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Sample records for model takes advantage

  1. Taking Advantage of Model-Driven Engineering Foundations for Mixed Interaction Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauffre, Guillaume; Dubois, Emmanuel

    New forms of interactive systems, hereafter referred to as Mixed Interactive Systems (MIS), are based on the use of physical artefacts present in the environment. Mixing the digital and physical worlds affects the development of interactive systems, especially from the point of view of the design resources which need to express new dimensions. Consequently, there is a crucial need to clearly describe the content and utility of the recent models associated to these new interaction forms. Based on existing initiatives in the field of HCI, this chapter first highlights the interest of using a Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) approach for the design of MIS. Then, this chapter retraces the application of a MDE approach on a specific Mixed Interaction design resource. The resulted contribution is a motivated, explicit, complete and standardized definition of the ASUR model, a model for mixed interaction design. This definition constitutes a basis to promote the use of this model, to support its diffusion and to derive design tools from this model. The model-driven development of a flexible ASUR editor is finally introduced, thus facilitating the insertion of model extensions and articulations.

  2. Taking Competitive Advantage By Business Model Innovation(İş Modeli İnovasyonu ile Rekabetçi Bir Avantaj Yakalamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa BEKMEZCİ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the world and Turkey there are many companies that both survive and increase their market shares and profits by changing business models. Business model innovation is one of the best and prevailing methods to tackle with the difficulties emerged in crisis and recession periods and the other endangering factors that should be reacted at once as well as to increase market share and to make profit. In this study, some significant points that companies have to consider for taking competitive advantage by business model innovation are indicated. Taking these findings into consideration will help managers to cope with the crises caused by environmental and/or organizational factors.

  3. Taking advantage of dissonance: the development of a CPD model for a children’s integrated service

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Jenny; Marsh, Glynis; Haider, Sharif; Bardsley, Janet; Bayley, Kenneth; Brown, Gill; Harrington-Vail, Amanda; Dale-Emberton, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of welfare, health and educational support provision to the majority of children aged between nought and eighteen years of age in England is led by local authorities via their children’s integrated service. When launched in 2004 this service model promised the benefits of integrated and collaborative working in terms of flexibility and responsiveness to national policy, local development and capacity building (Robinson et al., 2008). However, the implementation and ongoing matura...

  4. Leveraging Diversity Of Thought Through Inclusion: Advantages, Disadvantages, And Taking Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    diverse environments can make an organization more productive in any given business model. In his book, Diversity and Complexity, Scott Page...of thought characterized by self-deception, forced manufacture of consent, and conformity to group 8 values and ethics .”26 Groupthink is a...an organization is not the only benefactor of this advantage. Workplace diversity not only benefits the organization as a whole but also provides

  5. Advantages and Limitations of Different SDLC Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika D Amlani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Software engineering is the area which is constantly growing. It is very interesting subject to learn as all the software development industry based on this specified area. Now a days, there are lots of software development life cycle models available. According to the requirements, software industry people are using it as per their requirements. As there are lots of SDLC models, they are used according to their requirements. So, it is needed to know the requirements in which the SDLC models is used. This paper is about the pros and cons of some models. So, user can take the advantage of this paper to find the model best suitable for their need.

  6. Deployment technique that takes advantage of the characteristics of Enterprise VRD2: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Hideo; Ishii, Akira; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Arai, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2016-08-31

    Enterprise VRD, a stent frequently used to assist coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms, has been upgraded to reduce the risk of incomplete stent apposition (ISA), a known risk factor for thromboembolic complications. To compare the performances of Enterprise VRD and Enterprise VRD2 in curved vessels, and to investigate a deployment method that takes advantage of the features of Enterprise VRD2 to achieve better vessel wall apposition. A silicone vascular model connected to a temperature-adjustable perfusion circuit was used. First, Enterprise VRD and Enterprise VRD2 were deployed under fluoroscopy and then ISA was evaluated as the stent cross-sectional area ratio at the curved segment of the vessel. For the measurements, each stent was deployed in vessels with different angles of curvature. Second, the incidence of ISA after insertion of Enterprise VRD2 by the 'pushing over outer curve technique', in which stents are deployed along the outer curve of vessels with continuous wire advancement, was compared with 'Heller's push and pull technique'. For all stents, the cross-sectional area ratio decreased with acute curvature of the vessel. Comparisons of the two stents showed that Enterprise VRD2 was better than Enterprise VRD in maintaining a greater cross-sectional area ratio in curved vessels. In addition, kinking with an acute curvature was also minimized with Enterprise VRD2. Furthermore, ISA was reduced using our technique with Enterprise VRD2. Enterprise VRD2 is superior to Enterprise VRD in reducing ISA in curved vessels and can alter ISA according to the deployment technique used. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Taking Advantages of China's Increasing Demand for Recycled Resources : Case Company: Ni-Met Resources Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to review the feasibility and advise the management of Ni-Met on the location of a warehouse in China. Ni-Met is a global company involved in trading of resources and commodities - primary and secondary metals, minerals and plastics. A sizeable portion of its sales are into China. The objective of this thesis is to suggest the most suitable way for Ni-Met to take advantage of China’s huge demand for commodities and resources. Ni-Met wants to increase...

  8. Taking Advantage of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) Popularity to Enhance Student/Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    . Our goal is to expand the use of these modules to a more broad public audience, including at a future campus/public event know as "All Things Water". We have also organized a walking tour/demo with 3rd-5th graders in a small mining town west of Boulder where we hiked to an old historical mine site, measured water quality (pH, dissolved lead, conductivity), and coated the inside of small bottles with silver. Organizing and hosting a conference can also be a great way to facilitate a discussion of ideas within the community. "All Things STEM" organized a broad student research conference related to water quality and water treatment which included research from 22 students from 11 different countries. We worked with 12 local engineering consultants, municipalities, and local businesses to provide 2000 for student awards. Our presentation will focus on lessons we have learned on how to take advantage of student energy, excitement, and time on campus to receive funding opportunities for planning events that engage the public. We will also talk about our experiences in using student energy to develop partnerships with K-12 schools, community groups, and industry professionals.

  9. The pen is mightier than the keyboard: advantages of longhand over laptop note taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Pam A; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

    2014-06-01

    Taking notes on laptops rather than in longhand is increasingly common. Many researchers have suggested that laptop note taking is less effective than longhand note taking for learning. Prior studies have primarily focused on students' capacity for multitasking and distraction when using laptops. The present research suggests that even when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing. In three studies, we found that students who took notes on laptops performed worse on conceptual questions than students who took notes longhand. We show that whereas taking more notes can be beneficial, laptop note takers' tendency to transcribe lectures verbatim rather than processing information and reframing it in their own words is detrimental to learning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. From field to factory-Taking advantage of shop manufacturing for the pebble bed modular reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Edward [PBMR Pty. Ltd. (South Africa)]. E-mail: edward.wallace@pbmr.co.za; Matzie, Regis [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC (United States); Heiderd, Roger [Sargent and Lundy LLC (United States); Maddalena, John [PBMR Pty. Ltd. (South Africa)

    2006-03-15

    The move of nuclear plant construction from the field to the factory for small, advanced pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) designs has significant benefits compared to traditional light water reactor (LWR) field oriented designs. The use of modular factory construction techniques has a growing economic benefit over time through well-established process learning applications. This paper addresses the basic PBMR design objectives and commercialization model that drive this approach; provides a brief technical description of the PBMR design and layout with representative CAD views and discusses derived figures of merit highlighting the relative simplicity of PBMR compared to a modern LWR. The discussion emphasizes that more of PBMR can be built in the factory due to the simple design of a direct helium Brayton cycle compared to an indirect LWR steam cycle with its associated equipment. For the PBMR design there are fewer and less cumbersome auxiliary and safety systems with their attendant support requirements. Additionally, the labor force economic efficiency for nuclear projects is better in the factory than in the field, including consideration of labor costs and nuclear quality programs. Industrial learning is better in the factory because of the more controlled environment, mechanization optimization opportunities and because of the more stable labor force compared to the field. Supply chain benefits are more readily achievable with strategic contracts for module suppliers. Although building a nuclear power plant is not a typical high volume manufacturing process, for the PBMR-type of plant, with its high degree of standardization and relatively small, simplified design, the shift to factory work has a significant impact on overall project cost due to earlier identification and better coordination of parallel construction paths. This is in stark contrast to the construction of a large LWR in the past. Finally, the PBMR modular plant concept continues at the

  11. Military Base Realignments and Closures: More Guidance and Information Needed to Take Advantage of Opportunities to Consolidate Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    possible levels; a dedicated implementation team that can be held accountable for change; and a strategy measuring progress toward the established...MILITARY BASE REALIGNMENTS AND CLOSURES More Guidance and Information Needed to Take Advantage of Opportunities to...Consolidate Training Report to Congressional Committees February 2016 GAO-16-45 United States Government Accountability Office

  12. Perspective-Taking Ability in Bilingual Children: Extending Advantages in Executive Control to Spatial Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Anastasia; Bellana, Buddhika; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Monolingual and bilingual 8-year-olds performed a computerized spatial perspective-taking task. Children were asked to decide how an observer saw a four-block array from one of three different positions (90 degrees, 180 degrees, and 270 degrees counter-clockwise from the child's position) by selecting one of four responses--the correct response,…

  13. Social customer relationship management: taking advantage of Web 2.0 and Big Data technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenga-Roglá, Sergio; Chalmeta, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Web 2.0 and Big Data technologies has allowed a new customer relationship strategy based on interactivity and collaboration called Social Customer Relationship Management (Social CRM) to be created. This enhances customer engagement and satisfaction. The implementation of Social CRM is a complex task that involves different organisational, human and technological aspects. However, there is a lack of methodologies to assist companies in these processes. This paper shows a novel methodology that helps companies to implement Social CRM, taking into account different aspects such as social customer strategy, the Social CRM performance measurement system, the Social CRM business processes, or the Social CRM computer system. The methodology was applied to one company in order to validate and refine it.

  14. Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Educational Institutions: A Suggested Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey Norman

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a model of factors critical to establishing and maintaining sustainable competitive advantage for education-services enterprises in international markets. The model, which combines industrial economics, management theory, and services marketing, seeks to explain the strategic decision-making environment in which the education exporter…

  15. Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Educational Institutions: A Suggested Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey Norman

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a model of factors critical to establishing and maintaining sustainable competitive advantage for education-services enterprises in international markets. The model, which combines industrial economics, management theory, and services marketing, seeks to explain the strategic decision-making environment in which the education exporter…

  16. ORGANIZATIONAL AMBIDEXTERITY AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: TOWARD A RESEARCH MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe PREDA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ambidextrous organizations have the ability to compete in mature markets and to develop new products and services for emerging markets simultaneously. Competing in mature markets involves cost reduction, increase ofthe efficiency andthe adoption of incremental innovations that are exploitative in their nature. The development of radical new products and services for emerging markets can be achieved through exploratory innovation. The high levels of exploratory and exploitative innovation simultaneously within the same organization can lead to competitive advantage. In this paper, we present the hypotheses of research model to be tested in a future empirical study focused on the link between the capability of ambidextrous organization and their competitive advantage. Based on innovation and competitive advantage theories, we expect that exploratory innovation and exploitative innovation capabilities will sustain the competitive advantage of the organization.

  17. Physical parameter determinations of young Ms. Taking advantage of the Virtual Observatory to compare methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bayo, A; Barrado, D; Allard, F

    2014-01-01

    One of the very first steps astronomers working in stellar physics perform to advance in their studies, is to determine the most common/relevant physical parameters of the objects of study (effective temperature, bolometric luminosity, surface gravity, etc.). Different methodologies exist depending on the nature of the data, intrinsic properties of the objects, etc. One common approach is to compare the observational data with theoretical models passed through some simulator that will leave in the synthetic data the same imprint than the observational data carries, and see what set of parameters reproduce the observations best. Even in this case, depending on the kind of data the astronomer has, the methodology changes slightly. After parameters are published, the community tend to quote, praise and criticize them, sometimes paying little attention on whether the possible discrepancies come from the theoretical models, the data themselves or just the methodology used in the analysis. In this work we perform t...

  18. Taking advantage of hyperspectral imaging classification of urinary stones against conventional infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Francisco; Lumbreras, Felipe; Serrat, Joan; Siener, Roswitha; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of urinary stones is mandatory for the best management of the disease after the stone passage in order to prevent further stone episodes. Thus the use of an appropriate methodology for an individualized stone analysis becomes a key factor for giving the patient the most suitable treatment. A recently developed hyperspectral imaging methodology, based on pixel-to-pixel analysis of near-infrared spectral images, is compared to the reference technique in stone analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The developed classification model yields >90% correct classification rate when compared to IR and is able to precisely locate stone components within the structure of the stone with a 15 µm resolution. Due to the little sample pretreatment, low analysis time, good performance of the model, and the automation of the measurements, they become analyst independent; this methodology can be considered to become a routine analysis for clinical laboratories.

  19. Taking advantage of reduced droplet-surface interaction to optimize transport of bioanalytes in digital microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Sergio L S; Thorne, Nathaniel; Wutkowski, Michael; Dao, Selina

    2014-11-10

    Digital microfluidics (DMF), a technique for manipulation of droplets, is a promising alternative for the development of "lab-on-a-chip" platforms. Often, droplet motion relies on the wetting of a surface, directly associated with the application of an electric field; surface interactions, however, make motion dependent on droplet contents, limiting the breadth of applications of the technique. Some alternatives have been presented to minimize this dependence. However, they rely on the addition of extra chemical species to the droplet or its surroundings, which could potentially interact with droplet moieties. Addressing this challenge, our group recently developed Field-DW devices to allow the transport of cells and proteins in DMF, without extra additives. Here, the protocol for device fabrication and operation is provided, including the electronic interface for motion control. We also continue the studies with the devices, showing that multicellular, relatively large, model organisms can also be transported, arguably unaffected by the electric fields required for device operation.

  20. A microbial model of economic trading and comparative advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyeart, Peter J; Simpson, Zachary B; Ellington, Andrew D

    2015-01-07

    The economic theory of comparative advantage postulates that beneficial trading relationships can be arrived at by two self-interested entities producing the same goods as long as they have opposing relative efficiencies in producing those goods. The theory predicts that upon entering trade, in order to maximize consumption both entities will specialize in producing the good they can produce at higher efficiency, that the weaker entity will specialize more completely than the stronger entity, and that both will be able to consume more goods as a result of trade than either would be able to alone. We extend this theory to the realm of unicellular organisms by developing mathematical models of genetic circuits that allow trading of a common good (specifically, signaling molecules) required for growth in bacteria in order to demonstrate comparative advantage interactions. In Conception 1, the experimenter controls production rates via exogenous inducers, allowing exploration of the parameter space of specialization. In Conception 2, the circuits self-regulate via feedback mechanisms. Our models indicate that these genetic circuits can demonstrate comparative advantage, and that cooperation in such a manner is particularly favored under stringent external conditions and when the cost of production is not overly high. Further work could involve implementing the models in living bacteria and searching for naturally occurring cooperative relationships between bacteria that conform to the principles of comparative advantage.

  1. The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Wishart

    2012-02-01

    This document reports the work performed under Task 1.2.1.1: 'The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities'. The work involved in this task included understanding the experimental results of the other tasks of SOW-5799 in order to take advantage of the economics of electricity pricing differences between on- and off-peak hours and the demonstrated charging and facility energy demand profiles. To undertake this task and to demonstrate the feasibility of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) bi-directional electricity exchange potential, BEA has subcontracted Electric Transportation Applications (now known as ECOtality North America and hereafter ECOtality NA) to use the data from the demand and energy study to focus on reducing the electrical power demand of the charging facility. The use of delayed charging as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and vehicle-to-building (V2B) operations were to be considered.

  2. Exposure-Based Cat Modeling, Available data, Advantages, & Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Gero; Hosoe, Taro; Schrah, Mike; Saito, Keiko

    2010-05-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of exposure data for cat-modeling and considers concepts of scale as well as the completeness of data and data scoring using field/model examples. Catastrophe modeling based on exposure data has been considered the panacea for insurance-related cat modeling since the late 1980's. Reasons for this include: • The ability to extend risk modeling to consider data beyond historical losses, • Usability across many relevant scales, • Flexibility in addressing complex structures and policy conditions, and • Ability to assess dependence of risk results on exposure-attributes and exposure-modifiers, such as lines of business, occupancy types, and mitigation features, at any given scale. In order to calculate related risk, monetary exposure is correlated to vulnerabilities that have been calibrated with historical results, plausibility concepts, and/or physical modeling. While exposure based modeling is widely adopted, we also need to be aware of its limitations which include: • Boundaries in our understanding of the distribution of exposure, • Spatial interdependence of exposure patterns and the time-dependence of exposure, • Incomplete availability of loss information to calibrate relevant exposure attributes/structure with related vulnerabilities and losses, • The scale-dependence of vulnerability, • Potential for missing or incomplete communication of assumptions made during model calibration, • Inefficiencies in the aggregation or disaggregation of vulnerabilities, and • Factors which can influence losses other than exposure, vulnerability, and hazard. Although we might assume that the higher the resolution the better, regional model calibration is often limited to lower than street level resolution with higher resolution being achieved by disaggregating results using topographic/roughness features with often loosely constrained and/or varying effects on losses. This suggests that higher accuracy

  3. Chimpanzees do not take advantage of very low cost opportunities to deliver food to unrelated group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer; Brosnan, Sarah F; Silk, Joan B; Henrich, Joseph; Richardson, Amanda S; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2008-05-01

    We conducted experiments on two populations of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, to determine whether they would take advantage of opportunities to provide food rewards to familiar group members at little cost to themselves. In both of the experiments described here, chimpanzees were able to deliver identical rewards to themselves and to other members of their social groups. We compared the chimpanzees' behaviour when they were paired with another chimpanzee and when they were alone. If chimpanzees are motivated to provide benefits to others, they are expected to consistently deliver rewards to others and to distinguish between the partner-present and partner-absent conditions. Results from both experiments indicate that our subjects were largely indifferent to the benefits they could provide to others. They were less likely to provide rewards to potential recipients as the experiment progressed, and all but one of the 18 subjects were as likely to deliver rewards to an empty enclosure as to an enclosure housing another chimpanzee. These results, in conjunction with similar results obtained in previous experiments, suggest that chimpanzees are not motivated by prosocial sentiments to provide food rewards to other group members.

  4. Development of a Resource Allocation Model Using Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwon Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, during decision making or negotiations, the investor and the investee may often have different opinions which result in conflicts. So, an objective standard to mitigate potential conflicts between investors and investees should be provided since it is highly important that rational decisions must be made when choosing investments from various options. However, the models currently used come with some problems for several reasons, for instance, the arbitrariness of the evaluator, the difficulty in understanding the relationships that exist among the various investment options (that is, alternatives to investments, inconsistency in priorities, and simply providing selection criteria without detailing the proportion of investment in each option or evaluating only a single investment option at a time without considering all options. Thus, in this research, we present a project selection model which can enable reasonable resource allocation or determination of return rates by considering the core competencies for various investment options. Here, core competency is based on both performance and ability to create a competitive advantage. For this, we deduce issue-specific structural power indicators and analyze quantitatively the resource allocation results based on negotiation power. Through this, it is possible to examine whether the proposed project selection model considers core competencies or not by comparing several project selection models currently used. Furthermore, the proposed model can be used on its own, or in combination with other methods. Consequently, the presented model can be used as a quantitative criterion for determining behavioral tactics, and also can be used to mitigate potential conflicts between the investor and the investee who are considering idiosyncratic investments, determined by an interplay between power and core competency.

  5. The Advantages of Four Dimensions for Composite Higgs Models

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgart, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relationship between little Higgs and 5d composite models with identical symmetry structures. By performing an "extreme" deconstruction, one can reduce any warped composite model to a little Higgs theory on a handful of sites. This allows us to use 4d intuition and the powerful constraints of nonlinear sigma models to elucidate obscure points in the original setup. We find that the finiteness of the Higgs potential in 5d is due to the same collective symmetry breaking as in the little Higgs. We compare a 4d and a 5d model with the same symmetry to the data. Reviewing the constraints on models related to the Minimal Composite Higgs (hep-ph/0412089), we see that it has difficulty in producing acceptable values for S, T, and m_{top} simultaneously. By contrast, in a global analysis, the Minimal Moose with custodial symmetry is viable in a large region of its parameter space and suffers from no numeric tunings. We conjecture that this result is generic for 4d and 5d models with identical symmetries...

  6. Artifacts to avoid while taking advantage of top-down mass spectrometry based detection of protein S-thiolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auclair, Jared R; Salisbury, Joseph P; Johnson, Joshua L; Petsko, Gregory A; Ringe, Dagmar; Bosco, Daryl A; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Santagata, Sandro; Durham, Heather D; Agar, Jeffrey N

    2014-05-01

    Bottom-up MS studies typically employ a reduction and alkylation step that eliminates a class of PTM, S-thiolation. Given that molecular oxygen can mediate S-thiolation from reduced thiols, which are abundant in the reducing intracellular milieu, we investigated the possibility that some S-thiolation modifications are artifacts of protein preparation. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) was chosen for this case study as it has a reactive surface cysteine residue, which is readily cysteinylated in vitro. The ability of oxygen to generate S-thiolation artifacts was tested by comparing purification of SOD1 from postmortem human cerebral cortex under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. S-thiolation was ∼50% higher in aerobically processed preparations, consistent with oxygen-dependent artifactual S-thiolation. The ability of endogenous small molecule disulfides (e.g. cystine) to participate in artifactual S-thiolation was tested by blocking reactive protein cysteine residues during anaerobic homogenization. A 50-fold reduction in S-thiolation occurred indicating that the majority of S-thiolation observed aerobically was artifact. Tissue-specific artifacts were explored by comparing brain- and blood-derived protein, with remarkably more artifacts observed in brain-derived SOD1. Given the potential for such artifacts, rules of thumb for sample preparation are provided. This study demonstrates that without taking extraordinary precaution, artifactual S-thiolation of highly reactive, surface-exposed, cysteine residues can result.

  7. Cómo aprovechar el "aprendizaje colaborativo" en el aula How to take advantage of "cooperative learning" in the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Alberto Collazos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El aprendizaje colaborativo es uno de los modelos de aprendizaje que a pesar de haberse planteado desde hace un largo tiempo, nuevamente comienza a utilizarse dentro del aula de clases. No obstante su auge y la diversidad de estudios que demuestran los beneficios de este método, es muy poco lo que se sabe respecto a cómo puede llevarse a cabo dentro del aula de clases y qué elementos deben considerarse para su implementación. Este artículo presenta algunas consideraciones que deberían tenerse en cuenta, si queremos involucrar este modelo dentro de nuestro proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Para poder lograr una colaboración efectiva, es necesario que los roles, tanto de los profesores como de los estudiantes, se modifiquen, de modo que involucren una participación más activa de ambos actores dentro del proceso de aprendizaje.The Cooperative Learning is one of the learning models people are starting to use again in the classroom (although it had been discovered a long time ago. Nevertheless the summit and benefits of this method have been widely demonstrated, people don't know very much about the way to implement it into the classroom nor the elements that should be considered for its implementation. This article presents some regards to be considered if we want to include this model into our teaching-learning process. In order to reach an effective cooperation, it is necessary to modify teachers' and students' roles as well, to make both actors participate more actively into the learning process.

  8. Defying the activity-stability trade-off in enzymes: taking advantage of entropy to enhance activity and thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail

    2017-05-01

    The biotechnological applications of enzymes are limited due to the activity-stability trade-off, which implies that an increase in activity is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in protein stability. This premise is based on thermally adapted homologous enzymes where cold-adapted enzymes show high intrinsic activity linked to enhanced thermolability. In contrast, thermophilic enzymes show low activity around ambient temperatures. Nevertheless, genetically and chemically modified enzymes are beginning to show that the activity-stability trade-off can be overcome. In this review, the origin of the activity-stability trade-off, the thermodynamic basis for enhanced activity and stability, and various approaches for escaping the activity-stability trade-off are discussed. The role of entropy in enhancing both the activity and the stability of enzymes is highlighted with a special emphasis placed on the involvement of solvent water molecules. This review is concluded with suggestions for further research, which underscores the implications of these findings in the context of productivity curves, the Daniel-Danson equilibrium model, catalytic antibodies, and life on cold planets.

  9. LUPA: a European initiative taking advantage of the canine genome architecture for unravelling complex disorders in both human and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequarré, Anne-Sophie; Andersson, Leif; André, Catherine; Fredholm, Merete; Hitte, Christophe; Leeb, Tosso; Lohi, Hannes; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Georges, Michel

    2011-08-01

    The domestic dog offers a unique opportunity to explore the genetic basis of disease, morphology and behaviour. Humans share many diseases with our canine companions, making dogs an ideal model organism for comparative disease genetics. Using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be exceptionally powerful. Towards this aim, veterinarians and geneticists from 12 European countries are collaborating to collect and analyse the DNA from large cohorts of dogs suffering from a range of carefully defined diseases of relevance to human health. This project, named LUPA, has already delivered considerable results. The consortium has collaborated to develop a new high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Mutations for four monogenic diseases have been identified and the information has been utilised to find mutations in human patients. Several complex diseases have been mapped and fine mapping is underway. These findings should ultimately lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying complex diseases in both humans and their best friend.

  10. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the…

  11. Competitive Advantages of Indonesian Plywood Industry: A Perspective from Porter???s Five Forces Model

    OpenAIRE

    Makkarennu

    2015-01-01

    The Understanding industry structure is of great concern to industry strategic since depending against the competitive forces and shaping them in a company???s favor area essential to strategy. Competitive advantages provide the framework for assessing strategy and understanding the source of competitive advantage. This paper applies Porter Five Forces Model to identify the positioning of competitive advantages of plywood industry in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Qualitative research was carried...

  12. Taking a DSGE Model to the Data Meaningfully

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Franchi, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    hypothetical scenario'. The advantage of such a scenario is that it forces us to formulate all testable implications of the basic hypotheses underlying a theory model. We demonstrate that most assumptions underlying the DSGE model and, hence, the RBC model are rejected when properly tested. Leaving the RBC...

  13. 用B和B′算法求解TSP问题%Sloving TSP Question Taking Advantage of B and B′Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    B算法和B′算法都是A*算法的变种,TSP(Travelling Salesman Problem)问题为NP完全问题,无一般的多项式复杂度算法. 但采用合适的启发函数后,利用B算法或B′算法,可在多项式时间内解出. 作者利用C+ +的继承功能统一算法形式,实现一个完成TSP问题求解的通用搜索算法.%B and B′ algorithm are deformations of A. algorithm. TSP question is a NP complete question. There is no common algorithm whose time complexity equals to ploynomial. However, we can solve it taking advantage of B and B′ algorithm. An unified algorithm is put forward in this paper.

  14. The Assessment of Patient Clinical Outcome: Advantages, Models, Features of an Ideal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou’ath Hourani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of patient clinical outcome focuses on measuring various aspects of the health status of a patient who is under healthcare intervention. Patient clinical outcome assessment is a very significant process in the clinical field as it allows health care professionals to better understand the effectiveness of their health care programs and thus for enhancing the health care quality in general. It is thus vital that a high quality, informative review of current issues regarding the assessment of patient clinical outcome should be conducted. Aims & Objectives: 1 Summarizes the advantages of the assessment of patient clinical outcome; 2 reviews some of the existing patient clinical outcome assessment models namely: Simulation, Markov, Bayesian belief networks, Bayesian statistics and Conventional statistics, and Kaplan-Meier analysis models; and 3 demonstrates the desired features that should be fulfilled by a well-established ideal patient clinical outcome assessment model. Material & Methods: An integrative review of the literature has been performed using the Google Scholar to explore the field of patient clinical outcome assessment. Conclusion: This paper will directly support researchers, clinicians and health care professionals in their understanding of developments in the domain of the assessment of patient clinical outcome, thus enabling them to propose ideal assessment models.

  15. Explaining Japan's Innovation and Trade: A Model of Quality Competition and Dynamic Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Gene M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, I develop a model of dynamic comparative advantage based on endogenous innovation. Firms devote resources to R&D in order to improve the quality of high-technology products. Research successes generate profit opportunities in the world market. The model predicts that a country such as Japan, with an abundance of skilled labor and scarcity of natural resources, will specialize relatively in industrial innovation and in the production of high-technology goods. I use the model to ...

  16. Business statistics for competitive advantage with Excel 2016 basics, model building, simulation and cases

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The revised Fourth Edition of this popular textbook is redesigned with Excel 2016 to encourage business students to develop competitive advantages for use in their future careers as decision makers. Students learn to build models using logic and experience, produce statistics using Excel 2016 with shortcuts, and translate results into implications for decision makers. The textbook features new examples and assignments on global markets, including cases featuring Chipotle and Costco. Exceptional managers know that they can create competitive advantages by basing decisions on performance response under alternative scenarios, and managers need to understand how to use statistics to create such advantages. Statistics, from basic to sophisticated models, are illustrated with examples using real data such as students will encounter in their roles as managers. A number of examples focus on business in emerging global markets with particular emphasis on emerging markets in Latin America, China, and India. Results are...

  17. Comparative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jie; Jensen, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    that are typically explained from the supply-side variables, the comparative advantage of the exporting countries. A simple model is proposed and tested. The results render strong support for the relevance of supply-side factors such as natural endowments, technology, and infrastructure in explaining international...

  18. Problems and advantages of applying the e-learning model to the teaching of English

    OpenAIRE

    Shaparenko, А.; Golikova, А.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we mention some potential and noted problems and advantages of applying the e-learning model to the teaching of English. In the area of foreign language teaching a lot has been done, but there are constant attempts for new solutions. Another option for e-learning is a hybrid course.

  19. Explaining Japan's Innovation and Trade: A model of Quality Competition and Dynamic Comparive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Gene M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, I develop a model of dynamic comparative advantage based on endogenous innovation. Firms in each of two countries devote resources to R&D in order to improve the quality of high-technology products. Research successes generate profit opportunities in the world market. The model predicts that a country such as Japan, with abundance of skilled labor and scarcity of natural resources, will specialize relatively in industrial innovation and in the production of high-technology good...

  20. INNOVATIVE BUSINESS MODELS A FACTOR FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF THE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Stoilkovska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary dynamic conditions of functioning of the companies, innovativeness is a key characteristic which can enable a competitive advantage for them. Innovations mean development of new products or services, new technologies and processes, new markets, new innovative business models by supplying incremental innovations, new or different benefits from the application of the existing assortment of products and services, i.e. creating an offer of values for the consumers in a new and unconventional way. This paper presents an action research in which the current state for business climate in the Republic of Macedonia is presented; also the work of the most successful companies in the country of 2012 is promoted. The competitive advantages of the Macedonian companies and the possibility, the need for their upgrading and its use for enlargement and development of businesses are analyzed. The question concerning the level of innovativeness and creativity of the Macedonian companies is posed, as well as the application and need of encouraging innovative practices, designing innovative business models and their successful implementation in terms of creating and maintaining the competitive advantage and securing a continuous development of the companies. A hypothesis is being set in this research which connects the innovative business models with the competitive advantage of companies. The supposition has been fully proved with the results from the research.

  1. Selective advantage of tolerant cultural traits in the Axelrod-Schelling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lázaro, C.; Floría, L. M.; Moreno, Y.

    2011-05-01

    The Axelrod-Schelling model incorporates into the original Axelrod’s model of cultural dissemination the possibility that cultural agents placed in culturally dissimilar environments move to other places, the strength of this mobility being controlled by an intolerance parameter. By allowing heterogeneity in the intolerance of cultural agents, and considering it as a cultural feature, i.e., susceptible of cultural transmission (thus breaking the original symmetry of Axelrod-Schelling dynamics), we address here the question of whether tolerant or intolerant traits are more likely to become dominant in the long-term cultural dynamics. Our results show that tolerant traits possess a clear selective advantage in the framework of the Axelrod-Schelling model. We show that the reason for this selective advantage is the development, as time evolves, of a positive correlation between the number of neighbors that an agent has in its environment and its tolerant character.

  2. Taking a DSGE Model to the Data Meaningfully

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Franchi, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    model aside, we then report a structured CVAR analysis that summarizes the main features of the data in terms of long-run relations and common stochastic trends. We argue that structuring the data in this way offers a number of ‘sophisticated' stylized facts that a theory model should replicate in order......All economists say that they want to take their models to the data. But with incomplete and highly imperfect data, doing so is difficult and requires carefully matching the assumptions of the model with the statistical properties of the data. The cointegrated VAR (CVAR) offers a way of doing so...... robustification of the statistical and economic inference about persistent and less persistent movements in the data. We propose that all basic assumptions underlying the theory model should be formulated as a set of testable hypotheses on the long-run structure of a CVAR model, a so called ‘theory consistent...

  3. Advantages of a miniature pig model in research on human hereditary hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei Guo; Shi-ming Yang

    2015-01-01

    In medical laboratory animals, the pig is the closest species to human in evolution, except for primates. As an animal model, the pig is highly concerned by many scientists, including comparative biology, developmental biology, medical genetics. Rodents as animal model for human hearing defects has are poor producibility and reliability, due to differences in anatomical structure, evolutionary rate and metabolic rate, but these happens to be the advantages of the pig model. In this paper, we will summarize the application of miniature pig in the study of human hereditary deafness.

  4. Models of Success for the Romanian Economic Organizations: New Characteristics of the National Competitive Advantage Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Gelu LUPU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current period of uncertainty and economic stagnation, the national economies are trying to redefine and identify again the sources of the competitive advantage. The neo-Keynesian models are once more facing the liberal models, the austerity strategies are facing the investment strategies, the partisans of each of these opinions appreciating the opportunity of their own proposal. The results of the study come to align many of the specialists’ efforts, to contribute to identifying the optimum way of combining the resources, the mix of measures that can provide the lasting competitive advantage of the national economy, and, finally, to identify the component elements of the “Romanian diamond” of generating success and increasing external attractiveness.

  5. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Models of Organising Adult Safeguarding

    OpenAIRE

    Norrie, Caroline; Stevens, Martin; Graham, Katherine Elizabeth; Moriarty, Jo; Manthorpe, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Professionals express divergent views about whether adults at risk are best served by safeguarding work being incorporated into social workers’ casework or being undertaken by specialist workers within local area or centralised teams. This paper draws on findings from the final two phases of a three-phase study which aimed to identify a typology of different models of organising adult safeguarding and compare the advantages and disadvantages of these. We used mixed-methods to investigate four...

  6. Logoplaste : how business models can play an important role in the achievement of sustained competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Pita, Miguel Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Dissertation title: Logoplaste: How Business Models can play an important role in the achievement of Sustained Competitive Advantage Author: Miguel Vieira Pita The following dissertation gives focus to the case study of Logoplaste, a successful Portuguese company where strategy plays an important role in the short and long term success of the company. Focusing on writing a dissertation that gives highlight to the creation and development of the firm’s valuable resources and ...

  7. Rethinking Dongguan Model: from Comparative Advantage to Competitive Advantage%对东莞模式的反思:从比较优势到竞争优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭裕华

    2011-01-01

    比较优势理论关注要素成本带来的比较优势,竞争优势理论更加关注要素质量及其组合方式带来的竞争优势.东莞模式实质是区外生产要素在镇域层次上的重新组合.依靠要素投入促进增长的东莞模式难以为继,金融危机加快了东莞经济转型升级的步伐.东莞模式的特征及其成因可以生产要素为主线作探讨.东莞模式创新的三路经:要素重组、要素质量升级、制度创新.%The Comparative Advantage Theory focuses on the comparative advantage from the factory cost. The Competitive Advantage concentrates more on the competitive advantage from the factory quality and the combination mode. The Dong-guan model is essentially the recombination of the foreign factors in the township level. The Dongguan model relying on the factory input to increase the growth is unsustainable. The financial crisis promotes the pace of the transition and upgrading of Dongguan economy. The features and the causes of the Dongguan model can be explored through the clues of factors. The innovation of the Dongguan model faces three ways; factory recombination, improvement of factor quality and the innovation of institution.

  8. The effect of risk-taking behaviour in epidemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, L; Maxin, D; Eaton, L; Latham, A; Moose, A; Stenslie, S

    2015-01-01

    We study an epidemic model that incorporates risk-taking behaviour as a response to a perceived low prevalence of infection that follows from the administration of an effective treatment or vaccine. We assume that knowledge about the number of infected, recovered and vaccinated individuals has an effect in the contact rate between susceptible and infectious individuals. We show that, whenever optimism prevails in the risk behaviour response, the fate of an epidemic may change from disease clearance to disease persistence. Moreover, under certain conditions on the parameters, increasing the efficiency of vaccine and/or treatment has the unwanted effect of increasing the epidemic reproductive number, suggesting a wider range of diseases may become endemic due to risk-taking alone. These results indicate that the manner in which treatment/vaccine effectiveness is advertised can have an important influence on how the epidemic unfolds.

  9. Creating competitive poles – the sustainable model for obtaining the competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Mihaela MATEI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In a global economy that has as its own competitive advantage the transfer of information and goods around the world in real time, the annexes that surround the ecosystem are the centers for innovation founded on hedge & mutual funds, investment scenarios and the development of biotechnology (for developed countries or for the development of aircrafts or equipment used for the manufacturing of tangible goods (in emergent countries. For these to create synergy there is the idea of clusters, because they offer to the companies the possibility to change and to add dynamism to the microeconomic open system. Although globalization offers the power of global trading, clusters are found in developed countries with economies that can support multidisciplinary interactions, and their creation must be followed by the emergent countries that want to progress in this area. This paper represents a review and a research in progress on creating competitive poles (or clusters as a sustainable model for obtaining the competitive advantage.

  10. Simon's fundamental rich-get-richer model entails a dominant first-mover advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Dewhurst, David Rushing; Hazlehurst, Fletcher F.; Van Oort, Colin M.; Mitchell, Lewis; Reagan, Andrew J.; Williams, Jake Ryland; Danforth, Christopher M.

    2017-05-01

    Herbert Simon's classic rich-get-richer model is one of the simplest empirically supported mechanisms capable of generating heavy-tail size distributions for complex systems. Simon argued analytically that a population of flavored elements growing by either adding a novel element or randomly replicating an existing one would afford a distribution of group sizes with a power-law tail. Here, we show that, in fact, Simon's model does not produce a simple power-law size distribution as the initial element has a dominant first-mover advantage, and will be overrepresented by a factor proportional to the inverse of the innovation probability. The first group's size discrepancy cannot be explained away as a transient of the model, and may therefore be many orders of magnitude greater than expected. We demonstrate how Simon's analysis was correct but incomplete, and expand our alternate analysis to quantify the variability of long term rankings for all groups. We find that the expected time for a first replication is infinite, and show how an incipient group must break the mechanism to improve their odds of success. We present an example of citation counts for a specific field that demonstrates a first-mover advantage consistent with our revised view of the rich-get-richer mechanism. Our findings call for a reexamination of preceding work invoking Simon's model and provide an expanded understanding going forward.

  11. Small and large animal models in cardiac contraction research: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Janssen, Paul M L

    2014-03-01

    The mammalian heart is responsible for not only pumping blood throughout the body but also adjusting this pumping activity quickly depending upon sudden changes in the metabolic demands of the body. For the most part, the human heart is capable of performing its duties without complications; however, throughout many decades of use, at some point this system encounters problems. Research into the heart's activities during healthy states and during adverse impacts that occur in disease states is necessary in order to strategize novel treatment options to ultimately prolong and improve patients' lives. Animal models are an important aspect of cardiac research where a variety of cardiac processes and therapeutic targets can be studied. However, there are differences between the heart of a human being and an animal and depending on the specific animal, these differences can become more pronounced and in certain cases limiting. There is no ideal animal model available for cardiac research, the use of each animal model is accompanied with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. In this review, we will discuss these advantages and disadvantages of commonly used laboratory animals including mouse, rat, rabbit, canine, swine, and sheep. Since the goal of cardiac research is to enhance our understanding of human health and disease and help improve clinical outcomes, we will also discuss the role of human cardiac tissue in cardiac research. This review will focus on the cardiac ventricular contractile and relaxation kinetics of humans and animal models in order to illustrate these differences.

  12. A Twin Protection Effect? Explaining Twin Survival Advantages with a Two-Process Mortality Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrow, David J; Anderson, James J

    2016-01-01

    Twin studies that focus on the correlation in age-at-death between twin pairs have yielded important insights into the heritability and role of genetic factors in determining lifespan, but less attention is paid to the biological and social role of zygosity itself in determining survival across the entire life course. Using data from the Danish Twin Registry and the Human Mortality Database, we show that monozygotic twins have greater cumulative survival proportions at nearly every age compared to dizygotic twins and the Danish general population. We examine this survival advantage by fitting these data with a two-process mortality model that partitions survivorship patterns into extrinsic and intrinsic mortality processes roughly corresponding to acute, environmental and chronic, biological origins. We find intrinsic processes confer a survival advantage at older ages for males, while at younger ages, all monozygotic twins show a health protection effect against extrinsic death akin to a marriage protection effect. While existing research suggests an increasingly important role for genetic factors at very advanced ages, we conclude that the social closeness of monozygotic twins is a plausible driver of the survival advantage at ages <65.

  13. An Individual-Based Diploid Model Predicts Limited Conditions Under Which Stochastic Gene Expression Becomes Advantageous

    KAUST Repository

    Matsumoto, Tomotaka

    2015-11-24

    Recent studies suggest the existence of a stochasticity in gene expression (SGE) in many organisms, and its non-negligible effect on their phenotype and fitness. To date, however, how SGE affects the key parameters of population genetics are not well understood. SGE can increase the phenotypic variation and act as a load for individuals, if they are at the adaptive optimum in a stable environment. On the other hand, part of the phenotypic variation caused by SGE might become advantageous if individuals at the adaptive optimum become genetically less-adaptive, for example due to an environmental change. Furthermore, SGE of unimportant genes might have little or no fitness consequences. Thus, SGE can be advantageous, disadvantageous, or selectively neutral depending on its context. In addition, there might be a genetic basis that regulates magnitude of SGE, which is often referred to as “modifier genes,” but little is known about the conditions under which such an SGE-modifier gene evolves. In the present study, we conducted individual-based computer simulations to examine these conditions in a diploid model. In the simulations, we considered a single locus that determines organismal fitness for simplicity, and that SGE on the locus creates fitness variation in a stochastic manner. We also considered another locus that modifies the magnitude of SGE. Our results suggested that SGE was always deleterious in stable environments and increased the fixation probability of deleterious mutations in this model. Even under frequently changing environmental conditions, only very strong natural selection made SGE adaptive. These results suggest that the evolution of SGE-modifier genes requires strict balance among the strength of natural selection, magnitude of SGE, and frequency of environmental changes. However, the degree of dominance affected the condition under which SGE becomes advantageous, indicating a better opportunity for the evolution of SGE in different genetic

  14. In vitro tumor models: advantages, disadvantages, variables, and selecting the right platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriah eKatt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tumor models have provided important tools for cancer research and serve as low-cost screening platforms for drug therapies; however, cancer recurrence remains largely unchecked due to metastasis, which is the cause of the majority of cancer related deaths. The need for an improved understanding of the progression and treatment of cancer has pushed for increased accuracy and physiological relevance of in vitro tumor models. As a result, in vitro tumor models have concurrently increased in complexity and their output parameters further diversified, since these models have progressed beyond simple proliferation, invasion, and cytotoxicity screens and have begun recapitulating critical steps in the metastatic cascade, such as intravasation, extravasation, angiogenesis, matrix remodeling, and tumor cell dormancy. Advances in tumor cell biology, 3D cell culture, tissue engineering, biomaterials, microfabrication, and microfluidics have enabled rapid development of new in vitro tumor models that often incorporate multiple cell types, extracellular matrix materials, and spatial and temporal introduction of soluble factors. Other innovations include the incorporation of perfusable microvessels to simulate the tumor vasculature and model intravasation and extravasation. The drive towards precision medicine has increased interest in adapting in vitro tumor models for patient-specific therapies, clinical management, and assessment of metastatic potential. Here, we review the wide range of current in vitro tumor models and summarize their advantages, disadvantages, and suitability in modeling specific aspects of the metastatic cascade and drug treatment.

  15. Understanding the Drivers of Economic Growth: Grounding Endogenous Economic Growth Models in Resource-Advantage Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelby D. Hunt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Foss (2012 provides an informed and informative comment on my article “Trust, Personal Moral Codes, and the Resource-Advantage Theory of Competition: Explaining Productivity, Economic Growth, and Wealth Creation” (Hunt, 2012. In general, his comment is highly supportive of both the theory and the arguments developed in my article. He does, however, raise certain issues that need to be addressed. These issues relate to the concept of total factor productivity, the role of institutions in promoting economic growth, and the importance of understanding how transaction costs impact entrepreneurship and economic growth. This reply focuses on his discussion of growth economics and endogenous economic growth models.

  16. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  17. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  18. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  19. Advantages of multigrid methods for certifying the accuracy of PDE modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forester, C. K.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical techniques for assessing and certifying the accuracy of the modeling of partial differential equations (PDE) to the user's specifications are analyzed. Examples of the certification process with conventional techniques are summarized for the three dimensional steady state full potential and the two dimensional steady Navier-Stokes equations using fixed grid methods (FG). The advantages of the Full Approximation Storage (FAS) scheme of the multigrid technique of A. Brandt compared with the conventional certification process of modeling PDE are illustrated in one dimension with the transformed potential equation. Inferences are drawn for how MG will improve the certification process of the numerical modeling of two and three dimensional PDE systems. Elements of the error assessment process that are common to FG and MG are analyzed.

  20. Advantages and limitations of three-dimensional geological modelling for cultural heritage management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    Developments in collection and digitisation of geoarchaeological data now allow geoscientists to develop meaningful 3D spatial models of the subsurface. Geological models of the subsurface have been constructed for regional (urban) areas to predict ground conditions and reduce risk and uncertainty in urban planning on a regional scale. Risk assessment at the smaller scale of archaeological sites, for example for in-situ preservation, not only requires delimitation of cultural deposits with respect to natural geological formations, but also systematic collection, interpretation and visualisation of intra-formational geoarchaeological information. The Norwegian Standard for archaeological monitoring of cultural deposits (2009) provides the framework for systematic data collection, interpretation and monitoring over time. It enables an objective evaluation of variations between e.g. preservation state and environmental preservation conditions, a.o. based on soil moisture content, groundwater level and quality variations, and temperature variations within cultural deposits. The standard allows comparison of conditions both within and between archaeological sites. The inclusion of this monitoring data within a geological model of the site results in an integrated geoarchaeological model that can be used for both ground prediction and risk assessment with respect to for example in-situ preservation. However, archaeological sites and their surroundings, particularly in urban areas, are often characterised by large heterogeneities and a complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic deposits. At a certain level of complexity and spatial scale, modelling efforts will go beyond the advantages that can be gained. This presentation examines the advantages and the limitations of three-dimensional geological modelling at small scale urban archaeological sites for cultural heritage management.

  1. Advantages of the Silkworm As an Animal Model for Developing Novel Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthee, Suresh; Paudel, Atmika; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    The demand for novel antibiotics to combat the global spread of multi drug-resistant pathogens continues to grow. Pathogenic bacteria and fungi that cause fatal human infections can also kill silkworms and the infected silkworms can be cured by the same antibiotics used to treat infections in the clinic. As an invertebrate model, silkworm model is characterized by its convenience, low cost, no ethical issues. The presence of conserved immune response and similar pharmacokinetics compared to mammals make silkworm infection model suitable to examine the therapeutic effectiveness of antimicrobial agents. Based on this, we utilized silkworm bacterial infection model to screen the therapeutic effectiveness of various microbial culture broths and successfully identified a therapeutically effective novel antibiotic, lysocin E, which has a novel mode of action of binding to menaquinone, thus leading to membrane damage and bactericidal activity. The similar approach to screen potential antibiotics resulted in the identification of other therapeutically effective novel antibiotics, such as nosokomycin and ASP2397 (VL-2397). In this regard, we propose that the silkworm antibiotic screening model is very effective for identifying novel antibiotics. In this review, we summarize the advantages of the silkworm model and propose that the utilization of silkworm infection model will facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutically effective antimicrobial agents.

  2. History, ethics, advantages and limitations of experimental models for hepatic ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Seok Ling; Gravante, Gianpiero; Metcalfe, Matthew S; Dennison, Ashley R

    2013-01-14

    Numerous techniques developed in medicine require careful evaluation to determine their indications, limitations and potential side effects prior to their clinical use. At present this generally involves the use of animal models which is undesirable from an ethical standpoint, requires complex and time-consuming authorization, and is very expensive. This process is exemplified in the development of hepatic ablation techniques, starting experiments on explanted livers and progressing to safety and efficacy studies in living animals prior to clinical studies. The two main approaches used are ex vivo isolated non-perfused liver models and in vivo animal models. Ex vivo non perfused models are less expensive, easier to obtain but not suitable to study the heat sink effect or experiments requiring several hours. In vivo animal models closely resemble clinical subjects but often are expensive and have small sample sizes due to ethical guidelines. Isolated perfused ex vivo liver models have been used to study drug toxicity, liver failure, organ transplantation and hepatic ablation and combine advantages of both previous models.

  3. Advantages of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic modelling in aquatic ecotoxicology and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashauer, Roman; Escher, Beate I

    2010-11-01

    Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) models simulate the processes that lead to toxicity at the level of organisms over time. These dynamic simulation models quantify toxicity, but more importantly they also provide a conceptual framework to better understand the causes for variability in different species' sensitivity to the same compound as well as causes for different toxicity of different compounds to the same species. Thus TK-TD models bring advantages for very diverse ecotoxicological questions as they can address two major challenges: the large number of species that are potentially affected and the large number of chemicals of concern. The first important benefit of TK-TD models is the role that they can play to formalize established knowledge about toxicity of compounds, sensitivity of organisms, organism recovery times and carry-over toxicity. The second important aspect of TK-TD models is their ability to simulate temporal aspects of toxicity which makes them excellent extrapolation tools for risk assessment of fluctuating or pulsed exposures to pollutants. We provide a general introduction to the concept of TK-TD modelling for environmental scientists and discuss opportunities as well as current limitations.

  4. Initiative-taking, Improvisational Capability and Business Model Innovation in Emerging Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yangfeng

    Business model innovation plays a very important role in developing competitive advantage when multinational small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from developed country enter into emerging markets because of the large contextual distances or gaps between the emerging and developed economies....... Many prior researches have shown that the foreign subsidiaries play important role in shaping the overall strategy of the parent company. However, little is known about how subsidiary specifically facilitates business model innovation (BMI) in emerging markets. Adopting the method of comparative...... innovation in emerging markets. We find that high initiative-taking and strong improvisational capability can accelerate the business model innovation. Our research contributes to the literatures on international and strategic entrepreneurship....

  5. The peer model advantage in infants’ imitation of familiar gestures performed by differently aged models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert eZmyj

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on infant´s imitation of differently aged models, which has predominantly studied object- related actions, has so far lead to mixed evidence. Whereas some studies reported an increased likelihood of imitating peer models in contrast to adult models, other studies reported the opposite pattern of results. In the present study, 14-month-old infants were presented with four familiar gestures (e.g., clapping that were demonstrated by differently aged televised models (peer, older child, adult. Results revealed that infants were more likely to imitate the peer model than the older child or the adult. This result is discussed with respect to a social function of imitation and the cognitive mechanism of imitating familiar behavior.

  6. Advantages and challenges in coupling an ideal gas to atomistic models in adaptive resolution simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreis, K.; Fogarty, A. C.; Kremer, K.; Potestio, R.

    2015-09-01

    In adaptive resolution simulations, molecular fluids are modeled employing different levels of resolution in different subregions of the system. When traveling from one region to the other, particles change their resolution on the fly. One of the main advantages of such approaches is the computational efficiency gained in the coarse-grained region. In this respect the best coarse-grained system to employ in the low resolution region would be the ideal gas, making intermolecular force calculations in the coarse-grained subdomain redundant. In this case, however, a smooth coupling is challenging due to the high energetic imbalance between typical liquids and a system of non-interacting particles. In the present work, we investigate this approach, using as a test case the most biologically relevant fluid, water. We demonstrate that a successful coupling of water to the ideal gas can be achieved with current adaptive resolution methods, and discuss the issues that remain to be addressed.

  7. Advantages of a mechanistic codon substitution model for evolutionary analysis of protein-coding sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzo Miyazawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A mechanistic codon substitution model, in which each codon substitution rate is proportional to the product of a codon mutation rate and the average fixation probability depending on the type of amino acid replacement, has advantages over nucleotide, amino acid, and empirical codon substitution models in evolutionary analysis of protein-coding sequences. It can approximate a wide range of codon substitution processes. If no selection pressure on amino acids is taken into account, it will become equivalent to a nucleotide substitution model. If mutation rates are assumed not to depend on the codon type, then it will become essentially equivalent to an amino acid substitution model. Mutation at the nucleotide level and selection at the amino acid level can be separately evaluated. RESULTS: The present scheme for single nucleotide mutations is equivalent to the general time-reversible model, but multiple nucleotide changes in infinitesimal time are allowed. Selective constraints on the respective types of amino acid replacements are tailored to each gene in a linear function of a given estimate of selective constraints. Their good estimates are those calculated by maximizing the respective likelihoods of empirical amino acid or codon substitution frequency matrices. Akaike and Bayesian information criteria indicate that the present model performs far better than the other substitution models for all five phylogenetic trees of highly-divergent to highly-homologous sequences of chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes. It is also shown that multiple nucleotide changes in infinitesimal time are significant in long branches, although they may be caused by compensatory substitutions or other mechanisms. The variation of selective constraint over sites fits the datasets significantly better than variable mutation rates, except for 10 slow-evolving nuclear genes of 10 mammals. An critical finding for phylogenetic analysis is that

  8. Capture-recapture survival models taking account of transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradel, R.; Hines, J.E.; Lebreton, J.D.; Nichols, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of transient animals, common enough in natural populations, invalidates the estimation of survival by traditional capture- recapture (CR) models designed for the study of residents only. Also, the study of transit is interesting in itself. We thus develop here a class of CR models to describe the presence of transients. In order to assess the merits of this approach we examme the bias of the traditional survival estimators in the presence of transients in relation to the power of different tests for detecting transients. We also compare the relative efficiency of an ad hoc approach to dealing with transients that leaves out the first observation of each animal. We then study a real example using lazuli bunting (Passerina amoena) and, in conclusion, discuss the design of an experiment aiming at the estimation of transience. In practice, the presence of transients is easily detected whenever the risk of bias is high. The ad hoc approach, which yields unbiased estimates for residents only, is satisfactory in a time-dependent context but poorly efficient when parameters are constant. The example shows that intermediate situations between strict 'residence' and strict 'transience' may exist in certain studies. Yet, most of the time, if the study design takes into account the expected length of stay of a transient, it should be possible to efficiently separate the two categories of animals.

  9. Assessment of potential advantages of relevant ions for particle therapy: A model based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grün, Rebecca, E-mail: r.gruen@gsi.de [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences Gießen, Gießen 35390 (Germany); Medical Faculty of Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg 35032 (Germany); Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Zink, Klemens [Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences Gießen, Gießen 35390, Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Marburg 35043 (Germany); Durante, Marco [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291, Germany and Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt 64289 (Germany); Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita [Medical Faculty of Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg 35032, Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Marburg 35043 (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Different ion types offer different physical and biological advantages for therapeutic applications. The purpose of this work is to assess the advantages of the most commonly used ions in particle therapy, i.e., carbon ({sup 12}C), helium ({sup 4}He), and protons ({sup 1}H) for different treatment scenarios. Methods: A treatment planning analysis based on idealized target geometries was performed using the treatment planning software TRiP98. For the prediction of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that is required for biological optimization in treatment planning the local effect model (LEM IV) was used. To compare the three ion types, the peak-to-entrance ratio (PER) was determined for the physical dose (PER{sub PHY} {sub S}), the RBE (PER{sub RBE}), and the RBE-weighted dose (PER{sub BIO}) resulting for different dose-levels, field configurations, and tissue types. Further, the dose contribution to artificial organs at risk (OAR) was assessed and a comparison of the dose distribution for the different ion types was performed for a patient with chordoma of the skull base. Results: The study showed that the advantages of the ions depend on the physical and biological properties and the interplay of both. In the case of protons, the consideration of a variable RBE instead of the clinically applied generic RBE of 1.1 indicates an advantage in terms of an increased PER{sub RBE} for the analyzed configurations. Due to the fact that protons show a somewhat better PER{sub PHY} {sub S} compared to helium and carbon ions whereas helium shows a higher PER{sub RBE} compared to protons, both protons and helium ions show a similar RBE-weighted dose distribution. Carbon ions show the largest variation of the PER{sub RBE} with tissue type and a benefit for radioresistant tumor types due to their higher LET. Furthermore, in the case of a two-field irradiation, an additional gain in terms of PER{sub BIO} is observed when using an orthogonal field configuration

  10. Behavioral Advantages of the First-Person Perspective Model for Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Rui; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Visuomotor information may be better conveyed through a first-person perspective than through a third-person perspective. However, few reports have shown a clear behavioral advantage of the first-person perspective because of the confounding factor of spatial stimulus-response compatibility. Most imitation studies have utilized visuospatial imitation tasks in which participants use the same body part as that used by the model, identified by its spatial position (i.e., the response action is predefined). In such studies, visuomotor information conveyed by the model does not appear to facilitate imitative behavior. We hypothesized that the use of the first-person perspective would facilitate more efficient imitative behavior than a third-person perspective when participants are asked to choose and reproduce an action identical to that of the model rather than to select the same body part; this task requires the analysis of both visual and motor information from the model rather than a simple assessment of spatial information. To test this hypothesis, we asked 15 participants to observe a model from two perspectives (first-person and third-person) with left or right hand laterality and to lift their index finger with an identical movement type (extension or flexion) as quickly as possible. Response latencies were shorter and fewer errors were made in trials using the first-person perspective than in those using the third-person perspective, regardless of whether the model used the right or left hand. These findings suggest that visuomotor information from the first-person perspective, without confounding effects of spatial information, facilitates efficient imitative behavior.

  11. Open Access Papers Have a Greater Citation Advantage in the Author-Pays Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Sullo

    2016-03-01

    ; they also verified that the journals were using the APC model by visiting each journal’s website. Because of the large number of subject areas of the identified journals, the researchers decided to classify the journals into four broader categories: Health Sciences, Life Sciences, Natural Sciences, and Social Sciences and Humanities. To calculate the impact of OA papers, citation per paper (CPP was calculated for each subject area. Impact values were calculated on an annual basis as well. The researchers calculated the citation advantage of OA articles as the “difference between the open access and toll access impacts in terms of a percentage of the latter” (p. 585. Main Results – The authors categorized their findings according to three themes: the growth of APC funded OA papers, the number of OA papers by discipline, and citation advantage of OA vs. TA in general and by subject area. Together, Springer and Elsevier published 18,654 OA papers in the APC journals; this number represents 4.7% of the 396,760 papers published between 2007 and 2011. While the number of OA and TA papers has been growing annually, the number of OA papers has been growing more rapidly compared to the TA papers. In terms of subject areas, Life Sciences had the largest number of OA and TA papers (184,315, followed by Health Sciences (149,341, Natural Sciences (121,274, and Social Sciences and Humanities (42,824. Natural Sciences had the most OA papers (5.7% in terms of the number of papers in this subject area being OA papers, followed by Social Sciences and Humanities (5.2%, Health Sciences (4.6% and Life Sciences (3.6%. Overall, the researchers found that the impact values of OA papers were larger than those of the TA papers for each year examined. In considering subject areas, in all disciplines except Life Sciences, the most highly cited paper in the field is an OA paper. In Life Sciences, the most highly cited TA paper had 2,215 citations, compared to the OA paper, which had 1

  12. The IT Advantage Assessment Model: Applying an Expanded Value Chain Model to Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Walter L.; Stylianou, Antonis C.

    2004-01-01

    Academia faces an uncertain future as the 21st century unfolds. New demands, discerning students, increased competition from non-traditional competitors are just a few of the forces demanding a response. The use of information technology (IT) in academia has not kept pace with its use in industry. What has been lacking is a model for the strategic…

  13. The IT Advantage Assessment Model: Applying an Expanded Value Chain Model to Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Walter L.; Stylianou, Antonis C.

    2004-01-01

    Academia faces an uncertain future as the 21st century unfolds. New demands, discerning students, increased competition from non-traditional competitors are just a few of the forces demanding a response. The use of information technology (IT) in academia has not kept pace with its use in industry. What has been lacking is a model for the strategic…

  14. Simon's fundamental rich-gets-richer model entails a dominant first-mover advantage

    CERN Document Server

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Hazlehurst, Fletcher F; Van Oort, Colin M; Mitchell, Lewis; Reagan, Andrew J; Williams, Jake Ryland; Danforth, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Herbert Simon's classic rich-gets-richer model is one of the simplest empirically supported mechanisms capable of generating heavy-tail size distributions for complex systems. Simon argued analytically that a population of flavored elements growing by either adding a novel element or randomly replicating an existing one would afford a distribution of group sizes with a power-law tail. Here, we show that, in fact, Simon's model does not produce a simple power law size distribution as the initial element has a dominant first-mover advantage, and will be overrepresented by a factor proportional to the inverse of the innovation probability. The first group's size discrepancy cannot be explained away as a transient of the model, and may therefore be many orders of magnitude greater than expected. We demonstrate how Simon's analysis was correct but incomplete, and expand our alternate analysis to quantify the variability of long term rankings for all groups. We find that the expected time for a first replication is...

  15. Economic advantages of applying model predictive control to distributed energy resources: The case of micro-CHP systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing presence of distributed energy resources, information and intelligence in the electricity infrastructure increases the possibilities for larger economic efficiency of power systems. This work shows the possible cost advantages of applying a model predictive control (MPC) strategy to

  16. Taking advantage: high-affinity B cells in the germinal center have lower death rates, but similar rates of division, compared to low-affinity cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Shannon M; Khalil, Ashraf; Uduman, Mohamed; Hershberg, Uri; Louzoun, Yoram; Haberman, Ann M; Kleinstein, Steven H; Shlomchik, Mark J

    2009-12-01

    B lymphocytes producing high-affinity Abs are critical for protection from extracellular pathogens, such as bacteria and parasites. The process by which high-affinity B cells are selected during the immune response has never been elucidated. Although it has been shown that high-affinity cells directly outcompete low-affinity cells in the germinal center (GC), whether there are also intrinsic differences between these cells has not been addressed. It could be that higher affinity cells proliferate more rapidly or are more likely to enter cell cycle, thereby outgrowing lower affinity cells. Alternatively, higher affinity cells could be relatively more resistant to cell death in the GC. By comparing high- and low-affinity B cells for the same Ag, we show here that low-affinity cells have an intrinsically higher death rate than do cells of higher affinity, even in the absence of competition. This suggests that selection in the GC reaction is due at least in part to the control of survival of higher affinity B cells and not by a proliferative advantage conferred upon these cells compared with lower affinity B cells. Control over survival rather than proliferation of low- and high-affinity B cells in the GC allows greater diversity not only in the primary response but also in the memory response.

  17. Recombinant Ag85B vaccine by taking advantage of characteristics of human parainfluenza type 2 virus vector showed Mycobacteria-specific immune responses by intranasal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Matsubara, Akihiro; Kawano, Mitsuo; Mizuno, Satoru; Okamura, Tomotaka; Tsujimura, Yusuke; Inada, Hiroyasu; Nosaka, Tetsuya; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro

    2014-03-26

    Viral vectors are promising vaccine candidates for eliciting suitable Ag-specific immune response. Since Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) normally enters hosts via the mucosal surface of the lung, the best defense against Mtb is mucosal vaccines that are capable of inducing both systemic and mucosal immunity. Although Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin is the only licensed tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, its efficacy against adult pulmonary forms of TB is variable. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of a novel mucosal TB vaccine using recombinant human parainfluenza type 2 virus (rhPIV2) as a vaccine vector in BALB/c mice. Replication-incompetent rhPIV2 (M gene-eliminated) expressing Ag85B (rhPIV2-Ag85B) was constructed by reverse genetics technology. Intranasal administration of rhPIV2-Ag85B induced Mtb-specific immune responses, and the vaccinated mice showed a substantial reduction in the number of CFU of Mtb in lungs and spleens. Unlike other viral vaccine vectors, the immune responses against Ag85B induced by rhPIV2-Ag85B immunization had an advantage over that against the viral vector. In addition, it was revealed that rhPIV2-Ag85B in itself has an adjuvant activity through the retinoic acid-inducible gene I receptor. These findings provide further evidence for the possibility of rhPIV2-Ag85B as a novel TB vaccine.

  18. The Relationships among Leadership, Entrepreneurial Mindset, Innovation and Competitive Advantage (A Conceptual Model of Logistics Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, improvement of competitive advantage is an important and urgent issue facing logistics service companies in Indonesia. Some previous researches showed that to improve the competitive advantage could be conducted through improvement of leadership, entrepreneurial mindset and innovation variables. This research intended to recognize relationships among the variables. The research used causal-explanatory method. The results of research encompass a conceptual model, status of each variable and hypotheses. The conceptual model could be further verified through verification research.

  19. Absolute advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can a

  20. Accumulating approach to the life-cycle pension model: practical advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Azoulay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we make an effort to enhance the practical advantages of the life-cycle pension model. We observe that previous studies are based on a “switching”approach, that is, on the assumption that when a pension fund member reaches a certain age, his accumulated savings are fully switched to another fund with a lower risk profile; we suggest an “accumulating” approach, according to which, at the same age, the member’s previously accumulated wealth continues to be invested in the same fund, while his new regular pension contributions start being directed to another (less risky fund. We consider a hypothetical (average Israeli employee, analyze two age-dependent life-cycle investment distributions of his pension savings, and perform a comparison between the two approaches to the life-cycle model by employing an estimation-based and a simulation-based technique. The results demonstrate that the “accumulating” approach provides: (i higher estimated annualized real returns and real accumulated savings; (ii significantly higher simulated mean and median values of real accumulated savings. Moreover, we document that, though the “accumulating” approach increases the standard deviation of total savings, it does not lead to critically low pension wealth levels even for relatively unfavorable sequences of financial assets’ returns. Therefore, we conclude that the “accumulating” approach to the life-cycle model has a potential significantly to increase pension fund members’ total accumulated wealth relatively to the common “switching” approach, without significantly increasing the members’ risk.

  1. Model selection and model averaging in phylogenetics: advantages of akaike information criterion and bayesian approaches over likelihood ratio tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, David; Buckley, Thomas R

    2004-10-01

    Model selection is a topic of special relevance in molecular phylogenetics that affects many, if not all, stages of phylogenetic inference. Here we discuss some fundamental concepts and techniques of model selection in the context of phylogenetics. We start by reviewing different aspects of the selection of substitution models in phylogenetics from a theoretical, philosophical and practical point of view, and summarize this comparison in table format. We argue that the most commonly implemented model selection approach, the hierarchical likelihood ratio test, is not the optimal strategy for model selection in phylogenetics, and that approaches like the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian methods offer important advantages. In particular, the latter two methods are able to simultaneously compare multiple nested or nonnested models, assess model selection uncertainty, and allow for the estimation of phylogenies and model parameters using all available models (model-averaged inference or multimodel inference). We also describe how the relative importance of the different parameters included in substitution models can be depicted. To illustrate some of these points, we have applied AIC-based model averaging to 37 mitochondrial DNA sequences from the subgenus Ohomopterus(genus Carabus) ground beetles described by Sota and Vogler (2001).

  2. Bridging the gap between science and public health: taking advantage of tobacco control experience in Brazil to inform policies to counter risk factors for non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa e Silva, Vera Luiza; Pantani, Daniela; Andreis, Mônica; Sparks, Robert; Pinsky, Ilana

    2013-08-01

    The historical and economic involvement of Brazil with tobacco, as a major producer and exporter, was considered an insurmountable obstacle to controlling the consumption of this product. Nevertheless, the country was able to achieve significant progress in implementing public policies and to take an international leadership position, meeting its constitutional commitment to protect public health. In this paper we provide a brief historical overview of tobacco control (TC) in Brazil, and analyse the factors that contributed to the major decline in tobacco consumption in the country over the last 20 years, as well as identify the challenges that had to be overcome and those still at play. The Brazilian case demonstrates how cross-sectorial collaborations among health-related groups that capitalize on their respective strengths and capacities can help to influence public policy and overcome industry and population resistance to change. Although Brazil still lags behind some leading TC nations, the country has an extensive collaborative TC network that was built over time and continues to focus upon this issue. The tobacco experience can serve as an example for other fields, such as alcoholic beverages, of how networks can be formed to influence the legislative process and the development of public policies. Brazilian statistics show that problems related to non-communicable diseases are a pressing public health issue, and advocacy groups, policy-makers and government departments can benefit from tobacco control history to fashion their own strategies. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Feline Foamy Virus-Based Vectors: Advantages of an Authentic Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Löchelt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New-generation retroviral vectors have potential applications in vaccination and gene therapy. Foamy viruses are particularly interesting as vectors, because they are not associated to any disease. Vector research is mainly based on primate foamy viruses (PFV, but cats are an alternative animal model, due to their smaller size and the existence of a cognate feline foamy virus (FFV. The potential of replication-competent (RC FFV vectors for vaccination and replication-deficient (RD FFV-based vectors for gene delivery purposes has been studied over the past years. In this review, the key achievements and functional evaluation of the existing vectors from in vitro cell culture systems to out-bred cats will be described. The data presented here demonstrate the broad application spectrum of FFV-based vectors, especially in pathogen-specific prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination using RD vectors in cats and in classical gene delivery. In the cat-based system, FFV-based vectors provide an advantageous platform to evaluate and optimize the applicability, efficacy and safety of foamy virus (FV vectors, especially the understudied aspect of FV cell and organ tropism.

  4. Fortune Favours the Bold: An Agent-Based Model Reveals Adaptive Advantages of Overconfidence in War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dominic D. P.; Weidmann, Nils B.; Cederman, Lars-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Overconfidence has long been considered a cause of war. Like other decision-making biases, overconfidence seems detrimental because it increases the frequency and costs of fighting. However, evolutionary biologists have proposed that overconfidence may also confer adaptive advantages: increasing ambition, resolve, persistence, bluffing opponents, and winning net payoffs from risky opportunities despite occasional failures. We report the results of an agent-based model of inter-state conflict, which allows us to evaluate the performance of different strategies in competition with each other. Counter-intuitively, we find that overconfident states predominate in the population at the expense of unbiased or underconfident states. Overconfident states win because: (1) they are more likely to accumulate resources from frequent attempts at conquest; (2) they are more likely to gang up on weak states, forcing victims to split their defences; and (3) when the decision threshold for attacking requires an overwhelming asymmetry of power, unbiased and underconfident states shirk many conflicts they are actually likely to win. These “adaptive advantages” of overconfidence may, via selection effects, learning, or evolved psychology, have spread and become entrenched among modern states, organizations and decision-makers. This would help to explain the frequent association of overconfidence and war, even if it no longer brings benefits today. PMID:21731627

  5. Risk taking and the triarchic model of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Robert J; Smith, Chloe; Gray, Nicola S

    2017-03-15

    High risk behaviors, such as aggression, criminality, sexual promiscuity, drug use, and gambling, are often associated with psychopathic traits. Such behaviors might arise due to a lack of fear of the consequences (boldness) or due to impulsive actions (disinhibition). We examined risk taking behavior in the laboratory setting using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), where an individual can inflate a balloon to earn a reward, but will lose this accumulated reward if the balloon bursts. The task reflects the willingness to take risks under conditions where the risk-taking behavior is understood and is made clear to the individual. BART performance was measured in a mixed community and offender sample, and psychopathy was characterized via the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy, which proposes that psychopathy is a combination of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Total psychopathy score was correlated with greater risk taking on the BART, and this effect was mainly due to the Boldness scale rather than the Meanness or Disinhibition scales. These relationships were not moderated by the nature of the sample (offender vs. community) or by gender. Individuals with high psychopathy scores appear more willing to take risks on this simple laboratory task, and this behavior appears due to boldness rather than being related to an impulsive disposition.

  6. Investigation the impact of outsourcing on competitive advantages' creation by considering Porter's model; Case study: Zamyad Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Kasrai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitive advantage is an important factor in boosting companies' success and is considered more emphatically in management and strategic marketing literature in recent years. There are many different ideas about effective factors in creation of competitive advantages. Also fast rate of change in business, is forcing CEOs to utilize some strategies, which have the best impact on current organizational circumstances and the future trend of investigation in organizational trades. Outsourcing is one of the best strategies, which are widely utilized by CEOs in different organizations. Many managers believe that outsourcing is the solitary way for preserving the balance of organization in 21 century. Based on Porter competitive advantage model, there are three strategies, which lead a company to reach competitive advantage. These strategies are cost leadership, differentiation strategy and segmentation strategy. In this article, we are investigating outsourcing effects on creation of competitive advantages through Porter model in an automotive factory in Iran. We design a questionnaire for gathering necessary information about the role of outsourcing in creation of different strategies as competitive advantages in managers' point of view. We analyze the questionnaires and implement a goodness of fit test to recognize the distribution of data and the statistical method. Preliminary results show that nonparametric statistic methods can be utilized for testing our hypothesis. We use a Wilcoxon test to consider the null hypothesis and a Friedman test to estimate the rank of means. Our findings verify an undeniable effect of outsourcing on creation of competitive advantage and the ranking list is presented.

  7. THE LINKAGE BETWEEN LIS AND RBV FOR SUSTAINED COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: AN INTEGRATED CONCEPTUAL MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Susana; Ferreira, João

    2007-01-01

    An important factor that guarantees a persistent competitive advantage is the sustainability of the firm’s capabilities or their core competences. These capabilities should form the basic support of firm’s strategy. Several authors point out the importance of the information systems (IS) for firm competitive advantage. The main tenet of this paper is to define a coherent theoretical framework of reference which will lead to a broader understanding of the relationship between Logistics Informa...

  8. Deleterious effects of recombination and possible nonrecombinatorial advantages of sex in a fungal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villavicencio, M; Debets, A J M; Slakhorst, M; Giraud, T; Schoustra, S E

    2013-09-01

    Why sexual reproduction is so prevalent in nature remains a major question in evolutionary biology. Most of the proposed advantages of sex rely on the benefits obtained from recombination. However, it is still unclear whether the conditions under which these recombinatorial benefits would be sufficient to maintain sex in the short term are met in nature. Our study addresses a largely overlooked hypothesis, proposing that sex could be maintained in the short term by advantages due to functions linked with sex, but not related to recombination. These advantages would be so essential that sex could not be lost in the short term. Here, we used the fungus Aspergillus nidulans to experimentally test predictions of this hypothesis. Specifically, we were interested in (i) the short-term deleterious effects of recombination, (ii) possible nonrecombinatorial advantages of sex particularly through the elimination of mutations and (iii) the outcrossing rate under choice conditions in a haploid fungus able to reproduce by both outcrossing and haploid selfing. Our results were consistent with our hypotheses: we found that (i) recombination can be strongly deleterious in the short term, (ii) sexual reproduction between individuals derived from the same clonal lineage provided nonrecombinatorial advantages, likely through a selection arena mechanism, and (iii) under choice conditions, outcrossing occurs in a homothallic species, although at low rates.

  9. "Let's get physical": advantages of a physical model over 3D computer models and textbooks in learning imaging anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Daniel; Williams, Sarah B; Lam, Richard; Weller, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information plays an important part in medical and veterinary education. Appreciating complex 3D spatial relationships requires a strong foundational understanding of anatomy and mental 3D visualization skills. Novel learning resources have been introduced to anatomy training to achieve this. Objective evaluation of their comparative efficacies remains scarce in the literature. This study developed and evaluated the use of a physical model in demonstrating the complex spatial relationships of the equine foot. It was hypothesized that the newly developed physical model would be more effective for students to learn magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy of the foot than textbooks or computer-based 3D models. Third year veterinary medicine students were randomly assigned to one of three teaching aid groups (physical model; textbooks; 3D computer model). The comparative efficacies of the three teaching aids were assessed through students' abilities to identify anatomical structures on MR images. Overall mean MRI assessment scores were significantly higher in students utilizing the physical model (86.39%) compared with students using textbooks (62.61%) and the 3D computer model (63.68%) (P computer model groups (P = 0.685). Student feedback was also more positive in the physical model group compared with both the textbook and 3D computer model groups. Our results suggest that physical models may hold a significant advantage over alternative learning resources in enhancing visuospatial and 3D understanding of complex anatomical architecture, and that 3D computer models have significant limitations with regards to 3D learning.

  10. Construct Legal Norm of Secret Investigation, Thinking Way on the Crime by Taking Advantage of Duty%秘密侦查的法规范建构——职务犯罪视野的思索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜涛

    2011-01-01

    Secrete investigation has an important value in the investigation of Crime-cases by taking advantage of duty. The formal amendment Clauses concern of Criminal Procedure Law should extend the applicable scope of secrete investigation in the crime-cases by taking advantage of duty,not only it is applied to all of the crime-cases by taking advantage of duty, but also secret investigation can be applied to find the facts of crimes before placing a case on file,and collect some evidences after placing a case on file.%不得强迫自证其罪原则的确立,意味着对职务犯罪案件的侦查能力与手段提出了新要求,秘密侦查因能够有效瓦解犯罪人之间基于囚徒困境而订立的攻守同盟,因而在职务犯罪案件侦查中具有重要价值。正式刑事诉讼法修正案应该扩大秘密侦查在职务犯罪案件中的适用范围,不仅应将其适用于所有职务犯罪案件,而且立案之前可以用秘密侦查发现犯罪线索,在立案之后可以用秘密侦查收集犯罪证据。同时,职务犯罪的秘密侦查应该实行司法令状主义。

  11. Deleterious effects of recombination and possible nonrecombinatorial advantages of sex in a fungal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Villavicencio, M.; Debets, A.J.M.; Slakhorst-Wandel, S.M.; Giraud, T.; Schoustra, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Why sexual reproduction is so prevalent in nature remains a major question in evolutionary biology. Most of the proposed advantages of sex rely on the benefits obtained from recombination. However, it is still unclear whether the conditions under which these recombinatorial benefits would be suffici

  12. Taking Advantage of a Desperate Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANTOINE ROSET

    2011-01-01

    For a traveler from Beijing,accustomed to the semiarid expanses of the northem plains,arriving in Sichuan Province looks somewhat like entering a mirage.A Land of Cockaigne,bathed in countless streams running from the Himalayas to the Chengdu Plain,land of mixture of Han and minorities,and door to the Tibetan world,Sichuan is also one of the most important conservatories for fauna and flora in China.Roiling across the plain toward Beichuan Qiang Autonomous County,one embraces a myriad of fields,from which emerge the curved shapes of farmers engaged in transplanting the young rice,while wading birds fish in an irrigation canal.

  13. Cigarette promotional offers: who takes advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria M; White, Martha M; Freeman, Karen; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Pierce, John P

    2006-03-01

    Promotional offers on cigarettes (e.g., dollar-off, multipack discounts) composed the largest share of tobacco industry marketing expenditures, totaling $8.9 billion, or 72% of the total budget in 2002. Internal industry documents indicate that young adults, potential quitters, and other price-sensitive groups are the targets of these marketing tactics. How effective they are in actually reaching these groups in the general population of smokers has not yet been investigated. Data were from 4618 current smokers responding to the large, random-digit-dialed population-based 2002 California Tobacco Survey. The characteristics were identified of smokers who reported that they used these offers "every time I see one." Thirty-five percent of smokers used promotional offers every time they saw one. Multivariate analyses identified young adults, women, African Americans, those with higher daily cigarette consumption, and those worried about cigarette costs as more likely to use promotional offers at every opportunity. Smokers most committed to quitting were no more likely to use promotional offers than those with no intention to quit. Cigarette brand was highly correlated with age and race/ethnicity, and therefore was not included in the multivariate analysis. Those who smoked menthol cigarettes and Camels, more often young adults and African Americans, were much more likely than those of other brands to use promotional offers. With the exception of smokers intending to quit, cigarette promotional offers are effectively reaching most industry-targeted groups. Importantly, young adults, who have the greatest long-term customer potential, are responding.

  14. The Relationships among Leadership, Entrepreneurial Mindset, Innovation and Competitive Advantage (A Conceptual Model of Logistics Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, improvement of competitive advantage is an important and urgent issue facing logistics service companies in Indonesia. Some previous researches showed that to improve the competitive advantage could be conducted through improvement of leadership, entrepreneurial mindset and innovation variables. This research intended to recognize relationships among the variables. The research used causal-explanatory method. The results of research encompass a conceptual model, status of each variable and hypotheses. The conceptual model could be further verified through verification research. 

  15. Designing and Describing the Model of Competitive Advantage based on Organizational Intelligence in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmirHoushang Nazarpouri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing knowledge assets, organizational intellectual capabilities and strategic concepts of these capabilities have been addressed as important elements of organizational survival and competitive advantages. In knowledge-based organizations (KBOs, knowledge is the main organizational asset, and organizational success depends on the ability of creation, obtaining, implementing and transferring the knowledge and intellectual assets. Thus, for taking benefit from the opportunities in dynamic environment and obtaining competitive advantage, organizations should manage knowledge and intellectual assets. Organizational intelligence (OI is about using intellectual abilities of organization for obtaining the mission and objectives in competitive environment. The purpose of this study is to determine factors influencing competitive advantage of KBOs based on OI. Statistical population of this study includes the faculties of universities in Lorestan. Based on factor analysis (FA, sample size has been estimated as 330 faculties. Findings imply that 66% and 61% of competitive advantage in KBOs have been described by structural intelligence factor and human intelligence factor, respectively. Also, knowledge strategies with 40% and 48% of R square coefficient have had the highest influence on structural and human intelligence.

  16. Trade Advantages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest trading nation,its largest exporter and second largest importer,China wields extensive influence on global trade and the world economy,China's advantages of course lie not only in the stable foreign trade policy decided by the recently held Central Economic Work Conference,but also in the strength and resilience of a broadbased and fast-growing economy.

  17. 职务犯罪审理:问题及思考——从审判的视角%Crime by taking advantage of duty trying: question and ponder —— From trial angle of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚明

    2011-01-01

    打击职务犯罪在审判实践中并不理想,量刑偏轻,犯罪数量有上升趋势,为有效打击职务犯罪,应掌握好宽严相济中“严”的尺度,正确认识量刑轻刑化带来的问题,进一步促进司法公开,克服传统不良因素对审判的影响。%Cracks down on the crime by taking advantage of duty not to be ideal in the trial practice, the discretion of punishment is light, crime quantity has the trend of escalation, for the effective attack crime by taking advantage of duty, should grasp in width strict Jinan "strict" the criterion, understood correctly the discretion of punishment light punishment brings the question, further promotes the judicature to be public, overcomes the traditional bad factor to the trial the influence.

  18. 论职务犯罪侦查中的控制下交付手段%On Controlled Delivery in the Inverstigation of Crime by Taking Advantage of Duty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润华

    2013-01-01

    It is legitimate and necessary to apply controlled delivery to the investigation of crime by taking ad-vantage of duty , and the new criminal procedure law has authorized the procuratorate to have such right .Therefore , the controlled delivery in the investigation of crime by taking advantage of duty should be ruled in applicable condi -tions, implementing subjects , approval procedures , legal consequences and international cooperation .%在职务犯罪侦查中适用控制下交付既具有法理上的正当性,也具有实践的必要性,此次对刑事诉讼法修改已明确规定检察机关在职务犯罪侦查中可以运用控制下交付。因此,应从控制下交付的适用条件、实施主体、审批程序、法律后果以及国际合作五个方面对职务犯罪侦查中适用控制下交付进行具体的法律规制。

  19. Innovative business model as a source of competitive advantage for high-tech markets

    OpenAIRE

    Demkiv, Yaryna

    2013-01-01

    The role of innovative business model application for company's succesfull innovation activity is examined. The meaning of business model and innovative business model are defined. Components necessary to successful innovative business model are singled out. The nessesary conditions for innovative business model implementation success are described.

  20. Advantages and Drawbacks of Quantum Mechanical Static and Dynamic Approaches to Modelling Infrared Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claude Pouchan; Philippe Carbonniere

    2009-01-01

    We present quantum mechanical vibrational computations beyond the harmonic approximation from effective second order perturbative and variation perturbation treatments defined as static approaches, as well as vibrational analysis from density functional theory molecular dynamics trajectories at 300 and 600 K. The four schemes are compared in terms of prediction of fundamental transitions, and simulation of the corresponding medium infrared spectrum at the same level of theory using the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) description of the electronic structure. We summarize conclusions about advantages and drawbacks of these two approaches and report the main results obtained for semi-rigid and flexible molecules.

  1. A fuzzy model for achieving lean attributes for competitive advantages development using AHP-QFD-PROMETHEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghanian, E.; Alipour, Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    Lean production has become an integral part of the manufacturing landscape as its link with superior performance and its ability to provide competitive advantage is well accepted among academics and practitioners. Lean production helps producers in overcoming the challenges organizations face through using powerful tools and enablers. However, most companies are faced with restricted resources such as financial and human resources, time, etc., in using these enablers, and are not capable of implementing all these techniques. Therefore, identifying and selecting the most appropriate and efficient tool can be a significant challenge for many companies. Hence, this literature seeks to combine competitive advantages, lean attributes, and lean enablers to determine the most appropriate enablers for improvement of lean attributes. Quality function deployment in fuzzy environment and house of quality matrix are implemented. Throughout the methodology, fuzzy logic is the basis for translating linguistic judgments required for the relationships and correlation matrix to numerical values. Moreover, for final ranking of lean enablers, a multi-criteria decision-making method (PROMETHEE) is adopted. Finally, a case study in automotive industry is presented to illustrate the implementation of the proposed methodology.

  2. Locational and Internal Sources of Firm Competitive Advantage : Applying Porter’s Diamond Model at the Firm Level

    OpenAIRE

    Eickelpasch, Alexander; Lejpras, Anna; Stephan, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs Porter’s diamond model to examine the relationships between a firm’s locational environment, its innovation capabilities, and competitive advantage assessed in terms of various performance indicators. This study implements a structural equation model that is estimated with the partial least squares (PLS) approach using a sample of 2,345 East German firms. This investigation shows that a high frequency of cooperation spurs firm innovativeness and performance, but that a stro...

  3. Enterprise marketing potential modeling taking into account optimizing and dynamic essence of the potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potrashkova Lyudmyla Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    consequent enumeration. At the same time, the constituent part of the models system is constrained optimization block. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The suggested simulation and optimization models system of b2b-enterprise marketing potential result-based estimation has the following advantages: it corresponds optimizing essence of potential, takes into account marketing resources dynamics and allows to get estimation in the view of enterprise potential hierarchic levels. The suggested models system is the instrument for estimation and analysis of the future enterprise sales and marketing abilities, comparison of which with producing and financial abilities will allow to define narrow places in the analyzed enterprise activity and increase its general potential. The given models system is a part of mathematical providing to manage future enterprise abilities. The further investigations on research area have to be oriented to build models of the enterprise marketing potential estimation in integral system concerning enterprise integral potential estimation.

  4. Solution to the Problem of Static Website Cross-domains By Taking Advantage of the Technology of Dynamic Creation of Script%利用动态创建script技术解决静态网站跨域问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛颖玲

    2012-01-01

    Based on the practical work, this paper is designed to take advantage of the technology of dynamic creation of script to solve the problem of static website cross-domains.This technology has been applied to the university website and proved to be a great Success.%本文从实际工作出发,在扩充静态网站生成技术的基础上,进一步利用动态创建script技术解决了静态网站跨域问题,并应用于学校网站,取得了不错的效果.

  5. Taking Advantage of FollowPsychology to Construct Student Organizational Culture in University%利用从众心理的积极因素建构高校学生组织文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾尼娃尔·艾合买提; 耿直; 赛福鼎·艾拜

    2013-01-01

      本文阐述了从众心理在高校学生组织文化建构中所起的作用,对怎样利用从众心理的积极因素建构高校学生组织文化提了几点建议,希望对从事教育教学的工作者有所启发。%On the basis of the introduction of how conformity affect students organizational culture constructing , the paper gives some advice on how to taking advantage of conformity psychology to construct student organiza -tional culture in university.

  6. Computational models of social and emotional turn-taking for embodied conversational agents: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bruijnes, Merijn

    2012-01-01

    The emotional involvement of participants in a conversation not only shows in the words they speak and in the way they speak and gesture but also in their turn-taking behavior. This paper reviews research into computational models of embodied conversational agents. We focus on models for turn-taking

  7. Computational models of social and emotional turn-taking for embodied conversational agents: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, op den Rieks; Bruijnes, Merijn

    2012-01-01

    The emotional involvement of participants in a conversation not only shows in the words they speak and in the way they speak and gesture but also in their turn-taking behavior. This paper reviews research into computational models of embodied conversational agents. We focus on models for turn-taking

  8. A review of methods for modelling environmental tracers in groundwater: Advantages of tracer concentration simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnadge, Chris; Smerdon, Brian D.

    2014-11-01

    Mathematical models of varying complexity have been developed since the 1960s to interpret environmental tracer concentrations in groundwater flow systems. This review examines published studies of model-based environmental tracer interpretation, the progress of different modelling approaches, and also considers the value of modelling tracer concentrations directly rather than estimations of groundwater age. Based on citation metrics generated using the Web of Science and Google Scholar reference databases, the most highly utilised interpretation approaches are lumped parameter models (421 citations), followed closely by direct age models (220 citations). A third approach is the use of mixing cell models (99 citations). Although lumped parameter models are conceptually simple and require limited data, they are unsuitable for characterising the internal dynamics of a hydrogeological system and/or under conditions where large scale anthropogenic stresses occur within a groundwater basin. Groundwater age modelling, and in particular, the simulation of environmental tracer transport that explicitly accounts for the accumulation and decay of tracer mass, has proven to be highly beneficial in constraining numerical models. Recent improvements in computing power have made numerical simulation of tracer transport feasible. We argue that, unlike directly simulated ages, the results of tracer mass transport simulation can be compared directly to observations, without needing to correct for apparent age bias or other confounding factors.

  9. 模块化设计塑造企业竞争优势的机制研究--以珠三角大中型制造企业为例%Study on the Mechanism of Enhancing Enterprise's Competitive Advantage with Modular Design:Taking the Large and Medium-sized Manufacturing Enterprises in Pearl River Delta for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to study the mechanism of enhancing enterprises' sustainable competitive advantage with modular design. Based on the dynamic capability theory and taking technology innovation as the intermediary variables, the theoretical model of the relationship between modular design and continuous competitive advantage is built. SPSS16.0 and LISREL8.7 structure equation model are used to do empirical analysis to the data of the 300 questionnaires from the large and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in Pearl River Delta. Results show that modular design can help enterprises to obtain sustainable competitive advantage. Technological innovation plays a fully mediation role in the relationship between modular design and brand advantages, continuous first-mover advantage and mass customization advantage.%为研究模块化设计塑造企业创造持续竞争优势的机制,基于动态能力理论,以技术创新为中介变量,构建了模块化设计与持续竞争优势间关系的理论模型。利用来自珠三角大中型制造企业的300份问卷,应用SPSS16.0与LISREL8.7结构方程模型对问卷数据进行实证分析。结果表明模块化设计能帮助企业获得持续竞争优势,技术创新在模块化设计与品牌优势、连续先动优势和大规模定制优势的关系中均起完全中介作用。

  10. Teachers' modeling advantage and their modeling effects on college students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes: a case of collaborative teaching in technical courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Yang, Chao-Chin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, modeling advantage that depicts the likelihood of a teacher model being imitated by students over other competing models in a particular class was developed to differentiate the rival modeling of two kinds of teachers (the technical teachers vs. the lecturing teachers) between college students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes in the collaborative teaching of technical courses. Results of a one-semester longitudinal study indicated that the students perceived a greater modeling advantage of the technical teachers than that of the lecturing teachers. Both the students' learning styles and occupational stereotypes were in accordance with those teachers as their role models. In general, the impact of the teachers' learning styles and occupational stereotypes on students appeared to be mediated by the teachers' modeling advantage. Administrators and curriculum designers should pay attention to the fact that the technical teachers appeared to exhibit greater modeling effects than the lecturing teachers in collaborative teaching.

  11. Xenopus tropicalis oocytes as an advantageous model system for the study of intracellular Ca(2+) signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, J S; Parker, I

    2001-04-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to compare oocytes from the pipid frogs Xenopus tropicalis and Xenopus laevis, with respect to their utility for studying Ca(2+) signalling mechanisms and for expression of heterologous proteins. 2. We show that X. tropicalis oocytes possess an intracellular Ca(2+) store that is mobilized by inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate (IP(3)). Ca(2+) signalling is activated by endogenous lysophosphatidic acid receptors and cytosolic Ca(2+) activates a plasma membrane chloride conductance. The spatiotemporal organization of cytosolic Ca(2+) signals, from the microscopic architecture of elementary Ca(2+) 'puffs' to the macroscopic patterns of Ca(2+) spiking are closely similar to the local and global patterns of Ca(2+) release previously characterized in oocytes from X. laevis. 3. By injecting X. tropicalis oocytes with cDNA encoding an ER-targeted fluorescent protein construct, we demonstrate the capacity of the X. tropicalis oocyte to readily express heterologous proteins. The organization of ER is polarized across the oocyte, with the IP(3)-releaseable store targeted within an approximately 8 microm wide band that circumscribes the cell. 4. We conclude that the X. tropicalis oocyte shares many of the characteristics that have made oocytes of X. laevis a favoured system for studying Ca(2+) signalling mechanisms. Moreover, X. tropicalis oocytes display further practical advantages in terms of imaging depth, Ca(2+) signal magnitude and electrical properties. These further enhance the appeal of X. tropicalis as an experimental system, in addition to its greater amenability to transgenic approaches.

  12. Advantages and Challenges of Using Physics Curricula as a Model for Reforming an Undergraduate Biology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, D. A.; Atkins, L. J.; Salter, I. Y.; Gallagher, D. J.; Kratz, R. F.; Rousseau, J. V.; Nelson, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of a life sciences curriculum, targeted to undergraduate students, which was modeled after a commercially available physics curriculum and based on aspects of how people learn. Our paper describes the collaborative development process and necessary modifications required to apply a physics pedagogical model in a life sciences context. While some approaches were easily adapted, others provided significant challenges. Among these challenges were: representations of ...

  13. Maximum Entropy Production Modeling of Evapotranspiration Partitioning on Heterogeneous Terrain and Canopy Cover: advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Jurado, H. A.; Guan, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Bras, R. L.; Simmons, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of evapotranspiration (ET) and its partition over regions of heterogeneous topography and canopy poses a challenge using traditional approaches. In this study, we report the results of a novel field experiment design guided by the Maximum Entropy Production model of ET (MEP-ET), formulated for estimating evaporation and transpiration from homogeneous soil and canopy. A catchment with complex terrain and patchy vegetation in South Australia was instrumented to measure temperature, humidity and net radiation at soil and canopy surfaces. Performance of the MEP-ET model to quantify transpiration and soil evaporation was evaluated during wet and dry conditions with independently and directly measured transpiration from sapflow and soil evaporation using the Bowen Ratio Energy Balance (BREB). MEP-ET transpiration shows remarkable agreement with that obtained through sapflow measurements during wet conditions, but consistently overestimates the flux during dry periods. However, an additional term introduced to the original MEP-ET model accounting for higher stomatal regulation during dry spells, based on differences between leaf and air vapor pressure deficits and temperatures, significantly improves the model performance. On the other hand, MEP-ET soil evaporation is in good agreement with that from BREB regardless of moisture conditions. The experimental design allows a plot and tree scale quantification of evaporation and transpiration respectively. This study confirms for the first time that the MEP-ET originally developed for homogeneous open bare soil and closed canopy can be used for modeling ET over heterogeneous land surfaces. Furthermore, we show that with the addition of an empirical function simulating the plants ability to regulate transpiration, and based on the same measurements of temperature and humidity, the method can produce reliable estimates of ET during both wet and dry conditions without compromising its parsimony.

  14. Advantages of analytically computing the ground heat flux in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Daly, Edoardo

    2016-11-01

    It is generally accepted that the ground heat flux accounts for a significant fraction of the surface energy balance. In land surface models, the ground heat flux is typically estimated through a numerical solution of the heat conduction equation. Recent research has shown that this approach introduces errors in the estimation of the energy balance. In this paper, we calibrate a land surface model using a numerical solution of the heat conduction equation with four different vertical spatial resolutions. It is found that the thermal conductivity is the most sensitive parameter to the spatial resolution. More importantly, the thermal conductivity values are directly related to the spatial resolution, thus rendering any physical interpretation of this value irrelevant. The numerical solution is then replaced by an analytical solution. The results of the numerical and analytical solutions are identical when fine spatial and temporal resolutions are used. However, when using resolutions that are typical of land surface models, significant differences are found. When using the analytical solution, the ground heat flux is directly calculated without calculating the soil temperature profile. The calculation of the temperature at each node in the soil profile is thus no longer required, unless the model contains parameters that depend on the soil temperature, which in this study is not the case. The calibration is repeated, and thermal conductivity values independent of the vertical spatial resolution are obtained. The main conclusion of this study is that care must be taken when interpreting land surface model results that have been obtained using numerical ground heat flux estimates. The use of exact analytical solutions, when available, is recommended.

  15. Using video modeling and reinforcement to teach perspective-taking skills to children with autism.

    OpenAIRE

    LeBlanc, Linda A; Coates, Andrea M; Daneshvar, Sabrina; Charlop-Christy, Marjorie H; Morris, Caroline; Lancaster, Blake M

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated video modeling and reinforcement for teaching perspective-taking skills to 3 children with autism using a multiple baseline design. Video modeling and reinforcement were effective; however, only 2 children were able to pass an untrained task, indicating limited generalization. The findings suggest that video modeling may be an effective technology for teaching perspective taking if researchers can continue to develop strategies for enhancing the generalization of these new skills.

  16. Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage thro ugh Reputation Management: A Model Development for Restructuring Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Öncel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the research that has been carried out in recent years, realizing that the reputation is a measurable value has caused discussions about how to manage reputation. Although reputation management has been studied extensively by different scientists in different disciplines, there is relatively a limited number of study in the field of higher education. The aim of this research is to determine the corporate reputation management of universities at universities scale and develop a model for structuring it in universities within Turkey Higher Education system as an administrative approach. In the light of the gathered data, a model to structure the corporate reputation management for achieving a sustainable competitive strength in Turkish universities has been proposed.

  17. Industry Clusters in Ireland: An Application of Porter's Model of National Competitive Advantage to Three Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, Paula; O'Malley, Eoin; O'Connell, Larry; Van Egeraat, Chris

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of industrial clusters, and the relevance of Porter’s diamond model, in the context of the small open economy of Ireland. It analyses the experience of three relatively successful Irish indigenous sectors and it considers to what extent have clusters of related or connected industries been important in accounting for the degree of success attained in Ireland. We do not find evidence of well-developed clusters of the type described by Porter, and ...

  18. Modeling filamentous cyanobacteria reveals the advantages of long and fast trichomes for optimizing light exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulonis, Carlos; Postma, Marten; Kaandorp, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria form a very large and diverse phylum of prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Many species of cyanobacteria live colonially in long trichomes of hundreds to thousands of cells. Of the filamentous species, many are also motile, gliding along their long axis, and display photomovement, by which a trichome modulates its gliding according to the incident light. The latter has been found to play an important role in guiding the trichomes to optimal lighting conditions, which can either inhibit the cells if the incident light is too weak, or damage the cells if too strong. We have developed a computational model for gliding filamentous photophobic cyanobacteria that allows us to perform simulations on the scale of a Petri dish using over 10(5) individual trichomes. Using the model, we quantify the effectiveness of one commonly observed photomovement strategy--photophobic responses--in distributing large populations of trichomes optimally over a light field. The model predicts that the typical observed length and gliding speeds of filamentous cyanobacteria are optimal for the photophobic strategy. Therefore, our results suggest that not just photomovement but also the trichome shape itself improves the ability of the cyanobacteria to optimize their light exposure.

  19. Modeling filamentous cyanobacteria reveals the advantages of long and fast trichomes for optimizing light exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tamulonis

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria form a very large and diverse phylum of prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Many species of cyanobacteria live colonially in long trichomes of hundreds to thousands of cells. Of the filamentous species, many are also motile, gliding along their long axis, and display photomovement, by which a trichome modulates its gliding according to the incident light. The latter has been found to play an important role in guiding the trichomes to optimal lighting conditions, which can either inhibit the cells if the incident light is too weak, or damage the cells if too strong. We have developed a computational model for gliding filamentous photophobic cyanobacteria that allows us to perform simulations on the scale of a Petri dish using over 10(5 individual trichomes. Using the model, we quantify the effectiveness of one commonly observed photomovement strategy--photophobic responses--in distributing large populations of trichomes optimally over a light field. The model predicts that the typical observed length and gliding speeds of filamentous cyanobacteria are optimal for the photophobic strategy. Therefore, our results suggest that not just photomovement but also the trichome shape itself improves the ability of the cyanobacteria to optimize their light exposure.

  20. Advantages of vertically adaptive coordinates in numerical models of stratified shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Holtermann, Peter; Klingbeil, Knut; Burchard, Hans

    2015-08-01

    Shelf seas such as the North Sea and the Baltic Sea are characterised by spatially and temporally varying stratification that is highly relevant for their physical dynamics and the evolution of their ecosystems. Stratification may vary from unstably stratified (e.g., due to convective surface cooling) to strongly stratified with density jumps of up to 10 kg/m3 per m (e.g., in overflows into the Baltic Sea). Stratification has a direct impact on vertical turbulent transports (e.g., of nutrients) and influences the entrainment rate of ambient water into dense bottom currents which in turn determine the stratification of and oxygen supply to, e.g., the central Baltic Sea. Moreover, the suppression of the vertical diffusivity at the summer thermocline is one of the limiting factors for the vertical exchange of nutrients in the North Sea. Due to limitations of computational resources and since the locations of such density jumps (either by salinity or temperature) are predicted by the model simulation itself, predefined vertical coordinates cannot always reliably resolve these features. Thus, all shelf sea models with a predefined vertical coordinate distribution are inherently subject to under-resolution of the density structure. To solve this problem, Burchard and Beckers (2004) and Hofmeister et al. (2010) developed the concept of vertically adaptive coordinates for ocean models, where zooming of vertical coordinates at locations of strong stratification (and shear) is imposed. This is achieved by solving a diffusion equation for the position of the coordinates (with the diffusivity being proportional to the stratification or shear frequencies). We will show for a coupled model system of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea (resolution ˜ 1.8 km) how numerical mixing is substantially reduced and model results become significantly more realistic when vertically adaptive coordinates are applied. We additionally demonstrate that vertically adaptive coordinates perform well

  1. Computational models of social and emotional turn-taking for embodied conversational agents: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Akker, op den, Harm; Bruijnes, Merijn

    2012-01-01

    The emotional involvement of participants in a conversation not only shows in the words they speak and in the way they speak and gesture but also in their turn-taking behavior. This paper reviews research into computational models of embodied conversational agents. We focus on models for turn-taking management and (social) emotions. We are particularly interested in how in these models emotions of the agent itself and those of the others in uence the agent's turn-taking behavior and vice vers...

  2. Advantage of Animal Models with Metabolic Flexibility for Space Research Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griko, Yuri V.; Rask, Jon C.; Raychev, Raycho

    2017-01-01

    As the world's space agencies and commercial entities continue to expand beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), novel approaches to carry out biomedical experiments with animals are required to address the challenge of adaptation to space flight and new planetary environments. The extended time and distance of space travel along with reduced involvement of Earth-based mission support increases the cumulative impact of the risks encountered in space. To respond to these challenges, it becomes increasingly important to develop the capability to manage an organism's self-regulatory control system, which would enable survival in extraterrestrial environments. To significantly reduce the risk to animals on future long duration space missions, we propose the use of metabolically flexible animal models as "pathfinders," which are capable of tolerating the environmental extremes exhibited in spaceflight, including altered gravity, exposure to space radiation, chemically reactive planetary environments and temperature extremes. In this report we survey several of the pivotal metabolic flexibility studies and discuss the importance of utilizing animal models with metabolic flexibility with particular attention given to the ability to suppress the organism's metabolism in spaceflight experiments beyond LEO. The presented analysis demonstrates the adjuvant benefits of these factors to minimize damage caused by exposure to spaceflight and extreme planetary environments. Examples of microorganisms and animal models with dormancy capabilities suitable for space research are considered in the context of their survivability under hostile or deadly environments outside of Earth. Potential steps toward implementation of metabolic control technology in spaceflight architecture and its benefits for animal experiments and manned space exploration missions are discussed.

  3. Advantages of geographically weighted regression for modeling benthic substrate in two Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Kenneth R.; Strager, Michael P.; Welsh, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Stream habitat assessments are commonplace in fish management, and often involve nonspatial analysis methods for quantifying or predicting habitat, such as ordinary least squares regression (OLS). Spatial relationships, however, often exist among stream habitat variables. For example, water depth, water velocity, and benthic substrate sizes within streams are often spatially correlated and may exhibit spatial nonstationarity or inconsistency in geographic space. Thus, analysis methods should address spatial relationships within habitat datasets. In this study, OLS and a recently developed method, geographically weighted regression (GWR), were used to model benthic substrate from water depth and water velocity data at two stream sites within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. For data collection, each site was represented by a grid of 0.1 m2 cells, where actual values of water depth, water velocity, and benthic substrate class were measured for each cell. Accuracies of regressed substrate class data by OLS and GWR methods were calculated by comparing maps, parameter estimates, and determination coefficient r 2. For analysis of data from both sites, Akaike’s Information Criterion corrected for sample size indicated the best approximating model for the data resulted from GWR and not from OLS. Adjusted r 2 values also supported GWR as a better approach than OLS for prediction of substrate. This study supports GWR (a spatial analysis approach) over nonspatial OLS methods for prediction of habitat for stream habitat assessments.

  4. Advantages and challenges of using physics curricula as a model for reforming an undergraduate biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, D A; Atkins, L J; Salter, I Y; Gallagher, D J; Kratz, R F; Rousseau, J V; Nelson, G D

    2013-06-01

    We report on the development of a life sciences curriculum, targeted to undergraduate students, which was modeled after a commercially available physics curriculum and based on aspects of how people learn. Our paper describes the collaborative development process and necessary modifications required to apply a physics pedagogical model in a life sciences context. While some approaches were easily adapted, others provided significant challenges. Among these challenges were: representations of energy, introducing definitions, the placement of Scientists' Ideas, and the replicability of data. In modifying the curriculum to address these challenges, we have come to see them as speaking to deeper differences between the disciplines, namely that introductory physics--for example, Newton's laws, magnetism, light--is a science of pairwise interaction, while introductory biology--for example, photosynthesis, evolution, cycling of matter in ecosystems--is a science of linked processes, and we suggest that this is how the two disciplines are presented in introductory classes. We illustrate this tension through an analysis of our adaptations of the physics curriculum for instruction on the cycling of matter and energy; we show that modifications of the physics curriculum to address the biological framework promotes strong gains in student understanding of these topics, as evidenced by analysis of student work.

  5. A Simulation Model Estimates of the Intercropping Advantage of an Immature-Rubber, Banana and Pineapple System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadu B. Jalloh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Intercropping has been shown to have many advantages but it is fallacious to conclude it is always a better cropping system. Little is known about a new double-hedgerow intercropping of rubber, banana and pineapple in relation to its effects on growth and yield of the component crops when compared to their monocrops. Simulation modeling offers a cheaper and faster alternative to explore cropping scenarios and estimate their productivity under a wide range of management and environmental conditions. This simulation study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the growth and yield of immature rubber, banana and pineapple intercrop and monocrop scenarios with the aid of an intercrop simulation model named SURHIS, as well as estimating the intercropping advantage. Approach: A FORTRAN computer model (SURHIS that simulated the daily light interception and utilization by immature-rubber, banana and pineapple intercropping system was used to simulate intercrop and monocrop scenarios to estimate potential Dry Matter Yield (DMY for all crops as well as fruit yields for banana and pineapple. The results of the model were tested for accuracy by comparing actual field experimental results with the aid of Mean Deviation (MD and Mean Absolute Error (MAE statistical analyses. Intercropping advantage was assessed using the Land Equivalent Ratio (LER analysis. Results: The model was representative or predicted DMY of the crops with sufficient accuracy. The LER analysis showed that the intercropping system had a dry matter yield productivity advantage of 81% more than monocrops of the component crops. The results also showed that the higher the Plant Population Density (PPD, the greater is the dry matter yield. It was also shown that banana and pineapple had no deleterious effect on the growth of rubber. Fruit weight per plant of banana and pineapple was reduced with increase in PPD for the monocrops. Measured average fresh fruit bunch weight for

  6. Variance Distribution in Sibling Relationships: Advantages of Multilevel Modeling Using Full Sibling Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Karyn

    2017-03-01

    The majority of research on sibling relationships has investigated only one or two siblings in a family, but there are many theoretical and methodological limitations to this single dyadic perspective. This study uses multiple siblings (541 adults) in 184 families, where 96 of these families had all siblings complete the study, to demonstrate the value in including full sibling groups when conducting research on sibling relationships. Two scales, positivity and willingness to sacrifice, are evaluated with a multilevel model to account for the nested nature of family relationships. The distribution of variance across three levels: relationship, individual, and family are computed, and results indicate that the relationship level explains the most variance in positivity, whereas the individual level explains the majority of variance in willingness to sacrifice. These distributions are affected by gender composition and family size. The results of this study highlight an important and often overlooked element of family research: The meaning of a scale changes based on its distribution of variance at these three levels. Researchers are encouraged to be cognizant of the variance distribution of their scales when studying sibling relationships and to incorporate more full sibling groups into their research methods and study design. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  7. On Taking Advantage of the Mass Media in Ideological and Political Education%充分发挥大众传媒思想政治教育功能的对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭钟琪; 夏琳

    2012-01-01

    This paper first generalizes the basic principles in taking advantage of mass media in ideological and political education,followed by a deep analysis of the current situations,major problems as well as the causes of these problems in making use of mass media in ideological and political education in China.It is meant to reveal the profoundly inherent constraints behind these problems,and to put forward corresponding strategic proposals,so as to maximize the role of mass media in ideological and political education.%本文归纳总结了切实发挥大众传媒思想政治教育功能应遵循的基本原则,深入分析当前我国发挥大众传媒思想政治教育功能的现状、存在的主要问题以及导致这些问题的原因,并进而深入挖掘隐藏在这些问题背后的深层次制约因素,提出了如何充分发挥大众传媒思想政治教育功能的对策性意见。

  8. Slow Steps Towards Dual Earner/ Dual Carer Family Model: Why Fathers do not Take Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Karu, Marre; Kasearu, Kairi

    2011-01-01

    "The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/ dual carer family model and focuses on fathers' decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of 'good parenting' that play a role in the fathers' intention to take parental l...

  9. On the Building of Legal Procedures in the Investigation of Crimes by Taking advantage of Duties%职务犯罪技术侦查法治程序构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪铁

    2012-01-01

    当前中国腐败现象较为严重,职务犯罪处于高发态势,犯罪手段不断升级,证据获取困难重重,这与检察机关缺乏有效的技术侦查措施有内在联系。可借鉴其他国家的合理做法,完善检察机关职务犯罪技术侦查权,并严格规定其适用范围、审批程序、执行程序和救济程序。相关程序的合理建构,有利于有效收集诉讼证据,落实刑事程序法治,顺应科技强检趋势,对接国际公约。%Current China faces serious corruption and frequently occurrence of crimes by taking advantage of duties and crime means are increasingly in escalation. It is quite difficult to collect evidence, which is related to the inefficient technical investigation measures in procuratorial organs. The practice in other countries can be taken for reference to improve the technical investigation power of procuratorial organs. However, its scope of application, approval, execution and relief procedures should be strictly prescribed to benefit the collection of evidence, carry out the rule of law in criminal procedures and follow the trend of strengthening procuratorial work with science and docking international conventions.

  10. Towards Ocean Grazer's Modular Power Take-Off System Modeling : A Port-Hamiltonian Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus; Muñoz Arias, Mauricio; Wei, Yanji; Prins, Wouter; Vakis, Antonis I.; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a modular modeling framework for the Ocean Grazer’s Power Take-Off (PTO) system, which operates as an array of point-absorber type devices connected to a hydraulic system. The modeling is based on the port-Hamiltonian (PH) framework that enables energy-based analysis and control

  11. Advantages and limitations of the Five Domains model for assessing welfare impacts associated with vertebrate pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausoleil, N J; Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Many pest control activities have the potential to impact negatively on the welfare of animals, and animal welfare is an important consideration in the development, implementation and evaluation of ethically defensible vertebrate pest control. Thus, reliable and accurate methods for assessing welfare impacts are required. The Five Domains model provides a systematic method for identifying potential or actual welfare impacts associated with an event or situation in four physical or functional domains (nutrition, environment, health or functional status, behaviour) and one mental domain (overall mental or affective state). Here we evaluate the advantages and limitations of the Five Domains model for this purpose and illustrate them using specific examples from a recent assessment of the welfare impacts of poisons used to lethally control possums in New Zealand. The model has a number of advantages which include the following: the systematic identification of a wide range of impacts associated with a variety of control tools; the production of relative rankings of tools in terms of their welfare impacts; the easy incorporation of new information into assessments; and the highlighting of additional information needed. For example, a recent analysis of sodium fluoroacetate (1080) poisoning in possums revealed the need for more information on the period from the onset of clinical signs to the point at which consciousness is lost, as well as on the level of consciousness during or after the occurrence of muscle spasms and seizures. The model is also valuable because it clearly separates physical or functional and affective impacts, encourages more comprehensive consideration of negative affective experiences than has occurred in the past, and allows development and evaluation of targeted mitigation strategies. Caution must be used in interpreting and applying the outputs of the model, most importantly because relative rankings or grades are fundamentally qualitative in

  12. [Logic model of the Franche-Comté Regional Health Project: advantages and limitations for the evaluation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Claude; Sannino, Nadine; Duboudin, Cédric; Baudier, François; Guillin, Caroline; Billondeau, Christine; Mansion, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The French "Hospitals, patients, health and territories" law of July 2009 created the Regional Health Project (PRS) to support regional health policy, and requires evaluation of these projects. The construction of these projects, which includes prevention planning, care planning, and medical and social welfare planning, presents an unprecedented complexity in France, where evaluation programmes are still in their infancy. To support future evaluations, the Franche-Comté Regional Health Agency (ARS FC), assisted by the expertise of EFECT Consultants, decided to reconstruct the PRS logic model. This article analyzes the advantages and limitations of this approach. The resulting logic model allows visualization of the strategy adopted to achieve the Franche-Comté PRS ambitions and expected results. The model highlights four main aspects of structural change to the health system, often poorly visible in PRS presentation documents. This model also establishes links with the usual public policy evaluation issues and facilitates their prioritization. This approach also provides a better understanding of the importance of analysis of the programme construction in order to be effective rather than direct analysis of the effects, which constitutes the natural tendency of current practice. The main controversial limit concerns the retrospective design of the PRS framework, both in terms of the reliability of interpretation and adoption by actors not directly involved in this initiative.

  13. A new formalism that combines advantages of fault-trees and Markov models: Boolean logic driven Markov processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouissou, Marc; Bon, Jean-Louis

    2003-11-01

    This paper introduces a modeling formalism that enables the analyst to combine concepts inherited from fault trees and Markov models in a new way. We call this formalism Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes (BDMP). It has two advantages over conventional models used in dependability assessment: it allows the definition of complex dynamic models while remaining nearly as readable and easy to build as fault-trees, and it offers interesting mathematical properties, which enable an efficient processing for BDMP that are equivalent to Markov processes with huge state spaces. We give a mathematical definition of BDMP, the demonstration of their properties, and several examples to illustrate how powerful and easy to use they are. From a mathematical point of view, a BDMP is nothing more than a certain way to define a global Markov process, as the result of several elementary processes which can interact in a given manner. An extreme case is when the processes are independent. Then we simply have a fault-tree, the leaves of which are associated to independent Markov processes.

  14. Countermeasures to Crime by Taking Advantage of Duty Committed by Staff of Rural Primary Organizations——Taking Suburb of Kunming as Example%预防农村基层组织人员职务犯罪对策研究——以昆明市近郊农村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕丽; 凌娜; 裴蕾

    2012-01-01

    农村基层组织人员职务犯罪在现阶段呈蔓延态势,严重干扰了国家支农、惠农政策的落实,损害了农民群众的切身利益,已经成为影响农村社会稳定﹑制约农村经济发展、阻碍农村法治建设的重要因素。惩治只是治标,预防方为治本,预防远比惩治重要和有效。本文以昆明市近郊农村为例,在剖析农村基层组织人员职务犯罪的基本现状,梳理预防措施,有针对性地提出对策建议。%It has been increasing crimes committed by staff of rural primary organizations by abusing their power, which has severely impeded the implementation of national preferential policies for farmers, hurting their vital interests. Such crimes will unsettle the social stability in rural area; hinder its economic develop- ment and legal system construction. Punishment will just be a kind a passive measure taken after the crime committed. Working on the way of prevention can significantly help us to take the initiative to counter the crimes effectively. This essay takes Kunming as an example, analyzing the basic situation of crimes committed by taking advantage of duty in rural area, listing ways of prevention, and further proposing countermeasures .

  15. Self-esteem, personality and emotion situation in criminals taking advantage of duty%职务犯罪服刑人员的自尊、人格特征及情绪状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳郁; 孙宏伟; 刘金虎; 高树宏; 王恩光; 徐娜

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究职务犯罪服刑人员的外显自尊、内隐自尊的特征,以及不同自尊结构职务犯罪服刑人员的人格特征及情绪状况的差异.方法:方便选取某监狱职务犯罪服刑人员共112名,符合入组条件者共88名.使用大五人格量表简版(NEO-FFI)、简式简明心境问卷(POMS-SF)、自尊量表(SES)以及内隐联想测验(IAT)进行问卷调查及行为学实验.按SES、IAT的平均分为界,将被试分为高外显高内隐组(n=13)、高外显低内隐组(n=14)、低外显高内隐组(n=12)、低外显低内隐组(n=12).结果:获有效问卷51份.内隐联想测验中,被试在相容试验的反应时短于不相容试验的反应时(P =0.022,d=0.45).外显自尊得分与内隐自尊得分无统计学意义相关(r=0.10,P=0.527).高外显自尊两组NEO-FFI的神经质得分低于低外显自尊两组.高外显低内隐组的外向性得分高于高外显高内隐组和低外显低内隐组,开放性得分高于较低外显高内隐组,谨慎性得分高于低外显自尊两组.低外显高内隐组POMS-SF的抑郁-沮丧、愤怒-敌意、疲乏及迷惑-混乱得分均高于高外显自尊两组.外显自尊与外向性、开放性及精力得分呈正相关(r =0.40,0.34,0.34,均P<0.05),而与神经质、抑郁-沮丧、疲乏得分呈负相关(r=-0.52,-0.35,-0.42,P<0.01或0.05);内隐自尊与精力得分呈王相关(r=0.39,P<0.01).结论:职务犯罪服刑人员的外显自尊与内隐自尊是两个相互独立的结构,高外显自尊职务犯罪服刑人员的人格具有情绪相对稳定的特点,低外显高内隐自尊的服刑人员抑郁、愤怒、疲乏及迷惑等负性情绪相对较突出.%Objective: To explore the characteristics of explicit and implicit self-esteem in criminals taking advantage of duty and its difference in personality and emotion with different self-esteem structure. Methods: Totally 112 criminals taking advantage of duty in a prison were selected by convenient

  16. Early Mover Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Bijwaard, Govert; Janssen, Maarten; Maasland, Emiel

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes empirically whether and if so to what extent later entrants in the European mobile telephony industry have a disadvantage vis-à-vis incumbents and early mover entrants. To analyze this question a dynamic model of market share development and a series of static models are considered. There is clear evidence of early mover advantage, mainly caused by the influence of the penetration rate: it pays to enter when still few people have acquired a mobile telephone. Another import...

  17. A WEAKLY NONLINEAR WATER WAVE MODEL TAKING INTO ACCOUNT DISPERSION OF WAVE PHASE VELOCITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞杰; 李东永

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a weakly nonlinear water wave model using a mild slope equation and a new explicit formulation which takes into account dispersion of wave phase velocity, approximates Hedges' (1987) nonlinear dispersion relationship, and accords well with the original empirical formula. Comparison of the calculating results with those obtained from the experimental data and those obtained from linear wave theory showed that the present water wave model considering the dispersion of phase velocity is rational and in good agreement with experiment data.

  18. Medicare Program; Revisions to Payment Policies Under the Physician Fee Schedule and Other Revisions to Part B for CY 2017; Medicare Advantage Bid Pricing Data Release; Medicare Advantage and Part D Medical Loss Ratio Data Release; Medicare Advantage Provider Network Requirements; Expansion of Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program Model; Medicare Shared Savings Program Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    This major final rule addresses changes to the physician fee schedule and other Medicare Part B payment policies, such as changes to the Value Modifier, to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services, as well as changes in the statute. This final rule also includes changes related to the Medicare Shared Savings Program, requirements for Medicare Advantage Provider Networks, and provides for the release of certain pricing data from Medicare Advantage bids and of data from medical loss ratio reports submitted by Medicare health and drug plans. In addition, this final rule expands the Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program model.

  19. Multiple Deprivation, Severity and Latent Sub-Groups: Advantages of Factor Mixture Modelling for Analysing Material Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najera Catalan, Hector E

    2017-01-01

    Material deprivation is represented in different forms and manifestations. Two individuals with the same deprivation score (i.e. number of deprivations), for instance, are likely to be unable to afford or access entirely or partially different sets of goods and services, while one individual may fail to purchase clothes and consumer durables and another one may lack access to healthcare and be deprived of adequate housing . As such, the number of possible patterns or combinations of multiple deprivation become increasingly complex for a higher number of indicators. Given this difficulty, there is interest in poverty research in understanding multiple deprivation, as this analysis might lead to the identification of meaningful population sub-groups that could be the subjects of specific policies. This article applies a factor mixture model (FMM) to a real dataset and discusses its conceptual and empirical advantages and disadvantages with respect to other methods that have been used in poverty research . The exercise suggests that FMM is based on more sensible assumptions (i.e. deprivation covary within each class), provides valuable information with which to understand multiple deprivation and is useful to understand severity of deprivation and the additive properties of deprivation indicators.

  20. Expanding comparative-advantage biological market models: contingency of mutualism on partners' resource requirements and acquisition trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Jason D; Schwartz, Mark W

    2003-05-01

    We expand the comparative-advantage biological market-modelling framework to show how differences between partners, both in their abilities to acquire two resources and in their requirements for those resources, can affect the net benefit of participating in interspecific resource exchange. In addition, the benefits derived from resource trading depend strongly on the nature of the trade-off between the acquisition of one resource and the acquisition of another, described here by the shape (linear, convex or concave) of the resource acquisition constraints of the individuals involved. Combined with previous results, these analyses provide a suite of predictions about whether or not resource exchange is beneficial for two heterospecific individuals relative to a strategy of non-interaction. The benefit derived from resource exchange depends on three factors: (i) relative differences between the partners in their resource acquisition abilities; (ii) relative differences between the partners in their resource requirements; and (iii) variation in the shape of resource acquisition trade-offs. We find that such an explicit consideration of resource requirements and acquisition abilities can provide useful and sometimes non-intuitive predictions about the benefits of resource exchange, and also which resources should be traded by which species.

  1. Can moral convictions motivate the advantaged to challenge social inequality? Extending the social identity model of collective action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zomeren, M.; Postmes, T.; Spears, R.; Bettache, K.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines whether and how moral convictions, defined as strong and absolute stances on moralized issues, motivate advantaged group members to challenge social inequality. Specifically, we propose that violations of moral convictions against social inequality motivate collective action ag

  2. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases....... sectors. The paper categorizes knowledge into ‘analytical’ (science based), ‘synthetic’ (engineering based) and ‘symbolic’ (arts based) in nature, with different requirements of ‘virtual’ and real proximity mixes. The implications of this are traced for evolving ‘platform policies’ that facilitate...

  3. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    sectors. The paper categorizes knowledge into ‘analytical’ (science based), ‘synthetic’ (engineering based) and ‘symbolic’ (arts based) in nature, with different requirements of ‘virtual’ and real proximity mixes. The implications of this are traced for evolving ‘platform policies’ that facilitate......This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...

  4. Evidence accumulation in decision making: unifying the "take the best" and the "rational" models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael D; Cummins, Tarrant D R

    2004-04-01

    An evidence accumulation model of forced-choice decision making is proposed to unify the fast and frugal take the best (TTB) model and the alternative rational (RAT) model with which it is usually contrasted. The basic idea is to treat the TTB model as a sequential-sampling process that terminates as soon as any evidence in favor of a decision is found and the rational approach as a sequential-sampling process that terminates only when all available information has been assessed. The unified TTB and RAT models were tested in an experiment in which participants learned to make correct judgments for a set of real-world stimuli on the basis of feedback, and were then asked to make additional judgments without feedback for cases in which the TTB and the rational models made different predictions. The results show that, in both experiments, there was strong intraparticipant consistency in the use of either the TTB or the rational model but large interparticipant differences in which model was used. The unified model is shown to be able to capture the differences in decision making across participants in an interpretable way and is preferred by the minimum description length model selection criterion.

  5. Hierarchical winner-take-all particle swarm optimization social network for neural model fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, Brandon S; Parthasarathy, Aravindakshan; Sommer, Alexandra L; Bartlett, Edward L

    2017-02-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has gained widespread use as a general mathematical programming paradigm and seen use in a wide variety of optimization and machine learning problems. In this work, we introduce a new variant on the PSO social network and apply this method to the inverse problem of input parameter selection from recorded auditory neuron tuning curves. The topology of a PSO social network is a major contributor to optimization success. Here we propose a new social network which draws influence from winner-take-all coding found in visual cortical neurons. We show that the winner-take-all network performs exceptionally well on optimization problems with greater than 5 dimensions and runs at a lower iteration count as compared to other PSO topologies. Finally we show that this variant of PSO is able to recreate auditory frequency tuning curves and modulation transfer functions, making it a potentially useful tool for computational neuroscience models.

  6. Improved Mathematical Model of PMSM Taking Into Account Cogging Torque Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUDORACHE, T.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved mathematical model of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM that takes into account the Cogging Torque (CT oscillations that appear due to the mutual attraction between the Permanent Magnets (PMs and the anisotropic stator armature. The electromagnetic torque formula in the proposed model contains an analytical expression of the CT calibrated by Finite Element (FE analysis. The numerical calibration is carried out using a data fitting procedure based on the Simplex Downhill optimization algorithm. The proposed model is characterized by good accuracy and reduced computation effort, its performance being verified by comparison with the classical d-q model of the machine using Matlab/Simulink environment.

  7. A statistical RCL interconnect delay model taking account of process variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhang-Ming; wan Da-Jing; Yang Yin-Tang; En Yun-Fei

    2011-01-01

    As the feature size of the CMOS integrated circuit continues to shrink, process variations have become a key factor affecting the interconnect performance. Based on the equivalent Elmore model and the use of the polynomial chaos theory and the Galerkin method, we propose a linear statistical RCL interconnect delay model, taking into account process variations by successive application of the linear approximation method. Based on a variety of nano-CMOS process parameters, HSPICE simulation results show that the maximum error of the proposed model is less than 3.5%.The proposed model is simple, of high precision, and can be used in the analysis and design of nanometer integrated circuit interconnect systems.

  8. An analytical model for particulate reinforced composites (PRCs) taking account of particle debonding and matrix cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunpeng

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a simple micromechanics-based model was developed to describe the overall stress-strain relations of particulate reinforced composites (PRCs), taking into account both particle debonding and matrix cracking damage. Based on the secant homogenization frame, the effective compliance tensor could be firstly given for the perfect composites without any damage. The progressive interface debonding damage is controlled by a Weibull probability function, and then the volume fraction of detached particles is involved in the equivalent compliance tensor to account for the impact of particle debonding. The matrix cracking was introduced in the present model to embody the stress softening stage in the deformation of PRCs. The analytical model was firstly verified by comparing with the corresponding experiment, and then parameter analyses were conducted. This modeling will shed some light on optimizing the microstructures in effectively improving the mechanical behaviors of PRCs.

  9. Development of a Working Model of the Comparative Advantages Approach to Affirmative Debate Case Construction. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, David L.

    This study attempted to determine if the "comparative advantages" debate case is a legitimate and logical approach to affirmative case construction in college and high school debate. The study population totaled 25 high school debate directors and 40 college and university debate directors. Four tape-recorded debates, in which an affirmative team…

  10. On the Advantages of Establishing a Business and Its Route Analysis --Taking Wenzhou as an Example%大学生的创业优势与路径分析——以温州市高校为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳俊丰

    2011-01-01

    温州是创业的热土,大学生创业有着独有优势,温州独特的文化因子、独特的产业结构、成功的温商群体等对大学生创业具有辐射、推动和引导作用。在大学生创业过程中,应该发挥现有优势,整合政府层面、民间资本层面、高校层面、大学生群体自身层面以及侨资层面的合力,探索具有温州特色的大学生创业的路径。%Wenzhou is the hot land of creating a business. University students have special advantage of creating a business. With unique cultural elements, distinctive industrial structure, and successful Wenzhou businessmen, university students get radiation, motivation and guidance. In the process of creating a business, it is necessary to develop the advantages, integrate the levels of government, non-government, university and the students themselves and explore the route of creating a business.

  11. DESIGNING A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE MODEL WITH TECHNOLOGY ORIENTED APPROACH USING FAHP TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY IN COIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOLHAMID S. GHADIKOLAEI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinctive attributes of today’s successful companies is having at least one competitive advantage in one known area. Technological competency is an important advantage which helps improve the firm’s competitiveness. In fact, suitable use of new technologies can dramatically influence the innovation speed, decrease the time of product development cycle and also increase the rate of new product introduction. Firm-specific technological competencies help explain why a firm is different, how it changes over time, and whether it is capable of remaining competitive. In this study, technological competency factors (technology management, process technology, product technology are prioritized according to the competitive advantage levels(customer satisfaction, brand reputation, new product introduction, market share and competitive priorities (cost, price, quality, flexibility, time using fuzzy Analytic hierarchy process (FAHP with the aim of maximizing the nonfinancial performance at coil manufacture industry. The results indicate that within Iran coil industry, process technology is of greater importance than technology management and product technology.

  12. Analytical modeling of demagnetizing effect in magnetoelectric ferrite/PZT/ferrite trilayers taking into account a mechanical coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, V.; Aubert, A.; LoBue, M.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the demagnetizing effect in ferrite/PZT/ferrite magnetoelectric (ME) trilayer composites consisting of commercial PZT discs bonded by epoxy layers to Ni-Co-Zn ferrite discs made by a reactive Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique. ME voltage coefficients (transversal mode) were measured on ferrite/PZT/ferrite trilayer ME samples with different thicknesses or phase volume ratio in order to highlight the influence of the magnetic field penetration governed by these geometrical parameters. Experimental ME coefficients and voltages were compared to analytical calculations using a quasi-static model. Theoretical demagnetizing factors of two magnetic discs that interact together in parallel magnetic structures were derived from an analytical calculation based on a superposition method. These factors were introduced in ME voltage calculations which take account of the demagnetizing effect. To fit the experimental results, a mechanical coupling factor was also introduced in the theoretical formula. This reflects the differential strain that exists in the ferrite and PZT layers due to shear effects near the edge of the ME samples and within the bonding epoxy layers. From this study, an optimization in magnitude of the ME voltage is obtained. Lastly, an analytical calculation of demagnetizing effect was conducted for layered ME composites containing higher numbers of alternated layers (n ≥ 5). The advantage of such a structure is then discussed.

  13. Advantages of using a fast urban boundary layer model as compared to a full mesoscale model to simulate the urban heat island of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díez, Markel; Lauwaet, Dirk; Hooyberghs, Hans; Ballester, Joan; De Ridder, Koen; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    As most of the population lives in urban environments, the simulation of the urban climate has become a key problem in the framework of the climate change impact assessment. However, the high computational power required by high-resolution (sub-kilometre) fully coupled land-atmosphere simulations using urban canopy parameterisations is a severe limitation. Here we present a study on the performance of UrbClim, an urban boundary layer model designed to be several orders of magnitude faster than a full-fledged mesoscale model. The simulations are evaluated with station data and land surface temperature observations from satellites, focusing on the urban heat island (UHI). To explore the advantages of using a simple model like UrbClim, the results are compared with a simulation carried out with a state-of-the-art mesoscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, which includes an urban canopy model. This comparison is performed with driving data from ERA-Interim reanalysis (70 km). In addition, the effect of using driving data from a higher-resolution forecast model (15 km) is explored in the case of UrbClim. The results show that the performance of reproducing the average UHI in the simple model is generally comparable to the one in the mesoscale model when driven with reanalysis data (70 km). However, the simple model needs higher-resolution data from the forecast model (15 km) to correctly reproduce the variability of the UHI at a daily scale, which is related to the wind speed. This lack of accuracy in reproducing the wind speed, especially the sea-breeze daily cycle, which is strong in Barcelona, also causes a warm bias in the reanalysis driven UrbClim run. We conclude that medium-complexity models as UrbClim are a suitable tool to simulate the urban climate, but that they are sensitive to the ability of the input data to represent the local wind regime. UrbClim is a well suited model for impact and adaptation studies at city scale without high

  14. Final Report for High Latitude Climate Modeling: ARM Takes Us Beyond Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Lynn M [Scripps/UCSD; Lubin, Dan [Scripps/UCSD

    2013-06-18

    The main thrust of this project was to devise a method by which the majority of North Slope of Alaska (NSA) meteorological and radiometric data, collected on a daily basis, could be used to evaluate and improve global climate model (GCM) simulations and their parameterizations, particularly for cloud microphysics. Although the standard ARM Program sensors for a less complete suite of instruments for cloud and aerosol studies than the instruments on an intensive field program such as the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), the advantage they offer lies in the long time base and large volume of data that covers a wide range of meteorological and climatological conditions. The challenge has been devising a method to interpret the NSA data in a practical way, so that a wide variety of meteorological conditions in all seasons can be examined with climate models. If successful, climate modelers would have a robust alternative to the usual “case study” approach (i.e., from intensive field programs only) for testing and evaluating their parameterizations’ performance. Understanding climate change on regional scales requires a broad scientific consideration of anthropogenic influences that goes beyond greenhouse gas emissions to also include aerosol-induced changes in cloud properties. For instance, it is now clear that on small scales, human-induced aerosol plumes can exert microclimatic radiative and hydrologic forcing that rivals that of greenhouse gas–forced warming. This project has made significant scientific progress by investigating what causes successive versions of climate models continue to exhibit errors in cloud amount, cloud microphysical and radiative properties, precipitation, and radiation balance, as compared with observations and, in particular, in Arctic regions. To find out what is going wrong, we have tested the models' cloud representation over the full range of meteorological conditions found in the Arctic using the

  15. 危机情境下的品牌借势营销策略与陷阱规避%Taking advantage of brand marketing strategy and crisis situations to avoid the trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国强; 张朋辉

    2016-01-01

    危机事件作为热点事件的一种特殊类型本身具备较高的价值厚度,但危机情境下的品牌借势营销也需要更高的营销智慧,否则就容易陷入危机黑洞当中。%with the help of hot events to boost their own brand communication in recent years has become a highly respected marketing method, low cost, quick effect, wide spread and a series of advantages of so many businesses are eager to ride on the hot spots received wide attention, on the other hand out from the hot events and condensed in great just a little attention resource utiliG zation, brand information and events with bundled delivery, relying on high exposure event itself has a high degree of concern and will be "four two pounds", while the crisis as a special type of hot events itself also has high value of thickness, but on the other hand, critical under the situation of brand marketing occasion also requires higher marketing wisdom, otherwise it is easy to fall into a black hole in the crisis. In the face of marketing occasion negative effects of increasing current industry emerge in an endless stream of reality, the academic research is lagging behind, from the theoretical level, to distinguish the pros and cons of guidance is a realistic problem.

  16. A Thermodamage Strength Theoretical Model of Ceramic Materials Taking into Account the Effect of Residual Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodamage strength theoretical model taking into account the effect of residual stress was established and applied to each temperature phase based on the study of effects of various physical mechanisms on the fracture strength of ultrahigh-temperature ceramics. The effects of SiC particle size, crack size, and SiC particle volume fraction on strength corresponding to different temperatures were studied in detail. This study showed that when flaw size is not large, the bigger SiC particle size results in the greater effect of tensile residual stress in the matrix grains on strength reduction, and this prediction coincides with experimental results; and the residual stress and the combined effort of particle size and crack size play important roles in controlling material strength.

  17. Supply-demand 3D dynamic model in water resources evaluation: taking Lebanon as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hong; Hou, Zhimin

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, supply-demand 3D dynamic model is adopted to create a measurement of a region’s capacity to provide available water to meet the needs of its population. First of all, we draw a diagram between supply and demand. Then taking the main dynamic factors into account, we establish an index to evaluate the balance of supply and demand. The three dimension vector reflects the scarcity of industrial, agricultural and residential water. Lebanon is chosen as the object of case study, and we do quantitative analysis of its current situation. After data collecting and processing, we calculate the 3D vector in 2012, which reveals that agriculture is susceptible to water scarcity. Water resources of Lebanon are “physical rich” but “economic scarcity” according to the correlation chart and other statistical analysis.

  18. Taking individual scaling differences into account by analyzing profile data with the Mixed Assessor Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per Bruun; Schlich, Pascal; Skovgaard, Ib

    2015-01-01

    are deduced that include scaling difference in the error term to the proper extent. A meta study of 8619 sensory attributes from 369 sensory profile data sets from SensoBase (www.sensobase.fr) is conducted. In 45.3% of all attributes scaling heterogeneity is present (P-value ...) that properly takes this into account by a simple inclusion of the product averages as a covariate in the modeling and allowing the covariate regression coefficients to depend on the assessor. This gives a more powerful analysis by removing the scaling difference from the error term and proper confidence limits.......9% of the attributes having a product difference P-value in an intermediate range by the traditional approach, the new approach resulted in a clearly more significant result for 42.3% of these cases. Overall, the new approach claimed significant product difference (P-value

  19. Accelerating a Network Model of Care: Taking a Social Innovation to Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Byrne

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Government-funded systems of health and social care are facing enormous fiscal and human-resource challenges. The space for innovation in care is wide open and new disruptive patterns are emerging. These include self-management and personal budgets, participatory and integrated care, supported decision making and a renewed focus on prevention. Taking these disruptive patterns to scale can be accelerated by a technologically enabled shift to a network model of care to co-create the best outcomes for individuals, family caregivers, and health and social care organizations. The connections, relationships, and activities within an individual’s personal network lay the foundation for care that health and social care systems/policy must simultaneously support and draw on for positive outcomes. Practical tools, adequate information, and tangible resources are required to coordinate and sustain care. Tyze Personal Networks is a social venture that uses technology to engage and inform the individual, their personal networks, and their care providers to co-create the best outcomes. In this article, we demonstrate how Tyze contributes to a shift to a network model of care by strengthening our networks and enhancing partnerships between care providers, individuals, and family and friends.

  20. Modelling overbank flow on farmed catchments taking into account spatial hydrological discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, R.; Tilma, M.; Chahinian, N.; Huttel, O.

    2003-04-01

    In agricultural catchments, hydrological processes are largely variable in space due to human impact causing hydrological discontinuities such as ditch network, field limits and terraces. The ditch network accelerates runoff by concentrating flows, drains the water table or replenishes it by reinfiltration of the runoff water. During extreme flood events, overbank flow occurs and surface pathflows are modified. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of overbank flow on hydrograph shape during flood events. For that, MHYDAS, a physically based distributed hydrological model, was especially developed to take into account these hydrological discontinuities. The model considers the catchment as a series of interconnected hydrological unit. Runoff from each unit is estimated using a deterministic model based on the pounding-time algorithm and then routed through the ditch network using the diffusive wave equation. Overbank flow is modelled by modifying links between the hydrological units and the ditch network. The model was applied to simulate the main hydrological processes on a small headwater farmed Mediterranean catchment located in Southern France. The basic hydrometeorological equipment consists of a meteorological station, rain gauges, a tensio-neutronic and a piezometric measurement network, and eight water flow measurements. A multi-criteria and multi-scale approach was used. Three independent error criteria (Nash, error on volume and error on peak flow) were calculated and combined using the Pareto technique. Then, a multi-scale approach was used to calibrate and validate the model for the eight water flow measurements. The application of MHYDAS on the extreme ten flood events of the last decade enables to identify the ditches where overbank flows occur and to calculate discharge at various points of the ditch network. Results show that for the extreme flood event, more than 45% of surface runoff occur due to overbank flow. Discussion shows that

  1. Power Take-Off Simulation for Scale Model Testing of Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Beatty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Small scale testing in controlled environments is a key stage in the development of potential wave energy conversion technology. Furthermore, it is well known that the physical design and operational quality of the power-take off (PTO used on the small scale model can have vast effects on the tank testing results. Passive mechanical elements such as friction brakes and air dampers or oil filled dashpots are fraught with nonlinear behaviors such as static friction, temperature dependency, and backlash, the effects of which propagate into the wave energy converter (WEC power production data, causing very high uncertainty in the extrapolation of the tank test results to the meaningful full ocean scale. The lack of quality in PTO simulators is an identified barrier to the development of WECs worldwide. A solution to this problem is to use actively controlled actuators for PTO simulation on small scale model wave energy converters. This can be done using force (or torque-controlled feedback systems with suitable instrumentation, enabling the PTO to exert any desired time and/or state dependent reaction force. In this paper, two working experimental PTO simulators on two different wave energy converters are described. The first implementation is on a 1:25 scale self-reacting point absorber wave energy converter with optimum reactive control. The real-time control system, described in detail, is implemented in LabVIEW. The second implementation is on a 1:20 scale single body point absorber under model-predictive control, implemented with a real-time controller in MATLAB/Simulink. Details on the physical hardware, software, and feedback control methods, as well as results, are described for each PTO. Lastly, both sets of real-time control code are to be web-hosted, free for download, modified and used by other researchers and WEC developers.

  2. Crash Simulation of Roll Formed Parts by Damage Modelling Taking Into Account Preforming Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Edwin T.; Hackl, Benjamin; Schauer, Hermann

    2011-08-01

    Complex phase steels of strength levels up to 1200 MPa are suitable to roll forming. These may be applied in automotive structures for enhancing the crashworthiness, e. g. as stiffeners in doors. Even though the strain hardening of the material is low there is considerable bending formability. However ductility decreases with the strength level. Higher strength requires more focus to the structural integrity of the part during the process planning stage and with respect to the crash behavior. Nowadays numerical simulation is used as a process design tool for roll-forming in a production environment. The assessment of the stability of a roll forming process is quite challenging for AHSS grades. There are two objectives of the present work. First to provide a reliable assessment tool to the roll forming analyst for failure prediction. Second to establish simulation procedures in order to predict the part's behavior in crash applications taking into account damage and failure. Today adequate ductile fracture models are available which can be used in forming and crash applications. These continuum models are based on failure strain curves or surfaces which depend on the stress triaxiality (e. g. Crach or GISSMO) and may additionally include the Lode angle (extended Mohr Coulomb or extended GISSMO model). A challenging task is to obtain the respective failure strain curves. In the paper the procedure is described in detail how these failure strain curves are obtained using small scale tests within voestalpine Stahl, notch tensile-, bulge and shear tests. It is shown that capturing the surface strains is not sufficient for obtaining reliable material failure parameters. The simulation tool for roll-forming at the site of voestalpine Krems is Copra® FEA RF, which is a 3D continuum finite element solver based on MSC.Marc. The simulation environment for crash applications is LS-DYNA. Shell elements are used for this type of analyses. A major task is to provide results of

  3. Timing in turn-taking and its implications for processing models of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Levinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The core niche for language use is in verbal interaction, involving the rapid exchange of turns at talking. This paper reviews the extensive literature about this system, adding new statistical analyses of behavioural data where they have been missing, demonstrating that turn-taking has the systematic properties originally noted by Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974; hereafter SSJ. This system poses some significant puzzles for current theories of language processing: the gaps between turns are short (of the order of 200 ms, but the latencies involved in language production are much longer (over 600 ms. This seems to imply that participants in conversation must predict (or ‘project’ as SSJ have it the end of the current speaker’s turn in order to prepare their response in advance. This in turn implies some overlap between production and comprehension despite their use of common processing resources. Collecting together what is known behaviourally and experimentally about the system, the space for systematic explanations of language processing for conversation can be significantly narrowed, and we sketch some first model of the mental processes involved for the participant preparing to speak next.

  4. A bio-artificial renal epithelial cell system conveys survival advantage in a porcine model of septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Angela J; Buffington, Deborah A; Johnston, Kimberly A; Smith, Peter L; Pino, Christopher J; Humes, H David

    2017-03-01

    Renal cell therapy using the hollow fiber based renal assist device (RAD) improved survival time in an animal model of septic shock (SS) through the amelioration of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. Safety and ability of the RAD to improve clinical outcomes was demonstrated in a Phase II clinical trial, in which patients had high prevalence of sepsis. Even with these promising results, clinical delivery of cell therapy is hampered by manufacturing hurdles, including cell sourcing, large-scale device manufacture, storage and delivery. To address these limitations, the bioartificial renal epithelial cell system (BRECS) was developed. The BRECS contains human renal tubule epithelial cells derived from adult progenitor cells using enhanced propagation techniques. Cells were seeded onto trabeculated disks of niobium-coated carbon, held within cryopreservable, perfusable, injection-moulded polycarbonate housing. The study objective was to evaluate the BRECS in a porcine model of SS to establish conservation of efficacy after necessary cell sourcing and design modifications; a pre-clinical requirement to move back into clinical trials. SS was incited by peritoneal injection of E. coli simultaneous to insertion of BRECS (n=10) or control (n=15), into the ultrafiltrate biofeedback component of an extracorporeal circuit. Comparable to RAD, prolonged survival of the BRECS cohort was conveyed through stabilization of cardiac output and vascular leak. In conclusion, the demonstration of conserved efficacy with BRECS therapy in a porcine SS model represents a crucial step toward returning renal cell therapy to the clinical setting, initially targeting ICU patients with acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Advantages of a 3-parameter reduced constitutive model for the measurement of polymers elastic modulus using tensile tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, A.; André, S.; Delobelle, P.; Meshaka, Y.; Cunat, C.

    2016-11-01

    Exact measurements of the rheological parameters of time-dependent materials are crucial to improve our understanding of their intimate relation to the internal bulk microstructure. Concerning solid polymers and the apparently simple determination of Young's modulus in tensile tests, international standards rely on basic protocols that are known to lead to erroneous values. This paper describes an approach allowing a correct measurement of the instantaneous elastic modulus of polymers by a tensile test. It is based on the use of an appropriate reduced model to describe the behavior of the material up to great strains, together with well-established principles of parameter estimation in engineering science. These principles are objective tools that are used to determine which parameters of a model can be correctly identified according to the informational content of a given data set. The assessment of the methodology and of the measurements is accomplished by comparing the results with those obtained from two other physical experiments, probing the material response at small temporal and length scales, namely, ultrasound measurements with excitation at 5 MHz and modulated nanoindentation tests over a few nanometers of amplitude.

  6. Slow Steps towards Dual Earner/Dual Carer Family Model: Why Do Fathers Not Take Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Marre Karu; Kairi Kasearu

    2011-01-01

    The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/dual carer family model and focuses on fathers’ decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of ‘good parenting’ that play a role in the fathers’ intention to take parental lea...

  7. Advantages of using the CRISPR/Cas9 system of genome editing to investigate male reproductive mechanisms using mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. M. Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene disruption technology has long been beneficial for the study of male reproductive biology. However, because of the time and cost involved, this technology was not a viable method except in specialist laboratories. The advent of the CRISPR/Cas9 system of gene disruption has ushered in a new era of genetic investigation. Now, it is possible to generate gene-disrupted mouse models in very little time and at very little cost. This Highlight article discusses the application of this technology to study the genetics of male fertility and looks at some of the future uses of this system that could be used to reveal the essential and nonessential genetic components of male reproductive mechanisms.

  8. Hidden Markov model analysis reveals the advantage of analytic eye movement patterns in face recognition across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuk, Tim; Crookes, Kate; Hayward, William G; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H

    2017-12-01

    It remains controversial whether culture modulates eye movement behavior in face recognition. Inconsistent results have been reported regarding whether cultural differences in eye movement patterns exist, whether these differences affect recognition performance, and whether participants use similar eye movement patterns when viewing faces from different ethnicities. These inconsistencies may be due to substantial individual differences in eye movement patterns within a cultural group. Here we addressed this issue by conducting individual-level eye movement data analysis using hidden Markov models (HMMs). Each individual's eye movements were modeled with an HMM. We clustered the individual HMMs according to their similarities and discovered three common patterns in both Asian and Caucasian participants: holistic (looking mostly at the face center), left-eye-biased analytic (looking mostly at the two individual eyes in addition to the face center with a slight bias to the left eye), and right-eye-based analytic (looking mostly at the right eye in addition to the face center). The frequency of participants adopting the three patterns did not differ significantly between Asians and Caucasians, suggesting little modulation from culture. Significantly more participants (75%) showed similar eye movement patterns when viewing own- and other-race faces than different patterns. Most importantly, participants with left-eye-biased analytic patterns performed significantly better than those using either holistic or right-eye-biased analytic patterns. These results suggest that active retrieval of facial feature information through an analytic eye movement pattern may be optimal for face recognition regardless of culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Response-Time Approach to Comparing Generalized Rational and Take-the-Best Models of Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergert, F. Bryan; Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors develop and test generalized versions of take-the-best (TTB) and rational (RAT) models of multiattribute paired-comparison inference. The generalized models make allowances for subjective attribute weighting, probabilistic orders of attribute inspection, and noisy decision making. A key new test involves a response-time (RT)…

  10. The Model Of One-Type Aircraft Fleet Behaviour While Service And Advantages SHM V. NDT Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewitowicz Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper defines the essence of durability characteristics of the designing structure of an airframe in terms of flight safety. Particular attention is drawn to one of the main factors influencing the durability characteristics of the airframe – diagnostics system for the health assessment of the airframe during the process of operation. The effectiveness of the use of integrated solutions to the structure of the airframe providing a continuous assessment of the technical condition is presented. Continuous diagnostics system integrated with the airframe, SHM, is classified as an intelligent solution. This paper presents a model of the behavior of one-type aircraft operating in the air operator’s fleet in terms of susceptibility to failure. Justified assumption in the description of this behavior, in the form of a “bathtub curve”. The analysis is supported by real data of failures. The benefits of using a continuous diagnostics system integrated with the airframe, SHM, is interpreted in relation to the classical approach with the use of non-destructive testing, NDT, for the three phases of the bathtub curve.

  11. Taking Advantage of Alice to Teach Programming Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Learning the fundamentals of programming languages has always been a difficult task for students. It is equally challenging for lecturers to teach these concepts. A number of methods have been deployed by teachers to teach these concepts. This article analyses the result of a class test to identify fundamental programming concepts that students…

  12. TAKING ADVANTAGES OF KAIZEN TO IMPROVE LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kostenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper encapsulates the essence of kaizen system, its main elements and the possibility of use it in enhancing labour productivity. The study examines a specific of kaizen implementation in Japan, the U.S. and Europe as well as in Ukraine and Russia. The comparative analysis of traditional and kaizen management is presented.

  13. Chinese Textile Industry Still Taking Advantage on Export ( Part B )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Diversified export marketsWith China’s textile export markets -- particularlythose in the US -- being strongly affected by the adverseeffects of the ongoing global financial crisis, diversifyingexport markets has become the motto of China’stextile foreign trade policy, a safe way to provide newopportunities to Chinese exporters. In 2008, Chinesetextile exported to 226 countries and regions, of which,38 countries and regions achieved export value of over 1

  14. Take Advantage of Unique Technology for Broader Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Yuaqing

    2004-01-01

    @@ Jianghan Oil Field is an important base for petroleum exploration and development in South China. It is also the base for manufacture and export of China's first-class petroleum machinery equipment. The oil field has actively involved itself in international market competition and achieved satisfactory results in its efforts to implement the multinational operation strategy in recent three years.

  15. Taking advantage of sparsity in multi-task learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lounici, K.; Pontil, M.; Tsybakov, A. B.; van de Geer, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the problem of estimating multiple linear regression equations for the purpose of both prediction and variable selection. Following recent work on multi-task learning Argyriou et al. [2008], we assume that the regression vectors share the same sparsity pattern. This means that the set of relevant predictor variables is the same across the different equations. This assumption leads us to consider the Group Lasso as a candidate estimation method. We show that this estimator enjoys nice...

  16. Physical frailty and sarcopenia: taking advantage of their commonalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Cesari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical frailty and sarcopenia are two agerelated conditions indicated as key risk factors for incident disability and health-related negative events in the elderly. Nevertheless, to date, their clinical implementation is still limited, largely because of methodological ambiguities and disagreement about their operationalizations. In order to bypass the current stall-position in the field and try to identify an objective, standardized, and clinically relevant target for interventions, it might be hypothesized to redesign the limits of a pre-disability physical risk condition around the inner core shared by both physical frailty and sarcopenia. Thus, preliminary research initiatives [like the sarcopenia and physical frailty in older people: multicomponent treatment strategies (SPRINTT project] are proposing to explore whether physical frailty (or poor physical performance may represent the clinical manifestation of a specific biological substratum (i.e., low muscle mass on which build up novel interventions against disability in the elderly.

  17. Turn-Taking Model in the Chinese Recruitment Reality show-BelongtoYou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Fan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theories of conversational analysis proposed by Sacks et al,this paper chooses excerpts of candidates’inter-view from the Chinese recruitment reality TV show BelongtoYou in Tianjin TV. Through analyzing the excerpt, how the rules of turn-taking are applied in this program will be demonstrated. And the features of turn-taking strategies used by the host,candi-dates and bosses will be concluded.

  18. THE APPLICATION OF TYPOLOGY METHOD IN HISTORICAL BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING (HBIM TAKING THE INFORMATION SURVEYING AND MAPPING OF JIAYUGUAN FORTRESS TOWN AS AN EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the promotion of fine degree of the heritage building surveying and mapping, building information modelling technology(BIM begins to be used in surveying and mapping, renovation, recording and research of heritage building, called historical building information modelling(HBIM. The hierarchical frameworks of parametric component library of BIM, belonging to the same type with the same parameters, has the same internal logic with archaeological typology which is more and more popular in the age identification of ancient buildings. Compared with the common materials, 2D drawings and photos, typology with HBIM has two advantages — (1 comprehensive building information both in collection and representation and (2 uniform and reasonable classification criteria This paper will take the information surveying and mapping of Jiayuguan Fortress Town as an example to introduce the field work method of information surveying and mapping based on HBIM technology and the construction of Revit family library.And then in order to prove the feasibility and advantage of HBIM technology used in typology method, this paper will identify the age of Guanghua gate tower, Rouyuan gate tower, Wenchang pavilion and the theater building of Jiayuguan Fortress Town with HBIM technology and typology method.

  19. Much damage for little advantage: Field studies and morphodynamic modelling highlight the environmental impact of an apparently minor coastal mismanagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagna, Roberta; Montefalcone, Monica; Albertelli, Giancarlo; Corradi, Nicola; Ferrari, Marco; Morri, Carla; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2011-09-01

    While coastal management activities have long been known to exert a strong influence on the health of marine ecosystems, neither scientists nor administrators have realized that small interventions may lead to disproportionately larger impacts. This study investigated the broad and long-lasting environmental consequences of the construction of an ill-planned, although small (only 12 m long) jetty for pleasure crafts on the hydrodynamic conditions and on the meadow of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica of an embayed cove in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). There, P. oceanica used to develop on a high (>1.5 m) matte (a lignified terrace causing seafloor elevation) in which the leaves reach the surface and form a compact natural barrier to waves in front of the beach. Such a so-called 'fringing reef' of P. oceanica is today recognized of high ecological value and specific conservation efforts are required. The construction of the jetty implied the cutting of the matte, which directly destroyed part of the fringing reef. In addition, meadow mapping and sedimentological analyses coupled with morphodynamic modelling showed that the ecosystem of the whole cove had been greatly altered by the jetty. We used the geometric planform approach, a proper tool in the study of headland-controlled embayment, both to characterise the present situation of Prelo cove and to simulate the original one, before the jetty was built. In the long term, such a small jetty completely altered the configuration and the hydrodynamic conditions of the whole cove, splitting the original pocket beach into two smaller ones and creating strong rip-currents flowing seaward along the jetty. These rip-currents enhanced erosion of residual shallow portions of the meadow and further modified the sedimentary fluxes in shallow waters. A century after the construction of the jetty, an irreversible environmental damage has occurred, as the slow growing rate of P. oceanica implies that the high matte terrace

  20. Evolutionary biology studies on the Iris pumila clonal plant: Advantages of a good model system, main findings and directions for further research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasjev A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary studies on the dwarf bearded iris, Iris pumila L., a perennial clonal monocot with hermaphroditic enthomophylous flowers, have been conducted during the last three decades on plants and populations from the Deliblato Sands in Serbia. In this review we discuss the main advantages of this model system that have enabled various studies of several important genetic, ecological, and evolutionary issues at different levels of biological organization (molecular, physiological, anatomical, morphological and population. Based on published research and its resonance in international scientific literature, we present the main findings obtained from these studies, and discuss possible directions for further research.

  1. A phylogenetic test of the size-advantage model: evolutionary changes in mating behavior influence the loss of sex change in a fish lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisman, Brad E; Craig, Matthew T; Hastings, Philip A

    2009-09-01

    The size-advantage model asserts that mating behavior influences the incidence and direction of sex change in animals. Selection for protogyny (female to male sex change) occurs in mating systems in which large males monopolize and pair spawn with females; however, gonochorism (no sex change) is favored when adults spawn in groups and sperm competition is present. Despite widespread empirical and theoretical support for the model, these predictions have not been tested within a phylogenetic context. Here we show that the loss of sex change within a lineage of reef fishes is influenced by evolutionary changes in two traits related to their mating behavior: mating group structure and sperm competition intensity. Phylogenetic reconstructions of the reproductive evolution of groupers (Epinephelidae) indicate that protogyny and paired spawning are the ancestral conditions for the lineage; both gonochorism and group spawning evolved independently at least four times in three different genera. Evolutionary transformations from protogyny to gonochorism (loss of sex change) are associated with equivalent transformations in mating group structure from paired to group spawning, and sperm competition is considerably higher in gonochoric species than in protogynous species. These results provide explicit phylogenetic support for predictions of the size-advantage model, demonstrating that selection for protogynous sex change decreases as mating group size and sperm competition intensity increase.

  2. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...

  3. Heterozygote advantage for fecundity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J Gemmell

    Full Text Available Heterozygote advantage, or overdominance, remains a popular and persuasive explanation for the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations in the face of selection. However, despite being first proposed more than 80 years ago, there remain few examples that fit the criteria for heterozygote advantage, all of which are associated with disease resistance and are maintained only in the presence of disease or other gene-by-environment interaction. Here we report five new examples of heterozygote advantage, based around polymorphisms in the BMP15 and GDF9 genes that affect female fecundity in domesticated sheep and are not reliant on disease for their maintenance. Five separate mutations in these members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta superfamily give phenotypes with fitness differentials characteristic of heterozygous advantage. In each case, one copy of the mutant allele increases ovulation rate, and ultimately litter size per ewe lambing, relative to the wildtype. However, homozygous ewes inheriting mutant alleles from both parents have impaired oocyte development and maturation, which results in small undeveloped ovaries and infertility. Using data collected over many years on ovulation rates, litter size, and lambing rates, we have calculated the equilibrium solution for each of these polymorphisms using standard population genetic theory. The predicted equilibrium frequencies obtained for these mutant alleles range from 0.11 to 0.23, which are amongst the highest yet reported for a polymorphism maintained by heterozygote advantage. These are amongst the most frequent and compelling examples of heterozygote advantage yet described and the first documented examples of heterozygote advantage that are not reliant on a disease interaction for their maintenance.

  4. PolarTREC—A Model Program for Taking Polar Literacy into the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Timm, K.; Larson, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Polar TREC—Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, is a three-year (2007-2009) NSF-funded International Polar Year (IPY) teacher professional development program that advances Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education by improving teacher content knowledge and instructional practices through Teacher Research Experiences (TRE) in the Arctic and Antarctic. Leveraging profound changes and fascinating science taking place in the polar regions, PolarTREC broadly disseminates activities and products to students, educators, researchers, and the public, connecting them with the Arctic and Antarctica and sustaining the widespread interest in the polar regions and building on the enthusiasm that was generated through IPY. Central to the PolarTREC Teacher Research Experience Model, over 40 teachers have spent two to eight weeks participating in hands-on research in the polar regions and sharing their experiences with diverse audiences via live events, online multimedia journals, and interactive bulletin boards. The Connecting Arctic/Antarctic Researchers and Educators (CARE) Network unifies learning community members participants, alumni, and others, developing a sustainable association of education professionals networking to share and apply polar STEM content and pedagogical skills. Educator and student feedback from preliminary results of the program evaluation has shown that PolarTREC’s comprehensive program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes in key areas including amount of time spent in school exploring research activities, importance of understanding science for future work, importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today’s world, as well as increased self-reported knowledge and interest in numerous science content areas. Building

  5. The Size Advantage Model of Sex Allocation in the Protandrous Sex-Changer Crepidula fornicata: Role of the Mating System, Sperm Storage, and Male Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broquet, Thomas; Barranger, Audrey; Billard, Emmanuelle; Bestin, Anastasia; Berger, Rémy; Honnaert, Gaelle; Viard, Frédérique

    2015-09-01

    Sequential hermaphroditism is adaptive when the reproductive value of an individual varies with size or age, and this relationship differs between males and females. In this case, theory shows that the lifetime reproductive output of an individual is increased by changing sex (a hypothesis referred to as the size-advantage model). Sex-linked differences in size-fitness curves can stem from differential costs of reproduction, the mating system, and differences in growth and mortality between sexes. Detailed empirical data is required to disentangle the relative roles of each of these factors within the theory. Quantitative data are also needed to explore the role of sperm storage, which has not yet been considered with sequential hermaphrodites. Using experimental rearing and paternity assignment, we report relationships between size and reproductive success of Crepidula fornicata, a protandrous (male-first) gastropod. Male reproductive success increased with size due to the polygamous system and stacking behavior of the species, but females nonetheless had greater reproductive success than males of the same size, in agreement with the size-advantage theory. Sperm storage appeared to be a critical determinant of success for both sexes, and modeling the effect of sperm storage showed that it could potentially accelerate sex change in protandrous species.

  6. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  7. A Model of Communicative Perspective-Taking for Typical and Atypical Populations of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Fecica, Agnieszka M.

    2011-01-01

    Successful communication requires that individuals attend to the perspective of their conversational partners and use this information to modify their behavior accordingly. This paper presents a framework by which to understand children's communicative perspective-taking skills and, within this framework, outlines three routes by which children's…

  8. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some......In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...

  9. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...

  10. Accessing offshoring advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to advance the understanding of factors that affect offshoring performance results. To do so, this paper focuses on the access to location-specific advantages, rather than solely on the properties of the offshoring company, its strategy or environment....... Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...... (getting or not getting access to them) is a more reliable predictor of offshoring success. Design/methodology/approach – Aset of hypotheses derived from the extant literature is tested on the data from a quantitative survey of 1,143 Scandinavian firms. Findings – The paper demonstrates that different...

  11. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...

  12. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....... of relationships to these historical contributions. Thus, we propose that Scandinavia offers a particularly promising context from which to draw inspiration regarding effective company-stakeholder cooperation and where ample of examples of what is more recently referred to as “creating shared value” can be found...

  13. THE MODEL OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES ENDURANCE, WITH TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE EVOLUTION OF THEIR MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Gorobets

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the mathematical model describing the process of changing a limit of durability of the railway rolling stock materials and structures with taking into account the change of parameters of durability curve during loading them is presented.

  14. Closing the Gaps : Taking into Account the Effects of Heat stress and Fatique Modeling in an Operational Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodill, G.; Barbier, R.R.; Fiamingo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional, combat model based analysis of Dismounted Combatant Operations (DCO) has focused on the ‘lethal’ aspects in an engagement, and to a limited extent the environment in which the engagement takes place. These are however only two of the factors that should be taken into account when conduc

  15. SpxB is a suicide gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae and confers a selective advantage in an in vivo competitive colonization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev-Yochay, Gili; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Thompson, Claudette M; Lipsitch, Marc; Malley, Richard

    2007-09-01

    The human bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae dies spontaneously upon reaching stationary phase. The extent of S. pneumoniae death at stationary phase is unusual in bacteria and has been conventionally attributed to autolysis by the LytA amidase. In this study, we show that spontaneous pneumococcal death is due to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), not LytA, and that the gene responsible for H(2)O(2) production (spxB) also confers a survival advantage in colonization. Survival of S. pneumoniae in stationary phase was significantly prolonged by eliminating H(2)O(2) in any of three ways: chemically by supplementing the media with catalase, metabolically by growing the bacteria under anaerobic conditions, or genetically by constructing DeltaspxB mutants that do not produce H(2)O(2). Likewise, addition of H(2)O(2) to exponentially growing S. pneumoniae resulted in a death rate similar to that of cells in stationary phase. While DeltalytA mutants did not lyse at stationary phase, they died at a rate similar to that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we show that the death process induced by H(2)O(2) has features of apoptosis, as evidenced by increased annexin V staining, decreased DNA content, and appearance as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Finally, in an in vivo rat model of competitive colonization, the presence of spxB conferred a selective advantage over the DeltaspxB mutant, suggesting an explanation for the persistence of this gene. We conclude that a suicide gene of pneumococcus is spxB, which induces an apoptosis-like death in pneumococci and confers a selective advantage in nasopharyngeal cocolonization.

  16. Sign Language Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Marilyn

    2001-01-01

    Describes Sign in Education, a pilot program in the United Kingdom that integrated Deaf children and hearing children in a hearing classroom with a culturally Deaf teacher who taught the national curriculum in British Sign Language one afternoon a week. Explores the advantage to the Deaf community, as well as the majority culture of adopting such…

  17. Advantages of Team Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John

    1973-01-01

    Describes a high school biology program which successfully utilizes team teaching. Outlines the advantages of team teaching and how it is used in the large group lecture-discussion situation, with small groups in the laboratory and on field trips. (JR)

  18. Taking the mystery out of mathematical model applications to karst aquifers—A primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in mathematical model applications toward the understanding of the complex flow, characterization, and water-supply management issues for karst aquifers have occurred in recent years. Different types of mathematical models can be applied successfully if appropriate information is available and the problems are adequately identified. The mathematical approaches discussed in this paper are divided into three major categories: 1) distributed parameter models, 2) lumped parameter models, and 3) fitting models. The modeling approaches are described conceptually with examples (but without equations) to help non-mathematicians understand the applications.

  19. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    Drawing upon extant alliance literature, this article substantiates the argument that we need to look beyond mere structural and formative aspects of cooperation in order to fully understand the performance antecedents of public-private partnerships. Currently, scholarly work on operational...... processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...

  20. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...... of the present theory to understanding Chinese firms. I conclude with managerial implications and suggestions for future research....

  1. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    to failure several times. Before the current situation of the company, it remains challenging in the future as well. Hence, the Nespresso story provides interesting space for discussion and learning about what innovation is, how innovation emerges, and under which circumstances innovation can serve...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...... offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and the success of a company on the long term. The case is designed to give practitioners a better understanding on what an innovation as, and how competitive advantages can be linked to innovation. Originality/value This case of Nespresso...

  2. Localization path of social work in school from the perspective of advantage --Take Zhejiang province Jinhua city as an example%优势视角下学校社会工作本土化路径探析--以浙江省金华市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凯; 曾辉

    2013-01-01

    学校社会工作在我国尚处于萌芽阶段。文章以浙江金华市为例,通过对十几所中小学的走访调查,结合作者自身实务经验,以优势视角出发,从学校、学生、家长、教师、资源等不同层面分析了金华市发展学校社会工作的挑战与优势,以本土化为基础,提出了发展策略。%The school social work in China is still in the embryonic stage. This paper takes Zhejiang Jinhua as an example, through the investigation on visiting dozens of schools, combines with the author's own practical experience, starting from the perspective of advantages, from different levels of schools, students, parents, teachers, resources, to analyze the challenges and advantages in the development of school social work in Jinhua city, the localization as the foundation, to propose the development strategy.

  3. 基于破坏性创新的后发企业竞争优势--以小米公司为例%The Competitive Advantages of Entrant Enterprises Based on Disruptive Innovation:Taking Xiaomi Company as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启贵; 范璐

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of summarizing related literature,this article puts forward the analytical framework of disruptive innovation’s competitive advantages for the entrant enterprises.The article takes Xiaomi Company as a case to analyze the disruptive innovation’s competitive advantages for the entrant enterprises from the internal value network and the external ecosystem.The article expounds how the mobile phone company like xiaomi set up their own competitive advantages.The significance of the article lies in further verifying the theory of disruptive innovation,making an effective supplement and development for the theory of disruptive innovation,and providing some references for Chinese entrant enterprises to imple-ment the disruptive innovation.%在梳理相关文献的基础上,构建后发企业实施破坏性创新战略的竞争优势理论框架,以小米公司为例,从内在价值网络和外在生态系统的层面分析后发企业实施破坏性创新战略的竞争优势,阐述小米手机如何建立起自身的竞争优势。其研究意义不仅在于进一步验证破坏性创新理论,而且是对破坏性创新理论的有效补充和发展,以期为我国后发企业如何实施破坏性创新战略提供一些启示。

  4. Cooperative resources lead to sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze how organizational resources contribute to cooperatives achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The theoretical approach of this study is the Resource Based View and VRIO model advocated by Barney and Hesterly (2007. The research was characterized as descriptive and quantitative, through data collection from secondary sources and a survey. The data collection tool was a questionnaire devised by Peacock, Sehnem and Hoffmann (2011. Data collection took place between the months of September 2014 and March 2015. The study sample was composed of a total of 215 cooperatives from across the country, divided into 13 segments. Secondary data was subjected to content analysis. The primary data was analyzed using statistical inference, namely: descriptive statistics, mean, Pearson correlation, Varimax rotation and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results showed that human resources are seen as important to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. This research contributed to and enables new studies concerning the growth of cooperatives taking into account the use of internal resources.

  5. Take it NP-easy: Bounded model construction for duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Following the recent successes of bounded model-checking, we reconsider the problem of constructing models of discrete-time Duration Calculus formulae. While this problem is known to be non-elementary when arbitrary length models are considered [Hansen94], it turns out to be only NP-complete when...... constrained to bounded length. As a corollary we obtain that model construction is in NP for the formulae actually encountered in case studies using Duration Calculus, as these have a certain small-model property. First experiments with a prototype implementation of the procedures demonstrate a competitive...

  6. Advantages of using development models of the carrion beetles Thanatophilus micans (Fabricius) and T. mutilatus (Castelneau) (Coleoptera: Silphidae) for estimating minimum post mortem intervals, verified with case data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, J A; Midgley, J M; Collett, I J; Villet, M H

    2014-01-01

    Some beetles are as useful as blow flies for estimating the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin) or time since death. Examples include Thanatophilus micans (Fabricius) and Thanatophilus mutilatus (Castelneau), two geographically and ecologically overlapping African beetles. Molecular means of identifying these species, descriptions of their natural history, thermal summation models for the development of each species, and a case in which T. micans was recovered are presented. These beetles colonise bodies soon after death, their development spans more time than that of flies, and they may be little affected by maggot-generated heat. From an experimental perspective, they can be reared individually, which allows the identification of sick individuals and has analytical advantages relative to fly larvae that must be reared in groups. Estimating minimum post mortem intervals for both species using the case data strongly suggests that developmental models parameterised for one species should not be used to make forensic estimates for closely related species for which no specific model is available and emphasises the need for correct identifications.

  7. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  8. Mathematical modeling taking into account of intrinsic kinetic properties of cylinder-type vanadium catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振兴; 李洪桂; 王零森

    2004-01-01

    The method to calculate internal surface effective factor of cylinder-type vanadium catalyst Ls-9 was given. Based on hypothesis of subjunctive one dimension diffusion and combined shape adjustment factor with threestep catalytic mechanism model, the macroscopic kinetic model equation about SO2 oxidation on Ls-9 was deduced.With fixed-bed integral reactor and under the conditions of temperature 350 - 410 ℃, space velocity 1 800 - 5 000h-1, SO2 inlet content 7 %- 12%, the macroscopic kinetic data were detected. Through model parameter estimation,the macroscopic kinetic model equation was obtained.

  9. Model based design of efficient power take-off systems for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2011-01-01

    an essential part of the PTO, being the only technology having the required force densities. The focus of this paper is to show the achievable efficiency of a PTO system based on a conventional hydro-static transmission topology. The design is performed using a model based approach. Generic component models...

  10. Demand model for production of an enterprise taking into account factor of consumer expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Potrashkova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a dynamic mathematical model of demand for innovative and uninnovative production of enterprises. The model allows to estimate future demand as a result of consumer expectations of production quality. Consumer expectations are considered as the resource component of enterprise marketing potential.

  11. A method for improving predictive modeling by taking into account lag time: Example of selenium bioaccumulation in a flowing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckon, William N., E-mail: William_Beckon@fws.gov

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A method for estimating response time in cause-effect relationships is demonstrated. • Predictive modeling is appreciably improved by taking into account this lag time. • Bioaccumulation lag is greater for organisms at higher trophic levels. • This methodology may be widely applicable in disparate disciplines. - Abstract: For bioaccumulative substances, efforts to predict concentrations in organisms at upper trophic levels, based on measurements of environmental exposure, have been confounded by the appreciable but hitherto unknown amount of time it may take for bioaccumulation to occur through various pathways and across several trophic transfers. The study summarized here demonstrates an objective method of estimating this lag time by testing a large array of potential lag times for selenium bioaccumulation, selecting the lag that provides the best regression between environmental exposure (concentration in ambient water) and concentration in the tissue of the target organism. Bioaccumulation lag is generally greater for organisms at higher trophic levels, reaching times of more than a year in piscivorous fish. Predictive modeling of bioaccumulation is improved appreciably by taking into account this lag. More generally, the method demonstrated here may improve the accuracy of predictive modeling in a wide variety of other cause-effect relationships in which lag time is substantial but inadequately known, in disciplines as diverse as climatology (e.g., the effect of greenhouse gases on sea levels) and economics (e.g., the effects of fiscal stimulus on employment).

  12. Products of Hidden Markov Models: It Takes N>1 to Tango

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham W

    2012-01-01

    Products of Hidden Markov Models(PoHMMs) are an interesting class of generative models which have received little attention since their introduction. This maybe in part due to their more computationally expensive gradient-based learning algorithm,and the intractability of computing the log likelihood of sequences under the model. In this paper, we demonstrate how the partition function can be estimated reliably via Annealed Importance Sampling. We perform experiments using contrastive divergence learning on rainfall data and data captured from pairs of people dancing. Our results suggest that advances in learning and evaluation for undirected graphical models and recent increases in available computing power make PoHMMs worth considering for complex time-series modeling tasks.

  13. Physical and Theoretical Models of Heat Pollution Applied to Cramped Conditions Welding Taking into Account the Different Types of Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygin, Y. I.; Koronchik, D. A.; Legkonogikh, A. N.; Zharkova, M. G.; Azimova, N. N.

    2017-05-01

    The standard k-epsilon turbulence model, adapted for welding workshops, equipped with fixed workstations with sources of pollution took into account only the convective component of heat transfer, which is quite reasonable for large-volume rooms (with low density distribution of sources of pollution) especially the results of model calculations taking into account only the convective component correlated well with experimental data. For the purposes of this study, when we are dealing with a small confined space where necessary to take account of the body heated to a high temperature (for welding), located next to each other as additional sources of heat, it can no longer be neglected radiative heat exchange. In the task - to experimentally investigate the various types of heat transfer in a limited closed space for welding and behavior of a mathematical model, describing the contribution of the various components of the heat exchange, including radiation, influencing the formation of fields of concentration, temperature, air movement and thermal stress in the test environment. Conducted field experiments to model cubic body, allowing you to configure and debug the model of heat and mass transfer processes with the help of the developed approaches, comparing the measurement results of air flow velocity and temperature with the calculated data showed qualitative and quantitative agreement between process parameters, that is an indicator of the adequacy of heat and mass transfer model.

  14. Modeling Innovative Power Take-Off Based on Double-Acting Hydraulic Cylinders Array for Wave Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Antolín-Urbaneja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the key systems of a Wave Energy Converter for extraction of wave energy is the Power Take-Off (PTO device. This device transforms the mechanical energy of a moving body into electrical energy. This paper describes the model of an innovative PTO based on independently activated double-acting hydraulic cylinders array. The model has been developed using a simulation tool, based on a port-based approach to model hydraulics systems. The components and subsystems used in the model have been parameterized as real components and their values experimentally obtained from an existing prototype. In fact, the model takes into account most of the hydraulic losses of each component. The simulations show the flexibility to apply different restraining torques to the input movement depending on the geometrical configuration and the hydraulic cylinders on duty, easily modified by a control law. The combination of these two actions allows suitable flexibility to adapt the device to different sea states whilst optimizing the energy extraction. The model has been validated using a real test bench showing good correlations between simulation and experimental tests.

  15. Mathematical modelling of complex equilibria taking into account experimental data on activities of components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, L.S.; Evseev, A.M.; Rozen, A.M.; Bobytev, A.P.; Kir' yanov, Yu.A. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1981-09-01

    The extraction systems, the application of which is possible when reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuels are considered. It is shown that the selection of the component activities as the observed properties of the system (responses) provides a possibility to model the equilibria using methods of the regression analysis. The mathematical model of nitric acid extraction with tributyl phosphate is presented. The data on the composition of the complexes in the system studied, obtained by the method of mathematical modelling, are confirmed with the study of the IR spectra of the extracts.

  16. Loading Processes Dynamics Modelling Taking into Account the Bucket-Soil Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Debeleac

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The author propose three dynamic models specialized for the vibrations and resistive forces analysis that appear at the loading process with different construction equipment like frontal loaders and excavators.The models used putting into evidence the components of digging: penetration, cutting, and loading.The conclusions of this study consist by evidentiate the dynamic overloads that appear on the working state and that induced the self-oscillations into the equipment structure.

  17. Modelling of L-valine Repeated Fed-batch Fermentation Process Taking into Account the Dissolved Oxygen Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanko Georgiev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with synthesis of dynamic unstructured model of variable volume fed-batch fermentation process with intensive droppings for L-valine production. The presented approach of the investigation includes the following main procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing and calculation of specific rates for main kinetic variables; identification of the specific rates takes into account the dissolved oxygen tension; establishment and optimisation of dynamic model of the process; simulation researches. MATLAB is used as a research environment.

  18. Taking off the training wheels: the properties of a dynamic vegetation model without climate envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R. A.; Muszala, S.; Verteinstein, M.; Lawrence, P.; Xu, C.; McDowell, N. G.; Knox, R. G.; Koven, C.; Holm, J.; Rogers, B. M.; Lawrence, D.; Bonan, G.

    2015-04-01

    We describe an implementation of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) concept in the Community Land Model. The structure of CLM(ED) and the physiological and structural modifications applied to the CLM are presented. A major motivation of this development is to allow the prediction of biome boundaries directly from plant physiological traits via their competitive interactions. Here we investigate the performance of the model for an example biome boundary in Eastern North America. We explore the sensitivity of the predicted biome boundaries and ecosystem properties to the variation of leaf properties determined by the parameter space defined by the GLOPNET global leaf trait database. Further, we investigate the impact of four sequential alterations to the structural assumptions in the model governing the relative carbon economy of deciduous and evergreen plants. The default assumption is that the costs and benefits of deciduous vs. evergreen leaf strategies, in terms of carbon assimilation and expenditure, can reproduce the geographical structure of biome boundaries and ecosystem functioning. We find some support for this assumption, but only under particular combinations of model traits and structural assumptions. Many questions remain regarding the preferred methods for deployment of plant trait information in land surface models. In some cases, plant traits might best be closely linked with each other, but we also find support for direct linkages to environmental conditions. We advocate for intensified study of the costs and benefits of plant life history strategies in different environments, and for the increased use of parametric and structural ensembles in the development and analysis of complex vegetation models.

  19. Taking dietary habits into account: A computational method for modeling food choices that goes beyond price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Igusa, Takeru

    2017-01-01

    Computational models have gained popularity as a predictive tool for assessing proposed policy changes affecting dietary choice. Specifically, they have been used for modeling dietary changes in response to economic interventions, such as price and income changes. Herein, we present a novel addition to this type of model by incorporating habitual behaviors that drive individuals to maintain or conform to prior eating patterns. We examine our method in a simulated case study of food choice behaviors of low-income adults in the US. We use data from several national datasets, including the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and the USDA, to parameterize our model and develop predictive capabilities in 1) quantifying the influence of prior diet preferences when food budgets are increased and 2) simulating the income elasticities of demand for four food categories. Food budgets can increase because of greater affordability (due to food aid and other nutritional assistance programs), or because of higher income. Our model predictions indicate that low-income adults consume unhealthy diets when they have highly constrained budgets, but that even after budget constraints are relaxed, these unhealthy eating behaviors are maintained. Specifically, diets in this population, before and after changes in food budgets, are characterized by relatively low consumption of fruits and vegetables and high consumption of fat. The model results for income elasticities also show almost no change in consumption of fruit and fat in response to changes in income, which is in agreement with data from the World Bank's International Comparison Program (ICP). Hence, the proposed method can be used in assessing the influences of habitual dietary patterns on the effectiveness of food policies.

  20. Mathematical modeling of pigment dispersion taking into account the full agglomerate particle size distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2017-01-01

    particle size distribution was simulated. Data from two previous experimental investigations were used for model validation. The first concerns two different yellow organic pigments dispersed in nitrocellulose/ethanol vehicles in a ball mill and the second a red organic pigment dispersed in a solvent-based....... The only adjustable parameter used was an apparent rate constant for the linear agglomerate erosion rate. Model simulations, at selected values of time, for the full agglomerate particle size distribution were in good qualitative agreement with the measured values. A quantitative match of the experimental...

  1. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  2. Slow Steps towards Dual Earner/Dual Carer Family Model: Why Do Fathers Not Take Parental Leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marre Karu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/dual carer family model and focuses on fathers’ decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of ‘good parenting’ that play a role in the fathers’ intention to take parental leave. First, there is an image of an outcome-oriented ‘project manager’ affected by failure anxiety, and second, there is a much more relaxed image of a ‘good parent’ as a ‘companion’ who values everyday contact and a close relationship with the child(ren.

  3. Models of Verbal Working Memory Capacity: What Does It Take to Make Them Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Blume, Christopher L.; Saults, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Theories of working memory (WM) capacity limits will be more useful when we know what aspects of performance are governed by the limits and what aspects are governed by other memory mechanisms. Whereas considerable progress has been made on models of WM capacity limits for visual arrays of separate objects, less progress has been made in…

  4. It takes two to tango: Equilibria in a model of sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Baye (Michael); D. Kovenock (Dan); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe show that the Varian model of sales with more than two firms has two types of equilibria: a unique symmetric equilibrium, and a continuum of asymmetric equilibria. In contrast, the 2-firm game has a unique equilibrium that is symmetric. For the n-firm case the asymmetric equilibria im

  5. Modeling Student Test-Taking Motivation in the Context of an Adaptive Achievement Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the utility of response time-based analyses in understanding the behavior of unmotivated test takers. For the data from an adaptive achievement test, patterns of observed rapid-guessing behavior and item response accuracy were compared to the behavior expected under several types of models that have been proposed to represent…

  6. It Takes One to Know One: A Class Exercise in Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    An active learning class exercise is presented that gives students the personal experience of the decision-making limitations of mental models. This innovative exercise was shown to increase student learning through greater understanding of the concept and higher retention of knowledge. The results suggest that student critical thinking skills…

  7. "What Will It Take" Project. Washington Quality Education Model. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, David; Freund, William

    This report discusses what constitutes an adequate education in the state of Washington. It focuses on the Washington Quality Education Model (WQEM)--a new program created to define the vision of quality education--as well as the elements and indicators that constitute such an education. The goal of the program is to determine the kinds of staff,…

  8. Taking the Error Term of the Factor Model into Account: The Factor Score Predictor Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauducel, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The problem of factor score indeterminacy implies that the factor and the error scores cannot be completely disentangled in the factor model. It is therefore proposed to compute Harman's factor score predictor that contains an additive combination of factor and error variance. This additive combination is discussed in the framework of classical…

  9. Thermodynamic Modeling of Developed Structural Turbulence Taking into Account Fluctuations of Energy Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnichenko, A. V.

    2004-03-01

    A thermodynamic approach to the construction of a phenomenological macroscopic model of developed turbulence in a compressible fluid is considered with regard for the formation of space-time dissipative structures. A set of random variables were introduced into the model as internal parameters of the turbulent-chaos subsystem. This allowed us to obtain, by methods of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, the kinetic Fokker-Planck equation in the configuration space. This equation serves to determine the temporary evolution of the conditional probability distribution function of structural parameters pertaining to the cascade process of fragmentation of large-scale eddies and temperature inhomogeneities and to analyze Markovian stochastic processes of transition from one nonequilibrium stationary turbulent-motion state to another as a result of successive loss of stability caused by a change in the governing parameters. An alternative method for investigating the mechanisms of such transitions, based on the stochastic Langevin-type equation intimately related to the derived kinetic equation, is also considered. Some postulates and physical and mathematical assumptions used in the thermodynamic model of structurized turbulence are discussed in detail. In particular, we considered, using the deterministic transport equation for conditional means, the cardinal problem of the developed approach-the possibility of the existence of asymptotically stable stationary states of the turbulent-chaos subsystem. Also proposed is the nonequilibrium thermodynamic potential for internal coordinates, which extends the well-known Boltzmann-Planck relationship for equilibrium states to the nonequilibrium stationary states of the representing ensemble. This potential is shown to be the Lyapunov function for such states. The relation is also explored between the internal intermittence in the inertial interval of scales and the fluctuations of the energy of dissipation. This study is aimed at

  10. When the brain takes a break: a model-based analysis of mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittner, Matthias; Boekel, Wouter; Tucker, Adrienne M; Turner, Brandon M; Heathcote, Andrew; Forstmann, Birte U

    2014-12-03

    Mind wandering is an ubiquitous phenomenon in everyday life. In the cognitive neurosciences, mind wandering has been associated with several distinct neural processes, most notably increased activity in the default mode network (DMN), suppressed activity within the anti-correlated (task-positive) network (ACN), and changes in neuromodulation. By using an integrative multimodal approach combining machine-learning techniques with modeling of latent cognitive processes, we show that mind wandering in humans is characterized by inefficiencies in executive control (task-monitoring) processes. This failure is predicted by a single-trial signature of (co)activations in the DMN, ACN, and neuromodulation, and accompanied by a decreased rate of evidence accumulation and response thresholds in the cognitive model.

  11. Modeling Malicious Domain Name Take-down Dynamics: Why eCrime Pays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    in measuring the economic cost of cybercrime [18]. This is a difficult multi-disciplinary task, and there is still more work to be done. [18] also...than zero. In theory, there are five costs to model in (5). In reality, for international cybercrime at least, Cxc is essentially zero.1 This is because...must hold: 1There are no international treaties to account for international cybercrime . The bilateral treaties that exist are avoided by the

  12. 太极图向太极球演进的意义%The advantages of transforming Tai Chi diagram model to Tai Chi ball model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽文; 刘银伟; 叶柏川; 潘毅

    2009-01-01

    太极图是用图画的方式对阴阳学说的高度概括,反映了宇宙生命的圆形运动规律,是宇宙生命的最佳理论模型.但二维空间描绘的太极图表述阴阳学说内容方面具有平面化和绝对化的遗憾,而"太极球"的三维空间,扩展了"太极图"二维空间的局限性.太极球蕴含太极图,以"太极球"的形象思维方法去解释和表达中医学理论,弥补了平面"太极图"抽象思维方法难以完成的理论及临床现象的解释,能更直观地体现中医整体观和恒动观.%Tai Chi diagram is a general describing for the theory of yin and yang in a way of picture and has been taken as the best model reflecting the rhythms Of lives in the universe.However,as a two-dimensional space picture model,Tai Chi diagram can only depictthe theory of yin and yang in a plane and absolute way.On the country Tai Chi ball modelcan overcome the limitations of Tai Chi diagram model and can explain the theory of yin and yang more thoroughly as well.Tai Chi ball model inherits Tai Chi diagram model'S image thinking and using it to interpret and express the theory of Chinese Medicine,which can also explain some theory and clinical phenomenon Tai Chi diagram model can't and embody concept of wholism and lasting movement of Chinese Medicine more directly.

  13. Mobile Outreach Crisis Services (MOCS): an innovative model for taking psychiatric care into the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarley, T D; Yates, W R

    1998-11-01

    Mobile outreach psychiatric services have become a popular model of providing care to the mentally ill. A mobile program has been instituted in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to provide care to homeless mentally ill in Tulsa County and to assist with emergency crisis intervention. The SPMI (Severely and Persistently Mentally III) have been a challenge for both medical and psychiatric providers, and MOCS (Mobile Outreach Crisis Services) was developed to address these problems. This article describes MOCS, briefly reviews recent literature, and discusses ways this program can benefit primary care physicians.

  14. Taking into account topography rapid variations in forward modelling and inverse problems in seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdeville, Y.; Jean-Jacques, M.

    2011-12-01

    The modeling of seismic elastic wave full waveform in a limited frequency band is now well established with a set of efficient numerical methods like the spectral element, the discontinuous Galerking or the finite difference methods. The constant increase of computing power with time has now allowed the use of seismic elastic wave full waveforms in a limited frequency band to image the elastic properties of the earth. Nevertheless, inhomogeneities of scale much smaller the minimum wavelength of the wavefield associated to the maximum frequency of the limited frequency band, are still a challenge for both forward and inverse problems. In this work, we tackle the problem of a topography varying much faster than the minimum wavelength. Using a non periodic homogenization theory and a matching asymptotic technique, we show how to remove the fast variation of the topography and replace it by a smooth Dirichlet to Neumann operator at the surface. After showing some 2D forward modeling numerical examples, we will discuss the implications of such a development for both forward and inverse problems.

  15. BUSINESS COMPETITORS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of competition, both from the perspective of the economic sector –where it is characteristic for pure monopole, oligopoly, monopole competition and pure competition, as well asfrom the market’s point of view – where it determines the strategies, objectives, advantages and weaknesses of acompany. The main point of the paper is the criticism of the pure and perfect competition theory. Concluding,the author insists on innovation, especially on the model of open innovation.

  16. Probabilistic model, analysis and computer code for take-off and landing related aircraft crashes into a structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, R.

    1996-02-06

    A methodology is presented that allows the calculation of the probability that any of a particular collection of structures will be hit by an aircraft in a take-off or landing related accident during a specified window of time with a velocity exceeding a given critical value. A probabilistic model is developed that incorporates the location of each structure relative to airport runways in the vicinity; the size of the structure; the sizes, types, and frequency of use of commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft which take-off and land at these runways; the relative frequency of take-off and landing related accidents by aircraft type; the stochastic properties of off-runway crashes, namely impact location, impact angle, impact velocity, and the heading, deceleration, and skid distance after impact; and the stochastic properties of runway overruns and runoffs, namely the position at which the aircraft exits the runway, its exit velocity, and the heading and deceleration after exiting. Relevant probability distributions are fitted from extensive commercial, military, and general aviation accident report data bases. The computer source code for implementation of the calculation is provided.

  17. Method for determining the duration of construction basing on evolutionary modeling taking into account random organizational expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseytsev Anatoliy Viktorovich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems of construction planning is failure to meet time constraints and increase of workflow duration. In the recent years informational technologies are efficiently used to solve the problem of estimation of construction period. The issue of optimal estimate of the duration of construction, taking into account the possible organizational expectations is considered in the article. In order to solve this problem the iteration scheme of evolutionary modeling, in which random values of organizational expectations are used as variable parameters is developed. Adjustable genetic operators are used to improve the efficiency of the search for solutions. The reliability of the proposed approach is illustrated by an example of formation of construction schedules of monolithic foundations for buildings, taking into account possible disruptions of supply of concrete and reinforcement cages. Application of the presented methodology enables automated acquisition of several alternative scheduling of construction in accordance with standard or directive duration. Application of this computational procedure has the prospects of taking into account of construction downtime due to weather, accidents related to construction machinery breakdowns or local emergency collapses of the structures being erected.

  18. Modelling of trace metal uptake by roots taking into account complexation by exogenous organic ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Marc, Custos; Christian, Moyne; Sterckeman, Thibault

    2010-05-01

    The context of this study is phytoextraction of soil trace metals such as Cd, Pb or Zn. Trace metal transfer from soil to plant depends on physical and chemical processes such as minerals alteration, transport, adsorption/desorption, reactions in solution and biological processes including the action of plant roots and of associated micro-flora. Complexation of metal ions by organic ligands is considered to play a role on the availability of trace metals for roots in particular in the event that synthetic ligands (EDTA, NTA, etc.) are added to the soil to increase the solubility of the contaminants. As this role is not clearly understood, we wanted to simulate it in order to quantify the effect of organic ligands on root uptake of trace metals and produce a tool which could help in optimizing the conditions of phytoextraction.We studied the effect of an aminocarboxilate ligand on the absorption of the metal ion by roots, both in hydroponic solution and in soil solution, for which we had to formalize the buffer power for the metal. We assumed that the hydrated metal ion is the only form which can be absorbed by the plants. Transport and reaction processes were modelled for a system made up of the metal M, a ligand L and the metal complex ML. The Tinker-Nye-Barber model was adapted to describe the transport of solutes M, L and ML in the soil and absorption of M by the roots. This allowed to represent the interactions between transport, chelating reactions, absorption of the solutes at the root surface, root growth with time, in order to simulate metal uptake by a whole root system.Several assumptions were tested such as i) absorption of the metal by an infinite sink and according to a Michaelis-Menten kinetics, solutes transport by diffusion with and without ii) mass flow and iii) soil buffer power for the ligand L. In hydroponic solution (without soil buffer power), ligands decreased the trace metal flux towards roots, as they reduced the concentration of hydrated

  19. Early Mover Advantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); E. Maasland (Emiel)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze empirically whether and if so to what extent later entrants in the European mobile telephony industry have a disadvantage vis-à-vis incumbents and early mover entrants. To analyze this question we consider a series of static models and a dynamic model of market s

  20. Taking the lag out of jet lag through model-based schedule design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis A Dean

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Travel across multiple time zones results in desynchronization of environmental time cues and the sleep-wake schedule from their normal phase relationships with the endogenous circadian system. Circadian misalignment can result in poor neurobehavioral performance, decreased sleep efficiency, and inappropriately timed physiological signals including gastrointestinal activity and hormone release. Frequent and repeated transmeridian travel is associated with long-term cognitive deficits, and rodents experimentally exposed to repeated schedule shifts have increased death rates. One approach to reduce the short-term circadian, sleep-wake, and performance problems is to use mathematical models of the circadian pacemaker to design countermeasures that rapidly shift the circadian pacemaker to align with the new schedule. In this paper, the use of mathematical models to design sleep-wake and countermeasure schedules for improved performance is demonstrated. We present an approach to designing interventions that combines an algorithm for optimal placement of countermeasures with a novel mode of schedule representation. With these methods, rapid circadian resynchrony and the resulting improvement in neurobehavioral performance can be quickly achieved even after moderate to large shifts in the sleep-wake schedule. The key schedule design inputs are endogenous circadian period length, desired sleep-wake schedule, length of intervention, background light level, and countermeasure strength. The new schedule representation facilitates schedule design, simulation studies, and experiment design and significantly decreases the amount of time to design an appropriate intervention. The method presented in this paper has direct implications for designing jet lag, shift-work, and non-24-hour schedules, including scheduling for extreme environments, such as in space, undersea, or in polar regions.

  1. Modelling of a mecanum wheel taking into account the geometry of road rollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Gwiazda, A.; Banaś, W.; Sękala, A.; Foit, K.

    2017-08-01

    During the process planning in a company one of the basic factors associated with the production costs is the operation time for particular technological jobs. The operation time consists of time units associated with the machining tasks of a workpiece as well as the time associated with loading and unloading and the transport operations of this workpiece between machining stands. Full automation of manufacturing in industry companies tends to a maximal reduction in machine downtimes, thereby the fixed costs simultaneously decreasing. The new construction of wheeled vehicles, using Mecanum wheels, reduces the transport time of materials and workpieces between machining stands. These vehicles have the ability to simultaneously move in two axes and thus more rapid positioning of the vehicle relative to the machining stand. The Mecanum wheel construction implies placing, around the wheel free rollers that are mounted at an angle 450, which allow the movement of the vehicle not only in its axis but also perpendicular thereto. The improper selection of the rollers can cause unwanted vertical movement of the vehicle, which may cause difficulty in positioning of the vehicle in relation to the machining stand and the need for stabilisation. Hence the proper design of the free rollers is essential in designing the whole Mecanum wheel construction. It allows avoiding the disadvantageous and unwanted vertical vibrations of a whole vehicle with these wheels. In the article the process of modelling the free rollers, in order to obtain the desired shape of unchanging, horizontal trajectory of the vehicle is presented. This shape depends on the desired diameter of the whole Mecanum wheel, together with the road rollers, and the width of the drive wheel. Another factor related with the curvature of the trajectory shape is the length of the road roller and its diameter decreases depending on the position with respect to its centre. The additional factor, limiting construction of

  2. Physarum polycephalum—a new take on a classic model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettmeier, Christina; Brix, Klaudia; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther

    2017-10-01

    Physarum polycephalum, literally the ‘many-headed’ slime mold, is a giant multi–nucleated but unicellular protist. Since the time of its first description, it has been the subject of a multitude of cell biological, biochemical, genetic, and lately physical studies. The enormous size of the cell, the easy method of in vitro cultivation, the unique life cycle and its highly visible internal cytoplasmic streaming have made it invaluable for investigations on cell cycle regulation, differentiation, cytoskeleton and locomotion. Research on P. polycephalum lost its prominent role when animal cell culture and genetic techniques became more advanced, thereby replacing the slime mold as a state-of-the-art model. However, research continued, driven by a small number of groups, resulting in full sequencing of the slime mold’s genome, hence reviving interest in studying molecular processes that enable the astounding features of P. polycephalum. In recent years, research on P. polycephalum has again become cutting-edge. In 2000, Japanese researcher Toshiyuki Nakagaki performed a seminal experiment showing that the slime mold is able to find the shortest route through a maze. Ever since, smart problem-solving P. polycephalum has returned from the shadows and is nowadays back to center-stage when questions regarding the origins of intelligence and cognition are discussed. The basic mechanisms with which organisms perceive their environment, integrate this information and make decisions based on this input are investigated. The aim is to find underlying universal mechanisms of decision making and awareness. If those mechanisms can be found in as primordial an organism as a slime mold, it could fundamentally change our perception of the nature and evolution of cognition.

  3. Pharmacologically distinct pramipexole-mediated akinesia vs. risk-taking in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Nathan A; Tedford, Stephanie E; Persons, Amanda L; Grasso, Salvatore A; Napier, T Celeste

    2016-10-03

    Pramipexole and ropinirole are dopamine agonists that are efficacious in treating motor disturbances of neuropathologies, e.g., Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome. A significant portion of treated patients develop impulsive/compulsive behaviors. Current treatment is dose reduction or switching to an alternative dopamine replacement, both of which can undermine the motor benefits. Needed is a preclinical model that can assist in identifying adjunct treatments to dopamine agonist therapy that reduce impulsive/compulsive behaviors without interfering with motor benefits of the dopamine agonist. Toward that objective, the current study implemented a rat model of Parkinson's disease to behaviorally profile chronically administered pramipexole. This was accomplished with male Sprague-Dawley rats wherein (i) 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions of the dorsolateral striatum produced Parkinson's disease-like akinesia, measured in the forelimbs, (ii) intracranial self-stimulation-mediated probability discounting indicated impulsivity/risk-taking, and (iii) two doses of pramipexole were continuously administered for 14-28days via osmotic minipumps to mirror the chronic, stable exposure achieved with extended release formulations. The atypical antidepressant, mirtazapine, is known to reduce behaviors associated with drug addiction in rats; thus, we demonstrated model utility here by determining the effects of mirtazapine on pramipexole-induced motor improvements versus probability discounting. We observed that forelimb akinesia subsequent to striatal lesions was attenuated by both pramipexole doses tested (0.3 and 1.2mg/kg/day) within 4h of pump implant dispensing 0.3mg/kg/day and 1h by 1.2mg/kg/day. By contrast, 12-14days of infusion with 0.3mg/kg/day did not alter discounting, but increases were obtained with 1.2mg/kg/day pramipexole, with 67% of 1.2mg/kg/day-treated rats meeting categorical criteria for 'high risk-taking'. Insertion of a second minipump delivering

  4. Taking Turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Two people take turns selecting from an even number of items. Their relative preferences over the items can be described as a permutation, then tools from algebraic combinatorics can be used to answer various questions. We describe each person's optimal selection strategies including how each could make use of knowing the other's preferences. We…

  5. Social coordination in animal vocal interactions. Is there any evidence of turn-taking? The starling as an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Laurence; Craig, Adrian J F K; Lemasson, Alban; Hausberger, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Turn-taking in conversation appears to be a common feature in various human cultures and this universality raises questions about its biological basis and evolutionary trajectory. Functional convergence is a widespread phenomenon in evolution, revealing sometimes striking functional similarities between very distant species even though the mechanisms involved may be different. Studies on mammals (including non-human primates) and bird species with different levels of social coordination reveal that temporal and structural regularities in vocal interactions may depend on the species' social structure. Here we test the hypothesis that turn-taking and associated rules of conversations may be an adaptive response to the requirements of social life, by testing the applicability of turn-taking rules to an animal model, the European starling. Birdsong has for many decades been considered as one of the best models of human language and starling songs have been well described in terms of vocal production and perception. Starlings do have vocal interactions where alternating patterns predominate. Observational and experimental data on vocal interactions reveal that (1) there are indeed clear temporal and structural regularities, (2) the temporal and structural patterning is influenced by the immediate social context, the general social situation, the individual history, and the internal state of the emitter. Comparison of phylogenetically close species of Sturnids reveals that the alternating pattern of vocal interactions varies greatly according to the species' social structure, suggesting that interactional regularities may have evolved together with social systems. These findings lead to solid bases of discussion on the evolution of communication rules in relation to social evolution. They will be discussed also in terms of processes, at the light of recent neurobiological findings.

  6. An enhanced beam model for glued laminated structures that takes moisture, mechano-sorption and time effects into account

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Steinnes, Jan Roar

    2014-01-01

    There is a need of more advanced analysis for studying how the long-term behaviour of glued laminated timber structures is affected by creep and by cyclic variations in climate. A beam theory is presented able to simulate the overall hygro-mechanical and visco-elastic behaviour of (inhomogeneous)...... that occurs to have a significant effect on deformations, section forces and stress distributions within the frame structures that were studied.......) glulam structures. Two frame structures subjected to both mechanical and cyclic environmental loading are analysed to illustrate the advantages the model involved can provide. The results indicate clearly both the (discontinuous) inhomogeneity of the glulam products and the variable moisture-load action...

  7. A method for improving predictive modeling by taking into account lag time: Example of selenium bioaccumulation in a flowing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckon, William N

    2016-07-01

    For bioaccumulative substances, efforts to predict concentrations in organisms at upper trophic levels, based on measurements of environmental exposure, have been confounded by the appreciable but hitherto unknown amount of time it may take for bioaccumulation to occur through various pathways and across several trophic transfers. The study summarized here demonstrates an objective method of estimating this lag time by testing a large array of potential lag times for selenium bioaccumulation, selecting the lag that provides the best regression between environmental exposure (concentration in ambient water) and concentration in the tissue of the target organism. Bioaccumulation lag is generally greater for organisms at higher trophic levels, reaching times of more than a year in piscivorous fish. Predictive modeling of bioaccumulation is improved appreciably by taking into account this lag. More generally, the method demonstrated here may improve the accuracy of predictive modeling in a wide variety of other cause-effect relationships in which lag time is substantial but inadequately known, in disciplines as diverse as climatology (e.g., the effect of greenhouse gases on sea levels) and economics (e.g., the effects of fiscal stimulus on employment).

  8. A response-time approach to comparing generalized rational and take-the-best models of decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergert, F Bryan; Nosofsky, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    The authors develop and test generalized versions of take-the-best (TTB) and rational (RAT) models of multiattribute paired-comparison inference. The generalized models make allowances for subjective attribute weighting, probabilistic orders of attribute inspection, and noisy decision making. A key new test involves a response-time (RT) approach. TTB predicts that RT is determined solely by the expected time required to locate the 1st discriminating attribute, whereas RAT predicts that RT is determined by the difference in summed evidence between the 2 alternatives. Critical test pairs are used that partially decouple these 2 factors. Under conditions in which ideal observer TTB and RAT strategies yield equivalent decisions, both the RT results and the estimated attribute weights suggest that the vast majority of subjects adopted the generalized TTB strategy. The RT approach is also validated in an experimental condition in which use of a RAT strategy is essentially forced upon subjects.

  9. Modelling the spatial distribution of snow water equivalent at the catchment scale taking into account changes in snow covered area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Skaugen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A successful modelling of the snow reservoir is necessary for water resources assessments and the mitigation of spring flood hazards. A good estimate of the spatial probability density function (PDF of snow water equivalent (SWE is important for obtaining estimates of the snow reservoir, but also for modelling the changes in snow covered area (SCA, which is crucial for the runoff dynamics in spring. In a previous paper the PDF of SWE was modelled as a sum of temporally correlated gamma distributed variables. This methodology was constrained to estimate the PDF of SWE for snow covered areas only. In order to model the PDF of SWE for a catchment, we need to take into account the change in snow coverage and provide the spatial moments of SWE for both snow covered areas and for the catchment as a whole. The spatial PDF of accumulated SWE is, also in this study, modelled as a sum of correlated gamma distributed variables. After accumulation and melting events the changes in the spatial moments are weighted by changes in SCA. The spatial variance of accumulated SWE is, after both accumulation- and melting events, evaluated by use of the covariance matrix. For accumulation events there are only positive elements in the covariance matrix, whereas for melting events, there are both positive and negative elements. The negative elements dictate that the correlation between melt and SWE is negative. The negative contributions become dominant only after some time into the melting season so at the onset of the melting season, the spatial variance thus continues to increase, for later to decrease. This behaviour is consistent with observations and called the "hysteretic" effect by some authors. The parameters for the snow distribution model can be estimated from observed historical precipitation data which reduces by one the number of parameters to be calibrated in a hydrological model. Results from the model are in good agreement with observed spatial moments

  10. Modelling the spatial distribution of snow water equivalent at the catchment scale taking into account changes in snow covered area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaugen, T.; Randen, F.

    2011-12-01

    A successful modelling of the snow reservoir is necessary for water resources assessments and the mitigation of spring flood hazards. A good estimate of the spatial probability density function (PDF) of snow water equivalent (SWE) is important for obtaining estimates of the snow reservoir, but also for modelling the changes in snow covered area (SCA), which is crucial for the runoff dynamics in spring. In a previous paper the PDF of SWE was modelled as a sum of temporally correlated gamma distributed variables. This methodology was constrained to estimate the PDF of SWE for snow covered areas only. In order to model the PDF of SWE for a catchment, we need to take into account the change in snow coverage and provide the spatial moments of SWE for both snow covered areas and for the catchment as a whole. The spatial PDF of accumulated SWE is, also in this study, modelled as a sum of correlated gamma distributed variables. After accumulation and melting events the changes in the spatial moments are weighted by changes in SCA. The spatial variance of accumulated SWE is, after both accumulation- and melting events, evaluated by use of the covariance matrix. For accumulation events there are only positive elements in the covariance matrix, whereas for melting events, there are both positive and negative elements. The negative elements dictate that the correlation between melt and SWE is negative. The negative contributions become dominant only after some time into the melting season so at the onset of the melting season, the spatial variance thus continues to increase, for later to decrease. This behaviour is consistent with observations and called the "hysteretic" effect by some authors. The parameters for the snow distribution model can be estimated from observed historical precipitation data which reduces by one the number of parameters to be calibrated in a hydrological model. Results from the model are in good agreement with observed spatial moments of SWE and SCA

  11. 'The Research on Regional Tourism Marketing by Taking Advantage of Microblog ----Example of Beijing Dongcheng District Tourism Administration's Official Microblog%微博旅游营销模式:北京市东城区旅游局官方微博的案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The microblog has offered a brand-new platform for governmental tourism administrations to conduct the marketing of tourism resources. The paper took the practice of Beijing Dongcheng District Tourism Administration's official microblog as an example, discussed the effective ways for governmental tourism administrations to conduct the marketing of regional tourism resources by taking advantage of microblog, and brought up a couple of marketing strategies such as multi-channel integration marketing, target-interaction relations marketing, celebrities-relied virus marketing, topics-planning events marketing as well as emotion-linked wet marketing, etc, in order to offer a feasible mode of regional tourism marketing through microblog.%微博为政府旅游部门进行旅游资源营销提供了全新的平台。本文以北京市东城区旅游局官方微博的运营为例,探讨了政府旅游部门通过微博进行区域旅游资源营销的有效路径,提出了多渠道的整合营销、加强与受众互动的关系营销、依托名人进行的病毒式营销、策划热点事件的事件营销以及维系受众情感的湿营销等多种营销策略,以期为区域旅游的微博营销提供有效可行的借鉴模式。

  12. Home advantage in professional tennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professiona

  13. Interaction of Reward Seeking and Self-Regulation in the Prediction of Risk Taking: A Cross-National Test of the Dual Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, Natasha; Steinberg, Laurence; Chein, Jason; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Lei, Chang; Chaudhary, Nandita; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fanti, Kostas A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2016-01-01

    In the present analysis, we test the dual systems model of adolescent risk taking in a cross-national sample of over 5,200 individuals aged 10 through 30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. We examine whether reward seeking and self-regulation make independent, additive, or interactive contributions to risk taking, and ask whether…

  14. Model Predictive Control-based Power take-off Control of an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, G.; Jayasinghe, S. G.; Fleming, A.; Shahnia, F.

    2017-07-01

    Australia’s extended coastline asserts abundance of wave and tidal power. The predictability of these energy sources and their proximity to cities and towns make them more desirable. Several tidal current turbine and ocean wave energy conversion projects have already been planned in the coastline of southern Australia. Some of these projects use air turbine technology with air driven turbines to harvest the energy from an oscillating water column. This study focuses on the power take-off control of a single stage unidirectional oscillating water column air turbine generator system, and proposes a model predictive control-based speed controller for the generator-turbine assembly. The proposed method is verified with simulation results that show the efficacy of the controller in extracting power from the turbine while maintaining the speed at the desired level.

  15. 全民健身是推动体育产业发展的基础——以发挥河南省体育场的优势促进全民健身的研究为例%The Basis of National Fitness Promoting the Development of Sports Industry——Based on the Research of Taking the Advantages of the Stadium in Henan and Encouraging the National Fitness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马保生

    2012-01-01

    健身运动是适应社会发展大趋势,适应人民生活逐步提高发展的需求,适应体育产业发展规律的必然选择。全民健身是整个产业体系的基础与核心。体育产业依靠全民健身打造浓厚的商业氛围。业余训练既需要浓厚的商业氛围、又需要体育产业的资金支持。因此,发挥河南省体育场的优势促进全民健身,构建河南省体育场的产业化模式,从而推动河南体育产业的科学发展。%National Fitness is the inevitable choice for the adaptation of the trend of social development,the requirement of living improvement,as well as the rules of sports industry,which is also the foundation and core of the whole industrial system.Sports industry depends on national fitness to form a business atmosphere.Amateur training needs not only the business atmosphere but also the capital support from the sports industry.Therefore,taking the advantages of the stadium in Henan and encouraging the national fitness,constructing the industrial model of the stadium in Henan,will promote the scientific development of sports industry in Henan.

  16. Integrated water resources management of the Ichkeul basin taking into account the durability of its wetland ecosystem using WEAP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabou, M.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Gastli, W.; Chakroun, H.; Ben Abdallah, S.; Oueslati, I.; Lasram, F.; Laajimi, R.; Shaiek, M.; Romdhane, M. S.; Mnajja, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Conservation of coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean area is generally faced with development issues. It is the case of Tunisia where the precipitation is irregular in time and space. For the equity of water use (drinking, irrigation), there is a planning at the national level allowing the possibility of water transfer from regions rich in water resources to poor ones. This plan was initially done in Tunisia without taking into account the wetlands ecosystems and their specificities. The main purpose of this study is to find a model able to integrate simultaneously available resources and various water demands within a watershed by taking into account the durability of related wetland ecosystems. It is the case of the Ichkeul basin. This later is situated in northern of Tunisia, having an area of 2080 km2 and rainfall of about 600 mm/year. Downstream this basin, the Ichkeul Lake is characterized by a double alternation of seasonal high water and low salinity in winter and spring and low water levels and high salinity in summer and autumn that makes the Ichkeul an exceptional ecosystem. The originality of this hydrological system of Lake-marsh conditions is related to the presence of aquatic vegetation in the lake and special rich and varied hygrophilic in the marshes that constitutes the main source of food for large migrating water birds. After the construction of three dams on the principle rivers that are feeding the Ichkeul Lake, aiming particularly to supply the local irrigation and the drinking water demand of cities in the north and the east of Tunisia, freshwater inflow to the lake is greatly reduced causing a hydrological disequilibrium that influences the ecological conditions of the different species. Therefore, to ensure the sustainability of the water resources management, it's important to find a trade off between the existing hydrological and ecological systems taking into account water demands of various users (drinking, irrigation fishing, and

  17. Taking into account the temporal variation of hydraulic conductivity when calibrating overland flow models on tilled fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahinian, N.; Andrieux, P.; Moussa, R.; Voltz, M.

    2003-04-01

    Tillage operations are known to change the structure of agricultural soils. In this paper we seek a calibration methodology to take into account the impact of tillage on overland flow simulation at the scale of a tilled field located in southern France. The study site is a 3240 m2 vineyard equipped with a Venturi flume and a tipping bucket rain gauge. 20 monitored rainfall events were used for the study, equally divided between calibration and validation sets. The overland flow model used consists of a modified Green &Ampt equation to simulate infiltration, a surface detention module, and an overland flow routing module based on the unit hydrograph concept. The model parameters that were calibrated for each event are the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the random roughness. The calibrated Ks values decreased monotonously according to the total amount of rainfall since tillage. No clear relationship was observed between the random roughness and cumulated rainfall. A regression curve was fitted to the calibrated Ks values. This curve was then used to determine Ks values for any rainfall event considering the total rainfall since tillage. Fairly good agreement was observed between the simulated and measured hydrographs of the calibration set. The validation results were relatively poorer but remain satisfactory given the uncertainties related to the initial soil moisture conditions. The calibration methodology developed seems robust and may be transposed to other sites.

  18. Two models to compute an adjusted Green Vegetation Fraction taking into account the spatial variability of soil NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montandon, L. M.; Small, E.

    2008-12-01

    The green vegetation fraction (Fg) is an important climate and hydrologic model parameter. The commonly- used Fg model is a simple linear mixing of two NDVI end-members: bare soil NDVI (NDVIo) and full vegetation NDVI (NDVI∞). NDVI∞ is generally set as a percentile of the historical maximum NDVI for each land cover. This approach works well for areas where Fg reaches full cover (100%). Because many biomes do not reach Fg=0, however, NDVIo is often determined as a single invariant value for all land cover types. In general, it is selected among the lowest NDVI observed over bare or desert areas, yielding NDVIo close to zero. There are two issues with this approach: large-scale variability of soil NDVI is ignored and observations on a wide range of soils show that soil NDVI is often larger. Here we introduce and test two new approaches to compute Fg that takes into account the spatial variability of soil NDVI. The first approach uses a global soil NDVI database and time series of MODIS NDVI data over the conterminous United States to constrain possible soil NDVI values over each pixel. Fg is computed using a subset of the soils database that respects the linear mixing model condition NDVIo≤NDVIh, where NDVIh is the pixel historical minimum. The second approach uses an empirical soil NDVI model that combines information of soil organic matter content and texture to infer soil NDVI. The U.S. General Soil Map (STATSGO2) database is used as input for spatial soil properties. Using in situ measurements of soil NDVI from sites that span a range of land cover types, we test both models and compare their performance to the standard Fg model. We show that our models adjust the temporal Fg estimates by 40-90% depending on the land cover type and amplitude of the seasonal NDVI signal. Using MODIS NDVI and soil maps over the conterminous U.S., we also study the spatial distribution of Fg adjustments in February and June 2008. We show that the standard Fg method

  19. Competitive advantage and corporate communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic importance of corporate communications and its role in the development of competitive advantage has attracted interest of numerous researchers in the fields of organization, management, marketing and public relations. Recent studies particularly emphasise the growing importance of soft factors, such as reputation in the development of competitive advantage. Concept of reputation is strongly connected with stakeholder theory, which stresses the importance of corporate communications for competitive advantage of firms. The paper focuses on competitive advantage and the link among strategy, reputation and corporate communications.

  20. Study on the Support of Science and Technology in the Development of Regional Advantage Industries---Take the Example of Liaoning%区域优势产业发展的科技支撑作用分析--以辽宁为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢军伟

    2014-01-01

    In the market economy, the development regional economic is decided by the development of advantage industries. Advantage industries can not only affect the regional economic growth, but also can affect the regional economic structure through the changes of the industry structure .In this paper, we deifned the connotation and selection criteria of regional advantage industries include exogenous and endogenous comparative advantages. In the selection of advantage Industries, we should follow ifve principles:resource advantage, technology advantage, market advantage, relational advan-tage and comparative advantage. On this basis, we made the analysis on the advantage industries of Liaoning, using indus-trial gradient coefifcient. Liaoning’s advantage industries can be integrated in 3 major industrial chain ,such as the petroleum chemical industry. Then, we investigate the factors supporting role of science and technology in industrial development, and proposed some suggestions on enhancing scientiifc and technological effects in the development Liaoning’s advantage in-dustries.%在市场经济条件下,任何一个区域的经济发展都是由其具有优势的产业发展所决定的。优势产业的发展不仅可以影响区域经济增长,还可以通过产业结构的变更改变整个区域的经济结构。本文对区域优势产业的内涵与选择基准进行了界定,认为“区域优势产业”应包括外生比较优势产业和内生比较优势产业两种层次,选择中应遵循资源优势、技术优势、市场优势、关联优势和比较优势5大原则。在此基础上,以辽宁为例,利用产业梯度系数分析辽宁的优势产业,认为辽宁的优势工业行业可以整合为石油化工等3大产业链,探讨产业发展中制约科技支撑作用的因素,并从有效发挥政府作用增强科技对辽宁优势产业支撑作用的提出相关建议。

  1. Modelling of the physico-chemical behaviour of clay minerals with a thermo-kinetic model taking into account particles morphology in compacted material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sali, D.; Fritz, B.; Clément, C.; Michau, N.

    2003-04-01

    Modelling of fluid-mineral interactions is largely used in Earth Sciences studies to better understand the involved physicochemical processes and their long-term effect on the materials behaviour. Numerical models simplify the processes but try to preserve their main characteristics. Therefore the modelling results strongly depend on the data quality describing initial physicochemical conditions for rock materials, fluids and gases, and on the realistic way of processes representations. The current geo-chemical models do not well take into account rock porosity and permeability and the particle morphology of clay minerals. In compacted materials like those considered as barriers in waste repositories, low permeability rocks like mudstones or compacted powders will be used : they contain mainly fine particles and the geochemical models used for predicting their interactions with fluids tend to misjudge their surface areas, which are fundamental parameters in kinetic modelling. The purpose of this study was to improve how to take into account the particles morphology in the thermo-kinetic code KINDIS and the reactive transport code KIRMAT. A new function was integrated in these codes, considering the reaction surface area as a volume depending parameter and the calculated evolution of the mass balance in the system was coupled with the evolution of reactive surface areas. We made application exercises for numerical validation of these new versions of the codes and the results were compared with those of the pre-existing thermo-kinetic code KINDIS. Several points are highlighted. Taking into account reactive surface area evolution during simulation modifies the predicted mass transfers related to fluid-minerals interactions. Different secondary mineral phases are also observed during modelling. The evolution of the reactive surface parameter helps to solve the competition effects between different phases present in the system which are all able to fix the chemical

  2. Interaction of reward seeking and self-regulation in the prediction of risk taking: A cross-national test of the dual systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, Natasha; Steinberg, Laurence; Chein, Jason; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Lei, Chang; Chaudhary, Nandita; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Fanti, Kostas A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2016-10-01

    In the present analysis, we test the dual systems model of adolescent risk taking in a cross-national sample of over 5,200 individuals aged 10 through 30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. We examine whether reward seeking and self-regulation make independent, additive, or interactive contributions to risk taking, and ask whether these relations differ as a function of age and culture. To compare across cultures, we conduct 2 sets of analyses: 1 comparing individuals from Asian and Western countries, and 1 comparing individuals from low- and high-GDP countries. Results indicate that reward seeking and self-regulation have largely independent associations with risk taking and that the influences of each variable on risk taking are not unique to adolescence, but that their link to risk taking varies across cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Help Others and Yourself Eventually: Exploring the Relationship between Help-Giving and Employee Creativity under the Model of Perspective Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although a plethora of studies have examined the antecedents of creativity, empirical studies exploring the role of individual behaviors in relation to creativity are relatively scarce. Drawing on the model of perspective taking, this study examines the relationship between help-giving during creative problem solving process and employee creativity. Specifically, we test perspective taking as an explanatory mechanism and propose organization-based self-esteem as the moderator. In a sample collected from a field survey of 247 supervisor-subordinate dyads from 2 large organizations in China at 3 time points, we find that help-giving during creative problem solving process positively related with perspective taking; perspective taking positively related with employees’ creativity; employees’ organization-based self-esteem strengthened the link between perspective taking and creativity; besides, there existed a moderated mediation effect. We conclude this paper with discussions on the implications for theory, research, and practice.

  4. Help Others and Yourself Eventually: Exploring the Relationship between Help-Giving and Employee Creativity under the Model of Perspective Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si; Liao, Shudi

    2017-01-01

    Although a plethora of studies have examined the antecedents of creativity, empirical studies exploring the role of individual behaviors in relation to creativity are relatively scarce. Drawing on the model of perspective taking, this study examines the relationship between help-giving during creative problem solving process and employee creativity. Specifically, we test perspective taking as an explanatory mechanism and propose organization-based self-esteem as the moderator. In a sample collected from a field survey of 247 supervisor-subordinate dyads from 2 large organizations in China at 3 time points, we find that help-giving during creative problem solving process positively related with perspective taking; perspective taking positively related with employees’ creativity; employees’ organization-based self-esteem strengthened the link between perspective taking and creativity; besides, there existed a moderated mediation effect. We conclude this paper with discussions on the implications for theory, research, and practice. PMID:28690566

  5. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  6. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen; C. van Marrewijk

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 ¿ 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such as Galtonian

  7. Dynamics of Chinese Comparative Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  8. Stochastic inverse modelling of hydraulic conductivity fields taking into account independent stochastic structures: A 3D case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Albert, C.; Capilla, J. E.

    2010-09-01

    SummaryMajor factors affecting groundwater flow through fractured rocks include the geometry of each fracture, its properties and the fracture-network connectivity together with the porosity and conductivity of the rock matrix. When modelling fractured rocks this is translated into attaining a characterization of the hydraulic conductivity ( K) as adequately as possible, despite its high heterogeneity. This links with the main goal of this paper, which is to present an improvement of a stochastic inverse model, named as Gradual Conditioning (GC) method, to better characterise K in a fractured rock medium by considering different K stochastic structures, belonging to independent K statistical populations (SP) of fracture families and the rock matrix, each one with its own statistical properties. The new methodology is carried out by applying independent deformations to each SP during the conditioning process for constraining stochastic simulations to data. This allows that the statistical properties of each SPs tend to be preserved during the iterative optimization process. It is worthwhile mentioning that so far, no other stochastic inverse modelling technique, with the whole capabilities implemented in the GC method, is able to work with a domain covered by several different stochastic structures taking into account the independence of different populations. The GC method is based on a procedure that gradually changes an initial K field, which is conditioned only to K data, to approximate the reproduction of other types of information, i.e., piezometric head and solute concentration data. The approach is applied to the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden, where, since the middle nineties, many experiments have been carried out to increase confidence in alternative radionuclide transport modelling approaches. Because the description of fracture locations and the distribution of hydrodynamic parameters within them are not accurate enough, we address the

  9. European utilities. What are the advantages, limits and perspectives of the multi-utilities model?; Les utilities europeennes. Quels sont les atouts, les limites et les perspectives du modele multi-utilities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Since several years, the European utilities (public service companies) have started a movement of broadening of their offer. They now encompass the overall domain of collective services (mainly electricity, natural gas, wastes and water) to propose global offers. The European utilities also go deeper in their range of offers with the management of fluxes (fluid supplies), of services (energy) and the externalization of infrastructures (cogeneration unit, waste water treatment plants, etc..). The multi-utilities model (association of at least 2 collective services inside a same portfolio of activities) has become a standard. This strategic evolution, implemented since several years in Europe, has been possible thanks to regulation changes: opening of gas and electricity markets to competition, increase of environmental standard requirements, delegation of services. If the multi-utilities concept appears as attractive, several questions remain unanswered: what are the real synergies between collective service activities? Is the multi-utilities model viable? How to finance such a model? How to construct and commercialize global offers? What are the commercial and financial results of the multi-utilities model? What are the alternatives to this model? Which strategic future to the European utilities? This study makes a precise status of the European markets of collective services. It analyzes the strategy of the European groups which have adopted the multi-utilities model and shows the advantages and limits of this strategic model. The study includes an analysis of the financial performances of the 20 main European groups which allows to foresee two scenarios of mid-term evolution for this sector. (J.S.)

  10. A Comparative Study on Choice of Regional Economic Advantage Industry and Leading Industry---Take the Manufacturing Industry in Chongqing as an Example%地区经济主导产业与优势产业选择比较研究--以重庆市制造业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯璐璐; 张燕华

    2015-01-01

    基于优势演化视角,对地区经济优势产业与主导产业进行理论辨析,并以市场潜力、产业组织、技术水平为基准选择重庆市优势产业;以增长速度、技术进步率、产业关联性为基准选择重庆市主导产业。通过比较发现:地区经济优势产业和主导产业存在交集—“主导优势产业”,地方政府应致力于在发挥区域外生比较优势的基础上,全面培育“主导优势产业”的内生比较优势,促使其转化为竞争优势,实现地区经济跨越式发展。%Based on the perspective of advantageous evolution, a theoretical analysis is taken on the concepts of regional-economic advantageous industry and leading industry. In order to select the advantageous industry in Chongqing, the benchmarks are established, as the market potential, industrial organization, and technological level. At the same time, the benchmarks are established, as the gr-owth rate, technical progress rate and industry relevance, which are for selecting the leading industry in Chongqing. With comparative analysis, there are some overlapped parts between regional-economic advantageous industries and leading industries, called"the Lead-ing and Advantage Industry". On the basis of regional exogenous comparative advantage , local governments should focus on compreh-ensive cultivation of endogenous comparative advantage on "the Leading and Advantage Industry", and prompt them into a competitive advantage, in order to achieve the regional economic development by leaps and bounds.

  11. Knowledge Resources and Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gomezelj Omerzel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some definitions of knowledge as a potential sourceof competitive advantage. It reviews the literature pertaining to the assessmentof knowledge assets. According to the resource-based view,which links the competitive advantage of organizations with resourcesand capabilities that are firm-specific, and difficult to imitate or substitute,a firm’s competitive advantage is built on a set of strategicallyrelevant resources (Barney 1991; Grant 1991; Peteraf 1993. When firmshave access to similar resources, it is those companies that are able tomaximize the utilization of those resources that attain a competitiveadvantage. Among various strategic resources and capabilities that helpdetermine the extent of competitive advantages, a pivotal role is oftenassigned to knowledge – as both a resource in itself and an integratingfactor that makes other resources and capabilities effective – especiallyin complex and dynamic environments.

  12. Multinational team. Advantages and disadvantages.

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Alena

    2014-01-01

    The topic of the tesis is advantages and disadvantages of work in russian-czech multicultural teams. The research then analyzes the efficiency of such teams primarily from the side of partners and clients of such projects.

  13. Model of Wagons’ Placing-In and Taking-Out Problem in a Railway Station and Its Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuijiang Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Placing-in and taking-out wagons timely can decrease wagons’ dwell time in railway stations, improve the efficiency of railway transportation, and reduce the cost of goods transportation. We took the locomotive running times between goods operation sites as weights, so the wagons’ placing-in and taking-out problem could be regarded as a single machine scheduling problem, 1pijCmax, which could be transformed into the shortest circle problem in a Hamilton graph whose relaxation problem was an assignment problem. We used a Hungarian algorithm to calculate the optimal solution of the assignment problem. Then we applied a broken circle and connection method, whose computational complexity was O(n2, to find the available satisfactory order of wagons’ placing-in and taking-out. Complex problems, such as placing-in and transferring combined, taking-out and transferring combined, placing-in and taking-out combined, or placing-in, transferring, and taking-out combined, could also be resolved with the extended algorithm. A representative instance was given to illustrate the reliability and efficiency of our results.

  14. Macro-Controls Taking Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The equilibrium of China’s economic development is be ginning to improve. Given this trend , what should the government be doing to take advantage of it and maintain steady economic growth? Chen Dongqi, Deputy Director of the Institute of Economic Research of the National Development and Reform Commission, shared his thoughts on this issue with People’s Daily.

  15. LOGISTICS - SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana SCRIOSTEANU; Popescu, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the logistics if source of competitive advantage. Logistics can offer a source of competitive advantage, such as a superior position compared to the competitors regarding cost reductions, service diversity and satisfaction of consumer requirements. The logistic activities generate cost and give value to the final product .Despite that the same logistic activity can be done in many ways, with different costs and performance , the evaluation of the activities and the links b...

  16. Bilingualism Gives a Cognitive Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qing

    2013-01-01

    Recent researches have shown bilingualism has an influence on cognition, both negative and positive. This essay aims to discuss the cognitive disadvantages and advantages bilingualism brings, by emphasizing how it affect children ’s cognitive devel-opment. It will first briefly introduce the disadvantages such as a lower verbal fluency and vocabulary deficit, and then analyse the advantages on non-verbal cognition and attention controlling, a more sensitive metalinguistic awareness and a lower decline rate of cognitive processing.

  17. Corporate Finance and Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Egger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Since innovative firms are often financially constrained, access to external funds is important for the expansion of innovative industries. This paper reports four important results. First, comparative advantage is shaped by factor endowments as well as fundamental determinants of corporate finance. In particular, a larger equity ratio of firms and tough governance standards relax finance constraints and create a comparative advantage in innovative industries. Second, factor price equalizatio...

  18. Competitive advantage and corporate communications

    OpenAIRE

    Mitić Sanja; Ognjanov Galjina

    2013-01-01

    Strategic importance of corporate communications and its role in the development of competitive advantage has attracted interest of numerous researchers in the fields of organization, management, marketing and public relations. Recent studies particularly emphasise the growing importance of soft factors, such as reputation in the development of competitive advantage. Concept of reputation is strongly connected with stakeholder theory, which stresses the importance of corporate communications ...

  19. The Advantages of Parametric Modeling for the Reconstruction of Historic Buildings. The Example of the in War Destroyed Church of ST. Catherine (katharinenkirche) in Nuremberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, M.; Herbst, G.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Rosenbauer, R.; Rutishauser, S.; Zellweger, A.

    2013-02-01

    Consecrated in 1297 as the monastery church of the four years earlier founded St. Catherine's monastery, the Gothic Church of St. Catherine was largely destroyed in a devastating bombing raid on January 2nd 1945. To counteract the process of disintegration, the departments of geo-information and lower monument protection authority of the City of Nuremburg decided to getting done a three dimensional building model of the Church of St. Catherine's. A heterogeneous set of data was used for preparation of a parametric architectural model. In effect the modeling of historic buildings can profit from the so called BIM method (Building Information Modeling), as the necessary structuring of the basic data renders it into very sustainable information. The resulting model is perfectly suited to deliver a vivid impression of the interior and exterior of this former mendicant orders' church to present observers.

  20. Analysis on Methods of Strengthening the Political Advantage Transformation in Petroleum Enterprises---Taking the Third Branch of Yellow River Drilling Corporation As an Example%石油企业强化政治优势转化效果方法分析--以黄河钻井三公司为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿津

    2013-01-01

    The Third Branch of Yellow River Drilling Corporation has promoted Party building creatively and deeply and developed the transformation of political resource and political advantage as follows :reinforce the grassroots party building and transform the political core function of the Party into the leadership ,reinforce the leading group building and transform the ad-vantage of leadership resource into innovation ,reinforce the talent group building and transform the advantage of human re-source into competitive strength ,reinforce the culture building and transform the advantage of the Party’s culture into soft power ,reinforce the anti-corruption building and transform the advantage of the Party’s philosophy into execution ,keep close ties with the masses and transform the advantage of the Party’s mass work into creativity .%黄河钻井三公司深入推进党建工作创新发展,积极促进政治资源和政治优势转化,做法为:加强基层党组织建设,把党组织的政治核心作用转化为领导力;加强领导班子建设,把领导干部资源优势转化为创新力;加强人才队伍建设,把人力资源优势转化为竞争力;加强思想文化建设,把党的思想文化优势转化为软实力;加强反腐倡廉建设,把党的作风优势转化为执行力;密切联系群众,把党的群众工作优势转化为创造力。

  1. Youth and parents' experiences of a new inter-agency transition model for spina bifida compared to youth who did not take part in the model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Fellin, Melissa; Cruickshank, Heather; McPherson, Amy; Maxwell, Joanne

    2016-10-01

    Young adults with spina bifida are underserved in health care and are at risk as they transition to adult health care. A pediatric rehabilitation hospital and an adult community health center partnered to help address this gap. Although some research has explored general transition experiences of youth with disabilities, little is known about their experiences in a transition model that involves an inter-agency partnership, continuous, age-appropriate, and client-centered care. To explore youth and parent experiences of a new transition model for youth with spina bifida, compared to the experiences of young adults with spina bifida who did not participate in the model. Using a descriptive, qualitative design involving a thematic analysis we conducted semi-structured interviews with 32 participants (9 youth, 11 parents, 12 young adults). Most youth and parents in our sample who took part in the new model felt supported by pediatric providers and benefitted from gradually transferring responsibility from parents to youth. They also reported experiencing challenges, including lack of support from primary care providers and lack of clarity about the new model. Many young adults who did not take part in the model reported receiving some transition-related thought support from pediatric specialists, parents, and in some cases, primary care providers. However, they also reported experiencing gaps in their continuity of care and needed more support with employment, relationships, finances, and housing. Our findings show the new transition model for youth with spina bifida can help enhance participants' transition experiences and preparation for adulthood. However, the model needs further development to address the varied abilities and support needs of youth with spina bifida. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Advantages of 3D FEM numerical modeling over 2D, analyzed in a case study of transient thermal-hydraulic groundwater utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchsluger, Martin; Götzl, Gregor

    2014-05-01

    In general most aquifers have a much larger lateral extent than vertical. This fact leads to the application of the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumptions to many groundwater problems, whereas a two dimensional simulation is considered sufficient. By coupling transient fluid flow modeling with heat transport the 2D aquifer approximation is in many cases insufficient as it does not consider effects of the subjacent and overlying aquitards on heat propagation as well as the impact of surface climatic effects on shallow aquifers. A shallow Holocene aquifer in Vienna served as a case study to compare different modeling approaches in two and three dimensions in order to predict the performance and impact of a thermal aquifer utilization for heating (1.3 GWh) and cooling (1.4 GWh) of a communal building. With the assumption of a 6 doublets well field, the comparison was realized in three steps: At first a two dimensional model for unconfined flow was set up, assuming a varying hydraulic conductivity as well as a varying top and bottom elevation of the aquifer (gross - thickness). The model area was chosen along constant hydraulic head at steady state conditions. A second model was made by mapping solely the aquifer in three dimensions using the same subdomain and boundary conditions as defined in step one. The third model consists of a complete three dimensional geological build-up including the aquifer as well as the overlying and subjacent layers and additionally an annually variable climatic boundary condition at the surface. The latter was calibrated with measured water temperature at a nearby water gauge. For all three models the same annual operating mode of the 6 hydraulic doublets was assumed. Furthermore a limited maximal groundwater temperature at a range between 8 and 18 °C as well as a constrained well flow rate has been given. Finally a descriptive comparison of the three models concerning the extracted thermal power, drawdown, temperature distribution and Darcy

  3. Home advantage in Greek football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage.

  4. STRATEGY FROM CONCEPTUALIZATION TO COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurgiu Catalin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show how important the process of defining strategy can be for a company in the economical context that we all face now days. This study shows that although the results after a company has defined its strategy can be seen in a longer or shorter period of time, the process is complex and needs managers that can foresee the future. And at the end of every strategy defining the final result should be competitive advantage, this competitive advantage that can bring a company in front of its main competitors, and if the company manages to stay in front of those competitors it can gain sustainable competitive advantage. In fact this should be the goal of every company: to try by all means, off course legal means, to do things better than other companies using the right strategy. Companies can use their capabilities and knowledge in these fields, a constant innovation process can help the society to undergo powerful changes. These changes can be firstly seen in the mentality, the behaviour and the process of knowledge. It is important for a company to understand its role in the modern society. Managers of important companies do their best to keep those respective companies at a level that can secure profit, but profit is not always the entire issue. It takes time in order for those innovations to reach the whole society, because companies are not willing to give information about their products, and keep this information to be able to have future profit. The role of competitive advantage can be seen in any field of activity, it provides the values that keep our society moving forward. Competitive advantage is needed in fields like: medicine, education or environmental protection. Companies have to innovate constantly in order to obtain this competitive advantage, but this competitive advantage can be present today and gone tomorrow, because the conditions on the market are changing at a very fast rate.In the past years

  5. Modeling Of Z-Pinch Dynamics With Taking Into Account The Generation Of Turbulent/Chaotic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhrev, V. V.; Baronova, E. O.

    2006-01-01

    Pinch dynamics is described, which takes into account generation of turbulent magnetic fields. Turbulent/chaotic magnetic fields (TMF) appear due to MHD and kinetic instabilities. It is shown, that TMF arises near the moment of maximal compression and essentially affects plasma dynamics at the expansion stage.

  6. A novel in vitro model for hematogenous spreading of S. aureus device biofilms demonstrating clumping dispersal as an advantageous dissemination mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønnemose, Rasmus Birkholm; Lindhardt Sæderup (Madsen), Kirstine; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2017-01-01

    in the process. Using an in vitro catheter infection model, we studied S. aureus biofilm growth, late-stage dispersal, and reattachment to downstream endothelial cell layers. The ability of the released biofilm material to resist host response and disseminate in vivo was furthermore studied in whole blood......- and phagocyte survival assays, and in a short-term murine infection model. We found that S. aureus biofilms formed in flow of human plasma release biofilm thromboemboli with embedded bacteria and bacteria-secreted polysaccharides. The emboli disseminate as antibiotic and immune resistant vehicles that hold....... aureus from in vivo-like vascular biofilms and their specific properties demonstrated here help explain the pathophysiology associated with S. aureus bloodstream infections....

  7. THE ADVANTAGES OF PARAMETRIC MODELING FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS. THE EXAMPLE OF THE IN WAR DESTROYED CHURCH OF ST. CATHERINE (KATHARINENKIRCHE) IN NUREMBERG

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, M.; Herbst, G.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; R. Rosenbauer; S. Rutishauser; Zellweger, A.

    2013-01-01

    Consecrated in 1297 as the monastery church of the four years earlier founded St. Catherine’s monastery, the Gothic Church of St. Catherine was largely destroyed in a devastating bombing raid on January 2nd 1945. To counteract the process of disintegration, the departments of geo-information and lower monument protection authority of the City of Nuremburg decided to getting done a three dimensional building model of the Church of St. Catherine’s. A heterogeneous set of data was used ...

  8. Risk-taking plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Nir; Gebremedhin, Alem; Moshelion, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    Water scarcity is a critical limitation for agricultural systems. Two different water management strategies have evolved in plants: an isohydric strategy and an anisohydric strategy. Isohydric plants maintain a constant midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf) when water is abundant, as well as under drought conditions, by reducing stomatal conductance as necessary to limit transpiration. Anisohydric plants have more variable Ψleaf and keep their stomata open and photosynthetic rates high for longer periods, even in the presence of decreasing leaf water potential. This risk-taking behavior of anisohydric plants might be beneficial when water is abundant, as well as under moderately stressful conditions. However, under conditions of intense drought, this behavior might endanger the plant. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these two water-usage strategies and their effects on the plant’s ability to tolerate abiotic and biotic stress. The involvement of plant tonoplast AQPs in this process will also be discussed. PMID:22751307

  9. Evaluation of Landing Characteristics Achieved by Simulations and Flight Tests on a Small-scaled Model Related to Magnetically Levitated Advanced Take-off and Landing Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohacs, D.; Voskuijl, M.; Siepenkotter, N.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to simulate and measure on a small-scaled model the landing characteristics related to take-off and landing (TOL) operations supported by a magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) system as ground-based power supply. The technical feasibility and the potential benefits of using ground

  10. Evaluation of Landing Characteristics Achieved by Simulations and Flight Tests on a Small-scaled Model Related to Magnetically Levitated Advanced Take-off and Landing Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohacs, D.; Voskuijl, M.; Siepenkotter, N.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to simulate and measure on a small-scaled model the landing characteristics related to take-off and landing (TOL) operations supported by a magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) system as ground-based power supply. The technical feasibility and the potential benefits of using ground

  11. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  12. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  13. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  14. An Experiment in Comparative Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate economics course experiment designed to teach the concepts of comparative advantage and opportunity costs. Students have a limited number of labor hours and can chose to produce either wheat or steel. As the project progresses, the students trade commodities in an attempt to maximize use of their labor hours. (MJP)

  15. Parenting Advantage in the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn

    2013-01-01

    What determines the value an MNC's headquarters adds to its own affiliates? In this paper, we shed light on this question by linking the embeddedness view of the multinational corporation to the literature on parenting advantage. We test our hypotheses on an original dataset of 124 manufacturing ...

  16. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  17. Study on the application of 3D modeling based on UAV photography in urban planning — Taking Yi Jiequ area in Du Jiangyan as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingshuang; Zhang, Lingqing

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposed a new technique combining UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) with 3D (three-dimension) modeling to integrate and analyze a large amount of information and to guide urban planning. This paper expounded the status and methods of UAV applying to 3D modeling, verified the practical values of this technique and summarized the future development trend by taking Yi Jiequ area in Du Jiangyan as an example.

  18. Modeling the adsorption of short alkanes in the zeolite SSZ-13 using "van der Waals" DFT exchange correlation functionals: Understanding the advantages and limitations of such functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göltl, Florian; Sautet, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    The inclusion of non-local interactions is one of the large challenges in density functional theory. Very promising methods are the vdW-DF2 and BEEF-vdW functionals, which combine a semi-local approximation for exchange interactions and a non-local correlation expression. In this work we apply those functionals to model the adsorption of short alkanes in the zeolite SSZ-13. Even though results for energetics are improved with respect to other vdW-DF based methods, we still find a comparatively large error compared to high-level calculations. These errors result from approximations in the determination of the dielectric function and of the van der Waals kernel. The insights presented in this work will help to understand the performance not only of vdW-DF2 and BEEF-vdW, but all vdW-DF based functionals in various chemically or physically important systems.

  19. Disparate bilingual experiences modulate task-switching advantages: A diffusion-model analysis of the effects of interactional context on switch costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Andree; Yang, Hwajin

    2016-05-01

    Drawing on the adaptive control hypothesis (Green & Abutalebi, 2013), we investigated whether bilinguals' disparate interactional contexts modulate task-switching performance. Fifty-eight bilinguals within the single-language context (SLC) and 75 bilinguals within the dual-language context (DLC) were compared in a typical task-switching paradigm. Given that DLC bilinguals switch between languages within the same context, while SLC bilinguals speak only one language in one environment and therefore rarely switch languages, we hypothesized that the two groups' stark difference in their interactional contexts of conversational exchanges would lead to differences in switch costs. As predicted, DLC bilinguals showed smaller switch costs than SLC bilinguals. Our diffusion-model analyses suggest that DLC bilinguals' benefits in switch costs are more likely driven by task-set reconfiguration than by proactive interference. Our findings underscore the modulating role of the interactional context of conversational exchanges in task switching.

  20. Analysis of Advantages and Disadvantages of Current Operational Risk Management Models (AS/NZS 4360, AS/NZS ISO 9000, AS/NZS ISO 14000, AS/NZS 4801, AS/NZS 3806, AS/NZS 4444

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Jie

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will describe about the analysis of advantages and disadvantages of current operational risk management models (AS/NZS 4360: Risk Management, AS/NZS 4801: Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems, AS/NZS ISO 9001: Quality Management System, AS/NZS ISO 14001: Environment Management System, AS/NZS 3806: Compliance Management System, AS/NZS 4444: Information Security Management  based on expert experiences and extracting the literature review. The advantages of most current models are widely adopted by industries of various of sizes as the basis for their operational risk management. In addition, they may help the organizations to improve the operations and competitiveness. However, there are some disadvantages of most current models such as the models are very general (guidance only, not specific to cover particular risks of industries.  And they don’t have the specific tools and processes.  In addition, they may not be able to integrate all elements of the management systems such as safety, health, environment, quality, security, and compliance. 

  1. First mover advantage in launch of platform based variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Singh, Kashi N

    2015-01-01

    Product choice and pricing are critical decisions taken by firms while launching new products. Firms need to consider the effect of competition while taking the above decisions. Extensive literature is available for pricing, positioning and launch sequence determination of differentiated products...... approach generates interesting insights on the competitive behavior of firms and shows that leaders can indeed enjoy first-mover advantage under certain conditions. Key Words: choice of product line, pricing, static and dynamic games, upper bound on prices......Product choice and pricing are critical decisions taken by firms while launching new products. Firms need to consider the effect of competition while taking the above decisions. Extensive literature is available for pricing, positioning and launch sequence determination of differentiated products...... under competition. But, there is need to understand the leader-follower behaviour of firms with differentiated products. The classical game theoretic models do not consider bounds on prices. Hence, applying these models for product choice and pricing decisions in a real-life industrial setting may...

  2. 关于NBA赛程利弊因素的分析与评价模型%Analysis of Disadvantage and Advantage Factors and Evaluation Model about NBA Schedules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周密

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the disadvantage and advantage to a team, considering the factors of win rate among teams, home advantage, time to rest and refresh and establishes multivariate linear regression model of variation of win rate among teams, home advantage, time to rest and refresh:△P(η)= β 0+β1x1+ β2x2+εβx3+β 4x4+ε, and achieves regressor variable matrix of one team:[x1、x2、 x3、x4]and predictor variable matrix:[△P(η)]through the method of schedules quantization, makes regression analysis and get regression coefficient, defines the quantity index disadvantage and advantage to a team%本文考虑球队间胜率、主场优势、休整时间三个因素来分析赛程对某一支球队的利弊.建立主场优势、休整时问同球队间胜率的变化量之间的多元线性回归模型:△P0=β0+β1X1+β2X2+β3X3+β4X4+ε.通过赛程数字化方法得出某一球队的回归变量矩阵[x1、x2、X3,X4]及预测变量矩阵[△Pij],做回归分析得到回归系数并定义了数量指标评价赛程对球队的利弊,并给出了计算某一球队值的算法.

  3. Plasma treatment advantages for textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Such systems are now existing and the use of plasma physics in industrial problems is rapidly increasing. On textile surfaces, three main effects can be obtained depending on the treatment conditions: the cleaning effect, the increase of microroughness (anti-pilling finishing of wool) and the production of radicals to obtain hydrophilic surfaces. Plasma polymerisation, that is the deposition of solid polymeric materials with desired properties on textile substrates, is under development. The advantage of such plasma treatments is that the modification turns out to ...

  4. Information technology : the outsourcing advantage

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Comm. Changes occur rapidly in the Information Technology (IT) environment. It can be very costly to keep up with these rapid changes and at the same time specialist IT skills are hard to come by. Companies have to re-strategize to maintain their competitive advantages. This strategic business concept suggests that management must focus on specialisation, expertise and excellence. In an increasingly competitive and technological advanced world, business focus has shifted from simply mini...

  5. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value.

  6. Sustainability in organizations: advantages and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Josende Paz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are currently seeking to adopt sustainable policies and practices, causing a greater search for and use of sustainable models. This article therefore aims to evaluate the advantages of using sustainability principles in organizations, as well as to detect the main difficulties in implementing a sustainable model, identifying the existence of the principles described by Oliveira et al. (2012 and other authors. Bibliographic research was used to understand the “state of the art” in relation to sustainability in organizations, and the data was collected from articles published in journals in the last eight years. The importance of sustainability to organizations, better financial performance, stimulus for innovation, better management and the involvement of stakeholders in their processes were all evident as advantages of using this methodology. Finally, the following challenges were identified: the need for an investigation into the organization’s maturity in the use of sustainable methods and preparation of human resources for organizational change.

  7. Technology and the dynamics of comparative advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Navas, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how trade openness affects both product and process innovation in a factor proportions model of trade and firm heterogeneity. Trade openness expands the profit opportunities of the most productive firms and expels the less efficient firms out of the market, making process innovation more attractive for the most productive firms in both industries. Incentives, however, are larger in the industry in which the country has the comparative advantage. Trade also increases the pr...

  8. Rethinking Marketing for Sustainable Competitive Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın KOÇAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When formal marketing thought developed in the early 1900s, dominant perspective of marketing was about taking things “to market”. After 1950 marketing thought moved to a “market to” orientation. This orientation reflects “product dominant logic”. After radical changes in information technology, knowledge asymmetry between firm and customer is decreased and customer becomes operant resource instead of a resource to be acted on. Therefore, new marketing paradigm has been emerged and main focus moved from “value in exchange” to “value in use” and customer becomes collaborative partner. Firm can only provide value proposition. New definition of marketing comprises “customer relationship”, “share holders”, and “value creation”. Apart from evolving of marketing thought, theories of competitive advantages have been also change form industry perspective to internal resource and dynamic capabilities.

  9. Home advantage in Turkish professional soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçkin, Aylin; Pollard, Richard

    2008-08-01

    Home advantage is known to play an important role in the outcome of professional soccer games and to vary considerably worldwide. In the Turkish Super League over the last 12 years, 61.5% of the total points gained have been won by the home team, a figure similar to the worldwide average and to the Premier League in England. It is lower (57.7%) for games played between teams from Istanbul and especially high for games involving teams from cities in the more remote and ethnically distinct parts of Turkey (Van and Diyarbakir). Match performance data show that although home teams in Turkey take 26% more shots at goal than away teams, the success rates for shots do not differ. For fouls and disciplinary cards, home and away teams do not differ significantly in Turkey, a finding that differs from games in England, perhaps due to less referee bias.

  10. Comparative Advantage, Relative Wages, and the Accumulation of Human Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulings, Coen N.

    2005-01-01

    I apply Ricardo's principle of comparative advantage to a theory of factor substitutability in a model with a continuum of worker and job types. Highly skilled workers have a comparative advantage in complex jobs. The model satisfies the distance-dependent elasticity of substitution (DIDES) characteristic: substitutability between types declines…

  11. From Behavioral Psychology to Acceleration Modeling: Calibration, Validation, and Exploration of Drivers Cognitive and Safety Parameters in a Risk-Taking Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Hamdar, Samer H; Treiber, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a utility-based approach for driver car-following behavioral modeling while analyzing different aspects of the model characteristics especially in terms of capturing different fundamental diagram regions and safety proxy indices. The adopted model came from an elementary thought where drivers associate subjective utilities for accelerations (i.e. gain in travel times) and subjective dis-utilities for decelerations (i.e. loss in travel time) with a perceived probability of being involved in rear-end collision crashes. Following the testing of the model general structure, the authors translate the corresponding behavioral psychology theory - prospect theory - into an efficientmicroscopic traffic modeling with more elaborate stochastic characteristics considered in a risk-taking environment. The formulated model offers a better understanding of drivers behavior, particularly under extreme/incident conditions.

  12. March 2013: Medicare Advantage update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayavong, Sarah; Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail; McBride, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Key Data Findings. (1) From March 2012 to March 2013, rural enrollment in Medicare Advantage (MA) and other prepaid plans increased by over 200,000 enrollees, to more than 1.9 million. (2) Preferred provider organization (PPO) plan enrollment increased to nearly one million enrollees, accounting for more than 51% of the rural MA market (up from 48% in March 2012). (3) Health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment continued to grow in 2013, with over 31% of the rural MA market, while private fee-for-service (PFFS) plan enrollment decreased to less than 10% of market share. (4) Despite recent changes to MA payment, rural MA enrollment continues to increase.

  13. Effect of Tai Chi Practice on Stress, Self-Esteem, and Perceived Life Expectancy and a Structural Model of Relation Among These Variables Taking Into Account Age

    OpenAIRE

    José Moral de la Rubia; Adrian Valle de la O; Cirilo H. García Cadena; Luis A. Pérez Góngora

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this article were to (a) investigate whether practicing Tai Chi has an effect on stress, self-esteem, and perceived life expectancy and (b) contrast a structural model of relation between the three latter variables taking into account age. One scale to assess stress, another scale to assess perceived life expectancy, and the 10-item Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale were administrated to a nonprobability sample...

  14. Are All Scale Economies in Banking Elusive or Illusive: Evidence Obtained by Incorporating Capital Structure and Risk Taking into Models of Bank Production

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph P. Hughes; Loretta J. Mester; Choon-Geol Moon

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores how to incorporate banks' capital structure and risk-taking into models of production. In doing so, the paper bridges the gulf between (1) the banking literature that studies moral hazard effects of bank regulation without considering the underlying microeconomics of production and (2) the literature that uses dual profit and cost functions to study the microeconomics of bank production without explicitly considering how banks' production decisions influence their riskines...

  15. Mitigating BeiDou Satellite-Induced Code Bias: Taking into Account the Stochastic Model of Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Li, Xin; Liu, Wanke

    2016-06-18

    The BeiDou satellite-induced code biases have been confirmed to be orbit type-, frequency-, and elevation-dependent. Such code-phase divergences (code bias variations) severely affect absolute precise applications which use code measurements. To reduce their adverse effects, an improved correction model is proposed in this paper. Different from the model proposed by Wanninger and Beer (2015), more datasets (a time span of almost two years) were used to produce the correction values. More importantly, the stochastic information, i.e., the precision indexes, were given together with correction values in the improved model. However, only correction values were given while the precision indexes were completely missing in the traditional model. With the improved correction model, users may have a better understanding of their corrections, especially the uncertainty of corrections. Thus, it is helpful for refining the stochastic model of code observations. Validation tests in precise point positioning (PPP) reveal that a proper stochastic model is critical. The actual precision of the corrected code observations can be reflected in a more objective manner if the stochastic model of the corrections is taken into account. As a consequence, PPP solutions with the improved model outperforms the traditional one in terms of positioning accuracy, as well as convergence speed. In addition, the Melbourne-Wübbena (MW) combination which serves for ambiguity fixing were verified as well. The uncorrected MW values show strong systematic variations with an amplitude of half a wide-lane cycle, which prevents precise ambiguity determination and successful ambiguity resolution. After application of the code bias correction models, the systematic variations can be greatly removed, and the resulting wide lane ambiguities are more likely to be fixed. Moreover, the code residuals show more reasonable distributions after code bias corrections with either the traditional or the improved model.

  16. Mitigating BeiDou Satellite-Induced Code Bias: Taking into Account the Stochastic Model of Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Li, Xin; Liu, Wanke

    2016-01-01

    The BeiDou satellite-induced code biases have been confirmed to be orbit type-, frequency-, and elevation-dependent. Such code-phase divergences (code bias variations) severely affect absolute precise applications which use code measurements. To reduce their adverse effects, an improved correction model is proposed in this paper. Different from the model proposed by Wanninger and Beer (2015), more datasets (a time span of almost two years) were used to produce the correction values. More importantly, the stochastic information, i.e., the precision indexes, were given together with correction values in the improved model. However, only correction values were given while the precision indexes were completely missing in the traditional model. With the improved correction model, users may have a better understanding of their corrections, especially the uncertainty of corrections. Thus, it is helpful for refining the stochastic model of code observations. Validation tests in precise point positioning (PPP) reveal that a proper stochastic model is critical. The actual precision of the corrected code observations can be reflected in a more objective manner if the stochastic model of the corrections is taken into account. As a consequence, PPP solutions with the improved model outperforms the traditional one in terms of positioning accuracy, as well as convergence speed. In addition, the Melbourne-Wübbena (MW) combination which serves for ambiguity fixing were verified as well. The uncorrected MW values show strong systematic variations with an amplitude of half a wide-lane cycle, which prevents precise ambiguity determination and successful ambiguity resolution. After application of the code bias correction models, the systematic variations can be greatly removed, and the resulting wide lane ambiguities are more likely to be fixed. Moreover, the code residuals show more reasonable distributions after code bias corrections with either the traditional or the improved model

  17. Construction of a mathematical model of the human body, taking the nonlinear rigidity of the spine into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukharev, K. K.; Morozova, N. I.; Potemkin, B. A.; Solovyev, V. S.; Frolov, K. V.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model of the human body was constructed, under the action of harmonic vibrations, in the 2.5-7 Hz frequency range. In this frequency range, the model of the human body as a vibrating system, with concentrated parameters is considered. Vertical movements of the seat and vertical components of vibrations of the human body are investigated.

  18. Advantage of a lead swimmer in drafting

    CERN Document Server

    Westerweel, J; Pennings, P; Yilmaz, B

    2016-01-01

    We present results from model tests to investigate the effect of drafting in swimming, in particular for the lead swimmer. The drag for scaled-model passive swimmers was determined accurately at Froude numbers comparable to conditions for actual human swimmers. Several positions of a draft swimmer at different separations behind and alongside the lead swimmer were investigated. It was found that a lead swimmer can experience an advantage from a draft swimmer. Several other positions of the draft swimmer relative to the frontal wave generated by the lead swimmer were also considered. These results indicate favourable and undesirable positions during passing.

  19. Production model in the conditions of unstable demand taking into account the influence of trading infrastructure: Ergodicity and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrosova, N. K.; Shananin, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    A production model with allowance for a working capital deficit and a restricted maximum possible sales volume is proposed and analyzed. The study is motivated by an attempt to analyze the problems of functioning of low competitive macroeconomic structures. The model is formalized in the form of a Bellman equation, for which a closed-form solution is found. The stochastic process of product stock variations is proved to be ergodic and its final probability distribution is found. Expressions for the average production load and the average product stock are found by analyzing the stochastic process. A system of model equations relating the model variables to official statistical parameters is derived. The model is identified using data from the Fiat and KAMAZ companies. The influence of the credit interest rate on the firm market value assessment and the production load level are analyzed using comparative statics methods.

  20. 贸易与环境质量:基于双比较优势模型的动态分析%Trade and Environmental Quality:A Dynamic Analysis Based on the Model of Double Comparative Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫兵; 屈琪; 陈牧

    2016-01-01

    Based on the traditional theory of comparative advantage, this paper proposes the concept of comparative advantage of carbon emission, and combines both to build a model of double comparative advan-tage.Using this model, we analyze the effect of trade on the environmental quality, and the basic result is that this effect depends on whether the comparative advantage of cost of trade partners is consistent with compara-tive advantage of carbon emission.When both comparative advantages agree with each other, trade will reduce the total carbon emission and improve environment quality of both countries.Otherwise, trade tends to damage the environment quality.When both comparative advantages don’ t agree with each other, both trade policies and environmental policies can be used to adjust the effect of trade on the environmental quality.To be specif-ic, both import tariff and export subsidy can effectively reduce the total carbon emission, and export tariff can achieve greater emission reductions than import tariff.Moreover, pollution tax also can reduce the total carbon emission, but this effect is associated with the pollution tax collection methods.Nevertheless, the influence of emission reduction subsidy on the total carbon emission could not be determined.%本文借鉴传统比较优势理论,提出碳排放比较优势的概念,并将二者结合且构建一个双比较优势模型。利用该模型,本文分析贸易对环境质量的影响,基本结论是其影响取决于贸易双方成本比较优势和碳排放比较优势是否一致。当二者一致时,贸易能够降低两国碳排放总量,改善环境质量;反之,贸易则会降低环境质量。当两国的成本比较优势与碳排放比较优势不一致时,贸易政策与环境政策均能用于调节贸易对环境质量的影响。具体来说,进口关税与出口补贴政策均能有效降低两国总碳排放量,并且相对于关税而言,出口补贴政策能够实

  1. Beyond dual systems: A genetically-informed, latent factor model of behavioral and self-report measures related to adolescent risk-taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Paige Harden

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The dual systems model posits that adolescent risk-taking results from an imbalance between a cognitive control system and an incentive processing system. Researchers interested in understanding the development of adolescent risk-taking use a diverse array of behavioral and self-report measures to index cognitive control and incentive processing. It is currently unclear whether different measures commonly interpreted as indicators of the same psychological construct do, in fact, tap the same underlying dimension of individual differences. In a diverse sample of 810 adolescent twins and triplets (M age = 15.9 years, SD = 1.4 years from the Texas Twin Project, we investigated the factor structure of fifteen self-report and task-based measures relevant to adolescent risk-taking. These measures can be organized into four factors, which we labeled premeditation, fearlessness, cognitive dyscontrol, and reward seeking. Most behavioral measures contained large amounts of task-specific variance; however, most genetic variance in each measure was shared with other measures of the corresponding factor. Behavior genetic analyses further indicated that genetic influences on cognitive dyscontrol overlapped nearly perfectly with genetic influences on IQ (rA = −0.91. These findings underscore the limitations of using single laboratory tasks in isolation, and indicate that the study of adolescent risk taking will benefit from applying multimethod approaches.

  2. Comparison Between Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Point Absorber WEC Using Linear Power Take-Off System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri

    2012-01-01

    systems into a central wave to wire model. The power production then depends on the control strategy which is applied to the device. The objective of this paper is to develop numerical methods for motion analysis of marine structures with a special emphasis on wave energy converters. Two different time...... domain models are applied to a point absorber system working in pitch mode only. The device is similar to the well-known Wavestar prototype located in the Danish North Sea. A laboratory model has been set up in order to validate the numerical simulations of the dynamics. Wave Excitation force...

  3. A 3D biomechanical vocal tract model to study speech production control: How to take into account the gravity?

    CERN Document Server

    Buchaillard, S; Payan, Y; Buchaillard, St\\'{e}phanie; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling study of the way speech motor control can deal with gravity to achieve steady-state tongue positions. It is based on simulations carried out with the 3D biomechanical tongue model developed at ICP, which is now controlled with the Lambda model (Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis). The influence of short-delay orosensory feedback on posture stability is assessed by testing different muscle force/muscle length relationships (Invariant Characteristics). Muscle activation patterns necessary to maintain the tongue in a schwa position are proposed, and the relations of head position, tongue shape and muscle activations are analyzed.

  4. Analytical Model and Characteristics of Current-Observer-Based Induction Motor Speed-Sensorless Vector Control System Taking into Account Iron Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Mineo; Xu, Fujin; Tsuruda, Yasutaka; Hamasaki, Shin-Ichi

    We have proposed a current-observer-based speed-sensorless vector control system that is in a rotating reference frame and takes into account iron loss. By deriving a linear model and by computing the trajectories of poles and zeros, the system stability on various parameters such as operating points, observer gain, controller gain and stator resistance has been investigated. Furthermore, an exact analytical model including PWM control, dead time and non-ideal features of power devices is developed. The characteristic improvement and stability limit of the proposed system are discussed by simulation and experiment.

  5. LASERS: Vector model of a ring solid-state laser taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the pump and radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshin, D. A.; Kravtsov, Nikolai V.; Lariontsev, E. G.; Chekina, S. N.

    2008-11-01

    A system of equations of the vector model of ring solid-state lasers is derived taking into account the inhomogeneity of the pump transverse distribution and fields of counterpropagating waves. The model under study well describes the experimental dependence of the phase shift of self-modulations oscillations on the pump excess over the threshold. It is shown that the inhomogeneity of the transverse distributions of fields of counterpropagating waves and the inhomogeneity of the permittivity of the intracavity medium can lead to the appearance of frequency and amplitude nonreciprocities in a solid-state laser.

  6. Study on the Control Model of Rural Non-point Source Pollution——Taking Ninghe County in Tianjin as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the control model of rural non-point source pollution.[Method] Taking Ninghe County(a typical agricultural county in Tianjin) as an example,the current development of local economy and society and characteristics of rural non-point source pollution were studied firstly,then the control model of rural non-point source pollution suitable for Ninghe County was constructed,and its environmental and economic benefits were analyzed finally.[Result] According to the sources of non-...

  7. Taking off the training wheels: the properties of a dynamic vegetation model without climate envelopes, CLM4.5(ED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R. A.; Muszala, S.; Verteinstein, M.; Lawrence, P.; Xu, C.; McDowell, N. G.; Knox, R. G.; Koven, C.; Holm, J.; Rogers, B. M.; Spessa, A.; Lawrence, D.; Bonan, G.

    2015-11-01

    We describe an implementation of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) concept in the Community Land Model. The structure of CLM(ED) and the physiological and structural modifications applied to the CLM are presented. A major motivation of this development is to allow the prediction of biome boundaries directly from plant physiological traits via their competitive interactions. Here we investigate the performance of the model for an example biome boundary in eastern North America. We explore the sensitivity of the predicted biome boundaries and ecosystem properties to the variation of leaf properties using the parameter space defined by the GLOPNET global leaf trait database. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of four sequential alterations to the structural assumptions in the model governing the relative carbon economy of deciduous and evergreen plants. The default assumption is that the costs and benefits of deciduous vs. evergreen leaf strategies, in terms of carbon assimilation and expenditure, can reproduce the geographical structure of biome boundaries and ecosystem functioning. We find some support for this assumption, but only under particular combinations of model traits and structural assumptions. Many questions remain regarding the preferred methods for deployment of plant trait information in land surface models. In some cases, plant traits might best be closely linked to each other, but we also find support for direct linkages to environmental conditions. We advocate intensified study of the costs and benefits of plant life history strategies in different environments and the increased use of parametric and structural ensembles in the development and analysis of complex vegetation models.

  8. The Critical Advantage: Developing Critical Thinking Skills in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, William T., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    In "The Critical Advantage," noted scholar and early childhood expert William T. Gormley, Jr. takes a wide ranging look at the important role of critical thinking in preparing students for college, careers, and civic life. Drawing on research from psychology, philosophy, business, political science, neuroscience, and other disciplines,…

  9. Advantages and Disadvantages of Weighted Grading. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of weighted grading? The primary purpose of weighted grading has been to encourage high school students to take more rigorous courses. This effort is then acknowledged by more weight being given to the grade for a specified class. There are numerous systems of weighted grading cited in the literature from…

  10. 运动训练专业建设特色与优势探析——以武汉体育学院为例%Characteristics Building and Advantage Analysis of Sports Training Professional——Take Wuhan Sports University as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷先良

    2011-01-01

    本文根据武汉体育学院运动训练专业发展的现状,总结专业办学经验,对我院在专业建设的特色与优势方面的培养目标,教育教学模式与管理机制,实践教学、开放办学、人才培养质量,进行分析与探讨,为我国运动训练专业的发展提供一定的参考。%Based on the development status of Sports Training Academy of Wuhan Sports University,summary of professional ex-perience in education,professional development for hospital characteristics and advantages of the training objectives,education,teaching and management mechanisms,practice teaching,open schools,quality of personnel training,conduct analysis and discus-sion of China's sports training and professional development to provide a reference.

  11. Corporate reputation and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the international environment changes, a closer inspection of the competitiveness drivers that change along with it becomes necessary. The rules are changing - competition is getting tougher, stakeholders are multiplying and the role of companies as members of the society grows. Undoubtedly, intangible resources are the key factors of success on the market in the 21st century. A company that can create and improve intangible resources is one that will have a good business performance. This paper aims to describe the role of corporate reputation, as a valuable intangible resource, in gaining competitive advantage. The social relations and interpersonal relationships form the base of corporate reputation. The reputation encompasses all relevant aspects of corporate activity in communication with all stakeholders, both internal and external.

  12. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Our wellbeing depends as much on our personal success, as it does on the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation a very much needed trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remain elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly reach social dynamics that explains why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding that is due to over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utiliz...

  13. Taking Telemedicine to the Next Level in Diabetes Population Management: a Review of the Endo ECHO Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchonville, Matthew F; Paul, Margaret M; Billings, John; Kirk, Jessica B; Arora, Sanjeev

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide increases in diabetes prevalence in the face of limited medical resources have prompted international interest in innovative healthcare delivery models. Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) is a "telementoring" program which has been shown to increase capacity for complex disease management in medically underserved regions. In contrast to a traditional telemedicine model which might connect a specialist with one patient, the ECHO model allows for multiple patients to benefit simultaneously by building new expertise. We recently applied the ECHO model to improve health outcomes of patients with complex diabetes (Endo ECHO) living in rural New Mexico. We describe the design of the Endo ECHO intervention and a 4-year, prospective program evaluation assessing health outcomes, utilization patterns, and cost-effectiveness. The Endo ECHO evaluation will demonstrate whether and to what extent this intervention improves outcomes for patients with complex diabetes living in rural New Mexico, and will serve as proof-of-concept for academic medical centers wishing to replicate the model in underserved regions around the world.

  14. The 14 TeV LHC Takes Aim at SUSY: A No-Scale Supergravity Model for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Walker, Joel W

    2015-01-01

    The Supergravity model named No-Scale ${\\cal F}$-$SU(5)$, which is based upon the flipped $SU$(5) Grand Unified Theory (GUT) with additional TeV-scale vector-like flippon multiplets, has been partially probed during the LHC Run 1 at 7-8 TeV, though the majority of its model space remains viable and should be accessible by the 13-14 TeV LHC during Run 2. The model framework possesses the rather unique capacity to provide a light CP-even Higgs boson mass in the favored 124-126 GeV window while simultaneously retaining a testably light supersymmetry (SUSY) spectrum. We summarize the outlook for No-Scale ${\\cal F}$-$SU(5)$ at the 13-14 TeV LHC and review a promising methodology for the discrimination of its long-chain cascade decay signature. We further show that proportional dependence of all model scales upon the unified gaugino mass $M_{1/2}$ minimizes electroweak fine-tuning, allowing the $Z$-boson mass $M_Z$ to be expressed as an explicit function of $M_{1/2}$, $M_Z^2 = M_Z^2 (M_{1/2}^2)$, with implicit depe...

  15. International Competitive Advantages of China's Construction Industry Based on Porter National Diamond Model%基于波特钻石模型的中国建筑业国际竞争优势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文健

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍我国承包商在国际工程承包市场的现状,运用波特钻石理论分析我国建筑业在要素条件、需求条件、相关支持产业、企业战略结构和竞争以及机遇和政府等六个方面的国际竞争力水平,就如何进一步提高产业竞争力给出六个方面的建议.%The current performance of Chinese contractors in international contracting market is briefly reviewed.Then based on Porter's diamond model, their competitive advantages are analyzed from four main conditions and two additional variables.Finally, the suggestions and comments are provided to enhance the competitiveness of Chinese construction industry.

  16. Mathematical Modeling of a Cs(I – Sr(II – Bentonite – Magnetite Sorption System, Simulating the Processes Taking Place in a Deep Geological Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Filipská

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The derivation of mathematical models of systems consisting of Cs(I or Sr(II and of bentonite (B, magnetite (M or their mixtures (B+M are described. The paper deals especially with modeling of the protonation and sorption processes occurring on the functional groups of the solid phase, namely on so called edge sites and layer sites. The two types of sites have different properties and, as a result, three types of Surface Complexation Models (SCM are used for edge sites, viz. two electrostatic SCMs: the Constant Capacitance Model (CCM and the Diffusion Double Layer Model (DLM, and one without electrostatic correction: the Chemical Model (CEM. The processes taking place on the layer sites are described by means of the Ion Exchange Model (IExM. In the course of modeling, the speciation of the given metal in the liquid (aqueous phase has to be taken into account. In principle, the model of protonation or sorption processes is based on the reactions occurring in the aqueous phase and on the surface of the solid phase, and comprises not only the equations of the equilibrium constants of the individual reactions, but also the mass and charge balance equations. The algorithm of the numerical solution is compatible with FAMULUS 3.5 (a Czech software product quite extensively used at Czech universities in the last decade, the bookcase codes of which are utilized. 

  17. Recent regressions in plate boundary modelling - subducting the Himalayan orogen, and taking it with a growing grain of salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kosuke

    2017-04-01

    One particular and maybe peculiar approach is to make inferences from the larger to the smaller scale. A promising starting point is the well-studied geodynamic plate subduction margin setup, from which many smaller-scale or process-specific findings have been successfully extracted. I present a series of models that were aiming to combine many of these findings to test the feasibility of conceptual models for the evolution of the Himalayan-Tibetan system. Are the Himalayas not feasible? Do the limitations lie within the method (i.e. 2D), the author, or the proposed history? Having not found the fundamental process control on major observables, I also move on to other regional settings. The presentation concludes with a display of early trial-stage of grain size evolution experiments, to plate-scale geodynamic processes.

  18. Some specification aspects for three-factor models of a company's production potential taking into account intellectual capital

    OpenAIRE

    Aivazian, S.; Afanasiev, M.; Rudenko, V.

    2012-01-01

    As a contribution to further development of the stochastic frontier methodology the specification method for a 3-factor stochastic model of the production potential of a company is given. Along with labor input and physical capital input we consider intellectual capital as a basic production factor. For the description of a random variable that defines production efficiency the truncated at zero normal distribution is used. The presented formalized scheme that is based on hypothesis testing c...

  19. Activity and Influence Based Detection of National Advantageous Discipline:Taking Communication Studies as an Example%基于活跃度和影响力的国家优势学科领域发现--以传播学为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳妮; 沈阳

    2015-01-01

    为揭示不同国家(地区)在某一学科领域的特色研究方向,以及学科的不同领域方向上各国家(地区)的竞争优势,提出国家优势学科领域判断矩阵。该矩阵包含两个维度:基于作者关键词的活跃度指数( KAI)和影响力指数( KII)。在实证分析中,从传播学学科12个主要研究国家的文献中提取作者关键词,并揭示出美国、英国、荷兰、中国等国家的传播学特色领域方向,以及不同领域方向上各国家竞争力的差异。结果表明,判断矩阵能较好地综合评估各国在传播学领域方向的竞争力,其揭示的结果对国家优势学科领域竞争力的反映更为细致。%To discover the characteristic research direction of different countries ( regions) in a particular subject area, as well as national ( regional) competitive advantages in different discipline, we proposed the national superiority disciplines judgment matrix. The matrix consists of two dimensions, the keyword activity index ( KAI) and the keyword influence index ( KII) . In the empirical analysis, the au-thor keywords were extracted from communication research literature upon 12 countries. We revealed the different competitive communica-tion research direction of the United States, the UK, the Netherlands, China and other countries in the study, as well as the countryˊs com-petitiveness on the different direction of the communication. The results show that the judgment matrix can better assess the competitive performance of countries in the field of communication direction and reveal national discipline competitiveness in more detail.

  20. Advantages and Uses of AMTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, M. A. K.

    2012-10-01

    Static conversion systems are gaining importance in recent times because of newer applications of electricity like in spacecraft, hybrid-electric vehicles, military uses and domestic purposes. Of the many new static energy conversion systems that are being considered, one is the Alkali Metal Thermal Electric Converter (AMTEC). It is a thermally regenerative, electrochemical device for the direct conversion of heat to electrical power. As the name suggests, this system uses an alkali metal in its process. The electrochemical process involved in the working of AMTEC is ionization of alkali metal atoms at the interface of electrode and electrolyte. The electrons produced as a result flow through the external load thus doing work, and finally recombine with the metal ions at the cathode. AMTECs convert the work done during the nearly isothermal expansion of metal vapor to produce a high current and low voltage electron flow. Due to its principle of working it has many inherent advantages over other conventional generators. These will be discussed briefly.

  1. It takes three to tango: 2. Bubble dynamics in basaltic volcanoes and ramifications for modeling normal Strombolian activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckale, Jenny; Hager, Bradford H.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Nave, Jean-Christophe

    2010-07-01

    This is the second paper of two that examine numerical simulations of buoyancy-driven flow in the presence of large viscosity contrasts. In the first paper, we demonstrated that a combination of three numerical tools, an extended ghost fluid type method, the level set approach, and the extension velocity technique, accurately simulates complex interface dynamics in the presence of large viscosity contrasts. In this paper, we use this threefold numerical method to investigate bubble dynamics in the conduits of basaltic volcanos with a focus on normal Strombolian eruptions. Strombolian type activity, named after the famously episodic eruptions at Stromboli volcano, is characterized by temporally discrete fountains of incandescent clasts. The mildly explosive nature of normal Strombolian activity, as compared to more effusive variants of basaltic volcanism, is related to the presence of dissolved gas in the magma, yielding a complex two-phase flow problem. We present a detailed scaling analysis allowing identification of the pertinent regime for a given flow problem. The dynamic interactions between gas and magma can be classified into three nondimensional regimes on the basis of bubble sizes and magma viscosity. Resolving the fluid dynamics at the scale of individual bubbles is not equally important in all three regimes: As long as bubbles remain small enough to be spherical, their dynamic interactions are limited compared to the rich spectrum of coalescence and breakup processes observed for deformable bubbles, in particular, once inertia ceases to be negligible. One key finding in our simulations is that both large gas bubbles and large conduit-filling gas pockets ("slugs") are prone to dynamic instabilities that lead to their rapid breakup during buoyancy-driven ascent. We provide upper bound estimates for the maximum stable bubble size in a given magmatic system and discuss the ramifications of our results for two commonly used models of normal Strombolian type

  2. Information Technology, Core Competencies, and Sustained Competitive Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Terry Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model that depicts a possible connection between competitive advantage and information technology. Focuses on flexibility of the information technology infrastructure as an enabler of core competencies, especially mass customization and time-to-market, that have a relationship to sustained competitive advantage. (Contains 82…

  3. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages andLabour Market Performance@*In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered howimperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goodstrade. Easier goods trading...

  4. The Model of Higher School Students’ Research Competence in Multilevel Training (Taking as the Example the Mathematical Disciplines Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Lukashenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to developing the research competence in the process of student multilevel training. Upgrading the student’s ability for research ac- tivity is an important task of higher education that should be continually emphasized at all levels. The author suggests the model developing the research competence in the context of mathematical disciplines studies at bachelor level of different educational profiles: mathematical, natural sciences, vocational. The model in question represents the hierarchical tree of goals based on the principals of expansion, subordination and correlative importance – all of them reflecting the links between the goals and the edu- cational levels ( bachelor or master level - which facilitates the plan systematization for achieving the main goal of students’ research competence development. The essential content, criteria, indices and development levels of the compe- tence in question are defined. The given approach provides the continuity in mastering the competencies at different levels in a sequential advancing from the theoretical to practical knowledge and makes it possible to avoid the formal approach to teaching the undergraduates. 

  5. The Model of Higher School Students’ Research Competence in Multilevel Training (Taking as the Example the Mathematical Disciplines Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Lukashenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to developing the research competence in the process of student multilevel training. Upgrading the student’s ability for research ac- tivity is an important task of higher education that should be continually emphasized at all levels. The author suggests the model developing the research competence in the context of mathematical disciplines studies at bachelor level of different educational profiles: mathematical, natural sciences, vocational. The model in question represents the hierarchical tree of goals based on the principals of expansion, subordination and correlative importance – all of them reflecting the links between the goals and the edu- cational levels ( bachelor or master level - which facilitates the plan systematization for achieving the main goal of students’ research competence development. The essential content, criteria, indices and development levels of the compe- tence in question are defined. The given approach provides the continuity in mastering the competencies at different levels in a sequential advancing from the theoretical to practical knowledge and makes it possible to avoid the formal approach to teaching the undergraduates. 

  6. Taking into account small scale inhomogeneities and topography rapid variations in forward modeling and inverse problems in seismology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdeville, Y.; Cupillard, P.; Marigo, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    The modeling of seismic elastic wave full waveform in a limited frequency band is now well established with a set of efficient numerical methods like the spectral element, the discontinuous Galerking or the finite difference methods. The constant increase of computing power with time has now allowed the use of seismic elastic wave full waveforms in a limited frequency band to image the elastic properties of the earth. Nevertheless, inhomogeneities of scale much smaller the minimum wavelength of the wavefield associated to the maximum frequency of the limited frequency band, are still a challenge for both forward and inverse problems. In this work, we tackle the problem of elastic properties and topography varying much faster than the minimum wavelength. Using a non periodic homogenization theory and a matching asymptotic technique, we show how to compute effective elastic properties, how to compute local correctors and how remove the fast variations of the topography and replace it by a smooth Dirichlet to Nemann operator at the surface. After showing some 2D and 3D forward modeling numerical examples, we will discuss the implications of such a development for both forward and inverse problems.

  7. Modeling the Roles of Precipitation Increasing in Glacier Systems Responding to Climate Warming - Taking Xinjiang Glaciated Region as Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; XIE Zichu; LIU Shiyin; TAO Jianjun; HAN Yongshun; YANG Yuelong

    2005-01-01

    The studies on prediction of climate in Xinjiang almost show that the precipitation would increase in the coming 50 years, although there were surely some uncertainties in precipitation predictions.On the basis of the structure of glacier system and nature of equilibrium line altitude at steady state (ELAo), a functional model of the glacier system responding to climate changes was established, and it simultaneously involved the rising of summer mean temperature and increasing of mean precipitation.The results from the functional model under the climatic scenarios with temperature increasing rates of 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05 K/year indicated that the precipitation increasing would play an evident role in glacier system responding to climate change: if temperature become 1℃ higher, the precipitation would be increased by 10%, which can slow down the glaciers retreating rate in the area by 4%, accelerate runoff increasing rate by 8% and depress the ELAo rising gradient by 24 m in northern Xinjiang glacier system where semi-continental glaciers dominate,while it has corresponding values of only 1%, 5 % and 18m respectively in southern Xinjiang glacier system,where extremely continental glaciers dominate.

  8. Modeling of the saturation current of a fission chamber taking into account the distorsion of electric field due to space charge effects

    CERN Document Server

    Poujade, O; Poujade, Olivier; Lebrun, Alain

    1999-01-01

    Fission chambers were first made fifty years ago for neutron detection. At the moment, the French Atomic Energy Commission \\textsf{(CEA-Cadarache)} is developing a sub-miniature fission chamber technology with a diameter of 1.5 mm working in the current mode (Bign). To be able to measure intense fluxes, it is necessary to adjust the chamber geometry and the gas pressure before testing it under real neutron flux. In the present paper, we describe a theoretical method to foresee the current-voltage characteristics (sensitivity and saturation plateau) of a fission chamber whose geometrical features are given, taking into account the neutron flux to be measured (spectrum and intensity). The proposed theoretical model describes electric field distortion resulting from charge collection effect. A computer code has been developed on this model basis. Its application to 3 kinds of fission chambers indicates excellent agreement between theoretical model and measured characteristics.

  9. Food Quality Safety Evaluation Model in College Canteens Based on the Improved AHP-taking Bengbu College as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxi Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of investigation and the suggestion from the experts, the factors influencing the college canteen food quality and safety are found and assessment system for university cafeteria food quality and safety is constructed. With the improved Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to the various indexes for the empowerment and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the university canteen food quality and safety evaluation method is created. Then based on the example from Bengbu College, the solution of the model is provided, thus it is concluded that the process management factors, food factors and environmental factors, make the biggest influence on the canteen food quality and safety. Meanwhile, the extent of the influence of the second level factor on the canteen food quality and safety is identified and further it should be paid a greater attention to the several factors in order to improve the status of the food quality and safety condition.

  10. A simple model of the diffusion phenomena taking place during the debittering process of green table olives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, M.B.; Zuritz, C.A.; Wuilloud, R.G.; Bageta, C.R.; Terreni, J.; Sanchez, M.J.

    2011-07-01

    The change in the concentration of sodium and calcium ions in the olive flesh and in the lye during the debittering process was quantified. The average concentration of Na increased from 0.0045 to 0.395 meq Na/g of olive flesh and the concentration of Ca increased from 0.018 to 0.0252 meq Ca/g of olive flesh. The firmness of the olives decreased almost linearly from 375 gf to 235 gf during the alkali treatment. The olives also suffered a 25.9% loss in their initial content of reducing sugars. A hypothetical simplified description of the dynamic of ionic charge changes and unwinding of the pectinic structure during the debittering process of green olives has been proposed. In addition, the effective diffusion coefficients were calculated for sodium and calcium using a diffusion model for a composite flat plate and constant diffusion coefficients. (Author).

  11. A formational model for the polygonal terrains of Mars: Taking a crack at the genesis of the Martian polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, M. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    The mechanism for the genesis of the polygonal terrains in Acidalia and Utopia Planitia has long been sought: however, no completely satisfying model was put forth that characterizes the evolution of these complexly patterned terrains. The polygons are roughly hexagonal but some are not entirely enclosed by fractures. These polygonal features range in widths from approximately 5 to 20 km. Several origins were proposed that describe the polygon borders as desiccation cracks, columnar jointing in a cooled lava, or frost-wedge features. These tension-induced cracking hypotheses were addressed by Pechmann, who convincingly disputes these mechanisms of formation based on scale magnitude difficulties and morphology. Pechmann suggests instead that the cracks delineating the 5-20-km-wide polygons on the northern plains of Mars are graben resulting from deep-seated, uniform, horizontal tension. The difficulty with this hypothesis is that no analogous polygonal forms are known to have originated by tectonism on Earth. McGill and Hills propose that the polygonal terrains on Mars resulted from either rapid desiccation of sediments or cooling of volcanics coupled with differential compaction of the material over a buried irregular topographic surface. They suggest that fracturing was enhanced over the areas of positive relief and was suppressed above the topographic lows. McGill and Hills suggest that the spacing of the topographic highs primarily controls the size of the Martian polygons and the physics of the shrinkage process is a secondary concern. Ray et. al. conducted a terrestrial study of patterned ground in periglacial areas of the U.S. to determine the process responsible for polygonal ground formation. They developed a model for polygon formation in which convection of seasonal melt water above a permafrost layer, driven by an unstable density stratification, differentially melts the permafrost interface, causing it to become undulatory.

  12. [How should be a psychiatric hospital to take in and utilize the psycho-social approaches in Japan? -- From the view point of psychiatry, medical model, medical system and economical management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Kohei; Horikawa, Yuriko

    2012-01-01

    The author developed argument that a cause of the present condition of our country, in which psycho-social approaches have not fully spread though its clinical efficacy has been well recognized, is in the medical institution side. Because, our psychiatric reforms over 17 years, that reduced the average duration of hospitalization from about 2156 days to 61 days, has attained by deployment of various psycho-social approaches based on "therapeutic community model" and "psychodynamic team treatment". Furthermore, it has done by the affinity, continuity and complementarities of "psychodynamic team treatment" and psychosocial approaches with following special features. That is, since psycho-social approaches is 1. techniques to acquire the social life skill and to prevent re-hospitalization, 2. the group psychotherapy by facilitating the patient's mutual help capability, 3. based on "acceptance of the disease" by "noticing the diagnosis". Even if the therapeutic orientation or assumption of the psychiatric hospital does not comprehend above all of 1-3, it is important whether it is in the same direction or not. In other words, it is the issue of the medical-economical-management system, medical model and also the kind of psychiatry that is the source of them. Our hospital is for short term hospitalization and in focus on the outpatient treatment with "psychodynamic team treatment" based on "therapeutic community model". That is why our hospital has a potential advantage to take in and utilize the psycho-social approaches. On the other hand, there is the same reason why it is difficult for the traditional psychiatric hospital for long term hospitalization with higher hierarchical "physical medicine model" based on the descriptive psychiatry. The further problem is that both psychiatric hospital staff and psycho-social therapists do not realize it. The most important issue for us is having the recognition and exploring the method not to adapt to a psychiatric hospital but

  13. Tailored logistics: the next advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J B; O'Conor, J; Rawlinson, R

    1993-01-01

    How many top executives have ever visited with managers who move materials from the factory to the store? How many still reduce the costs of logistics to the rent of warehouses and the fees charged by common carriers? To judge by hours of senior management attention, logistics problems do not rank high. But logistics have the potential to become the next governing element of strategy. Whether they know it or not, senior managers of every retail store and diversified manufacturing company compete in logistically distinct businesses. Customer needs vary, and companies can tailor their logistics systems to serve their customers better and more profitably. Companies do not create value for customers and sustainable advantage for themselves merely by offering varieties of goods. Rather, they offer goods in distinct ways. A particular can of Coca-Cola, for example, might be a can of Coca-Cola going to a vending machine, or a can of Coca-Cola that comes with billing services. There is a fortune buried in this distinction. The goal of logistics strategy is building distinct approaches to distinct groups of customers. The first step is organizing a cross-functional team to proceed through the following steps: segmenting customers according to purchase criteria, establishing different standards of service for different customer segments, tailoring logistics pipelines to support each segment, and creating economics of scale to determine which assets can be shared among various pipelines. The goal of establishing logistically distinct businesses is familiar: improved knowledge of customers and improved means of satisfying them.

  14. Computational evolution: taking liberties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luís

    2010-09-01

    Evolution has, for a long time, inspired computer scientists to produce computer models mimicking its behavior. Evolutionary algorithm (EA) is one of the areas where this approach has flourished. EAs have been used to model and study evolution, but they have been especially developed for their aptitude as optimization tools for engineering. Developed models are quite simple in comparison with their natural sources of inspiration. However, since EAs run on computers, we have the freedom, especially in optimization models, to test approaches both realistic and outright speculative, from the biological point of view. In this article, we discuss different common evolutionary algorithm models, and then present some alternatives of interest. These include biologically inspired models, such as co-evolution and, in particular, symbiogenetics and outright artificial operators and representations. In each case, the advantages of the modifications to the standard model are identified. The other area of computational evolution, which has allowed us to study basic principles of evolution and ecology dynamics, is the development of artificial life platforms for open-ended evolution of artificial organisms. With these platforms, biologists can test theories by directly manipulating individuals and operators, observing the resulting effects in a realistic way. An overview of the most prominent of such environments is also presented. If instead of artificial platforms we use the real world for evolving artificial life, then we are dealing with evolutionary robotics (ERs). A brief description of this area is presented, analyzing its relations to biology. Finally, we present the conclusions and identify future research avenues in the frontier of computation and biology. Hopefully, this will help to draw the attention of more biologists and computer scientists to the benefits of such interdisciplinary research.

  15. Nurses’ Creativity: Advantage or Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari Isfahani, Sara; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood; Peyrovi, Hamid; Khanke, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, global nursing experts have been aggressively encouraging nurses to pursue creativity and innovation in nursing to improve nursing outcomes. Nurses’ creativity plays a significant role in health and well-being. In most health systems across the world, nurses provide up to 80% of the primary health care; therefore, they are critically positioned to provide creative solutions for current and future global health challenges. Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian nurses’ perceptions and experiences toward the expression of creativity in clinical settings and the outcomes of their creativity for health care organizations. Patients and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 nurses who were involved in the creative process in educational hospitals affiliated to Jahrom and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Results Four themes emerged from the data analysis, including a) Improvement in quality of patient care, b) Improvement in nurses’ quality of work, personal and social life, c) Promotion of organization, and d) Unpleasant outcomes. Conclusions The findings indicated that nurses’ creativity in health care organizations can lead to major changes of nursing practice, improvement of care and organizational performance. Therefore, policymakers, nurse educators, nursing and hospital managers should provide a nurturing environment that is conducive to creative thinking, giving the nurses opportunity for flexibility, creativity, support for change, and risk taking. PMID:25793116

  16. Mathematical modeling of gas-condensate mixture filtration in porous media taking into account non-equilibrium of phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalov, V. V.; Molchanov, D. A.; Sokotushchenko, V. N.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    At the present time, a considerable part of the largest dry gas reservoirs in Russia are found in the stage of declining production, therefore active exploitation of gas-condensate fields will begin in the coming decades. There is a significant discrepancy between the project and the actual value of condensate recovery factor while producing reservoir of this type, which is caused by insufficient knowledge about non-equilibrium filtration mechanisms of gas-condensate mixtures in reservoir conditions. A system of differential equations to describe filtration process of two-phase multicomponent mixture for one-, two- and three-dimensional cases is presented in this work. The solution of the described system was made by finite-element method in the software package FlexPDE. Comparative distributions of velocities, pressures, saturations and phase compositions of three-component mixture along the reservoir model and in time in both cases of equilibrium and non-equilibrium filtration processes were obtained. Calculation results have shown that system deviation from the thermodynamic equilibrium increases gas phase flow rate and reduces liquid phase flow rate during filtration process of gas-condensate mixture.

  17. The Implementation of Knowledge Strategy-Based Entrepreneurial Capacity to Achieve Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a model of knowledge strategy-based entrepreneurial capacity to achieve sustainable competitive advantage of rurol banking in Central Java province. The sampling method is ‘‘Purposive sampling’’ by considering the characteristics of the population items, namely: operational experience for at least 5 years and representatives of each area of rurol banking in Semarang, Surakarta and Purwokerto. Then, the sample size is 150 of 251 (59.7% of top managers of rurol banking. To analyze the data in this study, it used the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, of the, AMOS software package. The findings of this study explain that 1. The first step in promoting a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge sharing is by prioritizing the quality of interaction, willingness and ability. 2. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by knowledge sharing are by prioritizing to actively accept changes and introduction, solve problems together, use and combine new knowledge in operation. 3. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through the knowledge exploitation built by risk-taking are by prioritizing a strong tendency for high-risk projects (with the possibility of gaining high-return, a high courage for the actions necessary to achieve the goal, having an aggressive attitude to optimize the possibility of utilizing existing potential opportunities and enjoying the challenge of the risk situation. 4. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by a pro-active are by prioritizing to anticipate problem more quickly than competitors, future oriented, addressed by technology, launching product selectively and systematically search for new ideas. 5. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by the innovativeness are by prioritizing the speed of developing products

  18. Models of Non-Stationary Thermodynamic Processes in Rocket Engines Taking into Account a Chemical Equilibrium of Combustion Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Aliev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the two approach-based techniques for calculating the non-stationary intra-chamber processes in solid-propellant rocket engine (SPRE. The first approach assumes that the combustion products are a mechanical mix while the other one supposes it to be the mix, which is in chemical equilibrium. To enhance reliability of solution of the intra ballistic tasks, which assume a chemical equilibrium of combustion products, the computing algorithms to calculate a structure of the combustion products are changed. The algorithm for solving a system of the nonlinear equations of chemical equilibrium, when determining the iterative amendments, uses the orthogonal QR method instead of a method of Gauss. Besides, a possibility to apply genetic algorithms in a task about a structure of combustion products is considered.It is shown that in the tasks concerning the prediction of non-stationary intra ballistic characteristics in a solid propellant rocket engine, application of models of mechanical mix and chemically equilibrium structure of combustion products leads to qualitatively and quantitatively coinciding results. The maximum difference in parameters is 5-10%, at most. In tasks concerning the starting operation of a solid sustainer engine with high-temperature products of combustion difference in results is more essential, and can reach 20% and more.A technique to calculate the intra ballistic parameters, in which flotation of combustion products is considered in the light of a spatial statement, requires using the high-performance computer facilities. For these tasks it is offered to define structure of products of combustion and its thermo-physical characteristics, using the polynoms coefficients of which should be predefined.

  19. BTEC HND课程体系人才培养模式的优势探索%An Inquiry into the Advantage of Talent Cultivation Model for BTEC HND Course System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红艳; 柳璐

    2011-01-01

    BTEC HND course system adheres to the education concepts which are "taking the students as the center,the ability training as main line". The teaching goals followed the "the logical, flexibility,module type" teaching method,emphasizes the application,and innovation,and takes "the magic 7 teaching structure" and "Kolb learning style" (experiential learning mode). This talents training mode has strong reference to the research on vocational talents training model.%BTEC HND课程体系秉承"以学生为中心,以能力培养为主线"的教育理念,教学目标强调学以致用、创新为本,遵循"非逻辑性,灵活性,模块式"的教学思路,采用"Themagic 7 teaching structure"(七步魔法教学模式)和"Kolb学习风格"(体验式学习模式),对高职高专人才培养模式的研究具有较强的借鉴意义。

  20. Advantages with small control valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Gunnar

    2008-09-15

    Between 1995 and 2005, the Swedish District Heating Association carried out several research projects concerning small dimensions on control valves. This lecture aims at giving a summary of these findings which, if they are carried out, have a great impact on the district heating system. The outcome is advantages on both the production side and the customer side. Some of the project's conclusions are as follows: 1. The simulations show that the consequences of temperature disturbances can be reduced when applying smaller control valves, especially at low outdoor temperatures (-5 deg C). 2. The consequences of flow disturbances (pump stop) are not depending on the outdoor temperature (heat demand), but results over the whole year in reduced maximum flow during the process of operation recovery. With adequately reduced valve size, the resulting maximum flow at restart can be approximately reduced to the half, leading in reduced need of pumping peak power. 3. Similarly, the maximum peak power taken from the net at net recovery will be reduced, however, this effect is not as strong as that for flow. 4. Generally, we have found clear indications for that the adjustment of the K{sub vs}-values of control valves in substations should follow a certain logical order of priority. An important factor is the location of substations in respect to the production plant and to the pressure control points in the network. Another important factor is the absolute K{sub vs}-value of the over sizing, i.e. the difference of the actual installed valve and the targeted valve size. 5. Smaller size of control valves means also an improvement of the everyday operation of the district heating net, especially in the case when flow and power peaks are expected to occur. Examples for that could be the morning peaks with increase heat and hot water demands, or such events when the air temperature is decreasing very fast because of weather phenomena. Smaller control valves will smear out the

  1. New rules for transient advantage, social business, breakthrough innovation, big data and information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Business models and processes are evolving in quicktime to take advantage of opportunities enabled by the rapid advance of digital technology. Meanwhile, the preferences of customers and the jobs they need to do are co-evolving. What's accelerating the transformation of markets is that, using digital networks, customers and other stakeholder can instantly influence the development of new offerings. As a result, upstart businesses that can connect with customers through new social channels burgeon and thrive and long-established segments suddenly wither and vanish. This book identifies several

  2. Take Charge. Take the Test. PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 30 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  3. Application of the transtheoretical model of behaviour change for identifying older clients' readiness for hearing rehabilitation during history-taking in audiology appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Katie; Grenness, Caitlin; Hickson, Louise

    2016-07-01

    The transtheoretical model (TTM) of behaviour change focuses on clients' readiness for adopting new health behaviours. This study explores how clients' readiness for change can be identified through their interactions with audiologists during history-taking in initial appointments; and whether clients' readiness has consequences for the rehabilitation decisions they make within the initial appointment. Conversation analysis (CA) was used to examine video-recorded initial audiology appointments with older adults with hearing impairment. The data corpus involved 62 recorded appointments with 26 audiologists and their older adult clients (aged 55+ years). Companions were present in 17 appointments. Clients' readiness for change could be observed through their interaction with the audiologist. Analysis demonstrated that the way clients described their hearing in the history-taking phase had systematic consequences for how they responded to rehabilitation recommendations (in particular, hearing aids) in the management phase of the appointment. In particular, clients identified as being in a pre-contemplation stage-of-change were more likely to display resistance to a recommendation of hearing aids (80% declined). The transtheoretical model of behaviour change can be useful for helping audiologists individualize management planning to be congruent with individual clients' needs, attitudes, desires, and psychological readiness for action in order to optimize clients' hearing outcomes.

  4. Competitive Advantage of Interconnected Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Andersson, Ulf

    We model the complex interplay between firm-level variables, notably capabilities and performance, and relationship-level variables: relationship-specific assets and network context. We test how the network context of individual exchange relationships as well as firm-level capabilities jointly af...

  5. STRATEGIES FOR COMPETETIVE ADVANTAGE IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Azadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite rapid and sustained development of electronic commerce, many companies doing e-business are still in the investment and brand-building phase and have yet to show a profit. However, as e-businesses shift their focus from  building a customer base to increasing revenue growth and profitability, they should reevaluate their current business strategies, if any, and develop strategies that provide a clear path to profitability. This study uses McCarthy’s four marketing mix model and Porter’s five competitive forces model to identify strategies for Internet companies that respond to the five competitive forces and thereby achieve a competitive advantage. The study provides significant new insights into the development and implementation of e-business strategies that contribute to increased profit.

  6. A simple model of the diffusion phenomena taking place during the debittering process of green table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonado, Mariela B.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The change in the concentration of sodium and calcium ions in the olive flesh and in the lye during the debittering process was quantified. The average concentration of Na increased from 0.0045 to 0,395 meq Na/g of olive flesh and the concentration of Ca increased from 0.018 to 0.0252 meq Ca/g of olive flesh. The firmness of the olives decreased almost linearly from 375 gf to 235 gf during the alkali treatment. The olives also suffered a 25.9% loss in their initial content of reducing sugars. A hypothetical simplified description of the dynamic of ionic charge changes and unwinding of the pectinic structure during the debittering process of green olives has been proposed. In addition, the effective diffusion coefficients were calculated for sodium and calcium using a diffusion model for a composite flat plate and constant diffusion coefficients. The coefficients for both solutes were in the order of 10–12 m2/s for the skin and 10–10 m2/s for the flesh. In both cases, the diffusion coefficients of Na were larger than the diffusion coefficients of Ca.

    Se ha cuantificado el cambio en la concentración de sodio y calcio en la pulpa y en la lejía durante el tratamiento alcalino de aceitunas. La concentración promedio de sodio en la pulpa aumentó de 0,0045 a 0,395 meq Na/g mientras que la de calcio creció de 0,018 a 0,0252 meq Ca/g. La textura de las aceitunas disminuyó casi linealmente de 375 gf a 235 gf durante el tratamiento alcalino. Las aceitunas sufrieron una perdida de azúcares reductores del 25.9%. Se ha propuesto una hipotética y simplificada descripción de la dinámica de los cambios de carga iónica y el desenrrollamiento de las pectinas durante el desamarizado de las aceitunas. También se calculó el coeficiente efectivo de difusión para sodio y calcio usando un modelo de difusión para una placa compuesta. Los coeficientes resultaron en el orden de 10–12 m2

  7. The possibility of using the equivalent plane wave model to increase the efficiency of taking bearings of low-frequency signals in shallow water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, G. N.; Lebedev, O. V.

    2012-09-01

    The possibility of approximating the sound field in the region of interference maxima using the equivalent plane wave model with the actual amplitude and the average "effective" phase velocity calculated or measured by the phase gradient at the array aperture is discussed. The method is substantiated by studying the mode, interference, and phase structures of the low-frequency sound field along with the spatial responses of an extended linear array. For bottom-moored or towed geophysical arrays whose sizes are large compared to the wavelength, both the necessity and the possibility of reducing the error in taking the bearing of a sound source in a waveguide are justified. The use of the proposed model is recommended for approximate matching of the array to the transfer function of the waveguide to reduce the bearing error.

  8. On the Education Model:Taking Learning as the Principal Thing%“以学为主”教学模式初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽丽

    2001-01-01

    本文从分析传统教学模式对于学生创新能力的培养存在不足入手,提出了“以学为主”的新的教学模式的构想,并阐述了这种教学模式的主要特点以及运用“以学为主”教学模式应注意的问题,从理论上证明了“以学为主”的教学模式是院校教育系统改革的一个重要环节,也是开展以“创新教育”为核心的素质教育的必然要求。%Having analysed the inadequacy of the traditional education model in cultivating the pupils' ability of making innovations,the author puts forward the proposition of the new education model:taking learning as the principal thing.Then,the essay elaborates on the main features of the new model and some existing problems in applying the new model.The new education model is theoretically proved as one of the important links in school education system reform,and it is also a definite demand in developing the quality education of making innovations.

  9. Medicare Advantage Plans Pay Hospitals Less Than Traditional Medicare Pays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Devlin, Aileen M; Kessler, Daniel P

    2016-08-01

    There is ongoing debate about how prices paid to providers by Medicare Advantage plans compare to prices paid by fee-for-service Medicare. We used data from Medicare and the Health Care Cost Institute to identify the prices paid for hospital services by fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare, Medicare Advantage plans, and commercial insurers in 2009 and 2012. We calculated the average price per admission, and its trend over time, in each of the three types of insurance for fixed baskets of hospital admissions across metropolitan areas. After accounting for differences in hospital networks, geographic areas, and case-mix between Medicare Advantage and FFS Medicare, we found that Medicare Advantage plans paid 5.6 percent less for hospital services than FFS Medicare did. Without taking into account the narrower networks of Medicare Advantage, the program paid 8.0 percent less than FFS Medicare. We also found that the rates paid by commercial plans were much higher than those of either Medicare Advantage or FFS Medicare, and growing. At least some of this difference comes from the much higher prices that commercial plans pay for profitable service lines.

  10. Logistics capabilities for sustainable competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Erik; Abrahamsson, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how sustainable competitive advantage is generated in two Swedish best practice companies that successfully exploit logistics as a source for competitive advantage. Using a theoretical framework based on the resource-based view of the firm, this research elaborates on the links between operational and dynamic logistics capabilities and sustainable competitive advantage. The findings conclude that a sustainable competitive advantage is based on a combina...

  11. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of change to Community Advantage Pilot Program. SUMMARY: On February 18, 2011, SBA published a notice and request for comments introducing the Community Advantage Pilot Program. In that notice,...

  12. Electrical advantages of dendritic spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T Gulledge

    Full Text Available Many neurons receive excitatory glutamatergic input almost exclusively onto dendritic spines. In the absence of spines, the amplitudes and kinetics of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs at the site of synaptic input are highly variable and depend on dendritic location. We hypothesized that dendritic spines standardize the local geometry at the site of synaptic input, thereby reducing location-dependent variability of local EPSP properties. We tested this hypothesis using computational models of simplified and morphologically realistic spiny neurons that allow direct comparison of EPSPs generated on spine heads with EPSPs generated on dendritic shafts at the same dendritic locations. In all morphologies tested, spines greatly reduced location-dependent variability of local EPSP amplitude and kinetics, while having minimal impact on EPSPs measured at the soma. Spine-dependent standardization of local EPSP properties persisted across a range of physiologically relevant spine neck resistances, and in models with variable neck resistances. By reducing the variability of local EPSPs, spines standardized synaptic activation of NMDA receptors and voltage-gated calcium channels. Furthermore, spines enhanced activation of NMDA receptors and facilitated the generation of NMDA spikes and axonal action potentials in response to synaptic input. Finally, we show that dynamic regulation of spine neck geometry can preserve local EPSP properties following plasticity-driven changes in synaptic strength, but is inefficient in modifying the amplitude of EPSPs in other cellular compartments. These observations suggest that one function of dendritic spines is to standardize local EPSP properties throughout the dendritic tree, thereby allowing neurons to use similar voltage-sensitive postsynaptic mechanisms at all dendritic locations.

  13. Modelling runoff at the plot scale taking into account rainfall partitioning by vegetation: application to stemflow of banana (Musa spp. plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-M. Cabidoche

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall partitioning by vegetation modifies the intensity of rainwater reaching the ground, which affects runoff generation. Incident rainfall is intercepted by the plant canopy and then redistributed into throughfall and stemflow. Rainfall intensities at the soil surface are therefore not spatially uniform, generating local variations of runoff production that are disregarded in runoff models. The aim of this paper was to model runoff at the plot scale, accounting for rainfall partitioning by vegetation in the case of plants concentrating rainwater at the plant foot and promoting stemflow. We developed a lumped modelling approach, including a stemflow function that divided the plot into two compartments: one compartment including stemflow and the relative water pathways and one compartment for the rest of the plot. This stemflow function was coupled with a production function and a transfer function to simulate a flood hydrograph using the MHYDAS model. Calibrated parameters were a "stemflow coefficient", which compartmented the plot; the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, which controls infiltration and runoff; and the two parameters of the diffusive wave equation. We tested our model on a banana plot of 3000 m2 on permeable Andosol (mean Ks=75 mm h−1 under tropical rainfalls, in Guadeloupe (FWI. Runoff simulations without and with the stemflow function were performed and compared to 18 flood events from 10 to 130 mm rainfall depth. Modelling results showed that the stemflow function improved the calibration of hydrographs according to the error criteria on volume and on peakflow and to the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient. This was particularly the case for low flows observed during residual rainfall, for which the stemflow function allowed runoff to be simulated for rainfall intensities lower than the Ks measured at the soil surface. This approach also allowed us to take into account the experimental data, without needing to calibrate

  14. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  15. Heparin Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor Heals Chronic Tympanic Membrane Perforations With Advantage Over Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 and Epidermal Growth Factor in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Maria, Peter Luke; Weierich, Kendall; Kim, Sungwoo; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2015-08-01

    That heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) heals chronic tympanic membrane (TM) perforations at higher rates than fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in an animal model. A nonsurgical treatment for chronic TM perforation would benefit those unable to access surgery or those unable to have surgery, as well as reducing the cost of tympanoplasty. Growth factor (GF) treatments have been reported in the literature with variable success with the lack of a suitable animal providing a major obstacle. The GFs were tested in a validated mouse model of chronic TM perforation. A bioabsorbable hydrogel polymer was used to deliver the GF at a steady concentration as it dissolved over 4 weeks. A control (polymer only, n = 18) was compared to polymer loaded with HB-EGF (5 μg/ml, n = 18), FGF2 (100 μg/ml, n = 19), and EGF (250 μg/ml, n = 19). Perforations were inspected at 4 weeks. The healing rates, as defined as 100% perforation closure, were control (5/18, 27.8%), HB-EGF (15/18, 83.3%), FGF2 (6/19, 31.6%), and EGF (3/19, 15.8%). There were no differences between FGF2 (p = 0.80) and EGF (p = 0.31) with control healing rates. HB-EGF (p = 0.000001) showed a significant difference for healing. The HB-EGF healed TMs showed layers similar to a normal TM, whereas the other groups showed a lack of epithelial migration. This study confirms the advantage of HB-EGF over two other commonly used growth factors and is a promising nonsurgical treatment of chronic TM perforations.

  16. Microscopic potential model analysis of the radiative $(n,\\gamma)$ cross sections near the $Z=50$ shell closure taking part in the main s-component

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Saumi; Bhattacharyya, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections have been studied near the $Z=50$ closed shell for a number of nuclei those take part in heavy element nucleosynthesis, the slow and the rapid neutron capture processes and the proton capture process. An optical model potential is constructed in theoretical approach by folding the density dependent M3y purely real nucleon-nucleon interaction with the target radial matter density in relativistic mean field (RMF) approach. The standard code TALYS1.8 is used for cross-section calculation. We have presented the Maxwellian-averaged capture cross-section (MACS) values and stellar neutron capture reaction rates at astrophysically relevant thermal energies and temperatures.

  17. Referee bias contributes to home advantage in English Premiership football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Mark G

    2007-09-01

    Officiating bias is thought to contribute to home advantage. Recent research has shown that sports with subjective officiating tend to experience greater home advantage and that referees' decisions can be influenced by crowd noise, but little work has been done to examine whether individual referees vary in their home bias or whether biased decisions contribute to overall home advantage. We develop an ordinal regression model to determine whether various measures of home advantage are affected by the official for the match and by crowd size while controlling for team ability. We examine 5244 English Premier League (EPL) match results involving 50 referees and find that home bias differs between referees. Individual referees give significantly different levels of home advantage, measured as goal differential between the home and away teams, although the significance of this result depends on one referee with a particularly high home advantage (an outlier). Referees vary significantly and robustly in their yellow card and penalty differentials even excluding the outlier. These results confirm that referees are responsible for some of the observed home advantage in the EPL and suggest that home advantage is dependent on the subjective decisions of referees that vary between individuals. We hypothesize that individual referees respond differently to factors such as crowd noise and suggest further research looking at referees' psychological and behavioural responses to biased crowds.

  18. Efficient reinforcement learning of a reservoir network model of parametric working memory achieved with a cluster population winner-take-all readout mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenbo; Deng, Zhidong; Hu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Tianming

    2015-12-01

    The brain often has to make decisions based on information stored in working memory, but the neural circuitry underlying working memory is not fully understood. Many theoretical efforts have been focused on modeling the persistent delay period activity in the prefrontal areas that is believed to represent working memory. Recent experiments reveal that the delay period activity in the prefrontal cortex is neither static nor homogeneous as previously assumed. Models based on reservoir networks have been proposed to model such a dynamical activity pattern. The connections between neurons within a reservoir are random and do not require explicit tuning. Information storage does not depend on the stable states of the network. However, it is not clear how the encoded information can be retrieved for decision making with a biologically realistic algorithm. We therefore built a reservoir-based neural network to model the neuronal responses of the prefrontal cortex in a somatosensory delayed discrimination task. We first illustrate that the neurons in the reservoir exhibit a heterogeneous and dynamical delay period activity observed in previous experiments. Then we show that a cluster population circuit decodes the information from the reservoir with a winner-take-all mechanism and contributes to the decision making. Finally, we show that the model achieves a good performance rapidly by shaping only the readout with reinforcement learning. Our model reproduces important features of previous behavior and neurophysiology data. We illustrate for the first time how task-specific information stored in a reservoir network can be retrieved with a biologically plausible reinforcement learning training scheme.

  19. Taking Advantage of External Funding for Air Force Officer PH.D. Candidates at Civilian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Education,” http://www.afit.edu/grad.cfm. 21 Clarence W. Hannon et al., “Graduate Education within the Armed Forces,” Group Research Project...Force Line Officers, Research Report no. AFHRL-TR-70-7 (Lackland AFB, TX: Personnel Research Division, 1970). 56 Clarence W. Hannon et al...Bolton, Benjamin F. Findley, William S. Mosley, Lawrence Mwambola, Jeffrey N. Renehan, Glenward L. Spivey, John F. Thompson , Jack Weinstein. ―Air

  20. Driving HIV-1 into a Vulnerable Corner by Taking Advantage of Viral Adaptation and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shigeyoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for controlling human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Recently, progress in identifying and characterizing highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies has provided valuable templates for HIV-1 therapy and vaccine design. Nevertheless, HIV-1, like many RNA viruses, exhibits genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Evolution of quasispecies can occur rapidly in response to selective pressures, such as that exerted by ART and the immune system. Hence, rapid viral evolution leading to drug resistance and/or immune evasion is a significant barrier to the development of effective HIV-1 treatments and vaccines. Here, we describe our recent investigations into evolutionary pressure exerted by anti-retroviral drugs and monoclonal neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) on HIV-1 envelope sequences. We also discuss sensitivities of HIV-1 escape mutants to maraviroc, a CCR5 inhibitor, and HIV-1 sensitized to NAbs by small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds. These studies help to develop an understanding of viral evolution and escape from both anti-retroviral drugs and the immune system, and also provide fundamental insights into the combined use of NAbs and entry inhibitors. These findings of the adaptation and evolution of HIV in response to drug and immune pressure will inform the development of more effective antiviral therapeutic strategies. PMID:28360890

  1. Extend Instruction outside the Classroom: Take Advantage of Your Learning Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous institutions of higher education have implemented a learning management system (LMS) or are considering doing so. This web-based software package provides self-service and quick (often personalized) access to content in a dynamic environment. Learning management systems support administrative, reporting, and documentation activities. LMSs…

  2. Nordic-Baltic interaction in European Union negotiations: taking advantage of institutionalized cooperation / Ilze Ruse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruse, Ilze

    2014-01-01

    Läänemere riikide koostööst, keskendutakse küsimusele, kuivõrd suudavad need riigid institutsionaalselt tegutsedes tugevdada oma positsioone läbirääkimistel EL-ga ning saavutada seatud eesmärke.

  3. Impure and Multiple! Taking Full Advantage of Belk’s Extensions of Giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2014-01-01

    to be a person that extends and shares himself ‘out’ profusely. Following his generous example, I wish to share some thoughts on the ‘extensions’ that Belk’s work on gift giving and sharing achieves and/or helps us envision. I discuss five papers, beginning with the ‘Agapic love’ paper (Belk and Coon, 1993......) and the ‘Perfect gift’ paper (Belk, 1996), which I discuss primarily in relation to ‘pure giving’. Next, I move to the more recent triplet of papers on ‘Sharing’ (Belk, 2007, 2010; Belk and Llamas, 2012) which I discuss in light of the multiplicity of giving....

  4. When curiosity breeds intimacy: taking advantage of intimacy opportunities and transforming boring conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; McKnight, Patrick E; Fincham, Frank D; Rose, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Curious people seek knowledge and new experiences. In 3 studies, we examined whether, when, and how curiosity contributes to positive social outcomes between unacquainted strangers. Study 1 (98 college students) showed that curious people expect to generate closeness during intimate conversations but not during small talk; less curious people anticipated poor outcomes in both situations. We hypothesized that curious people underestimate their ability to bond with unacquainted strangers during mundane conversations. Studies 2 (90 college students) and 3 (106 college students) showed that curious people felt close to partners during intimate and small-talk conversations; less curious people only felt close when the situation offered relationship-building exercises. Surprise at the pleasure felt during this novel, uncertain situation partially mediated the benefits linked to curiosity. We found evidence of slight asymmetry between self and partner reactions. Results could not be attributed to physical attraction or positive affect. Collectively, results suggest that positive social interactions benefit from an open and curious mind-set.

  5. Chinese Textile Industry Still Taking Advantage on Export(Part A)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In March,Chinese National Textile & Apparel Council (CNTAC) launches acampaign consisting of China International Clothing & Accessories Fair (CHIC),Yarn Expo,and Intertextile Beijing Apparel Fabrics to refresh market and seek moreopportunities.Whatis the.future of China’s textile export when the finance turmoilcontinues to sweep the globe? TA Weekly has the report.

  6. When curiosity breeds intimacy: Taking advantage of intimacy opportunities and transforming boring conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B.; McKnight, Patrick E.; Fincham, Frank D.; Rose, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Curious people seek knowledge and new experiences. In three studies, we examined whether, when, and how curiosity contributes to positive social outcomes between unacquainted strangers. Study 1 showed that curious people expect to generate closeness during intimate conversations but not during small-talk; less curious people anticipated poor outcomes in both situations. We hypothesized that curious people underestimate their ability to bond with unacquainted strangers during mundane conversations. Studies 2 and 3 showed that curious people felt close to partners during intimate and small-talk conversations; less curious people only felt close when the situation offered relationship-building exercises. Surprise at the pleasure felt during this novel, uncertain situation partially mediated the benefits linked to curiosity. We found evidence of slight asymmetry between self and partner reactions. Results could not be attributed to physical attraction or positive affect. Collectively, results suggest that positive social interactions benefits from an open and curious mindset. PMID:22092143

  7. Cognitive strategies take advantage of the cooperative potential of heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukov, Jeromos; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the emergence and maintenance of cooperation is one of the most challenging topics of our time. Evolutionary game theory offers a very flexible framework within which to address this challenge. Here we use the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate the performance of individuals who are capable of adopting reactive strategies in communities structurally organized by means of Barabási-Albert scale-free networks. We find that basic cognitive abilities, such as the capability to distinguish their partners and act according to their previous actions, enable cooperation to thrive. This result is particularly significant whenever fear is the leading social tension, as this fosters retaliation, thus enforcing and sustaining cooperation. Being able to simultaneously reward fellow cooperators and punish defectors proves instrumental in achieving cooperation and the welfare of the community. As a result, central individuals can successfully lead the community and turn defective players into cooperative ones. Finally, even when participation costs—known to be detrimental to cooperation in scale-free networks—are explicitly included, we find that basic cognitive abilities have enough potential to help cooperation to prevail.

  8. Supplemental Work at Home among Finnish Wage Earners: Involuntary Overtime or Taking the Advantage of Flexibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Ojala

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested, that the new flexible work practices are enhanced to meet the work-family demandsand therefore benefit especially women. In the article the focus is on informal flexibilitytaking place at home, for which field studies of the role of gender are rare. Against the assumptions,paid work at home is mostly informal, supplementary overtime by nature. In this article, I explorewhy employees undertake work in their private sphere during their free time and whether gendermakes a difference there. I carry out both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The qualitativedata consists of 21 interviews with white-collar employees and the quantitative data from theFinnish Quality of Work Life survey 2008 for which there are almost 4400 respondents. The methodsinclude content analysis, descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis.According to both the qualitative and quantitative data, job characteristics play the most importantrole for all who work at home; employees with higher education, or supervisory tasks, inparallel with having an autonomous and inspiring job predict both tele- and supplemental work.Importantly, gender plays only a minor role in the puzzles of choosing when and where to work.The social relations at the workplace, including the atmosphere and the support of superiors andthe work community, are only weakly related to work at home. At the same time, supplementalwork is associated with great time pressure and involuntary overtime.

  9. Take advantage of mycorrhizal fungi for improved soil fertility and plant health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungi are naturally-occurring soil fungi that form a beneficial symbiosis with the roots of most crops. The plants benefit because the symbiosis increases mineral nutrient uptake, drought resistance, and disease resistance. These characteristics make utilization of AM f...

  10. Taking advantage of the Mobicents platform in the design of the SINGA environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available can store digital objects such as their birth certificate, letters, photo album, cookbook, memory box, etc. My Things will be securely deposited in a trusted repository ? a digital vault. My Games is an environment where a child can learn, play...'s children to play a central role in defining and accessing the information, services and people they need to advance in life. SINGA is about providing scenarios in which a child discovers how to ?do things? that normally would have been difficult in a...

  11. Taking Advantage of Agile while Minimizing Risk: User Stories and Other Fables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    Digital Taskboard ’I Story Mapping • Kanban " Collective Code Ownership " Pair Programming u Automated Acceptance Testing v Analog Taskboard w...Carnegie Mellon University Scaling Agile Brings in More Variation Scaled Agile Framework • Kanban , SCRUM, Value Stream Mapping Disciplined Agile

  12. Taking Advantage of Nature’s Gift: Can Endogenous Neural Stem Cells Improve Myelin Regeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Akkermann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Irreversible functional deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS are directly correlated to axonal damage and loss. Neurodegeneration results from immune-mediated destruction of myelin sheaths and subsequent axonal demyelination. Importantly, oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glial cells of the central nervous system, can be replaced to some extent to generate new myelin sheaths. This endogenous regeneration capacity has so far mainly been attributed to the activation and recruitment of resident oligodendroglial precursor cells. As this self-repair process is limited and increasingly fails while MS progresses, much interest has evolved regarding the development of remyelination-promoting strategies and the presence of alternative cell types, which can also contribute to the restoration of myelin sheaths. The adult brain comprises at least two neurogenic niches harboring life-long adult neural stem cells (NSCs. An increasing number of investigations are beginning to shed light on these cells under pathological conditions and revealed a significant potential of NSCs to contribute to myelin repair activities. In this review, these emerging investigations are discussed with respect to the importance of stimulating endogenous repair mechanisms from germinal sources. Moreover, we present key findings of NSC-derived oligodendroglial progeny, including a comprehensive overview of factors and mechanisms involved in this process.

  13. Hummingbirds as vectors of fungal spores in Moussonia deppeana (Gesneriaceae): taking advantage of a mutualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Carlos; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2003-02-01

    Hummingbirds act as vectors of Fusarium moniliforme spores on protandrous flowers of Moussonia deppeana. The resulting interactions between the pathogen and plant-pollinator interactions were investigated in a 4-yr study to determine the pathogen's impact on host flowering phenology, flower longevity, nectar production, and fruit and seed production. We also evaluated hummingbird behavior on healthy and diseased plants and its effectiveness on spore transmission. Individual plants expressed the disease from year to year, and new infected individuals were detected every year. A fraction of the flowers in a plant expressed the disease, and this varied among and within years. Diseased plants produced more inflorescences, buds, and open healthy flowers than did healthy plants. Further, diseased plants bore proportionally fewer pistillate flowers than did healthy plants when considering only healthy flowers. Neither nectar nor fruit production differed between healthy and diseased plants, but healthy plants produced more seeds. Infected flowers were retained longer than uninfected ones, producing an additional 2 mg · μL(-1) · flower(-1) of nectar sugar. Hummingbirds visited more flowers on diseased plants than they did on healthy plants, regardless of number and sexual phase. Most pollen and spores were deposited within plants. These behavioral outcomes may promote geitonogamy and limit fungal spore mixing.

  14. Taking Advantage of Citation Measures of Scholarly Impact: Hip Hip h Index!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, John

    2016-11-01

    Professional decisions about hiring, tenure, promotion, funding, and honors are informed by assessments of scholarly impact. As a measure of influence, citations are produced by experts but accessible to nonexperts. The h index is the largest number h such that an individual has published at least h works cited at least h times apiece. This is easy to understand and calculate, as or more reliable and valid than alternative citation measures, and highly robust to missing or messy data. Striving for a large h index requires both productivity and influence, which provides healthy incentives for researchers striving for eminence through scientific impact. A number of factors that can influence h are discussed to promote the mindful use of what might otherwise be an ambiguous or misleading measure. The h index adds a transparent, objective component to assessments of scholarly impact, and even academic eminence, that merits at least two cheers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Improving efficiency in cluster-randomized study design and implementation: taking advantage of a crossover

    OpenAIRE

    Reich NG; Milstone AM

    2013-01-01

    Nicholas G Reich,1 Aaron M Milstone2,3 1Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, UMass-Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: While individually randomized trials have long provided the gold standard of clinical evidence, the use of cluster-randomized tr...

  16. Taking Advantage of the Study-Abroad Program: Before and After

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    The study-abroad trip can contribute vitally to the success of a foreign language program, providing strong motivation for students, cultural awareness for parents and the community, and increased visibility for the foreign language department. (Author)

  17. SeDiCi: An Authentication Service Taking Advantage of Zero-Knowledge Proofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzonkowski, Sławomir

    Transmission of users' profiles over insecure communication means is a crucial task of today's ecommerce applications. In addition, the users have to createmany profiles and remember many credentials. Thus they retype the same information over and over again. Each time the users type their credentials, they expose them to phishing or eavesdropping attempts.These problems could be solved by using Single Sign-on (SSO). The idea of SSO is that the users keep using the same set of credentials when visiting different websites. For web-aplications, OpenID1. is the most prominent solution that partially impelemtns SSO. However, OpenID is prone to phishing attempts and it does not preserve users' privacy [1].

  18. Lynch, Urry and city marketing: Taking advantage of the city as a built and graphic image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, G-J.

    2009-01-01

    City marketing is usually addressed from the perspective of marketing theory. This article follows an alternative approach by exploring city marketing from the viewpoint of urban planning and the sociology of tourism. In his classic ‘The Image of the City’ (1960), planner Kevin Lynch found that peop

  19. Taking Advantage of Selective Change Driven Processing for 3D Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pardo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the application of the principles of SCD (Selective Change Driven vision to 3D laser scanning. Two experimental sets have been implemented: one with a classical CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor sensor, and the other one with a recently developed CMOS SCD sensor for comparative purposes, both using the technique known as Active Triangulation. An SCD sensor only delivers the pixels that have changed most, ordered by the magnitude of their change since their last readout. The 3D scanning method is based on the systematic search through the entire image to detect pixels that exceed a certain threshold, showing the SCD approach to be ideal for this application. Several experiments for both capturing strategies have been performed to try to find the limitations in high speed acquisition/processing. The classical approach is limited by the sequential array acquisition, as predicted by the Nyquist - Shannon sampling theorem, and this has been experimentally demonstrated in the case of a rotating helix. These limitations are overcome by the SCD 3D scanning prototype achieving a significantly higher performance. The aim of this article is to compare both capturing strategies in terms of performance in the time and frequency domains, so they share all the static characteristics including resolution, 3D scanning method, etc., thus yielding the same 3D reconstruction in static scenes.

  20. Point-of-sale marketing of tobacco products: taking advantage of the socially disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Robert; Cheney, Marshall K; Azad, M Raihan

    2009-05-01

    With increasing regulation of tobacco industry marketing practices, point-of-sale advertising has become an important channel for promoting tobacco products. One hundred and ten convenience stores in Oklahoma County were surveyed for tobacco-related advertising. There were significantly more point-of-sale tobacco advertisements in low-income and minority neighborhoods than in better educated, higher-income, predominantly White neighborhoods. Storeowners or managers were also interviewed to determine who has decision-making power regarding store signage and placement, and to elicit perceptions of industry tactics. Contracts with tobacco companies leave storeowners with little or no control over promotion of tobacco products within their store, and many are unaware of the implications of the tobacco industry point-of-sale practices. Local ordinances that regulated outdoor signage reduced outdoor tobacco advertisements, as well as tobacco signage and promotions within the store. Policy change, rather than education targeting storeowners, is recommended as the most effective strategy for reducing point-of-sale tobacco advertising.

  1. Taking Advantage of a Corrosion Problem to Solve a Pollution Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar-Ramirez, Carlos F.; Bazan-Martinez, Jose A.; Palomar-Pardave, Manuel E.; Romero-Romo, Mario A.; Ramirez-Silva, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Some simple chemistry is used to demonstrate how Fe(II) ions, formed during iron corrosion in acid aqueous solution, can reduce toxic Cr(VI) species, forming soluble Cr(III) and Fe(III) ions. These ions, in turn, can be precipitated by neutralizing the solution. The procedure provides a treatment for industrial wastewaters commonly found in…

  2. Nordic-Baltic interaction in European Union negotiations: taking advantage of institutionalized cooperation / Ilze Ruse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruse, Ilze

    2014-01-01

    Läänemere riikide koostööst, keskendutakse küsimusele, kuivõrd suudavad need riigid institutsionaalselt tegutsedes tugevdada oma positsioone läbirääkimistel EL-ga ning saavutada seatud eesmärke.

  3. Taking advantage of the positive side-effects of smallpox vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A

    2004-06-01

    From the introduction of smallpox vaccination approximately 200 years ago right up to its discontinuation (1980), reports by physicians and scientists about positive side-effects such as healing of chronic skin rashes, reduced susceptibility to various infectious diseases, e.g. measles, scarlet fever and whooping cough, and even the prophylactic use of the vaccination, e.g. against syphilis, were published again and again. Comparison with the period after cessation of vaccination confirms the experiences of the above vaccinators. As early as 1956, targeted research on these observations led to evidence of the 'ring-zone phenomenon', i.e. the production of soluble antiviral substances in infected chicken embryos and cell cultures. With the help of modern immunological and bioengineering methods, it was later possible to demonstrate that these effects are based on the activation of lymphoreticular cells and the regulatory effect of certain cytokines within the context of the non-specific immune system. These findings led to the development of paramunization with paraspecific vaccines from highly attenuated animal pox viruses. During attenuation, deletions in the virus DNA occur. Attenuated animal pox strains are therefore suited for the production of vector vaccines. The fact that these vector vaccines demonstrate an especially high level of paraspecific efficacy and lack harmful effects is likewise the result of the attenuated animal pox viruses. Optimum regulation of the entire immune system leads to increased paramunity already in the first few days after vaccination and to enhanced antigen recognition and thus accelerated commencement of specific immunity.

  4. Taking Advantage of Multimedia Network and Constructing a Modern Teaching Mode of College English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoXue'ai; XuXiaoyu

    2004-01-01

    In the transition from the traditional classroom to the modernized classroom, the changes in the teaching means completely remodel the modes of instructing, and lead to a pedagogical revolution. The Department of Foreign Languages Education from the Northwestern Polytechnical University has applied the multimedia means in the Reform of College English

  5. Estimating the evolution of atrazine concentration in a fractured sandstone aquifer using lumped-parameter models and taking land-use into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlin, J.; Gallé, T.; Bayerle, M.; Pittois, D.; Braun, C.; El Khabbaz, H.; Maloszewski, P.; Elsner, M.

    2012-04-01

    The European water framework directive and the groundwater directive require member states to identify water bodies at risk and assess the significance of increasing trend in pollutant concentration. For groundwater bodies, estimating the time to trend reversal or the pollution potential of the different sources present in the catchment require a sound understanding of the hydraulic behaviour of the aquifer. Although numerical groundwater models can theoretically be used for such forecasts, their calibration remains in many real-world cases problematic. A more parsimonious lumped-parameter model was applied to predict the evolution of atrazine concentration in springs draining a fractured sandstone aquifer in Luxembourg. Despite a nationwide ban in 2005, spring water concentrations of both atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine still had not begun to decrease four years later. The transfer function of the model was calibrated using tritium measurements and modified to take into account the fact that whereas tritium is applied uniformly over the entire catchment, atrazine was only used in areas where cereals are grown. We could also show that sorption processes in the aquifer can be neglected and that including pesticide degradation does not modify the shape of the atrazine breakthrough, but only affects the magnitude of the predicted spring water concentration. Results indicate that due to the large hydraulic inertia of the aquifer, trend reversal should not be expected before 2018.

  6. How to conduct a proper sensitivity analysis in life cycle assessment: taking into account correlations within LCI data and interactions within the LCA calculation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Larrey-Lassalle, Pyrene; Faure, Thierry; Dumoulin, Nicolas; Roux, Philippe; Mathias, Jean-Denis

    2015-01-06

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a significant tool for studying the robustness of results and their sensitivity to uncertainty factors in life cycle assessment (LCA). It highlights the most important set of model parameters to determine whether data quality needs to be improved, and to enhance interpretation of results. Interactions within the LCA calculation model and correlations within Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) input parameters are two main issues among the LCA calculation process. Here we propose a methodology for conducting a proper SA which takes into account the effects of these two issues. This study first presents the SA in an uncorrelated case, comparing local and independent global sensitivity analysis. Independent global sensitivity analysis aims to analyze the variability of results because of the variation of input parameters over the whole domain of uncertainty, together with interactions among input parameters. We then apply a dependent global sensitivity approach that makes minor modifications to traditional Sobol indices to address the correlation issue. Finally, we propose some guidelines for choosing the appropriate SA method depending on the characteristics of the model and the goals of the study. Our results clearly show that the choice of sensitivity methods should be made according to the magnitude of uncertainty and the degree of correlation.

  7. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors.

  8. THE EFFECT OF FAMILY THERAPY WITH SPIRITUAL APPROACH TOWARD FAMILY’S HEALTH BELIEF MODEL IN TAKING CARE OF PATIENT WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia is the problem with kognitive, mal-adaptive thought and behavior. Family who have a member with mental disorder can experience serious conflict, become an objective and subjective burden, blame each other, get involved in hostility among family members. Various negative effect faced by family can caused by wrong family’s health belief model about Schizophrenia, hence the failure on choosing the treatment and taking care of patient at home. Someone with severe stress will seek comfort and strength from God. But so far, the most effective spiritual models to improve the health belief model of the family in caring for patients with schizophrenia has not been found. Method: Design used in this study was experimental (pre post test control group design. The population was every family of patient with mental disorder in Menur Mental Hospital along the year of 2010, chosen by alocation simple random. Samples were 13 persons in each treatment and control group. The intervention was given in 60–120 minute in 8 times meeting with average interval about 1 week. Data analysis was done using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: There were significant changes in total of family’s health belief model (p=0,004, there was significantly change in aspects of (1 perceptions about bene fi ts (p=0,009, (2 perception about barriers (p=0,035 and perception about self efficacy (p=0,002. There were no significant changing in perception about susceptibility and severity (p=0,052. Discussion: Family believes that all events experienced by the patient and the family is God's will, hoping the patient can be more independent, and believe mental disorders can be changed for the better. The conclusion of this study is that family therapy with a spiritual approach can improve the health belief model of the family in caring for patients with mental disorders.

  9. Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…

  10. Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…

  11. On Assumptions in Development of a Mathematical Model of Thermo-gravitational Convection in the Large Volume Process Tanks Taking into Account Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Shkapov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a mathematical model of thermo-gravity convection in a large volume vertical cylinder. The heat is removed from the product via the cooling jacket at the top of the cylinder. We suppose that a laminar fluid motion takes place. The model is based on the NavierStokes equation, the equation of heat transfer through the wall, and the heat transfer equation. The peculiarity of the process in large volume tanks was the distribution of the physical parameters of the coordinates that was taken into account when constructing the model. The model corresponds to a process of wort beer fermentation in the cylindrical-conical tanks (CCT. The CCT volume is divided into three zones and for each zone model equations was obtained. The first zone has an annular cross-section and it is limited to the height by the cooling jacket. In this zone the heat flow from the cooling jacket to the product is uppermost. Model equation of the first zone describes the process of heat transfer through the wall and is presented by linear inhomogeneous differential equation in partial derivatives that is solved analytically. For the second and third zones description there was a number of engineering assumptions. The fluid was considered Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. Convective motion considered in the Boussinesq approximation. The effect of viscous dissipation is not considered. The topology of fluid motion is similar to the cylindrical Poiseuille. The second zone model consists of the Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates with the introduction of a simplified and the heat equation in the liquid layer. The volume that is occupied by an upward convective flow pertains to the third area. Convective flows do not mix and do not exchange heat. At the start of the process a medium has the same temperature and a zero initial velocity in the whole volume that allows us to specify the initial conditions for the process. The paper shows the

  12. A study of the critical properties of the Ising model on body-centered cubic lattice taking into account the interaction of next behind nearest neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazaev, A. K.; Ramazanov, M. K.; Kurbanova, D. R.; Badiev, M. K.; Abuev, Ya. K.

    2017-06-01

    The replica Monte Carlo method has been used to investigate the critical behavior of a threedimensional antiferromagnetic Ising model on a body-centered cubic lattice, taking into account interactions of the adjacent behind neighbors. Investigations are carried out for the ratios of the values of exchange interactions behind the nearest and next nearest neighbors k = J 2/ J 1 in the range of k ∈ [0.0, 1.0] with the step Δ k = 0.1. In the framework of the theory of finite-dimensional scaling the static critical indices of heat capacity α, susceptibility γ, of the order parameter β, correlation radius ν, and also the Fisher index η are calculated. It is shown that the universality class of the critical behavior of this model is kept in the interval of k ∈ [0.0, 0.6]. It is established that a nonuniversal critical behavior is observed in the range k ∈ [0.8, 1.0].

  13. Modelling runoff at the plot scale taking into account rainfall partitioning by vegetation: application to stemflow of banana (Musa spp. plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-M. Cabidoche

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall partitioning by vegetation modifies the intensity of rainwater reaching the ground, which affects runoff generation. Incident rainfall is intercepted by the plant canopy and then redistributed into throughfall and stemflow. Rainfall intensities at the soil surface are therefore not spatially uniform, generating local variations of runoff production that are disregarded in runoff models. The aim of this paper was to model runoff at the plot scale, accounting for rainfall partitioning by vegetation in the case of plants concentrating rainwater at the plant foot and promoting stemflow. We developed a lumped modelling approach, including a stemflow function that divided the plot into two compartments: one compartment including stemflow and the related water pathways and one compartment for the rest of the plot. This stemflow function was coupled with a production function and a transfer function to simulate a flood hydrograph using the MHYDAS model. Calibrated parameters were a "stemflow coefficient", which compartmented the plot; the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, which controls infiltration and runoff; and the two parameters of the diffusive wave equation. We tested our model on a banana plot of 3000 m2 on permeable Andosol (mean Ks=75 mm h−1 under tropical rainfalls, in Guadeloupe (FWI. Runoff simulations without and with the stemflow function were performed and compared to 18 flood events from 10 to 140 rainfall mm depth. Modelling results showed that the stemflow function improved the calibration of hydrographs according to the error criteria on volume and on peakflow, to the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient, and to the root mean square error. This was particularly the case for low flows observed during residual rainfall, for which the stemflow function allowed runoff to be simulated for rainfall intensities lower than the Ks measured at the soil surface. This approach also allowed us to take into account the experimental data

  14. Modelling runoff at the plot scale taking into account rainfall partitioning by vegetation: application to stemflow of banana (Musa spp.) plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, J.-B.; Moussa, R.; Cattan, P.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Voltz, M.

    2009-11-01

    Rainfall partitioning by vegetation modifies the intensity of rainwater reaching the ground, which affects runoff generation. Incident rainfall is intercepted by the plant canopy and then redistributed into throughfall and stemflow. Rainfall intensities at the soil surface are therefore not spatially uniform, generating local variations of runoff production that are disregarded in runoff models. The aim of this paper was to model runoff at the plot scale, accounting for rainfall partitioning by vegetation in the case of plants concentrating rainwater at the plant foot and promoting stemflow. We developed a lumped modelling approach, including a stemflow function that divided the plot into two compartments: one compartment including stemflow and the related water pathways and one compartment for the rest of the plot. This stemflow function was coupled with a production function and a transfer function to simulate a flood hydrograph using the MHYDAS model. Calibrated parameters were a "stemflow coefficient", which compartmented the plot; the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), which controls infiltration and runoff; and the two parameters of the diffusive wave equation. We tested our model on a banana plot of 3000 m2 on permeable Andosol (mean Ks=75 mm h-1) under tropical rainfalls, in Guadeloupe (FWI). Runoff simulations without and with the stemflow function were performed and compared to 18 flood events from 10 to 140 rainfall mm depth. Modelling results showed that the stemflow function improved the calibration of hydrographs according to the error criteria on volume and on peakflow, to the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient, and to the root mean square error. This was particularly the case for low flows observed during residual rainfall, for which the stemflow function allowed runoff to be simulated for rainfall intensities lower than the Ks measured at the soil surface. This approach also allowed us to take into account the experimental data, without needing to

  15. Research on Entropy Change Model and Warning Mechanism of Enterprise Sustainable Competitive Advantage%企业持续竞争优势的熵变模型与预警机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁月华

    2012-01-01

    Entropy is the inherent power of enterprise competitive advantage development and evolution.The production of entropy can decrease competitive advantage,while the production of negative entropy increases competitive advantage.The interaction of entropy and negative entropy makes competitive advantage change periodically and dynamically.When the total entropy value is higher than the industry average entropy value,the enterprise systems get into warning area.At this time,the enterprise needs to change and introduce negative entropy in order to make the total entropy value negative,and ultimately achieve sustainable competitive business advantage.%熵是企业竞争优势发展演化的内在动力。正熵的产生使竞争优势减退,负熵的产生使竞争优势增强,正熵和负熵的交互作用使得竞争优势呈现周期动态变化,当总熵值高于行业平均熵值时,企业系统运行进入警戒区,这时候,需要进行变革,引入负熵,使总熵值小于零,最终实现企业的持续竞争优势。

  16. Transformation from Comparative Advantage to Competitive Advantage: A Way to Improve Regional Agricultural Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Neng-li

    2011-01-01

    Primarily this paper analyses the internal correlation between comparative advantage and competitive advantage, and holds that there are no conflict and contradiction between the two. the industries with comparative advantage often easily to have strong comparative advantage. Then this paper analyses the factors influencing regional agricultural competitiveness, including resources endowment, ecological environment, quality of labour forces, infrastructure, technology innovation and transform...

  17. Advantages of Group Work in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志真

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of group work in English teaching.It is argued that group work can be efficient in teaching English.This paper concludes that:1)group work is one of the greatest education reforms,2)group work has many advantages in English teaching.

  18. Synergetic effect of benchmarking competitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Tkachova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed the essence of synergistic competitive benchmarking. The classification of types of synergies is developed. It is determined the sources of synergies in conducting benchmarking of competitive advantages. It is proposed methodological framework definition of synergy in the formation of competitive advantage.

  19. Synergetic effect of benchmarking competitive advantages

    OpenAIRE

    N.P. Tkachova; P.G. Pererva

    2011-01-01

    It is analyzed the essence of synergistic competitive benchmarking. The classification of types of synergies is developed. It is determined the sources of synergies in conducting benchmarking of competitive advantages. It is proposed methodological framework definition of synergy in the formation of competitive advantage.

  20. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  1. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  2. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  3. Validation through Understanding Test-Taking Strategies: An Illustration With the CELPIP-General Reading Pilot Test Using Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores an approach for test score validation that examines test takers' strategies for taking a reading comprehension test. The authors formulated three working hypotheses about score validity pertaining to three types of test-taking strategy (comprehending meaning, test management, and test-wiseness). These hypotheses were…

  4. Measurement and Modelling: Sequential Use of Analytical Techniques in a Study of Risk-Taking in Decision-Making by School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates reasoned risk-taking in decision-making by school principals using a methodology that combines sequential use of psychometric and traditional measurement techniques. Risk-taking is defined as when decisions are made that are not compliant with the regulatory framework, the primary governance mechanism for public schools in…

  5. Effect of Tai Chi Practice on Stress, Self-Esteem, and Perceived Life Expectancy and a Structural Model of Relation Among These Variables Taking Into Account Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moral de la Rubia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article were to (a investigate whether practicing Tai Chi has an effect on stress, self-esteem, and perceived life expectancy and (b contrast a structural model of relation between the three latter variables taking into account age. One scale to assess stress, another scale to assess perceived life expectancy, and the 10-item Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale were administrated to a nonprobability sample of 86 Tai Chi practitioners and 91 sedentary persons. Tai Chi practitioners had a lower level of stress, a greater self-esteem, and a greater perceived life expectancy than sedentary persons. Self-esteem had an effect on stress and perceived life expectancy, and stress had an effect on perceived life expectancy in both Tai Chi practitioners and sedentary persons. Age was correlated to self-esteem among sedentary persons, but not among Tai Chi practitioners. Age had a direct effect on perceived life expectancy among Tai Chi practitioners, but not among sedentary persons. It is concluded that Tai Chi practice has a beneficial effect on stress, perceived life expectancy, and self-esteem.

  6. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competitive advantage lies in the focus of the performance of companies in competitive markets and innovation is a source for obtaining and consolidating it. Companies will need to demonstrate the capacity to adapt to changes in the business environment so as to maintain the helded positions. This paper treats this aspect behavior that companies should adopt to get on the account of innovation a sustainable competitive advantage. I started of the work in the elaboration from the theory of developed by Michael Porter in his book "Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance" we applied methods listed thus trying to point out possible ways of creating competitive advantage by companies. We have presented the sources of competitive advantage and the factors on which depends its creation. Walking theoretical research revealed how lack of competitive advantage leads to a lack of competitiveness of companies and the benefits that arise with the creation of this type of asset. Among the most important benefits is to increase performances. Once the competitive advantage is achieved, it must be maintained and updated market conditions and the methods that can be created a sustainable competitive advantage represent the answers to many of the companies questions are fighting for survival in an environment of fierce competition. The implementation of methods for obtaining competitive advantages, but also exist dangers, that every company should know them

  7. Informatics Perspectives on Decision Taking

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, J A

    2011-01-01

    A decision is an act or event of decision taking. Decision making always includes decision taking, the latter not involving significant exchanges with non-deciding agents. A decision outcome is a piece of storable information constituting the result of a decision. Decision outcomes are typed, for instance: plan, command, assertion, or boolean reply to a question. A decision effect is any consequence of putting a decision outcome into effect. Decision outcomes must be expected by the decider to lead to certain decision effects, by way of their being put into effect. The availability of a model or of a theory of the causal chain leading from a decision outcome to one or more decision effects is assumed for the decision taker, otherwise the decision outcome is merely an utterance. Decision effectiveness measures the decision effects against objectives meant to be served with the decision. Decision taking is positioned amidst many similar notions including: decision making, decision process, decision making proce...

  8. Revealed comparative advantage of Russian agricultural exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ishchukova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the issue of revealed comparative advantage in the case of the Russian foreign trade in agricultural products and foodstuffs. The objective of this study is to analyze specialization and the competitive performance of the Russian agricultural sector and to determine whether or not patterns of comparative advantage for Russia have undergone significant changes over the period 1998–2010.The analysis is performed using several measures of revealed comparative advantage: classical Balassa’s index, Vollrath’s index and Lafay index. Balassa’s index identified a group of products, which has relatively stable comparative advantage during the whole period. Among those products we can count cereals (wheat, barley, etc., their by-products (for example bran of wheat and products of their processing (cereals preparations, etc., as well as oilseeds, vegetable oils and chocolate.Vollrath’s index showed that the number of products that have revealed competitive advantage was steadily growing during the period. Lafay index, used in the analysis by regions, showed that Russia has comparative advantages in relation to CIS countries and Asian countries due to its geographical location and good trade relations.Primary products have the comparative advantage in relation to EU and Asian countries. In relation to the Commonwealth of Independent States and Americas on the contrary the processed products have comparative advantages, while the most of primary products have comparative disadvantage.In relation to the whole world, analysis has also revealed a shift of comparative advantage from by-products (e.g. bran of wheat, sunflower cake etc. in 1998–2001 to primary products in 2002–2010 (wheat, barley, whole cow milk, sunflower seed etc..

  9. Take the (Exercise) Plunge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167533.html Take the (Exercise) Plunge Pool workouts offer a range of health ... the pool. Whether you swim or do aquatic exercises, working out in water improves strength, flexibility and ...

  10. IT Infrastructure Construction: Based on Competitive Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J(U) Qing-jiang

    2006-01-01

    Information technology (IT) infrastructure is the foundation of information sharing, storage, and processing upon which the entire business depends and it changes not only inner organizational structures but also outer competitive conditions. An IT infrastructure that possesses elements unique to a particular organization and difficult to duplicate can produce competitive advantage. To achieve this advantage, not only the inner integration of technology,personnel and business process in a firm is needed, but also a platform for electronic commerce is required. The purpose of this study is to establish the whole concept framework for IT infrastructure, based on competitive advantage, and to propose ideas about the construction of IT infrastructure system.

  11. Software exporting: a developing country advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Software exports have the potential to make a significant contribution to the economies of developing countries and to the global IT industry. Developing countries have demonstrated a comparative advantage in this export sector and the global IT industry can benefit from this developing country advantage. Today, IT is high investment, high risk, and high reward and has graduated from being a critical support function to a key partner, sometimes responsible for directing the strategy of an enterprise. Business and technology managers cannot afford to miss the opportunities provided by the comparative advantage of developing countries in the IT arena.

  12. Paedomorphic facial expressions give dogs a selective advantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M Waller

    Full Text Available How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process.

  13. Measuring Coding Intensity in Medicare Advantage - SUPP.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 2004, Medicare implemented a risk-adjustment system that pays Medicare Advantage (MA) plans based on diagnoses reported for their enrollees, giving the plans an...

  14. Measuring Coding Intensity in Medicare Advantage - SUPP.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 2004, Medicare implemented a risk-adjustment system that pays Medicare Advantage (MA) plans based on diagnoses reported for their enrollees, giving the plans an...

  15. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered.

  16. RESOURCE-ADVANTAGE THEORY: O ESTADO DA ARTE/RESOURCE-ADVANTAGE THEORY: STATE OF ART

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricardo Messias Rossi; Marina Darahem Mafud

    2014-01-01

    .... According to R-A, competition consists of the constant struggle among firms for a comparative advantage in resources that will yield a marketplace position of competitive advantage and, thereby...

  17. Logistics potentials in business competitive advantage creation

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał Matwiejczuk

    2013-01-01

    Background: Companies constantly search for ways to achieve and sustain long-term competitive advantage. Among the factors influencing the competitive advantage creation there are so called logistics potentials, which constitute a component part of a business strategic potentials. Logistics resources, logistics capabilities and logistics competences are the main components of the logistics potentials structure and hierarchy. Methods: In order to recognize the logistics potentials which de...

  18. The data sharing advantage in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Dorch, S B F; Ellegaard, O

    2015-01-01

    We present here evidence for the existence of a citation advantage within astrophysics for papers that link to data. Using simple measures based on publication data from NASA Astrophysics Data System we find a citation advantage for papers with links to data receiving on the average significantly more citations per paper than papers without links to data. Furthermore, using INSPEC and Web of Science databases we investigate whether either papers of an experimental or theoretical nature display different citation behavior.

  19. The data sharing advantage in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorch, Bertil F.; Drachen, Thea M.; Ellegaard, Ole

    2016-10-01

    We present here evidence for the existence of a citation advantage within astrophysics for papers that link to data. Using simple measures based on publication data from NASA Astrophysics Data System we find a citation advantage for papers with links to data receiving on the average significantly more citations per paper than papers without links to data. Furthermore, using INSPEC and Web of Science databases we investigate whether either papers of an experimental or theoretical nature display different citation behavior.

  20. On the Biological Advantage of Chirality

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The presence of chirality in the main molecules of life may well be not just a structural artifact, but of pure biological advantage. The possibility of the existence of a phenomenon of a special mode of interaction, labeled as "chiral interaction" (CI), for which structural chirality is a necessary condition, is the main reason for such an advantage. In order to demonstrate such a possibility, macroscopic chiral devices are introduced and presented as analogies for such an interaction. For t...

  1. Advantages and risks in service standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veres Zoltán

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparing the advantages and risks in standardizing services, there can be no clear-cut answer concerning the strategy to be followed. Exploiting advantages in the long run is only worth it for a provider of a service that is able to build up a powerful brand image. However, the more successful a service concept, the stronger the temptation to imitation. The success of imitators will sooner or later bring about multibrand loyalty.

  2. Logistics potentials in business competitive advantage creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Matwiejczuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Companies constantly search for ways to achieve and sustain long-term competitive advantage. Among the factors influencing the competitive advantage creation there are so called logistics potentials, which constitute a component part of a business strategic potentials. Logistics resources, logistics capabilities and logistics competences are the main components of the logistics potentials structure and hierarchy. Methods: In order to recognize the logistics potentials which determine the competitive advantage creation one may use the assumptions and elements of contemporary management concepts, including strategic management. In particular the article deals with Resource-Based View (RBV, Dynamic Capabilities Concept (DCC and - first of all - Competence-Based Management (CBM. Results and conclusions: Several significant research projects have presented a wide scope and a large number of possibilities of logistics potentials (and logistics competences in particular influence on business competitive advantage creation. The article briefly presents the research results conducted by: (1 Michigan State University (USA, (2 European Logistics Association (ELA in cooperation with A.T. Kearney, (3 Computer Sciences Corporation and (4 Capgemini. The research results have pointed out to differentiated but at the same distinctive symptoms of logistics competences influence on competitive advantage creation. The article also refers to the results of the research carried out by the Chair of Logistics & Marketing at Opole University (Poland in companies operating in Poland. The research has been mainly dealing with the significance of logistics competences in competitive advantage creation.

  3. The Oilheat Manufacturers Associations Oilheat Advantages Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedden, R. [Oil Heat Management Services, Pawlet, VT (United States); Bately, J.E. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Oilheat Advantages Project is the Oilheat Manufacturers Association`s first project. It involves the creation and disseminaiton of the unified, well documented, compellingly packaged oilheat story. The project invovles three steps: the first step is to pull together all the existing data on the advantages of oilheat into a single, well documented engineering report. The second step will be to rewrite and package the technical document into a consumer piece and a scripted presentation supported with overheads, and to disseminate the information throughout the industry. The third step will be to fund new research to update existing information and discover new advantages of oilheat. This step will begin next year. The inforamtion will be packaged in the following formats: The Engineering Document. This will include all the technical information including the creditable third party sources for all the findings on the many advantages of oilheat; the Consumer Booklet. This summarizes all the findings in the Engineering Document in simple language with easy to understand illustrations and graphs; a series of single topic Statement Stuffers on each of the advantages; an Overhead Transparency-Supported Scripted Show that can be used by industry representatives for presentations to the general public, schools, civic groups, and service clubs; and the Periodic publication of updates to the Oilheat Advantages Study.

  4. [The applications and advantages of Drosophila melanogaster in cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Guitao; Lu, Jianjun; Qu, Zhe; Lin, Zhi; Zhang, Di; Yang, Yanwei; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used to study human disease as a model organism for many years. Many basic biological, physiological, and neurological properties are conserved between mammals and fly. Moreover, Drosophila melanogaster has its unique advantage as a model organism. Recent studies showed that the high level of signaling pathway conservation in tumorigenesis between fly and human and its feasible genetic operation make fly an effective model for oncology research. Numerous research findings showed Drosophila melanogaster was an ideal model for studying the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, invasion and metastasis. This review mainly focuses on the advantages of Drosophila melanogaster in cancer research, established models used for the research of specific cancers and prospective research direction of oncology. It is hoped that this paper can provide insight for cancer research and development of anti-cancer drugs.

  5. Organizational Effectiveness: Social Capital and Competitive Advantage Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vini Wiratno Putri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at developing the model of organizational effectiveness in university through social capital and competitive advantage. The populations of this study are the head of study programs and the structural officials in some Universities in Semarang. In this case, We used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM in AMOS 21.0 program as the analysis tool. The result of the study and model analysis showed that even though the social capital had significant positive influenced to the competitive advantage in the university, the improvement of social capital and competitive advantage at university could not improve the university organizational effectiveness. Then, between two factors which influenced the competitive advantage (internal social capital and external social capital, it is obtained that external social capital got the dominant influenced factor to competitive advantage. The managerial implication suggested the policies should focus on improving the quality of cooperative relationships with external parties in the university. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membangun model efektifitas organisasi pada perguruan tinggi melalui modal sosial dan keunggulan bersaing. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah ketua program studi maupun pejabat struktural pada perguruan tinggi di Semarang. Alat analisis data yang digunakan adalah Structural Equation Modelling (SEM pada program AMOS 21.0.Hasil pengujian dan analisis model menunjukkan bahwa pada meskipun modal sosial memiliki pengaruh positif signifikan terhadap keunggulan berasingn pada perguruan tinggi namun peningkatan modal sosial dan keunggulan kompetitif pada perguruan tinggi belum mampu meningkatkan efektifitas organidsasi perguruan tinggi tersebut. Selanjutnya diantara kedua faktor yang mempengaruhi keunggulan bersaing (internal social capitaldan external social capital, didapatkan bahwa external social capital merupakan faktor yang paling dominan pengaruhnya terhadap keunggulan

  6. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Taking centre stage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    HAMLET (Highly Automated Multimedia Light Enhanced Theatre) was the star performance at the recent finals of the `Young Engineer for Britain' competition, held at the Commonwealth Institute in London. This state-of-the-art computer-controlled theatre lighting system won the title `Young Engineers for Britain 1998' for David Kelnar, Jonathan Scott, Ramsay Waller and John Wyllie (all aged 16) from Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh. HAMLET replaces conventional manually-operated controls with a special computer program, and should find use in the thousands of small theatres, schools and amateur drama productions that operate with limited resources and without specialist expertise. The four students received a £2500 prize between them, along with £2500 for their school, and in addition they were invited to spend a special day with the Royal Engineers. A project designed to improve car locking systems enabled Ian Robinson of Durham University to take the `Working in industry award' worth £1000. He was also given the opportunity of a day at sea with the Royal Navy. Other prizewinners with their projects included: Jun Baba of Bloxham School, Banbury (a cardboard armchair which converts into a desk and chair); Kobika Sritharan and Gemma Hancock, Bancroft's School, Essex (a rain warning system for a washing line); and Alistair Clarke, Sam James and Ruth Jenkins, Bishop of Llandaff High School, Cardiff (a mechanism to open and close the retractable roof of the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff). The two principal national sponsors of the competition, which is organized by the Engineering Council, are Lloyd's Register and GEC. Industrial companies, professional engineering institutions and educational bodies also provided national and regional prizes and support. During this year's finals, various additional activities took place, allowing the students to surf the Internet and navigate individual engineering websites on a network of computers. They also visited the

  8. Competitive Advantage and the Existence of the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    This paper provides a counterpoint to Buckley and Hashai’s paper “Is competitive advantage a necessary condition for the emergence of the Multinational Enterprise?”. We agree with their conclusion that it is, in fact, not a necessary condition, but argue that the theoretical reasons behind...... this are different and more diverse than the ones they propose. We suggest that much extant economic theory is in fact consistent with their view that firms may internationalize without owning or achieving competitive advantages, and model various other ways in which imperfections can drive their overall result. We...

  9. 顾及模型误差补偿的GM(1,1)变形预测建模%OPTIMAL METHOD FOR GM (1,1) MODELING FOR PREDICTION OF DEFORMATION TAKING COMPENSATION FOR MODEL ERRORS INTO ACOUNT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宁; 崔希民; 高彩云

    2012-01-01

    By analyzing the main error source in the GM (1,1) modeling, the GM (1,1) model taking the compensation for model error was proposed and then, through an example, compared the model ( with compensation for error) with the results predicted with conventional models GM(1,1), PGM(1,1) and time-varying GM (1,1). The results show that the prediction accuracy with the model GM (1,1) of error compensation is the highest.%分析GM(1,1)建模过程中模型误差的主要来源,建立顾及模型误差补偿的GM(1,1)模型,并通过实例将模型误差补偿后的GM(1,1)模型与传统GM(1,1)、PGM(1,1)和时变GM(1,1)模型的预测结果进行比较,结果表明,模型误差补偿后的GM(1,1)模型预测精度最高.

  10. Taking minutes of meetings

    CERN Document Server

    Gutmann, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    aking Minutes of Meetings guides you through the entire process behind minute taking: arranging the meeting; writing the agenda; creating the optimum environment; structuring the meeting and writing notes up accurately. The minute-taker is one of the most important and powerful people in a meeting and you can use this opportunity to develop your knowledge, broaden your horizons and build credibility within the organization. Taking Minutes of Meetings is an easy to read 'dip-in, dip-out' guide which shows you how to confidently arrange meetings and produce minutes. It provides hands-on advice about the sections of a meeting as well as tips on how to create an agenda, personal preparation, best practice advice on taking notes and how to improve your accuracy. Brand new chapters of this 4th edition include guidance on using technology to maximize effectiveness and practical help with taking minutes for a variety of different types of meetings. The creating success series of books... With over one million copi...

  11. Take Three: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting seasonal flu and spreading it to others by taking these three steps.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  12. Take a Bow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Greg; Ogurek, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Performing-arts centers can provide benefits at the high school and collegiate levels, and administrators can take steps now to get the show started. When a new performing-arts center comes to town, local businesses profit. Events and performances draw visitors to the community. Ideally, a performing-arts center will play many roles: entertainment…

  13. Taking the Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s musical theater market has yet to take shape for a homegrown repertoire to expand The past summer offered an interesting variety of musical performances. While the Chinese version of Mama Mia!,one of the most popular musicals in the world, tours China on a 200-performance run, homegrown musicals are also gaining ground.

  14. Reformer Takes French Reins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The painful reforms chosen by French voters to rejuvenate their sluggish economy have smoothed the way for Nicolas Sarkozy to take up France’s top political job.The 52-year-old leader of the ruling right-wing Union

  15. Taking the long view

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Patrick; Smith, Emma

    2016-10-01

    A new study of the long-term employment prospects of UK science and engineering students suggests that talk of a skills shortage is overblown, with most graduates in these disciplines taking jobs outside science. Researchers Patrick White and Emma Smith discuss their findings and what they mean for current physics students

  16. General Conceptual View on Resource Advantage Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Yalcin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to continue for an organization to exist it needs to finance itself for its own resource on the other hand service with considering consumers need and expectations by present them lowest price and highest quality also. Under these conditions these kind of organizations need to analyze the behaviour (nature of the rival organizations and position themselves accordingly in order to get advantage on the rival organizations. In this study, a general conceptual view on resource advantage theory is developed. Theory explains having the lowest cost resources than rival organisations geting advantage with organisation resources, market position, financial performance and evironmental factors. Theory is able to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in the organisations and use to have strategic marketing decisions.

  17. RELATIVE COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE IN TRADE DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalendu GUHA BIKA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era and process of free trade globalisation the classical and neo-classical theories of comparative and competitive advantages have become short-termed because of new actors and devices in the modern techno-economic advancement. Hence, a new approach seems necessary, respectively the one of relative advantages that are related to economies of scale and marketability, as today, the macroeconomic concept is the concept of Multinational or Transnational, and no longer a national one. At the same time, the micro-concept may be used as concept of an entire international economic sector or branch. Due to these new developments the relative advantages approach focuses more on cost-reduction functions of commodities and services and it plays an important role in both theoretical and practical investigation. The examples presented in the paper are built on three competing Asian countries: China, South Korea and post-emerged Japan.

  18. Determining Comparative Advantages of Corn in Optimal Cultivation Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Abedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate comparativeadvantages of corn in comparison with other competitorcrops. To do so, Linear Programming, to 2004-2005 data relatedto classic index (DRC in Kermanshah province was applied.Results showed that corn has comparative advantages in allregions of Kermanshah province while in optimal cultivationpattern of 37.5 percentages of regions in existence of rotationand 50 percentages of regions in lack of rotation, corn acreagehas been increased. In addition, comparing optimal cultivationpattern resulted from linear programming models with cropsranking based on comparative advantage indices indicated that,resources availability and limitations, tradable and non-tradableinputs costs and yield will lead to shift in production’s comparativeadvantage from one crop to another. Factors such as supportingpolicies and rotation might also have effects on comparative advantages and optimal cultivating pattern.

  19. ELECTRONIC BANKING ADVANTAGES FOR FINANCIAL SERVICES DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Dragos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is a fully automatic service for traditionally banking customers products based on information technology platforms. E-banking services provide customer access to accounts, the ability to move their money between different accounts or making payments via e-channels. The advantages generated by this services have determined an accelerate developing of this industry over the entire world. This paper examines some of the advantages of electronic banking products together with the characteristic management issues generated by the implementation of this new channel for financial services delivery.

  20. THE TAX ADVANTAGES OF INCOME TAX PAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the cost of financing through financial and operational leasing due to the deductibility of depreciation and interest. The shareholders of any company aim to obtain profit and to increase their ownership equity. In order for this to happen, the company must have profit, for which a corporate tax must be paid. A good management translates into choosing the most advantageous means of financing, which will lead to paying a lower corporate tax. Leasing and the non-taxation of reinvested profits are two means through which companies can obtain significant fiscal advantages, by increasing the deductible expenses, or by paying lower taxes.

  1. 中医药典籍英译文与原文多元互文关系及应用探讨——从《黄帝内经》两种英译本翻译现象谈起%Intertextuality of the Target Texts and Its Source Text of TCM Classics and the Practical Advantages-Take the Two English Translations of Huangdi Nei Jing as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继慧

    2011-01-01

    中医药典籍的英译活动在不同历史时期都有所开展.随着中国优秀文化对外传播的发展,中医药典籍的英译工作逐渐成为学界关注的焦点,时代也需要有更多更好的英译语篇问世.那么,中医药典籍的各种英译本与原文本的关系究竟有着怎样的科学理据?怎样理解和评价各种中医药典籍英译本的翻译文化价值?文章拟借助于皮尔斯三元关系理论、语用学理论和语篇互文性理论来阐述以上问题.文章认为,由于译者在翻译过程中又总是处于核心主导地位,而每个译者对于原文的阅读和阐述都是历史的、有限的,所以不同译者通过与原文、译文读者之间发生互明关系而创造出了自己独特的译文.因此,译文与原文关系必然成多样性存在;而且,中医药典籍的各种译本之间和他们与原文本之间,由于分别呈献出某种互文性关系,所以都具有各自存在的不同理由以及对于原文本在不同侧面的传播功能,同时共同服务于不同目标语读者的需要.基于这些认识,作者进一步探讨了对中医药各种文本包括中医药术语的评价方法,提倡以标准化译文为主,各种风格和特色的译文互补共存的局面.%The Chinese-English translation of TCM has been carried out in different times in history. With the development of international cultural exchange, studies in this field are becoming the focus, with the expectation of producing more and better translations. However, for a long time, target texts have been considered and measured in a right-or-wrong model based on the source text. What's the modem view in measuring the varied kinds of the target texts of the same source text in TCM.Taking the two translations of Huangdi Nei Jing ( Huangdi's Inner Classic of Medicine )as an example, this paper analyzes the relationship between the target texts and the source text in the perspectives of Ternary Relation Theory, Pragmatic

  2. Mechanical design and modeling of a single-piston pump for the novel power take-off system of a wave energy converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakis, Antonis I.; Anagnostopoulos, John S.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-pump, multi-piston power take-off wave energy converter ((MPPTO)-P-2 WEC) has been proposed for use with a novel renewable energy harvester termed the Ocean Grazer. The (MPPTO)-P-2 WEC utilizes wave motion to pump via buoys connected to pistons working fluid within a closed circuit and store

  3. Slugtests in fractured aquifers - advantages and caveats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The hydraulic characterisation of fractured aquifers is a challenge due to the large contrast between conductive fractures and a relative low conductive rock matrix. Depending on the type of problem, spanning from water resources issues at catchment scale to contaminant transport at local, borehole scale, different methodological approaches are required. The employment of slugtests as a characterisation method has a major advantage above classical pumping tests since they provide information also for the lower end of the permeability spectrum and are less logistically demanding. However, the volume of investigation of slugtests is generally small and limited to the immediate borehole area. The application of slug tests to fractured systems was investigated by Barker and Black (1983); Dougherty and Babu (1984) and Karasaki et al. (1988). Barker and Black (1983) pointed out the non-uniqueness of type curves with re¬spect to determining reservoir parameters, apart from hydraulic conductivity and sto¬rage coefficients. The unknowns in¬clude fissure densities, apertures and the hy¬draulic parameters of the rock matrix. They found that the Cooper method syste¬matically overestimates aquifer transmis-sivities by a factor of up to three. This figure however applies to a fairly homogeneously fissured aquifer such as the English Chalk. Dougherty and Babu (1984) examined in detail the effects of partial penetration, dif¬ferent skin factors and mass exchange coef-ficients in a double porosity system. They did however not present any parameter estimation solu¬tion. Karasaki et al. (1988) developed type curves for heterogeneous aquifer systems and came to the conclusion that "slug tests suffer problems of non-uniqueness to a greater ex¬tent than other well tests". In this paper, this aspect of non-uniqueness is addressed in detail, based on slugtest data in a fractured and karstified aquifer from the Swabian Alb in the SW of Germany, explanations and models of

  4. Generation Strategies and Competitive Advantage in the Market for Off-Road Vehicles: Phenomenological Analysis of the Ford Model Release Ecosport In BrazilDOI:10.5585/remark.v10i1.2203l

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bazanini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The central focus of this paper is to identify the innovations and entrepreneurship resulting from Ford Brazil main strategies, used in the Ford Ecosport launch in 2003. Using as a theoretical reference are the concepts of the RBV (Resource Based View complemented by Mintzberg el al schools, as follows: Entrepreneurship, Positioning and Environmental. The target was to identify resources generating competitive advantages using phenomenology method with qualitative research and pos-factum analysis through interviews with Off-Road specialists, Ford executives and car dealers. The research results showed the phenomenology methodology adequate, once it was able to identify the following resources being used by Ford: presence of an entrepreneur leader, targeted product positioning and production capacity accordingly to the environmental demand.DOI:10.5585/remark.v10i1.2203l

  5. 77 FR 6619 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...'') (76 FR 9626). The CA Pilot Program was introduced to increase SBA-guaranteed loans to small businesses... financings that are approved by SBA. (76 FR 56262) In response to comments received on the CA Pilot Program... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...

  6. Comparative Advantage Not Cause of Trade Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since adopting` the reform and opening-up policy in the late 1970s, China has constantly expanded its foreign trade by giving full play to its comparative advantage in production cost. However, nowadays, problems previously camouflaged by high GDP growth

  7. Structural change in OECD comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Inklaar, Robert; Van Marrewijk, Charles

    2013-01-01

    In the post-war period, the goods composition of trade in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries has changed considerably. We analyze the evolution of comparative advantage using a detailed trade data set and a new analytical tool: the Harmonic Mass index (HM index),

  8. Project safety as a sustainable competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenthin, David

    2004-01-01

    To be consistently profitable, a construction company must complete projects in scope, on schedule, and on budget. At the same time, the nature of the often high-risk work performed by construction companies can result in high accident rates. Clients and other stakeholders are placing increasing pressure on companies to decrease those accident rates. Clients routinely demand copies of safety plans and evidence of past results at the "pre-qualification" or "request for proposal" stages of the procurement process. Are high accident rates and the associated costs just a part of business? Companies that deliver on scope, schedule, and budget have a competitive advantage. Is it possible for projects with low accident rates to use it as a competitive advantage? Is the value added by safety just a temporary or parity issue, or does a successful safety program offer significant advantage to the company and the client? This article concludes that in the case of a high-risk industry, such as the construction industry, an organization with a successful safety program can promote safety performance as a sustainable competitive advantage. It is a choice the company can make.

  9. Processing advantages for focused words in Korean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kember, H.; Choi, J.Y.; Cutler, A.

    2016-01-01

    In Korean, focus is expressed in accentual phrasing. To ascertain whether words focused in this manner enjoy a processing advantage analogous to that conferred by focus as expressed in, e.g, English and Dutch, we devised sentences with target words in one of four conditions: prosodic focus, syntacti

  10. Online Shopping: Advantages over the Offline Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Joshua Chang

    2003-01-01

    The advent of the Internet as a shopping medium has enabled shoppers to gain shopping benefits such as convenience and time-saving, better information, and price savings. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the benefits of Internet shopping by identifying and discussing the advantages of Internet shopping over traditional storefront shopping.

  11. Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

    2002-01-01

    Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

  12. Online Shopping: Advantages over the Offline Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Joshua Chang

    2003-01-01

    The advent of the Internet as a shopping medium has enabled shoppers to gain shopping benefits such as convenience and time-saving, better information, and price savings. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the benefits of Internet shopping by identifying and discussing the advantages of Internet shopping over traditional storefront shopping.

  13. Assessing Binocular Advantage in Aided Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Night /day Imaging Technologies, ANIT, Head Mounted Display, Night Vision Goggle , Aided Vision , Binocular...advantage of binocularity in aided vision . Key Words: Head Mounted Display, Night Vision Goggle , Stereopsis, Modulation Transfer Function...veridical perception allows the operator to navigate and manipulate the environment in a natural and efficient manner. Night vision goggles (NVGs),

  14. Advantages and Problems with Merging Data Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnaan, Ram A.

    1985-01-01

    Presents the Israeli experience with merging different computerized files using a unique identifier. The advantages and disadvantages of this identifier are examined. Four types of problems are identified and some examples of use of an I.D. number as identifier are given. The desirability of merging files and confidentiality issues are also…

  15. [The advantage of multidisciplinary treatment of presbycusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouccara, Didier; Madjlessi, Arach; Mosnier, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Attributable to the ageing of the hearing system, presbycusis presents a wide variability in the general population. Early detection is necessary in order to be able to provide the patient with a suitable hearing aid. Collaboration between otolaryngologists and geriatricians proves to be advantageous as a consultation for a memory complaint may be the opportunity to detect presbycusis and vice versa.

  16. Advantages and Disadvantages of E-books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立平

    2004-01-01

    The e-book has many advantages over a paper-based product. You .can store lots of books on one computer-in fact your entire library could be stored on the top of your desk. E-books also allow you to mark your page with an electronic bookmark and jump straight to it when you open the book.

  17. Overview of research in the ADVANTAGE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Cosovic, Mirsad; Kalalas, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    The European Marie Curie Project ADVANTAGE (Advanced Communications and Information processing in smart grid systems) was launched in 2014. It represents a major inter-disciplinary research project into the topic of Smart Grid technology. A key aspect of the project is to bring together and train...

  18. Advantages of super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Super-light structures with pearl-chain reinforcement is a new revolutionary technology that opens possibilities of building load-bearing structures much cheaper and with several other advantages compared to traditional constructions of concrete and steel. Some benefits are: 1 Half price or less. 2...

  19. On the measurement of comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, A.R.; Oosterhaven, J.

    This paper shows-that the standard measure of revealed comparative advantage (RCA), ranging from 0 to infinity, has problematic properties. Due to its multiplicative specification, it has a moving mean larger than its expected value of 1, while its distribution strongly depends on the number of

  20. Aviation Expo Taking off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen; Bai Yifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 12nd Beijing Aviation Expo(Aviation Expo/China 2007) was held this September 19-22 at the China International Exhibition Center.Beijing Aviation Expo is the ONLY aviation exhibition (Civil & Military,including Airport & Air Traffic Control) organized in Beijing,taking place every two years.It is also the most influential aviation exhibition with the longest history in China.

  1. Taking drugs very seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, J Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Neither anti-illegal drug proponents nor their detractors have wholly plausible arguments for their positions, because neither takes responsibility for drug use sufficiently seriously. Instead, only a policy that places users' responsibility at the forefront of the problem is acceptable, one that is sufficiently respectful of actual or potential nonusers' rights not to be wrongfully harmed, directly or indirectly, by drug use, or coerced to support it in any way.

  2. Take Five for Customer Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Ax-Fultz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Businesses leverage excellent customer service to improve profitability. Although not profit-driven, libraries should leverage excellent customer service to achieve their unique missions. Evaluating and improving customer service practices will help a library determine if it is successfully serving its customers. The library should review three areas to improve customer service: the physical space of the library, how library employees work with library policies, and the communication skills of the library staff. By using the Take Five model, the library can make immediate, no-cost changes or plan for future improvements by taking just five minutes, every day, to assess specific areas. Over a few weeks or months, these small changes will result in better customer service.

  3. Cumulative Advantage and Success-Breeds-Success: The Value of Time Pattern Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, John C.

    1998-01-01

    For the case of the distribution of papers across authors, the Success-Breeds-Success or Cumulative Advantage model is a popular candidate for informetrics. The method of time pattern of publication for individual authors can be used to discriminate between Cumulative Advantage and non-uniform giftedness models. The non-uniform giftedness model is…

  4. Perspective Taking in Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zappalà Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Workplaces are often described as places in which individuals are motivated by their self-interests and in which negative events like time pressure, anxiety, conflict with co-workers, miscomprehensions, difficulties in solving problems, not-transmitted or not-exchanged information that lead to mistakes, and in some cases to injuries, stress or control, are part of everyday life (Dormann & Zapf, 2002; Schabracq, Winnubst and Cooper, 2003. Such situations are often the result of the limited comprehension of needs, skills, or information available to colleagues, supervisors, subordinates, clients or providers. However, workplaces are also places in which employees take care of clients, support colleagues and subordinates (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002, are enthusiastic about their job (Bakker et al., 2008, are motivated by leaders that encourage employees to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or the organization and provide them with the confidence to perform beyond expectations (Bass, 1997. Thus positive relationships at work are becoming a new interdisciplinary domain of inquiry (Dutton & Ragins, 2006. Within this positive relationships framework, in this paper we focus on a positive component of workplaces, and particularly on an individual cognitive and emotional process that has an important role in the workplace because it facilitates interpersonal relations and communications: it is the perspective taking process. In order to describe perspective taking, we will refer to some empirical studies and particularly to the review published by Parker, Atkins and Axtell in 2008 on the International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

  5. HOME ADVANTAGE IN HIGH-LEVEL VOLLEYBALL VARIES ACCORDING TO SET NUMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Marcelino

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify the probability of winning each Volleyball set according to game location (home, away. Archival data was obtained from 275 sets in the 2005 Men's Senior World League and 65,949 actions were analysed. Set result (win, loss, game location (home, away, set number (first, second, third, fourth and fifth and performance indicators (serve, reception, set, attack, dig and block were the variables considered in this study. In a first moment, performance indicators were used in a logistic model of set result, by binary logistic regression analysis. After finding the adjusted logistic model, the log-odds of winning the set were analysed according to game location and set number. The results showed that winning a set is significantly related to performance indicators (Chi-square(18=660.97, p<0.01. Analyses of log-odds of winning a set demonstrate that home teams always have more probability of winning the game than away teams, regardless of the set number. Home teams have more advantage at the beginning of the game (first set and in the two last sets of the game (fourth and fifth sets, probably due to facilities familiarity and crowd effects. Different game actions explain these advantages and showed that to win the first set is more important to take risk, through a better performance in the attack and block, and to win the final set is important to manage the risk through a better performance on the reception. These results may suggest intra-game variation in home advantage and can be most useful to better prepare and direct the competition

  6. Home advantage in high-level volleyball varies according to set number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Palao Andrés, José Manuel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the probability of winning each Volleyball set according to game location (home, away). Archival data was obtained from 275 sets in the 2005 Men's Senior World League and 65,949 actions were analysed. Set result (win, loss), game location (home, away), set number (first, second, third, fourth and fifth) and performance indicators (serve, reception, set, attack, dig and block) were the variables considered in this study. In a first moment, performance indicators were used in a logistic model of set result, by binary logistic regression analysis. After finding the adjusted logistic model, the log-odds of winning the set were analysed according to game location and set number. The results showed that winning a set is significantly related to performance indicators (Chisquare(18)=660.97, pteams always have more probability of winning the game than away teams, regardless of the set number. Home teams have more advantage at the beginning of the game (first set) and in the two last sets of the game (fourth and fifth sets), probably due to facilities familiarity and crowd effects. Different game actions explain these advantages and showed that to win the first set is more important to take risk, through a better performance in the attack and block, and to win the final set is important to manage the risk through a better performance on the reception. These results may suggest intra-game variation in home advantage and can be most useful to better prepare and direct the competition. Key pointsHome teams always have more probability of winning the game than away teams.Home teams have higher performance in reception, set and attack in the total of the sets.The advantage of home teams is more pronounced at the beginning of the game (first set) and in two last sets of the game (fourth and fifth sets) suggesting intra-game variation in home advantage.Analysis by sets showed that home teams have a better performance in the attack and

  7. Advantages of Parallel Processing and the Effects of Communications Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Wesley M.; Allman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Many computing tasks involve heavy mathematical calculations, or analyzing large amounts of data. These operations can take a long time to complete using only one computer. Networks such as the Internet provide many computers with the ability to communicate with each other. Parallel or distributed computing takes advantage of these networked computers by arranging them to work together on a problem, thereby reducing the time needed to obtain the solution. The drawback to using a network of computers to solve a problem is the time wasted in communicating between the various hosts. The application of distributed computing techniques to a space environment or to use over a satellite network would therefore be limited by the amount of time needed to send data across the network, which would typically take much longer than on a terrestrial network. This experiment shows how much faster a large job can be performed by adding more computers to the task, what role communications time plays in the total execution time, and the impact a long-delay network has on a distributed computing system.

  8. Physics Take-Outs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riendeau, Diane; Hawkins, Stephanie; Beutlich, Scott

    2016-03-01

    Most teachers want students to think about their course content not only during class but also throughout their day. So, how do you get your students to see how what they learn in class applies to their lives outside of class? As physics teachers, we are fortunate that our students are continually surrounded by our content. How can we get them to notice the physics around them? How can we get them to make connections between the classroom content and their everyday lives? We would like to offer a few suggestions, Physics Take-Outs, to solve this problem.

  9. SUSHILANDIA Take Away

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Lozano, María Helena; Amador Torres, Stephania; Silva Manrique, Kelly Johana

    2016-01-01

    Sushilandia take away es un restaurante que ofrece variedad de ingredientes para la selección por parte del cliente, bajo el concepto de “comida para llevar”. El sistema de funcionamiento se basa en la puesta de un menú estándar que le permite al cliente seguir una cadena dentro del sistema de producción de su comida. Inicialmente están dispuestos tres cortes diferentes de sushi, una vez el cliente escoge el que quiere pasa a la zona de proteínas, seguido de vegetales y adiciones. Seguidament...

  10. The Relational View of Interorganizational Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    Collaborating with external partners on R&D and forming strategic partnership for R&D have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories. Though the relational view of competitive advantage has been proposed for more than a decade, few in-depth empirical...... on interorganizational competitive advantage. At the end of the paper, based on existing theories and the case study result, we will propose our conceptual framework on researching R&D strategic alliance between Scandinavian and Chinese firms....... researches are down within this field, especially case study on R&D strategic alliance from this perspective. On the other hand, when researching on Danish transnational corporations’ R&D in China, we found that they emphasize a lot on cooperating with Chinese local firms. The collaboration between Danish...

  11. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES ENTERPRISES IN KOOPERATION RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mikitiuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Formation of new approaches to the definition of competitive advantage requires different ways to implement them according to market conditions. These paths can be cooperative relations entities that are implemented in the competitive advantage of enterprises in the new stage of development of a competitive society. The result of the interaction of small businesses with industrial and economic structures is the formation and development of such forms of cooperation entities as subcontracting, franchising, leasing, venture finance. The content of these forms is to integrate (interlacing of the functional areas of business including production of functional form is subcontracting relationships, forms of supply – franchising, industrial and financial shape – leasing as a form of innovative functional integration relations is venture financing.

  12. Online shopping: some advantages and shortcomings

    OpenAIRE

    Sammer, Aleksandra; Malkova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    As we live in the century of rapid development of information technologies, it is very difficult to meet people who haven't heard of online shopping. Hundreds of thousands of Internet users daily resort to services of virtual shops. Internet trade gains steam both in Russia, and all around the world. This paper overviews some advantages and shortcomings of online shopping over shopping malls. Time and money saving possibilities, wide range of goods, convenient delivery and method of payment, ...

  13. Coating-removal techniques: Advantages and disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Wayne E.

    1994-07-01

    The removal of radioactive and nonradio-active coatings from various surfaces is a subject of increasing interest for a variety of reasons, including remaining life assessment, nondestructive evaluation of structural integrity, and life extension through the adoption of new surface-modification methods. This review summarizes the state of the art in coating-removal technologies, presenting their advantages and limitations. The methods covered include laser ablation, microwaves, flashlamps, ice, CO2, and plastic blast media.

  14. Advantages and disadvantages by using safety culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture is a major issue in accident research. A recently finished ph.d.-study has evaluated the symbolic safety culture approach and found four advantages and two disadvantages. These are presented and discussed in this contribution. It is concluded that the approach can be useful...... in the planning of accident prevention activities if focus is maintained on prevention of accidents and not on changing of the safety culture....

  15. Decision Ambiguity and Incumbent Brand Advantage.

    OpenAIRE

    Muthukrishnan, A. V.

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the role of decision ambiguity in judgments that consumers make about an incumbent (the brand a consumer currently uses) versus an attack brand (a new, superior competitor). It is hypothesized that decision ambiguity creates an advantage for the incumbent. A conceptualization of decision ambiguity is offered. In three experiments, factors that can cause decision ambiguity are manipulated and their effects on preference for the incumbent are investigated. The results unde...

  16. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing globalization and internationalization bring huge changes to business environment, which has been changed from a lot of dispersed local markets to a single economic market. These changes make businessmen have to think about their international business strategies, such as outsourcing. This article will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing in the context of global manufacturing strategy in order to help managers handle it more effectively.

  17. Revealed Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness in Pear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime de Pablo Valenciano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the study of the comparative advantages and competitiveness in the global pear market. First, it will outline a clear distinction between these two concepts, followed by analysis. This paper provides a new index of competitiveness developed by our research based on the insights offered by a wide range of studies on this subject. The aim is to achieve a new line of analysis to improve and expand the possibilities of present day studies.

  18. Relationship dimensions of the 'Down syndrome advantage'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D B; Hauser-Cram, P; Crossman, M K

    2015-06-01

    Some researchers have proposed an 'advantage' for parents of children with Down syndrome over parents of children with other intellectual disabilities, especially in relation to experiencing less parenting stress. Others have maintained that these differences are an artefact of demographic and related differences. This study extends the investigation of possible differences in dimensions of parenting stress and also examines whether differences exist in maternal and child contingent responsiveness during mother-child interaction in these two groups. Mothers of children with Down syndrome (n = 43) and undifferentiated developmental disabilities (n = 54) completed measures of children's adaptive functioning and behaviour problems, parenting stress and maternal social support. Observers rated the contingent interactions between mothers and children using the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale. Once mother's age, education and social support as well as child adaptive functioning and behaviour problems were considered, neither parent nor child related parenting stress demonstrated an advantage for parents of children with Down syndrome. However, a 'Down syndrome advantage' was apparent for both maternal and child contingent responsiveness after accounting for maternal demographic and contextual variables and child attributes. Children with Down syndrome and their mothers have more positive interactions than children with other developmental disabilities, both in terms of the responsiveness of mothers and of child responses contingent on maternal behaviour. These findings suggest that both children with Down syndrome themselves and their mothers are contributing to a Down syndrome advantage. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Advantages and disadvantages by using safety culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture is a major issue in accident research. A recently finished ph.d.-study has evaluated the symbolic safety culture approach and found four advantages and two disadvantages. These are presented and discussed in this contribution. It is concluded that the approach can be useful...... in the planning of accident prevention activities if focus is maintained on prevention of accidents and not on changing of the safety culture....

  20. Does cultural integration explain a mental health advantage for adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Lenguerrand, Erik; Maynard, Maria J; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Harding, Seeromanie

    2012-06-01

    A mental health advantage has been observed among adolescents in urban areas. This prospective study tests whether cultural integration measured by cross-cultural friendships explains a mental health advantage for adolescents. A prospective cohort of adolescents was recruited from 51 secondary schools in 10 London boroughs. Cultural identity was assessed by friendship choices within and across ethnic groups. Cultural integration is one of four categories of cultural identity. Using gender-specific linear-mixed models we tested whether cultural integration explained a mental health advantage, and whether gender and age were influential. Demographic and other relevant factors, such as ethnic group, socio-economic status, family structure, parenting styles and perceived racism were also measured and entered into the models. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as a 'total difficulties score' and by classification as a 'probable clinical case'. A total of 6643 pupils in first and second years of secondary school (ages 11-13 years) took part in the baseline survey (2003/04) and 4785 took part in the follow-up survey in 2005-06. Overall mental health improved with age, more so in male rather than female students. Cultural integration (friendships with own and other ethnic groups) was associated with the lowest levels of mental health problems especially among male students. This effect was sustained irrespective of age, ethnicity and other potential explanatory variables. There was a mental health advantage among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and Black African male students (Nigerian/Ghanaian origin) and female Indian students. This was not fully explained by cultural integration, although cultural integration was independently associated with better mental health. Cultural integration was associated with better mental health, independent of the mental health advantage found among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and