WorldWideScience

Sample records for model synthesis method

  1. Block-Krylov component synthesis method for structural model reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Hale, Arthur L.

    1988-01-01

    A new analytical method is presented for generating component shape vectors, or Ritz vectors, for use in component synthesis. Based on the concept of a block-Krylov subspace, easily derived recurrence relations generate blocks of Ritz vectors for each component. The subspace spanned by the Ritz vectors is called a block-Krylov subspace. The synthesis uses the new Ritz vectors rather than component normal modes to reduce the order of large, finite-element component models. An advantage of the Ritz vectors is that they involve significantly less computation than component normal modes. Both 'free-interface' and 'fixed-interface' component models are derived. They yield block-Krylov formulations paralleling the concepts of free-interface and fixed-interface component modal synthesis. Additionally, block-Krylov reduced-order component models are shown to have special disturbability/observability properties. Consequently, the method is attractive in active structural control applications, such as large space structures. The new fixed-interface methodology is demonstrated by a numerical example. The accuracy is found to be comparable to that of fixed-interface component modal synthesis.

  2. Solvent effect modelling of isocyanuric products synthesis by chemometric methods

    OpenAIRE

    Havet, Jean-Louis; Billiau-Loreau, Myriam; Porte, Catherine; Delacroix, Alain

    2002-01-01

    Chemometric tools were used to generate the modelling of solvent e¡ects on the N-alkylation of an isocyanuric acid salt. The method proceeded from a central composite design applied on the Carlson solvent classification using principal components analysis. The selectivity of the reaction was studied from the production of different substituted isocyanuric derivatives. Response graphs were obtained for each compound and used to devise a strategy for solvent selection. The prediction models wer...

  3. Computational method and system for modeling, analyzing, and optimizing DNA amplification and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersall, Jennifer A.; Gardner, Shea N.; Clague, David S.

    2010-05-04

    A computational method and computer-based system of modeling DNA synthesis for the design and interpretation of PCR amplification, parallel DNA synthesis, and microarray chip analysis. The method and system include modules that address the bioinformatics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of DNA amplification and synthesis. Specifically, the steps of DNA selection, as well as the kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA hybridization and extensions, are addressed, which enable the optimization of the processing and the prediction of the products as a function of DNA sequence, mixing protocol, time, temperature and concentration of species.

  4. H∞ Synthesis Method for Control of Non-linear Flexible Joint Models

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Patrik; Pipeleers, Goele; Helmersson, Anders; Norrlöf, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    An H∞ synthesis method for control of a flexible joint, with non-linear spring characteristic, is proposed. The first step of the synthesis method is to extend the joint model with an uncertainty description of the stiffness parameter. In the second step, a non-linear optimisation problem, based on nominal performance and robust stability requirements, has to be solved. Using the Lyapunov shaping paradigm and a change of variables, the non-linear optimisation problem can be rewritten as a con...

  5. Application of two synthesis methods for active flutter suppression on an aeroelastic wind tunnel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, I.; Newsom, J. R.; Dunn, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    Two flutter suppression control laws have been synthesized, implemented, and demonstrated on an aeroelastic wind-tunnel model of a transport-type wing. One control law was synthesized using an aerodynamic energy method and the other from using results of optimal control theory. At M = 0.95, the model was tested to a dynamic pressure 44 percent above the system-off flutter dynamic pressure. Both synthesis methods yielded control laws effective in suppressing flutter. The experimental results also indicate that wind-tunnel turbulence is an important factor in the experimental demonstration of system performance.

  6. An automatic synthesis method of compact models of integrated circuit devices based on equivalent circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, I. I.

    2006-05-01

    An automatic synthesis method of equivalent circuits of integrated circuit devices is described in the paper. This method is based on a physical approach to construction of finite-difference approximation to basic equations of semiconductor device physics. It allows to synthesize compact equivalent circuits of different devices automatically as alternative to, for example, sufficiently formal BSIM2 and BSIM3 models used in circuit simulation programs of SPICE type. The method is one of possible variants of general methodology for automatic synthesis of compact equivalent circuits of almost arbitrary devices and circuit-type structures of micro- and nanoelecronics [1]. The method is easily extended in the case of necessity to account thermal effects in integrated circuits. It was shown that its application would be especially perspective for analysis of integrated circuit fragments as a whole and for identification of significant collective physical effects, including parasitic effects in VLSI and ULSI. In the paper the examples illustrating possibilities of the method for automatic synthesis of compact equivalent circuits of some of semiconductor devices and integrated circuit devices are considered. Special attention is given to examples of integrated circuit devices for coarse grids of spatial discretization (less than 10 nodes).

  7. Synthesis of Numerical Methods for Modeling Wave Energy Converter-Point Absorbers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y. H.

    2012-05-01

    During the past few decades, wave energy has received significant attention among all ocean energy formats. Industry has proposed hundreds of prototypes such as an oscillating water column, a point absorber, an overtopping system, and a bottom-hinged system. In particular, many researchers have focused on modeling the floating-point absorber as the technology to extract wave energy. Several modeling methods have been used such as the analytical method, the boundary-integral equation method, the Navier-Stokes equations method, and the empirical method. However, no standardized method has been decided. To assist the development of wave energy conversion technologies, this report reviews the methods for modeling the floating-point absorber.

  8. "Best fit" framework synthesis: refining the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher; Booth, Andrew; Leaviss, Joanna; Rick, Jo

    2013-03-13

    Following publication of the first worked example of the "best fit" method of evidence synthesis for the systematic review of qualitative evidence in this journal, the originators of the method identified a need to specify more fully some aspects of this particular derivative of framework synthesis. We therefore present a second such worked example in which all techniques are defined and explained, and their appropriateness is assessed. Specified features of the method include the development of new techniques to identify theories in a systematic manner; the creation of an a priori framework for the synthesis; and the "testing" of the synthesis. An innovative combination of existing methods of quality assessment, analysis and synthesis is used to complete the process. This second worked example was a qualitative evidence synthesis of employees' views of workplace smoking cessation interventions, in which the "best fit" method was found to be practical and fit for purpose. The method is suited to producing context-specific conceptual models for describing or explaining the decision-making and health behaviours of patients and other groups. It offers a pragmatic means of conducting rapid qualitative evidence synthesis and generating programme theories relating to intervention effectiveness, which might be of relevance both to researchers and policy-makers.

  9. Using logic model methods in systematic review synthesis: describing complex pathways in referral management interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan K; Blank, Lindsay; Woods, Helen Buckley; Payne, Nick; Rimmer, Melanie; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2014-05-10

    There is increasing interest in innovative methods to carry out systematic reviews of complex interventions. Theory-based approaches, such as logic models, have been suggested as a means of providing additional insights beyond that obtained via conventional review methods. This paper reports the use of an innovative method which combines systematic review processes with logic model techniques to synthesise a broad range of literature. The potential value of the model produced was explored with stakeholders. The review identified 295 papers that met the inclusion criteria. The papers consisted of 141 intervention studies and 154 non-intervention quantitative and qualitative articles. A logic model was systematically built from these studies. The model outlines interventions, short term outcomes, moderating and mediating factors and long term demand management outcomes and impacts. Interventions were grouped into typologies of practitioner education, process change, system change, and patient intervention. Short-term outcomes identified that may result from these interventions were changed physician or patient knowledge, beliefs or attitudes and also interventions related to changed doctor-patient interaction. A range of factors which may influence whether these outcomes lead to long term change were detailed. Demand management outcomes and intended impacts included content of referral, rate of referral, and doctor or patient satisfaction. The logic model details evidence and assumptions underpinning the complex pathway from interventions to demand management impact. The method offers a useful addition to systematic review methodologies. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004037.

  10. Combustion synthesis method and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

    1993-03-30

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  11. Methods for polymer synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Simoneau, Christopher A.; Keefe, William D.; Conuel, Jeff R.

    2016-12-06

    The present invention provides methods for reducing induction periods in epoxide-CO.sub.2 copolymerizations. In certain embodiments, the methods include the step of contacting an epoxide with CO.sub.2 in the presence of two catalysts: an epoxide hydrolysis catalyst and an epoxide CO.sub.2 copolymerization catalyst. In another aspect, the invention provides catalyst compositions comprising a mixture of an epoxide hydrolysis catalyst and an epoxide CO.sub.2 copolymerization catalyst.

  12. ANALYTICAL SYNTHESIS OF THE METHOD OF TARGETING A SUPERSONIC UNMANNED AERIAL VECHICLE BASED ON MULTI-DIMENSIONAL NONLINEAR DYNAMIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Markevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of analytical synthesis of an optimal controller for the terminal control task of supersonic unmanned aerial vehicles based on synergetic approach to the design of control systems for nonlinear multidimensional dynamic objects is considered.The article provides analytical expressions describing the algorithm for control the velocity vector position of a supersonic UAV, the simulation results and the comparative analysis of the proposed control algorithm with the modified method of proportional navigation.

  13. Discrete element method based scale-up model for material synthesis using ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Priya Radhi

    Mechanical milling is a widely used technique for powder processing in various areas. In this work, a scale-up model for describing this ball milling process is developed. The thesis is a combination of experimental and modeling efforts. Initially, Discrete Element Model (DEM) is used to describe energy transfer from milling tools to the milled powder for shaker, planetary, and attritor mills. The rolling and static friction coefficients are determined experimentally. Computations predict a quasisteady rate of energy dissipation, E d, for each experimental configuration. It is proposed that the milling dose defined as a product of Ed and milling time, t, divided by the mass of milled powder, mp characterizes the milling progress independently of the milling device or milling conditions used. Once the milling dose is determined for one experimental configuration, it can be used to predict the milling time required to prepare the same material in any milling configuration, for which Ed is calculated. The concept is validated experimentally for DEM describing planetary and shaker mills. For attritor, the predicted Ed includes substantial contribution from milling tool interaction events with abnormally high forces (>103 N). The energy in such events is likely dissipated to heat or plastically deform milling tools rather than refine material. Indeed, DEM predictions for the attritor correlate with experiments when such events are ignored in the analysis. With an objective of obtaining real-time indicators of milling progress, power, torque, and rotation speed of the impeller of an attritor mill are measured during preparation of metal matrix composite powders in the subsequent portion of this thesis. Two material systems are selected and comparisons made between in-situ parameters and experimental milling progress indicators. It is established that real-time measurements can certainly be used to describe milling progress. However, they need to be interpreted carefully

  14. A multilevel method for structural synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, L. A.; Chang, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    A multilevel method for structural synthesis based on finite element modeling at both the system and the substructure level is set forth. At the system level, the design is described using basis vectors generated via substructure design modification. Whenever possible, substructure constraints are satisfied via local material redistribution. At both the system level and the substructure level, design modification is carried out by solving a sequence of approximate problems. The method generates upper bound approximations for the optimum design and it has potential for substantial gains in computational efficiency, because the uncoupled substructure design modification problems can be processed in parallel.

  15. Synthesis gas method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2015-11-06

    A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

  16. A survey of modal synthesis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, G. C.; Hurty, W. C.; Collins, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Several modal synthesis procedures for the dynamic analysis of largy composite structural systems are surveyed. The matrix formulation of the free-free modal synthesis procedures is presented. Also given are schematic flow charts of the analysis procedure used in three prominent methods. The advantages and disadvantages of several modal synthesis methods for different classes of structural problems are presented in order to enable the engineer to select the best procedure for his particular type of problem.

  17. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  18. Synthesizing Evidence: Synthesis Methods for Evidence Clearinghouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jeff; Lau, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Following the theme of the first two presentations, this presentation will focus on the choices available for research synthesis when summarizing research evidence. The presenters will describe the current research synthesis practice of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) as well as several alternative models, including inverse-variance weighted…

  19. New methods for chemical protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaoyang; Chaffey, Patrick K; Zeng, Chen; Tan, Zhongping

    2015-01-01

    Chemical protein synthesis is a useful tool to generate pure proteins which are otherwise difficult to obtain in sufficient amounts for structure and property analysis. Additionally, because of the precise and flexible nature of chemical synthesis, it allows for controllable variation of protein sequences, which is valuable for understanding the relationships between protein structure and function. Despite the usefulness of chemical protein synthesis, it has not been widely adopted as a tool for protein characterization, mainly because of the lack of general and efficient methods for the preparation and coupling of peptide fragments and for the folding of polypeptide chains. To address these issues, many new methods have recently been developed in the areas of solid-phase peptide synthesis, peptide fragment assembly, and protein folding. Here we review these recent technological advances and highlight the gaps needing to be addressed in future research.

  20. PRECISELY COMPENSATED EFFICIENT COMPONENT MODE SYNTHESIS METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yutian; Ichiro Hagiwara

    2004-01-01

    Based on the improved mode superposition method proposed by Z.D.Ma and I.Hagiwara, a precisely compensated efficient mode synthesis method is developed.The calculation procedure is discussed in detail and the truncation error is also analyzed.By comparison, it is shown that this method has a higher accuracy and a less calculation time than the general used ones.

  1. Modeling of the Structural State of Amorphous Phases of the Nano-Sized Al2O3 Produced by Different Synthesis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzaev, U. A.; Syzrantsev, V. V.; Bardakhanov, S. P.

    2017-07-01

    The paper examines the structural state of the Al2O3 alloy nanopowders synthesized by different methods: electron beam evaporation, hydrolysis, and plasma-chemical method. X-ray structural analysis demonstrated that Al2O3 nanopowders synthesized by different methods are in X-ray amorphous and semi-amorphous states. These synthesis methods stimulate the creation of amorphous structures with different specific surfaces. The structural state of the Al2O3 alloy was studied by methods of X-ray structural analysis and simulation modeling. In order to identify the internal structure, modeling of the amorphous state of the elementary cell of the Al2O3 phase was performed within molecular dynamics. As a result of full-profile refinement of parameters of the model phases of Al2O3 nanopowders, complete structural information was identified for the synthesized Al2O3 alloys. It was shown from first principles that the cells of X-ray amorphous Al2O3 turned out to be highly stable. Researchers identified the parameters of elementary cells, spatial distribution of atoms, and node occupancy. It was shown that specific surface increases in the Al2O3 alloy nanopowders with the increase in bond energy of atoms in the cell.

  2. Modeling protein synthesis from a physicist's perspective: a toy model

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, A; Basu, Aakash; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    Proteins are polymers of amino acids. These macromolecules are synthesized by intracellular machines called {\\it ribosome}. Although, traditionally, the experimental investigation of protein synthesis has been an active area of research in molecular cell biology, important quantitative models of this phenomenon have been reported mostly in the research journals devoted to statistical physics and related interdisciplinary topics. From the perspective of a physicist, protein synthesis is a phenomenon of {\\it classical transport of interacting ribosomes on a messenger RNA (mRNA) template} that dictates the sequence of the amino acids on the protein. Here we bring this frontier area of contemporary research into the classroom by appropriate simplification of the models and methods. In particular, we develope a simple toy model and analyze it by some elementary techniques of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to predict the average rate of protein synthesis and their spatial organization in the steady-state.

  3. General methods for iminosugar synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Laura; la Ferla, Barbara; Nicotra, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Recent iminosugar syntheses starting both from commercially available sugars and non-glycidic precursors, are reported in this article. Exploiting carbohydrate starting materials, different synthetic approaches are described, mainly based on the introduction of an amino function in the sugar skeleton and the subsequent aminocyclization in order to generate the piperidine or pyrrolidine ring. The aminocyclization has been performed in different ways: reductive amination of azidoketones, intramolecular amino group attack on leaving groups and activated double bonds. In some cases one-pot amination and cyclization have been performed using ammonia or a primary amine and a di-functionalised sugar. Bicyclic compounds have also been obtained through these procedures. Starting from non-carbohydrate precursors, the nitrogen containing cycle, already present or easily obtained by Diels-Alder reactions, has been variously functionalised and stereo-differentiated by asymmetric induction or by resolution of the racemate. The syntheses of a variety of innovative structures, such as 1-N-iminosugars, iminosugars with two nitrogen atoms in the ring, iminosugars incorporating a guanidine function, imidazole-, triazole- and tetrazole-fused iminosugars, sugar-like aza-, oxa-, and thio-indolizidines, are reported. Finally the synthesis of glycoconjugate-related iminosugars, where the "pseudoanomeric" centre is linked to amino acid or peptide residues, and iminosugar phosphonates and nucleosides have been reviewed.

  4. Technical Note: Four-dimensional variational data assimilation for inverse modelling of atmospheric methane emissions: method and comparison with synthesis inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Meirink

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A four-dimensional variational (4D-var data assimilation system for inverse modelling of atmospheric methane emissions is presented. The system is based on the TM5 atmospheric transport model. It can be used for assimilating large volumes of measurements, in particular satellite observations and quasi-continuous in-situ observations, and at the same time it enables the optimization of a large number of model parameters, specifically grid-scale emission rates. Furthermore, the variational method allows to estimate uncertainties in posterior emissions. Here, the system is applied to optimize monthly methane emissions over a 1-year time window on the basis of surface observations from the NOAA-ESRL network. The results are rigorously compared with an analogous inversion by Bergamaschi et al. (2007, which was based on the traditional synthesis approach. The posterior emissions as well as their uncertainties obtained in both inversions show a high degree of consistency. At the same time we illustrate the advantage of 4D-Var in reducing aggregation errors by optimizing emissions at the grid scale of the transport model. The full potential of the assimilation system is exploited in Meirink et al. (2008, who use satellite observations of column-averaged methane mixing ratios to optimize emissions at high spatial resolution, taking advantage of the zooming capability of the TM5 model.

  5. Flow “Fine” Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The concept of flow “fine” synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow “fine” synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. PMID:26337828

  6. Hydroxyapatite Fibers: A Review of Synthesis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Mei-Li; He, Kun; Huang, Zhen-Nan; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Lu, Yu-Peng; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) exhibits excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteoconductivity, non-toxicity and so on, making it a perfect candidate for biomedical applications. However, HA is not qualified to be used in load-bearing sites due to its poor flexural strength and fracture toughness. Design, synthesis and application of fibrous HA is a promising strategy to overcome the inherent brittleness. This review provides a brief description of HA and hydroxyapatite fiber (HAF), then introduces different synthesis methods of HAF and highlights the inherent merits and drawbacks involved in each method. Finally, the future perspectives in this active research area are given. The purpose of this review is to acquaint the reader with this promising new field of biomaterials research and with emphasis on recent techniques to obtain continuous, uniform and long HAF.

  7. Advancements in Research Synthesis Methods: From a Methodologically Inclusive Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Harsh; Clarke, David

    2009-01-01

    The dominant literature on research synthesis methods has positivist and neo-positivist origins. In recent years, the landscape of research synthesis methods has changed rapidly to become inclusive. This article highlights methodologically inclusive advancements in research synthesis methods. Attention is drawn to insights from interpretive,…

  8. Method for the synthesis of chlorosilanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D.R.; Pollagi, T.P.

    1999-08-17

    A novel method is described for the synthesis of chlorinated or partially chlorinated organosilanes and organopolysilanes. The chlorination is effected by contacting an organosilanes or organopolysilanes with anhydrous CuCl{sub 2} in a nonpolar alkane solvent, preferably pentane or hexadecane, without the use of a catalyst. Copper metal, which is easily filtered, is a reaction product. The filtrate containing the chlorinated organosilane or organopolysilane can be used directly as a reactant to produce, for example, aminoorganosilanes.

  9. Method and apparatus for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, John William; Bonnell, Leo; Robinson, Earl T.

    2010-03-03

    A method and apparatus for reacting a hydrocarbon containing feed stream by steam methane reforming reactions to form a synthesis gas. The hydrocarbon containing feed is reacted within a reactor having stages in which the final stage from which a synthesis gas is discharged incorporates expensive high temperature materials such as oxide dispersed strengthened metals while upstream stages operate at a lower temperature allowing the use of more conventional high temperature alloys. Each of the reactor stages incorporate reactor elements having one or more separation zones to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing feed to support combustion of a fuel within adjacent combustion zones, thereby to generate heat to support the endothermic steam methane reforming reactions.

  10. Catalytic Synthesis Methods for Triazolopyrimidine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new method for catalyzed synthesis of triazolopyrimidine derivatives is reported. Aikylamine reaction with dialkyl cyanodithioiminocarbonate was catalyzed by quaternary ammonium salts at room temperature to yield 3-alkylamine-5-amino-1,2,4-triazole in good quality and high yields. After imidization and reaction with an α,β-unsaturated acid derivative, the reaction intermediate was hydrolyzed in the presence of a Lewis acid to obtain the target product. This novel catalytic method for triazolopyrimidine derivatives can be carried out under inexpen-sive and mild conditions, and is safe and environmentally friendly. IH NMR results for all intermediates are re-ported.

  11. Group Contribution Based Process Flowsheet Synthesis, Design and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; d'Anterroches, Loïc

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a process-group-contribution Method to model. simulate and synthesize a flowsheet. The process-group based representation of a flowsheet together with a process "property" model are presented. The process-group based synthesis method is developed on the basis of the computer...

  12. Usage of modal synthesis method with condensation in rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman V.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical modelling of vibration and modal analysis of rotors composed of a flexible shaft and several flexible disks. The shaft is modelled as a one dimensional continuum whereon flexible disks modelled as a three dimensional continuum are rigid mounted to shaft. The presented approach allows to introduce continuously distributed centrifugal and gyroscopic effects. The finite element method was used for shaft and disks discretization. The modelling of such flexible multi-body rotors with large DOF number is based on the system decomposition into subsystems and on the modal synthesis method with condensation. Lower vibration mode shapes of the mutually uncoupled and non-rotating subsystems are used for creation of the rotor condensed mathematical model. An influence of the different level of a rotor condensation model on the accuracy of calculated eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors is discussed.

  13. Synthesis of monoacylglycerols by enzymatic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradić Milena R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoacylglycerols are non-ionic surfactants widely used in the food industry. They are also important in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as drug carriers and for the consistency improvements in creams and lotions. Current process for their production is based on the glycerolysis of natural fats and oils in the presence of inorganic catalysts at temperatures higher than 220 oC. The major drawbacks of this process include high-energy consumption, low yield, and poor product quality. The use of lipases for the monoacylglycerols production offers environmental advantages and a reduction in energy consumption. Besides, the same surfactants prepared by the enzymatic synthesis may be labeled as “natural”. Recent progress in the application of highly-stable lipases in the organic solvents offers the possibility of employing various methods to the enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of monoacylglycerols, such as selective hydrolysis of fats and oils using 1,3-regiospecific lipases, the esterification of glycerol with fatty acids and the glycerolysis of fats or oils. In this review, different reaction systems such as aqueous-organic two-phase systems, microemulsions and reverse micelles systems, anhydrous organic solvents, solvent-free systems with free or immobilized lipases, as well as the use of two-phase membrane reactor systems are presented. We discuss some of the key factors, such as the control of water content, removing of the products from reaction system, and the effects of solvent on the lipase activity and selectivity, that must be addressed in order to obtain an efficient reaction system with high yields of monoacylglycerols. Engineering of the enzymatic monoacylglycerols synthesis processes requires also optimization of other factors as: molar ratio of substrates, temperature, type of lipase immobilization and supports (if any, reactor design and operating regime.

  14. A dynamic transformation method for modal synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, E. J.; Stahle, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a condensation method for large discrete parameter vibration analysis of complex structures that greatly reduces truncation errors and provides accurate definition of modes in a selected frequency range. A dynamic transformation is obtained from the partitioned equations of motion that relates modes not explicity in the condensed solution to the retained modes at a selected system frequency. The generalized mass and stiffness matrices, obtained with existing modal synthesis methods, are reduced using this transformation and solved. Revised solutions are then obtained using new transformations at the calculated eigenvalues and are also used to assess the accuracy of the results. If all the modes of interest have not been obtained, the results are used to select a new set of retained coordinates and a new transformation frequency, and the procedure is repeated for another group of modes.

  15. Active synthesis of multiaxial drive systems using a comparative method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dzitkowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is the problem of stability and vibration reduction in designed drive systems, in which the essential requirement is to meet the desired dynamic properties.Design/methodology/approach: : The method of stabilisation and reduction has been based on active synthesis, which makes it possible to obtain the desired mechanical effect through the proper selection of dynamic properties of the system, including the calculation of the active force as a function of the system force feedback.Findings: Presented approach simplifies the process of selecting the dynamical parameters of machine drive systems in view of their dynamical characteristics.Research limitations/implications: The scope of discussion is the synthesis of machine drive systems as discrete models of torsional vibrations. Such vibrations are more difficult to detect than flexural ones, which are accompanied by noise and vibrations of the adjacent elements (for example, shaft frames. Due to the absence of symptoms, torsional vibrations are particularly dangerous, as they may be unnoticeable until the destruction of subsystems occurs.Practical implications: High durability and reliability of drive systems is associated with proper setting of system parameters - inertial, elastical and damping. Proper setting of these parameters is made possible by applying synthesis techniques.Originality/value: We should emphasize that the considered problem varies from other issues met in classic mechanics or control theory. The research has been undertaken on the basis of topological methods, developed in scholar environment of Gliwice.

  16. Flow "Fine" Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shū

    2016-02-18

    The concept of flow "fine" synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow "fine" synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. A Synthesis of the Literature on Research Methods Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis is to examine the current research on teaching and learning research methods. The aims are to understand the themes present in the current literature and identify gaps in our understanding of how we teach, and how students learn, research methods. A synthesis of 89 studies generated three themes: (1)…

  18. A Synthesis of the Literature on Research Methods Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis is to examine the current research on teaching and learning research methods. The aims are to understand the themes present in the current literature and identify gaps in our understanding of how we teach, and how students learn, research methods. A synthesis of 89 studies generated three themes: (1)…

  19. Digital Sound Synthesis Algorithms: a Tutorial Introduction and Comparison of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. Robert

    The objectives of the dissertation are to provide both a compendium of sound-synthesis methods with detailed descriptions and sound examples, as well as a comparison of the relative merits of each method based on ease of use, observed sound quality, execution time, and data storage requirements. The methods are classified under the general headings of wavetable-lookup synthesis, additive synthesis, subtractive synthesis, nonlinear methods, and physical modelling. The nonlinear methods comprise a large group that ranges from the well-known frequency-modulation synthesis to waveshaping. The final category explores computer modelling of real musical instruments and includes numerical and analytical solutions to the classical wave equation of motion, along with some of the more sophisticated time -domain models that are possible through the prudent combination of simpler synthesis techniques. The dissertation is intended to be understandable by a musician who is mathematically literate but who does not necessarily have a background in digital signal processing. With this limitation in mind, a brief and somewhat intuitive description of digital sampling theory is provided in the introduction. Other topics such as filter theory are discussed as the need arises. By employing each of the synthesis methods to produce the same type of sound, interesting comparisons can be made. For example, a struck string sound, such as that typical of a piano, can be produced by algorithms in each of the synthesis classifications. Many sounds, however, are peculiar to a single algorithm and must be examined independently. Psychoacoustic studies were conducted as an aid in the comparison of the sound quality of several implementations of the synthesis algorithms. Other psychoacoustic experiments were conducted to supplement the established notions of which timbral issues are important in the re -synthesis of the sounds of acoustic musical instruments.

  20. Maximum super angle optimization method for array antenna pattern synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Ji; Roederer, A. G

    1991-01-01

    Different optimization criteria related to antenna pattern synthesis are discussed. Based on the maximum criteria and vector space representation, a simple and efficient optimization method is presented for array and array fed reflector power pattern synthesis. A sector pattern synthesized by a 20...

  1. A hybrid formulation of a component mode synthesis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Charbel; Geradin, Michel

    1992-01-01

    Component mode synthesis is a substructuring technique frequently employed in structural dynamics. In this method, a given structure is subdivided into components or substructures, each of which is analyzed independently for natural frequencies and for mode shapes. The substructure mode shapes are then assembled to give displacement shapes or load patterns of the original structure. An analytical justification of the basic concept is presented using spectral decompositions, and a variant substructuring approach where intersubstructure continuity is enforced in a weak form is derived. This leads to a hybrid formulation of the basic method which is particularly suitable for assembling heterogeneous substructures and analyzing nonconforming and incompatible finite element substructure models. For problems where both the basic and hybrid methods are applicable, the hybrid variant can be computationally more advantageous.

  2. Droplet-based microfluidic method for synthesis of microparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbanjwa, MB

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Droplet-based microfluidics has, in recent years, received increased attention as an important tool for performing numerous methods in modern day chemistry and biology such as the synthesis of hydrogel microparticles. Hydrogels have been used in many..., in recent years, received increased attention as an important tool for performing numerous methods in modern day chemistry and biology, such as synthesis of hydrogel microparticles. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK The droplet-based microfluidic method offers...

  3. Asymmetric synthesis II more methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christmann, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    After the overwhelming success of 'Asymmetric Synthesis - The Essentials', narrating the colorful history of asymmetric synthesis, this is the second edition with latest subjects and authors. While the aim of the first edition was mainly to honor the achievements of the pioneers in asymmetric syntheses, the aim of this new edition was bringing the current developments, especially from younger colleagues, to the attention of students. The format of the book remained unchanged, i.e. short conceptual overviews by young leaders in their field including a short biography of the authors. The growing multidisciplinary research within chemistry is reflected in the selection of topics including metal catalysis, organocatalysis, physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and its applications in total synthesis. The prospective reader of this book is a graduate or undergraduate student of advanced organic chemistry as well as the industrial chemist who wants to get a brief update on the current developments in th...

  4. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... statebased on an idealized mechanical model to be adapted to the original limit state by the model correction factor. Reliable approximations are obtained by iterative use of gradient information on the original limit state function analogously to previous response surface approaches. However, the strength...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  5. Statistical and Energetic Constraints in Population Synthesis Models

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzoni, A

    1998-01-01

    Physical and numerical constraints in building up self-consistent population synthesis models are briefly analysed discussing their application to most of the current synthesis codes widely adopted in Galactic and extragalactic studies.

  6. Method for innovative synthesis-design of chemical process flowsheets

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Chemical process synthesis-design involve the identification of the processing route to reach a desired product from a specified set of raw materials, design of the operations involved in the processing route, the calculations of utility requirements, the calculations of waste and emission to the surrounding and many more. Different methods (knowledge-based [1], mathematical programming [2], hybrid, etc.) have been proposed and are also currently employed to solve these synthesis-design probl...

  7. Synthesis of copper nanoparticles : An overview of the various methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodashenas, Bahareh [Islamic Azad University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbani, Hamid Reza [Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The synthesis of metal nanoparticles has received much attention due to their wide range of applications. Copper nanoparticles have attracted much attention due to their unique optical and electrical properties. Copper is relatively cheap in comparison to precious metals like gold and silver and also has high antibacterial properties. This review gives a brief overview of the available research works considering the synthesis of copper nanoparticles by chemical, physical, and biological methods.

  8. A generalized method of active RC network synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, D. P.; Chan, S.-P.

    1971-01-01

    A completely general active RC network synthesis technique using a grounded gyrator and a summing amplifier is described. The technique overcomes serious limitations of previous RC-gyrator realizations and offers advantages o ver other general active RC synthesis methods. The technique is well suited for construction using thin-film RC networks and integrated circuit operational amplifiers, and provides a configuration which is quite insensitive to element variations.

  9. Catalytic Methods in Asymmetric Synthesis Advanced Materials, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gruttadauria, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    This book covers advances in the methods of catalytic asymmetric synthesis and their applications. Coverage moves from new materials and technologies to homogeneous metal-free catalysts and homogeneous metal catalysts. The applications of several methodologies for the synthesis of biologically active molecules are discussed. Part I addresses recent advances in new materials and technologies such as supported catalysts, supports, self-supported catalysts, chiral ionic liquids, supercritical fluids, flow reactors and microwaves related to asymmetric catalysis. Part II covers advances and milesto

  10. Current methods for synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herizchi, Roya; Abbasi, Elham; Milani, Morteza; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles, such as nanoparticles synthesized using gold, have numerous uncommon chemical and physical properties due to the effects of their quantum size and their large surface area, in comparison with other metal atoms or bulk metal. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs), in particular, are very attractive because of their size and shape-dependent properties. Metal nanoparticles have gathered extensive attention due to their uncommon properties and promising applications in photonics, electronics, biochemical sensing, and imaging. This review covers recent advances in the synthesis of GNPs.

  11. Practical catalytic method for synthesis of sterically hindered anilines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailig, Melrose; Rucker, Richard P; Lalic, Gojko

    2015-07-14

    A practical catalytic method for the synthesis of sterically hindered anilines is described. The amination of aryl and heteroaryl boronic esters is accomplished using a catalyst prepared in situ from commercially available and air-stable copper(i) triflate and diphosphine ligand. For the first time, the method can be applied to the synthesis of both secondary and tertiary anilines in the presence of a wide range of functional groups. Esters, aldehydes, alcohols, aryl halides, ketones, nitriles, and nitro arenes are all compatible with the reaction conditions. Finally, even the most sterically hindered anilines can be successfully prepared under mild reaction conditions. Overall, the new method addresses significant practical limitations of a transformation previously developed in our lab, and provides a valuable complement to the existing methods for the synthesis of anilines.

  12. Free-Interface Modal Synthesis Based Substructural Damage Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanghong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-interface modal synthesis method is applied to civil structure, and a substructure method is proposed by introducing the method into global sensitivity method. The substructure expression of the derivatives of eigenvalues and eigenvectors with respect to elemental parameters is obtained. The accuracy of the application of free-interface modal synthesis method is evaluated with different retained modes in substructure, and then the effectiveness of the proposed substructure sensitivity method is illustrated through an 11-storey building under both single- and multidamage cases. Both the damage locations and the extent can be effectively identified. By comparing it with the identical results of global sensitivity method, the proposed method can be faster in detecting the damage location and more stable under multidamage cases. Since this substructure sensitivity method only needs to update sensitivity matrix in the substructure with relative small number of DOFs, it may save much computation effort and become more efficient.

  13. Steady Modeling for an Ammonia Synthesis Reactor Based on a Novel CDEAS-LS-SVM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoqian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A steady-state mathematical model is built in order to represent plant behavior under stationary operating conditions. A novel modeling using LS-SVR based on Cultural Differential Evolution with Ant Search is proposed. LS-SVM is adopted to establish the model of the net value of ammonia. The modeling method has fast convergence speed and good global adaptability for identification of the ammonia synthesis process. The LS-SVR model was established using the above-mentioned method. Simulation results verify the validity of the method.

  14. μ Synthesis Method for Robust Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    μ synthesis method for robust control of uncertain nonlinear systems is propored, which is based on feedback linearization. First, nonlinear systems are linearized as controllable linear systems by I/O linearization,such that uncertain nonlinear systems are expressed as the linear fractional transformations (LFTs) on the generalized linearized plants and uncertainty.Then,linear robust controllers are obtained for the LFTs usingμsynthesis method based on H∞ optimization.Finally,the nonlinear robust controllers are constructed by combining the linear robust controllers and the nonlinear feedback.An example is given to illustrate the design.

  15. A Review of Methods for Synthesis of Al Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghorbani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an active area of academic and, more significantly, applied research in nanotechnology. Several methods have been introduced for the synthesis of these materials. The techniques for synthesizing aluminum nanoparticles can be divided into solid-phase, liquid-phase and gas-phase processes. The solid-phase techniques include mechanical ball milling and mechanochemical, the liquid-phase techniques include laser ablation, exploding wire, solution reduction, and decomposition process, whereas the gas-phase processes include gas evaporation, exploding wire, and laser ablation process. This study is an attempt to present an overview of Al nanoparticles preparation by various methods.

  16. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S T G Raghu Kanth

    2008-11-01

    Success of earthquake resistant design practices critically depends on how accurately the future ground motion can be determined at a desired site. But very limited recorded data are available about ground motion in India for engineers to rely upon. To identify the needs of engineers, under such circumstances, in estimating ground motion time histories, this article presents a detailed review of literature on modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion data. In particular, modeling of seismic sources and earth medium, analytical and empirical Green’s functions approaches for ground motion simulation, stochastic models for strong motion and ground motion relations are covered. These models can be used to generate realistic near-field and far-field ground motion in regions lacking strong motion data. Numerical examples are shown for illustration by taking Kutch earthquake-2001 as a case study.

  17. Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji

    2016-01-01

    Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme......, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical...... waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large...

  18. Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji; Yan, Siqi; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-10-17

    Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large dispersion, which are difficult to fabricate on chip. Our scheme is compact and capable for integration with electronics.

  19. DATA SYNTHESIS AND METHOD EVALUATION FOR BRAIN IMAGING GENETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Jinhua; Kim, Sungeun; Yan, Jingwen; Moore, Jason; Saykin, Andrew; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Brain imaging genetics is an emergent research field where the association between genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and neuroimaging quantitative traits (QTs) is evaluated. Sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) is a bi-multivariate analysis method that has the potential to reveal complex multi-SNP-multi-QT associations. We present initial efforts on evaluating a few SCCA methods for brain imaging genetics. This includes a data synthesis method to create...

  20. Modeling of alkynes: synthesis and theoretical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Rosseto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the synthesis and simulation of alkynes derivatives. Semiempirical calculations were carried out for the ground and first excited states, including the spectroscopic properties of the absorption and emission (fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra by INDO/S-CI and DNdM-INDO/S-CI methods with geometries fully optimized by PM3/CI. The fact that the theoretical spectra are in accord with the experimental absorption spectra gives us a new possible approach on how structure modifications could affect the non-linear optical properties of alkynes.

  1. Synthesis, model and stability of helically coiled carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejes, Dora; Raffai, Manuella; Hernadi, Klara

    2013-01-01

    Structural model of helically coiled carbon nanotubes is proposed. It is constructed by means of topological coordinate method. Relaxation and cohesive energy calculation are performed by molecular mechanics, using second-generation bond order potential for hydrocarbons introduced by D. W. Brenner....... Our experiments focused on the production and development of catalysts for the synthesis of helically coiled CNTs (carbon nanotubes). The catalysts were tested in the decomposition of acetylene by CCVD (Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition) method. The carbon deposit was imaged by TEM (Transmission...

  2. New and modified classical methods for the synthesis of quinoxalines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifina, D F; Mamedov, Vakhid A [A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-13

    Published data on the synthesis of quinoxalines are generalized and described systematically; the key attention is given to the sources published in the last 10-15 years. Modifications of the classical synthetic routes and new methods little known to wide circles of chemists are considered.

  3. Origins, Methods and Advances in Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Elizabeth; Melendez-Torres, G. J.; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research is a broad term encompassing many methods. Critiques of the field of qualitative research argue that while individual studies provide rich descriptions and insights, the absence of connections drawn between studies limits their usefulness. In response, qualitative meta-synthesis serves as a design to interpret and synthesise…

  4. Synthesis Method and Absorption Application of Nanocrystalline Alloy Flakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Heng Zhou; Long-Jiang Deng

    2007-01-01

    The soft magnetic FeSiB nanocrystalline/amorphous flakes were fabricated by ball milling from the elemental powders and annealing the amorphous precursor, respectively. The microstructure, magnetic and microwave properties were evaluated by different synthesis methods. By computation, ballmilled Fe78Si13B9 flakes demonstrated potential application in absorption.

  5. Testing and building theories: mixed methods synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Presentation on use of mixed methods in diverse study types, which combines the findings of ‘qualitative’ and ‘quantitative’ studies within a single systematic review, in order to address the same, overlapping or complementary review questions.

  6. Comparison of two synthesis methods for birefringent metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouri, Karim; Lavigne, Guillaume; Caloz, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Birefringent metasurfaces are two-dimensional structures capable of independently controlling the amplitude, phase, and polarization of orthogonally polarized incident waves. In this work, we propose an in-depth discussion on the mathematical synthesis of such metasurfaces. We compare the two methods, one that is rigorous and based on the exact electromagnetic fields involved in the transformation and one that is based on approximate reflection and transmission coefficients. We next validate the synthesis technique in metasurfaces performing the operations of a half- and quarter-wave plates, polarization beam splitting, and orbital angular momentum multiplexing and present the corresponding microwave experimental demonstrations.

  7. Application of variable metric methods to structural synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.; Sugimoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    Powell (1977, 1978), Biggs (1972, 1975), and Han (1976, 1977) have developed a class of variable metric methods which create an explicit, quadratic, subproblem which is to be solved for finding a search direction for design improvement. A one-dimensional search is then performed. The present paper has the objective to present this variable metric approach in the context of structural synthesis. The variable metric algorithm is modified for application to the structural synthesis problem. The application of the new procedure is illustrated with the aid of examples, taking into account a 10-bar planar truss, a 17-bar planar tower, and a cantilever beam.

  8. Methods for synthesis of olefins and derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burk, Mark J.; Pharkya, Priti; Van Dien, Stephen J.; Burgard, Anthony P.; Schilling, Christophe H.

    2016-06-14

    The invention provides a method of producing acrylic acid. The method includes contacting fumaric acid with a sufficient amount of ethylene in the presence of a cross-metathesis transformation catalyst to produce about two moles of acrylic acid per mole of fumaric acid. Also provided is an acrylate ester. The method includes contacting fumarate diester with a sufficient amount of ethylene in the presence of a cross-metathesis transformation catalyst to produce about two moles of acrylate ester per mole of fumarate diester. An integrated process for process for producing acrylic acid or acrylate ester is provided which couples bioproduction of fumaric acid with metathesis transformation. An acrylic acid and an acrylate ester production also is provided.

  9. Synthesis Methods of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Szabó

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The challenge on carbon nanotubes is still the subject of many research groups. While in the first years the focus was on the new synthesis methods, new carbon sources and support materials, recently, the application possibilities are the principal arguments of the studies. The three main synthesis methods discussed in this review are the arc discharge, the laser ablation and the chemical vapour deposition (CVD with a special regard to the latter one. In the early stage of the nanotube production the first two methods were utilized mainly for the production of SWNTs while the third one produced mainly MWNTs. The principle of CVD is the decomposition of various hydrocarbons over transition metal supported catalyst. Single-walled (SWNT, multi-walled (MWNT and coiled carbon nanotubes are produced. In some case, interesting carbonaceous materials are formed during the synthesis process, such as bamboo-like tubes, onions, horn-like structures. In this paper, we refer to the progresses made in the field of the synthesis techniques of carbon nanotubes in the last decade.

  10. On the synthesis of the pilot optimal control model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study continues some work of the authors, this time performing a synthesis of optimal control model of the human pilot in systems with input delay, by removing the Padé or Hess approximations characterizing the pilot structural central nervous block and their introduction as a pure delay block. On the one hand, the method ensures a better accuracy of synthesis and on the other hand is advantageous with respect to general results to date for time delay systems since: a the optimal control law is given explicitly and b the Riccati equations for the gain matrices do not contain any time advanced or delayed arguments. The approach is stimulated by recent works of M. Basin and his collaborators.

  11. Nanosilicon properties, synthesis, applications, methods of analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Ischenko, Anatoly A; Aslalnov, Leonid A

    2015-01-01

    Nanosilicon: Properties, Synthesis, Applications, Methods of Analysis and Control examines the latest developments on the physics and chemistry of nanosilicon. The book focuses on methods for producing nanosilicon, its electronic and optical properties, research methods to characterize its spectral and structural properties, and its possible applications. The first part of the book covers the basic properties of semiconductors, including causes of the size dependence of the properties, structural and electronic properties, and physical characteristics of the various forms of silicon. It presents theoretical and experimental research results as well as examples of porous silicon and quantum dots. The second part discusses the synthesis of nanosilicon, modification of the surface of nanoparticles, and properties of the resulting particles. The authors give special attention to the photoluminescence of silicon nanoparticles. The third part describes methods used for studying and controlling the structure and pro...

  12. Rf-inhomogeneity compensation using method of Fourier synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaneja, Navin

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for design of composite pulses that are robust to rf-amplitude (rf-inhomogeneity). We call this, the method of Fourier synthesis. The method is general enough to design excitation, inversion, refocusing or arbitary flip angle pulses that are robust to rf-amplitude. The method can be tailored to have amplitude selective excitation. We experimentally show rf-compensation over a order of magnitude (20 db) variation in rf-amplitude. The method is expected to find use in invivo NMR studies using surface coils, where there is large dispersion in rf-amplitude over the sample.

  13. Bio-inspired evolutionary oral tract shape modeling for physical modeling vocal synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M; Tyrrell, Andy M; Murphy, Damian T; Cooper, Crispin; Mullen, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Physical modeling using digital waveguide mesh (DWM) models is an audio synthesis method that has been shown to produce an acoustic output in music synthesis applications that is often described as being "organic," "warm," or "intimate." This paper describes work that takes its inspiration from physical modeling music synthesis and applies it to speech synthesis through a physical modeling mesh model of the human oral tract. Oral tract shapes are found using a computational technique based on the principles of biological evolution. Essential to successful speech synthesis using this method is accurate measurements of the cross-sectional area of the human oral tract, and these are usually derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, such images are nonideal, because of the lengthy exposure time (relative to the time of articulation of speech sounds) required, the local ambient acoustic noise associated with the MRI machine itself and the required supine position for the subject. An alternative method is described where a bio-inspired computing technique that simulates the process of evolution is used to evolve oral tract shapes. This technique is able to produce appropriate oral tract shapes for open vowels using acoustic and excitation data from two adult males and two adult females, but shapes for close vowels that are less appropriate. This technique has none of the drawbacks associated with MRI, because all it requires from the subject is an acoustic and electrolaryngograph (or electroglottograph) recording. Appropriate oral tract shapes do enable the model to produce excellent quality synthetic speech for vowel sounds, and sounds that involve dynamic oral tract shape changes, such as diphthongs, can also be synthesized using an impedance mapped technique. Efforts to improve performance by reducing mesh quantization for close vowels had little effect, and further work is required.

  14. Total Synthesis of Phakellistatin 13 by Solution Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Feng JIANG; You Jun ZHOU; Jian Zhong YAO; Jia Guo LU; Ju ZHU; Chun Quan SHENG; Can Hui ZHENG; Bing YAO

    2006-01-01

    Phakellistatin 13 is a good antitumor lead compound isolated from halobios. It was synthesized first time by solution method in combination of stepwise coupling and segment condensation. Final deprotection and cyclization were achieved according to our designed method, which was different from the reported process. The spectral data of synthetic product is consisted with literatureal data of natural product. Total synthesis of phakellistatin 13 is a significant achievement to further study of its derivatives and developing novel antitumor drugs.

  15. A new approximation method for stress constraints in structural synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplaats, Garret N.; Salajegheh, Eysa

    1987-01-01

    A new approximation method for dealing with stress constraints in structural synthesis is presented. The finite element nodal forces are approximated and these are used to create an explicit, but often nonlinear, approximation to the original problem. The principal motivation is to create the best approximation possible, in order to reduce the number of detailed finite element analyses needed to reach the optimum. Examples are offered and compared with published results, to demonstrate the efficiency and reliability of the proposed method.

  16. Asymmetric organocatalytic methods for the synthesis of tetrahydropyrans and their application in total synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetica, Fabrizio; Chauhan, Pankaj; Dochain, Simon; Enders, Dieter

    2017-03-21

    Recent advancement in the area of asymmetric organocatalysis led to the development of new methodologies for the construction of valuable enantiopure molecules, including various heterocycles. As one of the latter class of compounds tetrahydropyrans (THPs) constitute a core structure of a wide array of bioactive natural products. A noticeable growth has been observed in the asymmetric synthesis of THPs using small organic molecules as catalysts. This Tutorial Review describes the organocatalytic methods available to furnish THPs as well as the application of these methodologies in the total synthesis of THP-based natural products.

  17. Modeling consonant-vowel coarticulation for articulatory speech synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Birkholz

    Full Text Available A central challenge for articulatory speech synthesis is the simulation of realistic articulatory movements, which is critical for the generation of highly natural and intelligible speech. This includes modeling coarticulation, i.e., the context-dependent variation of the articulatory and acoustic realization of phonemes, especially of consonants. Here we propose a method to simulate the context-sensitive articulation of consonants in consonant-vowel syllables. To achieve this, the vocal tract target shape of a consonant in the context of a given vowel is derived as the weighted average of three measured and acoustically-optimized reference vocal tract shapes for that consonant in the context of the corner vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/. The weights are determined by mapping the target shape of the given context vowel into the vowel subspace spanned by the corner vowels. The model was applied for the synthesis of consonant-vowel syllables with the consonants /b/, /d/, /g/, /l/, /r/, /m/, /n/ in all combinations with the eight long German vowels. In a perception test, the mean recognition rate for the consonants in the isolated syllables was 82.4%. This demonstrates the potential of the approach for highly intelligible articulatory speech synthesis.

  18. Multibeam Antennas Array Pattern Synthesis Using a Variational Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Bendimerad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new method is described for multibeam antennas synthesis where both the amplitude and phase of each radiating element is a design variable. The developed optimization method made possible to solve the synthesis problem and to answer all the constraints imposed by the radiation pattern. Two approaches for visualizing satellite antenna radiation patterns are presented. Gain-level contours drawn over a geographical map gives clearest qualitative information. A three-dimensional (3D surface plot displays the qualitative shape of the radiation pattern more naturally. The simulations results have shown power, precision and speed of the variational method with respect to the constraints imposed on radiation pattern of the of multibeam antennas network.

  19. Method for synthesis of high quality graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzara, Alessandra [Piedmont, CA; Schmid, Andreas K [Berkeley, CA; Yu, Xiaozhu [Berkeley, CA; Hwang, Choonkyu [Albany, CA; Kohl, Annemarie [Beneditkbeuern, DE; Jozwiak, Chris M [Oakland, CA

    2012-03-27

    A method is described herein for the providing of high quality graphene layers on silicon carbide wafers in a thermal process. With two wafers facing each other in close proximity, in a first vacuum heating stage, while maintained at a vacuum of around 10.sup.-6 Torr, the wafer temperature is raised to about 1500.degree. C., whereby silicon evaporates from the wafer leaving a carbon rich surface, the evaporated silicon trapped in the gap between the wafers, such that the higher vapor pressure of silicon above each of the wafers suppresses further silicon evaporation. As the temperature of the wafers is raised to about 1530.degree. C. or more, the carbon atoms self assemble themselves into graphene.

  20. Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesis by Electrochemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin DIGHORE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide nanoparticles were prepared by electrochemical reduction method which is environmental benign. Tetra ethyl ammonium bromide (TEAB, tetra propyl ammonium bromide (TPAB, tetra butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB were used as stabilizing agent in an organic medium viz. tetra hydro furan (THF and acetonitrile (ACN in 4:1 ratio by optimizing current density. The reduction process takes place under atmospheric condition over a period of 2 h. Such nanoparticles were prepared using simple electrolysis cell in which the sacrificial anode was a commercially available copper metal sheet and platinum (inert sheet acted as a cathode. The stabilizers were used to control the size of a nanoparticles. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Visible, FT-IR, XRD, SEM-EDS and TEM analysis techniques.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.7501

  1. Synthesis Methods for Robust Passification and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Atul G.; Joshi, Suresh M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The research effort under this cooperative agreement has been essentially the continuation of the work from previous grants. The ongoing work has primarily focused on developing passivity-based control techniques for Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) systems. During this period, there has been a significant progress made in the area of passivity-based control of LTI systems and some preliminary results have also been obtained for nonlinear systems, as well. The prior work has addressed optimal control design for inherently passive as well as non- passive linear systems. For exploiting the robustness characteristics of passivity-based controllers the passification methodology was developed for LTI systems that are not inherently passive. Various methods of passification were first proposed in and further developed. The robustness of passification was addressed for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems for certain classes of uncertainties using frequency-domain methods. For MIMO systems, a state-space approach using Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI)-based formulation was presented, for passification of non-passive LTI systems. An LMI-based robust passification technique was presented for systems with redundant actuators and sensors. The redundancy in actuators and sensors was used effectively for robust passification using the LMI formulation. The passification was designed to be robust to an interval-type uncertainties in system parameters. The passification techniques were used to design a robust controller for Benchmark Active Control Technology wing under parametric uncertainties. The results on passive nonlinear systems, however, are very limited to date. Our recent work in this area was presented, wherein some stability results were obtained for passive nonlinear systems that are affine in control.

  2. Dynamic analysis of large structures with uncertain parameters based on coupling component mode synthesis and perturbation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sarsri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodological approach to compute the stochastic eigenmodes of large FE models with parameter uncertainties based on coupling of second order perturbation method and component mode synthesis methods. Various component mode synthesis methods are used to optimally reduce the size of the model. The statistical first two moments of dynamic response of the reduced system are obtained by the second order perturbation method. Numerical results illustrating the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed coupled methodological procedures for large FE models with uncertain parameters are presented.

  3. Sound Cross-synthesis and Morphing Using Dictionary-based Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Nick; Sturm, Bob L.

    2011-01-01

    atomic decomposition using scale-time-frequency dictionaries. DBMs naturally provide high-level descriptions of a signal and its content, which can allow for greater control over what is modified and how. Through these models, we can make one signal decomposition influence that of another to create cross......Dictionary-based methods (DBMs) provide rich possibilities for new sound transformations; as the analysis dual to granular synthesis, audio signals are decomposed into `atoms', allowing interesting manipulations. We present various approaches to audio signal cross-synthesis and cross-analysis via...

  4. Boundary flexibility method of component mode synthesis using static Ritz vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, A. A.; Huckelbridge, A. A.

    1990-01-01

    A method of dynamic substructuring is presented which provides for the incorporation of a set of static Ritz vectors, referred to as boundary flexibility vectors, as a replacement and/or supplement to conventional eigenvectors in component mode synthesis. The suggested boundary flexibility Ritz vectors are generated by an extension of Wilson's load-dependent Ritz vector algorithm for transient dynamic analysis. The extended algorithm is not load-dependent, is applicable to both fixed-and free-interface components, and results in a general component mode synthesis model appropriate for any type of dynamic analysis.

  5. Learning strategies: a synthesis and conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattie, John A. C.; Donoghue, Gregory M.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore a model of learning that proposes that various learning strategies are powerful at certain stages in the learning cycle. The model describes three inputs and outcomes (skill, will and thrill), success criteria, three phases of learning (surface, deep and transfer) and an acquiring and consolidation phase within each of the surface and deep phases. A synthesis of 228 meta-analyses led to the identification of the most effective strategies. The results indicate that there is a subset of strategies that are effective, but this effectiveness depends on the phase of the model in which they are implemented. Further, it is best not to run separate sessions on learning strategies but to embed the various strategies within the content of the subject, to be clearer about developing both surface and deep learning, and promoting their associated optimal strategies and to teach the skills of transfer of learning. The article concludes with a discussion of questions raised by the model that need further research.

  6. Low Temperature One-Step Synthesis of Barium Titanate:Thermodynamic Modeling and Experimental Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈志刚; 李世刚; 刘朝文; 张建文; 陈建峰

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic model has been developed to determine the reaction conditions favoring low temperature direct synthesis of barium titanate (BaTiO3). The method utilizes standard-state thermodynamic data for solid and aqueous species and a Debye-Hǔckel coefficients model to represent solution nonideality. The method has been used to generate phase stability diagrams that indicate the ranges of pH and reagent concentrations, for which various species predominate in the system at a given temperature. Also, yield diagrams have been constructed that indicate the concentration, pH and temperature conditions for which different yields of crystalline BaTiO3 can be obtained. The stability and yield diagrams have been used to predict the optimum synthesis conditions (e.g.,reagent concentrations, pH and temperature). Subsequently, these predictions have been experimentally verified.As a result, phase-pure perovskite BaTiO3 has been obtained at temperature ranging from 55 to 85℃ using BaCl2,TiCl4 as a source for Ba and Ti. and NaOH as a orecioitator.

  7. Serotonin synthesis, release and reuptake in terminals: a mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best Janet

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that has been linked to a wide variety of behaviors including feeding and body-weight regulation, social hierarchies, aggression and suicidality, obsessive compulsive disorder, alcoholism, anxiety, and affective disorders. Full understanding of serotonergic systems in the central nervous system involves genomics, neurochemistry, electrophysiology, and behavior. Though associations have been found between functions at these different levels, in most cases the causal mechanisms are unknown. The scientific issues are daunting but important for human health because of the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other pharmacological agents to treat disorders in the serotonergic signaling system. Methods We construct a mathematical model of serotonin synthesis, release, and reuptake in a single serotonergic neuron terminal. The model includes the effects of autoreceptors, the transport of tryptophan into the terminal, and the metabolism of serotonin, as well as the dependence of release on the firing rate. The model is based on real physiology determined experimentally and is compared to experimental data. Results We compare the variations in serotonin and dopamine synthesis due to meals and find that dopamine synthesis is insensitive to the availability of tyrosine but serotonin synthesis is sensitive to the availability of tryptophan. We conduct in silico experiments on the clearance of extracellular serotonin, normally and in the presence of fluoxetine, and compare to experimental data. We study the effects of various polymorphisms in the genes for the serotonin transporter and for tryptophan hydroxylase on synthesis, release, and reuptake. We find that, because of the homeostatic feedback mechanisms of the autoreceptors, the polymorphisms have smaller effects than one expects. We compute the expected steady concentrations of serotonin transporter knockout mice and compare to

  8. Explorative methods in linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2004-01-01

    The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different feat...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression....

  9. Explorative methods in linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2004-01-01

    The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression....

  10. Comparative analysis of different methods for graphene nanoribbon synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragana D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs are thin strips of graphene that have captured the interest of scientists due to their unique structure and promising applications in electronics. This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of morphological properties of graphene nanoribbons synthesized by different methods. Various methods have been reported for graphene nanoribons synthesis. Lithography methods usually include electron-beam (e-beam lithography, atomic force microscopy (AFM lithography, and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM lithography. Sonochemical and chemical methods exist as well, namely chemical vapour deposition (CVD and anisotropic etching. Graphene nanoribbons can also be fabricated from unzipping carbon nanotubes (CNTs. We propose a new highly efficient method for graphene nanoribbons production by gamma irradiation of graphene dispersed in cyclopentanone (CPO. Surface morphology of graphene nanoribbons was visualized with atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that dimensions of graphene nanoribbons are inversely proportional to applied gamma irradiation dose. It was established that the narrowest nanoribbons were 10-20 nm wide and 1 nm high with regular and smooth edges. In comparison to other synthesis methods, dimensions of graphene nanoribbons synthesized by gamma irradiation are slightly larger, but the yield of nanoribbons is much higher. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for structural analysis of graphene nanoribbons. Results of photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed for the first time that synthesized nanoribbons showed photoluminescence in the blue region of visible light in contrast to graphene nanoribbons synthesized by other methods. Based on disclosed facts, we believe that our synthesis method has good prospects for potential future mass production of graphene nanoribbons with uniform size, as well as for future investigations of carbon nanomaterials for

  11. Improved Method for Lacosamide Synthesis with Chemoenzymatic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-yuan; XU Li-sheng; LIU Jun-zhong; ZHANG Hong-juan; GAO Ji; LIU Qian; JIAO Qing-cai

    2012-01-01

    Lacosamide was prepared by chemical method coupled with enzymatic method.N-Acetyl-D,L-3-methoxy-alanine,derived from D,L-3-methoxy-alanine,was used in the resolution process catalyzed by immobilized Escherichia coli cells with aminoacylase(EC3.5.1.14) activity.N-Acetyl-D-3-methoxy-alanine and L-3-methoxy-alanine were obtained from the resolution system.Lacosamide was synthesized by the amidation of N-acetyl-D-3-methoxy-alanine with benzylamine.

  12. Realist synthesis: illustrating the method for implementation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rycroft-Malone Jo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Realist synthesis is an increasingly popular approach to the review and synthesis of evidence, which focuses on understanding the mechanisms by which an intervention works (or not. There are few published examples of realist synthesis. This paper therefore fills a gap by describing, in detail, the process used for a realist review and synthesis to answer the question ‘what interventions and strategies are effective in enabling evidence-informed healthcare?’ The strengths and challenges of conducting realist review are also considered. Methods The realist approach involves identifying underlying causal mechanisms and exploring how they work under what conditions. The stages of this review included: defining the scope of the review (concept mining and framework formulation; searching for and scrutinising the evidence; extracting and synthesising the evidence; and developing the narrative, including hypotheses. Results Based on key terms and concepts related to various interventions to promote evidence-informed healthcare, we developed an outcome-focused theoretical framework. Questions were tailored for each of four theory/intervention areas within the theoretical framework and were used to guide development of a review and data extraction process. The search for literature within our first theory area, change agency, was executed and the screening procedure resulted in inclusion of 52 papers. Using the questions relevant to this theory area, data were extracted by one reviewer and validated by a second reviewer. Synthesis involved organisation of extracted data into evidence tables, theming and formulation of chains of inference, linking between the chains of inference, and hypothesis formulation. The narrative was developed around the hypotheses generated within the change agency theory area. Conclusions Realist synthesis lends itself to the review of complex interventions because it accounts for context as well as

  13. Synthesis of a naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-02

    The objective of this project was the synthesis of one pound of a new naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound for use in coal combustion studies. Since this compound was an unreported compound, this effort also required the development of a synthetic route to this compound (including routes to the unique and unreported intermediates leading to its synthesis).

  14. Application of the Probabilistic Dynamic Synthesis Method to Realistic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Ferri, Aldo A.

    1998-01-01

    The Probabilistic Dynamic Synthesis method is a technique for obtaining the statistics of a desired response engineering quantity for a structure with non-deterministic parameters. The method uses measured data from modal testing of the structure as the input random variables, rather than more "primitive" quantities like geometry or material variation. This modal information is much more comprehensive and easily measured than the "primitive" information. The probabilistic analysis is carried out using either response surface reliability methods or Monte Carlo simulation. In previous work, the feasibility of the PDS method applied to a simple seven degree-of-freedom spring-mass system was verified. In this paper, extensive issues involved with applying the method to a realistic three-substructure system are examined, and free and forced response analyses are performed. The results from using the method are promising, especially when the lack of alternatives for obtaining quantitative output for probabilistic structures is considered.

  15. RF building block modelling : optimization and synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    For circuit designers it is desirable to have relatively simple RF circuit models that do give decent estimation accuracy and provide sufficient understanding of circuits. Chapter 2 in this thesis shows a general weak nonlinearity model that meets these demands. Using a method that is related to har

  16. RF building block modeling: optimization and synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, W.

    2012-01-01

    For circuit designers it is desirable to have relatively simple RF circuit models that do give decent estimation accuracy and provide sufficient understanding of circuits. Chapter 2 in this thesis shows a general weak nonlinearity model that meets these demands. Using a method that is related to

  17. Size Controlled Synthesis of Starch Nanoparticles by a Microemulsion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Fun Chin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controllable particles sizes of starch nanoparticles were synthesized via a precipitation in water-in-oil microemulsion approach. Microemulsion method offers the advantages of ultralow interfacial tension, large interfacial area, and being thermodynamically stable and affords monodispersed nanoparticles. The synthesis parameters such as stirring rates, ratios of oil/cosurfactant, oil phases, cosurfactants, and ratios of water/oil were found to affect the mean particle size of starch nanoparticles. Starch nanoparticles with mean particles sizes of 109 nm were synthesized by direct nanoprecipitation method, whereas by using precipitation in microemulsion approach, starch nanoparticles with smaller mean particles sizes of 83 nm were obtained.

  18. Methods for synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals and thermoelectric compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor); Chen, Gang (Inventor); Poudel, Bed (Inventor); Kumar, Shankar (Inventor); Wang, Wenzhong (Inventor); Dresselhaus, Mildred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for synthesis of IV VI nanostructures, and thermoelectric compositions formed of such structures. In one aspect, the method includes forming a solution of a Group IV reagent, a Group VI reagent and a surfactant. A reducing agent can be added to the solution, and the resultant solution can be maintained at an elevated temperature, e.g., in a range of about 20.degree. C. to about 360.degree. C., for a duration sufficient for generating nanoparticles as binary alloys of the IV VI elements.

  19. A review of time-domain and frequency-domain component mode synthesis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Hurty (1965) has conducted a dynamic analysis of structural systems using component modes. The component mode synthesis (CMS) procedure considered by him represents a form of substructure coupling analysis which is often utilized in structural dynamics. Time-domain CMS methods employing real modes are discussed, taking into account real component modes, normal modes, redundant constraint modes, rigid-body modes, attachment modes, inertia-relief modes, statically-complete interface mode sets, dynamic component mode supersets, component modal models, the coupling of components, and the classification of methods. Attention is also given to the experimental determination of component mode synthesis parameters, time-domain CMS methods for damped systems, and frequency-domain CMS methods for damped systems.

  20. Model-Based Synthesis of Visual Speech Movements from 3D Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Edge

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method for the synthesis of visual speech movements using a hybrid unit selection/model-based approach. Speech lip movements are captured using a 3D stereo face capture system and split up into phonetic units. A dynamic parameterisation of this data is constructed which maintains the relationship between lip shapes and velocities; within this parameterisation a model of how lips move is built and is used in the animation of visual speech movements from speech audio input. The mapping from audio parameters to lip movements is disambiguated by selecting only the most similar stored phonetic units to the target utterance during synthesis. By combining properties of model-based synthesis (e.g., HMMs, neural nets with unit selection we improve the quality of our speech synthesis.

  1. Atomistic Modelling of Si Nanoparticles Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Barcaro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon remains the most important material for electronic technology. Presently, some efforts are focused on the use of Si nanoparticles—not only for saving material, but also for improving the efficiency of optical and electronic devices, for instance, in the case of solar cells coated with a film of Si nanoparticles. The synthesis by a bottom-up approach based on condensation from low temperature plasma is a promising technique for the massive production of such nanoparticles, but the knowledge of the basic processes occurring at the atomistic level is still very limited. In this perspective, numerical simulations can provide fundamental information of the nucleation and growth mechanisms ruling the bottom-up formation of Si nanoclusters. We propose to model the low temperature plasma by classical molecular dynamics by using the reactive force field (ReaxFF proposed by van Duin, which can properly describe bond forming and breaking. In our approach, first-principles quantum calculations are used on a set of small Si clusters in order to collect all the necessary energetic and structural information to optimize the parameters of the reactive force-field for the present application. We describe in detail the procedure used for the determination of the force field and the following molecular dynamics simulations of model systems of Si gas at temperatures in the range 2000–3000 K. The results of the dynamics provide valuable information on nucleation rate, nanoparticle size distribution, and growth rate that are the basic quantities for developing a following mesoscale model.

  2. Peptide Synthesis Method and Solid Support for Use in the Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1994-01-01

    or proteins in a parallel and substantially simultaneous fashion. Preferred embodiments of a solid support for performing the synthesis are prepared from thin polyethylene sheet or film which has been grafted with polystyrene chains in a radical-initiated process in which the polyethylene sheet or film......A method for the solid-phase synthesis of peptides or proteins in high yield and high purity uses a solid support consisting of a functionalized polystyrene-grafted polymer substrate, the grafted polystyrene chains being substantially non-cross-linked and having a chain molecular weight......, not including optional non-reactive substituents, of at least 200,000, preferably in the range of 600,000-1,200,000. Particularly suitable polymer substrates are substrates of a polyolefin such as polyethylene. The method is particularly well-suited to the compartmentalized synthesis of a multitude of peptides...

  3. Modeling and computer simulation of ion beam synthesis of nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, M.

    1999-11-01

    The following topics were dealt with: ion beam synthesis of nanoclusters, kinetic three dimensional lattice Monte Carlo method, Ostwald ripening, redistribution of implanted impurities, buried layer formation, comparisation to experimental results.

  4. Simulation of DME synthesis from coal syngas by kinetics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, H.M.; Lee, S.J.; Yoo, Y.D.; Yun, Y.S.; Kim, H.T. [Ajou University, Suwon (Republic of Korea)

    2009-05-15

    DME (Dimethyl Ether) has emerged as a clean alternative fuel for diesel. In this study it is developed a simulation model through a kinetics model of the ASPEN plus simulator, performed to detect operating characteristics of DME direct synthesis. An overall DME synthesis process is referenced by experimental data of 3 ton/day (TPD) coal gasification pilot plant located at IAE in Korea. Supplying condition of DME synthesis model is equivalently set to 80 N/m{sup 3} of syngas which is derived from a coal gasification plant. In the simulation it is assumed that the overall DME synthesis process proceeds with steady state, vapor-solid reaction with DME catalyst. The physical properties of reactants are governed by Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) EOS in this model. A reaction model of DME synthesis is considered that is applied with the LHHW (Langmuir-Hinshelwood Hougen Watson) equation as an adsorption-desorption model on the surface of the DME catalyst. After adjusting the kinetics of the DME synthesis reaction among reactants with experimental data, the kinetics of the governing reactions inner DME reactor are modified and coupled with the entire DME synthesis reaction. For validating simulation results of the DME synthesis model, the obtained simulation results are compared with experimental results: conversion ratio, DME yield and DME production rate. Then, a sensitivity analysis is performed by effects of operating variables such as pressure, temperature of the reactor, void fraction of catalyst and H{sub 2}/CO ratio of supplied syngas with modified model. According to simulation results, optimum operating conditions of DME reactor are obtained in the range of 265-275{sup o}C and 60 kg/cm{sup 2}. And DME production rate has a maximum value in the range of 1-1.5 of H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the syngas composition.

  5. Electrochemical Method for Ag-PEG Nanoparticles Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Virginia Roldán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present an electrochemical method to successfully prepare silver nanoparticles using only polyethylene glycol as stabilizer and without any other reactive. Here we study the use of the polymeric stabilizer to allow the introduction of a potential tool to reinforce the control of the size and shape of the nanoparticles throughout the synthesis process. The evolution of the reactions was followed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The electrode processes were characterized by cyclic voltammetric measurements and the final product was studied by Atomic Force Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and X-Ray Diffraction. The influences of the current density, polymer length, and concentration media were analyzed.

  6. Method for gesture based modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A computer program based method is described for creating models using gestures. On an input device, such as an electronic whiteboard, a user draws a gesture which is recognized by a computer program and interpreted relative to a predetermined meta-model. Based on the interpretation, an algorithm...... is assigned to the gesture drawn by the user. The executed algorithm may, for example, consist in creating a new model element, modifying an existing model element, or deleting an existing model element....

  7. Global Synthesis Method for the Optimization of Multifeed EBG Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Drouet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel technique for synthesizing a given radiation pattern from an EBG antenna with an array feed. The method determines the optimum sets of input waves and input impedances for the feed ports in order to perform simultaneously the radiation pattern and the impedance matching of all the radiating probes that form the array feed. The method is validated through a numerical design of an EBG antenna excited with four patch antennas. The structure is designed to radiate with a single lobe scanned at =30∘ in the E-plane. The interactions between each patch inside the EBG resonator are characterized with the CST MWS software. The optimum weights and the input impedances which simultaneously perform the objective radiation and the matching of all feeding ports are calculated by the developed global synthesis method. The feed network is designed with the Agilent ADS software in order to perform the specified weights and the impedances matching.

  8. An exploratory study on the driving method of speech synthesis based on the human eye reading imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pei-pei; Liu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    With the development of information technology and artificial intelligence, speech synthesis plays a significant role in the fields of Human-Computer Interaction Techniques. However, the main problem of current speech synthesis techniques is lacking of naturalness and expressiveness so that it is not yet close to the standard of natural language. Another problem is that the human-computer interaction based on the speech synthesis is too monotonous to realize mechanism of user subjective drive. This thesis introduces the historical development of speech synthesis and summarizes the general process of this technique. It is pointed out that prosody generation module is an important part in the process of speech synthesis. On the basis of further research, using eye activity rules when reading to control and drive prosody generation was introduced as a new human-computer interaction method to enrich the synthetic form. In this article, the present situation of speech synthesis technology is reviewed in detail. Based on the premise of eye gaze data extraction, using eye movement signal in real-time driving, a speech synthesis method which can express the real speech rhythm of the speaker is proposed. That is, when reader is watching corpora with its eyes in silent reading, capture the reading information such as the eye gaze duration per prosodic unit, and establish a hierarchical prosodic pattern of duration model to determine the duration parameters of synthesized speech. At last, after the analysis, the feasibility of the above method is verified.

  9. Parameter Estimation of a Plucked String Synthesis Model Using a Genetic Algorithm with Perceptual Fitness Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riionheimo Janne

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a technique for estimating control parameters for a plucked string synthesis model using a genetic algorithm. The model has been intensively used for sound synthesis of various string instruments but the fine tuning of the parameters has been carried out with a semiautomatic method that requires some hand adjustment with human listening. An automated method for extracting the parameters from recorded tones is described in this paper. The calculation of the fitness function utilizes knowledge of the properties of human hearing.

  10. Determination of the parameters of the eclipsing binary system V367 CYG by the light-curve synthesis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antokhina, E. A.; Menchenkova, E. V.

    1990-06-01

    Fresa's (1966) blue light curve of V367 Cyg is analyzed by the synthesis method in the framework of the Roche model and a model with a geometrically thick disk. The new spectroscopic mass ratio q = M2//M1 = 1.57 was used. The fundamental parameters and the absolute dimensions of the system were determined.

  11. Methods of statistical model estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Hilbe, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Methods of Statistical Model Estimation examines the most important and popular methods used to estimate parameters for statistical models and provide informative model summary statistics. Designed for R users, the book is also ideal for anyone wanting to better understand the algorithms used for statistical model fitting. The text presents algorithms for the estimation of a variety of regression procedures using maximum likelihood estimation, iteratively reweighted least squares regression, the EM algorithm, and MCMC sampling. Fully developed, working R code is constructed for each method. Th

  12. Attitude Control Synthesis for Small Satellites Using Gradient Method. Part II Linear Equations, Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian CHELARU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to continue paper [5] which presented the nonlinear equations of the movement for small satellite, this paper presents some aspects regarding the synthesis of the attitude control. Afterthe movement equation linearization, the stability and command matrixes will be established and by using the gradient methods controller we will obtain them. Two attitude control cases will beanalysed: the reaction wheels and the micro thrusters. The results will be used in the project European Space Moon Orbit - ESMO, founded by the European Space Agency in which the POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest is involved.

  13. A direct method for the synthesis of orthogonally protected furyl- and thienyl- amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Alex S; Caron, Laurent; Colgin, Neil; Cobb, Steven L

    2015-04-01

    The synthesis of unnatural amino acids plays a key part in expanding the potential application of peptide-based drugs and in the total synthesis of peptide natural products. Herein, we report a direct method for the synthesis of orthogonally protected 5-membered heteroaromatic amino acids.

  14. System Synthesis in Preliminary Aircraft Design Using Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaurentis, Daniel; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Schrage, Daniel P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper documents an approach to conceptual and early preliminary aircraft design in which system synthesis is achieved using statistical methods, specifically Design of Experiments (DOE) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). These methods are employed in order to more efficiently search the design space for optimum configurations. In particular, a methodology incorporating three uses of these techniques is presented. First, response surface equations are formed which represent aerodynamic analyses, in the form of regression polynomials, which are more sophisticated than generally available in early design stages. Next, a regression equation for an Overall Evaluation Criterion is constructed for the purpose of constrained optimization at the system level. This optimization, though achieved in an innovative way, is still traditional in that it is a point design solution. The methodology put forward here remedies this by introducing uncertainty into the problem, resulting in solutions which are probabilistic in nature. DOE/RSM is used for the third time in this setting. The process is demonstrated through a detailed aero-propulsion optimization of a High Speed Civil Transport. Fundamental goals of the methodology, then, are to introduce higher fidelity disciplinary analyses to the conceptual aircraft synthesis and provide a roadmap for transitioning from point solutions to probabilistic designs (and eventually robust ones).

  15. Model based methods and tools for process systems engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    Process systems engineering (PSE) provides means to solve a wide range of problems in a systematic and efficient manner. This presentation will give a perspective on model based methods and tools needed to solve a wide range of problems in product-process synthesis-design. These methods and tools...... of the framework. The issue of commercial simulators or software providing the necessary features for product-process synthesis-design as opposed to their development by the academic PSE community will also be discussed. An example of a successful collaboration between academia-industry for the development...

  16. Method of Direct Texture Synthesis on Arbitrary Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Li Wu; Chun-Hui Mei; Jiao-Ying Shi

    2004-01-01

    A direct texture synthesis method on arbitrary surfaces is proposed in this paper. The idea is to recursively map triangles on surface to texture space until the surface is completely mapped. First, the surface is simplified and a tangential vector field is created over the simplified mesh. Then, mapping process searches for the most optimal texture coordinates in texture sample for each triangle, and the textures of neighboring triangles are blended on the mesh. All synthesized texture triangles are compressed to an atlas. Finally, the simplified mesh is subdivided to approach the initial surface. The algorithm has several advantages over former methods:it synthesizes texture on surface without local parameterization; it does not need partitioning surface to patches;and it does not need a particular texture sample. The results demonstrate that the new algorithm is applicable to a wide variety of texture samples and any triangulated surfaces.

  17. Peptide synthesis using unprotected peptides through orthogonal coupling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, J P; Lu, Y A; Liu, C F; Shao, J

    1995-01-01

    We describe an approach to the synthesis of peptides from segments bearing no protecting groups through an orthogonal coupling method to capture the acyl segment as a thioester that then undergoes an intramolecular acyl transfer to the amine component with formation of a peptide bond. Two orthogonal coupling methods to give the covalent ester intermediate were achieved by either a thiol-thioester exchange mediated by a trialkylphosphine and an alkylthiol or a thioesterification by C alpha-thiocarboxylic acid reacting with a beta-bromo amino acid. With this approach, unprotected segments ranging from 4 to 37 residues were coupled to aqueous solution to give free peptides up to 54 residues long with high efficiency. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8618926

  18. Chaos and Hyperchaos in a Model of Ribosome Autocatalytic Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Likhoshvai, Vitaly A.; Vladislav V. Kogai; Fadeev, Stanislav I.; Khlebodarova, Tamara M.

    2016-01-01

    Any vital activities of the cell are based on the ribosomes, which not only provide the basic machinery for the synthesis of all proteins necessary for cell functioning during growth and division, but for biogenesis itself. From this point of view, ribosomes are self-replicating and autocatalytic structures. In current work we present an elementary model in which the autocatalytic synthesis of ribosomal RNA and proteins, as well as enzymes ensuring their degradation are described with two mon...

  19. SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF NANOPARTICLES BY A HIGH GRAVITY METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei; Shao; Jianfeng; Chen

    2005-01-01

    Fast chemical reactions involved in nanomaterials synthesis, polymerization, special chemicals production, reactive absorption, etc., are often difficult to control in terms of product quality, process efficiency and production consistency.After a theoretical analysis on such processes based on chemical reaction engineering fundamentals, an idea to intensify micromixing (mixing on the molecular scale) and mass transfer and therefore to control the process ideally was proposed.By experimental investigations of mass transfer and micromixing characteristics in the Rotating Packed Bed (RPB, or "HIGEE" device), we achieved unique intense micromixing. This led us to the invention of using RPB as a reactor for the fabrication of nanoparticles (Chen et al., 2000).RPB consists mainly of a rotating packed rotator inside a stationary casing. The high gravity environment created by the RPB, which could be orders of magnitude larger than gravity, causes aqueous reactants going through the packing to spread or split into micro or nano droplets, threads or thin films, thus markedly intensifying mass transfer and micromixing to the extent of 1 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than that in a conventional packed bed.In 1994, the first RPB reactor was designed to synthesize nanoparticles of CaCO3 through multiphase reaction between Ca(OH)2 slurry and CO2 gas, and nanoparticles of 15~30nm in mean size and with very uniform particle size distribution was obtained. In 1997, a pilot-scale RPB reactor was successfully set up for operation, and in 2000, the first commercial-scale RPB reactor for synthesis of such nanoparticles came into operation in China, establishing a milestone in the use of RPB as a reactor for the fabrication of nanomaterials (Chen et al., 2002).Since then, the high gravity method has been employed for the synthesis of inorganic and organic nanoparticles via gas-liquid, liquid-liquid, and gas-liquid-solid multiphase reactions, e.g. inorganic nanoparticles like

  20. Improvements in Block-Krylov Ritz Vectors and the Boundary Flexibility Method of Component Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Kelly Scott

    1997-01-01

    A method of dynamic substructuring is presented which utilizes a set of static Ritz vectors as a replacement for normal eigenvectors in component mode synthesis. This set of Ritz vectors is generated in a recurrence relationship, proposed by Wilson, which has the form of a block-Krylov subspace. The initial seed to the recurrence algorithm is based upon the boundary flexibility vectors of the component. Improvements have been made in the formulation of the initial seed to the Krylov sequence, through the use of block-filtering. A method to shift the Krylov sequence to create Ritz vectors that will represent the dynamic behavior of the component at target frequencies, the target frequency being determined by the applied forcing functions, has been developed. A method to terminate the Krylov sequence has also been developed. Various orthonormalization schemes have been developed and evaluated, including the Cholesky/QR method. Several auxiliary theorems and proofs which illustrate issues in component mode synthesis and loss of orthogonality in the Krylov sequence have also been presented. The resulting methodology is applicable to both fixed and free- interface boundary components, and results in a general component model appropriate for any type of dynamic analysis. The accuracy is found to be comparable to that of component synthesis based upon normal modes, using fewer generalized coordinates. In addition, the block-Krylov recurrence algorithm is a series of static solutions and so requires significantly less computation than solving the normal eigenspace problem. The requirement for less vectors to form the component, coupled with the lower computational expense of calculating these Ritz vectors, combine to create a method more efficient than traditional component mode synthesis.

  1. The evolution of the protein synthesis system. I - A model of a primitive protein synthesis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, H.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1977-01-01

    A model is developed to describe the evolution of the protein synthesis system. The model is comprised of two independent autocatalytic systems, one including one gene (A-gene) and two activated amino acid polymerases (O and A-polymerases), and the other including the addition of another gene (N-gene) and a nucleotide polymerase. Simulation results have suggested that even a small enzymic activity and polymerase specificity could lead the system to the most accurate protein synthesis, as far as permitted by transitions to systems with higher accuracy.

  2. Robust H-infinity control synthesis method and its application to benchmark problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Liu, Qiang; Byun, Kuk-Whan

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a robust H-infinity control synthesis method for structured parameter uncertainty. The robust H-infinity control design methodology is also incorporated with the so-called internal model principle for persistent-disturbance rejection. A noncollocated control problem of flexible space structures subject to parameter variations is used to illustrate the design methodology. It is shown that the proposed design method invariably makes use of nonminimum-phase compensation and that it achieves the desired asymptotic disturbance rejection by having a disturbance rejection 'dipole'.

  3. Method for innovative synthesis-design of chemical process flowsheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    of chemical processes, where, chemical process flowsheets could be synthesized in the same way as atoms or groups of atoms are synthesized to form molecules in computer aided molecular design (CAMD) techniques [4]. That, from a library of building blocks (functional process-groups) and a set of rules to join......, the implementation of the computer-aided process-group based flowsheet synthesis-design framework is presented together with an extended library of flowsheet property models to predict the environmental impact, safety factors, product recovery and purity, which are employed to screen the generated alternatives. Also...... flowsheet (the well-known Hydrodealkylation of toluene process) and another for a biochemical process flowsheet (production of ethanol from lignocellulose). In both cases, not only the reported designs are found and matched, but also new innovative designs are found, which is possible because...

  4. Analysis and synthesis for interval type-2 fuzzy-model-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongyi; Lam, Hak-Keung; Gao, Yabin

    2016-01-01

    This book develops a set of reference methods capable of modeling uncertainties existing in membership functions, and analyzing and synthesizing the interval type-2 fuzzy systems with desired performances. It also provides numerous simulation results for various examples, which fill certain gaps in this area of research and may serve as benchmark solutions for the readers. Interval type-2 T-S fuzzy models provide a convenient and flexible method for analysis and synthesis of complex nonlinear systems with uncertainties.

  5. A Facile Method for Synthesis of Polygonal Silver Nanopartilces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of nanosized powders and their assembly is of considerable importance to the microelectronics industry because of the pervasive drive to miniaturize components. In this work, silver (Ag) nanoparticls was syntheized. Polygonal silver nanoparticls were synthesized by reacting AgNO3 with hydroquinone, in the presence of poly-(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and an ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluoroborate ([BMIM]·PF6) at ambient temperature. XRD shows that the crystal structure of the nanoparticles is face-centered cubic. TEM measurements display the silver particles with uniform size and narrow particle size distributions. The UV-Vis spectra of the nanoplates distinguish from those of the samples prepared in the absence of PVP and/or ILs. This method is facile and the as-prepared silver nanoparticls are also stable in some solvents, such as ethanol and water.

  6. New method for synthesis of metal carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, R.; Folmer, J.S.; Kodambaka, S.K. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a novel synthesis method using a carbothermic reduction reaction of carbon coated precursors for producing high purity, submicron, non-agglomerated powders of metal carbide, metal nitride and metal boride systems. The authors also want to demonstrate the advantages of the process and provide information on the applicability of the process for synthesizing related advanced ceramic powders (e.g. SiC, WC, TiN, TiB{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). During the FY96 of the project, steps are taken to investigate the reaction mechanisms and phase evolution during the formation of TiC from carbon coated titania precursors and to produce submicron TiC powders with desired stoichiometries. Depending on the carbon content in the coated titania precursor, TiC powder was produced with different stoichiometries (different amount of oxygen and free carbon).

  7. Synthesis of tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide by cell diaphragm electrolytic method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Under the conditions of tetramethyl ammonia chloride (TMAC) used as starting material, Ti-based Dimensionally Stable Anode (DSA), stainless steel used as cathode and Nafion 900 cation membrane as cell diaphragm, this paper studies the synthesis of tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) by cell diaphragm electrolytic method, examining not only the effects of current density, concentration of starting material and cell temperature, on the product purity and current efficiency, but also the effects of electrolyte circulation rate on the service life of Ti-based DSA.The experiment puts forward an optimum processing condition, and experimental findings show that preparing TMAH by using this technique can obtain a current efficiency 74.7 % and get product with a purity greater than 99.9%.

  8. Controlled Synthesis of ZnO Nanostructures by Electrodeposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Jiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a systematic study on the synthesis of various ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition method with ZnCl2 solution as starting reactant. Several reaction parameters were examined to develop an optimal procedure for controlling the size, shape, and surface morphology of the nanostructure. The results showed that the morphology of the products can be carefully controlled through adjusting the concentration of the electrolyte. The products present well-aligned nanorod arrays when the concentration is low. However, they act as anomalous hexangular nanoplates when the concentration of ZnCl2 is higher than 5 mM. Transmission electron microscopy and select area electron diffraction results show that the product presents good crystallinity. A possible formation process has been proposed.

  9. Aperture Synthesis Methods and Applications to Optical Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Swapan Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Over the years long baseline optical interferometry has slowly gained in importance and today it is a powerful tool. This timely book sets out to highlight the basic principles of long baseline optical interferometry. The book addresses the fundamentals of stellar interferometry with emphasis on aperture synthesis using an array of telescopes particularly at optical/IR wavelengths. It discusses the fundamentals of electromagnetic fields, wave optics, interference, diffraction, and imaging at length. There is a chapter dedicated to radio and intensity interferometry corroborating with basic mathematical steps. The basic principle of optical interferometry and its requirements, its limitations and the technical challenges it poses, are also covered in depth. Assisted by illustrations and footnotes, the book examines the basic tricks of the trade, current trends and methods, and it points to the potential of true interferometry both from the ground and space.

  10. Implementation of the block-Krylov boundary flexibility method of component synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Kelly S.; Abdallah, Ayman A.; Hucklebridge, Arthur A.

    1993-01-01

    A method of dynamic substructuring is presented which utilizes a set of static Ritz vectors as a replacement for normal eigenvectors in component mode synthesis. This set of Ritz vectors is generated in a recurrence relationship, which has the form of a block-Krylov subspace. The initial seed to the recurrence algorithm is based on the boundary flexibility vectors of the component. This algorithm is not load-dependent, is applicable to both fixed and free-interface boundary components, and results in a general component model appropriate for any type of dynamic analysis. This methodology was implemented in the MSC/NASTRAN normal modes solution sequence using DMAP. The accuracy is found to be comparable to that of component synthesis based upon normal modes. The block-Krylov recurrence algorithm is a series of static solutions and so requires significantly less computation than solving the normal eigenspace problem.

  11. Mask synthesis and verification based on geometric model for surface micro-machined MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-hua; LIU Yu-sheng; GAO Shu-ming

    2005-01-01

    Traditional MEMS (microelectromechanical system) design methodology is not a structured method and has become an obstacle for MEMS creative design. In this paper, a novel method of mask synthesis and verification for surface micro-machined MEMS is proposed, which is based on the geometric model of a MEMS device. The emphasis is focused on synthesizing the masks at the basis of the layer model generated from the geometric model of the MEMS device. The method is comprised of several steps: the correction of the layer model, the generation of initial masks and final masks including multi-layer etch masks, and mask simulation. Finally some test results are given.

  12. New synthesis method for the growth of epitaxial graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, X.Z. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Laboratory of Condensed Matter Spectroscopy and Opto-Electronic Physics, Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Hwang, C.G.; Jozwiak, C.M.; Koehl, A. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schmid, A.K. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94709 (United States); Lanzara, A., E-mail: ALanzara@lbl.gov [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} We report a new straightforward method for the synthesis of micrometer scale graphene sheets. {yields} The process is based on a face to face mehtod in which two SiC substrates are placed one on top of the other and are heated simultaneously, leading to highly homogeneous samples. {yields} The number of graphene layers is determined by the annealing temperature. - Abstract: As a viable candidate for an all-carbon post-CMOS electronics revolution, epitaxial graphene has attracted significant attention. To realize its application potential, reliable methods for fabricating large-area single-crystalline graphene domains are required. A new way to synthesize high quality epitaxial graphene, namely 'face-to-face' method, has been reported in this paper. The structure and morphologies of the samples are characterized by low-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The grown samples show better quality and larger length scales than samples grown through conventional thermal desorption. Moreover, the graphene thickness can be easily controlled by changing annealing temperature.

  13. Variational methods in molecular modeling

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book presents tutorial overviews for many applications of variational methods to molecular modeling. Topics discussed include the Gibbs-Bogoliubov-Feynman variational principle, square-gradient models, classical density functional theories, self-consistent-field theories, phase-field methods, Ginzburg-Landau and Helfrich-type phenomenological models, dynamical density functional theory, and variational Monte Carlo methods. Illustrative examples are given to facilitate understanding of the basic concepts and quantitative prediction of the properties and rich behavior of diverse many-body systems ranging from inhomogeneous fluids, electrolytes and ionic liquids in micropores, colloidal dispersions, liquid crystals, polymer blends, lipid membranes, microemulsions, magnetic materials and high-temperature superconductors. All chapters are written by leading experts in the field and illustrated with tutorial examples for their practical applications to specific subjects. With emphasis placed on physical unders...

  14. Coupling Neumann development and component mode synthesis methods for stochastic analysis of random structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Sarsri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the first two moments (mean and variance of the structural dynamics response of a structure with uncertain variables and subjected to random excitation. For this, Newmark method is used to transform the equation of motion of the structure into a quasistatic equilibrium equation in the time domain. The Neumann development method was coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the statistical values of the random response. The use of modal synthesis methods can reduce the dimensions of the model before integration of the equation of motion. Numerical applications have been developed to highlight effectiveness of the method developed to analyze the stochastic response of large structures.

  15. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of nanocrystalline zinc oxide: Experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, Mongia [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Farhat, Samir, E-mail: farhat@lspm.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Schoenstein, Frederic; Karmous, Farah; Jouini, Noureddine [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Viana, Bruno [LCMCP Chimie-Paristech, UPMC, Collège de France, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Mgaidi, Arbi [Laboratoire de chimie minérale industrielle université Tunis el Manar (Tunisia)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • ZnO nanospheres and nanowires were grown using ultrasound and thermal activation techniques. • The growth uses forced hydrolysis of zinc acetate in diethylene glycol (DEG). • A thermochemical model was developed based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. • We estimate species distribution in the bubble in temperature range from 5000 K to ambient. • We propose a new mechanism for ZnO growth assisted by ultrasound irradiation. - Abstract: A fast and green approach is proposed for the preparation of nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) via ultrasonic (US) irradiation in polyol medium. The process uses forced hydrolysis of zinc acetate in diethylene glycol (DEG). The protocol is compared to thermal activation under the same chemical environment. The activation method is found to be playing a critical role in the selective synthesis of morphologically distinct nanostructures. As compared to thermally activated conventional polyol process, (US) permits to considerably reduce reaction time as well as size of particles. In addition, the shape of these nanoparticles was changed from long nanowires to small nanospheres, indicating different reaction mechanisms. To explain this difference, a thermochemical model was developed based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The model estimate species distribution in the bubble in temperature range from 5000 K to ambient simulating quenching process during bubble formation and collapse. Our results indicate the presence of high density of zinc atoms that could be responsible of a high density of nucleation as compared to thermal activation.

  16. Powers synthesis of array antennas using the continuation method on far field phase distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, G.; Gerini, G.

    2002-01-01

    We present a technique, based on the continuation method, to face power synthesis problems for array antennas. By using the least squares method (LSM), the power synthesis problem reduces to the minimization of an objective functional, which represents the square of the distance between the required

  17. An Expedient Method for the Synthesis of Thiosemicarbazones under Microwave Irradiation in Solvent-free Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Jian-Ping; ZHENG, Peng-Zhi; ZHU, Jun-Ge; LIU, Rui-Jie; QU, Gui-Rong

    2006-01-01

    A simple, efficient and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of thiosemicarbazones from thiosemicarbazides and aldehyde under microwave irradiation has been reported, and no solvent and catalyst were used. And the technique of microwave irradiation coupled with solvent-free condition proved to be a quite valuable method in the organic synthesis.

  18. Tuning of PID controllers for integrating systems using direct synthesis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Ch; Padma Sree, R

    2015-07-01

    A PID controller is designed for various forms of integrating systems with time delay using direct synthesis method. The method is based on comparing the characteristic equation of the integrating system and PID controller with a filter with the desired characteristic equation. The desired characteristic equation comprises of multiple poles which are placed at the same desired location. The tuning parameter is adjusted so as to achieve the desired robustness. Tuning rules in terms of process parameters are given for various forms of integrating systems. The tuning parameter can be selected for the desired robustness by specifying Ms value. The proposed controller design method is applied to various transfer function models and to the nonlinear model equations of jacketed CSTR to show its effectiveness and applicability.

  19. Synthesis of unknowns for the interface partial current method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatuff, F.E. [Investigacion Aplicada SE (INVAP), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    1996-01-01

    A synthesis technique is formulated as an alternative for the standard solution of the low order Interface Partial Current Equations, common in the within-group iteration schemes of Nodal Expansion and Response Matrix methods. This non-linear technique represents each node (mesh) in the iterations by its total partial in-current (j{sup in}), instead of the K partial in-currents at the nodal faces. At the same time, the distribution vector f is introduced, whose elements are the fractions of j{sup in} entering through each face, which are assumed known from the previous fission-source iteration. This simple scheme, with no other non-linear feedback required, gives a nodal formulation of the inner problem with one unknown per node and energy group, while the problem still retains the original number of unknowns. The method has been tested on the IAEA-2D and -3D, and a 2D pressurized water reactor (Biblis) benchmarks. The results show savings of about 15% to 25% of the CPU time, identical convergence despite the irregular nodal discretizations, and compatability to the rest of the iteration strategy. (author).

  20. Methods of Synthesis of Automatic Control Systems with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksandr Lapeta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the procedure for introduction of systems containing delay elements. Shortcomings and difficulties in the synthesis of regulators and precompensators of control systems with delays in output and control channel where determined. The author focused on two approaches for the formation of promatrix and synthesis of control systems, considering the factor of delay.

  1. Attitude Control Synthesis for Small Satellites Using Gradient Method. Part I - Nonlinear Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor-Viorel CHELARU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects for synthesis of small satellites attitude control. Thesatellite nonlinear model presented here will be with six degrees of freedom. After movement equationlinearization the stability and command matrixes will be established and the controller will beobtained using gradient and gradient method. Two attitude control cases will be analysed: thereaction wheels and the micro thrusters. The results will be used in the project European Space MoonOrbit - ESMO founded by European Space Agency in which the University POLITEHNICA ofBucharest is involved.

  2. Modeling and simulation of tube-shell reactor for dimethyl-ether synthesis from coal-based synthesis gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Da-sheng; ZHANG Hai-tao; YING Wei-yong; FANG Ding-ye

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical simulation was performed on tube-shell reactor for dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis from coal-based syngas. The model was established based on kinetics of dimethyl-ether synthesis from syngas over a bifunctional catalyst,which is mixed by methanol synthesis catalyst and dehydration catalyst as 1:1 mass ratio. Methanol synthesis from CO and CO2 and methanol dehydration were selected as three-independent reactions, CO, CO2, and DME as key components to establish the one-dimensional mathematical model of the reactor. The gas concentration and temperature profiles inside the reactor tubes were obtained. The operating conditions affecting DME synthesis were also discussed based on the model. The simulations indicate that higher pressure and lower temperature at the inlet and rich hydrogen in the reactant are favorable in direct DME synthesis in fixed-bed process, and the temperature of boiling water affect the reactor performance seriously.

  3. Evolutionary Population Synthesis Models of Primeval Galaxies a Critical Appraisal

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzoni, A

    1997-01-01

    A theoretical approach relying on evolutionary population synthesis models could help refining the search criteria in deep galaxy surveys on the basis of a better knowledge of the expected apparent photometric properties of high-redshift objects. The following is a brief discussion reviewing some relevant aspects of the question in order to allow a more critical appraisal to primeval galaxy recognition.

  4. Multi-line split DNA synthesis: a novel combinatorial method to make high quality peptide libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno Shingo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed a method to make a various high quality random peptide libraries for evolutionary protein engineering based on a combinatorial DNA synthesis. Results A split synthesis in codon units was performed with mixtures of bases optimally designed by using a Genetic Algorithm program. It required only standard DNA synthetic reagents and standard DNA synthesizers in three lines. This multi-line split DNA synthesis (MLSDS is simply realized by adding a mix-and-split process to normal DNA synthesis protocol. Superiority of MLSDS method over other methods was shown. We demonstrated the synthesis of oligonucleotide libraries with 1016 diversity, and the construction of a library with random sequence coding 120 amino acids containing few stop codons. Conclusions Owing to the flexibility of the MLSDS method, it will be able to design various "rational" libraries by using bioinformatics databases.

  5. Modelling binary rotating stars by new population synthesis code BONNFIRES

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Herbert H B; Schneider, Fabian R N

    2013-01-01

    BONNFIRES, a new generation of population synthesis code, can calculate nuclear reaction, various mixing processes and binary interaction in a timely fashion. We use this new population synthesis code to study the interplay between binary mass transfer and rotation. We aim to compare theoretical models with observations, in particular the surface nitrogen abundance and rotational velocity. Preliminary results show binary interactions may explain the formation of nitrogen-rich slow rotators and nitrogen-poor fast rotators, but more work needs to be done to estimate whether the observed frequencies of those stars can be matched.

  6. Type Synthesis, Modelling and Analysis of the Manipulator for Wheel-Legged Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szrek Jarosław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the concept of wheel-legged mobile manipulator, which is a combination of mobile platform with specially selected suspension system and a manipulator. First, a literature review was performed and own solution proposed. The kinematic structure of manipulator, selected simulation results, physical model and the concept of the control system has been presented. Geometry synthesis was used to design basic dimension. Structural synthesis was performed according to the intermediate chain method. Simulations were performed using the multibody dynamics simulation software. New approach in the field of the mobile manipulators was presented as a result.

  7. Design and manufacturing interface modelling for manufacturing processes selection and knowledge synthesis in design

    OpenAIRE

    SKANDER, Achraf; Roucoules, Lionel; KLEIN MEYER, Jean-Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    This research is part of the regional French project IFP2R : " Manufacturing constraints integration in rapid prototyped part design " with IFTS (Higher Technical Formation Institute of Charleville Mézières- France).; The research results presented in this paper are related to the specification of a method and models that tackle the problem of manufacturing processes selection and the integration, as soon as possible, of their constraints in the product modelling (i.e. information synthesis)....

  8. Method and apparatus for spur-reduced digital sinusoid synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, George A. (Inventor); Flanagan, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A technique for reducing the spurious signal content in digital sinusoid synthesis is presented. Spur reduction is accomplished through dithering both amplitude and phase values prior to word-length reduction. The analytical approach developed for analog quantization is used to produce new bounds on spur performance in these dithered systems. Amplitude dithering allows output word-length reduction without introducing additional spurs. Effects of periodic dither similar to that produced by a pseudo-noise (PN) generator are analyzed. This phase dithering method provides a spur reduction of 6(M + 1) dB per phase bit when the dither consists of M uniform variates. While the spur reduction is at the expense of an increase in system noise, the noise power can be made white, making the power spectral density small. This technique permits the use of a smaller number of phase bits addressing sinusoid look-up tables, resulting in an exponential decrease in system complexity. Amplitude dithering allows the use of less complicated multipliers and narrower data paths in purely digital applications, as well as the use of coarse-resolution, highly-linear digital-to-analog converters (DAC's) to obtain spur performance limited by the DAC linearity rather than its resolution.

  9. Semi-empirical analysis of SDSS galaxies: I. Spectral synthesis method

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, R C; Sodré, L; Stasinska, G; Gomes, J M

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the power of spectral synthesis as a mean to estimate physical properties of galaxies. Spectral synthesis is nothing more than the decomposition of an observed spectrum in terms of a superposition of a base of simple stellar populations of various ages and metallicities, producing as output the star-formation and chemical histories of a galaxy, its extinction and velocity dispersion. Our implementation of this method uses the Bruzual & Charlot (2003) models and observed spectra in the 3650--8000 \\AA range. The reliability of this approach is studied by three different means: (1) simulations, (2) comparison with previous work based on a different technique, and (3) analysis of the consistency of results obtained for a sample of galaxies from the SDSS. We find that spectral synthesis provides reliable physical parameters as long as one does not attempt a very detailed description of the star-formation and chemical histories. We show that besides providing excellent fits to obser...

  10. Synthesis of 3D Model of a Magnetic Field-Influenced Body from a Single Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuilan; Newman, Timothy; Gallagher, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A method for recovery of a 3D model of a cloud-like structure that is in motion and deforming but approximately governed by magnetic field properties is described. The method allows recovery of the model from a single intensity image in which the structure's silhouette can be observed. The method exploits envelope theory and a magnetic field model. Given one intensity image and the segmented silhouette in the image, the method proceeds without human intervention to produce the 3D model. In addition to allowing 3D model synthesis, the method's capability to yield a very compact description offers further utility. Application of the method to several real-world images is demonstrated.

  11. Novel Method for Optimal Synthesis of 5G Millimeter Wave Linear Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarko Rosic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We will propose a useful method for 5G mm wave antenna array synthesis, based on Genetic Algorithm for the synthesis of linear array with nonuniform interelement spacing. Our design method was used to obtain the optimal position of the elements in order to get the minimum side lobe level and nulls in desired directions. The simulation results verify that proposed method outperforms the previously published methods in terms of suppression side lobe level while maintaining nulls in specified directions. The flexibility of proposed algorithm shows good potential for the antenna array synthesis.

  12. Modeling of a Reverse Flow Reactor for Methanol Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓春; P.L.Silveston; 等

    2003-01-01

    An accurate one-dimensional,heterogeneous model taking account of axial dispersion and heat transfer to the reactor wall,and heat conduction through the reactor wall for methanol synthesis in a bench scale reactor under periodic reversal of flow direction is presented.Adjustable parameters in this model are the effectiveness factors for each of the three reactions occurring in the synthesis and a factor for the bed to wall heat transfer coefficient correlation.Experimental data were used to evaluate these parameters and reasonable values of these parameters were obtained.The model was found to closely predict the reactor performance under a wide range of parameters were obtained.The model was found to closely predict the reactor preformance under a wide range of operating conditions,such as carbon oxide concentrations,volumetric flow rate,and cyclic period.

  13. An Improved, Highly Efficient Method for the Synthesis of Bisphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of bisphenols is described by condensation of substituted phenols with corresponding cyclic ketones in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride and 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a catalyst in extremely high purity and yields.

  14. Synthesis of Poly(L-lactide) via Solvothermal Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fang, Ling; Qi, Rongrong; Liu, Linbo; Juan, Gongwen; Huang, Suangwu

    2009-01-01

    ... ) was used as the catalyst for the polymerization reaction. The focus of this paper was on the effect of solvents, catalyst usage, temperature, time, and antioxidants on the ring-opening reaction in the solvothermal synthesis...

  15. A MODEL AND CONTROLLER REDUCTION METHOD FOR ROBUST CONTROL DESIGN.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    YUE,M.; SCHLUETER,R.

    2003-10-20

    A bifurcation subsystem based model and controller reduction approach is presented. Using this approach a robust {micro}-synthesis SVC control is designed for interarea oscillation and voltage control based on a small reduced order bifurcation subsystem model of the full system. The control synthesis problem is posed by structured uncertainty modeling and control configuration formulation using the bifurcation subsystem knowledge of the nature of the interarea oscillation caused by a specific uncertainty parameter. Bifurcation subsystem method plays a key role in this paper because it provides (1) a bifurcation parameter for uncertainty modeling; (2) a criterion to reduce the order of the resulting MSVC control; and (3) a low order model for a bifurcation subsystem based SVC (BMSVC) design. The use of the model of the bifurcation subsystem to produce a low order controller simplifies the control design and reduces the computation efforts so significantly that the robust {micro}-synthesis control can be applied to large system where the computation makes robust control design impractical. The RGA analysis and time simulation show that the reduced BMSVC control design captures the center manifold dynamics and uncertainty structure of the full system model and is capable of stabilizing the full system and achieving satisfactory control performance.

  16. SYNTHESIS METHODOLOGY FOR ACTIVE ELEMENT USING IMPEDANCES –BASED BOND GRAPH METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasta TANASESCU

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a synthesis methodology for active elements within systems that uses frequency response function as a basis for describing required behavior. The method is applicable in the design of a new system or in the retrofit of an existing system in which an active element is required or desired. The two basis principles of bond graph modeling are the “reticulation principle” which decomposes a physical into elemental physical laws represented as network elements interacting through ports and the “power postulate” which assembles the complete model through a network of power flows representing the exchange of energy between the elements. Moreover the bond graph model leads to a rigorous definitions of the structure of the associated dynamical equations.

  17. Doping and synthesis method effect on zirconium silicate conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monrós, G.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The colour mechanisms of blue V- ZrSiO4 and yellow Pr- ZrSiO4 ceramic pigments which strongly depend on both fluorine addition and synthesis method, are still controversial. Complex impedance has been used as a useful tool to differentiate the materials as a function of the synthesis method, microstructure and observed colour, going deeply into the resolution of controversies about the nature of colours. Representative samples of these doping pigmenting systems prepared by both classical ceramic process and sol-gel method have been studied by complex impedance analysis. Vanadium doped zircon enhances resistivity and activation energy compared to undoped zircon powder and turkish blue vanadium-zircon obtained by addition of NaF shows the highest bulk resistivity. Activation energy and conductivity decrease for Praseodymium doped zircon compared to undoped zircon. This feature is in agreement with the presence of cationic vacancies on green vanadiumzircon samples due to V4+ and V5+ coexistence and praseodymium oxide inclusions on Pr- ZrSiO4 yellow pigment.

    El mecanismo del color en el azul de los pigmentos cerámicos V- ZrSiO4 y amarillo de Pr- ZrSiO4 cuyos tinos dependen mucho de la presencia de fluoruros así como del método de preparación esta controvertido en la literatura. La impedancia compleja se ha utilizado como una herramienta útil para diferenciar los materiales en función del método de síntesis, la microestructura y el color con el fin de profundizar en la resolución de las controversias. Se han preparado muestras representativas de ambos sistemas dopados mediante diferentes métodos de síntesis cerámico y sol-gel que se han estudiado por análisis de impedancia compleja. El circón dopado con vanadio aumenta su resistividad y sus energía de activación con referencia a la muestra no dopada y la muestra turquesa obtenida por adición de NaF presenta la mayor resistividad. Las muestras dopadas con praseodimio disminuyen

  18. Non-classical method of modelling of vibrating mechatronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, K.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents non-classical method of modelling of mechatronic systems by using polar graphs. The use of such a method enables the analysis and synthesis of mechatronic systems irrespective of the type and number of the elements of such a system. The method id connected with algebra of structural numbers. The purpose of this paper is also introduces synthesis of mechatronic system which is the reverse task of dynamics. The result of synthesis is obtaining system meeting the defined requirements. This approach is understood as design of mechatronic systems. The synthesis may also be applied to modify the already existing systems in order to achieve a desired result. The system was consisted from mechanical and electrical elements. Electrical elements were used as subsystem reducing unwanted vibration of mechanical system. The majority of vibration occurring in devices and machines is harmful and has a disadvantageous effect on their condition. Harmful impact of vibration is caused by the occurrence of increased stresses and the loss of energy, which results in faster wear machinery. Vibration, particularly low-frequency vibration, also has a negative influence on the human organism. For this reason many scientists in various research centres conduct research aimed at the reduction or total elimination of vibration.

  19. Bioactive Thiazine and Benzothiazine Derivatives: Green Synthesis Methods and Their Medicinal Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Lal Badshah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thiazines are a group of heterocyclic organic compounds that are still largely unexplored for their pharmacological activities. There are different available methods for the synthesis of thiazine derivatives in the literature. In this review, we discuss available methods of thiazine preparation through green synthesis methods. Beside their synthesis, many thiazine derivatives are biologically active and play an important role in the treatment of various diseases and show promising results of varying degrees, where they act as antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, antimalarial, antineoplastic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticancer agents and thus they represent an interesting class of heterocyclic medicinal compounds worthy of further exploration.

  20. Method for the rapid synthesis of large quantities of metal oxide nanowires at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar (Louisville, KY); Vaddiraju, Sreeram (Mountain View, CA); Mozetic, Miran (Ljubljan, SI); Cvelbar, Uros (Idrija, SI)

    2009-09-22

    A process for the rapid synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles at low temperatures and methods which facilitate the fabrication of long metal oxide nanowires. The method is based on treatment of metals with oxygen plasma. Using oxygen plasma at low temperatures allows for rapid growth unlike other synthesis methods where nanomaterials take a long time to grow. Density of neutral oxygen atoms in plasma is a controlling factor for the yield of nanowires. The oxygen atom density window differs for different materials. By selecting the optimal oxygen atom density for various materials the yield can be maximized for nanowire synthesis of the metal.

  1. Text-in-context: a method for extracting findings in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. The data extraction challenges described here were encountered, and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011-2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. PETRA. The Forecast Model. Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The aim of the PETRA project was to develop a model that could recreate the main aspects involved in the demand for travel. The attainment of this objective requires that the model system should retain a high degree of detail and be based on disaggregate models. This was both to ensure an accurate representation of the underlying behavioural intentions, and allow analysis of the underlying travel demand and related aspects across a number of dimensions. This has been achieved in all main respects. The model system is capable of close reproduction of the observed behaviour and generally responds as expected to changes, exhibiting consistent and plausible reactions. The dis-aggregation of the forecast population, according to the various criteria, allows the model to clearly illustrates the behavioural differences between different population segments. Thus, it seems reasonable to conclude that PETRA is capable of detailed analyses of the distributional and behavioural effects of policy changes. (au) EFP-94. 20 refs.

  3. Polarisation Spectral Synthesis For Type Ia Supernova Explosion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Mattia

    2017-02-01

    Despite their relevance across a broad range of astrophysical research topics, Type Ia supernova explosions are still poorly understood and answers to the questions of when, why and how these events are triggered remain unclear. In this respect, polarisation offers a unique opportunity to discriminate between the variety of possible scenarios. The observational evidence that Type Ia supernovae are associated with rather low polarisation signals (smaller than a few per cent) places strong constraints for models and calls for modest asphericities in the progenitor system and/or explosion mechanism.The goal of this thesis is to assess the validity of contemporary Type Ia supernova explosion models by testing whether their predicted polarisation signatures can account for the small signals usually observed. To this end, we have implemented and tested an innovative Monte Carlo scheme in the radiative transfer code artis. Compared to previous Monte Carlo approaches, this technique produces synthetic observables (light curves, flux and polarisation spectra) with a substantial reduction in the Monte Carlo noise and therefore in the required computing time. This improvement is particularly crucial for our study as we aim to extract very weak polarisation signals, comparable to those detected in Type Ia supernovae. We have also demonstrated the applicability of this method to other classes of supernovae via a preliminary study of the first spectropolarimetry observations of superluminous supernovae.Using this scheme, we have calculated synthetic spectropolarimetry for three multi-dimensional explosion models recently proposed as promising candidates to explain Type Ia supernovae. Our findings highlight the power of spectropolarimetry in testing and discriminating between different scenarios. While all the three models predict light curves and flux spectra that are similar to each others and reproduce those observed in Type Ia supernovae comparably well, polarisation does

  4. Review: three synthesis methods of CdX (X = Se, S or Te) quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa Farkhani, Samad; Valizadeh, Alireza

    2014-06-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are one of the first nanotechnologies to be integrated with the biological sciences that used for imaging or tracking macromolecules/cells in cell/tissue. Because of QDs are important in biomedical and biological applications, identify a variety of synthesis methods to produce QDs with different characteristics also is particularly important. Hence, in this review the authors discussed three methods for synthesis of heavy metal chalcogenide-based QDs for use in biomedical field: (i) Organometallic method for synthesis of QDs consists of three components: precursors, organic surfactants and solvents. The authors also discussed water-solubilisation strategies of synthesised QDs including encapsulation and ligand exchange. (ii) Aqueous synthesis technique using short-chain thiols as stabilising agents is a useful alternative to organometallic synthesis of CdSe, CdS and CdTe QDs. (iii) The third method discussed in this article for QDs synthesis involves the utilise of microorganisms to prepare QDs with controlled size, shape, chemical composition and functionality. The authors also discussed recently new methods for the synthesis of the appropriate QDs for use in biology. In addition, attachment of biomolecules such as antibodies, oligonucleotides on the surface of QDs for specific targeting and different opinions about toxicity of QD have been studied.

  5. A Working Model of Protein Synthesis Using Lego(TM) Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Mark A.; Fetters, Marcia K.

    2002-01-01

    Uses Lego building blocks to improve the effectiveness of teaching about protein synthesis. Provides diagrams and pictures for a 2-3 day student activity. Discusses mRNA, transfer RNA, and a protein synthesis model. (MVL)

  6. Synthesis of Cholecystokinin Peptide CCK-4 Exclusively by Enzymatic Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The synthesis of CCK-4 (H-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) by using enzymes exclusively wasdescribed. As protection group for the amino group we used the Phenylacetyl group (Phac) whichhad been cleaved at the end of the synthesis with Penicillin G Amidase (PGA) without affectingthe peptide bonds. Thus, beginning with Phac-Trp-OH we had successfully synthesized the targetpeptide with following 4 enzymes, α-Chymotrypsin, Papain, Thermolysin and PGA in four reac-tion steps. All reactions were carried out in aqueous buffer in reasonable yields (>65 %). FAB-MS or FD-MS verified the correct molecular mass of all peptides.

  7. Survey on Services Composition Synthesis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima Kalil Toure

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current web services development tools are more sophisticated though ease of use, which leverage the creation of more web services thereof. This is the fact that, web services are being created and updated frequently, this multiplication of web services cannot be easily controlled by human being because it is almost impossible to analyze them and generate the composition plan. Composition of web services is the issue of synthesizing a new composite web service, obtained by combining a set of available (component services, when a client request cannot be satisfied by available web services. To address this issue, three main models have been proposed as a solution. The OWL-S model, the Conversational model and the Roman model which is investigated here. In this paper, we propose a survey on the so-called Roman model and present the framework and all its extension. We also underline its drawback, shortcomings and some advantages, and then try to provide some research direction.

  8. Synthesis and modeling perspectives of rhizosphere priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weixin; Parton, William J; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A; Phillips, Richard; Asao, Shinichi; McNickle, Gordon G; Brzostek, Edward; Jastrow, Julie D

    2014-01-01

    The rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) is a mechanism by which plants interact with soil functions. The large impact of the RPE on soil organic matter decomposition rates (from 50% reduction to 380% increase) warrants similar attention to that being paid to climatic controls on ecosystem functions. Furthermore, global increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration and surface temperature can significantly alter the RPE. Our analysis using a game theoretic model suggests that the RPE may have resulted from an evolutionarily stable mutualistic association between plants and rhizosphere microbes. Through model simulations based on microbial physiology, we demonstrate that a shift in microbial metabolic response to different substrate inputs from plants is a plausible mechanism leading to positive or negative RPEs. In a case study of the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment, performance of the PhotoCent model was significantly improved by including an RPE-induced 40% increase in soil organic matter decomposition rate for the elevated CO2 treatment--demonstrating the value of incorporating the RPE into future ecosystem models. Overall, the RPE is emerging as a crucial mechanism in terrestrial ecosystems, which awaits substantial research and model development. No claim to original US government works. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Utilisation of theoretical models and frameworks in the process of evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Christina M; Harrison, Margaret B; Graham, Ian D; Ross-White, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    A systematic review is a comprehensive enquiry or study of secondary data sources. There is a research question, an a priori articulation of methods and a set of procedures to focus the investigation. Despite these rigorous structures to guide the review, synthesising evidence is a challenging, resource intense and time consuming process. Large volumes of information complicate not only the search functions, but also the conceptualisation of the evidence needed to create the concise and integrated results. Use of a theoretical model or framework could serve as an essential element in effectively focusing the review and designing the methods to respond to the knowledge question. This scoping review sought to confirm the value of models or frameworks used by authors working within traditional methodologies for evidence synthesis. Types of participants The focus of this review was on the context of health care.Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest All studies that discussed models or frameworks used specifically to address the process of synthesis were included.Types of studies Discussion, scholarship or methodology papers and reviews were included.Types of outcome All theoretical models or frameworks were described, with specific attention to the purpose of the framework for each study, and the contribution of the framework to the process of synthesis. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies. A three-step search strategy was utilised. The databases for published material included CINAHL; Medline; EMBASE; PsycINFO; AMED; Cochrane; Biomed Central; Scirus; and Mednar. Databases for unpublished material included Dissertation Abstracts; Sociological Abstracts; Conference proceedings. The review was a focused scoping review to locate and describe the contribution of theoretical models or frameworks to the process of synthesis. The methodological quality of the discussion papers was therefore not assessed. Data was extracted from

  10. DNA and RNA Synthesis in Animal Cells in Culture--Methods for Use in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsell, P. M.; Balls, M.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the experimental procedures used for detecting DNA and RNA synthesis in xenopus cells by autoradiography. The method described is suitable for senior high school laboratory classes or biology projects, if supervised by a teacher qualified to handle radioisotopes. (JR)

  11. DNA and RNA Synthesis in Animal Cells in Culture--Methods for Use in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsell, P. M.; Balls, M.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the experimental procedures used for detecting DNA and RNA synthesis in xenopus cells by autoradiography. The method described is suitable for senior high school laboratory classes or biology projects, if supervised by a teacher qualified to handle radioisotopes. (JR)

  12. Change detection in the dynamics of an intracellular protein synthesis model using nonlinear Kalman filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G; Rigatou, Efthymia G; Djida, Jean Daniel

    2015-10-01

    A method for early diagnosis of parametric changes in intracellular protein synthesis models (e.g. the p53 protein - mdm2 inhibitor model) is developed with the use of a nonlinear Kalman Filtering approach (Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter) and of statistical change detection methods. The intracellular protein synthesis dynamic model is described by a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. It is shown that such a dynamical system satisfies differential flatness properties and this allows to transform it, through a change of variables (diffeomorphism), to the so-called linear canonical form. For the linearized equivalent of the dynamical system, state estimation can be performed using the Kalman Filter recursion. Moreover, by applying an inverse transformation based on the previous diffeomorphism it becomes also possible to obtain estimates of the state variables of the initial nonlinear model. By comparing the output of the Kalman Filter (which is assumed to correspond to the undistorted dynamical model) with measurements obtained from the monitored protein synthesis system, a sequence of differences (residuals) is obtained. The statistical processing of the residuals with the use of x2 change detection tests, can provide indication within specific confidence intervals about parametric changes in the considered biological system and consequently indications about the appearance of specific diseases (e.g. malignancies).

  13. Modelling, Synthesis, and Configuration of Networks-on-Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo

    This thesis presents three contributions in two different areas of network-on-chip and system-on-chip research: Application modelling and identifying and solving different optimization problems related to two specific network-on-chip architectures. The contribution related to application modellin...... for solving the network synthesis problem in the MANGO network-on-chip, and the identification and formalization of the ReNoC configuration problem together with three heuristics for solving it....

  14. Drug release profiles of modified MCM-41 with superparamagnetic behavior correlated with the employed synthesis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello, Natalia I; Elías, Verónica R; Mendieta, Silvia N; Longhi, Marcela; Crivello, Mónica E; Oliva, Marcos I; Eimer, Griselda A

    2017-09-01

    Mesoporous materials with superparamagnetic properties were successfully synthesized by two different methods: direct incorporation (DI) and wet impregnation (WI). The synthetized solids were evaluated as host of drugs for delivery systems and their physicochemical properties were characterized by XRD, ICP, N2 adsorption-desorption, spectroscopies of UV-Vis DR, FT-IR and their magnetic properties were measured. Indomethacin (IND) was incorporated into the materials and the kinetic of the release profiles was studied by applying the Pepas and Sahlin model. In this sense, materials modified by DI, particularly that with hydrothermal treatment, showed the higher adsorption capacity and slower release rate. This behavior could be associated to the synthesis method used that allowed a high percentage of silanol groups available in the solids surface, which can interact with the IND molecule. This feature coupled with the superparamagnetic behavior; make these materials very interesting for drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Conversion of producer gas using NiO/SBA-15 obtained with different synthesis methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baowang Lu; Yiwen Ju; Katsuya Kawamoto

    2014-01-01

    In this study, NiO/SBA-15 was prepared by both direct and post synthesis methods. TEM images revealed that NiO particles aggregated in NiO/SBA-15 obtained with post synthesis method, regardless of NiO loading. However, NiO particles were monodispersed in NiO/SBA-15 with a NiO loading of less than 15 wt% by using the direct synthesis method. In this case, NiO particles aggregated when NiO loading was over 20 wt%. TPR analysis verified that with direct synthesis method the location boundary of NiO particles on outer and pore surface could be observed clearly, whereas that could not observed in the case of post synthesis method. This indicates that the type of synthesis method displays significant effect on the location of NiO particles dispersed into the SBA-15. Producer gas conversion was carried out using NiO/SBA-15 as catalysts, which were synthesized with different synthesis methods. The gas conversion including methanation occurred at low temperature (i.e., 300–400 ?C) and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction at high temperature (i.e., 400–900 ?C). High temperatures facilitated CO2 conversion to CO with CO selectivity close to 100%, regardless of the synthesis method of the used catalyst. At low temperatures the dispersion type of NiO particles affected the CO2 conversion reaction, i.e., monodispersed NiO particles gave a CO selectivity of close to 100%, similar to that obtained at high temperature. The aggregated NiO particles resulted in a CO selectivity of less than 100%owing to CH4 formation, regardless of synthesis method of catalyst. Therefore, NiO/SBA-15 obtained with direct synthesis method favored RWGS reaction because of high CO selectivity. NiO/SBA-15 obtained with post synthesis method is suited for methanation because of high CH4 selectivity, and the conversion of CO2 to CH4 through methanation increased with increasing NiO loading.

  16. A Synthesis Method for Static Anti-Windup Compensators

    OpenAIRE

    Solyom, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Synthesis of static anti-windup compensators is considered. LMIconditions are established for stability and performance analysis of the closedloop system. The performance criterion describes the servo problem forthe resulting closed-loop piecewise linear system. The synthesisof the anti-windup compensators will be given by some bilinear matrix inequalities.

  17. (NII) Novel Catalytic, Synthesis Methods for Main Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Application of Fundamental Organometallic Chemistry to the Development of a Gold- Catalyzed Synthesis of Sulfinate Derivatives.” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl...applied in selective functionalization of organic molecules. In recent chemistry relevant to this problem, we reported remarkable reactivity leading to

  18. Light element synthesis in baryon isocurvature models

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, D L P

    2006-01-01

    The prejudice against baryon isocurvature models is primarily because of their inconsistency with early universe light element nucleosynthesis results. We propose that incipient low metallicity (Pop II) star forming regions can be expected to have environments conducive to Deuterium production by spallation, up to levels observed in the universe.

  19. Synthesis of silicon carbide fibers from polycarbosilane by electrospinning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is widely used in many fields due to its unique properties. Bulk SiC normally has a flexural strength of 500 -- 550 MPa, a Vickers hardness of ~27 GPa, a Young's modulus of 380 -- 430 GPa, and a thermal conductivity of approximately 120 W/mK. SiC fibers are of great interest since they are the good candidates for reinforcing ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) because of the weavability and high temperature strength of about two to three GPa at about 1000 °C. Silicon carbide fibers have been synthesized from polycarbosilane (PCS) with ~25 μm diameter using the melt-spinning method, followed by the curing and pyrolysis. In order to fabricate SiC fibers with small diameters, electrospinning method has been studied. The electrospinning technique is notable in that the fiber diameters can be controlled over a scale of nanometers to micrometers by controlling the processing parameters. However, there have only been limited studies of synthesis of silicon carbide fibers from polycarbosilane by electrospinning method. Moreover, there is no previous report for tensile strength testing of SiC fibers synthesized by electrospinning. The main objectives of this thesis are to study these problems. In this study, SiC fibers were obtained from polycarbosilane solutions using electrospinning method. In these solutions, dimethylformamide (DMF) and xylene were used as the solvents. The spinnability of the solutions was studied at different polycarbosilane concentrations, as were the ratios between DMF and xylene. The influence of electrospinning parameters such as voltage, flow rate and volume ratio of solvent on fiber diameter were studied. It was found that a minimal DMF content was ii required for the solutions to be spinnable for each PCS concentration. However, DMF content could not exceed 40% of the solvent volume, otherwise PCS could not be dissolved. The fiber diameters increased with increasing flow rate, and slightly decreased with increasing applied

  20. Chain-Growth Methods for the Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Conducting and Semiconducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-25

    AFOSR-Final Report Award FA9550-10-1-0395, "Chain-Growth Methods for the Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Conducting and Semiconducting...blocked with further substitution of the fulvene ring systems and we conducted detailed characterization of these systems (X-ray crystal structures...Living Chain-Growth Polymerization for Polythiophenes We have also developed a powerful new method for the synthesis of polythiophenes through the

  1. Application of improved hybrid interface substructural component modal synthesis method in vibration characteristics of mistuned blisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bin; Bai, Guangchen; Li, Chao

    2014-11-01

    The large and complex structures are divided into hundreds of thousands or millions degrees of freedom(DOF) when they are calculated which will spend a lot of time and the efficiency will be extremely low. The classical component modal synthesis method (CMSM) are used extensively, but for many structures in the engineering of high-rise buildings, aerospace systemic engineerings, marine oil platforms etc, a large amount of calculation is still needed. An improved hybrid interface substructural component modal synthesis method(HISCMSM) is proposed. The parametric model of the mistuned blisk is built by the improved HISCMSM. The double coordinating conditions of the displacement and the force are introduced to ensure the computational accuracy. Compared with the overall structure finite element model method(FEMM), the computational time is shortened by 23.86%-31.56% and the modal deviation is 0.002%-0.157% which meets the requirement of the computational accuracy. It is faster 4.46%-10.57% than the classical HISCMSM. So the improved HISCMSM is better than the classical HISCMSM and the overall structure FEMM. Meanwhile, the frequency and the modal shape are researched, considering the factors including rotational speed, gas temperature and geometry size. The strong localization phenomenon of the modal shape's the maximum displacement and the maximum stress is observed in the second frequency band and it is the most sensitive in the frequency veering. But the localization phenomenon is relatively weak in 1st and the 3d frequency band. The localization of the modal shape is more serious under the condition of the geometric dimensioning mistuned. An improved HISCMSM is proposed, the computational efficiency of the mistuned blisk can be increased observably by this method.

  2. Mathematical Model of Synthesis Catalyst with Local Reaction Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Derevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a catalyst granule with a porous ceramic passive substrate and point active centers on which an exothermic synthesis reaction occurs. A rate of the chemical reaction depends on the temperature according to the Arrhenius law. Heat is removed from the pellet surface in products of synthesis due to heat transfer. In our work we first proposed a model for calculating the steady-state temperature of a catalyst pellet with local reaction centers. Calculation of active centers temperature is based on the idea of self-consistent field (mean-field theory. At first, it is considered that powers of the reaction heat release at the centers are known. On the basis of the found analytical solution, which describes temperature distribution inside the granule, the average temperature of the reaction centers is calculated, which then is inserted in the formula for heat release. The resulting system of transcendental algebraic equations is transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations of relaxation type and solved numerically to achieve a steady-state value. As a practical application, the article considers a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst granule with active cobalt metallic micro-particles. Cobalt micro-particles are the centers of the exothermic reaction of hydrocarbons macromolecular synthesis. Synthesis occurs as a result of absorption of the components of the synthesis gas on metallic cobalt. The temperature distribution inside the granule for a single local center and reaction centers located on the same granule diameter is found. It was found that there is a critical temperature of reactor exceeding of which leads to significant local overheating of the centers - thermal explosion. The temperature distribution with the local reaction centers is qualitatively different from the granule temperature, calculated in the homogeneous approximation. It is shown that, in contrast to the homogeneous approximation, the

  3. Aerosol flow reactor method for synthesis of drug nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerikäinen, Hannele; Watanabe, Wiwik; Kauppinen, Esko I; Ahonen, P Petri

    2003-05-01

    An aerosol flow reactor method, a one-step continuous process to produce nanometer-sized drug particles with unimodal size distribution, was developed. This method involves first dissolving the drug material in question into a suitable solvent, which is then followed by atomising the solution as fine droplets into carrier gas. A heated laminar flow reactor tube is used to evaporate the solvent, and solid drug nanoparticles are formed. In this study, the effect of drying temperature on the particle size and morphology was examined. A glucocorticosteroid used for asthma therapy, beclomethasone dipropionate, was selected as an experimental model drug. The geometric number mean particle diameter increases significantly with increasing reactor temperatures due to formation of hollow nanoparticles. Above 160 degrees C, however, further increase in temperature results in decreasing particle size. The produced nanoparticles are spherical and show smooth surfaces at all studied experimental conditions.

  4. Worked examples of alternative methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research in systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Patricia J; Baird, Janis; Arai, Lisa; Law, Catherine; Roberts, Helen M

    2007-01-01

    Background The inclusion of qualitative studies in systematic reviews poses methodological challenges. This paper presents worked examples of two methods of data synthesis (textual narrative and thematic), used in relation to one review, with the aim of enabling researchers to consider the strength of different approaches. Methods A systematic review of lay perspectives of infant size and growth was conducted, locating 19 studies (including both qualitative and quantitative). The data extracted from these were synthesised using both a textual narrative and a thematic synthesis. Results The processes of both methods are presented, showing a stepwise progression to the final synthesis. Both methods led us to similar conclusions about lay views toward infant size and growth. Differences between methods lie in the way they dealt with study quality and heterogeneity. Conclusion On the basis of the work reported here, we consider textual narrative and thematic synthesis have strengths and weaknesses in relation to different research questions. Thematic synthesis holds most potential for hypothesis generation, but may obscure heterogeneity and quality appraisal. Textual narrative synthesis is better able to describe the scope of existing research and account for the strength of evidence, but is less good at identifying commonality. PMID:17224044

  5. The application of green chemistry methods in organophosphorus synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinets, Irina L.; Matveeva, E. V.

    2012-03-01

    Data concerning the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds in ionic liquids, in water and under solvent-free conditions are considered and summarized. It is shown that this strategy, which complies with the definition of green chemistry, has advantages in terms of the rate of the process and the yields of target products as compared with syntheses in common organic solvents. The Wittig, Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons, Kabachnik-Fields, Arbuzov and Michaelis reactions are considered as examples. The bibliography includes 178 references.

  6. Synthesis of CCK-8 Tetrapeptide Fragment by Enzymatic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Guangya (项光亚); Heiner Eckstein

    2003-01-01

    The enzymatic synthesis of a tetrapeptide Phac-Met-Gly-Trp-Met-OEt, a fragment of thecholecystokinin C-terminal octapeptide CCK-8, was reported. This fragment was synthesized bycoupling Phac-Met-OEt with Gly-OMe, Trp-OMe and Met-OEt successively. These three stepswere catalyzed by α-chymotrpsin, Papain and α-chymotrpsin respectively. The results of FAB-MSshowed that all the products had the correct molecular mass.

  7. Development of new methods in modern selective organic synthesis: preparation of functionalized molecules with atomic precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananikov, V. P.; Khemchyan, L. L.; Ivanova, Yu V.; Bukhtiyarov, V. I.; Sorokin, A. M.; Prosvirin, I. P.; Vatsadze, S. Z.; Medved'ko, A. V.; Nuriev, V. N.; Dilman, A. D.; Levin, V. V.; Koptyug, I. V.; Kovtunov, K. V.; Zhivonitko, V. V.; Likholobov, V. A.; Romanenko, A. V.; Simonov, P. A.; Nenajdenko, V. G.; Shmatova, O. I.; Muzalevskiy, V. M.; Nechaev, M. S.; Asachenko, A. F.; Morozov, O. S.; Dzhevakov, P. B.; Osipov, S. N.; Vorobyeva, D. V.; Topchiy, M. A.; Zotova, M. A.; Ponomarenko, S. A.; Borshchev, O. V.; Luponosov, Yu N.; Rempel, A. A.; Valeeva, A. A.; Stakheev, A. Yu; Turova, O. V.; Mashkovsky, I. S.; Sysolyatin, S. V.; Malykhin, V. V.; Bukhtiyarova, G. A.; Terent'ev, A. O.; Krylov, I. B.

    2014-10-01

    The challenges of the modern society and the growing demand of high-technology sectors of industrial production bring about a new phase in the development of organic synthesis. A cutting edge of modern synthetic methods is introduction of functional groups and more complex structural units into organic molecules with unprecedented control over the course of chemical transformation. Analysis of the state-of-the-art achievements in selective organic synthesis indicates the appearance of a new trend — the synthesis of organic molecules, biologically active compounds, pharmaceutical substances and smart materials with absolute selectivity. Most advanced approaches to organic synthesis anticipated in the near future can be defined as 'atomic precision' in chemical reactions. The present review considers selective methods of organic synthesis suitable for transformation of complex functionalized molecules under mild conditions. Selected key trends in the modern organic synthesis are considered including the preparation of organofluorine compounds, catalytic cross-coupling and oxidative cross-coupling reactions, atom-economic addition reactions, methathesis processes, oxidation and reduction reactions, synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, design of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic systems, application of photocatalysis, scaling up synthetic procedures to industrial level and development of new approaches to investigation of mechanisms of catalytic reactions. The bibliography includes 840 references.

  8. Nebular Continuum and Line Emission in Stellar Population Synthesis Models

    CERN Document Server

    Byler, Nell; Conroy, Charlie; Johnson, Benjamin D

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for nebular emission when modeling galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs) is important, as both line and continuum emission can contribute significantly to the total observed flux. In this work, we present a new nebular emission model integrated within the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis code that computes the total line and continuum emission for complex stellar populations using the photoionization code Cloudy. The self-consistent coupling of the nebular emission to the matched ionizing spectrum produces emission line intensities that correctly scale with the stellar population as a function of age and metallicity. This more complete model of galaxy SEDs will improve estimates of global gas properties derived with diagnostic diagrams, star formation rates based on H$\\alpha$, and stellar masses derived from NIR broadband photometry. Our models agree well with results from other photoionization models and are able to reproduce observed emission from H II regions and star-forming galaxies...

  9. An allpass filter design method with application to piano string synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Jonathan S.; Smith, Julius O.; Bensa, Julien

    2005-04-01

    A nonparametric allpass filter design method for matching a desired group delay as a function of frequency is presented. The technique is useful in physical modeling synthesis of musical instruments exhibiting dispersive wave propagation in which different frequency bands travel at different speeds. While current group delay filter design methods suffer from numerical difficulties except at low filter orders, the technique presented here is numerically robust, producing an allpass filter in cascaded biquad form, and with the filter poles following a smooth loop within the unit circle. The technique was inspired by the observation that a pole-zero pair arranged in allpass form has 2π total group delay when integrated around the unit circle, regardless of the pole location. To match a given group delay characteristic, the method divides the frequency axis into sections containing 2π total group delay, and assigns a pole-zero allpass pair to each. In this way, the method incorporates an order selection technique, and by adding a pure delay to the desired group delay, allows the trading of increased filter order for improved fit to the frequency-dependent group delay. Results are presented for modeling the group delay of a stiff piano string under several computational constraints.

  10. Preparation of bicontinuous mesoporous silica and organosilica materials containing gold nanoparticles by co-synthesis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byunghwan [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, ChonAn, Korea; Zhu, Haoguo [ORNL; Zhang, Zongtao [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2004-01-01

    Catalytic activities of gold strongly depend on its particle size. It is necessary to have homogeneous distributions of small gold nanoparticles with diameters between 2 and 5 nm for excellent catalytic activities. In this study, gold-containing mesoporous silica materials were prepared by a co-synthesis method. The essence of this sol-gel co-synthesis method is to combine together neutral surfactant template synthesis of mesoporous silica materials with the introduction of metal ions via bifunctional silane ligands, so that the formation of mesostructures and metal-ion doping occur simultaneously. The formation of gold nanoparticles with size less than 5 nm inside mesoporous materials (HMS, MSU, and PMO) has been achieved by this co-synthesis sol-gel process. In addition, the effects of post-treatments, such as calcination and reduction, on pore structures and nanoparticle size distributions were also investigated.

  11. Soft context clustering for F0 modeling in HMM-based speech synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, Soheil; Sameti, Hossein; King, Simon

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes the use of a new binary decision tree, which we call a soft decision tree, to improve generalization performance compared to the conventional `hard' decision tree method that is used to cluster context-dependent model parameters in statistical parametric speech synthesis. We apply the method to improve the modeling of fundamental frequency, which is an important factor in synthesizing natural-sounding high-quality speech. Conventionally, hard decision tree-clustered hidden Markov models (HMMs) are used, in which each model parameter is assigned to a single leaf node. However, this `divide-and-conquer' approach leads to data sparsity, with the consequence that it suffers from poor generalization, meaning that it is unable to accurately predict parameters for models of unseen contexts: the hard decision tree is a weak function approximator. To alleviate this, we propose the soft decision tree, which is a binary decision tree with soft decisions at the internal nodes. In this soft clustering method, internal nodes select both their children with certain membership degrees; therefore, each node can be viewed as a fuzzy set with a context-dependent membership function. The soft decision tree improves model generalization and provides a superior function approximator because it is able to assign each context to several overlapped leaves. In order to use such a soft decision tree to predict the parameters of the HMM output probability distribution, we derive the smoothest (maximum entropy) distribution which captures all partial first-order moments and a global second-order moment of the training samples. Employing such a soft decision tree architecture with maximum entropy distributions, a novel speech synthesis system is trained using maximum likelihood (ML) parameter re-estimation and synthesis is achieved via maximum output probability parameter generation. In addition, a soft decision tree construction algorithm optimizing a log-likelihood measure

  12. Synthesis of Compact NaA Zeolite Membrane by Microwave Heating Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Lin CHENG; Zi Sheng CHAO; Hui Lin WAN

    2003-01-01

    A continuous and dense NaA zeolite membrane was synthesized by microwave heating method while employing a multi-step seeding LTA zeolite with the average size of 120 nm. The gas H2/N2 mixture separating results indicated that the mixture selectivity increased with increasing of synthesis times. In addition, selectivity of the three-step synthesis was higher than the value(3.74) expected from Kundsen diffusion.

  13. Research on BOM based composable modeling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; He, Q.; Gong, J.

    2013-01-01

    Composable modeling method has been a research hotpot in the area of Modeling and Simulation for a long time. In order to increase the reuse and interoperability of BOM based model, this paper put forward a composable modeling method based on BOM, studied on the basic theory of composable modeling m

  14. A nonlinear component mode synthesis method for the computation of steady-state vibrations in non-conservative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joannin, Colas; Chouvion, Benjamin; Thouverez, Fabrice; Ousty, Jean-Philippe; Mbaye, Moustapha

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an extension to classic component mode synthesis methods to compute the steady-state forced response of nonlinear and dissipative structures. The procedure makes use of the nonlinear complex modes of each substructure, computed by means of a modified harmonic balance method, in order to build a reduced-order model easily solved by standard iterative solvers. The proposed method is applied to a mistuned cyclic structure subjected to dry friction forces, and proves particularly suitable for the study of such systems with high modal density and non-conservative nonlinearities.

  15. Development of a Probabilistic Dynamic Synthesis Method for the Analysis of Nondeterministic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    Accounting for the statistical geometric and material variability of structures in analysis has been a topic of considerable research for the last 30 years. The determination of quantifiable measures of statistical probability of a desired response variable, such as natural frequency, maximum displacement, or stress, to replace experience-based "safety factors" has been a primary goal of these studies. There are, however, several problems associated with their satisfactory application to realistic structures, such as bladed disks in turbomachinery. These include the accurate definition of the input random variables (rv's), the large size of the finite element models frequently used to simulate these structures, which makes even a single deterministic analysis expensive, and accurate generation of the cumulative distribution function (CDF) necessary to obtain the probability of the desired response variables. The research presented here applies a methodology called probabilistic dynamic synthesis (PDS) to solve these problems. The PDS method uses dynamic characteristics of substructures measured from modal test as the input rv's, rather than "primitive" rv's such as material or geometric uncertainties. These dynamic characteristics, which are the free-free eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and residual flexibility (RF), are readily measured and for many substructures, a reasonable sample set of these measurements can be obtained. The statistics for these rv's accurately account for the entire random character of the substructure. Using the RF method of component mode synthesis, these dynamic characteristics are used to generate reduced-size sample models of the substructures, which are then coupled to form system models. These sample models are used to obtain the CDF of the response variable by either applying Monte Carlo simulation or by generating data points for use in the response surface reliability method, which can perform the probabilistic analysis with an order of

  16. Simple method for the synthesis of inverse patchy colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oostrum, P D J; Hejazifar, M; Niedermayer, C; Reimhult, E

    2015-06-17

    Inverse patchy colloids (IPC's) have recently been introduced as a conceptually simple model to study the phase-behavior of heterogeneously charged units. This class of patchy particles is referred to as inverse to highlight that the patches repel each other in contrast to the attractive interactions of conventional patches. IPCs demonstrate a complex interplay between attractions and repulsions that depend on their patch size and charge, their relative orientations as well as on charge of the substrate below; the resulting wide array of different types of aggregates that can be formed motivates their fabrication and use as model system. We present a novel method that does not rely on clean-room facilities and that is easily scalable to modify the surface of colloidal particles to create two polar regions with the opposite charge with respect to that of the equatorial region. The patch size is characterized by electron microscopy and fluorescently labeled to facilitate using confocal microscopy to study their phase behavior. We show that the pH can be used to tune the charges of the IPCs thus offering a tool to steer the self assembly.

  17. A Simple Method for Synthesis, Purification and concentration Stabilized Goldnanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Fatin F.M. AL-Kazazz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The greatest barriers to biological nanoparticles in use are issues of particle stability in shape and size control. Simple process is desirable for several reasons likewide range of sample volumes, gentle conditions and inexpensive equipment. Gold nanoparticles(GNPs which are produced by reducing gold chloride with TSC have very limited time storage. In order to get highly stable nanoparticles, purification has been performed for industrial applications. Removal of the side product of the reaction between HAuCl4 with Tri-Sodium Citrate (TSCis considered to make GNPs more stable. The result demonstrates that GNPs are more stable after the purification process. Low degree of polydispersity can be achieved during gold nanoparticles synthesis, however, the particles need to be purified post-synthesis. The present research relates to single process for the removal of small-molecule impurities and the isolation of small nanoparticles from larger nanostructures through dialysis and microfiltration then concentration these small nanoparticles through polymer adsorbent materials by a factor of 100 or more to storage in the room temperature prolongs the stability of the purified gold nanoparticles suspension up to one year.The size and shape of the GNps is measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM, and the optical properties by UV-Vis spectrometer.

  18. Bayesian data augmentation methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Jamie L.; Voils, Corrine I.; Chang, YunKyung; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2010-01-01

    The possible utility of Bayesian methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research has been repeatedly suggested but insufficiently investigated. In this project, we developed and used a Bayesian method for synthesis, with the goal of identifying factors that influence adherence to HIV medication regimens. We investigated the effect of 10 factors on adherence. Recognizing that not all factors were examined in all studies, we considered standard methods for dealing with missing data and chose a Bayesian data augmentation method. We were able to summarize, rank, and compare the effects of each of the 10 factors on medication adherence. This is a promising methodological development in the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research. PMID:21572970

  19. Application of a nonradioactive method of measuring protein synthesis in industrially relevant Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadehbeigi, Nazanin; Dickson, Alan James

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high medical and commercial value of recombinant proteins for clinical and diagnostic purposes, the protein synthesis machinery of mammalian host cells is the subject of extensive research by the biopharmaceutical industry. RNA translation and protein synthesis are steps that may determine the extent of growth and productivity of host cells. To address the problems of utilization of current radioisotope methods with proprietary media, we have focused on the application of an alternative method of measuring protein synthesis in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. This method employs puromycin as a nonradioactive label which incorporates into nascent polypeptide chains and is detectable by western blotting. This method, which is referred to as SUnSET, successfully demonstrated the expected changes in protein synthesis in conditions that inhibit and restore translation activity and was reproducibly quantifiable. The study of the effects of feed and sodium butyrate addition on protein synthesis by SUnSET revealed an increase following 1 h feed supplementation while a high concentration of sodium butyrate was able to decrease translation during the same treatment period. Finally, SUnSET was used to compare protein synthesis activity during batch culture of the CHO cell line in relation to growth. The results indicate that as the cells approached the end of batch culture, the global rate of protein synthesis declined in parallel with the decreasing growth rate. In conclusion, this method can be used as a "snapshot" to directly monitor the effects of different culture conditions and treatments on translation in recombinant host cells.

  20. System Modeling for Ammonia Synthesis Energy Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran Anleu, Gabriela; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Lavine, Adrienne; Ammonia thermochemical Energy Storage Team

    2015-11-01

    An ammonia thermochemical energy storage system is an alternative solution to the state-of-the-art molten salt TES system for concentrating solar power. Some of the advantages of this emerging technology include its high energy density, no heat losses during the storage duration, and the possibility of long storage periods. Solar energy powers an endothermic reaction to disassociate ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen, which can be stored for future use. The reverse reaction is carried out in the energy recovery process; a hydrogen-nitrogen mixture flowing through a catalyst bed undergoes the exothermic ammonia synthesis reaction. The goal is to use the ammonia synthesis reaction to heat supercritical steam to temperatures on the order of 650°C as required for a supercritical steam Rankine cycle. The steam will flow through channels in a combined reactor-heat exchanger. A numerical model has been developed to determine the optimal design to heat supercritical steam while maintaining a stable exothermic reaction. The model consists of a transient one dimensional concentric tube counter-flow reactor-heat exchanger. The numerical model determines the inlet mixture conditions needed to achieve various steam outlet conditions.

  1. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using surfactant free in-air and microwave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Deepali, E-mail: dpschem@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar-144011, Punjab (India); Sharma, Sapna [Department of Basic Sciences, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni-173 230, Solan (India); Kaith, B.S.; Rajput, Jaspreet [Department of Chemistry, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar-144011, Punjab (India); Kaur, Mohinder [Department of Basic Sciences, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni-173 230, Solan (India)

    2011-09-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by a facile route involving the reaction of zinc sulphate heptahydrate and sodium hydroxide through drop-by-drop mixing synthesis-IA, instant mixing synthesis-IA and under the influence of microwave radiations. The synthesis under different reaction conditions played an important role and led to the formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles of different size and shapes. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The concentration dependent antimicrobial activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles was carried out. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated using the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under UV irradiation. Further, the optical properties of as-prepared ZnO nanoparticles were investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The absence of surfactant led to a simple, cheap and fast method of synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  2. Nebular Continuum and Line Emission in Stellar Population Synthesis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Nell; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Conroy, Charlie; Johnson, Benjamin D.

    2017-05-01

    Accounting for nebular emission when modeling galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs) is important, as both line and continuum emissions can contribute significantly to the total observed flux. In this work, we present a new nebular emission model integrated within the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis code that computes the line and continuum emission for complex stellar populations using the photoionization code Cloudy. The self-consistent coupling of the nebular emission to the matched ionizing spectrum produces emission line intensities that correctly scale with the stellar population as a function of age and metallicity. This more complete model of galaxy SEDs will improve estimates of global gas properties derived with diagnostic diagrams, star formation rates based on Hα, and physical properties derived from broadband photometry. Our models agree well with results from other photoionization models and are able to reproduce observed emission from H ii regions and star-forming galaxies. Our models show improved agreement with the observed H ii regions in the Ne iii/O ii plane and show satisfactory agreement with He ii emission from z = 2 galaxies, when including rotating stellar models. Models including post-asymptotic giant branch stars are able to reproduce line ratios consistent with low-ionization emission regions. The models are integrated into current versions of FSPS and include self-consistent nebular emission predictions for MIST and Padova+Geneva evolutionary tracks.

  3. Modeling and Optimization for Heat Exchanger Networks Synthesis Based on Expert System and Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhihong

    2002-01-01

    A new superstructure from of heat exchanger networks(HEN) is proposed based on expert system (ES). The new superstructure from is combined with the practical engineering.The different investment cost formula for different heat exchanger is also presented based on ES.The mathematical model for the simultaneous optimization of network configuration is established and solved by a genetic algorithm.This method can deal with larger scale HEN synthesis and the optimal HEN configuration is obtained automatically.Finally,a case study is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  4. Physically Inspired Models for the Synthesis of Stiff Strings with Dispersive Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testa I

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the derivation and design of digital waveguides from physical models of stiff systems, useful for the synthesis of sounds from strings, rods, and similar objects. A transform method approach is proposed to solve the classic fourth-order equations of stiff systems in order to reduce it to two second-order equations. By introducing scattering boundary matrices, the eigenfrequencies are determined and their dependency is discussed for the clamped, hinged, and intermediate cases. On the basis of the frequency-domain physical model, the numerical discretization is carried out, showing how the insertion of an all-pass delay line generalizes the Karplus-Strong algorithm for the synthesis of ideally flexible vibrating strings. Knowing the physical parameters, the synthesis can proceed using the generalized structure. Another point of view is offered by Laguerre expansions and frequency warping, which are introduced in order to show that a stiff system can be treated as a nonstiff one, provided that the solutions are warped. A method to compute the all-pass chain coefficients and the optimum warping curves from sound samples is discussed. Once the optimum warping characteristic is found, the length of the dispersive delay line to be employed in the simulation is simply determined from the requirement of matching the desired fundamental frequency. The regularization of the dispersion curves by means of optimum unwarping is experimentally evaluated.

  5. A probabilistic model for component-based shape synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Kalogerakis, Evangelos

    2012-07-01

    We present an approach to synthesizing shapes from complex domains, by identifying new plausible combinations of components from existing shapes. Our primary contribution is a new generative model of component-based shape structure. The model represents probabilistic relationships between properties of shape components, and relates them to learned underlying causes of structural variability within the domain. These causes are treated as latent variables, leading to a compact representation that can be effectively learned without supervision from a set of compatibly segmented shapes. We evaluate the model on a number of shape datasets with complex structural variability and demonstrate its application to amplification of shape databases and to interactive shape synthesis. © 2012 ACM 0730-0301/2012/08-ART55.

  6. A time and space correlated turbulence synthesis method for Large Eddy Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Hugo G.; Paz, Rodrigo R.

    2013-02-01

    In the present work the problem of generating synthesized turbulence at inflow boundaries of the simulation domain is addressed in the context of the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method. To represent adequately certain statistical properties of a turbulent process, we propose a synthesized turbulence method which is based on previous works (Huang et al., 2010; Smirnov et al., 2001) [15,28]. For this purpose, time and space correlations are introduced strictly in the mathematical formulation of the synthetic turbulence inflow data. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach inherits the properties of the methods on which it is based while presents some particular advantages as well. The strategy of imposing conditions on the inlet velocity field through turbulence synthesis is implemented in the parallel multiphysics code called PETSc-FEM (http://www.cimec.org.ar/petscfem) primarily targeted to calculations throughout finite elements on general unstructured 2D and 3D grids. We present several numerical tests in order to validate and evaluate the method describing the dynamic phenomena that take place in “real-life” problems, such as a swirling turbulent flow inside a diffuser and the airflow around a vehicle model inside a wind tunnel at high Reynolds number.

  7. Enchanced methods of hydrophilized CdSe quantum dots synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapkin, D. V.; Zharkova, I. S.; Goryacheva, I. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots are bright and stable fluorescence signal sources, but for most of applications they need an additional hydrophilization step. Unfortunately, most of existing approaches lead to QD's fluorescence quenching, so there is a need for additional enhancing of hydrophilized QD's brightness like UV irradiation, which can be used both on water insoluble QD's with oleic acid ligands (in toluene) and on hydrophilized QD's covered with UV-stable polymer (in aqueous solution). For synthesis of bright water-soluble fluorescent labels CdSe/CdS/ZnS colloidal quantum dots were covered with PAMAM dendrimer and irradiated with UV lamp in quartz cuvettes for 3 hours at the room temperature and then compared with control sample.

  8. Comparative study of synthesis and reduction methods for graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2016-05-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have congregated much interest as promising active materials for a variety of applications such as electrodes for supercapacitors. Yet, partially given the absence of comparative studies in synthesis methodologies, a lack of understanding persists on how to best tailor these materials. In this work, the effect of using different graphene oxidation-reduction strategies in the structure and chemistry of rGOs is systematically discussed. Two of the most popular oxidation routes in the literature were used to obtain GO. Subsequently, two sets of rGO powders were synthesised employing three different reduction routes, totalling six separate products. It is shown that the extension of the structural rearrangement in rGOs is not just dependent on the reduction step but also on the approach followed for the initial graphite oxidation.

  9. Determination of Adenosine Triphosphate on Marine Particulates:Synthesis of Methods for Use on OTEC Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Anthony T.; Hartwig, Eric O.

    1982-08-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an indicator of living biomass in marine particulates. This report details the method used by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to analyze particulate ATP in samples taken from oligotrophic, tropical ocean waters. It represents a synthesis of previously published methods.

  10. Determination of adenosine triphosphate on marine particulates: synthesis of methods for use on OTEC samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A.T.; Hartwig, E.O.

    1982-08-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an indicator of living biomass in marine particulates. This report details the method used by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to analyze particulate ATP in samples taken from oligotrophic, tropical ocean waters. It represents a synthesis of previously published methods.

  11. A New Method of Solving Kernels in Algebraic Decomposition for the Synthesis of Logic Cell Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马光胜; 张忠伟; 等

    1995-01-01

    In this paper,an improvement has been made on the algorithm of solving the kernels of new functions which are generated after a common divisor appearing in the original functions is replaced by a new intermediate variable.And an efficient method based on kernel heritage is presented.This method has been successfully used in synthesis of LCA (Logic Cell Array).

  12. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines...

  13. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines...... the possibilities w.r.t. different numerical weather predictions actually available to the project....

  14. The mathematical model for synthesis process management of the carbon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakova, T. B.; Petrov, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, key difficulties of management process for carbon nanostructure synthesis are described. Tasks of optimum control of the carbon nanostructure synthesis process and management in case of emergency situations are formulated. The mathematical model of carbon nanostructure synthesis is offered. The equations for calculation of quantitative, qualitative indexes, indicators of safety and operability of engineering procedure are provided. The necessity of mathematical model use for carbon nanostructure synthesis is caused by improvement of the quality, the quantity, a decrease in the cost value of carbon nanostructures and an increase in safety of the engineering procedure of their obtaining. Testing and approbation of the mathematical model for carbon nanostructure synthesis are executed on a fullerene industrial production line. Suitability of the mathematical model of carbon nanostructure synthesis for production control in the mode of optimum control and management in case of emergency situations is confirmed. The obtained solution is recommended for implementation on the enterprises of a similar purpose.

  15. Displacement manifold method for type synthesis of lower-mobility parallel mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qinchuan; HUANG Zhen; Jacques Marie Hervé

    2004-01-01

    Type synthesis of lower-mobility parallel mechanisms is a hot and frontier topic in international academic and industrial field. Based on the Lie group theory, a displacement manifold synthesis method is proposed. For all the nine kinds of lower-mobility parallel mechanisms, the mechanism displacement manifold, limb displacement manifold and the geometrical conditions which guarantee that the intersection of the limb displacement manifold is the desired mechanism displacement manifold are enumerated. Various limb kinematic chains can be obtained using the product closure of displacement subgroup. Parallel mechanisms can be constructed with these limbs while obeying the geometrical conditions. Hence, all the nine kinds of lower-mobility parallel mechanisms can be synthesized using this method. Since displacement manifold deals with finite motion, the result mechanism of synthesis have full-cycle mobility. Novel architectures of lower-mobility parallel mechanisms can be obtained using this method.

  16. Model-based synthesis of locally contingent responses to global market signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Rural livelihoods and the land systems on which they depend are increasingly influenced by distant markets through economic globalization. Place-based analyses of land and livelihood system sustainability must then consider both proximate and distant influences on local decision-making. Thus, advancing land change theory in the context of economic globalization calls for a systematic understanding of the general processes as well as local contingencies shaping local responses to global signals. Synthesis of insights from place-based case studies of land and livelihood change is a path forward for developing such systematic knowledge. This paper introduces a model-based synthesis approach to investigating the influence of local socio-environmental and agent-level factors in mediating land-use and livelihood responses to changing global market signals. A generalized agent-based modeling framework is applied to six case-study sites that differ in environmental conditions, market access and influence, and livelihood settings. The largest modeled land conversions and livelihood transitions to market-oriented production occurred in sties with relatively productive agricultural land and/or with limited livelihood options. Experimental shifts in the distributions of agents' risk tolerances generally acted to attenuate or amplify responses to changes in global market signals. Importantly, however, responses of agents at different points in the risk tolerance distribution varied widely, with the wealth gap growing wider between agents with higher or lower risk tolerance. These results demonstrate model-based synthesis is a promising approach to overcome many of the challenges of current synthesis methods in land change science, and to identify generalized as well as locally contingent responses to global market signals.

  17. Cold model experiment for magnetically stabilized bed reactor applied in synthesis of diphenyl carbonate by carbonylation method%磁稳定床羰基化合成碳酸二苯酯的冷模实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺玉成; 张林锋; 陈成; 袁华; 杜治平; 吴元欣

    2014-01-01

    以磁性催化剂Pd/La0.5 Pb0.5 MnO3为固相、N2为气相、纯水为液相在磁稳定床上进行冷模实验,探索磁稳定床的流动特性,为磁稳定床氧化羰基化合成碳酸二苯酯提供数据。考察了不同操作条件对固相催化剂在磁稳定床中流化状态的影响,并通过流体力学软件FLUENT对实验进行计算模拟。结果表明:催化剂可以在流化床中达到完全流化状态,且起始流化速度随液体流速增大、外加磁场强度的增大及分布板开孔率减小而增大,床层高度随气相流速和液相流速减小而减小,随磁场强度的减小而增大,固相分布随床层高度减小而趋于密集,在实验气相流速范围内,床层的平均气相含率与气体流速基本呈直线上升关系。FLUENT软件模拟结果与实验过程完全吻合。%Using magnetic catalyst Pd/La0.5 Pb0.5 MnO3 as solid phase,N2 as gas phase,water as liquid phase,cold model experiment was carried out in the magnetically stabilized bed.The flow characteristics were explored for providing data to oxidation carbonyl synthesis of diphenyl carbonate.The influence of different operating conditions on the fluidized state of solid phase was studied,and the fluid dynamics software FLUENT was used for computer simulating experiment.The results show that in the fluidized bed the catalyst can be completely fluidized.The initial fluidization velocity is increased with increasing liquid flow rate,magnetic field strength and with decreasing opening ratio of the distribution plate.The bed height is decreased with decreasing gas velocity and liquid velocity and increased with the decreasing of the magnetic field strength.The distribution of the solid phase tends to be dense with decreasing height of the bed.In the experimental gas flow rate range,the average gas holdup in the bed is increased linearly with gas velocity.The FLUENT software simulation results are fitted well with the experimental

  18. Controller synthesis for flexible spacecraft using multivariable loop-shaping and factorization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suresh M.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing fine-pointing controllers is considered for large, flexible space structures using modern multivariable synthesis methods. The first method is an iterative procedure which utilizes frequency-domain singular-value techniques, and is found to yield satisfactory performance and robustness. For the second method, which is based on coprime factorizations, a particular bicoprime is obtained, and the steps in the design process are described. This method is still under development.

  19. An Effective ARMA Modeling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    directed towards spectral analysis, power spectral density function the preponderance of effort has been directed to- wards two special cases of the...domain spectral density function than from pole model, and, the general ARMA model is seen to its equivalent time domain autocorrelation sequence. be...n-k) (11) prediction. Assuming this prediction behavior, it k-I then follows from relationship (11) that the spectral density function of the time

  20. Multiscale modeling methods in biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Pinaki; Viceconti, Marco

    2017-01-19

    More and more frequently, computational biomechanics deals with problems where the portion of physical reality to be modeled spans over such a large range of spatial and temporal dimensions, that it is impossible to represent it as a single space-time continuum. We are forced to consider multiple space-time continua, each representing the phenomenon of interest at a characteristic space-time scale. Multiscale models describe a complex process across multiple scales, and account for how quantities transform as we move from one scale to another. This review offers a set of definitions for this emerging field, and provides a brief summary of the most recent developments on multiscale modeling in biomechanics. Of all possible perspectives, we chose that of the modeling intent, which vastly affect the nature and the structure of each research activity. To the purpose we organized all papers reviewed in three categories: 'causal confirmation,' where multiscale models are used as materializations of the causation theories; 'predictive accuracy,' where multiscale modeling is aimed to improve the predictive accuracy; and 'determination of effect,' where multiscale modeling is used to model how a change at one scale manifests in an effect at another radically different space-time scale. Consistent with how the volume of computational biomechanics research is distributed across application targets, we extensively reviewed papers targeting the musculoskeletal and the cardiovascular systems, and covered only a few exemplary papers targeting other organ systems. The review shows a research subdomain still in its infancy, where causal confirmation papers remain the most common. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  1. Model correction factor method for system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Johannesen, Johannes M.

    2000-01-01

    The Model Correction Factor Method is an intelligent response surface method based on simplifiedmodeling. MCFM is aimed for reliability analysis in case of a limit state defined by an elaborate model. Herein it isdemonstrated that the method is applicable for elaborate limit state surfaces on which...... severallocally most central points exist without there being a simple geometric definition of the corresponding failuremodes such as is the case for collapse mechanisms in rigid plastic hinge models for frame structures. Taking as simplifiedidealized model a model of similarity with the elaborate model...... surface than existing in the idealized model....

  2. Laguerre polynomials method in the valon model

    CERN Document Server

    Boroun, G R

    2014-01-01

    We used the Laguerre polynomials method for determination of the proton structure function in the valon model. We have examined the applicability of the valon model with respect to a very elegant method, where the structure of the proton is determined by expanding valon distributions and valon structure functions on Laguerre polynomials. We compared our results with the experimental data, GJR parameterization and DL model. Having checked, this method gives a good description for the proton structure function in valon model.

  3. A Review on the Synthesis Methods of CdSeS-Based Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As typical II–VI ternary alloyed chalcogenides, CdSeS nanostructures have attracted intensive worldwide attention due to their excellent tunable optical properties based on quantum confinement effect and optical nonlinear phenomenon. Because CdSeS-based nanostructures have presented a great potential for applications in biomedicine and optoelectronic devices, different synthesis methods have been proposed to prepare CdSeS-based nanostructures with divergent optical properties to meet the needs of those applications, such as fluorescent labeling, in vivo imaging, waveguides, and solar cell. In this review, the tricks, advantages, and disadvantages of all these synthesis methods were discussed, including hot-injection synthesis, one-pot noninjection synthesis, microwave irradiation, solvothermal synthesis, template-assisted electrodeposition, thermal evaporation, and pulsed laser deposition. Special emphasis was put on those methods that are safe, economic, environment-friendly, and suitable for large-scale production of alloyed CdSeS nanostructures with high photoluminescence, high stability, and low/no cytotoxicity.

  4. Systematic process synthesis and design methods for cost effective waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegler, L.T.; Grossman, I.E.; Westerberg, A.W. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We present progress on our work to develop synthesis methods to aid in the design of cost effective approaches to waste minimization. Work continues to combine the approaches of Douglas and coworkers and of Grossmann and coworkers on a hierarchical approach where bounding information allows it to fit within a mixed integer programming approach. We continue work on the synthesis of reactors and of flexible separation processes. In the first instance, we strive for methods we can use to reduce the production of potential pollutants, while in the second we look for ways to recover and recycle solvents.

  5. The Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design By Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Z.; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust reconfigurable control synthesis method based on the combination of the control mixer method and robust H1 con- trol techniques through the model-matching strategy. The control mixer modules are extended from the conventional matrix-form into the LTI sys- tem form. By...

  6. The Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design By Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Z.; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust reconfigurable control synthesis method based on the combination of the control mixer method and robust H1 con- trol techniques through the model-matching strategy. The control mixer modules are extended from the conventional matrix-form into the LTI sys- tem form. By...... of one space robot arm system subjected to failures....

  7. Method and applications of fiber synthesis using laminar flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Bradley Justin

    A Laminar Flow Reactor (LFR) using the principles of hydrodynamic focusing was created and used to fabricate functional composite polymer fibers. These fibers had the ability to conduct or serve as a carrier for singlet oxygen-generating molecules. Critical to the process was designing an easy-to-fabricate, inexpensive device and developing a repeatable method that made efficient use of the materials. The initial designs used a planar layout and hydrodynamically focused in only one dimension while later versions switched to a two-fluid concentric design. Modeling was undertaken and verified for the different device layouts. Three types of conductive particles were embedded in the formed polymer: silver, indium tin oxide (ITO) and polyaniline. The polymer was also used as a carrier to two singlet oxygen generating molecules: Methylene Blue (MB) and perylene. Both were effective in killing Bacillus thuringiensis but MB leached from the fiber into the tested cell suspension. Perylene, which is not water soluble, did not leach out and was just as effective as MB. Research that was performed at ITT is also presented. A critical need exists to detect, identify, quantify, locate, and track virus and toxin aerosols to provide early warning during both light and dark conditions. The solution presented is a remote sensing technology using seeding particles. Seeding particles developed during this program provide specific identification of threat cloud content. When introduced to the threat cloud the seeders will bind specifically to the analyte of interest and upon interrogation from a stand off laser source will fluoresce. The fluorescent signal is detected from a distance using a long-range microscope and collection optics that allow detection of low concentrations of threat aerosols.

  8. Identifiability and identification of a Synthesis Load Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A Synthesis Load Model (SLM) including both the power load and the distribution network has been proposed in the references. The identifiability of SLM is analyzed at first, it is concluded that the model parameters are identifiable if one of the resistance, reactance and the ratio of them is known. The conclusion is validated through a simulation example. A strategy for parameter identification of SLM is proposed with the combination of the component based approach and the measurement based approach. During parameter identification, only the key parameters playing very important roles in the dynamics of the load and the system are estimated, while the other parameters playing limited role are set as the default values. The proposed strategy is verified by the field measurements.

  9. Synthesis of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUV) from Liposomes Prepared by the Rapid Solvent Exchange (RSE) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal-Caglar, Eda

    2010-10-01

    Lipid bilayers, which is an important constituent of cell membranes, has been extensively studied by biophysicists. Cell membranes perform many vital cell functions such as signal transduction and transportation of materials needed for the functioning of the cell organelles. Understanding the organization and dynamics of lipid bilayers is important for understanding the processes taking place in cell membranes. Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) are cell-sized model systems that allow direct visualization of membrane-related phenomena using fluorescence microscopy. In this study, we investigated the synthesis of GUVs from much smaller liposomes (less than 0.5 microns) produced by the Rapid Solvent Exchange (RSE) method in aqueous solutions of high and low ionic strength. The GUVs synthesized using RSE liposomes are more uniform in lipid composition than that synthesized by other methods. We made a number of modifications to the original electroformation method, and we are able to prepare GUVs from RSE liposomes both in high ionic strength and low ionic strength buffers. Using our optimized procedure, we are also able to produce high quality multi-component GUVs to study the dynamics of lipid domains.

  10. Construction Method of Supernetwork Evolution Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2013-01-01

    Real networks often have small-world and scale-free characteristics.Based on BA and WS model,we proposed the following construction method for TLSEM(Fig.1).Three layers are BA model(TBA),three layers are SW model(TSW),the first and third layers are BA model,the middle layer is SW model(BA-SW),the first and third layers are SW model,and the middle layer is BA model(SW-BA).The

  11. Synthesis and investigation of silicon carbide nanowires by HFCVD method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S H MORTAZAVI; M GHORANNEVISS; M DADASHBABA; R ALIPOUR

    2016-08-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nanowire has been fabricated by hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) mechanism in the temperature range of 600–800$^{\\circ}$C. Synthesis is performed under vacuum in the atmospheres of hexamethyldisiloxane/alcohol (HMDSO/C2H5OH) vapour and hydrogen (H$_2$) gas mixture. In this research dependence of SiC properties on temperature is discussed. Morphology and structural properties of SiC nanowire grown on glass substrate were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy diffraction spectrometer (EDX), and four-point probe (4PP). Also Mountains Map Premium (64-bit version)software is used to investigate morphological features of samples. In this context, the analysis of the motifs, depth histograms, statistical parameters, texture direction, fractal, and the peak count histograms of the nanostructuresurface of samples are carried out. According to analysis, SiC films had a good crystal quality without defects or low residual stress. We found that increasing substrate temperature increases silicon and oxygen doping amount. We also found that electrical resistivity and surface roughness increased by increasing substrate temperature. This study showed that SiC nanowires with high density grew on the free catalyst glass substrate, and the alignment of SiC nanowires decreased.

  12. Synthesis of potassium hexatitanate whiskers using hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ju; LI Chun; LIANG Bin; WANG Xiaoqing

    2009-01-01

    High quality potassium hexatitanate whiskers were hydrothermally synthesized in one step under moderate temperature and pressure condi-tions. Effects of the titanium source and reaction conditions on the hydrothermal reaction rate, product phase component, and morphology of whiskers were investigated. The results show that the reactivity of hydrated titania, anatase TiO2, and rutile TiO2 with KOH decreases in turn, and with hydrated titania as titanium source, it is difficult to obtain potassium hexatitanate whiskers with good morphology. In contrast, uni-form potassium hexatitanate whiskers with a length of 10-20 μm and a diameter of 200-700 nm were obtained using anatase TiO2 as titanium source. The investigation demonstrates that the initial KOH concentration, annealing temperature and time, molar ratio of K2O/TiO2, etc. sig-nificantly affect the morphology of the as-synthesized whiskers. The optimized synthesis condition is as follows: anatase as a titanium source; 10 wt.% KOH solution; annealing temperature and time of 300℃ and 5 h, respectively; K2O/TiO2 molar ratio orS, etc. A rhombic potassium hexatitanate was prepared under the optimum condition and the whisker grew along the [110] direction. The reaction mechanism was dis-cussed.

  13. Novel method for synthesis of titanium silicalite-1 (TS-1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU, Ji- Cheng; WANG, Xiang-Sheng

    2000-01-01

    Titanium silicalite-1 (TS-1) was easily synthesized using inorganic silicon and titanium source, tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPABr) or TPAOH as templating molecule, NH3·H2O, HDA or TEAOH etc. as base sources. In this system,TPA + cations (come from TPABr or TPAOH) served as templating agents to direct the MFI structure. NH3H2O, TEAOH or HDA etc. provides the alkalinity necessary for crystallization. X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis, IR spectroscopies, SEM,29Si MAS NMR showed that the zeolites obtained possessed all the structural characteristics of TS-1, and titanium atoms were introduced into the framework in TS-1. This material was proved to have high crystallinity and high catalytic activity to allyl chloride epoxidation and propylene epoxidation. All the samples synthesized had similar catalytic properties with a standard TS-1 through compared inorganic reactant system with organic synthesis system using propylene epoxidation.The effects of silicon source and TPABr/SiO2 ratio were discussed.

  14. Methodically Modeling the Tor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    iPlane [7] and CAIDA [3]. Third, determining a better client model would further increase confidence in experimental results. Producing a more robust...Bandwidth Speed Test. http://speedtest.net/. [3] CAIDA Data. http://www.caida.org/data. [4] DETER Testbed. http://www.isi.edu/deter. [5] Emulab

  15. Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harden Angela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing recognition of the value of synthesising qualitative research in the evidence base in order to facilitate effective and appropriate health care. In response to this, methods for undertaking these syntheses are currently being developed. Thematic analysis is a method that is often used to analyse data in primary qualitative research. This paper reports on the use of this type of analysis in systematic reviews to bring together and integrate the findings of multiple qualitative studies. Methods We describe thematic synthesis, outline several steps for its conduct and illustrate the process and outcome of this approach using a completed review of health promotion research. Thematic synthesis has three stages: the coding of text 'line-by-line'; the development of 'descriptive themes'; and the generation of 'analytical themes'. While the development of descriptive themes remains 'close' to the primary studies, the analytical themes represent a stage of interpretation whereby the reviewers 'go beyond' the primary studies and generate new interpretive constructs, explanations or hypotheses. The use of computer software can facilitate this method of synthesis; detailed guidance is given on how this can be achieved. Results We used thematic synthesis to combine the studies of children's views and identified key themes to explore in the intervention studies. Most interventions were based in school and often combined learning about health benefits with 'hands-on' experience. The studies of children's views suggested that fruit and vegetables should be treated in different ways, and that messages should not focus on health warnings. Interventions that were in line with these suggestions tended to be more effective. Thematic synthesis enabled us to stay 'close' to the results of the primary studies, synthesising them in a transparent way, and facilitating the explicit production of new concepts and hypotheses

  16. Free-Interface Dual-Compatibility Modal Synthesis Substructure Method in Large-Scale Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Guihan彭桂瀚; Lin Wei林伟; Chen Shanghong陈尚鸿; Yu Jiexin余洁歆

    2015-01-01

    Free-interface dual-compatibility modal synthesis method(compatibility of both force and displacement on interfaces)is introduced to large-scale civil engineering structure to enhance computation efficiency. The basic equations of the method are first set up, and then the mode cut-off principle and the dividing principle are proposed. MATLAB is used for simulation in different frame structures. The simulation results demonstrate the applicability of this substructure method to civil engineering structures and the correctness of the proposed mode cut-off princi-ple. Studies are also conducted on how to divide the whole structure for better computation efficiency while main-taining better precision. It is observed that the geometry and material properties should be considered, and the syn-thesis results would be more precise when the inflection points of the mode shapes are taken into consideration. Furthermore, the simulation performed on a large-scale high-rise connected structure further proves the feasibility and efficiency of this modal synthesis method compared with the traditional global method. It is also concluded from the simulation results that the fewer number of DOFs in each substructure will result in better computation efficiency, but too many substructures will be time-consuming due to the tedious synthesis procedures. Moreover, the substructures with free interface will introduce errors and reduce the precision dramatically, which should be avoided.

  17. Method of synthesis of anhydrous thorium(IV) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Cantat, Thibault

    2013-04-30

    Method of producing anhydrous thorium(IV) tetrahalide complexes, utilizing Th(NO.sub.3).sub.4(H.sub.2O).sub.x, where x is at least 4, as a reagent; method of producing thorium-containing complexes utilizing ThCl.sub.4(DME).sub.2 as a precursor; method of producing purified ThCl.sub.4(ligand).sub.x compounds, where x is from 2 to 9; and novel compounds having the structures: ##STR00001##

  18. Methods for making nucleotide probes for sequencing and synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, George M; Zhang, Kun; Chou, Joseph

    2014-07-08

    Compositions and methods for making a plurality of probes for analyzing a plurality of nucleic acid samples are provided. Compositions and methods for analyzing a plurality of nucleic acid samples to obtain sequence information in each nucleic acid sample are also provided.

  19. Model updating of complex structures using the combination of component mode synthesis and Kriging predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Yan; Wang, Dejun; Zhang, Shaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Updating the structural model of complex structures is time-consuming due to the large size of the finite element model (FEM). Using conventional methods for these cases is computationally expensive or even impossible. A two-level method, which combined the Kriging predictor and the component mode synthesis (CMS) technique, was proposed to ensure the successful implementing of FEM updating of large-scale structures. In the first level, the CMS was applied to build a reasonable condensed FEM of complex structures. In the second level, the Kriging predictor that was deemed as a surrogate FEM in structural dynamics was generated based on the condensed FEM. Some key issues of the application of the metamodel (surrogate FEM) to FEM updating were also discussed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method was demonstrated by updating the FEM of a real arch bridge with the measured modal parameters.

  20. Model Updating of Complex Structures Using the Combination of Component Mode Synthesis and Kriging Predictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Updating the structural model of complex structures is time-consuming due to the large size of the finite element model (FEM. Using conventional methods for these cases is computationally expensive or even impossible. A two-level method, which combined the Kriging predictor and the component mode synthesis (CMS technique, was proposed to ensure the successful implementing of FEM updating of large-scale structures. In the first level, the CMS was applied to build a reasonable condensed FEM of complex structures. In the second level, the Kriging predictor that was deemed as a surrogate FEM in structural dynamics was generated based on the condensed FEM. Some key issues of the application of the metamodel (surrogate FEM to FEM updating were also discussed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method was demonstrated by updating the FEM of a real arch bridge with the measured modal parameters.

  1. What is the most appropriate knowledge synthesis method to conduct a review? Protocol for a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastner Monika

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A knowledge synthesis attempts to summarize all pertinent studies on a specific question, can improve the understanding of inconsistencies in diverse evidence, and can identify gaps in research evidence to define future research agendas. Knowledge synthesis activities in healthcare have largely focused on systematic reviews of interventions. However, a wider range of synthesis methods has emerged in the last decade addressing different types of questions (e.g., realist synthesis to explore mediating mechanisms and moderators of interventions. Many different knowledge synthesis methods exist in the literature across multiple disciplines, but locating these, particularly for qualitative research, present challenges. There is a need for a comprehensive manual for synthesis methods (quantitative/qualitative or mixed, outlining how these methods are related, and how to match the most appropriate knowledge synthesis method to answer a research question. The objectives of this scoping review are to: 1 conduct a systematic search of the literature for knowledge synthesis methods across multi-disciplinary fields; 2 compare and contrast the different knowledge synthesis methods; and, 3 map out the specific steps to conducting the knowledge syntheses to inform the development of a knowledge synthesis methods manual/tool. Methods We will search relevant electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, CINAHL, grey literature, and discipline-based listservs. The scoping review will consider all study designs including qualitative and quantitative methodologies (excluding economic analysis or clinical practice guideline development, and identify knowledge synthesis methods across the disciplines of health, education, sociology, and philosophy. Two reviewers will pilot-test the screening criteria and data abstraction forms, and will independently screen the literature and abstract the data. A three-step synthesis process will be used to map the

  2. Software Testing Method Based on Model Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-dong; LU Yan-sheng; MAO Cheng-yin

    2008-01-01

    A model comparison based software testing method (MCST) is proposed. In this method, the requirements and programs of software under test are transformed into the ones in the same form, and described by the same model describe language (MDL).Then, the requirements are transformed into a specification model and the programs into an implementation model. Thus, the elements and structures of the two models are compared, and the differences between them are obtained. Based on the diffrences, a test suite is generated. Different MDLs can be chosen for the software under test. The usages of two classical MDLs in MCST, the equivalence classes model and the extended finite state machine (EFSM) model, are described with example applications. The results show that the test suites generated by MCST are more efficient and smaller than some other testing methods, such as the path-coverage testing method, the object state diagram testing method, etc.

  3. Controlled Synthesis of Polyenes by Catalytic Methods. Progress Report, December 1, 1992 -- November 30, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, R. R.

    1993-12-01

    Four studies are reported: living cyclopolymerization of diethyl dipropargylmalonate by Mo(CH-t-Bu)(NAr)[OCMe(CF{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2} in dimethoxyethane, effect of chain length on conductivity of polyacetylene, nonlinear optical analysis of a series of triblock copolymers containing model polyenes, and synthesis of bifunctional hexafluoro-t-butoxide Mo species and their use as initiators in ROMP reactions.

  4. Developing a TQM quality management method model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhihai

    1997-01-01

    From an extensive review of total quality management literature, the external and internal environment affecting an organization's quality performance and the eleven primary elements of TQM are identified. Based on the primary TQM elements, a TQM quality management method model is developed. This model describes the primary quality management methods which may be used to assess an organization's present strengths and weaknesses with regard to its use of quality management methods. This model ...

  5. Economic modeling using artificial intelligence methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the application of artificial intelligence methods to model economic data. It addresses causality and proposes new frameworks for dealing with this issue. It also applies evolutionary computing to model evolving economic environments.

  6. Coupling of non-conforming meshes in a component mode synthesis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akcay-Perdahcioglu, D.; Doreille, M.; Boer, de A.; Ludwig, T.

    2013-01-01

    A common mesh refinement-based coupling technique is embedded into a component mode synthesis method, Craig–Bampton. More specifically, a common mesh is generated between the non-conforming interfaces of the coupled structures, and the compatibility constraints are enforced on that mesh via L2-minim

  7. A simple enzymic method for the synthesis of [32P]phosphoenolpyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, F

    1982-09-01

    A rapid and simple enzymic method is described for the synthesis of [(32)P]phosphoenolpyruvate from [(32)P]P(i), with a reproducible yield of 74%. The final product was shown to be a good substrate for pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40).

  8. Simple enzymic method for the synthesis of (/sup 32/P)phosphoenolpyruvate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, F. (Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1982-09-01

    A rapid and simple enzymic method is described for the synthesis of (/sup 32/P)phosphoenolpyruvate from (/sup 32/P)Psub(i), with a reproducible yield of 74%. The final product was shown to be a good substrate for pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40).

  9. FIRST-ORDER METHODS FOR SOLVING THE OPTIMAL STATIC H∞-SYNTHESIS PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EI-Sayed M.E. Mostafa

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the static output feedback (SOF) H∞-synthesis problem posed as a nonlinear semi-definite programming (NSDP) problem. Two numerical algorithms are developed to tackle the NSDP problem by solving the corresponding KarushKuhn-Tucker first-order necessary optimality conditions iteratively. Numerical results for various benchmark problems illustrating the performance of the proposed methods are given.

  10. Large pyramid shaped single crystals of BiFeO{sub 3} by solvothermal synthesis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sornadurai, D.; Ravindran, T. R.; Paul, V. Thomas; Sastry, V. Sankara [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Physical Metallurgy Division, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group (India)

    2012-06-05

    Synthesis parameters are optimized in order to grow single crystals of multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3}. 2 to 3 mm size pyramid (tetrahedron) shaped single crystals were successfully obtained by solvothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy with EDAX confirmed the phase formation. Raman scattering spectra of bulk BiFeO3 single crystals have been measured which match well with reported spectra.

  11. 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Development of the Olefin Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The discoveries of the laureates provided a chemical reaction used daily in the chemical industry for the efficient and more environmentally friendly production of important pharmaceuticals, fuels, synthetic fibers, and many other…

  12. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite crystals: a review study on the analytical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutsopoulos, S.

    2002-01-01

    For the synthesis of hydroxyapatite crystals from aqueous solutions three preparation methods were employed. From the experimental processes and the characterization of the crystals it was concluded that aging and precipitation kinetics are critical for the purity of the product and its crystallogra

  13. A Convenient Method to Construct Chroman Skeleton: Asymmetric Synthesis of (-)-4'-Hydroxy-7-methoxyflavane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU, Boyan; XUE, Jijun; ZHANG, Huabing; LI, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The first enantioselective synthesis of a naturally occurring 4'-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavane was developed by an asymmetric reduction and a microwave-assistant aromatic C-O bond formation to construct the benzopyran skele- ton. Key features of this method include its brevity, its preserved stereochemical integrity and two different syn- thetic routes to choose.

  14. 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Development of the Olefin Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The discoveries of the laureates provided a chemical reaction used daily in the chemical industry for the efficient and more environmentally friendly production of important pharmaceuticals, fuels, synthetic fibers, and many other…

  15. Variational Methods for Biomolecular Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Structure, function and dynamics of many biomolecular systems can be characterized by the energetic variational principle and the corresponding systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). This principle allows us to focus on the identification of essential energetic components, the optimal parametrization of energies, and the efficient computational implementation of energy variation or minimization. Given the fact that complex biomolecular systems are structurally non-uniform and their interactions occur through contact interfaces, their free energies are associated with various interfaces as well, such as solute-solvent interface, molecular binding interface, lipid domain interface, and membrane surfaces. This fact motivates the inclusion of interface geometry, particular its curvatures, to the parametrization of free energies. Applications of such interface geometry based energetic variational principles are illustrated through three concrete topics: the multiscale modeling of biomolecular electrosta...

  16. Systematic synthesis of CCCCTA-based T-T filters using NAM expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongan; Cao, Rui

    2016-06-01

    In the light of nullor-mirror models for current-controlled current conveyor trans-conductance amplifier (CCCCTA), initiating the admittance matrices of the Tow-Thomas (T-T) filter, three different types of the T-T filter are synthesised by means of the nodal admittance matrix (NAM) expansion method. The type A filter, which employ one CCCCTA, one grounded resistor and two grounded capacitors, has eight different forms, the type B filter, which employ one CCCCTA, two grounded capacitors and a second-generation current-controlled conveyor (CCCII) or an second-generation inverting current-controlled conveyor (ICCCII) or an operational trans-conductance amplifier (OTA), has 64 different forms and the type C filter employing one CCCCTA and two grounded capacitors has eight different forms. In all, 80 voltage-mode/current-mode T-T filter circuits are obtained. Because of using canonic number components, the circuits are highly desirable from the viewpoint of IC fabrication and their parameters can be electronically tuned through tuning bias currents of CCCCTAs. The hand analysis and computer simulation results have been provided to support the synthesis method.

  17. High-throughput preparation methods of crude extract for robust cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Chan; Jewett, Michael C

    2015-03-02

    Crude extract based cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a powerful technology platform for high-throughput protein production and genetic part characterization. Unfortunately, robust preparation of highly active extracts generally requires specialized and costly equipment and can be labor and time intensive. Moreover, cell lysis procedures can be hard to standardize, leading to different extract performance across laboratories. These challenges limit new entrants to the field and new applications, such as comprehensive genome engineering programs to improve extract performance. To address these challenges, we developed a generalizable and easily accessible high-throughput crude extract preparation method for CFPS based on sonication. To validate our approach, we investigated two Escherichia coli strains: BL21 Star™ (DE3) and a K12 MG1655 variant, achieving similar productivity (defined as CFPS yield in g/L) by varying only a few parameters. In addition, we observed identical productivity of cell extracts generated from culture volumes spanning three orders of magnitude (10 mL culture tubes to 10 L fermentation). We anticipate that our rapid and robust extract preparation method will speed-up screening of genomically engineered strains for CFPS applications, make possible highly active extracts from non-model organisms, and promote a more general use of CFPS in synthetic biology and biotechnology.

  18. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  19. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  20. Optimization of a surfactant free polyol method for the synthesis of platinum-cobalt electrocatalysts using Taguchi design of experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolleau, C. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), Universite de Poitiers, 40 av Recteur Pineau, F-86000 Poitiers (France); ST Microelectronics Tours, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-37100 Tours (France); Coutanceau, C.; Leger, J.-M. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), Universite de Poitiers, 40 av Recteur Pineau, F-86000 Poitiers (France); Pierre, F. [ST Microelectronics Tours, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-37100 Tours (France)

    2010-03-15

    A design of experiments (derived from the Taguchi method) was implemented to optimize experimental conditions of a surfactant free polyol method for the synthesis of PtCo electrocatalysts. Considered responses were the active surface area and the catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction. Metallic salt concentration, pH, temperature ramp, addition order of reactants and particle cleaning step were chosen as main parameters according to considerations coming from literature and previous experiments. Matrix models describing the behaviour of the synthesis system was elaborated taking into account the effects of each considered parameter and their interactions. From this model, an optimized PtCo/C catalyst, in terms of active surface area and activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction, was synthesized. Both the measured values of the active surface area and the electrocatalytic activity are in very good agreement with the calculated ones from the matrix model. Furthermore, actions of parameters and interactions between parameters can be better understood using this method. (author)

  1. Novel Method for Synthesis of Diarylpyrazole Derivatives as Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Antagonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ying-qiu; ZHENG Guo-jun; WANG Ya-ping; WANG Xiang-jing; XIANG Wen-sheng

    2011-01-01

    A novel and efficient method was developed for the synthesis of diarylpyrazole derivatives as cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist via four step reactions. The key step was the synthesis of a diarylpyrazole skeleton, which involved initial condensation of the sodium salt of compound 12 with diazonium compounds, and further cyclization by heating at reflux in acetic acid. Eight diarylpyrazole derivatives and nine new synthesized compounds were cha racterized by 1H NMRy IR, MS, and elemental analysis. The reaction conditions were mild and the overall yields of the target compounds ranged from 26% to 44%.

  2. An expendient method for the synthesis of bis(acylhydrazones) under microwave irradiation in solvent-free medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.P.; Zheng, P.Z.; Zhu, J.G.; Liu, R.J.; Qu, G.R. [Henan Normal University, Xinxiang (China). College of Chemical and Environmental Science. Key Lab. of Environmental Pollution Control Technology of Henan Province]. E-mail: jplig@163.com

    2007-10-15

    A simple, efficient and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of bis(acylhydrazones) from hexanediohydrazide and aldehydes under microwave irradiation without the use of solvent and catalyst is reported. The technique of microwave irradiation under solvent-free condition proved to be quite a valuable method in organic synthesis. (author)

  3. A Method for the Synthesis of Tetranitroglycoluril from Imidazo-[4,5-d]-imidazoles with Loss of Dinitrogen Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    A Method for the Synthesis of Tetranitroglycoluril from Imidazo-[4,5-d]- imidazoles with Loss of Dinitrogen Oxide by William M Sherrill, Eric...Method for the Synthesis of Tetranitroglycoluril from Imidazo-[4,5-d]- imidazoles with Loss of Dinitrogen Oxide William M Sherril and Joseph E Banning...

  4. 水杨酸合成方法研究进展%RESEARCH PROGRESS ON SYNTHESIS METHODS FOR SALICYLIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王申军; 马瑞杰; 菅秀君; 贾庆龙; 楚庆岩

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduced the application and synthesis methods for salicylic acid, and described emphatically green synthesis methods with good social and economic benefits prospect.%介绍水杨酸的应用及其合成方法,并对有社会和经济效益前景的绿色合成方法进行阐述。

  5. Are paleoclimate model ensembles consistent with the MARGO data synthesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Hargreaves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the consistency of various ensembles of model simulations with the Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean Surface (MARGO sea surface temperature data synthesis. We discover that while two multi-model ensembles, created through the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Projects (PMIP and PMIP2, pass our simple tests of reliability, an ensemble based on parameter variation in a single model does not perform so well. We show that accounting for observational uncertainty in the MARGO database is of prime importance for correctly evaluating the ensembles. Perhaps surprisingly, the inclusion of a coupled dynamical ocean (compared to the use of a slab ocean does not appear to cause a wider spread in the sea surface temperature anomalies, but rather causes systematic changes with more heat transported north in the Atlantic. There is weak evidence that the sea surface temperature data may be more consistent with meridional overturning in the North Atlantic being similar for the LGM and the present day, however, the small size of the PMIP2 ensemble prevents any statistically significant results from being obtained.

  6. Are paleoclimate model ensembles consistent with the MARGO data synthesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Hargreaves

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the consistency of various ensembles of climate model simulations with the Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean Surface (MARGO sea surface temperature data synthesis. We discover that while two multi-model ensembles, created through the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Projects (PMIP and PMIP2, pass our simple tests of reliability, an ensemble based on parameter variation in a single model does not perform so well. We show that accounting for observational uncertainty in the MARGO database is of prime importance for correctly evaluating the ensembles. Perhaps surprisingly, the inclusion of a coupled dynamical ocean (compared to the use of a slab ocean does not appear to cause a wider spread in the sea surface temperature anomalies, but rather causes systematic changes with more heat transported north in the Atlantic. There is weak evidence that the sea surface temperature data may be more consistent with meridional overturning in the North Atlantic being similar for the LGM and the present day. However, the small size of the PMIP2 ensemble prevents any statistically significant results from being obtained.

  7. Lovastatin Corrects Excess Protein Synthesis and Prevents Epileptogenesis in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Chubykin, Alexander A.; Sidorov, Michael; Bianchi, Riccardo; Wong, Robert K.S.; Osterweil, Emily; Bear, Mark; Chubykin, Alexander A.

    2013-01-01

    Many neuropsychiatric symptoms of fragile X syndrome (FXS) are believed to be a consequence of altered regulation of protein synthesis at synapses. We discovered that lovastatin, a drug that is widely prescribed for the treatment of high cholesterol, can correct excess hippocampal protein synthesis in the mouse model of FXS and can prevent one of the robust functional consequences of increased protein synthesis in FXS, epileptogenesis. These data suggest that lovastatin is potentially disease...

  8. Lovastatin corrects excess protein synthesis and prevents epileptogenesis in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Osterweil, Emily K.; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Chubykin, Alexander A.; Sidorov, Michael; Bianchi, Riccardo; Wong, Robert K. S.; Bear, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Many neuropsychiatric symptoms of fragile X syndrome (FXS) are believed to be a consequence of altered regulation of protein synthesis at synapses. We discovered that lovastatin, a drug that is widely prescribed for treatment of high cholesterol, can correct excess hippocampal protein synthesis in themouse model of FXS and can prevent one of the robust functional consequences of increased protein synthesis in FXS, epileptogenesis. These data suggest that lovastatin is potentially disease modi...

  9. Mechatronic Systems Design Methods, Models, Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Janschek, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In this textbook, fundamental methods for model-based design of mechatronic systems are presented in a systematic, comprehensive form. The method framework presented here comprises domain-neutral methods for modeling and performance analysis: multi-domain modeling (energy/port/signal-based), simulation (ODE/DAE/hybrid systems), robust control methods, stochastic dynamic analysis, and quantitative evaluation of designs using system budgets. The model framework is composed of analytical dynamic models for important physical and technical domains of realization of mechatronic functions, such as multibody dynamics, digital information processing and electromechanical transducers. Building on the modeling concept of a technology-independent generic mechatronic transducer, concrete formulations for electrostatic, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, and electrodynamic transducers are presented. More than 50 fully worked out design examples clearly illustrate these methods and concepts and enable independent study of th...

  10. MODAL SYNTHESIS METHOD FOR NORM COMPUTATION OF H∞ DECENTRALIZED CONTROL SYSTEMS (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wan-xie(钟万勰); WU Zhi-gang(吴志刚); GAO Qiang(高强); A.Y.T.Leung(梁以德); F.W.Williams

    2004-01-01

    When using H ∞ techniques to design decentralized controllers for large systems,the whole system is divided into subsystems, which are analysed using H∞ control theory before being recombined. An analogy was established with substructural analysis in structural mechanics, in which H ∞ decentralized control theory corresponds to substructural modal synthesis theory so that the optimal H ∞ norm of the whole system corresponds to the fundamental vibration frequency of the whole structure. Hence, modal synthesis methodology and the extended Wittrick-Williams algorithm were transplanted from structural mechanics to compute the optimal H∞ norm of the control system. The orthogonality and the expansion theorem of eigenfunctions of the subsystems H∞ control are presented in part (Ⅰ)of the paper. The modal synthesis method for computation of the optimal H ∞ norm of decentralized control systems and numerical examples are presented in part (Ⅱ).

  11. MODAL SYNTHESIS METHOD FOR NORM COMPUTATION OF H ∞ DECENTRALIZED CONTROL SYSTEMS ( Ⅰ )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wan-xie(钟万勰); WU Zhi-gang(吴志刚); GAO Qiang(高强); A.Y.T.Leung(梁以德); F.W.Williams

    2004-01-01

    When using H ∞ techniques to design decentralized controllers for large systems,the whole system is divided into subsystems, which are analysed using H ∞ control theory before being recombined. An analogy was established with substructural analysis in structural mechanics, in which H∞ decentralized control theory corresponds to substructural modal synthesis theory so that the optimal H∞ norm of the whole system corresponds to the fundamental vibration frequency of the whole structure. Hence, modal synthesis methodology and the extended Wittrick-Williams algorithm were transplanted from structural mechanics to compute the optimal H ∞ norm of the control system. The orthogonality and the expansion theorem of eigenfunctions of the subsystems H∞ control are presented in part ( Ⅰ ) of the paper. The modal synthesis method for computation of the optimal H∞ norm of decentralized control systems and numerical examples are presented in part ( Ⅱ ).

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Colloidal CZTS Nanocrystals by a Hot-Injection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Méndez-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the synthesis of colloidal Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS nanocrystals (average size ~4–9 nm by a simple and low cost hot-injection method. These nanocrystals form larger particles with sizes around 40 nm. Oleylamine (OLA was used as both the solvent and the nanocrystal stabilizer. The effect of the synthesis time on the structural, compositional, morphological, and optical properties was studied. As revealed by XRD, Raman, and TEM measurements all the prepared samples are comprised of both kesterite and wurtzite CZTS nanocrystals. The wurtzite phase contribution reduces as the reaction time is increased. The “bandgap” of the obtained nanoparticles tends to 1.52 eV for the larger synthesis times (24 h which is suitable for an absorber layer in thin films solar cells.

  13. Digital image inpainting by example-based image synthesis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Dongdong; Ma Lizhuang; Xiao Shuangjiu

    2006-01-01

    A simple and effective image inpainting method is proposed in this paper, which is proved to be suitable for different kinds of target regions with shapes from little scraps to large unseemly objects in a wide range of images. It is an important improvement upon the traditional image inpainting techniques.By introducing a new bijective-mapping term into the matching cost function, the artificial repetition problem in the final inpainting image is practically solved. In addition, by adopting an inpainting error map,not only the target pixels are refined gradually during the inpainting process but also the overlapped target patches are combined more seamlessly than previous method. Finally, the inpainting time is dramatically decreased by using a new acceleration method in the matching process.

  14. Simple Thermal Decompose Method for Synthesis of Nickel Disulfide Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyghalkar, Hamideh; Sabet, Mohammad; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a simple thermal decompose method was served to synthesize NiS2 nanostructures via a nickel complex. Also polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as surfactant to increase the steric effect around nanostructure surfaces and decrease the particles size. The product was characterized with different analysis methods. The crystal structure of the product was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The particle size and morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To study the nanostructures surface purity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used. And finally to study the optical properties of the product photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was served.

  15. Methods for the synthesis of deuterated vinyl pyridine monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kunlun; Yang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2014-02-25

    Methods for synthesizing deuterated vinylpyridine compounds of the Formula (1), wherein the method includes: (i) deuterating an acyl pyridine of the Formula (2) in the presence of a metal catalyst and D.sub.2O, wherein the metal catalyst is active for hydrogen exchange in water, to produce a deuterated acyl compound of Formula (3); (ii) reducing the compound of Formula (3) with a deuterated reducing agent to convert the acyl group to an alcohol group, and (iii) dehydrating the compound produced in step (ii) with a dehydrating agent to afford the vinylpyridine compound of Formula (1). The resulting deuterated vinylpyridine compounds are also described.

  16. Systems Evaluation Methods, Models, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Siefeng; Xie, Naiming; Yuan, Chaoqing

    2011-01-01

    A book in the Systems Evaluation, Prediction, and Decision-Making Series, Systems Evaluation: Methods, Models, and Applications covers the evolutionary course of systems evaluation methods, clearly and concisely. Outlining a wide range of methods and models, it begins by examining the method of qualitative assessment. Next, it describes the process and methods for building an index system of evaluation and considers the compared evaluation and the logical framework approach, analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and the data envelopment analysis (DEA) relative efficiency evaluation method. Unique

  17. Peptide segment ligation:A new method for synthesis of peptide and protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The protein structure-function relationships are always highlighted in the field of life science. Protein synthesis from genomic sequence data is gaining significance in the "post-genomic era" of biomedical research by providing direct access to functional proteins. The manually or automatically stepwise solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) allows peptide of up to 60 residues to be routinely constructed in good yield and high purity[1,2]. The assembly of longer proteins via the gene engineering technology (e.g. recombinant DNA-based molecular biology or site- directed mutagenesis) and convergent peptide synthesis are necessary. Although the current biosynthetic method allows unnatural amino acids to be incorporated into proteins or peptides[3], only ?-peptide in the protein backbone can be obtained. A lot of problems associated with the classic convergent peptide synthesis approach, such as the poor solubility, inadequate purification techniques, and limited characterization methods with the fully protected segment[6]. However, totally chemical synthetic method can easily obtain ?- or ?-peptide[4] and even branch peptide[5].

  18. Modified Methods for the Synthesis of Triazinyl Fluorescent Brightener Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Parach

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of triazinyl fluorescent brightener intermediates in high yields is described. The method involves a simplified work-up for the preparation of 4-nitro-toluene-2-sulfonic acid and the use of diethylene glycol instead of water in the preparation of 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid.

  19. Synthesis of an oligodeoxyribonucleotide adduct of mitomycin C by the postoligomerization method via a triamino mitosene

    OpenAIRE

    Champeil, Elise; Paz, Manuel M.; Ladwa, Sweta; Cristina C. Clement; ZATORSKI, ANDRZEJ; Tomasz, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The cancer chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C (MC) alkylates and cross-links DNA monofunctionally and bifunctionally in vivo and in vitro, forming six major MC-deoxyguanosine adducts of known structures. The synthesis of one of the monoadducts (8) by the postoligomerization method was accomplished both on the nucleoside and oligonucleotide levels, the latter resulting in the site-specific placement of 8 in a 12-mer oligodeoxyribonucleotide 26. This is the first application of this method to t...

  20. Yunnan-III models for Evolutionary population synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, F; Han, Z; Zhuang, Y; Kang, X

    2012-01-01

    We build the Yunnan-III evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) models by using the MESA stellar evolution code, BaSeL stellar spectra library and the initial mass functions (IMFs) of Kroupa and Salpeter, and present colours and integrated spectral energy distributions (ISEDs) of solar-metallicity stellar populations (SPs) in the range of 1Myr-15 Gyr. The main characteristic of the Yunnan-III EPS models is the usage of a set of self-consistent solar-metallicity stellar evolutionary tracks (the masses of stars are from 0.1 to 100Msun). This set of tracks is obtained by using the state-of-the-art MESA code. MESA code can evolve stellar models through thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase for low- and intermediate-mass stars. By comparisons, we confirm that the inclusion of TP-AGB stars make the V-K, V-J and V-R colours of SPs redder and the infrared flux larger at ages log(t/yr)>7.6 (the differences reach the maximum at log(t/yr)~8.6, ~0.5-0.2mag for colours, ~2 times for K-band flux). The st...

  1. Synthesis of polyaniline nanotubes through UV light catalytic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nitrocellulose (NC fiber blanket prepared by electrostatic spinning method has been used as a template, and copper nitrate (Cu(NO32 as an oxidant to synthesise polyaniline nanotubes doped with heteropolyacid (H4SiW12O40, SiW12 using UV light catalytic method. Infrared spectroscopy (IR, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM technologies were applied to characterize the prepared samples of polyaniline nanotubes. The results show that the external diameter of the tube is about 200 nm, and the internal diameter about 170 nm. We also give a reasonable speculation and explanation about the formation mechanism of the nanotubes.

  2. Low-Energy, Hydrogen-Free Method of Diamond Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Deepak (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Diamond thin films were deposited on copper substrate by the Vapor Solid (VS) deposition method using a mixture of fullerene C(sub 60) and graphite as the source material. The deposition took place only when the substrate was kept in a narrow temperature range of approximately 550-650 C. Temperatures below and above this range results in the deposition of fullerenes and other carbon compounds, respectively.

  3. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene via solid microwave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li, E-mail: zhangli379@sohu.com [School of Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Ji, Bingcheng, E-mail: debbo.jee@outlook.com [School of Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Wang, Kai [School of Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Song, Jinyan [School of Information Engineering, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A direct solid microwave method is developed to prepare nitrogen-doped graphene. • The method consists of two steps, namely the functionalization and microwave irradiation. • Melamine can serve as not only functionalizing agent but also nitrogen source. - Abstract: In this paper, we propose a solid microwave-mediated method for scalable production of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (NGS) using low-cost industrial material melamine as functionalizing agent and nitrogen source. The strong interaction of microwaves with graphene oxide has been fully utilized to generate in situ heating that induces the decompose melamine and nitrogen doping of graphene. The morphology, structure, and components of the as-produced nitrogen-doped graphene are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), pore-size distribution (PSD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The results show NGS can be successfully synthesized via this strategy.

  4. Inhibiting Glycogen Synthesis Prevents Lafora Disease in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Bartholomew A.; Turnbull, Julie; Epp, Jonathan R.; Weaver, Staci A.; Zhao, Xiaochu; Pencea, Nela; Roach, Peter J.; Frankland, Paul; Ackerley, Cameron A.; Minassian, Berge A.

    2013-01-01

    Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal progressive myoclonus epilepsy characterized neuropathologically by aggregates of abnormally structured glycogen and proteins (Lafora bodies, LB), and neurodegeneration. Whether LB could be prevented by inhibiting glycogen synthesis and whether they are pathogenic remain uncertain. We genetically eliminated brain glycogen synthesis in LD mice. This resulted in long-term prevention of LB formation, neurodegeneration, and seizure susceptibility. This study establishes that glycogen synthesis is requisite for LB formation and that LB are pathogenic. It opens a therapeutic window for potential treatments in LD with known and future small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthesis. PMID:23913475

  5. Large-scale synthesis of YSZ nanopowder by Pechini method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Morteza Hajizadeh-Oghaz; Reza Shoja Razavi; Mohammadreza Loghman Estarki

    2014-08-01

    Yttria–stabilized zirconia nanopowders were synthesized on a relatively large scale using Pechini method. In the present paper, nearly spherical yttria-stabilized zirconia nanopowders with tetragonal structure were synthesized by Pechini process from zirconium oxynitrate hexahydrate, yttrium nitrate, citric acid and ethylene glycol. The phase and structural analyses were accomplished by X-ray diffraction; morphological analysis was carried out by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed nearly spherical yttria–stabilized zirconia powder with tetragonal crystal structure and chemical purity of 99.1% by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy on a large scale.

  6. Synthesis of Lead Sulfide Nanoparticles by Chemical Precipitation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongad, L. S.; Sharma, A.; Banerjee, M.; Jain, A.

    2016-10-01

    Lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles were prepared by chemical precipitation method (CPM) with the assistance of H2S gas. The microstructure and morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD patterns of the PbS nanoparticles reveal formation of cubic phase. To investigate the quality of prepared nanoparticles, the particles size, lattice constant, strain, dislocation density etc. have been determined using XRD. TEM images reveal formation of cubic nanoparticles and the particle size determined from TEM images agree well with those from XRD.

  7. An approximation concepts method for space frame synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Curran, W. C.; Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is presented for the minimum mass design of three dimensional space frames constructed of thin walled rectangular cross-section members. Constraints on nodal displacements and rotations, material stress, local buckling, and cross sectional dimensions are included. A high quality separable approximate problem is formed in terms of the reciprocals of the four section properties of the frame element cross section, replacing all implicit functions with simplified explicit relations. The cross sectional dimensions are efficiently calculated without using multilevel techniques. Several test problems are solved, demonstrating that a series of approximate problem solutions converge rapidly to an optimal design.

  8. Twitter's tweet method modelling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlis, Apostolos S.; Sakas, Damianos P.; Vlachos, D. S.

    2015-02-01

    This paper seeks to purpose the concept of Twitter marketing methods. The tools that Twitter provides are modelled and simulated using iThink in the context of a Twitter media-marketing agency. The paper has leveraged the system's dynamic paradigm to conduct Facebook marketing tools and methods modelling, using iThink™ system to implement them. It uses the design science research methodology for the proof of concept of the models and modelling processes. The following models have been developed for a twitter marketing agent/company and tested in real circumstances and with real numbers. These models were finalized through a number of revisions and iterators of the design, develop, simulate, test and evaluate. It also addresses these methods that suit most organized promotion through targeting, to the Twitter social media service. The validity and usefulness of these Twitter marketing methods models for the day-to-day decision making are authenticated by the management of the company organization. It implements system dynamics concepts of Twitter marketing methods modelling and produce models of various Twitter marketing situations. The Tweet method that Twitter provides can be adjusted, depending on the situation, in order to maximize the profit of the company/agent.

  9. Electrochemical method for rapid synthesis of Zinc Pentacyanonitrosylferrate Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogaieh Bargeshadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a rapid and simple approach was developed for the preparation of zinc pentacyanonitrosylferrate nanotubes (ZnPCNF NTs within the cylindrical pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template by electrochemical method. The AAO was fabricated in two steps anodizing from aluminum foil. The first anodization of aluminum foil was performed in 0.2 mol L-1 H2C2O4 followed by removal of the formed porous oxide film by a solution of 6 wt% of phosphoric acid. The second anodization step was then performed using the same conditions as the previous step. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD method were employed to characterize the resulting highly oriented uniform hollow tube array which its diameter was in the range of 25-75 nm depending on the applied voltage and the length of nanotubes was equal to the thickness of AAO which was about 2 m. The growth properties of the ZnPCNF NTs array film can be achieved by controlling the structure of the template and applied potential across the cell.

  10. Design and Evaluation of Digital Baseband Converter Sub-channel Delay Compensation Method on Bandwidth Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sub-channel delay on bandwidth synthesis is investigated to eliminate the “phase step” phenomenon in bandwidth synthesis during the test of CDBE (Chinese Digital Backend. Through formula derivation, we realize that sub-channel delay may cause phase discontinuity between different sub-channels. Theoretical analysis shows that sub-channel delay can induce bandwidth synthesis error in group delay measurement of the linear system. Furthermore, in the differential delay measurement between two stations, bandwidth synthesis error may occur when the LO (Local Oscillator frequency differences of corresponding sub-channels are not identical. Error-free conditions are discussed under different applications. The phase errors among different sub-channels can be removed manually. However, the most effective way is the compensation of sub-channel delay. A sub-channel delay calculation method based on Modelsim is proposed. The compensation method is detailed. Simulation and field experiments are presented to verify our approach.

  11. Synthesis of shape morphing compliant mechanisms using a load path representation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kerr-Jia; Kota, Sridhar

    2003-07-01

    The performance of many mechanical systems is directly related to the geometric shapes of their components, such as aircraft wings and antenna reflectors. While the shapes of these components are mostly fixed, incorporating shape morphing into these systems can increase the flexibility and enhance the performance. A synthesis approach for shape morphing compliant mechanism is presented in this paper, using a load path generation method to efficiently exclude the invalid topologies (disconnected structures) from the Genetic Algorithm (GA) solution space. The synthesis approach is illustrated through a flexible antenna reflector design and a morphing aircraft trailing edge. The results demonstrate the capability of the load path generation method to create various designs with less design variables. The results also show that the use of compliant mechanisms can indeed provide a viable alternative for shape morphing applications. Methods to improve convergence such as employing a local search within or following the GA are also discussed.

  12. Online NIR Analysis and Prediction Model for Synthesis Process of Ethyl 2-Chloropropionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online near-infrared spectroscopy was used as a process analysis technique in the synthesis of 2-chloropropionate for the first time. Then, the partial least squares regression (PLSR quantitative model of the product solution concentration was established and optimized. Correlation coefficient (R2 of partial least squares regression (PLSR calibration model was 0.9944, and the root mean square error of correction (RMSEC was 0.018105 mol/L. These values of PLSR and RMSEC could prove that the quantitative calibration model had good performance. Moreover, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of validation set was 0.036429 mol/L. The results were very similar to those of offline gas chromatographic analysis, which could prove the method was valid.

  13. Measuring serotonin synthesis: from conventional methods to PET tracers and their (pre)clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Anniek K.D.; Waarde, Aren van; Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Bosker, Fokko J. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University Center of Psychiatry, Groningen (Netherlands); Luiten, Paul G.M. [University of Groningen, Center for Behavior and Neurosciences, Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Haren (Netherlands); Boer, Johan A. den [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University Center of Psychiatry, Groningen (Netherlands); Kema, Ido P. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    The serotonergic system of the brain is complex, with an extensive innervation pattern covering all brain regions and endowed with at least 15 different receptors (each with their particular distribution patterns), specific reuptake mechanisms and synthetic processes. Many aspects of the functioning of the serotonergic system are still unclear, partially because of the difficulty of measuring physiological processes in the living brain. In this review we give an overview of the conventional methods of measuring serotonin synthesis and methods using positron emission tomography (PET) tracers, more specifically with respect to serotonergic function in affective disorders. Conventional methods are invasive and do not directly measure synthesis rates. Although they may give insight into turnover rates, a more direct measurement may be preferred. PET is a noninvasive technique which can trace metabolic processes, like serotonin synthesis. Tracers developed for this purpose are {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]methyltryptophan ([{sup 11}C]AMT) and 5-hydroxy-L-[{beta}-{sup 11}C]tryptophan ([{sup 11}C]5-HTP). Both tracers have advantages and disadvantages. [{sup 11}C]AMT can enter the kynurenine pathway under inflammatory conditions (and thus provide a false signal), but this tracer has been used in many studies leading to novel insights regarding antidepressant action. [{sup 11}C]5-HTP is difficult to produce, but trapping of this compound may better represent serotonin synthesis. AMT and 5-HTP kinetics are differently affected by tryptophan depletion and changes of mood. This may indicate that both tracers are associated with different enzymatic processes. In conclusion, PET with radiolabelled substrates for the serotonergic pathway is the only direct way to detect changes of serotonin synthesis in the living brain. (orig.)

  14. Optimization of synthesis of upconversion luminescence material NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ nanometer-phosphor by low-temperature combustion synthesis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Liping; ZHANG Xiyan

    2013-01-01

    A kind of Er3+-yb3+ co-doped natrium yttrium fluoride nanometer-phosphor sensitive to 980 nm was synthesized by the low-temperature combustion synthesis method,which expanded the application range of the low-temperature combustion synthesis (LCS) method which is always used in the synthesis of oxides and compound oxides.The synthesis conditions were optimized with orthogonal experiments and the optimum technological parameters were obtaincd.Intense upconversion emissions at 522,540 and 653 nm corresponding to the 2H11/2,4S3/2,and 4F9/2 transitions to the 4I15/2 ground state were observed when excited by continuous wavclength (CW) laser radiation at 980 nm.The effect of the carbamide amount on the phase formation and the luminescence intensity was analyzed.The average particle size of the sample was 30-40 nm.

  15. Optimized Synthesis of HMX Nanoparticles Using Antisolvent Precipitation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Siril, Prem Felix; Soni, Pramod

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) were prepared by an antisolvent precipitation method. The effect of different experimental parameters such as temperature of antisolvent and concentration of solution on particle size of nano-HMX was studied systematically. A higher temperature (70°C) of the antisolvent and lower concentration of HMX in acetone (5 mM) favored the formation of smaller particles. Average particle size ranged from 30 to 128 nm under different experimental conditions. Nano-HMX was characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC). FTIR, XRD, and TGA-DSC studies revealed that the nano-HMX was in the β-polymorphic form.

  16. Dynamic Model of an Ammonia Synthesis Reactor Based on Open Information

    OpenAIRE

    Jinasena, Asanthi; Lie, Bernt; Glemmestad, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia is a widely used chemical, hence the ammonia manufacturing process has become a standard case study in the scientific community. In the field of mathematical modeling of the dynamics of ammonia synthesis reactors, there is a lack of complete and well documented models. Therefore, the main aim of this work is to develop a complete and well documented mathematical model for observing the dynamic behavior of an industrial ammonia synthesis reactor system. The mode...

  17. Synthesis and ultrastructure of plate-like apatite single crystals as a model for tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Zhi, E-mail: zhuang@meiji.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Yoshimura, Hideyuki, E-mail: hyoshi@isc.meiji.ac.jp [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Aizawa, Mamoru, E-mail: mamorua@isc.meiji.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an inorganic constituent compound of human bones and teeth, with superior biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics. Its crystal structure is hexagonal, characterized by a(b)- and c-planes. In vertebrate long bones, HAp crystals have a c-axis orientation, while in tooth enamel, they have an a(b)-axis orientation. Many methods can be used to synthesize c-axis oriented HAp single crystals; however, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports on a synthesis method for a(b)-axis oriented HAp single crystals. In this study, we successfully synthesized plate-like HAp crystals at the air–liquid interface of a starting solution via an enzyme reaction of urea with urease. Crystal phase analysis and ultrastructure observations were carried out, and the results indicated that the particles were single crystals, with almost the same a(b)-axis orientation as tooth enamel. It is hoped that by utilizing their unique surface charge and atomic arrangement, the resulting particles can be used as a high-performance biomaterial, capable of adsorbing bio-related substances and a model for tooth enamel. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of plate-like hydroxyapatite crystals at air–liquid interface ► Ultrastructural analysis of plate-like hydroxyapatite crystals ► Plate-like hydroxyapatite single crystals with a high a(b)-axis orientation ► Plate-like hydroxyapatite single crystals as a model for tooth enamel.

  18. Structural equation modeling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jichuan

    2012-01-01

    A reference guide for applications of SEM using Mplus Structural Equation Modeling: Applications Using Mplus is intended as both a teaching resource and a reference guide. Written in non-mathematical terms, this book focuses on the conceptual and practical aspects of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Basic concepts and examples of various SEM models are demonstrated along with recently developed advanced methods, such as mixture modeling and model-based power analysis and sample size estimate for SEM. The statistical modeling program, Mplus, is also featured and provides researchers with a

  19. eshless Method for Acoustic and Elastic Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaXiaofeng; HuTianyue; WangRunqiu

    2005-01-01

    Wave equation method is one of the fundamental techniques for seismic modeling and imaging. In this paper the element-free-method (EFM) was used to solve acoustic and elastic equations.The key point of this method is no need of elements, which makes nodes free from the elemental restraint. Besides, the moving-least-squares (MLS) criterion in EFM leads to a high accuracy and smooth derivatives. The theories of EFM for both acoustic and elastic wave equations as well as absorbing boundary conditions were discussed respectively. Furthermore, some pre-stack models were used to show the good performance of EFM in seismic modeling.

  20. A Method for Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Le Guilly, Thibaut; Ravn, Anders Peter;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to check for feature interactions in a system assembled from independently developed concurrent processes as found in many reactive systems. The method combines and refines existing definitions and adds a set of activities. The activities describe how to populate the ...... the definitions with models to ensure that all interactions are captured. The method is illustrated on a home automation example with model checking as analysis tool. In particular, the modelling formalism is timed automata and the analysis uses UPPAAL to find interactions....

  1. On-line core axial power distribution synthesis method from in-core and ex-core neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Wang Kee; Cho, Byung Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    This document describes the methodology in detail and the synthesis coefficients of the Fourier series expansion and the cubic spline synthesis techniques. A computer program was developed to generate the synthesis coefficients and the core power distribution. For the illustration, various axial power shapes for YGN 3 Cycle 1 and SMART were synthesized using the simulated in-core and/or ex-core detector signals. The results of this study will be useful to select the best synthesis method for the SMART core monitoring and protection systems and to evaluate the accuracy of the synthesized power shape. 4 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  2. Level Crossing Methods in Stochastic Models

    CERN Document Server

    Brill, Percy H

    2008-01-01

    Since its inception in 1974, the level crossing approach for analyzing a large class of stochastic models has become increasingly popular among researchers. This volume traces the evolution of level crossing theory for obtaining probability distributions of state variables and demonstrates solution methods in a variety of stochastic models including: queues, inventories, dams, renewal models, counter models, pharmacokinetics, and the natural sciences. Results for both steady-state and transient distributions are given, and numerous examples help the reader apply the method to solve problems fa

  3. Synthesis of image sequences for Korean sign language using 3D shape model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mun-Ho; Choi, Chang-Seok; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeon, Joon-Hyeon

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes a method for offering information and realizing communication to the deaf-mute. The deaf-mute communicates with another person by means of sign language, but most people are unfamiliar with it. This method enables to convert text data into the corresponding image sequences for Korean sign language (KSL). Using a general 3D shape model of the upper body leads to generating the 3D motions of KSL. It is necessary to construct the general 3D shape model considering the anatomical structure of the human body. To obtain a personal 3D shape model, this general model is to adjust to the personal base images. Image synthesis for KSL consists of deforming a personal 3D shape model and texture-mapping the personal images onto the deformed model. The 3D motions for KSL have the facial expressions and the 3D movements of the head, trunk, arms and hands and are parameterized for easily deforming the model. These motion parameters of the upper body are extracted from a skilled signer's motion for each KSL and are stored to the database. Editing the parameters according to the inputs of text data yields to generate the image sequences of 3D motions.

  4. Different Synthesis Methods for Ordered Mesoporous Silicas And Their Characteristics Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Jia-heng; ZHAO Jun; CHEN Yong-xi; GUO Li-ping

    2003-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous silica were synthesized under different conditions:hydrothermal synthesis in basic medium,room temperature synthesis in acid medium and sol-gel synthesis in neutral medium,and pore structure,specific surface area and pore size distribution of samples were studied and compared in detail by means of SAXRD,HRTEM,BET,FT-IR.The results show that the mesopores in the samples obtained via above three methods all possess uniform hexagonal arrays in short range.Mesoporous silica obtained in acid medium possesses narrow pore size distribution centered around 1.24nm with specific surface area of 1220 m2·g-1;Mesoporous silica obtained in basic medium by hydrothermal synthesis at 160℃ possesses narrow pore size distribution centered around 1.90nm with specific surface area of 542.8 m2·g-1;and mesoporous silica obtained in neutral medium by sol-gel synthesis possesses broader pore size distribution centered around 4.01nm,specific surface area of 485.0 m2·g-1.Therefore,ordered mesoporous silicas with different pore sizes can be prepared using various synthetic methods and conditions.After heat treatment,Si-O-Si bending vibration strengthens and the adsorption peak of asymmetrical Si-O-Si stretching vibration broadens,and the crosslinking and condensation reaction of silica skeleton strengthen, meanwhile the amount of active centers of hydroxyl group on the surface of mesopores may be influenced,thus chemical assembly activity of mesopores may also be influenced.

  5. Surface Coating of Oxide Powders: A New Synthesis Method to Process Biomedical Grade Nano-Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Palmero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Composite and nanocomposite ceramics have achieved special interest in recent years when used for biomedical applications. They have demonstrated, in some cases, increased performance, reliability, and stability in vivo, with respect to pure monolithic ceramics. Current research aims at developing new compositions and architectures to further increase their properties. However, the ability to tailor the microstructure requires the careful control of all steps of manufacturing, from the synthesis of composite nanopowders, to their processing and sintering. This review aims at deepening understanding of the critical issues associated with the manufacturing of nanocomposite ceramics, focusing on the key role of the synthesis methods to develop homogeneous and tailored microstructures. In this frame, the authors have developed an innovative method, named “surface-coating process”, in which matrix oxide powders are coated with inorganic precursors of the second phase. The method is illustrated into two case studies; the former, on Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA materials for orthopedic applications, and the latter, on Zirconia-based composites for dental implants, discussing the advances and the potential of the method, which can become a valuable alternative to the current synthesis process already used at a clinical and industrial scale.

  6. Guidance for deciding upon use of primary mixed methods studies in research synthesis : Lessons learned in childhood trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.; van Wesel, F.; Slagt, M.

    2014-01-01

    When reviewing literature, mixed methods studies (MMS) are increasingly retrieved, yet it is unclear how they should be dealt with in a research synthesis. In this article we examine the inclusion of primary MMS in research synthesis, based on experiences with a meta-analysis (MA) and a qualitative

  7. Guidance for deciding upon use of primary mixed methods studies in research synthesis: lessons learned in childhood trauma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.; Wesel, F. van; Slagt, M.

    2014-01-01

    When reviewing literature, mixed methods studies (MMS) are increasingly retrieved, yet it is unclear how they should be dealt with in a research synthesis. In this article we examine the inclusion of primary MMS in research synthesis, based on experiences with a meta-analysis (MA) and a qualitative

  8. Yunnan-III models for evolutionary population synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Li, L.; Han, Z.; Zhuang, Y.; Kang, X.

    2013-02-01

    We build the Yunnan-III evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) models by using the mesa stellar evolution code, BaSeL stellar spectra library and the initial mass functions (IMFs) of Kroupa and Salpeter, and present colours and integrated spectral energy distributions (ISEDs) of solar-metallicity stellar populations (SPs) in the range of 1 Myr to 15 Gyr. The main characteristic of the Yunnan-III EPS models is the usage of a set of self-consistent solar-metallicity stellar evolutionary tracks (the masses of stars are from 0.1 to 100 M⊙). This set of tracks is obtained by using the state-of-the-art mesa code. mesa code can evolve stellar models through thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase for low- and intermediate-mass stars. By comparisons, we confirm that the inclusion of TP-AGB stars makes the V - K, V - J and V - R colours of SPs redder and the infrared flux larger at ages log(t/yr) ≳ 7.6 [the differences reach the maximum at log(t/yr) ˜ 8.6, ˜0.5-0.2 mag for colours, approximately two times for K-band flux]. We also find that the colour-evolution trends of Model with-TPAGB at intermediate and large ages are similar to those from the starburst99 code, which employs the Padova-AGB stellar library, BaSeL spectral library and the Kroupa IMF. At last, we compare the colours with the other EPS models comprising TP-AGB stars (such as CB07, M05, V10 and POPSTAR), and find that the B - V colour agrees with each other but the V-K colour shows a larger discrepancy among these EPS models [˜1 mag when 8 ≲ log(t/yr) ≲ 9]. The stellar evolutionary tracks, isochrones, colours and ISEDs can be obtained on request from the first author or from our website (http://www1.ynao.ac.cn/~zhangfh/). Using the isochrones, you can build your EPS models. Now the format of stellar evolutionary tracks is the same as that in the starburst99 code; you can put them into the starburst99 code and get the SP's results. Moreover, the colours involving other passbands

  9. Synthesis and characterization of CdS nanorods by combined sonochemical-solvothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozkurt Pinar Acar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide (CdS nanorods with a diameter of 50 nm and length of approximately 200 nm have been synthesized using combined sonochemical-solvothermal method. Structural properties of CdS nanoparticles synthesized by this method have been compared with the CdS nanoparticles synthesized by sonochemical method alone. The synthesized CdS nanostructures have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and transmission electron microscopy (TEM methods. In addition, the factors affecting the formation of the structures, including reaction time, different type and ratio of precursors, such as sulphur source, have been investigated. Comparison of the results obtained by both the synthesis methods revealed CdS nanoparticles synthesized by the combined sonochemical-solvothermal method to be of high morphological homogeneity compared to the sonochemical method alone. It is interesting to note that ethylenediamine has been found to be prevented from agglomeration by using the combined sonochemical-solvothermal method as the synthesis method. A modified growth mechanism under the inducement of ethylenediamine solutions for the CdS nanorods has been suggested.

  10. Methods for improving enzymatic trans-glycosylation for synthesis of human milk oligosaccharide biomimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuner, Birgitte; Jers, Carsten; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S

    2014-10-08

    Recently, significant progress has been made within enzymatic synthesis of biomimetic, functional glycans, including, for example, human milk oligosaccharides. These compounds are mainly composed of N-acetylglucosamine, fucose, sialic acid, galactose, and glucose, and their controlled enzymatic synthesis is a novel field of research in advanced food ingredient chemistry, involving the use of rare enzymes, which have until now mainly been studied for their biochemical significance, not for targeted biosynthesis applications. For the enzymatic synthesis of biofunctional glycans reaction parameter optimization to promote "reverse" catalysis with glycosidases is currently preferred over the use of glycosyl transferases. Numerous methods exist for minimizing the undesirable glycosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis and for improving the trans-glycosylation yields. This review provides an overview of the approaches and data available concerning optimization of enzymatic trans-glycosylation for novel synthesis of complex bioactive carbohydrates using sialidases, α-l-fucosidases, and β-galactosidases as examples. The use of an adequately high acceptor/donor ratio, reaction time control, continuous product removal, enzyme recycling, and/or the use of cosolvents may significantly improve trans-glycosylation and biocatalytic productivity of the enzymatic reactions. Protein engineering is also a promising technique for obtaining high trans-glycosylation yields, and proof-of-concept for reversing sialidase activity to trans-sialidase action has been established. However, the protein engineering route currently requires significant research efforts in each case because the structure-function relationship of the enzymes is presently poorly understood.

  11. A New Method of Desired Gait Synthesis for Biped Walking Robot Based on Ground Reaction Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new method of desired gait synthesis for biped walking robot based on the ground reaction force was proposed. The relation between the ground reaction force and joint motion is derived using the D'Almbert principle. In view of dynamic walking with high stability, the ZMP(Zero Moment Point)stability criterion must be considered in the desired gait synthesis. After that, the joint trajectories of biped walking robot are decided by substituting the ground reaction force into the aforesaid relation based on the ZMP criterion. The trajectory of desired ZMP is determined by a fuzzy logic based upon the body posture of biped walking robot. The proposed scheme is simulated and experimented on a 10 degree of freedom biped walking robot. The results indicate that the proposed method is feasible.

  12. High-efficient Synthesis of Graphene Oxide Based on Improved Hummers Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huitao; Zhang, Bangwen; Bulin, Chaoke; Li, Ruihong; Xing, Ruiguang

    2016-11-01

    As an important precursor and derivate of graphene, graphene oxide (GO) has received wide attention in recent years. However, the synthesis of GO in an economical and efficient way remains a great challenge. Here we reported an improved NaNO3-free Hummers method by partly replacing KMnO4 with K2FeO4 and controlling the amount of concentrated sulfuric acid. As compared to the existing NaNO3-free Hummers methods, this improved routine greatly reduces the reactant consumption while keeps a high yield. The obtained GO was characterized by various techniques, and its derived graphene aerogel was demonstrated as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This improved synthesis shows good prospects for scalable production and applications of GO and its derivatives.

  13. Synthesis of large CZTSe nanoparticles through a two-step hot-injection method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Li, Zhenggang; Lek, Jun Yan

    2015-01-01

    Grain boundaries in Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1x)4 (CZTSSe) thin films act as a defect that reduces the mobility of the charges. Hence one way to improve the performance of these thin film solar cells is to increase the grain size in the films. Most of the synthesis methods published so far for CZTSSe colloidal...... nanoparticles that can easily be dispersed in non-polar solvents could be better. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) nanoparticles are synthesized using the hot-injection method with oleylamine, trioctylphosphine, and hexadecane as the solvents. Selenium (Se) is introduced in the liquid phase to encourage...... molecules, solvents and precursors, and by controlling the initial monomer concentration. Additionally, we show how our new synthesis route can be utilized to achieve targeted ratios of CZTS and CZTSe nanoparticles to be used for mixed-phase CZTSSe thin films....

  14. Chemical vs. biotechnological synthesis of C13-apocarotenoids: current methods, applications and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Vicente F; López, Javiera; Cárcamo, Martín; Agosin, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    Apocarotenoids are natural compounds derived from the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids. Particularly, C13-apocarotenoids are volatile compounds that contribute to the aromas of different flowers and fruits and are highly valued by the Flavor and Fragrance industry. So far, the chemical synthesis of these terpenoids has dominated the industry. Nonetheless, the increasing consumer demand for more natural and sustainable processes raises an interesting opportunity for bio-production alternatives. In this regard, enzymatic biocatalysis and metabolically engineered microorganisms emerge as attractive biotechnological options. The present review summarizes promising bioengineering approaches with regard to chemical production methods for the synthesis of two families of C13-apocarotenoids: ionones/dihydroionones and damascones/damascenone. We discuss each method and its applicability, with a thorough comparative analysis for ionones, focusing on the production process, regulatory aspects, and sustainability.

  15. Numerical methods and modelling for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides a step-by-step approach to numerical methods in engineering modelling. The authors provide a consistent treatment of the topic, from the ground up, to reinforce for students that numerical methods are a set of mathematical modelling tools which allow engineers to represent real-world systems and compute features of these systems with a predictable error rate. Each method presented addresses a specific type of problem, namely root-finding, optimization, integral, derivative, initial value problem, or boundary value problem, and each one encompasses a set of algorithms to solve the problem given some information and to a known error bound. The authors demonstrate that after developing a proper model and understanding of the engineering situation they are working on, engineers can break down a model into a set of specific mathematical problems, and then implement the appropriate numerical methods to solve these problems. Uses a “building-block” approach, starting with simpler mathemati...

  16. Novel method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their application on wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroumand, Majid Nasiri [Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Montazer, Majid [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simon, Frank [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Dresden (Germany); Liesiene, Jolanta [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas (Lithuania); Šaponjic, Zoran [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Dutschk, Victoria, E-mail: v.dutschk@utwente.nl [Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Tentative mechanism for reduction of Ag{sup +} by polyphenols having two hydroxy groups in ortho-position – the use of silver nanoparticles and an aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel as a reducing agent for synthesis silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate. - Highlights: • A new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles suitable to impart antibacterial properties of wool fabric proposed. • Silver nanopartilces were synthesized by a biochemical reduction method. • An aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel was used as a reducing agent for synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate. - Abstract: In this study, a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) suitable to impart antibacterial properties of wool fabric is proposed. AgNPs were synthesized by a biochemical reduction method. An aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel was used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of AgNPs from silver nitrate. The ratio of dye to silver nitrate concentration (R{sub Dye}/{sub Ag} = [Dye]/[AgNO{sub 3}]) is the influencing factor in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles formation was followed by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. The size and shape of AgNPs were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size distribution and Zetapotential of nanoparticles were evaluated using diffraction light scattering (DLS) measurements. The antibacterial potential of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was examined qualitatively and quantitatively. Kinetic analysis of the bacteria reduction using AgNPs synthesized in different way was performed. AgNPs were applied on wool fabrics by exhaustion. The changes in surface morphology of wool fibers after AgNPs loading were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The amounts of silver deposited on wool fabrics at different pH and temperature were compared applying

  17. Experimental Studies and Modeling of Synthesis Gas Production and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Hamid

    2012-07-01

    In this work, an investigation on the production of synthetic fuel from gaseous hydrocarbons (HCs)/bio-HCs and liquid bio-HCs on a small-scale unit has been carried out. The research project consists of two major parts, a modified version of a plasma-assisted catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) gliding arc (GlidArc) reactor and a thermally stable single-tube fixed-bed Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactor. The potential for the CPO of methane to produce synthesis gas (syngas) was studied experimentally and thermodynamically at a fixed pressure (1 bar) and electric power (0.3 kw). The investigations were performed in a partially adiabatic plasma-assisted (nonthermal) GlidArc reactor, using a Ni-based catalyst. Two cases were studied: in the first, normal air (molar ratio of O2/N2=21/79) was used, whereas enriched air (O2/N2=40/60) was utilized in the second. The individual effect of the O2/CH4 molar ratio, gas hour space velocity (GHSV) and bed exiting temperature (Texit) was studied for both cases. The main trends of the CH4 conversion, the syngas (H2 and CO) yield and the thermal efficiency of the reactor based on the lower heating value (LHV) were analyzed and compared. A numerical investigation of the CPO of methane to syngas using a GlidArc reactor was also studied. A 2D heterogeneous plug-flow model with radial dispersion and no gradients inside the catalyst pellet are used, including the transport equations for the gas and solid phase and reaction rate equations. The governing equations of this model formed a set of stationary differential algebraic equations coupled with the non-linear algebraic equations, and were solved numerically using in-house MATLAB code. Model results of CPO of methane were compared to previous experimental data with the GlidArc reactor found in the literature. A close match between the calculated and experimental results for temperature, reactant (CH4 and O2) conversion, H2 and CO yields and species molefraction were obtained. The developed

  18. Modeling complex work systems - method meets reality

    OpenAIRE

    Veer, van der, C.G.; Hoeve, Machteld; Lenting, Bert F.

    1996-01-01

    Modeling an existing task situation is often a first phase in the (re)design of information systems. For complex systems design, this model should consider both the people and the organization involved, the work, and situational aspects. Groupware Task Analysis (GTA) as part of a method for the design of complex systems, has been applied in a situation of redesign of a Dutch public administration system. The most feasible method to collect information in this case was ethnography, the resulti...

  19. Mixed metal oxide crystalline powders and method for the synthesis thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, I.H.; Blonski, R.P.; Maloney, J.J.; Welch, J.J.; Pipoly, R.A.; Byrne, C.J.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described for the solid state synthesis of mixed metal oxide crystalline powders comprising the steps of: preparing a raw material mixture containing at least two different metal cations; adding a template material to said mixture and blending it therewith; initiating formation of a mixed metal oxide by calcination of said mixture and said template material, whereby particles of the mixed metal oxides are formed in powder form; and thereafter recovering said mixed metal oxide particles.

  20. A Facile Method for Asymmetric Synthesis of β-Hydroxy-α-amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Shuo; LI,Lei; ZHANG,Zhi-Hui; XU,Peng-Fei

    2004-01-01

    @@ β-Hydroxy-a-amino acids are an important class of amino acids due to their inherent biological investigations[1] and as structural components of more complex biomolecules.[2] β-Hydroxy-a-amino acids have been used as intermediates in the asymmetric synthesis of other compounds.[3] An efficient and convenient concise method for the preparation of optically pure enantiomers of β-hydroxy-α-amino acids would be of general interest.

  1. Synthetic strategies and parameters involved in the synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides according to the phosphoramidite method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, S L; Caruthers, M H

    2001-05-01

    The phosphoramidite approach has had a major impact on the synthesis of oligonucleotides. This unit describes parameters that affect the performance of this method for preparing oligodeoxyribonucleotides, as well as a number of compatible strategies. Milestones that led to the discovery of the approach are chronologically reported. Alternate strategies are also described to underscore the versatility by which these synthons can be obtained. Mechanisms of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidite activation, factors affecting condensation, and deprotection strategies are discussed.

  2. Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.; Hunter, Gary W; Laura Evans; Xu, Jennifer C.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing ...

  3. Computer-aided methods for analysis and synthesis of supersonic cruise aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Computer-aided methods are reviewed which are being developed by Langley Research Center in-house work and by related grants and contracts. Synthesis methods to size structural members to meet strength and stiffness (flutter) requirements are emphasized and described. Because of the strong interaction among the aerodynamic loads, structural stiffness, and member sizes of supersonic cruise aircraft structures, these methods are combined into systems of computer programs to perform design studies. The approaches used in organizing these systems to provide efficiency, flexibility of use in an iterative process, and ease of system modification are discussed.

  4. Complete characterization of strictly positive real regions and robust strictly positive real synthesis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The concept of weak strictly positive real regions is introduced, and its properties are discussed. By using the complete discrimination system for polynomials, complete characterization of the (weak) strictly positive real regions for transfer functions in coefficient space is given. A new effective method for robust strictly positive real synthesis is proposed. This method results in necessary and sufficient conditions for low-order stable interval polynomials and segment polynomials, and is also efficient for high-order cases. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of this method.

  5. Complete characterization of strictly positive real regions and robust strictly positive real synthesis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王龙; 郁文生

    2000-01-01

    The concept of weak strictly positive real regions is introduced, and its properties are discussed . By using the complete discrimination system for polynomials, complete characterization of the (weak) strictly positive real regions for transfer functions in coefficient space is given. A new effective method for robust strictly positive real synthesis is proposed. This method results in necessary and sufficient conditions for low-order stable interval polynomials and segment polynomials, and is also efficient for high-order cases. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of this method.

  6. Computer-Aided Modelling Methods and Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    The development of models for a range of applications requires methods and tools. In many cases a reference model is required that allows the generation of application specific models that are fit for purpose. There are a range of computer aided modelling tools available that help to define...... a taxonomy of aspects around conservation, constraints and constitutive relations. Aspects of the ICAS-MoT toolbox are given to illustrate the functionality of a computer aided modelling tool, which incorporates an interface to MS Excel....

  7. Command Generator Tracker Synthesis Methods Using an LQG (Linear System Model, Quadratic Cost, and Gaussian Noise Process) Derived Proportional Plus Integral Controller Based on the Integral of the Regulation Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    4 DISTURBANCE NOISE STRENGTHS":2n (B-2b) B -48 x* IT -. . 5 * 5 ~ a.. *1pTE NaSt9*)A9~ is-.r COMUT K*NMASE STAENA it 4A14 isI ~ řmA rif 𔃿 1W r& 6N...this guide.) The truth model description is identified by the heading "TRUTH MODELO . The matrices of the continuous-time system are listed first. The

  8. MFI-type boroaluminosilicate: A comparative study between the direct synthesis and the templating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Yu; Hao, Xiang-Ying; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Cui; Zhang, Yin-Qing; Liu, Shuangxi

    2006-03-01

    Boroaluminosilicate with MFI zeotype (henceforth B-ZSM-5) was synthesized both via the direct synthesis where ZSM-5 was employed as crystal seed and the templating method by using TPABr as the structure-directing agent (SDA). Characterization based on its structure, bonding, surface acidity, and morphology was performed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), 11B MAS NMR spectrometry, FT-IR spectrometry, pyridine-chemisorption IR spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of the prepared zeolites was determined by ICP-AES; the zeolite framework stability was investigated by steam treatment. The differences in the physicochemical properties of B-ZSM-5 prepared by the two methods were compared and discussed. In the direct synthesis, increasing initial boron-substitution ratio concomitantly brings about increasing difficulty to prepare pure B-ZSM-5 and, MFI-type borosilicate (free of aluminum) cannot be synthesized; the highest SiO 2/Al 2O 3 ratio=70.64 is received. B-ZSM-5 prepared by the templating method shows remarkable hydrothermal stability than its counterpart prepared by the direct synthesis.

  9. Providing the meta-model of development of competency using the meta-ethnography approach: Part 2. Synthesis of the available competency development models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Akbari Farmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Considering the importance and necessity of competency-based education at a global level and with respect to globalization and the requirement of minimum competencies in medical fields, medical education communities and organizations worldwide have tried to determine the competencies, present frameworks and education models to respond to be sure of the ability of all graduates. In the literature, we observed numerous competency development models that refer to the same issues with different terminologies. It seems that evaluation and synthesis of all these models can finally result in designing a comprehensive meta-model for competency development. Methods: Meta-ethnography is a useful method for synthesis of qualitative research that is used to develop models that interpret the results in several studies. Considering that the aim of this study is to ultimately provide a competency development meta-model, in the previous section of the study, the literature review was conducted to achieve competency development models. Models obtained through the search were studied in details, and the key concepts of the models and overarching concepts were extracted in this section, models’ concepts were reciprocally translated and the available competency development models were synthesized. Results: A presentation of the competency development meta-model and providing a redefinition of the Dreyfus brothers model. Conclusions: Given the importance of competency-based education at a global level and the need to review curricula and competency-based curriculum design, it is required to provide competency development as well as meta-model to be the basis for curriculum development. As there are a variety of competency development models available, in this study, it was tried to develop the curriculum using them. Keywords: Meta-ethnography, Competency development, Meta-model, Qualitative synthesis

  10. Geostatistical methods applied to field model residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Fox; Mosegaard, K.; Olsen, Nils

    consists of measurement errors and unmodelled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyse the residuals of the Oersted(09d/04) field model [http://www.dsri.dk/Oersted/Field_models/IGRF_2005_candidates/], which is based...

  11. Modeling complex work systems - method meets reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Hoeve, Machteld; Lenting, Bert

    1996-01-01

    Modeling an existing task situation is often a first phase in the (re)design of information systems. For complex systems design, this model should consider both the people and the organization involved, the work, and situational aspects. Groupware Task Analysis (GTA) as part of a method for the

  12. Modeling complex work systems - method meets reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van der Gerrit C.; Hoeve, Machteld; Lenting, Bert F.

    1996-01-01

    Modeling an existing task situation is often a first phase in the (re)design of information systems. For complex systems design, this model should consider both the people and the organization involved, the work, and situational aspects. Groupware Task Analysis (GTA) as part of a method for the desi

  13. Synthesis of lumped models from N-port scattering parameter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, James C.

    1994-03-01

    A closed form technique is described which allows the synthesis of an N-node lumped network from N-port scattering parameter (S-parameter) data. The synthesis is appropriate for networks where N is very large, for example, high speed digital interconnect networks. The resulting lumped model can be used in SPICE and other simulators. The synthesis is valid for any structure that is small with respect to wavelength. Thus it is also appropriate for synthesizing lumped models of simple discontinuities, such as step junctions and cross junctions. A description of the theory and several examples are provided.

  14. Synthesis of superheavy elements: Uncertainty analysis to improve the predictive power of reaction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hongliang; Boilley, David; Abe, Yasuhisa; Shen, Caiwan

    2016-09-01

    Background: Synthesis of superheavy elements is performed by heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions. However, fusion is known to be hindered with respect to what can be observed with lighter ions. Thus some delicate ambiguities remain on the fusion mechanism that eventually lead to severe discrepancies in the calculated formation probabilities coming from different fusion models. Purpose: In the present work, we propose a general framework based upon uncertainty analysis in the hope of constraining fusion models. Method: To quantify uncertainty associated with the formation probability, we propose to propagate uncertainties in data and parameters using the Monte Carlo method in combination with a cascade code called kewpie2, with the aim of determining the associated uncertainty, namely the 95 % confidence interval. We also investigate the impact of different models or options, which cannot be modeled by continuous probability distributions, on the final results. An illustrative example is presented in detail and then a systematic study is carried out for a selected set of cold-fusion reactions. Results: It is rigorously shown that, at the 95 % confidence level, the total uncertainty of the empirical formation probability appears comparable to the discrepancy between calculated values. Conclusions: The results obtained from the present study provide direct evidence for predictive limitations of the existing fusion-evaporation models. It is thus necessary to find other ways to assess such models for the purpose of establishing a more reliable reaction theory, which is expected to guide future experiments on the production of superheavy elements.

  15. A survey of real face modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Dai, Yugang; He, Xiangzhen; Wan, Fucheng

    2017-09-01

    The face model has always been a research challenge in computer graphics, which involves the coordination of multiple organs in faces. This article explained two kinds of face modeling method which is based on the data driven and based on parameter control, analyzed its content and background, summarized their advantages and disadvantages, and concluded muscle model which is based on the anatomy of the principle has higher veracity and easy to drive.

  16. Two new prediction rules for spontaneous pregnancy leading to live birth among subfertile couples, based on the synthesis of three previous models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C. Hunault; J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.A. Collins (John); J.L.H. Evers (Johannes); E.R. te Velde (Egbert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Several models have been published for the prediction of spontaneous pregnancy among subfertile patients. The aim of this study was to broaden the empirical basis for these predictions by making a synthesis of three previously published models. METHODS: We u

  17. Two new prediction rules for spontaneous pregnancy leading to live birth among subfertile couples, based on the synthesis of three previous models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C. Hunault; J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.A. Collins (John); J.L.H. Evers (Johannes); E.R. te Velde (Egbert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Several models have been published for the prediction of spontaneous pregnancy among subfertile patients. The aim of this study was to broaden the empirical basis for these predictions by making a synthesis of three previously published models. METHODS: We u

  18. APPLICATION OF DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMATIONS FOR THE MODELING MOTION OF AEROSTATIC VEHICLES AND FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF CONTROL ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Gusynin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  The approach to simulation of flight dynamics and numerically-analytical method of airship control algorithms are offered. It’s based on differential transformations of initial mathematical model of airship motion. The given approach allows for elimination of viewing time function for their differential spectra in the image field. It gives the possibility to reduce a problem of closed algorithm synthesis of vehicle control to the solution of non-linear equation system concerning control variable.

  19. Constructive Epistemic Modeling: A Hierarchical Bayesian Model Averaging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, F. T. C.; Elshall, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Constructive epistemic modeling is the idea that our understanding of a natural system through a scientific model is a mental construct that continually develops through learning about and from the model. Using the hierarchical Bayesian model averaging (HBMA) method [1], this study shows that segregating different uncertain model components through a BMA tree of posterior model probabilities, model prediction, within-model variance, between-model variance and total model variance serves as a learning tool [2]. First, the BMA tree of posterior model probabilities permits the comparative evaluation of the candidate propositions of each uncertain model component. Second, systemic model dissection is imperative for understanding the individual contribution of each uncertain model component to the model prediction and variance. Third, the hierarchical representation of the between-model variance facilitates the prioritization of the contribution of each uncertain model component to the overall model uncertainty. We illustrate these concepts using the groundwater modeling of a siliciclastic aquifer-fault system. The sources of uncertainty considered are from geological architecture, formation dip, boundary conditions and model parameters. The study shows that the HBMA analysis helps in advancing knowledge about the model rather than forcing the model to fit a particularly understanding or merely averaging several candidate models. [1] Tsai, F. T.-C., and A. S. Elshall (2013), Hierarchical Bayesian model averaging for hydrostratigraphic modeling: Uncertainty segregation and comparative evaluation. Water Resources Research, 49, 5520-5536, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20428. [2] Elshall, A.S., and F. T.-C. Tsai (2014). Constructive epistemic modeling of groundwater flow with geological architecture and boundary condition uncertainty under Bayesian paradigm, Journal of Hydrology, 517, 105-119, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.05.027.

  20. Aperture domain model image reconstruction (ADMIRE) with plane wave synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, Kazuyuki; Tierney, Jaime; Byram, Brett

    2017-03-01

    In our previous studies, we demonstrated that our aperture domain model-based clutter suppression algorithm improved image quality of in vivo B-mode data obtained from focused transmit beam sequences. Our approach suppresses off-axis clutter and reverberation and tackles limitations of related algorithms because it preserves RF channel signals and speckle statistics. We call the algorithm aperture domain model image reconstruction (ADMIRE). We previously focused on reverberation suppression, but ADMIRE is also effective at suppressing off-axis clutter. We are interested in how ADMIRE performs on plane wave sequences and the impact of AD- MIRE applied before and after synthetic beamforming of steered plane wave sequences. We employed simulated phantoms using Field II and tissue-mimicking phantoms to evaluate ADMIRE applied to plane wave sequencing. We generated images acquired from plane waves with and without synthetic aperture synthesis and measured contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). For simulated cyst images formed from single plane waves, the contrast for delay-and-sum (DAS) and ADMIRE are 15.64 dB and 28.34 dB, respectively, while the CNR are 1.76 dB and 3.90 dB, respectively. Based on these findings, ADMIRE improves plane wave image quality. We also applied ADMIRE to resolution phantoms having a point target at 3 cm depth on-axis, simulating the point spread functions from data obtained from 1 and 75 steered plane waves, along with linear scan at focus of 3 and 4 cm depth. We then examined the outcome of applying ADMIRE before and after synthetic aperture processing. Finally, we applied this to an in vivo carotid artery.

  1. Impact of synthesis methods on the transport of single walled carbon nanotubes in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Indranil; Duch, Mathew C; Gits, Colton C; Hersam, Mark C; Walker, Sharon L

    2012-11-06

    In this study, a systematic approach has been followed to investigate the fate and transport of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from synthesis to environmentally relevant conditions. Three widely used SWCNT synthesis methods have been investigated in this study including high pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco), SWeNT CoMoCat, and electric arc discharge technique (EA). This study relates the transport of three SWCNTs (HiPco-D, SG65-D, and P2-D) with different synthesis methods and residual catalyst content revealing their influence on the subsequent fate of the nanotubes. To minimize nanotube bundling and aggregation, the SWCNTs were dispersed using the biocompatible triblock copolymer Pluronic, which allowed the comparison in the transport trends among these SWCNTs. After purification, the residual metal catalyst between the SWCNTs follows the trend: HiPco-D > SG65-D > P2-D. The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) and hydrodynamic diameter of SWCNTs remained insensitive to SWCNT type, pH, and presence of natural organic matter (NOM); but were affected by ionic strength (IS) and ion valence (K(+), Ca(2+)). In monovalent ions, the hydrodynamic diameter of SWCNTs was not influenced by IS, whereas larger aggregation was observed for HiPco-D with IS than P2-D and SG65-D in the presence of Ca(2+). Transport of HiPco-D in the porous media was significantly higher than SG65-D followed by P2-D. Release of HiPco-D from porous media was higher than SG65-D followed by P2-D, though negligible amount of all types of SWCNTs (acidic than SG65-D followed by P2-D, which is similar to the transport trend. Overall, it was observed that the synthesis methods resulted in distinctive breakthrough trends, which were correlated to metal content. These findings will facilitate the safe design of environmental friendly SWCNTs by minimizing mobility in aquatic environments.

  2. Microfluidic very large scale integration (VLSI) modeling, simulation, testing, compilation and physical synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art techniques for the modeling, simulation, testing, compilation and physical synthesis of mVLSI biochips. The authors describe a top-down modeling and synthesis methodology for the mVLSI biochips, inspired by microelectronics VLSI methodologies. They introduce a modeling framework for the components and the biochip architecture, and a high-level microfluidic protocol language. Coverage includes a topology graph-based model for the biochip architecture, and a sequencing graph to model for biochemical application, showing how the application model can be obtained from the protocol language. The techniques described facilitate programmability and automation, enabling developers in the emerging, large biochip market. · Presents the current models used for the research on compilation and synthesis techniques of mVLSI biochips in a tutorial fashion; · Includes a set of "benchmarks", that are presented in great detail and includes the source code of several of the techniques p...

  3. Development of a Probabilistic Component Mode Synthesis Method for the Analysis of Non-Deterministic Substructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Ferri, Aldo A.

    1995-01-01

    Standard methods of structural dynamic analysis assume that the structural characteristics are deterministic. Recognizing that these characteristics are actually statistical in nature, researchers have recently developed a variety of methods that use this information to determine probabilities of a desired response characteristic, such as natural frequency, without using expensive Monte Carlo simulations. One of the problems in these methods is correctly identifying the statistical properties of primitive variables such as geometry, stiffness, and mass. This paper presents a method where the measured dynamic properties of substructures are used instead as the random variables. The residual flexibility method of component mode synthesis is combined with the probabilistic methods to determine the cumulative distribution function of the system eigenvalues. A simple cantilever beam test problem is presented that illustrates the theory.

  4. Application of the Probabilistic Dynamic Synthesis Method to the Analysis of a Realistic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Ferri, Aldo A.

    1998-01-01

    The Probabilistic Dynamic Synthesis method is a new technique for obtaining the statistics of a desired response engineering quantity for a structure with non-deterministic parameters. The method uses measured data from modal testing of the structure as the input random variables, rather than more "primitive" quantities like geometry or material variation. This modal information is much more comprehensive and easily measured than the "primitive" information. The probabilistic analysis is carried out using either response surface reliability methods or Monte Carlo simulation. A previous work verified the feasibility of the PDS method on a simple seven degree-of-freedom spring-mass system. In this paper, extensive issues involved with applying the method to a realistic three-substructure system are examined, and free and forced response analyses are performed. The results from using the method are promising, especially when the lack of alternatives for obtaining quantitative output for probabilistic structures is considered.

  5. Multi-frequency synthesis algorithm based on Generalized Maximum Entropy Method. Application to 0954+658

    CERN Document Server

    Bajkova, Anisa T

    2011-01-01

    We propose the multi-frequency synthesis (MFS) algorithm with spectral correction of frequency-dependent source brightness distribution based on maximum entropy method. In order to take into account the spectral terms of n-th order in the Taylor expansion for the frequency-dependent brightness distribution, we use a generalized form of the maximum entropy method suitable for reconstruction of not only positive-definite functions, but also sign-variable ones. The proposed algorithm is aimed at producing both improved total intensity image and two-dimensional spectral index distribution over the source. We consider also the problem of frequency-dependent variation of the radio core positions of self-absorbed active galactic nuclei, which should be taken into account in a correct multi-frequency synthesis. First, the proposed MFS algorithm has been tested on simulated data and then applied to four-frequency synthesis imaging of the radio source 0954+658 from VLBA observational data obtained quasi-simultaneously ...

  6. Structural Ceramic Nanocomposites: A Review of Properties and Powders’ Synthesis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic nanocomposites are attracting growing interest, thanks to new processing methods enabling these materials to go from the research laboratory scale to the commercial level. Today, many different types of nanocomposite structures are proposed in the literature; however, to fully exploit their exceptional properties, a deep understanding of the materials’ behavior across length scales is necessary. In fact, knowing how the nanoscale structure influences the bulk properties enables the design of increasingly performing composite materials. A further key point is the ability of tailoring the desired nanostructured features in the sintered composites, a challenging issue requiring a careful control of all stages of manufacturing, from powder synthesis to sintering. This review is divided into four parts. In the first, classification and general issues of nanostructured ceramics are reported. The second provides basic structure–property relations, highlighting the grain-size dependence of the materials properties. The third describes the role of nanocrystalline second-phases on the mechanical properties of ordinary grain sized ceramics. Finally, the fourth part revises the mainly used synthesis routes to produce nanocomposite ceramic powders, underlining when possible the critical role of the synthesis method on the control of microstructure and properties of the sintered ceramics. PMID:28347029

  7. Novel method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their application on wool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroumand, Majid Nasiri; Montazer, Majid; Simon, Frank; Liesiene, Jolanta; Šaponjic, Zoran; Dutschk, Victoria

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) suitable to impart antibacterial properties of wool fabric is proposed. AgNPs were synthesized by a biochemical reduction method. An aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel was used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of AgNPs from silver nitrate. The ratio of dye to silver nitrate concentration (RDye/Ag = [Dye]/[AgNO3]) is the influencing factor in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles formation was followed by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. The size and shape of AgNPs were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size distribution and Zetapotential of nanoparticles were evaluated using diffraction light scattering (DLS) measurements. The antibacterial potential of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was examined qualitatively and quantitatively. Kinetic analysis of the bacteria reduction using AgNPs synthesized in different way was performed. AgNPs were applied on wool fabrics by exhaustion. The changes in surface morphology of wool fibers after AgNPs loading were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The amounts of silver deposited on wool fabrics at different pH and temperature were compared applying energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). AgNPs loaded fabrics showed excellent antibacterial efficiency even after five washing cycles. To investigate the nature of interaction and bonding between the AgNPs and the wool substrate XPS measurements were performed.

  8. Physically Informed Signal Processing Methods for Piano Sound Synthesis: A Research Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanzini Federico

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent developments in physics-based synthesis of piano. The paper considers the main components of the instrument, that is, the hammer, the string, and the soundboard. Modeling techniques are discussed for each of these elements, together with implementation strategies. Attention is focused on numerical issues, and each implementation technique is described in light of its efficiency and accuracy properties. As the structured audio coding approach is gaining popularity, the authors argue that the physical modeling approach will have relevant applications in the field of multimedia communication.

  9. Thermospheric Mass Density Specification: Synthesis of Observations and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    A. F. Arellano (2009), The Data Assimilation Research Testbed: A community data assimilation facility, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 90, pp. 1283–1296...2349, doi:10.1002/jgra.50197. Evensen, G. (1994), Sequential data assimilation with a nonlinear quasigeostrophic model using Monte Carlo methods to

  10. Calibration of complex models through Bayesian evidence synthesis: a demonstration and tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher H; Jit, Mark; Sharples, Linda D; De Angelis, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Decision-analytic models must often be informed using data that are only indirectly related to the main model parameters. The authors outline how to implement a Bayesian synthesis of diverse sources of evidence to calibrate the parameters of a complex model. A graphical model is built to represent how observed data are generated from statistical models with unknown parameters and how those parameters are related to quantities of interest for decision making. This forms the basis of an algorithm to estimate a posterior probability distribution, which represents the updated state of evidence for all unknowns given all data and prior beliefs. This process calibrates the quantities of interest against data and, at the same time, propagates all parameter uncertainties to the results used for decision making. To illustrate these methods, the authors demonstrate how a previously developed Markov model for the progression of human papillomavirus (HPV-16) infection was rebuilt in a Bayesian framework. Transition probabilities between states of disease severity are inferred indirectly from cross-sectional observations of prevalence of HPV-16 and HPV-16-related disease by age, cervical cancer incidence, and other published information. Previously, a discrete collection of plausible scenarios was identified but with no further indication of which of these are more plausible. Instead, the authors derive a Bayesian posterior distribution, in which scenarios are implicitly weighted according to how well they are supported by the data. In particular, we emphasize the appropriate choice of prior distributions and checking and comparison of fitted models.

  11. Novel Diamond Films Synthesis Strategy: Methanol and Argon Atmosphere by Microwave Plasma CVD Method Without Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Jiang, Caiyi; Guo, Shenghui; Zhang, Libo; Gao, Jiyun; Peng, Jinhui; Hu, Tu; Wang, Liang

    2016-09-01

    Diamond thin films are grown on silicon substrates by only using methanol and argon mixtures in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor. It is worth mentioning that the novel strategy makes the synthesis reaction works smoothly without hydrogen atmosphere, and the substrates temperature is only 500 °C. The evidence of surface morphology and thickness under different time is obtained by characterizing the samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffractometer (XRD) spectrum reveals that the preferential orientation of (111) plane sample is obtained. The Raman spectra indicate that the dominant component of all the samples is a diamond. Moreover, the diamond phase content of the targeted films was quantitatively analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method, and the surface roughness of diamond films was investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM). Meanwhile, the possible synthesis mechanism of the diamond films in methanol- and argon-mixed atmosphere was discussed.

  12. Production of advanced materials by methods of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavadze, Giorgi F

    2013-01-01

    This translation from the original Russian book outlines the production of a variety of materials by methods of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The types of materials discussed include: hard, refractory, corrosion and wear-resistant materials, as well as other advanced and speciality materials. The authors address the issue of optimal parameters for SHS reactions occurring during processes involving a preliminary metallothermic reduction stage, and they calculate this using thermodynamic approaches. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this approach, the authors describe experiments focussing on the synthesis of elemental crysalline boron, boron carbides and nitrides. Other parts of this brief include theoretical and experimental results on single-stage production of hard alloys on the basis of titanium and zirconium borides, as well as macrokinetics of degassing and compaciton of SHS-products.This brief is suitable for academics, as well as those working in industrial manufacturing com...

  13. Influence of Plasma Jet Temperature Profiles in Arc Discharge Methods of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Raniszewski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common methods of carbon nanotubes (CNTs synthesis is application of an electric-arc plasma. However, the final product in the form of cathode deposit is composed of carbon nanotubes and a variety of carbon impurities. An assay of carbon nanotubes produced in arc discharge systems available on the market shows that commercial cathode deposits contain about 10% CNTs. Given that the quality of the final product depends on carbon–plasma jet parameters, it is possible to increase the yield of the synthesis by plasma jet control. Most of the carbon nanotubes are multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. It was observed that the addition of catalysts significantly changes the plasma composition, effective ionization potential, the arc channel conductance, and in effect temperature of the arc and carbon elements flux. This paper focuses on the influence of metal components on plasma-jet forming containing carbon nanotubes cathode deposit. The plasma jet temperature control system is presented.

  14. Technology and complete set of the equipment of air-plasma method for synthesis of nanoaerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytin, Yurii D.; Novikov, O. G.

    2004-02-01

    The paper is aimed at studying synthesis and construction, as well as physical-chemical characteristics of nanoaerosols. The technology and product line of the Air-plasma method for synthesis of metal oxide nanopowders to obtain high-performance ceramics (PSNP) is hot and set at manufacturing different-types zirconium ceramics stabilized by yttrium and magnesium oxides, as well as other dopes. For the available equipment, the technologies of producing nanopowders of other metal oxides alongside with circonium oxide and composite oxides (Al203, Ti02, CuO, SiO2, Fe2O2, ZnO, CoO, Cr2O3, PbO, MnO, MgO, CaO, CeO, etc.) are developed and adapted.

  15. Synthesis of novel chalcone derivatives by conventional and microwave irradiation methods and their pharmacological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rayees Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chalcones are abundant in edible plants and are considered to be the precursors of flavonoids and isoflavonoids. Chalcones belong to an important class of flavonoids, which may be prepared by Claisen–Schmidt condensation. They possess a wide range of biological activities and industrial applications. The cytotoxicity against tumour cell lines may be the result of disruption of the cell cycle, inhibition of angiogenesis, interference with p53-MDM2 interaction, mitochondrial uncoupling or induction of apoptosis. Chalcones are synthesized by conventional and microwave assisted synthesis methods. By microwave assisted synthesis, a considerable increase in the reaction rate has been observed and that too, with better yields. The compounds have been screened for cytotoxic activity and antioxidant activity.

  16. An efficient method for the synthesis of dialkyl chlorophosphates from trialkyl phosphites using bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Wang; Chuan Ming Yu; Zhi Wei Chen; Wei Ke Su

    2008-01-01

    A mild and simple method for the synthesis of dialkyl clalorophosphates is described, bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate (BTC) is used as the effective reagent for the conversion of dialkyl phosphites to their corresponding dialkyl chlorophosphates under mild conditions.

  17. A New Method of Deoxygenation in the Synthesis of Taxanes by Hypophosphorous Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jun; ZHANG Meng; YIN Da-Li

    2003-01-01

    @@ Based on the chemistry involved in the radical chain deoxygenation of alcohols by the Barton-McCombie reaction, numerous applications in the synthesis of taxanes were reported. [1] In the original Barton-McCombie method,tributyltin hydride was the hydrogen atom source and tributyltin radical generated from the hydride served as a chain carrier. [2] Although the method gave the good yield and found many applications, the problems associated with the price, toxicity and removal of tin residues prompted search for other hydrogen atom sources. Radical chain deoxygenation of alcohols can be carried out with phosphorus centered radicals, generated from hypophosphorous acid orits salts. [3

  18. Fast Frequency-Weighted Formant Tracking Using Analysis by Synthesis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJianping; YANYonghong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present our current research on formant trajectory estimation using analysis by synthesis method for English Dysarthric speech. The algorithm is implemented in both frequency domain and time domain. Theoretic background and implementation issues are discussed in detail. Experiments show that the frequency-domain implementation is faster than the timedomain implementation. Our algorithm performance is comparable to those from LPC pole-zero analysis method using Esps/Xwaves+. The frequency domain algorithm is also applied to analyze speakers' vowel tri-angle properties using our dysarthria database.

  19. Controlled synthesis of layered Sn3O4 nanobelts by carbothermal reduction method and their gas sensor properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, P H; Longo, E; Varela, J A; Orlandi, M O

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports both the controlled synthesis of Sn3O4 nanobelts by carbothermal reduction method and the gas sensor properties of these nanostructures. The synthesized material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and gas sensor measurements. The results showed that the Sn3O4 nanobelts grow in a layered way and the careful control of experimental parameters is fundamental for stabilization of the correct phase. From the gas sensor measurements using oxygen as analyte gas, it was observed that the Sn3O4 nanobelts exhibit n-type behavior and both the sensitivity and the response time are dependent on the oxygen concentration. A model based on molecules adsorption was proposed to illustrate the mechanism of gas detection of these nanostructures. In summary, these results indicate that Sn3O4 nanobelts synthesized by carbothermal reduction method are promising to be applied as gas sensors.

  20. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: Synthesis of Findings across Cohorts and Relevance to Dietary Guidance1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11–28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index–mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality

  1. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: synthesis of findings across cohorts and relevance to dietary guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-03-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11-28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index-mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality. Thus

  2. Application of Improved Hybrid Interface Substructural Component Modal Synthesis Method inVibration Characteristics of Mistuned Blisk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Bin,BAI Guangchen,; LI Chao

    2014-01-01

    The large and complex structures are divided into hundreds of thousands or millions degrees of freedom(DOF) when they are calculated which will spend a lot of time and the efficiency will be extremely low. The classical component modal synthesis method (CMSM) are used extensively, but for many structures in the engineering of high-rise buildings, aerospace systemic engineerings, marine oil platforms etc, a large amount of calculation is still needed. An improved hybrid interface substructural component modal synthesis method(HISCMSM) is proposed. The parametric model of the mistuned blisk is built by the improved HISCMSM. The double coordinating conditions of the displacement and the force are introduced to ensure the computational accuracy. Compared with the overall structure finite element model method(FEMM), the computational time is shortened by23.86%–31.56%and the modal deviation is 0.002%–0.157% which meets the requirement of the computational accuracy. It is faster 4.46%–10.57% than the classical HISCMSM. So the improved HISCMSM is better than the classical HISCMSM and the overall structure FEMM. Meanwhile, the frequency and the modal shape are researched, considering the factors including rotational speed, gas temperature and geometry size. The strong localization phenomenon of the modal shape’s the maximum displacement and the maximum stress is observed in the second frequency band and it is the most sensitive in the frequency veering. But the localization phenomenon is relatively weak in 1st and the 3d frequency band. The localization of the modal shape is more serious under the condition of the geometric dimensioning mistuned. An improved HISCMSM is proposed, the computational efficiency of the mistuned blisk can be increased observably by this method.

  3. Learning spinal manipulation: A best-evidence synthesis of teaching methods*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainsby, Brynne E.; Clarke, Michelle C.S.; Egonia, Jade R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different reported methods used to teach spinal manipulative therapy to chiropractic students. Methods: For this best-evidence literature synthesis, 5 electronic databases were searched from 1900 to 2015. Eligible studies were critically appraised using the criteria of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Scientifically admissible studies were synthesized following best-evidence synthesis principles. Results: Twenty articles were critically appraised, including 9 randomized clinical trials, 9 cohort studies, and 2 systematic reviews/meta-analyses. Eleven articles were accepted as scientifically admissible. The type of teaching method aids included a Thrust in Motion cervical manikin, instrumented cardiopulmonary reanimation manikin, padded contact with a load cell, instrumented treatment table with force sensor/transducer, and Dynadjust instrument. Conclusions: Several different methods exist in the literature for teaching spinal manipulative therapy techniques; however, future research in this developing area of chiropractic education is proposed. It is suggested that various teaching methods be included in the regular curricula of chiropractic colleges to aid in developing manipulation skills, efficiency, and knowledge of performance. PMID:26998630

  4. Improving the time efficiency of the Fourier synthesis method for slice selection in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahayori, B; Khaneja, N; Johnston, L A; Farrell, P M; Mareels, I M Y

    2016-01-01

    The design of slice selective pulses for magnetic resonance imaging can be cast as an optimal control problem. The Fourier synthesis method is an existing approach to solve these optimal control problems. In this method the gradient field as well as the excitation field are switched rapidly and their amplitudes are calculated based on a Fourier series expansion. Here, we provide a novel insight into the Fourier synthesis method via representing the Bloch equation in spherical coordinates. Based on the spherical Bloch equation, we propose an alternative sequence of pulses that can be used for slice selection which is more time efficient compared to the original method. Simulation results demonstrate that while the performance of both methods is approximately the same, the required time for the proposed sequence of pulses is half of the original sequence of pulses. Furthermore, the slice selectivity of both sequences of pulses changes with radio frequency field inhomogeneities in a similar way. We also introduce a measure, referred to as gradient complexity, to compare the performance of both sequences of pulses. This measure indicates that for a desired level of uniformity in the excited slice, the gradient complexity for the proposed sequence of pulses is less than the original sequence.

  5. A method of synthesis magnetotelluric time-series combining interstation transfer functions and a reference site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Campanyà, Joan

    2016-04-01

    A new method to Synthesis magnetotelluric (MT) data is proposed whereby the MT Time-series of local site are derived using an Inverse Fourier transform of electric and magnetic fields spectrum of local site, which are computed by Combining Interstation transfer functions and a Reference horizontal magnetic time series (STICIR). The method is based on the stability of interstation transfer function, assuming that the geoelectrical structures of the subsurface independent of time. Applying the suggested method, two interstation transfer functions need to be estimated: the quasi-MT impedance tensor and the interstation geomagnetic transfer functions, which are used to compute the horizontal electric fields and the vertical magnetic field at the local site, respectively. The interstation transfer functions can be estimated by single site robust or remote reference (RR) method if another reference site existed. STICIR provides a new way to synthesis MT time-series at the local site combining interstation transfer functions and the magnetic fields at a reference site. Due to this property, STICIR provides significant improvements processing MT data when time-series at the local site are affected by local noise or are truncated. A test with good quality of MT data shows that synthetic time-series are similar to natural electric and magnetic time series. For contaminated data example, when this method is used to remove noise present at the local site, the scatter of MT sounding curves are clear reduced, and the low frequency data quality are improved.

  6. Characterization and comparison of PZT powder synthesis by solid state and sol gel methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Pakizeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   This paper describes the synthesis of Pb(Zr0.95Ti0.05O3 powder by sol gel and solid state methods. PZT powders were fabricated by solid-state reaction process using metal oxides and in sol gel method salts and organic compounds were employed. The powders were calcined at 700 and 950 oC in sol gel and solid state methods, respectively. The synthesized powders were analyzed by FTIR and XRD. The average crystal grain size of PZT powders determined by X-ray diffraction method using the Scherrer equation, and in sol gel and solid state methods measured 42 and 330 nm, respectively. The optical constants of powders were evaluated and compaed using FTIR transmittance spectroscopy and Kramers-Kronig analysis.

  7. Method of generating a computer readable model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A method of generating a computer readable model of a geometrical object constructed from a plurality of interconnectable construction elements, wherein each construction element has a number of connection elements for connecting the construction element with another construction element. The met......A method of generating a computer readable model of a geometrical object constructed from a plurality of interconnectable construction elements, wherein each construction element has a number of connection elements for connecting the construction element with another construction element....... The method comprises encoding a first and a second one of the construction elements as corresponding data structures, each representing the connection elements of the corresponding construction element, and each of the connection elements having associated with it a predetermined connection type. The method...

  8. Methods of modelling relative growth rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arne Pommerening; Anders Muszta

    2015-01-01

    Background:Analysing and modelling plant growth is an important interdisciplinary field of plant science. The use of relative growth rates, involving the analysis of plant growth relative to plant size, has more or less independently emerged in different research groups and at different times and has provided powerful tools for assessing the growth performance and growth efficiency of plants and plant populations. In this paper, we explore how these isolated methods can be combined to form a consistent methodology for modelling relative growth rates. Methods:We review and combine existing methods of analysing and modelling relative growth rates and apply a combination of methods to Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) stem-analysis data from North Wales (UK) and British Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesi (Mirb.) Franco) yield table data. Results:The results indicate that, by combining the approaches of different plant-growth analysis laboratories and using them simultaneously, we can advance and standardise the concept of relative plant growth. Particularly the growth multiplier plays an important role in modelling relative growth rates. Another useful technique has been the recent introduction of size-standardised relative growth rates. Conclusions:Modelling relative growth rates mainly serves two purposes, 1) an improved analysis of growth performance and efficiency and 2) the prediction of future or past growth rates. This makes the concept of relative growth ideally suited to growth reconstruction as required in dendrochronology, climate change and forest decline research and for interdisciplinary research projects beyond the realm of plant science.

  9. Methods of modelling relative growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Pommerening

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Analysing and modelling plant growth is an important interdisciplinary field of plant science. The use of relative growth rates, involving the analysis of plant growth relative to plant size, has more or less independently emerged in different research groups and at different times and has provided powerful tools for assessing the growth performance and growth efficiency of plants and plant populations. In this paper, we explore how these isolated methods can be combined to form a consistent methodology for modelling relative growth rates. Methods We review and combine existing methods of analysing and modelling relative growth rates and apply a combination of methods to Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. stem-analysis data from North Wales (UK and British Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco yield table data. Results The results indicate that, by combining the approaches of different plant-growth analysis laboratories and using them simultaneously, we can advance and standardise the concept of relative plant growth. Particularly the growth multiplier plays an important role in modelling relative growth rates. Another useful technique has been the recent introduction of size-standardised relative growth rates. Conclusions Modelling relative growth rates mainly serves two purposes, 1 an improved analysis of growth performance and efficiency and 2 the prediction of future or past growth rates. This makes the concept of relative growth ideally suited to growth reconstruction as required in dendrochronology, climate change and forest decline research and for interdisciplinary research projects beyond the realm of plant science.

  10. Modelling asteroid brightness variations. I - Numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, H.

    1989-01-01

    A method for generating lightcurves of asteroid models is presented. The effects of the shape of the asteroid and the scattering law of a surface element are distinctly separable, being described by chosen functions that can easily be changed. The shape is specified by means of two functions that yield the length of the radius vector and the normal vector of the surface at a given point. The general shape must be convex, but spherical concavities producing macroscopic shadowing can also be modeled.

  11. Niederhauser's model for epilepsy and wavelet methods

    CERN Document Server

    Trevino, J P; Moran, J L; Murguia, J S; Rosu, H C

    2006-01-01

    Wavelets and wavelet transforms (WT) could be a very useful tool to analyze electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. To illustrate the WT method we make use of a simple electric circuit model introduced by Niederhauser, which is used to produce EEG-like signals, particularly during an epileptic seizure. The original model is modified to resemble the 10-20 derivation of the EEG measurements. WT is used to study the main features of these signals

  12. Modeling Storm Surges Using Discontinuous Galerkin Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    discontinuous Galerkin solutions of the compressible Euler equations with applications to atmospheric simulations,” Journal of Computational Physics, vol...order continuous Galerkin methods were used for the SWE on a sphere [9]. In 2002, Giraldo et al. [10] introduced an efficient DG method for the SWE... hard time transitioning from changing bathymetry slopes causing distortions in the model to include extra line segments. The discrepancies caused us to

  13. Finite-Element Model-Based Design Synthesis of Axial Flux PMBLDC Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasil, Muhammed; Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses design synthesis of a permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) machine using a finite element (FE) model. This work differentiates itself from the past studies by following a synthesis approach, in which many designs that satisfy performance criteria are considered instead...... of a unique solution. The designer can later select a design, based on comparing parameters of the designs, which are critical to the application that the motor will be used. The presented approach makes it easier to define constraints for a design synthesis problem. A detailed description of the setting up...... is demonstrated by designing a segmented axial torus PMBLDC motor for an electric two-wheeler....

  14. New method of synthesis and in vitro studies of a porous biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wers, E., E-mail: wers.eric@hotmail.com [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Lefeuvre, B. [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Pellen-Mussi, P.; Novella, A. [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Oudadesse, H. [Equipe Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 263 avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2016-04-01

    Biomaterials for bone reconstruction represent a widely studied area. In this paper, a new method of synthesis of a porous glass–ceramic obtained by thermal treatment is presented. The prepared biomaterial was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and induced couple plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), mercury porosimetry and by the Archimedes method. In vitro evaluations in a simulated body fluid (SBF) and in contact with SaOS{sub 2} human osteoblasts were also carried out. The porous glass–ceramic is composed of a total porous network of 60% suitable for body fluid and cell infiltration, with pore sizes varying from 60 nm to 143 μm. The presence of two crystalline phases decreases the kinetic of bioactivity compared to an amorphous biomaterial (bioactive glass). A hydroxyapatite layer appears from 15 days of immersion on the surface and inside the pores, showing a biodegradation and a bioactivity in four steps. Cytotoxicity assessments present an increase of the cellular viability after 72 h proving the non-cytotoxic effect of the glass–ceramic. Thus, the results of these different studies indicate that the porous biomaterial may have a potential application for the bone regeneration. This paper also presents the novelty of this method. It is a rapid synthesis which combines simplicity and low cost. This represents an advantage for an eventual industrialization. - Highlights: • The new method of synthesis of a porous glass–ceramic is reproducible. • The porous glass–ceramic possesses a total porosity of 60%. • The biomaterial shows a bioactivity in four steps with hydroxyapatite formation. • 82% of cellular viability is observed on the surface of the biomaterial.

  15. Parametric Hidden Markov Models for Recognition and Synthesis of Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker; Grest, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    the applicability for online recognition based on very noisy 3D tracking data. The use of a parametric representation of movements is shown in a robot demo, where a robot removes objects from a table as demonstrated by an advisor. The synthesis for motor control is performed for arbitrary table-top positions.......In humanoid robotics, the recognition and synthesis of parametric movements plays an extraordinary role for robot human interaction. Such a parametric movement is a movement of a particular type (semantic), for example, similar pointing movements performed at different table-top positions....... For understanding the whole meaning of a movement of a human, the recognition of its type, likewise its parameterization are important. Only both together convey the whole meaning. Vice versa, for mimicry, the synthesis of movements for the motor control of a robot needs to be parameterized, e.g., by the relative...

  16. A method for multiplex gene synthesis employing error correction based on expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy H-C Hsiau

    Full Text Available Our ability to engineer organisms with new biosynthetic pathways and genetic circuits is limited by the availability of protein characterization data and the cost of synthetic DNA. With new tools for reading and writing DNA, there are opportunities for scalable assays that more efficiently and cost effectively mine for biochemical protein characteristics. To that end, we have developed the Multiplex Library Synthesis and Expression Correction (MuLSEC method for rapid assembly, error correction, and expression characterization of many genes as a pooled library. This methodology enables gene synthesis from microarray-synthesized oligonucleotide pools with a one-pot technique, eliminating the need for robotic liquid handling. Post assembly, the gene library is subjected to an ampicillin based quality control selection, which serves as both an error correction step and a selection for proteins that are properly expressed and folded in E. coli. Next generation sequencing of post selection DNA enables quantitative analysis of gene expression characteristics. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach by building and testing over 90 genes for empirical evidence of soluble expression. This technique reduces the problem of part characterization to multiplex oligonucleotide synthesis and deep sequencing, two technologies under extensive development with projected cost reduction.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of zinc borophosphates with ANA-zeotype framework by the microwave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yu, E-mail: songyu@dlpu.edu.cn [Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Ding, Ling; An, Qingda; Zhai, Shangru [Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Song, Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Zinc borophosphate (NH{sub 4}){sub 16}[Zn{sub 16}B{sub 8}P{sub 24}O{sub 96}] (denoted as ZnBP-ANA) with ANA-zeotype structure has been synthesized by employing microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis in the reaction system ZnCl{sub 2}∙6H{sub 2}O-(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}–H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} using ethylene glycol as a co-solvent. The influences of various experimental parameters, such as reaction temperature, solvent ratio, zinc precursors and reactive power, have been systematically investigated. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and so on. Small and homogeneous ZnBP-ANA single crystal with regular cube morphology are crystallized by using microwave solvothermal synthesis method within a shorter time, and its grain size decreases with power. - Graphical abstract: Tailor-made ANA zeolites with varied size can be prepared by simply changing the reaction power. - Highlights: • Zinc borophosphate zeolites with ANA-zeotype structures were prepared by microwave technique. • The size of crystals could be controlled by tuning power. • Synthesis period can be significantly reduced by raising reaction temperature.

  18. A method for multiplex gene synthesis employing error correction based on expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiau, Timothy H-C; Sukovich, David; Elms, Phillip; Prince, Robin N; Strittmatter, Tobias; Stritmatter, Tobias; Ruan, Paul; Curry, Bo; Anderson, Paige; Sampson, Jeff; Anderson, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to engineer organisms with new biosynthetic pathways and genetic circuits is limited by the availability of protein characterization data and the cost of synthetic DNA. With new tools for reading and writing DNA, there are opportunities for scalable assays that more efficiently and cost effectively mine for biochemical protein characteristics. To that end, we have developed the Multiplex Library Synthesis and Expression Correction (MuLSEC) method for rapid assembly, error correction, and expression characterization of many genes as a pooled library. This methodology enables gene synthesis from microarray-synthesized oligonucleotide pools with a one-pot technique, eliminating the need for robotic liquid handling. Post assembly, the gene library is subjected to an ampicillin based quality control selection, which serves as both an error correction step and a selection for proteins that are properly expressed and folded in E. coli. Next generation sequencing of post selection DNA enables quantitative analysis of gene expression characteristics. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach by building and testing over 90 genes for empirical evidence of soluble expression. This technique reduces the problem of part characterization to multiplex oligonucleotide synthesis and deep sequencing, two technologies under extensive development with projected cost reduction.

  19. Optimized extract preparation methods and reaction conditions for improved yeast cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, C Eric; Jewett, Michael C

    2013-10-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a powerful platform technology to help satisfy the growing demand for simple, affordable, and efficient protein production. In this article, we describe a novel CFPS platform derived from the popular bio-manufacturing organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By developing a streamlined crude extract preparation protocol and optimizing the CFPS reaction conditions we were able to achieve active firefly luciferase synthesis yields of 7.7 ± 0.5 µg mL(-1) with batch reactions lasting up to 2 h. This duration of synthesis is the longest ever reported for a yeast CFPS batch reaction. Furthermore, by removing extraneous processing steps and eliminating expensive reagents from the cell-free reaction, we have increased relative product yield (µg protein synthesized per $ reagent cost) over an alternative commonly used method up to 2000-fold from ∼2 × 10(-4) to ∼4 × 10(-1)  µg $(-1) , which now puts the yeast CPFS platform on par with other eukaryotic CFPS platforms commercially available. Our results set the stage for developing a yeast CFPS platform that provides for high-yielding and cost-effective expression of a variety of protein therapeutics and protein libraries.

  20. Methods in Model Order Reduction (MOR) field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志超

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the modeling of systems may be quite large, even up to tens of thousands orders. In spite of the increasing computational powers, direct simulation of these large-scale systems may be impractical. Thus, to industry requirements, analytically tractable and computationally cheap models must be designed. This is the essence task of Model Order Reduction (MOR). This article describes the basics of MOR optimization, various way of designing MOR, and gives the conclusion about existing methods. In addition, it proposed some heuristic footpath.

  1. Autonomy-subnet based structural synthesis and liveness guarantying policy of Petri net model of flexible manufacturing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Lei; HAO Yue

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an autonomous subnet based structural methodology for bottom-up synthesis of Petri Nets for Flexible Manufacturing Systems is proposed. Furthermore, the theoretical analysis of the model constructed by the method is carried by intensively using model's structural information, such as invariants, siphons, etc.. As a result, the analysis leads us to draw the general conclusion that the model obtained is conservativeness and thus bound, and characterize its liveness in terms of zero-marking minimal siphons. It is based on model's structural information that distinguishes our method from others. In line of this thought, a liveness guarantying policy for the obtained model is proposed. Some control subnets are merged into the original model according to the proposed synthesis rules in this paper to ensure that no minimal siphons are emptied in any state, therefore the liveness is guaranteed. As a result, a live, conservative and revertible Petri Nets is obtained. A practical example is also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  2. Modeling ground vehicle acoustic signatures for analysis and synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschke, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stanfield, R. [US Army CECOM, Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate, Fort Belvoir, VA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Security and weapon systems use acoustic sensor signals to classify and identify moving ground vehicles. Developing robust signal processing algorithms for this is expensive, particularly in presence of acoustic clutter or countermeasures. This paper proposes a parametric ground vehicle acoustic signature model to aid the system designer in understanding which signature features are important, developing corresponding feature extraction algorithms and generating low-cost, high-fidelity synthetic signatures for testing. The authors have proposed computer-generated acoustic signatures of armored, tracked ground vehicles to deceive acoustic-sensored smart munitions. They have developed quantitative measures of how accurately a synthetic acoustic signature matches those produced by actual vehicles. This paper describes parameters of the model used to generate these synthetic signatures and suggests methods for extracting these parameters from signatures of valid vehicle encounters. The model incorporates wide-bandwidth and narrow- bandwidth components that are modulated in a pseudo-random fashion to mimic the time dynamics of valid vehicle signatures. Narrow- bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate frequency, amplitude and phase information contained in a single set of narrow frequency- band harmonics. Wide-bandwidth feature extraction techniques estimate parameters of a correlated-noise-floor model. Finally, the authors propose a method of modeling the time dynamics of the harmonic amplitudes as a means adding necessary time-varying features to the narrow-bandwidth signal components. The authors present results of applying this modeling technique to acoustic signatures recorded during encounters with one armored, tracked vehicle. Similar modeling techniques can be applied to security systems.

  3. REMOTE SYNTHESIS AND CONTROL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OF SYSTEM-DYNAMIC MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Masloboev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The general line of research is concerned with development of information technologies and computer simulation tools for management information and analytical support of complex semistructured systems. Regional socio-economic systems are consideredas a representative of this system type. Investigation is carried out within the bounds of development strategy implementation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national safety until 2020 in the Murmansk region, specifically under engineering of high end information infrastructure for innovation and security control problem-solving of regional development. Research methodology consists of system dynamics modeling method, distributed information system engineering technologies, pattern-based modeling and design techniques. The work deals with development of toolkit for decision-making information support problem-solving in the field of innovation security management of regional economics. For that purpose a system-dynamic models suite of innovation process standard components and information technology for remote formation and control of innovation business simulation models under research have been developed. Designed toolkit provides innovation security index dynamics forecasting and innovation business effectiveness of regional economics. Information technology is implemented within the bounds of thin client architecture and is intended for simulation models design process automation of complex systems. Technology implementation software tools provide pattern-based system-dynamic models distributed formation and simulation control of innovation processes. The technology provides availability and reusability index enhancement of information support facilities in application to innovation process simulation at the expense of distributed access to innovation business simulation modeling tools and model synthesis by the reusable components, simulating standard elements of innovation

  4. Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the increased demand of pyrazolines exhibiting biological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, antimicrobial, antitumor, and antitubercular drug activity as a stable fragment in biological moieties, lead us to synthesize 2-pyrazolines by the condensation of various substituted chalcones and hydrazine hydrate in the presence of ethanol. The structure of the synthesized molecules was confirmed on the basis of physical data and extensive spectral studies. All the 13 compounds have been screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging method, NO scavenging assay, superoxide radical scavenging assay and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay. All the compounds showed good free radical scavenging activity which is comparable to that of the standard ascorbic acid, out of which ATP-1, ATP-2 and ATP-3 come out to be the best molecules with an IC50 less than 40 mcg/ml. The results indicated that 2-pyrazolines could be the potential candidates eliciting antioxidant activity, and further studies can be conducted using molecular modeling tools for designing 2-pyrazolines having better activity.

  5. A Facile Method for the Synthesis of 4- Acetylaminobenzo[15]crown-5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yan-qing; WEI Tai-bao; ZHANG You-ming; ZONG Guo-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The 4-acetylaminobenzo[15]crown-5 is an important intermediate in the synthesis of crown ether cyanine dyes1, in addition, the acetylamino can easily be hydrolyzed to be amine2, to our knowledge which also is an usful intermediate3,4, The classical procedure for the synthesis of 4-acetylaminobenzo[15]crown-5 involves several steps2,5: typically nitration of the benzo[15]crown-5, followed by reduction of the introduced nitro group to form amine, and finally,acylation of the amine to give the amide. In the classical procedure, the reduction of the nitro group is usually proceeded under N2 atmosphere and catalysts such as palladium, Raney Ni are usually employed, which constitute a particular inconvenience.We now report a facile one-pot reaction which can be conducted under mild conditions and avoid the time-consuming nitration step and the inconvenient reduction step.The reaction starts with para-selective C-acylation of the benzo[15]crown-5, which is followed by oxime formation and Beckmann rearrangement in situ. The reaction is proceeded by stirring at moderate temperature, a mixture of polyphosphonic acid, benzo[15]crown-5, glacial acetic acid and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (Scheme I), herein polyphosphonic acid act as catalyst.In conclusion, we have found a facile and convenient method for the synthesis of 4-acetylaminobenzo[15]crown-5, with the advantage of mild conditions, simple operation, short reaction time and less pollution compared with the classical procedure. It is a novel procedure for the synthesis of 4- acetylaminobenzo[15]crown-5.

  6. Repetitive BOP coupling (REBOP) in solid phase peptide synthesis. Luliberin synthesis as model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyer, R; Aumelas, A; Caraty, A; Rivaille, P; Castro, B

    1990-05-01

    The coupling reagent (benzotriazol-1-yloxy)tris-(dimethylamino)phosphonium (BOP) hexafluorophosphate was tested in the synthesis of luliberin (LH-RH) with inexpensive classically protected Boc-amino acids, in slight excess, and benzhydryl amino resin, without any other additive. The good solubility of this reagent and its by-products is of particular interest for automated peptide synthesis. [D-His2]LH-RH was also synthesized and compared with LH-RH by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. As shown by the biological tests and the high performance liquid chromatography study, unprotected pyroGlu and Boc-His can be used without any significant racemization but Boc-His(Boc) was found to be preferable since it gave no detectable racemization and no by-products. The difficult isolation of the minority D-derivative from the crude preparation of LH-RH was resolved by a recycling procedure in reversed phase HPLC.

  7. REGULAR METHOD FOR SYNTHESIS OF BASIC BENT-SQUARES OF RANDOM ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sokolov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the class construction of the most non-linear Boolean bent-functions of any length N = 2k (k = 2, 4, 6…, on the basis of their spectral representation – Agievich bent squares. These perfect algebraic constructions are used as a basis to build many new cryptographic primitives, such as generators of pseudo-random key sequences, crypto graphic S-boxes, etc. Bent-functions also find their application in the construction of C-codes in the systems with code division multiple access (CDMA to provide the lowest possible value of Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR k = 1, as well as for the construction of error-correcting codes and systems of orthogonal biphasic signals. All the numerous applications of bent-functions relate to the theory of their synthesis. However, regular methods for complete class synthesis of bent-functions of any length N = 2k are currently unknown. The paper proposes a regular synthesis method for the basic Agievich bent squares of any order n, based on a regular operator of dyadic shift. Classification for a complete set of spectral vectors of lengths (l = 8, 16, … based on a criterion of the maximum absolute value and set of absolute values of spectral components has been carried out in the paper. It has been shown that any spectral vector can be a basis for building bent squares. Results of the synthesis for the Agievich bent squares of order n = 8 have been generalized and it has been revealed that there are only 3 basic bent squares for this order, while the other 5 can be obtained with help the operation of step-cyclic shift. All the basic bent squares of order n = 16 have been synthesized that allows to construct the bent-functions of length N = 256. The obtained basic bent squares can be used either for direct synthesis of bent-functions and their practical application or for further research in order to synthesize new structures of bent squares of orders n = 16, 32, 64, …

  8. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...

  9. Developing a TQM quality management method model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhihai

    1997-01-01

    From an extensive review of total quality management literature, the external and internal environment affecting an organization's quality performance and the eleven primary elements of TQM are identified. Based on the primary TQM elements, a TQM quality management method model is developed. This mo

  10. Developing a TQM quality management method model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhihai

    1997-01-01

    From an extensive review of total quality management literature, the external and internal environment affecting an organization's quality performance and the eleven primary elements of TQM are identified. Based on the primary TQM elements, a TQM quality management method model is developed. This mo

  11. Developing a TQM quality management method model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhihai

    1997-01-01

    From an extensive review of total quality management literature, the external and internal environment affecting an organization's quality performance and the eleven primary elements of TQM are identified. Based on the primary TQM elements, a TQM quality management method model is developed. This

  12. The Synthesis of Peculiar Structure of Springlike Multiwall Carbon Nanofibers/Nanotubes via Mechanothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahebali Manafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanothermal (MT method is one of the methods used for large-scale production of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers. The different peculiar morphologies of carbon allotropes are introduced with an extraordinary structure for the first time by MT method. In this paper, the influence of milling time and annealing temperature on the crystallinity and morphology of the synthesized nanopowders was investigated. Surprisingly, in this investigation, we report the synthesis of springlike multiwalled carbon nanofibers (S-MWCNFs by a two-step annealing of milled graphite in an Ar atmosphere. On the other hand, the MT method could be used for the preparation of suitable structures with applications in nanocomposite materials, which is an important task in the era of nanotechnology.

  13. Approximate Methods for State-Space Models

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, Shinsuke; Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Kass, Robert E; 10.1198/jasa.2009.tm08326

    2010-01-01

    State-space models provide an important body of techniques for analyzing time-series, but their use requires estimating unobserved states. The optimal estimate of the state is its conditional expectation given the observation histories, and computing this expectation is hard when there are nonlinearities. Existing filtering methods, including sequential Monte Carlo, tend to be either inaccurate or slow. In this paper, we study a nonlinear filter for nonlinear/non-Gaussian state-space models, which uses Laplace's method, an asymptotic series expansion, to approximate the state's conditional mean and variance, together with a Gaussian conditional distribution. This {\\em Laplace-Gaussian filter} (LGF) gives fast, recursive, deterministic state estimates, with an error which is set by the stochastic characteristics of the model and is, we show, stable over time. We illustrate the estimation ability of the LGF by applying it to the problem of neural decoding and compare it to sequential Monte Carlo both in simulat...

  14. 己烯雌酚的仿生合成%Dtethyl Stilboestrol Biological Modeling Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艺川; 林楸晨; 雷江; 缪舒; 张李华

    2011-01-01

    The biological modeling synthesis utilized in the organic synthesis reduced the traditional organic synthesis complex tedious, caused its efficiency to be high, wastes few and the green environmental protection and so on, thus enabled it to obtain the widespread approval and the promotion. This article takes the catalyst biological modeling synthesis diethyl stilboestrol by Vitamin B1. Through the improvement,enables the new building-up reactions to have raw material to be easy, non-toxic, the response condition to be temperate, production rate higher characteristic. Thus applies successfully the biological modeling synthesis in the organic synthesis.%仿生合成运用于有机合成中减少了传统有机合成的复杂繁琐,使其效率高,浪费少和绿色环保等,从而使其得到广泛认可与推广.文章以维生素B1作为催化剂仿生合成己烯雌酚,通过改进,使得新合成反应具有原料易得、无毒、反应条件温和、产率较高等特点,从而成功地把仿生合成应用于有机合成中.

  15. Internet Resource Pricing Models, Mechanisms, and Methods

    CERN Document Server

    He, Huan; Liu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    With the fast development of video and voice network applications, CDN (Content Distribution Networks) and P2P (Peer-to-Peer) content distribution technologies have gradually matured. How to effectively use Internet resources thus has attracted more and more attentions. For the study of resource pricing, a whole pricing strategy containing pricing models, mechanisms and methods covers all the related topics. We first introduce three basic Internet resource pricing models through an Internet cost analysis. Then, with the evolution of service types, we introduce several corresponding mechanisms which can ensure pricing implementation and resource allocation. On network resource pricing methods, we discuss the utility optimization in economics, and emphasize two classes of pricing methods (including system optimization and entities' strategic optimizations). Finally, we conclude the paper and forecast the research direction on pricing strategy which is applicable to novel service situation in the near future.

  16. AN EFFECTIVE HUMAN LEG MODELING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Digital medicine is a new concept in medical field, and the need for digital human body is increasing these years. This paper used Free Form Deformation (FFD) to model the motion of human leg. It presented the motion equations of knee joint on the basis of anatomic structure and motion characters, then transmitted the deformation to the mesh of leg through a simplified FFD that only used two-order B-spline basis function. The experiments prove that this method can simulate the bend of leg and the deformation of muscles fairly well. Compared with the method of curved patches, this method is more convenient and effective. Further more, those equations can be easily applied to other joint models of human body.

  17. Synthesis of Hydroxystilbene Derivatives and their Antioxidant Activity by DPPH Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Five hydroxystilbene derivatives were synthesized and their structures were determined using high-resolution mass spectrometry, 1H NMR, and IR. In this study, the antioxidant activities of eight hydroxystilbenes(five synthesized hydroxystilbene derivatives and three other compounds) were evaluated with the free radical scavenging model 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. It was observed that there exists a very significant linear relationship between the reciprocal of the EC50 value of each of the compounds and the maximum wavelength of the ultraviolet absorption peaks. It is believed that this result will be helpful for the further synthesis of such antioxidants.

  18. Nitrate Uptake Affects Cell Wall Synthesis and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Landi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the relationship(s about N assimilation and cell wall remodeling in plants remains generally unclear. Enzymes involved in cell wall synthesis/modification, and nitrogen transporters play a critical role in plant growth, differentiation, and response to external stimuli. In this review, a co-expression analysis of nitrate and ammonium transporters of Arabidopsis thaliana was performed in order to explore the functional connection of these proteins with cell-wall related enzymes. This approach highlighted a strict relationship between inorganic nitrogen transporters and cell wall formation, identifying a number of co-expressed remodeling enzymes. The enzymes involved in pectin and xyloglucan synthesis resulted particularly co-regulated together with nitrate carriers, suggesting a connection between nitrate assimilation and cell wall growth regulation. Major Facilitator Carriers, and one chloride channel, are similarly co-expressed with pectin lyase, pectinacetylesterase, and cellulose synthase. Contrarily, ammonium transporters show little or no connection with those genes involved in cell wall synthesis. Different aspects related to plant development, embryogenesis, and abiotic stress response will be discussed, given the importance in plant growth of cell wall synthesis and nitrate uptake. Intriguingly, the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in crops concerns both these processes indicating the importance in sensing the environmental constraints and mediating a response. These evaluations could help to identify candidate genes for breeding purposes.

  19. Structure and models of artifactual routine design for computational synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; Tragter, Hendrik; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Computational synthesis (CS) researches the automatic generation of solutions to design problems. The aim is to shorten design times and present the user with multiple design solutions. However, initializing a new CS process has not received much attention in literature. With this motivation, this p

  20. NewIn-situ synthesis method of magnesium matrix composites reinforced with TiC particulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiuqing

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium matrix composites reinforced with TiC particulates was prepared using a new in-situ synthesis method of remelting and dilution technique. And measurements were performed on the composites. The results of x ray diffraction (XRD analysis confirmed that TiC particulates were synthesized during the sintering process, and they retained in magnesium matrix composites after the remelting and dilution processing. From the microstructure characterization and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA, we could see that fine TiC particulates distributed uniformly in the matrix material.

  1. Control of sizes and densities of nano catalysts for nanotube synthesis by plasma breaking method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, J.S.; Umeda, K.; Uchino, K.; Nakashima, H.; Muraoka, K

    2004-03-15

    Sizes and densities of nano catalysts for carbon nanotube synthesis, formed by the plasma breaking method of thin Fe films deposited using pulse laser deposition (PLD) were controlled by the changes of operating parameters. At the best optimum condition, nano catalysts with a density of 1.9x10{sup 15} m{sup -2} and a diameter of about 15 nm were obtained. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesized on these catalysts were shown to have almost the same size and density as those of the catalysts.

  2. Synthesis of large CZTSe nanoparticles through a two-step hot-injection method

    OpenAIRE

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Li, Zhenggang; Lek, Jun Yan; Lam, Yeng Ming; Schou, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Grain boundaries in Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1x)4 (CZTSSe) thin films act as a defect that reduces the mobility of the charges. Hence one way to improve the performance of these thin film solar cells is to increase the grain size in the films. Most of the synthesis methods published so far for CZTSSe colloidal nanoparticles can achieve a general size distribution range from 5–20 nm. This is where the particle size will saturate for most recipes used today. The assumption is that uniform size distribution ...

  3. Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube from different grades of carbon black using arc discharge method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Neha, E-mail: n4neha31@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani (India); Sharma, N. N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani (India); Director, School of Automobile, Mechanical & Mechatronics, Manipal University,Jaipur,India (India)

    2016-04-13

    This paper describes the synthesis of nanotube from different grades (Tread * A(non-ASTM), N134,N121,N660 and N330)of carbon black using DC arc discharge method at 40A current for 60sec. Carbon black samples of different grades were procured from industry (Aditya Birla Science and Technology Limited, India). Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM) of the deposited carbon nanostructures suggests that MWCNTs are formed at 40A and for a minimal exposure time of 60sec.The result formed indicates the N330 grade of carbon black gets converted to MWCNTs (Multiwall Carbon nanotube) as compared to other grades.

  4. New method for synthesis of unsymmetrical bis-organoelemental (Si, B) ketenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, S.V.; Nikolaeva, S.N.; Molchanova, G.N.; Kostyuk, A.S.; Grishin, Yu.K. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1984-08-01

    To develop a new general method of synthesis of boronorganic (Si, B) ketenes the interaction of trialkylsilyletoxyacetylenes with BCl/sub 3/, BBr/sub 3/ and (Me/sub 2/N)/sub 2/BBr has been studied. Reaction with boron halides proceeds at - 50 deg C with the formation of trialkylsilylhalogenborylketenes, and with bromine-bis(dimethylamino)borane - at 80 deg C in the medium of dibutyl ether. The ketenes synthesized are stable compounds, distilled in argon atmosphere. Their structure and the presence of the direct bond B-C are confirmed by the data of IR, NMR /sup 1/H, /sup 11/B, /sup 13/C spectra.

  5. Protecting groups for RNA synthesis: an increasing need for selective preparative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, Alvaro

    2008-12-01

    RNA can be chemically synthesized by automated DNA/RNA synthesizers, using protected ribonucleosides activated as phosphoramidites. The efficiency of the synthesis depends greatly on the protecting groups used, especially the protecting group on the 2'-hydroxyl functionality. The strategies employed to place the protecting groups on the desired functionality are quite inefficient, requiring additional modifications of the substrate, or leading to mixtures of protected compounds. In this tutorial review, the methods available for the selective protection of ribonucleosides are commented on, introducing the reader to the synthetic challenges involved.

  6. Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Development of the Olefin Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Charles P.

    2006-02-01

    The 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Yves Chauvin of the Institut Français du Pétrole, Robert H. Grubbs of CalTech, and Richard R. Schrock of MIT "for development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The discoveries of the laureates provided a chemical reaction now used daily in the chemical industry for the efficient and more environmentally friendly production of important pharmaceuticals, fuels, synthetic fibers, and many other products. This article tells the story of how olefin metathesis became a truly useful synthetic transformation and a triumph for mechanistic chemistry, and illustrates the importance of fundamental research. See JCE Featured Molecules .

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin(IV) Oxide Obtained by Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagirnyak, Svitlana V.; Lutz, Victoriya A.; Dontsova, Tatiana A.; Astrelin, Igor M.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of precursors on the characteristics of tin oxide obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was investigated. The synthesis of nanosized tin(IV) oxide was carried out with the use of two different precursors: tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II) and oxalic acid; tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II); and ammonium oxalate. The synthesized tin(IV) oxide samples were studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and optical spectra. The lattice parameters of tin(IV) oxide samples were defined, the bandgap of samples were calculated.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin(IV) Oxide Obtained by Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    OpenAIRE

    Nagirnyak, Svitlana V.; Lutz, Victoriya A.; Dontsova, Tatiana A.; Astrelin, Igor M.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of precursors on the characteristics of tin oxide obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was investigated. The synthesis of nanosized tin(IV) oxide was carried out with the use of two different precursors: tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II) and oxalic acid; tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II); and ammonium oxalate. The synthesized tin(IV) oxide samples were studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and optical spectra. The lattice parame...

  9. Compact numerical function generators based on quadratic approximation: architecture and synthesis method

    OpenAIRE

    NAGAYAMA,Shinobu; Sasao, Tsutomu; BUTLER,Jon T.

    2006-01-01

    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences, Vol. E89-A, No.12, Dec. 2006, pp.3510-3518,Special Section on VLSI Design and CAD Algorithms. This publication is a work of the U.S. Government as defined in Title 17, United States Code, Section 101. As such, it is in the public domain, and under the provisions of Title 17, United States Code, Section 105, may not be copyrighted. This paper presents an architecture and a synthesis method for compac...

  10. A chemical method for fast and sensitive detection of DNA synthesis in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Salic, Adrian; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method to detect DNA synthesis in proliferating cells, based on the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) and its subsequent detection by a fluorescent azide through a Cu(I)-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction (“click” chemistry). Detection of the EdU label is highly sensitive and can be accomplished in minutes. The small size of the fluorescent azides used for detection results in a high degree of specimen penetration, allowing the staining of whole-mount ...

  11. How the Method of Synthesis Governs the Local and Global Structure of Zinc Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puschparaj, Suraj S. C.; Forano, Claude; Prevot, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Seven zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides (ZnAl LDHs), [Zn1-xAlx (OH)2Ax,nH2O] A = NO3-, Cl- or CO32-, prepared by the urea and co-precipitation synthesis methods were investigated to determine how synthesis parameters (pH, metal ion concentration and post synthesis treatment) affect the local...... (atomic) and long (global) range structure of the LDH product. Sample composition, purity, crystal defects and other structural aspects of the LDH products were obtained from powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Micro-Raman, elemental analysis, and solid state 1H, 27Al...

  12. Optimal synthesis of a four-bar linkage by method of controlled deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Radovan R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers optimal synthesis of a four-bar linkage by method of controlled deviations. The advantage of this approximate method is that it allows control of motion of the coupler in the four-bar linkage so that the path of the coupler is in the prescribed environment around the given path on the segment observed. The Hooke-Jeeves’s optimization algorithm has been used in the optimization process. Calculation expressions are not used as the method of direct searching, i.e. individual comparison of the calculated value of the objective function is made in each iteration and the moving is done in the direction of decreasing the value of the objective function. This algorithm does not depend on the initial selection of the projected variables. All this is illustrated on an example of synthesis of a four-bar linkage whose coupler point traces a straight line, i.e. passes through sixteen prescribed points lying on one straight line. .

  13. Synthesis of metal-organic framework films by pore diffusion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Naohiro; Nishimura, Yuki; Kajiro, Hiroshi; Kishida, Satoru; Kinoshita, Kentaro; Tottori Univ Team; Nippon Steel; Sumitomo Metal Co. Collaboration; Tottori Integrated Frontier Resaerch Center (Tifrec) Collaboration; Tottori University Electronic Display Resaerch Center (Tedrec) Collaboration

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) presents high controllability in designing the nano-scale pore, and this enable molecular storages, catalysts, gas sensors, gas separation membranes, and electronic devices for next-generation. Therefore, a simple method for film synthesis of MOFs compared with conventional methods [1] is strongly required. In this paper, we provide pore diffusion method, in which a substrate containing constituent metals of MOF is inserted in solution that includes only linker molecules of MOF. As a result, 2D growth of MOF was effectively enhanced, and the formation of flat and dense MOF films was attained. The growth time, t, dependence of film thickness, d, can be expressed by the relation of d = Aln(t + 1) + B, where A and B are constants. It means that ionized coppers diffuse through the pores of MOFs and the synthesis reaction proceeds at the MOF/solvent interface. We demonstrated the fabrication of a HKUST-1/Cu-TPA hetero structure by synthesizing a Cu-TPA film continuously after the growth of a HKUST-1 film on the CuOx substrate.

  14. Models and Methods for Free Material Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldeyesus, Alemseged Gebrehiwot

    FMO problem formulations with stress constraints. These problems are highly nonlinear and lead to the so-called singularity phenomenon. The method described in the thesis has successfully solved these problems. In the numerical experiments the stress constraints have been satisfied with high...... conditions for physical attainability, in the context that, it has to be symmetric and positive semidefinite. FMO problems have been studied for the last two decades in many articles that led to the development of a wide range of models, methods, and theories. As the design variables in FMO are the local....... These problems are more difficult to solve and demand higher computational efforts than the standard optimization problems. The focus of today’s development of solution methods for FMO problems is based on first-order methods that require a large number of iterations to obtain optimal solutions. The scope...

  15. Characteristics and method of synthesis seismic wave based on wavelet reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Li-hua; LIU Ai-ping; YANG Hong; CHAI Xin-jian; SHANG Xin; DAI Su-liang; DONG Bo

    2007-01-01

    A novel method of synthesizing seismic wave using wavelet reconstruction is proposed and compared with the traditional method of using theory of Fourier transform. By adjusting the frequency band energy and taking it as criterion, the formula of synthesizing seismic wave is deduced. Using the design parameters specified in Chinese Seismic Design Code for buildings, seismic waves are synthesized. Moreover, the method of selecting wavelet bases in synthesizing seismic wave and the influence of the damping ratio on synthesizing results are analyzed.The results show that the synthesis seismic waves using wavelet bases can represent the characteristics of the seismic wave as well as the ground characteristic period, and have good time-frequency non-stationary.

  16. Radiation pattern synthesis of planar antennas using the iterative sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Coffey, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    A synthesis method is presented for determining an excitation of an arbitrary (but fixed) planar source configuration. The desired radiation pattern is specified over all or part of the visible region. It may have multiple and/or shaped main beams with low sidelobes. The iterative sampling method is used to find an excitation of the source which yields a radiation pattern that approximates the desired pattern to within a specified tolerance. In this paper the method is used to calculate excitations for line sources, linear arrays (equally and unequally spaced), rectangular apertures, rectangular arrays (arbitrary spacing grid), and circular apertures. Examples using these sources to form patterns with shaped main beams, multiple main beams, shaped sidelobe levels, and combinations thereof are given.

  17. Radiation pattern synthesis of planar antennas using the iterative sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Coffey, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    A synthesis method is presented for determining an excitation of an arbitrary (but fixed) planar source configuration. The desired radiation pattern is specified over all or part of the visible region. It may have multiple and/or shaped main beams with low sidelobes. The iterative sampling method is used to find an excitation of the source which yields a radiation pattern that approximates the desired pattern to within a specified tolerance. In this paper the method is used to calculate excitations for line sources, linear arrays (equally and unequally spaced), rectangular apertures, rectangular arrays (arbitrary spacing grid), and circular apertures. Examples using these sources to form patterns with shaped main beams, multiple main beams, shaped sidelobe levels, and combinations thereof are given.

  18. A chemical method for fast and sensitive detection of DNA synthesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salic, Adrian; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2008-02-19

    We have developed a method to detect DNA synthesis in proliferating cells, based on the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and its subsequent detection by a fluorescent azide through a Cu(I)-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction ("click" chemistry). Detection of the EdU label is highly sensitive and can be accomplished in minutes. The small size of the fluorescent azides used for detection results in a high degree of specimen penetration, allowing the staining of whole-mount preparations of large tissue and organ explants. In contrast to BrdU, the method does not require sample fixation or DNA denaturation and permits good structural preservation. We demonstrate the use of the method in cultured cells and in the intestine and brain of whole animals.

  19. A simple enzymic method for the synthesis of adenosine 5'-[alpha-32P]triphosphate on a preparative scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B R; Voorheis, H P

    1977-03-01

    A simple, rapid and inexpensive method is described for the enzymic synthesis of [alpha-32P]ATP from [32P]Pi on a preparative scale with an overall yield of 53%. The final product contained all of the detectable radioactivity (less than 99.9%) in the alpha position and has been shown to behave identically with commerically availabe [alpha-32P]ATP during the synthesis of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in the reaction catalysed by adenylate cyclase.

  20. Method for the synthesis of highly pure vaccines using the lipid core peptide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Peter M; Olive, Colleen; Good, Michael F; Toth, Istvan

    2006-12-01

    Traditional vaccines consisting of whole attenuated microorganisms, killed microorganisms, or microbial components, administered with an adjuvant (e.g. alum), have been proved to be extremely successful. However, to develop new vaccines, or to improve upon current vaccines, new vaccine development techniques are required. Peptide vaccines offer the capacity to administer only the minimal microbial components necessary to elicit appropriate immune responses, minimizing the risk of vaccination associated adverse effects, and focusing the immune response toward important antigens. Peptide vaccines, however, are generally poorly immunogenic, necessitating administration with powerful, and potentially toxic adjuvants. The attachment of lipids to peptide antigens has been demonstrated as a potentially safe method for adjuvanting peptide epitopes. The lipid core peptide (LCP) system, which incorporates a lipidic adjuvant, carrier, and peptide epitopes into a single molecular entity, has been demonstrated to boost immunogenicity of attached peptide epitopes without the need for additional adjuvants. The synthesis of LCP systems normally yields a product that cannot be purified to homogeneity. The current study describes the development of methods for the synthesis of highly pure LCP analogs using native chemical ligation. Because of the highly lipophilic nature of the LCP lipid adjuvant, difficulties (e.g. poor solubility) were experienced with the ligation reactions. The addition of organic solvents to the ligation buffer solubilized lipidic species, but did not result in successful ligation reactions. In comparison, the addition of approximately 1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) proved successful, enabling the synthesis of two highly pure, tri-epitopic Streptococcus pyogenes LCP analogs. Subcutaneous immunization of B10.BR (H-2(k)) mice with one of these vaccines, without the addition of any adjuvant, elicited high levels of systemic IgG antibodies against each of

  1. Synthesis of an oligodeoxyribonucleotide adduct of mitomycin C by the postoligomerization method via a triamino mitosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeil, Elise; Paz, Manuel M; Ladwa, Sweta; Clement, Cristina C; Zatorski, Andrzej; Tomasz, Maria

    2008-07-23

    The cancer chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C (MC) alkylates and cross-links DNA monofunctionally and bifunctionally in vivo and in vitro, forming six major MC-deoxyguanosine adducts of known structures. The synthesis of one of the monoadducts (8) by the postoligomerization method was accomplished both on the nucleoside and oligonucleotide levels, the latter resulting in the site-specific placement of 8 in a 12-mer oligodeoxyribonucleotide 26. This is the first application of this method to the synthesis of a DNA adduct of a complex natural product. Preparation of the requisite selectively protected triaminomitosenes 14 and 24 commenced with removal of the 10-carbamoyl group from MC, followed by reductive conversion to 10-decarbamoyl-2,7-diaminomitosene 10. This substance was transformed to 14 or 24 in several steps. Both were successfully coupled to the 2-fluoro-O(6)-(2-trimethylsilylethyl)deoxyinosine residue of the 12-mer oligonucleotide. The N(2)-phenylacetyl protecting group of 14 after its coupling to the 12-mer oligonucleotide could not be removed by penicillinamidase as expected. Nevertheless, the Teoc protecting group of 24 after coupling to the 12-mer oligonucleotide was removed by treatment with ZnBr2 to give the adducted oligonucleotide 26. However, phenylacetyl group removal was successful on the nucleoside-level synthesis of adduct 8. Proof of the structure of the synthetic nucleoside adduct included HPLC coelution and identical spectral properties with a natural sample, and (1)H NMR. Structure proof of the adducted oligonucleotide 26 was provided by enzymatic digestion to nucleosides and authentic adduct 8, as well as MS and MS/MS analysis.

  2. Mathematical methods and models in composites

    CERN Document Server

    Mantic, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a representative selection of the most relevant, innovative, and useful mathematical methods and models applied to the analysis and characterization of composites and their behaviour on micro-, meso-, and macroscale. It establishes the fundamentals for meaningful and accurate theoretical and computer modelling of these materials in the future. Although the book is primarily concerned with fibre-reinforced composites, which have ever-increasing applications in fields such as aerospace, many of the results presented can be applied to other kinds of composites. The topics cover

  3. Mathematical Models and Methods for Living Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chaplain, Mark; Pugliese, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The aim of these lecture notes is to give an introduction to several mathematical models and methods that can be used to describe the behaviour of living systems. This emerging field of application intrinsically requires the handling of phenomena occurring at different spatial scales and hence the use of multiscale methods. Modelling and simulating the mechanisms that cells use to move, self-organise and develop in tissues is not only fundamental to an understanding of embryonic development, but is also relevant in tissue engineering and in other environmental and industrial processes involving the growth and homeostasis of biological systems. Growth and organization processes are also important in many tissue degeneration and regeneration processes, such as tumour growth, tissue vascularization, heart and muscle functionality, and cardio-vascular diseases.

  4. Multiphase Transformer Modelling using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azizah Mohd Yusoff

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the year of 1970 saw the starting invention of the five-phase motor as the milestone in advanced electric motor. Through the years, there are many researchers, which passionately worked towards developing for multiphase drive system. They developed a static transformation system to obtain a multiphase supply from the available three-phase supply. This idea gives an influence for further development in electric machines as an example; an efficient solution for bulk power transfer. This paper highlighted the detail descriptions that lead to five-phase supply with fixed voltage and frequency by using Finite-Element Method (FEM. Identifying of specification on a real transformer had been done before applied into software modeling. Therefore, Finite-Element Method provides clearly understandable in terms of visualize the geometry modeling, connection scheme and output waveform.

  5. APPROACH TO SYNTHESIS OF PASSIVE INFRARED DETECTORS BASED ON QUASI-POINT MODEL OF QUALIFIED INTRUDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Bilizhenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with synthesis of passive infra red (PIR detectors with enhanced detection capability of qualified intruder who uses different types of detection countermeasures: the choice of specific movement direction and disguise in infrared band. Methods. We propose an approach based on quasi-point model of qualified intruder. It includes: separation of model priority parameters, formation of partial detection patterns adapted to those parameters and multi channel signal processing. Main Results. Quasi-pointmodel of qualified intruder consisting of different fragments was suggested. Power density difference was used for model parameters estimation. Criteria were formulated for detection pattern parameters choice on the basis of model parameters. Pyroelectric sensor with nine sensitive elements was applied for increasing the signal information content. Multi-channel processing with multiple partial detection patterns was proposed optimized for detection of intruder's specific movement direction. Practical Relevance. Developed functional device diagram can be realized both by hardware and software and is applicable as one of detection channels for dual technology passive infrared and microwave detectors.

  6. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part I: Modeling and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a work on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The study is performed from the perspective of giving a unitary control method to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. To illustrate the proposed HVAC control technique, in this first part it is considered as benchmark problem a single thermal space HVAC system. The construction of the mathematical model is performed only with a view to obtain a framework of HVAC intelligent control validation by numerical simulations. The latter will be reported in a second part of the study.

  7. An ANN-Based Synthesis Model for Parallel Coupled Microstrip Lines with Floating Ground-Plane Conductor and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To directly obtain physical dimensions of parallel coupled microstrip lines with a floating ground-plane conductor (PCMLFGPC, an accurate synthesis model based on an artificial neural network (ANN is proposed. The synthesis model is validated by using the conformal mapping technique (CMT analysis contours. Using the synthesis model and the CMT analysis, the PCMLFGPC having equal even- and odd-mode phase velocities can be obtained by adjusting the width of the floating ground-plane conductor. Applying the method, a 7 dB coupler with the measured isolation better than 27 dB across a wide bandwidth (more than 120%, a 90° Schiffman phase shifter with phase deviation ±2.5° and return loss more than 17.5 dB covering 63.4% bandwidth, and a bandpass filter with completely eliminated second-order spurious band are implemented. The performances of the current designs are superior to those of the previous components configured with the PCMLFGPC.

  8. Resonant Transmission Line Method for Econophysics models

    CERN Document Server

    Raptis, T E

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper [1304.6846], Racorean introduced a formal similarity of the Black-Sholes stock pricing model with a Schr\\"odinger equation. We use a previously introduced method of a resonant transmission line for arbitrary 2nd order Sturm-Liouville problems to attack the same problem from a different perspective revealing some deep structures in the naturally associated eigenvalue problem.

  9. A New Direct Single-Molecule Observation Method for DNA Synthesis Reaction Using Fluorescent Replication Protein A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Takahashi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a single-stranded region tracing system, single-molecule DNA synthesis reactions were directly observed in microflow channels. The direct single-molecule observations of DNA synthesis were labeled with a fusion protein consisting of the ssDNA-binding domain of a 70-kDa subunit of replication protein A and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (RPA-YFP. Our method was suitable for measurement of DNA synthesis reaction rates with control of the ssλDNA form as stretched ssλDNA (+flow and random coiled ssλDNA (−flow via buffer flow. Sequentially captured photographs demonstrated that the synthesized region of an ssλDNA molecule monotonously increased with the reaction time. The DNA synthesis reaction rate of random coiled ssλDNA (−flow was nearly the same as that measured in a previous ensemble molecule experiment (52 vs. 50 bases/s. This suggested that the random coiled form of DNA (−flow reflected the DNA form in the bulk experiment in the case of DNA synthesis reactions. In addition, the DNA synthesis reaction rate of stretched ssλDNA (+flow was approximately 75% higher than that of random coiled ssλDNA (−flow (91 vs. 52 bases/s. The DNA synthesis reaction rate of the Klenow fragment (3’-5’exo– was promoted by DNA stretching with buffer flow.

  10. Robust one pot synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles by simple redox method and absorbance recovered sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mahwish; El Ashry, El Sayed H; Kanwal, Shamsa

    2012-01-01

    Conventional synthesis of silver nanoparticles employs a reducing agent and a capping agent. In this report water-soluble silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared facilely by chemical reduction of Ag(I) ions. 4-Amino-3-(d-gluco-pentitol-1-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione (AGTT) was used both as reducing and stabilizing agent. Direct heating methodology was found to be more suitable for achieving particles with a hydrodynamic diameter of ~20 nm. AGTT exists as tautomer in solution form and our studies indicate that -NH(2) group is involved in the reduction and stabilization of Ag(+) and thione (Δ=S) group of AGTT is possibly involved in stabilizing the nanoparticles via coordinate covalent linkage. Characterization of synthesized silver nanoparticles was performed by UV-vis, FT-IR and by FESEM. Based on the absorption properties of synthesized AgNPs, we used AgNPs to detect bovine serum albumin (BSA) and AgNPs-BSA composite nanoprobe was further applied to detect Cu(2+) based on absorbance recovery. The proposed method has advantages over existing methods in terms of rapid synthesis and stability of AgNPs and their applications. Analysis is reproducible, cost effective and highly sensitive. The lowest detectable concentration of BSA in this approach is 3 nM, and for Cu(2+) it can detect upto 200 pM.

  11. High-yield Synthesis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube by Mechanothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manafi SA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports on the mechanothermal synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs from elemental graphite powder. Initially, high ultra-active graphite powder can be obtained by mechanical milling under argon atmosphere. Finally, the mechanical activation product is heat-treated at 1350°C for 2–4 h under argon gas flow. After heat-treatment, active graphite powders were successfully changed into MWCNTs with high purity. The XRD analyses showed that in the duration 150 h of milling, all the raw materials were changed to the desired materials. From the broadening of the diffraction lines in the XRD patterns, it was concluded that the graphite crystallites were nanosized, and raising the milling duration resulted in the fineness of the particles and the increase of the strain. The structure and morphology of MWCNTs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The yield of MWCNTs was estimated through SEM and TEM observations of the as-prepared samples was to be about 90%. Indeed, mechanothermal method is of interest for fundamental understanding and improvement of commercial synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs. As a matter of fact, the method of mechanothermal guarantees the production of MWCNTs suitable for different applications.

  12. Synthesis of tetrapeptide Bz-RGDS-NH2 by a combination of chemical and enzymatic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Bing; Cai, Yu; Yang, Sen; Wang, Hua; Hou, Rui-Zhen; Xu, Li; Xiao-Xia, Wu; Zhang, Xue-Zhong

    2006-09-18

    The tetrapeptide Bz-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-NH(2) (Bz-RGDS-NH(2)) was successfully synthesized by a combination of chemical and enzymatic methods in this study. Firstly, the precursor tripeptide Gly-Asp-Ser-NH(2) (GDS-NH(2)) was synthesized by a novel chemical method in four steps including chloroacetylation of l-aspartic acid, synthesis of chloroacetyl l-aspartic acid anhydride, the synthesis of ClCH(2)COAsp-SerOMe and ammonolysis of ClCH(2)COAsp-SerOMe. Secondly, lipase (PPL) was used to catalyze the formation of Bz-RGDS-NH(2) in aqueous water-miscible organic cosolvent systems using Bz-Arg-OEt as the acyl donor and GDS-NH(2) as the nucleophile. The optimum conditions were Bz-Arg-OEt 50 mM; GDS-NH(2) 400 mM; 10 degrees C, 0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5; 60% DMF or 58% DMSO, PPL: 10 mg ml(-1) with the maximum yields of the tetrapeptide of 73.6% for DMF and 70.4% for DMSO, respectively. The secondary hydrolysis of the tetrapeptide product did not take place due to the absence of amidase activity of lipase.

  13. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by a novel ultrasonic assisted with mixed hollow sphere template method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D; Indira, J; Kavitha, L; Sekar, M; Mudali, U Kamachi

    2012-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the main inorganic component of bone material and is widely used in various biomedical applications due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by a novel ultrasonic assisted mixed template directed method. In this method glycine-acrylic acid (GLY-AA) hollow spheres were used as an organic template which could be prepared by mixing of glycine with acrylic acid. The as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and tunnelling electron microscope (TEM) to investigate the nature of bonding, crystallinity, size and shape. The thermal stability of as-synthesized nanoparticles was also investigated by the thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of ultrasonic irradiation time on the crystallinity and size of the HAP nanoparticles in presence of glycine-acrylic acid hollow spheres template were investigated. From the inspection of the above results it is confirmed that the crystallinity and size of the HAP nanoparticles decrease with increasing ultrasonic irradiation time. Hence the proposed synthesis strategy provides a facile pathway to obtain nano sized HAP with high quality, suitable size and morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling Open Software Architectures of Robot Controllers: A Brief Survey of Modeling Methods and Developing Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Openness is one of the features of modern robot controllers. Although many modeling technologies have been discussed to model and develop open robot controllers, the focus is always on modeling methodologies. Meanwhile, the relations between the former and the latter are usually ignored. According to the general software architecture of open robot controllers, this paper discusses modeling and developing methods. And the relationships between the typical ones are also analyzed.

  15. Method of generating a computer readable model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A method of generating a computer readable model of a geometrical object constructed from a plurality of interconnectable construction elements, wherein each construction element has a number of connection elements for connecting the construction element with another construction element....... The method comprises encoding a first and a second one of the construction elements as corresponding data structures, each representing the connection elements of the corresponding construction element, and each of the connection elements having associated with it a predetermined connection type. The method...... further comprises determining a first connection element of the first construction element and a second connection element of the second construction element located in a predetermined proximity of each other; and retrieving connectivity information of the corresponding connection types of the first...

  16. Synthetic Spectrum Methods for Three-Dimensional Supernova Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, R C

    2003-01-01

    Current observations stimulate the production of fully three-dimensional explosion models, which in turn motivates three-dimensional spectrum synthesis for supernova atmospheres. We briefly discuss techniques adapted to address the latter problem, and consider some fundamentals of line formation in supernovae without recourse to spherical symmetry. Direct and detailed extensions of the technique are discussed, and future work is outlined.

  17. Bayesian structural equation modeling method for hierarchical model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xiaomo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Box 1831-B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)], E-mail: xiaomo.jiang@vanderbilt.edu; Mahadevan, Sankaran [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Box 1831-B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)], E-mail: sankaran.mahadevan@vanderbilt.edu

    2009-04-15

    A building block approach to model validation may proceed through various levels, such as material to component to subsystem to system, comparing model predictions with experimental observations at each level. Usually, experimental data becomes scarce as one proceeds from lower to higher levels. This paper presents a structural equation modeling approach to make use of the lower-level data for higher-level model validation under uncertainty, integrating several components: lower-level data, higher-level data, computational model, and latent variables. The method proposed in this paper uses latent variables to model two sets of relationships, namely, the computational model to system-level data, and lower-level data to system-level data. A Bayesian network with Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation is applied to represent the two relationships and to estimate the influencing factors between them. Bayesian hypothesis testing is employed to quantify the confidence in the predictive model at the system level, and the role of lower-level data in the model validation assessment at the system level. The proposed methodology is implemented for hierarchical assessment of three validation problems, using discrete observations and time-series data.

  18. Displacement manifold method for type synthesis of lower-mobility parallel mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    [1]Hunt, K. H., Structural kinematic of in-parallel-actuated robot arms, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions and Automation in Design, 1983, 105: 705-712.[2]Clavel, R., A fast robot with parallel geometry, in Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Industrial Robots, Sydney, 1988, 91-100.[3]Hervé, J. M., Sparacino, F., Structural synthesis of parallel robots generating spatial translation, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Int. Conference on Advanced Robotics, Pisa, 1991, 808-813.[4]Tsai, L. W., Kinematics of a three-dof platform with extensible limbs, in Recent Advances in Robot Kinematics (eds. Lenar(c)I(c), J., Parenti-Castelli, V.), Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996, 401-410.[5]Pierrot, F., Company, O., H4: a new family of 4-dof parallel robots, in Proceedings of IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Atlanta, 1999, 508-513.[6]Zhao, T. S., Huang, Z., Theory and application of input selection of insufficient rank spatial parallel manipulators, Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2000, 36(10): 81-85.[7]Zlatanov, D., Gosselin, C. M., A new parallel architecture with four degrees of freedom, in Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Computational Kinematics, Seoul, 2001, 57-66.[8]Tsai, L. W., The enumeration of a class of three-dof parallel manipulators, in Proceedings of the Tenth World Congress on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Finland, 1999, 1123-1126.[9]Hervé, J. M., Analyse structurelle des mécanismes par groupe des déplacements, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 1978, 13: 437-450.[10]Karouia, M., Hervé, J. M., A family of novel orientational 3-dof parallel robots, in Proceedings of the Ro. Man. Sy 2002, 14th CISM-IFToMM Symposium, Udine, 2002, 359-368.[11]Yang, T. L., Jin, Q., Liu, A. X. et al., A general method for structural synthesis of the degenerate-rank parallel robot mechanisms based on the units of single-opened-chain, Mechanical Science and

  19. ESTIMATION OF THE PROCESS OF SYNTHESIS OF MEAT BROILER THROUGH MODERN METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA PÂRVU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In vivo experiments on broilers were conducted in order to elaborate a mathematical model for body synthesis, the experimental data being processed with Gompertz time functions and linear functions. The experiment used 166, Ross 308 day-old chicks through an experimental period of 42 days. The broilers received diets according to the growth period (1 – 14, 15 – 28, 29 – 42 days. The dietary energy and nutrient supply for group 1 (control were according to the recommendation of Ross Breeders. The birds had free access to the feed. Group 2 received 90% and group 3 received 80% of the amount of feed received by group 1; the dietary energy supply was 90% in group 4 and 80% in group 5, also related to group 1. Mathematical modelling was used to evaluate the evolution of the body chemical composition (water, protein and lipid content, starting from the protein content at hatching.

  20. A facile and rapid method for the black pepper leaf mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the antimicrobial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Robin; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2014-10-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles is widely accepted due to the less toxicity in comparison with chemical methods. But there are certain drawbacks like slow formation of nanoparticles, difficulty to control particle size and shape make them less convenient. Here we report a novel cost-effective and eco-friendly method for the rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Piper nigrum. Our results suggest that this method can be used for obtaining silver nanoparticles with controllable size within a few minutes. The fabricated nanoparticles possessed excellent antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  1. Selection of Suitable Biological Method for the Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf Sabri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a brief overview of different biosynthesis routes of silver nanoparticles (NPs, their applications and influence of the method used on the size and morphology of these nanoparticles. A detailed and comprehensive study of available biological methods, also referred to as a bottom-up approach, as well as techniques reported, have been provided with an eye for details and comparison between the techniques involving fungi, bacteria, algae and plant extracts. Plant-derived bioreduc‐ tants such as leaf, stem or root extracts of various plants are seen as suitable solutions to green synthesis of silver NPs, implementing an easy, non-toxic, clean and environmen‐ tally friendly approach. Furthermore, reports on the antimicrobial activities with the zone of inhibition for various pathogens have also been included.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of SnO2 thin films prepared by dip-coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, D. H. Q.; Schiavon, M. A.; Raposo, M. T.; de Paiva, R.; Alves, J. L. A.; Paniago, Roberto. M.; Speziali, N. L.; Ferlauto, A. S.; Ardisson, J. D.

    The optical, electrical and structural properties of SnOare responsible for a large number of technological 2 applications such as gas sensors, optical-electonic devices, varistors and displays. In this paper, we report the preparation of SnO thin films deposited on glass, quartz and silicon substrates by the technique of sol-gel dip-2coating. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ellipsometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. We combine the experimental results with ab initio all-electrons calculations, using the density functional theory within the framework of the full-potential linear augmented plane waves method, in order to extract hyperfine parameters. The results show that the synthesis method is able to produce good quality films and that the theory can be helpful to determine quantities difficult to be measured experimentally.

  3. 合成角鲨烯的新方法%New Synthesis Method for Squalene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆宇; 张剑平; 李小军; 王旭明; 石炼刚

    2012-01-01

    对角鲨烯的合成方法作出重要改进,新的合成路线包括以1,4-二氯丁烷为起始原料,经Arbuzov反应、wittig-horner反应合成角鲨烯。反应选择性好,副产物少,工艺较简单,操作方便。%The new synthesis method for Squalene was discussed. Using 1,4-dichloro-butane as the starting material, via Arbuzov reaction, Witting-horner reaction, Squalene was obtained. The new method has advantages such as high reaction selectivity, less by-product, simple process and easy control.

  4. Cellulose acetate fibers prepared from different raw materials with rapid synthesis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinghuan; Xu, Jikun; Wang, Kun; Cao, Xuefei; Sun, Runcang

    2016-02-10

    Transesterification is a mild process to prepare cellulose acetate (CA) as compared with the traditional method. In this study, CA fibers were produced from six cellulose raw materials based on a simple and rapid transesterification method. The properties of the CA solutions and the obtained CA fibers were investigated in detail. Results showed that all of the cellulose raw materials were esterified within 15 min, and spinning dopes could be obtained by concentrating the CA solutions via vacuum distillation. The XRD, FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C and HSQC NMR analysis confirmed the successful synthesis of CA. The degree of substitution (DS) of the obtained CA was significantly affected by the degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose raw materials, which further influenced the viscosity of CA solutions as well as the structural, thermal and mechanical properties of the CA fibers.

  5. The Synthesis Method of Automated System of Operational Planning in Low-Space Communication System Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Kovbasiuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons for the decrease of efficiency in low-speed communication systems, satellite communication, which are based on nanoplatform is a high degree of operational planning centralisation. To overcome this problem the method which carries out the distribution of tasks of communications operational planning minimizing the exchange of information between spatially remote sites, and takes into account the computing performance of software and hardware was developed. The technique is based on the use of methods of structural and parametric synthesis, simulation and statistical analysis of the results. Its use allows to obtain the optimal structure of the automated system of operational planning in low-space communication system messaging evaluation of efficiency in terms of fixed communication of information load.

  6. Synthesis of iron doped titanium dioxide by sol-gel method for magnetic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Oganisian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper magnetic properties of six TiO2 powders doped with 1, 5 and 10 mol% Fe and prepared by sol-gel method in two different ways were analysed. The size of the obtained TiO2:Fe particles was in the range 200–350 nm as it was confirmed by SEM and AFM techniques. The magnetization of nanopowders was measured as a function of temperature (1.8–300 K and applied magnetic field. The samples with low Fe content manifest superparamagnetic dependence of magnetization. Whereas, the other compounds exhibit the paramagnetic behaviour with the negative Curie temperature, that suggests the antiferromagnetic ordering. Mass susceptibility decreased with the increase of Fe content as an effect of reduction of the mobility and number of charge carriers. The measurements showed that magnetic properties are correlated much stronger with the synthesis method than with the grain size.

  7. Synthesis of Codon-optimized Human Interleukin-18 Gene by Combination of Chemical and Enzymatic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chao-hui; SHI Xiao-yue; HOU Xin-tong; MENG Qing-fan; Zhang Ying-jiu; TENG Li-rong

    2008-01-01

    According to the amino acid sequence and codon preference of E,coli,the human interleukin-18(IL-18)gene was optimized to avoid the rare codons,The total length of the synthesized gene is 571 bp;18 oligonucleotides,DNA fragments were designed and synthesized by the phosphoramidite four-step chemical method,The whole DNAsequence was synthesized by a one-step total gene synthesis method,and then inserted in pUC18 vector,Five positive clones identified by blue-white colony screening were sent to Shanghai Sangon Biological Engineering Technology and Service Co.,Ltd,for sequencing,The sequencing result shows that one clone contained the complete correct gene in all the five positive clones.

  8. Metal-organic frameworks: structure, properties, methods of synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butova, V. V.; Soldatov, M. A.; Guda, A. A.; Lomachenko, K. A.; Lamberti, C.

    2016-03-01

    This review deals with key methods of synthesis and characterization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The modular structure affords a wide variety of MOFs with different active metal sites and organic linkers. These compounds represent a new stage of development of porous materials in which the pore size and the active site structure can be modified within wide limits. The set of experimental methods considered in this review is sufficient for studying the short-range and long-range order of the MOF crystal structure, determining the morphology of samples and elucidating the processes that occur at the active metal site in the course of chemical reactions. The interest in metal-organic frameworks results, first of all, from their numerous possible applications, ranging from gas separation and storage to chemical reactions within the pores. The bibliography includes 362 references.

  9. Preparation of bimetallic nanoparticles using a facile green synthesis method and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bihua; He, Fang; Li, Lidong

    2013-04-16

    A straightforward, economically viable, and green approach for the synthesis of well-stabilized Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles is described; this method uses nontoxic and renewable degraded pueraria starch (DPS) as a matrix and mild reaction conditions. The DPS acted as both a reducing agent and a capping agent for the bimetallic nanoparticles. Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles were successfully grown within the DPS matrixes, and the bimetallic structures were characterized using various methods, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, it was shown that these DPS-capped Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles could function as catalysts for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH4 and were more effective than Au or Ag monometallic nanoparticles.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of the oxide nanoparticles obtained by the polymeric precursor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raba, A. M.; Bautista, J.; Murillo, E.

    2016-02-01

    Niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) nanoparticles were prepared by the polymeric precursor method using citric acid as a chelating agent and ethylene glycol as a polymerizing agent. The powders obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the presence of HNO3, HCl or NH4OH in the employed aqueous solution favour the solubility of the used precursor salt, as well as also inside the oxide phase formation. The initial Nb2O5 powders were amorphous. The amorphous powders heated at 500°C contained Nb2O5 TT-phase, whereas at 650°C the Nb2O5 T-phase was obtained. In this way an increase in the synthesis temperature is related to the increase of the crystallinity, according to the values of the crystallite sizes that were estimated using the Scherrer method.

  11. Ammonia synthesis and decomposition on a Ru-based catalyst modeled by first-principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, A.; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Remediakis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    A recently published first-principles model for the ammonia synthesis on an unpromoted Ru-based catalyst is extended to also describe ammonia decomposition. In addition, further analysis concerning trends in ammonia productivity, surface conditions during the reaction, and macro......-properties, such as apparent activation energies and reaction orders are provided. All observed trends in activity are captured by the model and the absolute value of ammonia synthesis/decomposition productivity is predicted to within a factor of 1-100 depending on the experimental conditions. Moreover it is shown: (i...

  12. Real-time arbitrary view synthesis method for ultra-HD auto-stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuanfa; Sang, Xinzhu; Duo, Chen; Zhao, Tianqi; Fan, Xin; Guo, Nan; Yu, Xunbo; Yan, Binbin

    2013-08-01

    An arbitrary view synthesis method from 2D-Plus-Depth image for real-time auto-stereoscopic display is presented. Traditional methods use depth image based rendering (DIBR) technology, which is a process of synthesizing "virtual" views of a scene from still or moving images and associated per-pixel depth information. All the virtual view images are generated and then the ultimate stereo-image is synthesized. DIBR can greatly decrease the number of reference images and is flexible and efficient as the depth images are used. However it causes some problems such as the appearance of holes in the rendered image, and the occurrence of depth discontinuity on the surface of the object at virtual image plane. Here, reversed disparity shift pixel rendering is used to generate the stereo-image directly, and the target image won't generate holes. To avoid duplication of calculation and also to be able to match with any specific three-dimensional display, a selecting table is designed to pick up appropriate virtual viewpoints for auto-stereoscopic display. According to the selecting table, only sub-pixels of the appropriate virtual viewpoints are calculated, so calculation amount is independent of the number of virtual viewpoints. In addition, 3D image warping technology is used to translate depth information to parallax between virtual viewpoints and parallax, and the viewer can adjust the zero-parallax-setting-plane (ZPS) and change parallax conveniently to suit his/her personal preferences. The proposed method is implemented with OPENGL and demonstrated on a laptop computer with a 2.3 GHz Intel Core i5 CPU and NVIDA GeForce GT540m GPU. We got a frame rate 30 frames per second with 4096×2340 video. High synthesis efficiency and good stereoscopic sense can be obtained. The presented method can meet the requirements of real-time ultra-HD super multi-view auto-stereoscopic display.

  13. A Method to Test Model Calibration Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, Ron; Polly, Ben; Neymark, Joel

    2016-08-26

    This paper describes a method for testing model calibration techniques. Calibration is commonly used in conjunction with energy retrofit audit models. An audit is conducted to gather information about the building needed to assemble an input file for a building energy modeling tool. A calibration technique is used to reconcile model predictions with utility data, and then the 'calibrated model' is used to predict energy savings from a variety of retrofit measures and combinations thereof. Current standards and guidelines such as BPI-2400 and ASHRAE-14 set criteria for 'goodness of fit' and assume that if the criteria are met, then the calibration technique is acceptable. While it is logical to use the actual performance data of the building to tune the model, it is not certain that a good fit will result in a model that better predicts post-retrofit energy savings. Therefore, the basic idea here is that the simulation program (intended for use with the calibration technique) is used to generate surrogate utility bill data and retrofit energy savings data against which the calibration technique can be tested. This provides three figures of merit for testing a calibration technique, 1) accuracy of the post-retrofit energy savings prediction, 2) closure on the 'true' input parameter values, and 3) goodness of fit to the utility bill data. The paper will also discuss the pros and cons of using this synthetic surrogate data approach versus trying to use real data sets of actual buildings.

  14. Direct dimethyl-ether (DME) synthesis by spatial patterned catalyst arrangement. A modeling and simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, K.; Turek, T.; Guettel, R. [Clausthal Univ. of Technology (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Process Engineering

    2011-07-01

    The effect of spatially patterned catalyst beds was investigated for direct DME synthesis from synthesis gas as an example. A layered arrangement of methanol synthesis and dehydration catalyst was chosen and studied by numerical simulation under typical operating conditions for single-step DME synthesis. It was revealed that catalyst layers significantly influence the DME productivity. With an increasing number of layers from 2 to 40, an increase in DME productivity was observed approaching the performance of a physical catalyst mixture for an infinite number of layers. The results prove that a physical mixture of methanol synthesis and dehydration catalyst achieves the highest DME productivity under operating conditions chosen in this study. This can be explained by the higher average methanol concentration for the layered catalyst arrangement and thus stronger equilibrium constraints for the methanol synthesis reaction. Essentially, the layered catalyst arrangement is comparable to a cascade model of the two-step process, which is less efficient in terms of DME yield than the single-step process. However, since a significant effect was found, the layered catalyst arrangement could be beneficial for other reaction systems. (orig.)

  15. Generic Sensor Modeling Using Pulse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Dennis L.; Choi, Taeyoung

    2005-01-01

    Recent development of high spatial resolution satellites such as IKONOS, Quickbird and Orbview enable observation of the Earth's surface with sub-meter resolution. Compared to the 30 meter resolution of Landsat 5 TM, the amount of information in the output image was dramatically increased. In this era of high spatial resolution, the estimation of spatial quality of images is gaining attention. Historically, the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) concept has been used to estimate an imaging system's spatial quality. Sometimes classified by target shapes, various methods were developed in laboratory environment utilizing sinusoidal inputs, periodic bar patterns and narrow slits. On-orbit sensor MTF estimation was performed on 30-meter GSD Landsat4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data from the bridge pulse target as a pulse input . Because of a high resolution sensor s small Ground Sampling Distance (GSD), reasonably sized man-made edge, pulse, and impulse targets can be deployed on a uniform grassy area with accurate control of ground targets using tarps and convex mirrors. All the previous work cited calculated MTF without testing the MTF estimator's performance. In previous report, a numerical generic sensor model had been developed to simulate and improve the performance of on-orbit MTF estimating techniques. Results from the previous sensor modeling report that have been incorporated into standard MTF estimation work include Fermi edge detection and the newly developed 4th order modified Savitzky-Golay (MSG) interpolation technique. Noise sensitivity had been studied by performing simulations on known noise sources and a sensor model. Extensive investigation was done to characterize multi-resolution ground noise. Finally, angle simulation was tested by using synthetic pulse targets with angles from 2 to 15 degrees, several brightness levels, and different noise levels from both ground targets and imaging system. As a continuing research activity using the developed sensor

  16. Approximate Methods for State-Space Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinsuke; Pérez-Bolde, Lucia Castellanos; Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Kass, Robert E

    2010-03-01

    State-space models provide an important body of techniques for analyzing time-series, but their use requires estimating unobserved states. The optimal estimate of the state is its conditional expectation given the observation histories, and computing this expectation is hard when there are nonlinearities. Existing filtering methods, including sequential Monte Carlo, tend to be either inaccurate or slow. In this paper, we study a nonlinear filter for nonlinear/non-Gaussian state-space models, which uses Laplace's method, an asymptotic series expansion, to approximate the state's conditional mean and variance, together with a Gaussian conditional distribution. This Laplace-Gaussian filter (LGF) gives fast, recursive, deterministic state estimates, with an error which is set by the stochastic characteristics of the model and is, we show, stable over time. We illustrate the estimation ability of the LGF by applying it to the problem of neural decoding and compare it to sequential Monte Carlo both in simulations and with real data. We find that the LGF can deliver superior results in a small fraction of the computing time.

  17. Engineering design of systems models and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Buede, Dennis M

    2009-01-01

    The ideal introduction to the engineering design of systems-now in a new edition. The Engineering Design of Systems, Second Edition compiles a wealth of information from diverse sources to provide a unique, one-stop reference to current methods for systems engineering. It takes a model-based approach to key systems engineering design activities and introduces methods and models used in the real world. Features new to this edition include: * The addition of Systems Modeling Language (SysML) to several of the chapters, as well as the introduction of new terminology * Additional material on partitioning functions and components * More descriptive material on usage scenarios based on literature from use case development * Updated homework assignments * The software product CORE (from Vitech Corporation) is used to generate the traditional SE figures and the software product MagicDraw UML with SysML plugins (from No Magic, Inc.) is used for the SysML figures This book is designed to be an introductory reference ...

  18. Gas-phase synthesis of hexagonal and cubic phases of aluminum nitride: A method and its advantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakova, V. S.; Bannikov, V. V.; Elagin, A. A.; Shishkin, R. A.; Baranov, M. V.; Beketov, A. R.

    2016-03-01

    Experimental results obtained in AlN synthesis by the high-temperature gas-phase method and analysis of reaction products phase composition are briefly described. It is demonstrated for the first time that dispersed aluminum nitride can be synthesized by this method from AlF3 in both hexagonal and cubic modifications.

  19. A Simple and Rapid Method for Preparing a Cell-Free Bacterial Lysate for Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduri, Maya; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Goldfeder, Mor; Ivanir, Eran; Benhar, Itai; Shoham, Yuval; Schroeder, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems are important laboratory tools that are used for various synthetic biology applications. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale method for preparing a CFPS system from E. coli. The procedure uses basic lab equipment, a minimal set of reagents, and requires less than one hour to process the bacterial cell mass into a functional S30-T7 extract. BL21(DE3) and MRE600 E. coli strains were used to prepare the S30-T7 extract. The CFPS system was used to produce a set of fluorescent and therapeutic proteins of different molecular weights (up to 66 kDa). This system was able to produce 40–150 μg-protein/ml, with variations depending on the plasmid type, expressed protein and E. coli strain. Interestingly, the BL21-based CFPS exhibited stability and increased activity at 40 and 45°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most rapid and affordable lab-scale protocol for preparing a cell-free protein synthesis system, with high thermal stability and efficacy in producing therapeutic proteins. PMID:27768741

  20. Biofabrication methods for the patterned assembly and synthesis of viral nanotemplates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasopoulos, K; Ghodssi, R [MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL), University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); McCarthy, M [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Banerjee, P [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Fan, X [Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Culver, J N, E-mail: ghodssi@umd.edu [Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-02-05

    This paper reports on novel methodologies for the patterning and templated synthesis of virus-structured nanomaterials in two- and three-dimensional microfabricated architectures using the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The TMV is a high aspect ratio biological molecule which can be engineered to include amino acids with enhanced binding properties. These modifications facilitate self-assembly of the TMV onto various substrates and enable its use as a template for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. This work focuses on the combination of this bottom-up biologically inspired fabrication method with standard top-down micromachining processes that allow direct integration of the virus-structured materials into batch-fabricated devices. Photolithographic patterning of uncoated as well as nickel-coated TMV nanostructures has been achieved using a lift-off process in both solvent and mild basic solutions and their assembly onto three-dimensional polymer and silicon microstructures is demonstrated. In addition to these patterning techniques, in situ formation of metal oxide TMV coatings in patterned microfabricated environments is shown using atomic layer deposition directly on the nickel-coated viruses. The biofabrication 'process toolbox' presented in this work offers a simple and versatile alternative for the hierarchical patterning and incorporation of biotemplated nanomaterials into micro/nanofabrication schemes.

  1. Synthesis of ZSM-5 with intracrystal or intercrystal mesopores by polyvinyl butyral templating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haibo; Liu, Zhicheng; Kong, Dejin; Wang, Yangdong; Yuan, Xiaohong; Xie, Zaiku

    2009-03-15

    Three facile routes were utilized to synthesize ZSM-5 materials with intracrystal or intercrystal mesopores, where the polyvinyl butyral gel served as mesopore directing template. The three routes were divided into two synthesis strategies: the hydrothermal treatment of silica/PVB composite and re-crystallization of preformed zeolite precursor with the assistance of PVB gel. The fabrication of silica/PVB composite was accomplished by two routes including sol-gel process and impregnation method. The resulting composite was undergone hydrothermal treatment. During the crystallization PVB was occluded in the ZSM-5 crystal, creating intracrystal mesopores in the zeolite. The last route for the synthesis of mesoporous ZSM-5 was realized by re-crystallization of preformed ZSM-5 zeolite in the presence of PVB. This route involved the pre-crystallization of the amorphous aluminosilicate to produce the pre-formed ZSM-5 precursor. Upon further crystallization of the mixture of PVB gel and pre-formed ZSM-5, the ZSM-5 precursor was transformed into ZSM-5 aggregate of nanocrystals, while the PVB gel was occluded in the ZSM-5 particles. Removal of the template generated the typical microporosity associated with ZSM-5 structure along with intercrystal mesoporosity produced from the PVB. The mesoporous ZSM-5 exhibited enhanced catalytic activity in the toluene disproportionation and transalkylation with C(9) and C(10) aromatics.

  2. Copper Nanoparticles Mediated by Chitosan: Synthesis and Characterization via Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sani Usman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report a synthesis of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs in chitosan (Cts media via a chemical reaction method. The nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous solution in the presence of Cts as stabilizer and CuSO4·5H2O precursor. The synthesis proceeded with addition of NaOH as pH moderator, ascorbic acid as antioxidant and hydrazine as the reducing agent. The characterization of the prepared NPs was done using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, which showed a 593 nm copper band. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM images were also observed, and found to be in agreement with the UV-Vis result, confirming the formation of metallic Cu-NPs. The mean size of the Cu-NPs was estimated to be in the range of 35–75 nm using X-ray diffraction. XRD was also used in analysis of the crystal structure of the NPs. The interaction between the chitosan and the synthesized NPs was studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, which showed the capping of the NPs by Cts.

  3. Facile Synthesis of Sub-20 nm Silver Nanowires through a Bromide-Mediated Polyol Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robson Rosa; Yang, Miaoxin; Choi, Sang-Il; Chi, Miaofang; Luo, Ming; Zhang, Chao; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Camargo, Pedro H C; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; Xia, Younan

    2016-08-23

    Essentially all of the Ag nanowires reported in the literature have sizes larger than 30 nm in diameter. In this article, we report a simple and robust approach to the synthesis of Ag nanowires with diameters below 20 nm and aspect ratios over 1000 using a one-pot polyol method. The Ag nanowires took a penta-twinned structure, and they could be obtained rapidly (85% of the as-obtained solid product) under atmospheric pressure. The key to the success of this synthesis is to restrain the nanowires from lateral growth by employing both Br(-) ions and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) with a high molecular weight of 1 300 000 g/mol to cap the {100} side faces, together with the use of a syringe pump to slowly introduce AgNO3 into the reaction solution. By optimizing the ratios between the capping agents and AgNO3, we were able to slow down the reduction kinetics and effectively direct the Ag nanowires to grow along the longitudinal direction only. The nanowires showed great mechanical flexibility and could be bent with acute angles without breaking. Because of their small diameters, the transverse localized surface plasmon resonance peak of the Ag nanowires could be pushed down to the ultraviolet region, below 400 nm, making them ideal conductive elements for the fabrication of touch screens, solar cells, and smart windows.

  4. Biofabrication methods for the patterned assembly and synthesis of viral nanotemplates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasopoulos, K.; McCarthy, M.; Banerjee, P.; Fan, X.; Culver, J. N; Ghodssi, Reza

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on novel methodologies for the patterning and templated synthesis of virus-structured nanomaterials in two- and three-dimensional microfabricated architectures using the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The TMV is a high aspect ratio biological molecule which can be engineered to include amino acids with enhanced binding properties. These modifications facilitate self-assembly of the TMV onto various substrates and enable its use as a template for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. This work focuses on the combination of this bottom-up biologically inspired fabrication method with standard top-down micromachining processes that allow direct integration of the virus-structured materials into batch-fabricated devices. Photolithographic patterning of uncoated as well as nickel-coated TMV nanostructures has been achieved using a lift-off process in both solvent and mild basic solutions and their assembly onto three-dimensional polymer and silicon microstructures is demonstrated. In addition to these patterning techniques, in situ formation of metal oxide TMV coatings in patterned microfabricated environments is shown using atomic layer deposition directly on the nickel-coated viruses. The biofabrication 'process toolbox' presented in this work offers a simple and versatile alternative for the hierarchical patterning and incorporation of biotemplated nanomaterials into micro/nanofabrication schemes.

  5. Effect of mechanical activation on cordierite synthesis through solid-state sintering method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Nath; Sanjay Kumar; Rakesh Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Synthesis of cordierite (5SiO2.2MgO.2Al2O3) has attracted special attention from researchers for its special characteristics. Most common method of cordierite preparation is solid-state reaction using source of alumina, silica and magnesia, which requires temperature of 1350 °C or above. This study deals with the effect of mechanical activation on cordierite synthesis at lower temperature. Talc, kaolinite clay and alumina powder were taken as precursor materials and the batches were formulated on the basis of stoichometric cordierite formation. Particle size distribution (PSD) was measured to get the distribution pattern of milled powder. Pellets were prepared by compaction of dried milled powders and fired at 1200 °C temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to characterize crystalline phases. Microstructural analysis was done under scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was observed that properties were improved with milling time. Dense and uniform microstructures were formed when samples were milled for 45 and 60 min.

  6. Microwave method for synthesis of micro- and nanostructures with controllable composition during gyrotron discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanov, German M.; Borzosekov, Valentin D.; Golberg, Dmitri; Iskhakova, Ludmila D.; Kolik, Leonid V.; Konchekov, Evgeny M.; Kharchev, Nikolai K.; Letunov, Alexander A.; Malakhov, Dmitry V.; Milovich, Filipp O.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Petrov, Alexander E.; Ryabikina, Irina G.; Sarksian, Karen A.; Stepakhin, Vladimir D.; Skvortsova, Nina N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an approach toward the synthesis of micro- and nanostructures under nonequilibrium microwave discharges within metal-dielectric powder mixtures induced by powerful microwave gyrotron radiation. A new plasma-chemical reactor capable of sustaining a discharge regime with an afterglow phase of an order of magnitude longer than the gyrotron pulse duration was constructed for these experiments. In the nonequilibrium conditions of such a discharge, plasma-induced exothermic chemical reactions leading to the synthesis of various compounds were initiated. The synthesized structures were deposited on the reactor walls and on the impurity particles within the reactor. This method was tested under gyrotron-initiated discharges within various metal-dielectric powder mixtures of titanium-boron, molybdenum-boron, titanium-silicon-boron, molybdenum-boron nitride, molybdenum-tungsten-boron nitride, and so on. Depending on the powder mixture composition, reactor atmosphere, and other parameters, micro- and nanosized particles of boron nitride, titanium diboride, molybdenum boride, titanium boride, molybdenum, and molybdenum oxide, were synthesized, detected, and analyzed.

  7. An electrochemical procedure coupled with a Schiff base method; application to electroorganic synthesis of new nitrogen-containing heterocycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowlati, Bahram; Othman, Mohamed Rozali [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The synthesis of Nitrogen-containing heterocycles has been achieved using chemical and electrochemical methods, respectively. The direct chemical synthesis of nucleophiles proceeds through the Schiff base chemical reaction. This procedure offers an alternate reaction between dicarbonyl compounds and diamines leads to the formation of products. The results indicate that the Schiff base chemical method for synthesis of the product has successfully performed in excellent overall yield. In the electrochemical step, a series of Nitrogen-containing compounds were electrosynthesized. Various parameters such as the applied potential, pH of the electrolytic solution, cell configuration and also purification techniques, were carried out to optimize the yields of corresponding products. New Nitrogen-containing heterocycle derivatives were synthesized using an electrochemical procedure coupled with a Schiff base as a facile, efficient and practical method. The products have been characterized after purification by IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and ESI-MS{sup 2}.

  8. An electrochemical procedure coupled with a Schiff base method; application to electroorganic synthesis of new nitrogen-containing heterocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlati, Bahram; Othman, Mohamed Rozali

    2013-11-01

    The synthesis of Nitrogen-containing heterocycles has been achieved using chemical and electrochemical methods, respectively. The direct chemical synthesis of nucleophiles proceeds through the Schiff base chemical reaction. This procedure offers an alternate reaction between dicarbonyl compounds and diamines leads to the formation of products. The results indicate that the Schiff base chemical method for synthesis of the product has successfully performed in excellent overall yield. In the electrochemical step, a series of Nitrogen-containing compounds were electrosynthesized. Various parameters such as the applied potential, pH of the electrolytic solution, cell configuration and also purification techniques, were carried out to optimize the yields of corresponding products. New Nitrogen-containing heterocycle derivatives were synthesized using an electrochemical procedure coupled with a Schiff base as a facile, efficient and practical method. The products have been characterized after purification by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ESI-MS2.

  9. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  10. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  11. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  12. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  13. Nanostructured energetic composites: synthesis, ignition/combustion modeling, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Torabi, Mohsen; Lu, Jian; Shen, Ruiqi; Zhang, Kaili

    2014-03-12

    Nanotechnology has stimulated revolutionary advances in many scientific and industrial fields, particularly in energetic materials. Powder mixing is the simplest and most traditional method to prepare nanoenergetic composites, and preliminary findings have shown that these composites perform more effectively than their micro- or macro-sized counterparts in terms of energy release, ignition, and combustion. Powder mixing technology represents only the minimum capability of nanotechnology to boost the development of energetic material research, and it has intrinsic limitations, namely, random distribution of fuel and oxidizer particles, inevitable fuel pre-oxidation, and non-intimate contact between reactants. As an alternative, nanostructured energetic composites can be prepared through a delicately designed process. These composites outperform powder-mixed nanocomposites in numerous ways; therefore, we comprehensively discuss the preparation strategies adopted for nanostructured energetic composites and the research achievements thus far in this review. The latest ignition and reaction models are briefly introduced. Finally, the broad promising applications of nanostructured energetic composites are highlighted.

  14. A PSL Bounded Model Checking Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lei; ZHAO Zongtao

    2012-01-01

    SAT-based bounded model checking (BMC) is introduced as an important complementary technique to OBDD-based symbolic model checking, and is an efficient verification method for parallel and reactive systems. However, until now the properties verified by bounded model checking are very finite. Temporal logic PSL is a property specification language (IEEE-1850) describing parallel systems and is divided into two parts, i.e. the linear time logic FL and the branch time logic OBE. In this paper, the specification checked by BMC is extended to PSL and its algorithm is also proposed. Firstly, define the bounded semantics of PSL, and then reduce the bounded semantics into SAT by translating PSL specification formula and the state transition relation of the system to the propositional formula A and B, respectively. Finally, verify the satisfiability of the conjunction propositional formula of A and B. The algorithm results in the translation of the existential model checking of the temporal logic PSL into the satisfiability problem of propositional formula. An example of a queue controlling circuit is used to interpret detailedly the executing procedure of the algorithm.

  15. Task-Level Data Model for Hardware Synthesis Based on Concurrent Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Cong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing design complexity of modern digital systems makes it necessary to develop electronic system-level (ESL methodologies with automation and optimization in the higher abstraction level. How the concurrency is modeled in the application specification plays a significant role in ESL design frameworks. The state-of-art concurrent specification models are not suitable for modeling task-level concurrent behavior for the hardware synthesis design flow. Based on the concurrent collection (CnC model, which provides the maximum freedom of task rescheduling, we propose task-level data model (TLDM, targeted at the task-level optimization in hardware synthesis for data processing applications. Polyhedral models are embedded in TLDM for concise expression of task instances, array accesses, and dependencies. Examples are shown to illustrate the advantages of our TLDM specification compared to other widely used concurrency specifications.

  16. Finite element modeling methods for photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, B M Azizur

    2013-01-01

    The term photonics can be used loosely to refer to a vast array of components, devices, and technologies that in some way involve manipulation of light. One of the most powerful numerical approaches available to engineers developing photonic components and devices is the Finite Element Method (FEM), which can be used to model and simulate such components/devices and analyze how they will behave in response to various outside influences. This resource provides a comprehensive description of the formulation and applications of FEM in photonics applications ranging from telecommunications, astron

  17. Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Maceri, Franco

    2012-01-01

    „Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering” collects leading papers dealing with actual Civil Engineering problems. The approach is in the line of the Italian-French school and therefore deeply couples mechanics and mathematics creating new predictive theories, enhancing clarity in understanding, and improving effectiveness in applications. The authors of the contributions collected here belong to the Lagrange Laboratory, an European Research Network active since many years. This book will be of a major interest for the reader aware of modern Civil Engineering.

  18. Statistical Models and Methods for Lifetime Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition"An indispensable addition to any serious collection on lifetime data analysis and . . . a valuable contribution to the statistical literature. Highly recommended . . ."-Choice"This is an important book, which will appeal to statisticians working on survival analysis problems."-Biometrics"A thorough, unified treatment of statistical models and methods used in the analysis of lifetime data . . . this is a highly competent and agreeable statistical textbook."-Statistics in MedicineThe statistical analysis of lifetime or response time data is a key tool in engineering,

  19. A probabilistic decomposition-synthesis method for the quantification of rare events due to internal instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Mustafa A.; Cousins, Will; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the problem of the probabilistic quantification of dynamical systems that have heavy-tailed characteristics. These heavy-tailed features are associated with rare transient responses due to the occurrence of internal instabilities. Systems with these properties can be found in a variety of areas including mechanics, fluids, and waves. Here we develop a computational method, a probabilistic decomposition-synthesis technique, that takes into account the nature of internal instabilities to inexpensively determine the non-Gaussian probability density function for any arbitrary quantity of interest. Our approach relies on the decomposition of the statistics into a 'non-extreme core', typically Gaussian, and a heavy-tailed component. This decomposition is in full correspondence with a partition of the phase space into a 'stable' region where we have no internal instabilities, and a region where non-linear instabilities lead to rare transitions with high probability. We quantify the statistics in the stable region using a Gaussian approximation approach, while the non-Gaussian distribution associated with the intermittently unstable regions of phase space is inexpensively computed through order-reduction methods that take into account the strongly nonlinear character of the dynamics. The probabilistic information in the two domains is analytically synthesized through a total probability argument. The proposed approach allows for the accurate quantification of non-Gaussian tails at more than 10 standard deviations, at a fraction of the cost associated with the direct Monte-Carlo simulations. We demonstrate the probabilistic decomposition-synthesis method for rare events for two dynamical systems exhibiting extreme events: a two-degree-of-freedom system of nonlinearly coupled oscillators, and in a nonlinear envelope equation characterizing the propagation of unidirectional water waves.

  20. IMPROVED HOMOTOPY ITERATION METHOD AND APPLIED TO THE NINE-POINT PATH SYNTHESIS PROBLEM FOR FOUR-BAR LINKAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new algorithm called homotopy iteration method based on the homotopy function is studied and improved. By the improved homotopy iteration method, polynomial systems with high order and deficient can be solved fast and efficiently comparing to the original homotopy iteration method. Numerical examples for the ninepoint path synthesis of four-bar linkages show the advantages and efficiency of the improved homotopy iteration method.

  1. A spectral synthesis code for rapid modelling of supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzendorf, Wolfgang E

    2014-01-01

    We present TARDIS - an open-source code for rapid spectral modelling of supernovae (SNe). Our goal is to develop a tool that is sufficiently fast to allow exploration of the complex parameter spaces of models for SN ejecta. This can be used to analyse the growing number of high-quality SN spectra being obtained by transient surveys. The code uses Monte Carlo methods to obtain a self-consistent description of the plasma state and to compute a synthetic spectrum. It has a modular design to facilitate the implementation of a range of physical approximations that can be compared to asses both accuracy and computational expediency. This will allow users to choose a level of sophistication appropriate for their application. Here, we describe the operation of the code and make comparisons with alternative radiative transfer codes of differing levels of complexity (SYN++, PYTHON, and ARTIS). We then explore the consequence of adopting simple prescriptions for the calculation of atomic excitation, focussing on four sp...

  2. Type synthesis to design variable camber mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes multiple hinges’ type spectrum that provides an effective description of the multiple hinges of planar kinematic chains. The relationships between characteristic invariants are established and applied into type synthesis methods. A type synthesis method for planar kinematic chains, which is called the characteristic spectrum analysis type synthesis method, is proposed. A systematic design method for variable camber mechanisms is proposed. Using the results of the type synthesis and the systematic design method, three design schemes are proposed and the mathematic models are set up. Some simulation analysis has been done. All these analyses can verify the deformation performance of the proposed mechanism.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of new 5-linked pinoresinol lignin models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Lu, Fachuang; Sun, Runcang; Ralph, John

    2012-12-14

    Pinoresinol structures, featuring a β-β'-linkage between lignin monomer units, are important in softwood lignins and in dicots and monocots, particularly those that are downregulated in syringyl-specific genes. Although readily detected by NMR spectroscopy, pinoresinol structures largely escaped detection by β-ether-cleaving degradation analyses presumably due to the presence of the linkages at the 5 positions, in 5-5'- or 5-O-4'-structures. In this study, which is aimed at helping better understand 5-linked pinoresinol structures by providing the required data for NMR characterization, new lignin model compounds were synthesized through biomimetic peroxidase-mediated oxidative coupling reactions between pre-formed (free-phenolic) coniferyl alcohol 5-5'- or 5-O-4'-linked dimers and a coniferyl alcohol monomer. It was found that such dimers containing free-phenolic coniferyl alcohol moieties can cross-couple with the coniferyl alcohol producing pinoresinol-containing trimers (and higher oligomers) in addition to other homo- and cross-coupled products. Eight new lignin model compounds were obtained and characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and one tentatively identified cross-coupled β-O-4'-product was formed from a coniferyl alcohol 5-O-4'-linked dimer. It was demonstrated that the 5-5'- and 5-O-4'-linked pinoresinol structures could be readily differentiated by using heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC) NMR spectroscopy. With appropriate modification (etherification or acetylation) to the newly obtained model compounds, it would be possible to identify the 5-5'- or 5-O-4'-linked pinoresinol structures in softwood lignins by 2D HMBC NMR spectroscopic methods. Identification of the cross-coupled dibenzodioxocin from a coniferyl alcohol 5-5'-linked moiety suggested that thioacidolysis or derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC) could be used to detect and identify whether the coniferyl alcohol itself undergoes 5-5'-cross-linking during

  4. Polymer-virus core-shell structures prepared via co-assembly and template synthesis methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUTHIWANGCHAROEN; Nisaraporn; PREVELIGE; Peter; E.Jr

    2010-01-01

    Bionanoparticles(BNPs),consisting of virus and virus-like assemblies,have attracted much attention in the biomedical field for their applications such as imaging and targeted drug delivery,owing to their well-defined structures and well-controlled chemistries.BNPs-based core-shell structures provide a unique system for the investigation of biological interactions such as protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate interactions.However,it is still a challenge to prepare the BNPs-based core-shell structures.Herein,we describe(i) co-assembly method and(ii) template synthesis method in the development of polymer-BNPs core-shell structures.These two methods can be divided into three different systems.In system A,different polymers including poly(2-vinylpyridine)(P2VP),poly(4-vinylpyridine)(P4VP) and poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)(PCL-b-P2VP) can form a raspberry-like structure with BNPs.In system B,polystyrene(PS) spheres end capped with free amine and BNPs can form a core-shell structure.In System C,layer-by-layer(LBL) method is used to prepare positive charged PS particles,which can be used as a template to form the core-shell structures with BNPs.These two methods may open a new way for preparing novel protein-based functional materials for potential applications in the biomedical field.

  5. An estrogen receptor model to describe the regulation of prolactin synthesis by antiestrogens in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, M E; Gorski, J; Jordan, V C

    1983-04-25

    A hypothetical model of the ligand interaction with the estrogen receptor binding site has been developed to describe the structural features necessary to initiate or to inhibit prolactin synthesis in vitro. The biological potency of the binding ligands is directly related to their relative binding affinity (RBA) for the estrogen receptor. The relative potencies of antiestrogens to inhibit estradiol-stimulated prolactin synthesis was trans-monohydroxytamoxifen identical to cis-monohydroxytamoxifen identical to tamoxifen, consistent with their RBAs for uterine estrogen receptor. Similarly the relative potency of estrogens to stimulate prolactin synthesis was diethylstilbestrol identical to estradiol greater than ICI 77,949 greater than ICI 47,699 identical to zuclomiphene, consistent with their RBAs. The compound LY126412 (trioxifene without the aminoethoxy side chain) did not interact with the estrogen receptor at the concentrations tested (10(-8)--10(-6) M) or exhibit estrogenic or antiestrogenic properties using the prolactin synthesis assay. Overall, the ligand-receptor model stresses the structural requirement for high affinity binding and the critical positioning of the alkylamino-ethoxy side chain in space (in relation to the ligand-binding site on the estrogen receptor) to prevent prolactin synthesis.

  6. Development of modelling method selection tool for health services management: From problem structuring methods to modelling and simulation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Aisha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing recognition that modelling and simulation can assist in the process of designing health care policies, strategies and operations. However, the current use is limited and answers to questions such as what methods to use and when remain somewhat underdeveloped. Aim The aim of this study is to provide a mechanism for decision makers in health services planning and management to compare a broad range of modelling and simulation methods so that they can better select and use them or better commission relevant modelling and simulation work. Methods This paper proposes a modelling and simulation method comparison and selection tool developed from a comprehensive literature review, the research team's extensive expertise and inputs from potential users. Twenty-eight different methods were identified, characterised by their relevance to different application areas, project life cycle stages, types of output and levels of insight, and four input resources required (time, money, knowledge and data. Results The characterisation is presented in matrix forms to allow quick comparison and selection. This paper also highlights significant knowledge gaps in the existing literature when assessing the applicability of particular approaches to health services management, where modelling and simulation skills are scarce let alone money and time. Conclusions A modelling and simulation method comparison and selection tool is developed to assist with the selection of methods appropriate to supporting specific decision making processes. In particular it addresses the issue of which method is most appropriate to which specific health services management problem, what the user might expect to be obtained from the method, and what is required to use the method. In summary, we believe the tool adds value to the scarce existing literature on methods comparison and selection.

  7. The primary care provider (PCP)-cancer specialist relationship: A systematic review and mixed-methods meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Lesly A; Hudson, Janella N; Morris, Arden M; Lee, M Catherine; Roetzheim, Richard G; Fetters, Michael D; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2017-03-01

    Although they are critical to models of coordinated care, the relationship and communication between primary care providers (PCPs) and cancer specialists throughout the cancer continuum are poorly understood. By using predefined search terms, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature in 3 databases to examine the relationship and communication between PCPs and cancer specialists. Among 301 articles identified, 35 met all inclusion criteria and were reviewed in-depth. Findings from qualitative, quantitative, and disaggregated mixed-methods studies were integrated using meta-synthesis. Six themes were identified and incorporated into a preliminary conceptual model of the PCP-cancer specialist relationship: 1) poor and delayed communication between PCPs and cancer specialists, 2) cancer specialists' endorsement of a specialist-based model of care, 3) PCPs' belief that they play an important role in the cancer continuum, 4) PCPs' willingness to participate in the cancer continuum, 5) cancer specialists' and PCPs' uncertainty regarding the PCP's oncology knowledge/experience, and 6) discrepancies between PCPs and cancer specialists regarding roles. These data indicate a pervasive need for improved communication, delineation, and coordination of responsibilities between PCPs and cancer specialists. Future interventions aimed at these deficiencies may improve patient and physician satisfaction and cancer care coordination. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:156-169. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  8. System and method of designing models in a feedback loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosink, Luke C.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Sego, Landon H.

    2017-02-14

    A method and system for designing models is disclosed. The method includes selecting a plurality of models for modeling a common event of interest. The method further includes aggregating the results of the models and analyzing each model compared to the aggregate result to obtain comparative information. The method also includes providing the information back to the plurality of models to design more accurate models through a feedback loop.

  9. Appropriate model selection methods for nonstationary generalized extreme value models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanbeen; Kim, Sooyoung; Shin, Hongjoon; Heo, Jun-Haeng

    2017-04-01

    Several evidences of hydrologic data series being nonstationary in nature have been found to date. This has resulted in the conduct of many studies in the area of nonstationary frequency analysis. Nonstationary probability distribution models involve parameters that vary over time. Therefore, it is not a straightforward process to apply conventional goodness-of-fit tests to the selection of an appropriate nonstationary probability distribution model. Tests that are generally recommended for such a selection include the Akaike's information criterion (AIC), corrected Akaike's information criterion (AICc), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and likelihood ratio test (LRT). In this study, the Monte Carlo simulation was performed to compare the performances of these four tests, with regard to nonstationary as well as stationary generalized extreme value (GEV) distributions. Proper model selection ratios and sample sizes were taken into account to evaluate the performances of all the four tests. The BIC demonstrated the best performance with regard to stationary GEV models. In case of nonstationary GEV models, the AIC proved to be better than the other three methods, when relatively small sample sizes were considered. With larger sample sizes, the AIC, BIC, and LRT presented the best performances for GEV models which have nonstationary location and/or scale parameters, respectively. Simulation results were then evaluated by applying all four tests to annual maximum rainfall data of selected sites, as observed by the Korea Meteorological Administration.

  10. Universal method for the synthesis of arbitrary polarization states radiated by a nanoantenna

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Fortuno, Francisco J; Griol, Amadeu; Bellieres, Laurent; Marti, Javier; Martinez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Optical nanoantennas efficiently convert confined optical energy into free-space radiation. The polarization of the emitted radiation depends mainly on nanoantenna shape, so it becomes extremely difficult to manipulate it unless the nanostructure is physically altered. Here we demonstrate a simple way to synthetize the polarization of the radiation emitted by a single nanoantenna so that every point on the Poincar\\'e sphere becomes attainable. The nanoantenna consists of a single scatterer created on a dielectric waveguide and fed from its both sides so that the polarization of the emitted optical radiation is controlled by the amplitude and phase of the feeding signals. Our nanoantenna is created on a silicon chip using standard top-down nanofabrication tools, but the method is universal and can be applied to other materials, wavelengths and technologies. This work will open the way towards the synthesis and control of arbitrary polarization states in nano-optics.

  11. Synthesis of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles using simple CO-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmandjou, M.; Zarinkamar, M.; Firoozabadi, T. P., E-mail: farahamndjou@iauvaramin.ac.ir [Islamis Azad University, Varamin-Phisva Branch, Department of Physics, Varamin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Synthesis of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles was studied by new and simple co-precipitation method. The cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using cerium nitrate and potassium carbonate precursors. Their physicochemical properties were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Ftir) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. XRD pattern showed the cubic structure of the cerium oxide nanoparticles. The average particle size of CeO{sub 2} was around 20 nm as estimated by XRD technique and direct HRTEM observations. The surface morphological studies from Sem and Tem depicted spherical particles with formation of clusters. The sharp peaks in Ftir spectrum determined the existence of CeO{sub 2} stretching mode and the absorbance peak of UV-Vis spectrum showed the bandgap energy of 3.26 eV. (Author)

  12. The review of various synthesis methods of barium titanate with the enhanced dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, S. P., E-mail: smitalomte@gmail.com [MIT college of Engineering, Aurangabad (MS) India (India); Topare, R. J., E-mail: r-topare@yahoo.com [Yogeshwari Mahavidyalaya, Ambajogai (MS) India (India)

    2016-05-06

    The Barium Titanate is a very well known dielectric ceramic belongs to perovskite structure. It has very wide applications in the field of electronic, electro ceramic, electromechanical and electro-optical applications. Barium Titanate has very high dielectric constant as well as low dielectric loss. Substituted dielectrics are one of the most important technological compounds in modern electro ceramics. Its electrical properties can be tuned flexibly by a simple substitution technique. This has encouraged researchers to select a typical cation to be substituted at cationic sites. In the present paper, the review of various synthesis methods of Barium Titanate compound with the effect of different dopants, the grain size on the dielectric properties at various temperatures is discussed.

  13. An ionic liquid based synthesis method for uniform luminescent lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Nuria O; Ocana, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC, Americo Vespucio 49, 41092, Isla de la Cartuja, Sevilla (Spain)

    2007-11-14

    We describe a facile procedure for the synthesis of uniform lanthanide fluoride nanophosphors by homogeneous precipitation in ethylene glycol solutions containing lanthanide precursors and an ionic liquid (1-butyl, 2-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate). It is shown that the use of this ionic liquid as a fluoride source, an appropriate choice of the solvent and the lanthanide precursor, and the adjustment of reaction temperature, are essential to obtain uniform nanoparticles. This method is applied to the preparation of pure YF{sub 3}, EuF{sub 3} and TbF{sub 3} nanoparticles as well as of Eu-doped YF{sub 3} and Tb-doped YF{sub 3}. In most cases, highly uniform nanoparticles were obtained, the size of which could be tuned in the nanometer range by adjusting the nature and concentration of the starting lanthanide precursor. The luminescent properties of the synthesized materials are also evaluated.

  14. Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy L. Vander Wal

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC, controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing devices are detailed. For comparison to the nascent form, these sensing materials are surface coated with Pd and Pt nanoparticles. Gas sensing tests, with respect to H2, are conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures. Comparative normalized responses and time constants for the catalyst and noncatalyst systems provide a basis for identification of the superior metal-oxide nanostructure and catalyst combination. With temperature-dependent data, Arrhenius analyses are made to determine activation energies for the catalyst-assisted systems.

  15. A Method for Sustainable Carbon Dioxide Utilization Process Synthesis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Fjellerup, Kasper; Roh, Kosan

    for the process synthesis, design and more sustainable design. Using a superstructure-based approach a network of utilization alternatives is created linking CO2 and other raw materials with various products using processing blocks. This will then be optimized and verified for sustainability. Detailed design has...... also been performed for various case studies. These case studies include multiple pathways for the production of methanol and the production of dimethyl carbonate (DMC). From detailed design and analysis, CO2 conversion processes show promise as an additional method for the sustainable reduction of CO2...... compounds via chemical reactions. However, conversion is still in its infancy and requires work for implementation at an industrial level. One aspect of this is the development of a methodology for the formulation and optimization of sustainable conversion processes. This methodology follows three stages...

  16. A Facile Synthesis of Silver-Coated Composite Particles by Swelling Surface Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun-Bing; LI Neng; WANG Si-Zhen; ZHANG Jian-Hui; WANG Zhen-Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ We report a facile and rapid method for fabrication of composite particles consisting of a polystyrene (PS) core and a uniform silver shell.The process involves the PS colloid surface swelling, the anchoring of silver ions and nanoparticles onto the surfaces, and the subsequent growth of metal seeds in a short period.The present approach has the advantages of simplicity and high efficiency.The TEM images show the morphology of the obtained PS core-silver shell particles, and their chemical composition and crystallinity are analysed by x-ray diffraction.To our knowledge, this is the first study based on swelling PS surface for synthesis of silver-coated PS particles and may be implemented for preparing other metal-coated PS particles.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyethylene Glycol Mediated Silver Nanoparticles by the Green Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Abdollahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The roles of green chemistry in nanotechnology and nanoscience fields are very significant in the synthesis of diverse nanomaterials. Herein, we report a green chemistry method for synthesized colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs in polymeric media. The colloidal Ag NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and β-d-glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and their size distributions. The Ag NPs were characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD, zeta potential measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR. The use of green chemistry reagents, such as glucose, provides green and economic features to this work.

  18. Synthesis of lead telluride particles by thermal decomposition method for thermoelectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leontyev, V.G.; Ivanova, L.D. [Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Leninskii prospect, 49, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bente, K.; Lazenka, V.V. [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Kristallographie und Materialwissenschaft, Leipzig University, Scharnhorst str. 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany); Gremenok, V.F. [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Centre of the NAS of Belarus, P. Brovka str. 19, 220072 Minsk (Belarus)

    2012-06-15

    The lead telluride fine crystalline particles were synthesized using thermal decomposition and chemical interaction of lead acetate and tellurium powder mixture in reducing atmosphere (H{sub 2}). For the process control, thermal gravimetry (TG), the different-scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electronic microscopy (SEM) and measurements of the specific surface of particles were used. Additionally the influence of gas phases on the decomposition kinetics, crystal structure, size, specific surface of the particles and the physical properties were analyzed. Seebeck coefficient values increased with decreasing synthesis temperature and increasing specific surfaces of the powder. The presented method of preparing lead telluride polydisperse particles is developed to create nano-structured thermoelectric materials with high figure of merit. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Experimental studies of superhard materials carbon nitride CNx prepared by ion-beam synthesis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛火平; 林成鲁; 许华平; 邹世昌; 石晓红; 吴兴龙; 朱宏; P.L.FHemment

    1996-01-01

    Formation of superhard materials carbon nitride CNt by using ion-beam synthesis method is reported.100-keV high-dose N+ ions were implanted into carbon thin films at different temperatures.The samples were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),Fourier transformation-infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR),Raman spectroscopy,cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM),Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS).X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Vickers microhardness measurement.The results show that the buried carbon nitride CN> layer has been successfully formed by using 100-keV high-dose N+ ions implantation into carbon thin film.Implantation of reactive ions into silicon (IRIS) computer program has been used to simulate the formation of the buried β-C3N4 layer as N+ ions are implanted into carbon.A good agreement between experimental measurements and IRIS simulation is found.

  20. Method for measuring violin sound radiation based on bowed glissandi and its application to sound synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Carrillo, Alfonso; Bonada, Jordi; Patynen, Jukka; Valimaki, Vesa

    2011-08-01

    This work presents a method for measuring and computing violin-body directional frequency responses, which are used for violin sound synthesis. The approach is based on a frame-weighted deconvolution of excitation and response signals. The excitation, consisting of bowed glissandi, is measured with piezoelectric transducers built into the bridge. Radiation responses are recorded in an anechoic chamber with multiple microphones placed at different angles around the violin. The proposed deconvolution algorithm computes impulse responses that, when convolved with any source signal (captured with the same transducer), produce a highly realistic violin sound very similar to that of a microphone recording. The use of motion sensors allows for tracking violin movements. Combining this information with the directional responses and using a dynamic convolution algorithm, helps to improve the listening experience by incorporating the violinist motion effect in stereo.