast and simple procedure, with an excellent cosmetic result.

  14. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  15. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN A NANOTECHNOLOGY VALUE CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Radan UNGUREANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The value chain analysis is one of the most important methods for understanding the industrial world. The main task of the value chain that links producers and buyers consists in understanding where or how exactly the value added is generated. In the case of products incorporating nanotechnology, most of them are still in the trial phase into laboratories, but there are some examples of good practices where nanoproducts discovered their way to the market. This paper tries to present two cases of value chains for nanotechnologies applied to textiles by identifying the competitive advantages and focusing on getting some answers for a better understanding of the entire process from production to the final user.

  16. The competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürerk, Ozgür; Irlenbusch, Bernd; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2006-04-07

    Understanding the fundamental patterns and determinants of human cooperation and the maintenance of social order in human societies is a challenge across disciplines. The existing empirical evidence for the higher levels of cooperation when altruistic punishment is present versus when it is absent systematically ignores the institutional competition inherent in human societies. Whether punishment would be deliberately adopted and would similarly enhance cooperation when directly competing with nonpunishment institutions is highly controversial in light of recent findings on the detrimental effects of punishment. We show experimentally that a sanctioning institution is the undisputed winner in a competition with a sanction-free institution. Despite initial aversion, the entire population migrates successively to the sanctioning institution and strongly cooperates, whereas the sanction-free society becomes fully depopulated. The findings demonstrate the competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions and exemplify the emergence and manifestation of social order driven by institutional selection.

  17. Advantages and limitations of classic and 3D QSAR approaches in nano-QSAR studies based on biological activity of fullerene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagiello, Karolina; Grzonkowska, Monika; Swirog, Marta; Ahmed, Lucky; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Avramopoulos, Aggelos; Papadopoulos, Manthos G.; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Puzyn, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    In this contribution, the advantages and limitations of two computational techniques that can be used for the investigation of nanoparticles activity and toxicity: classic nano-QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships employed for nanomaterials) and 3D nano-QSAR (three-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships, such us Comparative Molecular Field Analysis, CoMFA/Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis, CoMSIA analysis employed for nanomaterials) have been briefly summarized. Both approaches were compared according to the selected criteria, including: efficiency, type of experimental data, class of nanomaterials, time required for calculations and computational cost, difficulties in the interpretation. Taking into account the advantages and limitations of each method, we provide the recommendations for nano-QSAR modellers and QSAR model users to be able to determine a proper and efficient methodology to investigate biological activity of nanoparticles in order to describe the underlying interactions in the most reliable and useful manner.

  18. Advantages and limitations of classic and 3D QSAR approaches in nano-QSAR studies based on biological activity of fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagiello, Karolina; Grzonkowska, Monika; Swirog, Marta [University of Gdansk, Laboratory of Environmental Chemometrics, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Environmental and Human Health Protection (Poland); Ahmed, Lucky; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor [Jackson State University, Interdisciplinary Nanotoxicity Center, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Avramopoulos, Aggelos; Papadopoulos, Manthos G. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Institute of Biology, Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Biotechnology (Greece); Leszczynski, Jerzy [Jackson State University, Interdisciplinary Nanotoxicity Center, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Puzyn, Tomasz, E-mail: t.puzyn@qsar.eu.org [University of Gdansk, Laboratory of Environmental Chemometrics, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Environmental and Human Health Protection (Poland)

    2016-09-15

    In this contribution, the advantages and limitations of two computational techniques that can be used for the investigation of nanoparticles activity and toxicity: classic nano-QSAR (Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships employed for nanomaterials) and 3D nano-QSAR (three-dimensional Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships, such us Comparative Molecular Field Analysis, CoMFA/Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis, CoMSIA analysis employed for nanomaterials) have been briefly summarized. Both approaches were compared according to the selected criteria, including: efficiency, type of experimental data, class of nanomaterials, time required for calculations and computational cost, difficulties in the interpretation. Taking into account the advantages and limitations of each method, we provide the recommendations for nano-QSAR modellers and QSAR model users to be able to determine a proper and efficient methodology to investigate biological activity of nanoparticles in order to describe the underlying interactions in the most reliable and useful manner.

  19. Advantages and limitations of classic and 3D QSAR approaches in nano-QSAR studies based on biological activity of fullerene derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagiello, Karolina; Grzonkowska, Monika; Swirog, Marta; Ahmed, Lucky; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Avramopoulos, Aggelos; Papadopoulos, Manthos G.; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Puzyn, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, the advantages and limitations of two computational techniques that can be used for the investigation of nanoparticles activity and toxicity: classic nano-QSAR (Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships employed for nanomaterials) and 3D nano-QSAR (three-dimensional Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships, such us Comparative Molecular Field Analysis, CoMFA/Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis, CoMSIA analysis employed for nanomaterials) have been briefly summarized. Both approaches were compared according to the selected criteria, including: efficiency, type of experimental data, class of nanomaterials, time required for calculations and computational cost, difficulties in the interpretation. Taking into account the advantages and limitations of each method, we provide the recommendations for nano-QSAR modellers and QSAR model users to be able to determine a proper and efficient methodology to investigate biological activity of nanoparticles in order to describe the underlying interactions in the most reliable and useful manner.

  20. Taking It Online, and Making It Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online & CD-ROM Review, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses taking content online and payment models online based on sessions at the 1996 Internet World International conference in London (England). Highlights include publishers' decisions to reproduce materials on the World Wide Web; designing Web sites; guidelines for online content; online pricing; and the pros and cons of charging online…

  1. Peran Strategic Entrepreneurship dalam Membangun Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Dedy Handrimurtjahjo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Strategic entrepreneurship has emerged as a new concept in examining convergence in entrepreneurship studies (opportunity-seeking behavior and strategic management (advantage-seeking behavior. Studies in the area of strategic management have gradually exposed the relationship betweenstrategic management and entrepreneurship: entrepreneurial strategy making; intrapreneurship; entrepreneurial strategic posture within organizations; entrepreneurial orientation; strategic managementintegration as a context for entrepreneurial actions; and entrepreneurship theory with strategic management and the resource-based view (RBV. A conceptual model of SE that has been developed by Ireland et al.suggested that a firm which linearly and sequentially: employs an entrepreneurial mindset to identify opportunities; manages resources strategically to tackle the opportunity; applies creativity and innovation; andgenerates a competitive advantage is strategic and entrepreneurship operation. Managers must maximize the pursuit of new business opportunities while simultaneously maximize the generation and application of temporary competitive advantages to sustainably create organizational value. This paper develops a conceptual framework that demonstrate the role of strategic entrepreneurship in building sustainable competitiveadvantage.

  2. Take Charge. Take the Test. "You Know" PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 60 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  3. Sparse Multivariate Modeling: Priors and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo

    This thesis presents a collection of statistical models that attempt to take advantage of every piece of prior knowledge available to provide the models with as much structure as possible. The main motivation for introducing these models is interpretability since in practice we want to be able to...

  4. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  5. Design Of Vertical Take-Off And Landing VTOL Aircraft System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Ko Ko Oo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertical Take Off and Landing Vehicles VTOL are the ones which can take off and land from the same place without need of long runway. This paper presents the design and implementation of tricopter mode and aircraft mode for VTOL aircraft system. Firstly the aircraft design is considered for VTOL mode. And then the mathematical model of the VTOL aircraft is applied to test stability. In this research the KK 2.1 flight controller is used for VTOL mode and aircraft mode. The first part is to develop the VTOL mode and the next part is the transition of VTOL mode to aircraft mode. This paper gives brief idea about numerous types of VTOLs and their advantages over traditional aircraftsand insight to various types of tricopter and evaluates their configurations.

  6. ICT as a new competitive advantage factor – case of small transitional hotel sector

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Mihalic; Dimitrios Buhalis

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the information and communication technology (ICT) in a small hotel sector at a point in time when the transition towards a full market economy is coming to the end and competitiveness and ICT implementation is gaining on importance. Its main purpose is to study a business potential of this new competitive advantage resource and its productivity paradox. A competitive advantage factor model (CAF model) has been proposed and the structural modelling (SEM) has been performed ...

  7. Protontherapy versus carbon ion therapy advantages, disadvantages and similarities

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comparison analysis of two cancer treatment therapies: carbon ion therapy and protontherapy. It is divided in 5 sections. The first ones gives the reader a brief history of Radiotherapy and types of radiation. In the second section, the techniques and equipments, including new ones in development such as Cyclinac , Laser and DWA, are described. The third section describes biophysical (such as stopping power and LET) and biological (such as RBE and OER) properties, the fundamental experiments and clinical area. The fourth section presents models and the fifth section compares both techniques, showing advantages and disadvantages of each, and their similarities.

  8. The generation of sustainable competitive advantage through training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Danvila Del Valle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the significance of training as a generating factor of human capital that allows the attainment of long term sustainable competitive advantage turned into greater economic rents. Initially, two are prescribed that try to demonstrate from a universalistic approach, such relationship, to subsequently include the possible impact of the moderator strategy with the purpose of verifying if this could mean an improvement in the explanatory power of our model of analysis. For this, we have carried out the verification of the hypothesis through an analysis of hierarchical regression.

  9. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  10. Take Care with Pet Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails Take Care with Pet Reptiles and Amphibians Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... pets and disease risks Safe Handling Tips for Reptiles and Amphibians Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  11. Taking Action for Healthy Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jill E.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes research on relationship between physical activity, good nutrition, and academic performance. Offers several recommendations for how schools can take action to improve the nutrition and fitness of students. (PKP)

  12. Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Baba, Masayuki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotoshi; Kato, Shingo; Yamada, Shigeru; Yasuda, Shigeo; Yanagi, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Naotaka; Mizoe, Junetsu [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Anagawa 4-9-1, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: tsujii@nirs.go.jp

    2008-07-15

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) possesses physical and biological advantages. It was started at NIRS in 1994 using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC); since then more than 50 protocol studies have been conducted on almost 4000 patients with a variety of tumors. Clinical experiences have demonstrated that C-ion RT is effective in such regions as the head and neck, skull base, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissues, and pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer, as well as for histological types including adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, malignant melanoma and various types of sarcomas, against which photon therapy could be less effective. Furthermore, when compared with photon and proton RT, a significant reduction of overall treatment time and fractions has been accomplished without enhancing toxicities. Currently, the number of irradiation sessions per patient averages 13 fractions spread over approximately three weeks. This means that in a carbon therapy facility a larger number of patients than is possible with other modalities can be treated over the same period of time.

  13. Grounding Animal Rights in Mutual Advantage Contractarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to critics and advocates of contractarianism alike, I argue that mutual advantage contractarianism entails rights and protections for animals. In section one I outline the criteria that must be met in order for an individual to qualify for moral rights on the contractarian view. I then introduce an alternative form of ‘rights,’ which I call ‘protectorate status,’ from which an individual can receive protections indirectly. In section two I suggest guidelines for assigning animal rights based on two ways of categorizing animals. On the basis of the categorization according to benefit derived, I argue that animals used for companionship, security, hunting assistance, transportation, entertainment, medical service, nourishment, or clothing will tend to qualify for basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease. On the basis of the categorization according to species, I argue that, on top of the basic rights above, dogs tend to qualify for rights against abuse, and against frivolous medical experimentation, as well as further negotiated rights. Cows have the basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease, but squirrels and bears have no rights. In section three I argue that some animals qualify for protectorate status, which would establish various protections for different animals, but would also generally prohibit cruelty towards animals.

  14. BILATERAL COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES: INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Wiwin Setyari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This studytried tolook more closely at market integration, through export prices channel, inIndonesiaandMalaysia. Severalpreviousstudiestendtorejectthe existence oflawofoneprice(LOP. The law of one price (LOP states that price a given product should be the same in different parts of the world if valued in common currency. However, empirical studies uniformly shows LOP does not describe most markets. Someimportantfactorsthat are consideredinstrumentalin this regardaretransportation costsandprice stickiness. However, there isone characteristicthat is oftenoverlookedin the discussion ofLOP, namelychanges incomparative advantage. The specific objectiveofthispaperis to look atcomparative advantagecorrelationbetween the two countriesandtheir effect onpriceconvergence. Correlationof both selected commodities –using therankspearman's test -indicates the nature ofthemutualsubstitutionof productsthatcarrythe possibility of"price competition" so thatthe pricepointtoconvergeto one another. Tests on theexportprice ofsomeselected productsinboth countriesindicatedthe occurrence ofpriceconvergence, seen from thetwoanalytical techniques: σconvergenceandco-integrationusingJohansen's test. This conclusion is generated by attempted to control the "identical assumption" is to examines prices for similar products (homogeneous using SITC 3-digit, which is produced from the "same" or close locations, with the export destination to the same trading partner

  15. Advantages and limitations of peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Goršak, Karmen Pižorn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines current theoretical work and research findings regarding the effectiveness of peer assessment. The main purpose of the article is to define peer asses sment and its subcategory peer feedback and to present the advantages and limitations of peer assessment derived from different research findings. In addition, conditions and strategies to successfully guarantee the benefits of peer assessment are presented. The main research studies, mentioned in this article, have been carried out in different disciplines in higher education programmes and their findings reveal positive students’ and teachers’ attitude to peer assessment as well as high correlation between peers’ and te achers’ grades. The main results of the studies show a positive effect of peer assessment on student’s active role in the process of learning and assessment, the development of social and professional skills, student’s autonomy, critical thinking, peer and selfassessment skills. Recommendations for implementing peer assessment within foreign language tea ching, as well as implications for future research work are provided.

  16. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  17. The advantages and disadvantages of pacifier use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Dede Nursan

    2004-01-01

    A powerful reflex of the infant in the weeks following birth is sucking. Breastfed babies benefit from both the nutrition in mother's milk and the satisfaction of their sucking instinct. Babies that can not be breastfed due to various reasons may satisfy their sucking instinct by using pacifiers. Pacifier use and digit sucking are believed to be harmless habits. In many places of the world, and especially in developing countries, pacifier use in early childhood is very common. It is said that pacifier use eases the baby and satisfies its sucking instinct. It has been reported in several studies that pacifier use reduces the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The most important risks of this non-nutritive sucking habit are failure of breastfeeding, dental deformities, recurrent acute otitis media, and the possibility of accidents. The development of latex allergy, tooth decay, oral ulcers and sleep disorders are other problems encountered with pacifier use. Parents may hesitate to use pacifiers for their babies and consult nurses or midwives on this issue. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of pacifier use are discussed with the aim of providing guidance to nurses and midwives working in the field of pediatrics and infant health.

  18. Advantages and disadvantages of burning spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.A.; Ferek, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The full potential for in situ burning as a controlled oil spill response technique is a subject of growing interest throughout the world. Information now available from burning oil during accidental fires, war-related fires in Kuwait, spillage from the Exxon Valdez, and controlled test burns, permits an objective and comprehensive assessment of both the positive and negative aspects of in situ burning. A thorough analysis has been made of direct and indirect impacts and concerns typically associated with the decision, to burn or not to burn. These factors, together with the comparative costs of various response techniques, have been identified and described to provide spill control planners and response organizations with a means of assessing the potential use of burning to clean up offshore oil spills. Some of the advantages for in situ burning are high elimination rate, minimal environmental impact, minimal disposal and cleanup, and ease of control. Some of the disadvantages are localized reduction of air quality, oil conditions, and limited window of opportunity

  19. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development.

  20. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-08-02

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries-the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (θ(GB)) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe(2)As(2) (BaFe(2)As(2):Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (J(c)(BGB)) remained high (>1 MA cm(-2)) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θ(c) of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θ(c) of ∼5° for YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ). Even at θ(GB)>θ(c), the decay of J(c)(BGB) was much slower than that of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ).

  1. Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

    2013-06-01

    Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience.

  2. Informatics perspectives on decision taking

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A decision is an act or event of decision taking. Decision making always includes decision taking, the latter not involving significant exchanges with non-deciding agents. A decision outcome is a piece of storable information constituting the result of a decision. Decision outcomes are typed, for instance: plan, command, assertion, or boolean reply to a question. A decision effect is any consequence of putting a decision outcome into effect. Decision outcomes must be expected by the decider t...

  3. Taking ad-Vantage of lax advertising regulation in the USA and Canada: reassuring and distracting health-concerned smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J; Pollay, Richard W; Ling, Pamela M

    2006-10-01

    We explored the evolution from cigarette product attributes to psychosocial needs in advertising campaigns for low-tar cigarettes. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and print advertising images indicated that low-tar brands targeted smokers who were concerned about their health with advertising images intended to distract them from the health hazards of smoking. Advertising first emphasized product characteristics (filtration, low tar) that implied health benefits. Over time, advertising emphasis shifted to salient psychosocial needs of the target markets. A case study of Vantage cigarettes in the USA and Canada showed that advertising presented images of intelligent, upward-striving people who had achieved personal success and intentionally excluded the act of smoking from the imagery, while minimal product information was provided. This illustrates one strategy to appeal to concerned smokers by not describing the product itself (which may remind smokers of the problems associated with smoking), but instead using evocative imagery to distract smokers from these problems. Current advertising for potential reduced-exposure products (PREPs) emphasizes product characteristics, but these products have not delivered on the promise of a healthier alternative cigarette. Our results suggest that the tobacco control community should be on the alert for a shift in advertising focus for PREPs to the image of the user rather than the cigarette. Global Framework Convention on Tobacco Control-style advertising bans that prohibit all user imagery in tobacco advertising could preempt a psychosocial needs-based advertising strategy for PREPs and maintain public attention on the health hazards of smoking.

  4. Military Base Realignments and Closures: More Guidance and Information Needed to Take Advantage of Opportunities to Consolidate Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    eliminating excess capacity and realizing cost savings, BRAC 2005 was conducted in a global security environment characterized by increasing defense...GAO recommendation Original DOD response DOD actions GAO-15-274—Military Base Realignments and Closures: Process for Reusing Property for Homeless ...Assistance Needs Improvements (Mar. 16, 2015). Update the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) homeless assistance regulations to require that

  5. Early and innovative interventions for severe sepsis and septic shock: taking advantage of a window of opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Emanuel P.; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Morro, David C.; Rivers, Kandis K.

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic landscape of sepsis is no longer confined to the intensive care unit: many patients from other portals of entry to care, both outside and within the hospital, progress to severe disease. Approaches that have led to improved outcomes with other diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, stroke and trauma) can now be similarly applied to sepsis. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of severe sepsis and septic shock has led to the development of new therapies that place importance on early identification and aggressive management. This review emphasizes approaches to the early recognition, diagnosis and therapeutic management of sepsis, giving the clinician the most contemporary and practical approaches with which to treat these patients. PMID:16247103

  6. How Users Take Advantage of Different Forms of Interactivity on Online News Sites: Clicking, E-Mailing, and Commenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkowski, Pablo J.; Mitchelstein, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the uptake of multiple interactive features on news sites. It looks at the thematic composition of the most clicked, most e-mailed, and most commented stories during periods of heightened and routine political activity. Results show that (a) during the former period, the most commented stories were more likely to be focused on…

  7. How Human Papillomavirus Replication and Immune Evasion Strategies Take Advantage of the Host DNA Damage Repair Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordignon, Valentina; Di Domenico, Enea Gino; Trento, Elisabetta; D'Agosto, Giovanna; Cavallo, Ilaria; Pontone, Martina; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Mariani, Luciano; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2017-12-19

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is a complex signalling network activated when DNA is altered by intrinsic or extrinsic agents. DDR plays important roles in genome stability and cell cycle regulation, as well as in tumour transformation. Viruses have evolved successful life cycle strategies in order to ensure a chronic persistence in the host, virtually avoiding systemic sequelae and death. This process promotes the periodic shedding of large amounts of infectious particles to maintain a virus reservoir in individual hosts, while allowing virus spreading within the community. To achieve such a successful lifestyle, the human papilloma virus (HPV) needs to escape the host defence systems. The key to understanding how this is achieved is in the virus replication process that provides by itself an evasion mechanism by inhibiting and delaying the host immune response against the viral infection. Numerous studies have demonstrated that HPV exploits both the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia-telangiectasia and rad3-related (ATR) DDR pathways to replicate its genome and maintain a persistent infection by downregulating the innate and cell-mediated immunity. This review outlines how HPV interacts with the ATM- and ATR-dependent DDR machinery during the viral life cycle to create an environment favourable to viral replication, and how the interaction with the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) protein family and the deregulation of the Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT pathways may impact the expression of interferon-inducible genes and the innate immune responses.

  8. Taking Advantage of the "Big Mo"--Momentum in Everyday English and Swedish and in Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Ahrenberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Science education research suggests that our everyday intuitions of motion and interaction of physical objects fit well with how physicists use the term "momentum". Corpus linguistics provides an easily accessible approach to study language in different domains, including everyday language. Analysis of language samples from English text…

  9. How can we take advantage of halophyte properties to cope with heavy metal toxicity in salt-affected areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutts, Stanley; Lefèvre, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Many areas throughout the world are simultaneously contaminated by high concentrations of soluble salts and by high concentrations of heavy metals that constitute a serious threat to human health. The use of plants to extract or stabilize pollutants is an interesting alternative to classical expensive decontamination procedures. However, suitable plant species still need to be identified for reclamation of substrates presenting a high electrical conductivity. Scope Halophytic plant species are able to cope with several abiotic constraints occurring simultaneously in their natural environment. This review considers their putative interest for remediation of polluted soil in relation to their ability to sequester absorbed toxic ions in trichomes or vacuoles, to perform efficient osmotic adjustment and to limit the deleterious impact of oxidative stress. These physiological adaptations are considered in relation to the impact of salt on heavy metal bioavailabilty in two types of ecosystem: (1) salt marshes and mangroves, and (2) mine tailings in semi-arid areas. Conclusions Numerous halophytes exhibit a high level of heavy metal accumulation and external NaCl may directly influence heavy metal speciation and absorption rate. Maintenance of biomass production and plant water status makes some halophytes promising candidates for further management of heavy-metal-polluted areas in both saline and non-saline environments. PMID:25672360

  10. Taking Advantage of the "Big Mo"—Momentum in Everyday English and Swedish and in Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Ahrenberg, Lars

    2015-06-01

    Science education research suggests that our everyday intuitions of motion and interaction of physical objects fit well with how physicists use the term "momentum". Corpus linguistics provides an easily accessible approach to study language in different domains, including everyday language. Analysis of language samples from English text corpora reveals a trend of increasing metaphorical use of "momentum" in non-science domains, and through conceptual metaphor analysis, we show that the use of the word in everyday language, as opposed to for instance "force", is largely adequate from a physics point of view. In addition, "momentum" has recently been borrowed into Swedish as a metaphor in domains such as sports, politics and finance, with meanings similar to those in physics. As an implication for educational practice, we find support for the suggestion to introduce the term "momentum" to English-speaking pupils at an earlier age than what is typically done in the educational system today, thereby capitalising on their intuitions and experiences of everyday language. For Swedish-speaking pupils, and possibly also relevant to other languages, the parallel between "momentum" and the corresponding physics term in the students' mother tongue could be made explicit..

  11. Taking Advantage of the Strengths of 2 Different Dietary Assessment Instruments to Improve Intake Estimates for Nutritional Epidemiology

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2012-01-24

    With the advent of Internet-based 24-hour recall (24HR) instruments, it is now possible to envision their use in cohort studies investigating the relation between nutrition and disease. Understanding that all dietary assessment instruments are subject to measurement errors and correcting for them under the assumption that the 24HR is unbiased for usual intake, here the authors simultaneously address precision, power, and sample size under the following 3 conditions: 1) 1-12 24HRs; 2) a single calibrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and 3) a combination of 24HR and FFQ data. Using data from the Eating at America\\'s Table Study (1997-1998), the authors found that 4-6 administrations of the 24HR is optimal for most nutrients and food groups and that combined use of multiple 24HR and FFQ data sometimes provides data superior to use of either method alone, especially for foods that are not regularly consumed. For all food groups but the most rarely consumed, use of 2-4 recalls alone, with or without additional FFQ data, was superior to use of FFQ data alone. Thus, if self-administered automated 24HRs are to be used in cohort studies, 4-6 administrations of the 24HR should be considered along with administration of an FFQ.

  12. Improving the Reactivity of Zerovalent Iron by Taking Advantage of Its Magnetic Memory: Implications for Arsenite Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxiang; Shi, Zhong; Ma, Bin; Zhang, Pingping; Jiang, Xiao; Xiao, Zhongjin; Guan, Xiaohong

    2015-09-01

    Premagnetization was employed to enhance the reactivity of zerovalent iron (ZVI) toward As(III) sequestration for the first time. Compared to the pristine ZVI (Pri-ZVI), the rate of As(III) elimination by the premagnetized ZVI (Mag-ZVI) was greater over the pHini range of 4.0-9.0 and increased progressively with increasing intensity of the magnetic field for premagnetization. Mag-ZVI could keep its reactivity for a long time and showed better performance than Pri-ZVI for As(III) removal from synthetic groundwater in column tests. The Fe K-edge XAFS analysis for As(III)-treated ZVI samples unraveled that premagnetization promoted the transformation of ZVI to iron (hydr)oxides and shifted the corrosion products from maghemite and magnetite to lepidocrocite, which favored the arsenic sequestration. The arsenic species analysis revealed that premagnetization facilitated the oxidation of As(III) to As(V). ZVI pretreated with grinding was very different from Mag-ZVI with regard to As(III) removal, indicating that the improved reactivity of Mag-ZVI should not be associated with the physical squeezing effect of the ZVI grains during magnetization. The positive correlation between the remanence of Mag-ZVI and the rate constants of total arsenic removal indicated that the enhanced reactivity of Mag-ZVI was mainly ascribed to its magnetic memory, i.e., the remanence kept by Mag-ZVI.

  13. How can we take advantage of halophyte properties to cope with heavy metal toxicity in salt-affected areas?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lutts, S.; Lefevre, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2015), s. 509-528 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Antioxidants * glycinebetaine * metal distribution * osmoprotectants Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.982, year: 2015

  14. Process dynamics, advantage and difficulties of investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oude-Hengel, H.H.; Geigle, F.W.; Drucks, G.

    1974-01-01

    Process models, amongst other things, are designed to inform about stressability of power plants. This paper introduces some of the most important models and assesses them. Mathematical results concerning a turbine trip incident are made clear. Finally some of the problems are dealt with which occur while investigating process dynamics. (orig./RW) [de

  15. Calculating Home Advantage in the First Decade of the 21th Century UEFA Soccer Leagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Miguel Saavedra; Aguilar, Oscar Gutiérrez; Marques, Paulo Sa; Tobío, Gabriel Torres; Fernández Romero, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    Home advantage has been studied in different sports, establishing its existence and its possible causes. This article analyzes the home advantage in soccer leagues of UEFA countries in the first part of the 21st century. The sample of 52 countries monitored during a period of 10 years allows us to study 520 leagues and 111,030 matches of the highest level in each country associated with UEFA. Home advantage exists and is significant in 32 of the 52 UEFA countries, where it equals 55.6%. A decrease can be observed in the tendency towards home advantage between the years 2000 and 2010. Values between 55 and 56 were observed for home advantage in the top ten leagues in Europe. It has also been observed that home advantage depends on the level of the league evaluated using UEFA's 2010/11 Country coefficients. The home advantage is calculated taking into account the teams' position and the points obtained in each of the leagues. A direct relationship was observed with the number of points gained and an inverse relationship was observed with the team position.

  16. Features of formation of competitive advantages: a strategic dimension

    OpenAIRE

    O.Р. Pashchenko

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the features of formation of competitive advantages, the depth of theoretical and methodological basis for the formation of competitive advantages at an enterprise. The author has reviewed the approaches to the formation of stable and long-term competitive advantages. The author has also overviewed the requirements which are to be met by competitive advantages of a company and the factors that affect the possibility of competitive advantages. The author develops her ow...

  17. Selective positive-negative feedback produces the winner-take-all competition in recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Li, Yangming

    2013-02-01

    The winner-take-all (WTA) competition is widely observed in both inanimate and biological media and society. Many mathematical models are proposed to describe the phenomena discovered in different fields. These models are capable of demonstrating the WTA competition. However, they are often very complicated due to the compromise with experimental realities in the particular fields; it is often difficult to explain the underlying mechanism of such a competition from the perspective of feedback based on those sophisticate models. In this paper, we make steps in that direction and present a simple model, which produces the WTA competition by taking advantage of selective positive-negative feedback through the interaction of neurons via p-norm. Compared to existing models, this model has an explicit explanation of the competition mechanism. The ultimate convergence behavior of this model is proven analytically. The convergence rate is discussed and simulations are conducted in both static and dynamic competition scenarios. Both theoretical and numerical results validate the effectiveness of the dynamic equation in describing the nonlinear phenomena of WTA competition.

  18. [The precautionary principle: advantages and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    2001-04-01

    The extension of the precautionary principle to the field of healthcare is the social response to two demands of the population: improved health safety and the inclusion of an informed public in the decision-making process. The necessary balance between cost (treatment-induced risk) and benefit (therapeutic effect) underlies all healthcare decisions. An underestimation or an overestimation of cost, i.e. risk, is equally harmful in public healthcare. A vaccination should be prescribed when its beneficial effect outweighs its inevitable risk. Mandatory vaccination, such as in the case of the Hepatitis B virus, is a health policy requiring some courage because those who benefit will never be aware of its positive effect while those who are victims of the risk could resort to litigation. Defense against such accusations requires an accurate assessment of risk and benefit, which underlines the importance of expertise. Even within the framework of the precautionary principle, it is impossible to act without knowledge, or at least a plausible estimation, of expected effects. Recent affairs (blood contamination, transmissible spongiform encephalitis by growth hormone, and new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease) illustrate that in such cases the precautionary principle would have had limited impact and it is only when enough knowledge was available that effective action could be taken. Likewise, in current debates concerning the possible risks of electromagnetic fields, cellular phones and radon, research efforts must be given priority. The general public understands intuitively the concept of cost and benefit. For example, the possible health risks of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy were not ignored, but the public has judged that their advantages justify the risk. Estimating risk and benefit and finding a balance between risk and preventive measures could help avoid the main drawbacks of the precautionary principle, i.e. inaction and refusal of

  19. National and International Library Collaboration: Necessity, Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Mark

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of cooperation between research library associations can be demonstrated quite clearly. Where cooperation becomes essential is where there is a common cause to champion or an initiative to pursue for the common good. Thanks in part to the power of information communications technology, research is becoming increasingly international in scope. The members of interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research teams are frequently drawn from across the world. Correspondingly, scholarly publishing (especially in medicine and the sciences is dominated by a few multinational publishers. In this context, issues that play a vital role in global scholarly communication - such as copyright, journal pricing, the managing of datasets, digital preservation and open access - are issues for the research library community everywhere in the world. Certainly there are many challenges at the local or regional level. However there are definite roles that research library associations can play most effectively at the national or international level. It is clear that by sharing expertise, building partnerships and alliances, it is possible to address common issues much more effectively than when working alone. What is special is that potentially the most powerful form of cooperation is advocacy at the national and international levels. It is essential for research library associations to work together at the political level to move their agenda forward. Examples are lobbying about copyright legislation (nationally, or within the EC or at WIPO; or promoting the cause of Open Access. The unique value of LIBER is to provide a forum and a platform for European research library associations to explore and benefit from cooperation and their shared strength.

  20. Better imaging: the advantages of digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stelt, Paul F

    2008-06-01

    Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years, but it has not replaced conventional film-based radiography completely. This could be because of the costs involved in replacing conventional radiographic equipment with a digital imaging system, or because implementing new technology in the dental practice requires a bit of courage. When the practitioner is fully aware of the new possibilities offered by digital radiography, he or she can make a more informed decision about adopting it. This article offers information about digital radiography, not just as a replacement of conventional radiography, but also as a concept offering benefits beyond those of conventional radiography. Digital radiographs are composed of a set of numbers arranged as a grid of rows and columns. The dentist can perform mathematical operations on these numbers to create a new image in which certain characteristics are enhanced, thus making interpretation of the image easier. The dentist also can correct, to some extent, overexposed or underexposed images and can optimize contrast and brightness for specific diagnostic procedures, such as caries detection and bone level assessment. More advanced procedures are available as well, such as digital subtraction radiography and computer-aided recognition of image features. The author presents a selection of the advantages of digital radiography that are not achievable with conventional film-based radiography. Implementing digital radiography in the dental office requires additional training. However, once members of the dental team have gone through this initial phase, they have the benefits of several new diagnostic possibilities. With a digital system, information from radiographic images is collected more easily and in a more objective way, which will improve the performance of the diagnostic process.