WorldWideScience

Sample records for model symmetry triangle

  1. Triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Borth, Teddy

    2016-01-01

    Most shapes can be cut into triangles. They are an important shape. They make bridges stronger and they help push sailboats. Easy text and large pictures help early readers discover that triangles are fun!.

  2. Hidden symmetry of a free fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhanov, V.V.; Stroganov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    A well-known eight-vertex free fermion model on a plane lattice is considered. Solving triangle equations and using the symmetry properties of the model, an elliptic parametrization for Boltzmann vertex weights is constructed. In the parametrization the weights are meromorphic functions of three complex variables

  3. Robust Sierpiński triangle fractals on symmetry-mismatched Ag(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Na; Liu, Liwei; Gu, Gaochen; Li, Chao; Tang, Hao; Peng, Lianmao; Hou, Shimin; Wang, Yongfeng

    2016-08-18

    Sierpiński triangle fractals were constructed on both Ag(111) and symmetry-mismatched fourfold Ag(100) surfaces through chemical reaction between H3PH molecules and Fe atoms under vacuum. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the fractals were stabilized by the strong coordination interaction between Fe and O atoms. In comparison, pure H3PH molecules formed fractals via moderately strong hydrogen bonds only on Ag(111), not on Ag(100).

  4. Models of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Pomarol, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This chapter present models of electroweak symmetry breaking arising from strongly interacting sectors, including both Higgsless models and mechanisms involving a composite Higgs. These scenarios have also been investigated in the framework of five-dimensional warped models that, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, have a four-dimensional holographic interpretation in terms of strongly coupled field theories. We explore the implications of these models at the LHC.

  5. Hidden Symmetries of Stochastic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyka Aneva

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the matrix product states approach to $n$ species diffusion processes the stationary probability distribution is expressed as a matrix product state with respect to a quadratic algebra determined by the dynamics of the process. The quadratic algebra defines a noncommutative space with a $SU_q(n$ quantum group action as its symmetry. Boundary processes amount to the appearance of parameter dependent linear terms in the algebraic relations and lead to a reduction of the $SU_q(n$ symmetry. We argue that the boundary operators of the asymmetric simple exclusion process generate a tridiagonal algebra whose irriducible representations are expressed in terms of the Askey-Wilson polynomials. The Askey-Wilson algebra arises as a symmetry of the boundary problem and allows to solve the model exactly.

  6. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Li; Li, Sheng; George, Thomas F.; Sun, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry

  7. Family gauge symmetry from a composite model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, B.R.; Chang, C.H.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1983-01-01

    A family gauge symmetry SUsup(F)(2) could emerge from a composite model of quarks and leptons under some assumptions of chiral hyperflavor symmetry-breaking pattern. Possible dynamical mechanisms which break the family and electroweak gauge group and produce quark-lepton masses are indicated and their phenomenologies are discussed qualitatively. (orig.)

  8. Bag model with broken chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A variant of the bag model in which chiral symmetry is broken and which provides a description of all the experimental data on the light hadrons, including the pion, is discussed. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated in this model. The problem of taking into account the center-of-mass motion in bag models and the boundary conditions in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry are also discussed

  9. Renormalizable models with broken symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchi, C.; Rouet, A.; Stora, R.

    1975-10-01

    The results of the renormalized perturbation theory, in the absence of massless quanta, are summarized. The global symmetry breaking is studied and the associated currents are discussed in terms of the coupling with a classical Yang Mills field. Gauge theories are discussed; it is most likely that the natural set up should be the theory of fiber bundles and that making a choice of field coordinates makes the situation obscure. An attempt is made in view of clarifying the meaning of the Slavnov symmetry which characterizes gauge field theories [fr

  10. Extended nonabelian symmetries for free fermionic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikov, R.P.

    1993-08-01

    The higher spin symmetry for both Dirac and Majorana massless free fermionic field models are considered. An infinite Lie algebra which is a linear realization of the higher spin extension of the cross products of the Virasoro and affine Kac-Moody algebras is obtained. The corresponding current algebra is closed which is not the case of analogous current algebra in the WZNW model. The gauging procedure for the higher spin symmetry is also given. (author). 12 refs

  11. Pythagorean triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinski, Waclaw

    2011-01-01

    The Pythagorean Theorem is one of the fundamental theorems of elementary geometry, and Pythagorean triangles - right triangles whose sides are natural numbers - have been studied by mathematicians since antiquity. In this classic text, a brilliant Polish mathematician explores the intriguing mathematical relationships in such triangles.Starting with ""primitive"" Pythagorean triangles, the text examines triangles with sides less than 100, triangles with two sides that are successive numbers, divisibility of one of the sides by 3 or by 5, the values of the sides of triangles, triangles with th

  12. Inextendibility of expanding cosmological models with symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafermos, Mihalis [University of Cambridge, Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WB (United Kingdom); Rendall, Alan D [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2005-12-07

    A new criterion for inextendibility of expanding cosmological models with symmetry is presented. It is applied to derive a number of new results and to simplify the proofs of existing ones. In particular, it shows that the solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system with T{sup 2} symmetry, including the vacuum solutions, are inextendible in the future. The technique introduced adds a qualitatively new element to the available tool-kit for studying strong cosmic censorship. (letter to the editor)

  13. From Commodity Production to Sign Production: A Triple Triangle Model for Marx's Semiotics and Peirce's Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joohoan

    Using the viewpoint of semiotics, this paper "re-reads" Karl Marx's labor theory of value and suggests a "triple triangle" model for commodity production and shows how this model could be a model for semiosis in general. The paper argues that there are three advantages to considering homogeneity of the sign production and the…

  14. Dynamical symmetries of the shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Isacker, P

    2000-07-01

    The applications of spectrum generating algebras and of dynamical symmetries in the nuclear shell model are many and varied. They stretch back to Wigner's early work on the supermultiplet model and encompass important landmarks in our understanding of the structure of the atomic nucleus such as Racah's SU(2) pairing model and Elliot's SU(3) rotational model. One of the aims of this contribution has been to show the historical importance of the idea of dynamical symmetry in nuclear physics. Another has been to indicate that, in spite of being old, this idea continues to inspire developments that are at the forefront of today's research in nuclear physics. It has been argued in this contribution that the main driving features of nuclear structure can be represented algebraically but at the same time the limitations of the symmetry approach must be recognised. It should be clear that such approach can only account for gross properties and that any detailed description requires more involved numerical calculations of which we have seen many fine examples during this symposium. In this way symmetry techniques can be used as an appropriate starting point for detailed calculations. A noteworthy example of this approach is the pseudo-SU(3) model which starting from its initial symmetry Ansatz has grown into an adequate and powerful description of the nucleus in terms of a truncated shell model. (author)

  15. Quantum chromodynamics, chiral symmetry and bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyeur, M.

    1983-08-01

    This course deals with the following subjects: quarks; quantum chromodynamics (the classical Lagrangian of QCD, quark masses, the classical equations of motion of QCD, general properties, lattices); chiral symmetry (massless free Dirac theory, realizations, the σ-model); the M.I.T. bag model (basic assumptions and equations of motion, spherical cavity approximation, properties of hadrons); the chiral bag models (basic assumptions, the cloudy bag model, the little bag model); non-topological soliton bag models

  16. Supersymmetric defect models and mirror symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-11-01

    We study supersymmetric field theories in three space-time dimensions doped by various configurations of electric charges or magnetic fluxes. These are supersymmetric avatars of impurity models. In the presence of additional sources such configurations are shown to preserve half of the supersymmetries. Mirror symmetry relates the two sets of configurations. We discuss the implications for impurity models in 3d NN = 4 QED with a single charged hypermultiplet (and its mirror, the theory of a free hypermultiplet) as well as 3d NN = 2 QED with one flavor and its dual, a supersymmetric Wilson-Fisher fixed point. Mirror symmetry allows us to find backreacted solutions for arbitrary arrays of defects in the IR limit of NN = 4 QED. Our analysis, complemented with appropriate string theory brane constructions, sheds light on various aspects of mirror symmetry, the map between particles and vortices and the emergence of ground state entropy in QED at finite density.

  17. Hidden symmetries of the Principal Chiral Model unveiled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devchand, C.; Schiff, J.

    1996-12-01

    By relating the two-dimensional U(N) Principal Chiral Model to a Simple linear system we obtain a free-field parametrization of solutions. Obvious symmetry transformations on the free-field data give symmetries of the model. In this way all known 'hidden symmetries' and Baecklund transformations, as well as a host of new symmetries, arise. (author). 21 refs

  18. Symplectic symmetry in the nuclear shell model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, J.B.

    The nature of the general two-particle interaction which is compatible with symplectic symmetry in the jj coupling shell model is investigated. The essential result is that, to within an additive constant and an additive multiple of T2, the interaction should have the form of a sum of scalar

  19. Electroweak symmetry breaking beyond the Standard Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, two key issues related to electroweak symmetry breaking are addressed. First, how fine-tuned different models are that trigger this phenomenon? Second, even if a light Higgs boson exists, does it have to be necessarily elementary? After a brief introduction, the fine-tuning aspects of the MSSM, NMSSM, ...

  20. Systematic model building with flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plentinger, Florian

    2009-12-19

    The observation of neutrino masses and lepton mixing has highlighted the incompleteness of the Standard Model of particle physics. In conjunction with this discovery, new questions arise: why are the neutrino masses so small, which form has their mass hierarchy, why is the mixing in the quark and lepton sectors so different or what is the structure of the Higgs sector. In order to address these issues and to predict future experimental results, different approaches are considered. One particularly interesting possibility, are Grand Unified Theories such as SU(5) or SO(10). GUTs are vertical symmetries since they unify the SM particles into multiplets and usually predict new particles which can naturally explain the smallness of the neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism. On the other hand, also horizontal symmetries, i.e., flavor symmetries, acting on the generation space of the SM particles, are promising. They can serve as an explanation for the quark and lepton mass hierarchies as well as for the different mixings in the quark and lepton sectors. In addition, flavor symmetries are significantly involved in the Higgs sector and predict certain forms of mass matrices. This high predictivity makes GUTs and flavor symmetries interesting for both, theorists and experimentalists. These extensions of the SM can be also combined with theories such as supersymmetry or extra dimensions. In addition, they usually have implications on the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe or can provide a dark matter candidate. In general, they also predict the lepton flavor violating rare decays {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, and {tau} {yields} e{gamma} which are strongly bounded by experiments but might be observed in the future. In this thesis, we combine all of these approaches, i.e., GUTs, the seesaw mechanism and flavor symmetries. Moreover, our request is to develop and perform a systematic model building approach with flavor symmetries and

  1. Efficient Symmetry Reduction and the Use of State Symmetries for Symbolic Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Appold

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One technique to reduce the state-space explosion problem in temporal logic model checking is symmetry reduction. The combination of symmetry reduction and symbolic model checking by using BDDs suffered a long time from the prohibitively large BDD for the orbit relation. Dynamic symmetry reduction calculates representatives of equivalence classes of states dynamically and thus avoids the construction of the orbit relation. In this paper, we present a new efficient model checking algorithm based on dynamic symmetry reduction. Our experiments show that the algorithm is very fast and allows the verification of larger systems. We additionally implemented the use of state symmetries for symbolic symmetry reduction. To our knowledge we are the first who investigated state symmetries in combination with BDD based symbolic model checking.

  2. The phases of large networks with edge and triangle constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Richard; Radin, Charles; Ren, Kui; Sadun, Lorenzo

    2017-10-01

    Based on numerical simulation and local stability analysis we describe the structure of the phase space of the edge/triangle model of random graphs. We support simulation evidence with mathematical proof of continuity and discontinuity for many of the phase transitions. All but one of the many phase transitions in this model break some form of symmetry, and we use this model to explore how changes in symmetry are related to discontinuities at these transitions.

  3. Nuclear symmetry energy in density dependent hadronic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    2008-12-01

    The density dependence of the symmetry energy and the correlation between parameters of the symmetry energy and the neutron skin thickness in the nucleus 208 Pb are investigated in relativistic Hadronic models. The dependency of the symmetry energy on density is linear around saturation density. Correlation exists between the neutron skin thickness in the nucleus 208 Pb and the value of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density, but not with the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density. (author)

  4. Available pressure amplitude of linear compressor based on phasor triangle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, C. X.; Jiang, X.; Zhi, X. Q.; You, X. K.; Qiu, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    The linear compressor for cryocoolers possess the advantages of long-life operation, high efficiency, low vibration and compact structure. It is significant to study the match mechanisms between the compressor and the cold finger, which determines the working efficiency of the cryocooler. However, the output characteristics of linear compressor are complicated since it is affected by many interacting parameters. The existing matching methods are simplified and mainly focus on the compressor efficiency and output acoustic power, while neglecting the important output parameter of pressure amplitude. In this study, a phasor triangle model basing on analyzing the forces of the piston is proposed. It can be used to predict not only the output acoustic power, the efficiency, but also the pressure amplitude of the linear compressor. Calculated results agree well with the measurement results of the experiment. By this phasor triangle model, the theoretical maximum output pressure amplitude of the linear compressor can be calculated simply based on a known charging pressure and operating frequency. Compared with the mechanical and electrical model of the linear compressor, the new model can provide an intuitionistic understanding on the match mechanism with faster computational process. The model can also explain the experimental phenomenon of the proportional relationship between the output pressure amplitude and the piston displacement in experiments. By further model analysis, such phenomenon is confirmed as an expression of the unmatched design of the compressor. The phasor triangle model may provide an alternative method for the compressor design and matching with the cold finger.

  5. systemic chemistry triangle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    Systemic, problem solving, active learning, and cooperative learning. etc). USES OF SCT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING GENERAL CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS. In the present work we make use of SATL & Chemists triangle as teaching and learning methodologies to introduce the systemic triangle [SCT] as an easy model ...

  6. Physical Model of Cellular Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gucht, Jasper; Sykes, Cécile

    2009-01-01

    Cells can polarize in response to external signals, such as chemical gradients, cell–cell contacts, and electromagnetic fields. However, cells can also polarize in the absence of an external cue. For example, a motile cell, which initially has a more or less round shape, can lose its symmetry spontaneously even in a homogeneous environment and start moving in random directions. One of the principal determinants of cell polarity is the cortical actin network that underlies the plasma membrane. Tension in this network generated by myosin motors can be relaxed by rupture of the shell, leading to polarization. In this article, we discuss how simplified model systems can help us to understand the physics that underlie the mechanics of symmetry breaking. PMID:20066077

  7. New symmetry of the cluster model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-10-01

    A new approach to clustering in the frame of the Algebraic Cluster Model (ACM) has been developed. It predicts rotation-vibration structure with rotational band of an oblate equilateral triangular spinning top with a 𝒟3h symmetry characterized by the sequence of states: 0+, 2+, 3-, 4±, 5- with almost degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Our measurement of the new 22+ and the measured of the new 5- state in 12C fit very well to the predicted (ground state) rotational band structure with the sequence of states: 0+, 2+, 3-, 4±, 5- with almost degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Such a 𝒟3h symmetry was observed in triatomic molecules, and it is observed in 12C for the first time in nuclear physics. We discuss a classification of other rotation-vibration bands in 12C such as the (0+) Hoyle band and the (1-) bending mode band and suggest measurements in search of the predicted ("missing") states that may shed new light on clustering in 12C and light nuclei. In particular, the observation (or non observation) of the predicted ("missing") states in the Hoyle band will allow us to conclude the geometrical arrangement of the three alpha particles composing the Hoyle state at 7.654 MeV in 12C.

  8. Symmetry breaking: The standard model and superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The outstanding unresolved issue of the highly successful standard model is the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking and of the mechanism that determines its scale, namely the vacuum expectation value (vev)v that is fixed by experiment at the value v = 4m//sub w//sup 2///g 2 = (√2G/sub F/)/sup /minus/1/ ≅ 1/4 TeV. In this talk I will discuss aspects of two approaches to this problem. One approach is straightforward and down to earth: the search for experimental signatures, as discussed previously by Pierre Darriulat. This approach covers the energy scales accessible to future and present laboratory experiments: roughly (10/sup /minus/9/ /minus/ 10 3 )GeV. The second approach involves theoretical speculations, such as technicolor and supersymmetry, that attempt to explain the TeV scale. 23 refs., 5 figs

  9. Symmetry breaking: The standard model and superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1988-08-31

    The outstanding unresolved issue of the highly successful standard model is the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking and of the mechanism that determines its scale, namely the vacuum expectation value (vev)v that is fixed by experiment at the value v = 4m//sub w//sup 2///g/sup 2/ = (..sqrt..2G/sub F/)/sup /minus/1/ approx. = 1/4 TeV. In this talk I will discuss aspects of two approaches to this problem. One approach is straightforward and down to earth: the search for experimental signatures, as discussed previously by Pierre Darriulat. This approach covers the energy scales accessible to future and present laboratory experiments: roughly (10/sup /minus/9/ /minus/ 10/sup 3/)GeV. The second approach involves theoretical speculations, such as technicolor and supersymmetry, that attempt to explain the TeV scale. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Symmetries for SM Alignment in multi-Higgs Doublet Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    We derive the complete set of maximal symmetries for Standard Model (SM) alignment that may occur in the tree-level scalar potential of multi-Higgs Doublet Models, with $n > 2$ Higgs doublets. Our results generalize the symmetries of SM alignment, without decoupling of large mass scales or fine-tuning, previously obtained in the context of two-Higgs Doublet Models.

  11. The 2004 UTfit collaboration report on the status of the unitarity triangle in the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bona, Marcella; Ciuchini, Marco; Franco, Enrico; Lubicz, Vittorio; Martinelli, Guido; Parodi, Fabrizio; Pierini, Maurizio; Roudeau, Patrick; Schiavi, Carlo; Silvestrini, Luca; Stocchi, Achille

    2005-01-01

    Using the latest determinations of several theoretical and experimental parameters, we update the Unitarity Triangle analysis in the Standard Model. The basic experimental constraints come from the measurements of |V ub /V cb |, Δm d , the lower limit on Δm s , ε K , and the measurement of the phase of the B d - B-bar d mixing amplitude through the time-dependent CP asymmetry in B 0 →J/ψK 0 decays. In addition, we consider the direct determination of α, γ, 2β+γ and cos 2β from the measurements of new CP-violating quantities, recently performed at the B factories. We also discuss the opportunities offered by improving the precision of the various physical quantities entering in the determination of the Unitarity Triangle parameters. The results and the plots presented in this paper can also be found at the URL http://www.utfit.org , where they are continuously updated with the newest experimental and theoretical results

  12. Strain analysis in the Orijärvi triangle, southwestern Finland; in perspective of tectonic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stel, H.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Finite strain analyses were performed in metavolcanic rocks (agglomerates and pillowed metabasalts from the Orijärvi area, southwestern Finland. In this area, tight folding (F1 of layered metasedimentary rocks and development of a penetrative axial plane schistosity (S1 took place during an early stage in the Svecofennian orogeny. Within the domain, there is no evidence of older deformational structures or of a later deformation phase; except in narrow, late-stage shear zones that bound the Orijärvi triangle. During the orogenic evolution, a pervasive attenuation of the fabric in metavolcanic rocks has taken place. In order to quantify strain intensity and to investigate the relation of strain in metavolcanics and folding in metasediments, strain analyses were performed by the Rf/φ method on (subelliptical markers. Metavolcanic rocks demonstrate relatively homogeneous strain values on the outcrop scale, but strain parameters vary strongly on the scale of the study area. This variation in strain correlates with variation in rock composition; felsic metavolcanics demonstrate consistently lower strain intensities than mafic ones. Finite strain ellipsoids are prolate, indicating that the rocks underwent apparent constriction. X axes of strain are(subparallel to the regional fold axis. Constriction in the Orijärvi triangle is not in conflict with any of the current tectonic models. However, given the local structural setting, the most straightforward interpretation is that of progressive constriction by plutonic diapirism.

  13. Symmetry chains for the atomic shell model. I. Classification of symmetry chains for atomic configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, B.; Thomas, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    In this article the symmetry chains for the atomic shell model are classified in such a way that they lead from the group SU(4l+2) to its subgroup SOsub(J)(3). The atomic configurations (nl)sup(N) transform like irreducible representations of the group SU(4l+2), while SOsub(J)(3) corresponds to total angular momentum in SU(4l+2). The defining matrices for the various embeddings are given for each symmetry chain that is obtained. These matrices also define the projection onto the weight subspaces for the corresponding subsymmetries and thus relate the various quantum numbers and determine the branching of representations. It is shown in this article that three (interrelated) symmetry chains are obtained which correspond to L-S coupling, j-j coupling, and a seniority dependent coupling. Moreover, for l<=6 these chains are complete, i.e., there are no other chains but these. In articles to follow, the symmetry chains that lead from the group SO(8l+5) to SOsub(J)(3) will be discussed, with the entire atomic shell transforming like an irreducible representation of SO(8l+5). The transformation properties of the states of the atomic shell will be determined according to the various symmetry chains obtained. The symmetry lattice discussed in this article forms a sublattice of the larger symmetry lattice with SO(8l+5) as supergroup. Thus the transformation properties of the states of the atomic configurations, according to the various symmetry chains discussed in this article, will be obtained too. (author)

  14. Relativistic pseudospin symmetry and shell model Hamiltonians that conserve pseudospin symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginocchio, Joseph N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-21

    Professor Akito Arima and his colleagues discovered 'pseudospin' doublets forty-one years ago in spherical nuclei. These doublets were subsequently discovered in deformed nuclei. We show that pseudospin symmetry is an SU(2) symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian which occurs when the scalar and vector potentials are opposite in sign but equal in magnitude. This symmetry occurs independent of the shape of the nucleus: spherical, axial deformed, triaxial, and gamma unstable. We survey some of the evidence that pseudospin symmetry is approximately conserved for a Dirac Hamiltonian with realistic scalar and vector potentials by examining the energy spectra, the lower components of the Dirac eigenfunctions, the magnetic dipole and Gamow-Teller transitions in nuclei, the upper components of the Dirac eigenfunctions, and nucleon-nucleus scattering. We shall also suggest that pseudospin symmetry may have a fundamental origin in chiral symmetry breaking by examining QCD sum rules. Finally we derive the shell model Hamiltonians which conserve pseudospin and show that they involve tensor interactions.

  15. Tourism Based on the Model of Strategic Place Triangle (A Case Study in Wisata Bahari Lamongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismuhadi Heru Wijayanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a very promising prospects to support the economic development of a region. We assess Wisata Bahari Lamongan (WBL as a tourism object. WBL was having significant decreased visitors in the last six years, thus a strategic plan is need to re-increase the number of visitors. Thisstudy used Strategic Triangle Place (SPT model as an analysis tool to assess the strategic planning in WBL. SPT is an approach that includes three key components, namely: Positioning, Differentiation and Brand (PDB. This research used Soft System Methodology (SSM which relevant to analyzethe strategic plan model which is expected to be recommendations from tourists on problems in WBL.The result of this showed that the strategic planning of WBL did not completely accordance with the SPT model. Positioning and differentiation elements were still weak, and the brand was not well developed. Therefore, we recommend WBL to set targeted segmentation of all social backgrounds and ages, especially children. WBL shouldmade ​​the sea as main differentiated factor, thus it has marine tourism potential. WBL should build an image by providing best service quality, security, comfortness, cleanliness, and best quality rides. Keywords: Strategic Planning, Strategic Place Triangle, Positioning, Differentiation, Brand

  16. Pascal's Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Patricia Shea

    2003-01-01

    Notes that Montessori classrooms provide children with the opportunity to explore and discover mathematics. Describes the introduction to Pascal's Triangle as a suggested opportunity to connect young children to deep mathematical truths. Provides teachers with materials requirements, and notes ideas on what can be acquired from the problem, the…

  17. Partial dynamical symmetry in the symplectic shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Leviatan, A. [Hebrew Univ., Racah Inst. of Physics, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2000-08-01

    We present an example of a partial dynamical symmetry (PDS) in an interacting fermion system and demonstrate the close relationship of the associated Hamiltonians with a realistic quadrupole-quadrupole interaction, thus shedding light on this important interaction. Specifically, in the framework of the symplectic shell model of nuclei, we prove the existence of a family of fermionic Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry. We outline the construction process for the PDS eigenstates with good symmetry and give analytic expressions for the energies of these states and E2 transition strengths between them. Characteristics of both pure and mixed-symmetry PDS eigenstates are discussed and the resulting spectra and transition strengths are compared to those of real nuclei. The PDS concept is shown to be relevant to the description of prolate, oblate, as well as triaxially deformed nuclei. Similarities and differences between the fermion case and the previously established partial SU(3) symmetry in the interacting boson model are considered. (author)

  18. Partial dynamical symmetry in the symplectic shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escher, Jutta; Leviatan, Amiram

    2002-01-01

    We present an example of a partial dynamical symmetry (PDS) in an interacting fermion system and demonstrate the close relationship of the associated Hamiltonians with a realistic quadrupole-quadrupole interaction, thus shedding light on this important interaction. Specifically, in the framework of the symplectic shell model of nuclei, we prove the existence of a family of fermionic Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry. We outline the construction process for the PDS eigenstates with good symmetry and give analytic expressions for the energies of these states and E2 transition strengths between them. Characteristics of both pure and mixed-symmetry PDS eigenstates are discussed and the resulting spectra and transition strengths are compared to those of real nuclei. The PDS concept is shown to be relevant to the description of prolate, oblate, as well as triaxially deformed nuclei. Similarities and differences between the fermion case and the previously established partial SU(3) symmetry in the interacting boson model are considered

  19. Renormalisation group improved leptogenesis in family symmetry models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Iain K.; King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    We study renormalisation group (RG) corrections relevant for leptogenesis in the case of family symmetry models such as the Altarelli-Feruglio A 4 model of tri-bimaximal lepton mixing or its extension to tri-maximal mixing. Such corrections are particularly relevant since in large classes of family symmetry models, to leading order, the CP violating parameters of leptogenesis would be identically zero at the family symmetry breaking scale, due to the form dominance property. We find that RG corrections violate form dominance and enable such models to yield viable leptogenesis at the scale of right-handed neutrino masses. More generally, the results of this paper show that RG corrections to leptogenesis cannot be ignored for any family symmetry model involving sizeable neutrino and τ Yukawa couplings.

  20. Classical symmetries of some two-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    It is well-known that principal chiral models and symmetric space models in two-dimensional Minkowski space have an infinite-dimensional algebra of hidden symmetries. Because of the relevance of symmetric space models to duality symmetries in string theory, the hidden symmetries of these models are explored in some detail. The string theory application requires including coupling to gravity, supersymmetrization, and quantum effects. However, as a first step, this paper only considers classical bosonic theories in flat space-time. Even though the algebra of hidden symmetries of principal chiral models is confirmed to include a Kac-Moody algebra (or a current algebra on a circle), it is argued that a better interpretation is provided by a doubled current algebra on a semi-circle (or line segment). Neither the circle nor the semi-circle bears any apparent relationship to the physical space. For symmetric space models the line segment viewpoint is shown to be essential, and special boundary conditions need to be imposed at the ends. The algebra of hidden symmetries also includes Virasoro-like generators. For both principal chiral models and symmetric space models, the hidden symmetry stress tensor is singular at the ends of the line segment. (orig.)

  1. Global aspects of symmetries in sigma models with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, G.; Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London

    1994-07-01

    It is shown that non-trivial topological sectors can prevent the quantum mechanical implementation of the symmetries of the classical field equations of sigma models with torsion. The associated anomaly is computed, and it is shown that it depends on the homotopy class of the topological sector of the theory and the group action on the sigma model manifold that generates the symmetries of the classical field equations. (orig.)

  2. Graphing trillions of triangles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Paul

    2017-07-01

    The increasing size of Big Data is often heralded but how data are transformed and represented is also profoundly important to knowledge discovery, and this is exemplified in Big Graph analytics. Much attention has been placed on the scale of the input graph but the product of a graph algorithm can be many times larger than the input. This is true for many graph problems, such as listing all triangles in a graph. Enabling scalable graph exploration for Big Graphs requires new approaches to algorithms, architectures, and visual analytics. A brief tutorial is given to aid the argument for thoughtful representation of data in the context of graph analysis. Then a new algebraic method to reduce the arithmetic operations in counting and listing triangles in graphs is introduced. Additionally, a scalable triangle listing algorithm in the MapReduce model will be presented followed by a description of the experiments with that algorithm that led to the current largest and fastest triangle listing benchmarks to date. Finally, a method for identifying triangles in new visual graph exploration technologies is proposed.

  3. Classifying Chinese children with dyslexia by dual-route and triangle models of Chinese reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2014-11-01

    This present study focuses on classifying developmental dyslexia by combining two famous models, the dual-route model and the triangle model of Chinese reading, re-examining validity of the subtypes, and observing the error types of word recognition for each subtype. Sixty-sixth graders with dyslexia in Chinese and 45 sixth graders who were matched by age and IQ with the dyslexic group were involved in the present study. Twelve (20%) sixth graders from the dyslexic group were classified as having phonological dyslexia, 11 (18.3%) were classified as surface dyslexia, 12 (20%) were classified as deep dyslexia, and five (8.3%) of them were classified as displaying more than one kind of deficit. Besides, still more than half (31; 51.7%) of the dyslexic group did not belong to any subtypes here. These subtypes had a good validity based on comparison of their phonological awareness, orthography, and semantics. Finally, for their error types of word recognition, both children with multiple-deficit dyslexia and children with non-subtype dyslexia showed a proportional pattern of six kinds of errors. Children with phonological dyslexia showed more phonetic errors and analogy errors, children with surface dyslexia showed more visual errors and analogy errors, and children with deep dyslexia showed more semantic errors and selective errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Folded Sheet Versus Transparent Sheet Models for Human Symmetry Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ninio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the mysteries of human symmetry perception, reaction time data were collected on the detection of symmetry or repetition violations, in the context of short term visual memory studies. The histograms for reaction time distributions are rather narrow in the case of symmetry judgments. Their analysis was performed in terms of a simple kinetic model of a mental process in two steps, a slow one for the construction of the representation of the images to be compared, and a fast one, in the 50 ms range, for the decision. There was no need for an additional ‘mental rotation’ step. Symmetry seems to facilitate the construction step. I also present here original stimuli showing a color equalization effect across a symmetry axis, and its counterpart in periodic patterns. According to a “folded sheet model”, when a shape is perceived, the brain automatically constructs a mirror-image representation of the shape. Based in part on the reaction time analysis, I present here an alternative “transparent sheet” model in which the brain constructs a single representation, which can be accessed from two sides, thus generating simultaneously a pattern and its mirror-symmetric partner. Filtering processes, implied by current models of symmetry perception could intervene at an early stage, by nucleating the propagation of similar perceptual groupings in the two symmetric images.

  5. The Friedberg-Lee symmetry and minimal seesaw model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaogang; Liao Wei

    2009-01-01

    The Friedberg-Lee (FL) symmetry is generated by a transformation of a fermionic field q to q+ξz. This symmetry puts very restrictive constraints on allowed terms in a Lagrangian. Applying this symmetry to N fermionic fields, we find that the number of independent fields is reduced to N-1 if the fields have gauge interaction or the transformation is a local one. Using this property, we find that a seesaw model originally with three generations of left- and right-handed neutrinos, with the left-handed neutrinos unaffected but the right-handed neutrinos transformed under the local FL translation, is reduced to an effective theory of minimal seesaw which has only two right-handed neutrinos. The symmetry predicts that one of the light neutrino masses must be zero.

  6. Simple mathematical models of symmetry breaking. Application to particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, L.

    1976-01-01

    Some mathematical facts relevant to symmetry breaking are presented. A first mathematical model deals with the smooth action of compact Lie groups on real manifolds, a second model considers linear action of any group on real or complex finite dimensional vector spaces. Application of the mathematical models to particle physics is considered. (B.R.H.)

  7. Light hadrons in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A version of the bag model with broken chiral symmetry is proposed. A satisfactory description of the experimental data on light hadrons including the pion is obtained. The estimate of the pion-nucleon σ term is given in the framework of this model. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated. The centre-of-mass motion problem in bag models is discussed

  8. Graphical Gaussian models with edge and vertex symmetries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsgaard, Søren; Lauritzen, Steffen L

    2008-01-01

    We introduce new types of graphical Gaussian models by placing symmetry restrictions on the concentration or correlation matrix. The models can be represented by coloured graphs, where parameters that are associated with edges or vertices of the same colour are restricted to being identical. We...... study the properties of such models and derive the necessary algorithms for calculating maximum likelihood estimates. We identify conditions for restrictions on the concentration and correlation matrices being equivalent. This is for example the case when symmetries are generated by permutation...

  9. The spin-charge-family theory offers understanding of the triangle anomalies cancellation in the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankoc Borstnik, N.S. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nielsen, H.B.F. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-12-15

    The standard model has for massless quarks and leptons ''miraculously'' no triangle anomalies due to the fact that the sum of all possible traces T r[τ{sup Ai}τ{sup Bj}τ{sup Ck}] - where τ{sup Ai}, τ{sup Bi} and τ{sup Ck} are the generators of one, of two or of three of the groups SU(3), SU(2) and U(1) - over the representations of one family of the left handed fermions and anti-fermions (and separately of the right handed fermions and anti-fermions), contributing to the triangle currents, is equal to zero.{sup [1-4]} It is demonstrated in this paper that this cancellation of the standard model triangle anomaly follows straightforwardly if the SO(3, 1), SU(2), U(1) and SU(3) are the subgroups of the orthogonal group SO(13, 1), as it is in the spin-charge-family theory.{sup [5-22]} We comment on the SO(10) anomaly cancellation, which works if handedness and charges are related ''by hand''. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Lattice chiral symmetry and the Wess-Zumino model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Ishibashi, Masato

    2002-01-01

    A lattice regularization of the supersymmetric Wess-Zumino model is studied by using Ginsparg-Wilson operators. We recognize a certain conflict between the lattice chiral symmetry and the Majorana condition for Yukawa couplings, or in Weyl representation a conflict between the lattice chiral symmetry and Yukawa couplings. This conflict is also related, though not directly, to the fact that the kinetic (Kaehler) term and the superpotential term are clearly distinguished in the continuum Wess-Zumino model, whereas these two terms are mixed in the Ginsparg-Wilson operators. We illustrate a case where lattice chiral symmetry together with naive Bose-Fermi symmetry is imposed by preserving a SUSY-like symmetry in the free part of the Lagrangian; one-loop level non-renormalization of the superpotential is then maintained for finite lattice spacing, though the finite parts of wave function renormalization deviate from the supersymmetric value. All these properties hold for the general Ginsparg-Wilson algebra independently of the detailed construction of lattice Dirac operators

  11. Discrete symmetry breaking beyond the standard model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekens, Wouter Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The current knowledge of elementary particles and their interactions is summarized in the Standard Model of particle physics. Practically all the predictions of this model, that have been tested, were confirmed experimentally. Nonetheless, there are phenomena which the model cannot explain. For

  12. Projective symmetry of partons in Kitaev's honeycomb model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Paula

    2015-03-01

    Low-energy states of quantum spin liquids are thought to involve partons living in a gauge-field background. We study the spectrum of Majorana fermions of Kitaev's honeycomb model on spherical clusters. The gauge field endows the partons with half-integer orbital angular momenta. As a consequence, the multiplicities reflect not the point-group symmetries of the cluster, but rather its projective symmetries, operations combining physical and gauge transformations. The projective symmetry group of the ground state is the double cover of the point group. We acknowledge Fondecyt under Grant No. 11121397, Conicyt under Grant No. 79112004, and the Simons Foundation (P.M.); the Max Planck Society and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (O.P.); and the US DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER46544 (O.T.).

  13. BRST symmetry for Regge-Teitelboim-based minisuperspace models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Paul, Biswajit

    2016-07-01

    The Einstein-Hilbert action in the context of higher derivative theories is considered for finding their BRST symmetries. Being a constraint system, the model is transformed in the minisuperspace language with the FRLW background and the gauge symmetries are explored. Exploiting the first order formalism developed by Banerjee et al. the diffeomorphism symmetry is extracted. From the general form of the gauge transformations of the field, the analogous BRST transformations are calculated. The effective Lagrangian is constructed by considering two gauge-fixing conditions. Further, the BRST (conserved) charge is computed, which plays an important role in defining the physical states from the total Hilbert space of states. The finite field-dependent BRST formulation is also studied in this context where the Jacobian for the functional measure is illustrated specifically.

  14. Model for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekrasov, M.L.; Rochev, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the framework of the model, proposed earlier to describe nonperturbative QCD, the singularity of the type 1/k 4 in the gluon propagator is shown to result in dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and appearance of quark condensate. The value, obtained for quark condensate, is close to the phenomenological one

  15. Symmetry-guided large-scale shell-model theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Launey, K. D.; Dytrych, Tomáš; Draayer, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 89, JUL (2016), s. 101-136 ISSN 0146-6410 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-16772S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Ab intio shell-model theory * Symplectic symmetry * Collectivity * Clusters * Hoyle state * Orderly patterns in nuclei from first principles Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 11.229, year: 2016

  16. Final Report Fermionic Symmetries and Self consistent Shell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamick, Larry

    2008-01-01

    In this final report in the field of theoretical nuclear physics we note important accomplishments.We were confronted with 'anomoulous' magnetic moments by the experimetalists and were able to expain them. We found unexpected partial dynamical symmetries--completely unknown before, and were able to a large extent to expain them. The importance of a self consistent shell model was emphasized.

  17. Results on the symmetries of integrable fermionic models on chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolcini, F.; Montorsi, A.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate integrable fermionic models within the scheme of the graded quantum inverse scattering method, and prove that any symmetry imposed on the solution of the Yang-Baxter equation reflects on the constants of motion of the model; generalizations with respect to known results are discussed. This theorem is shown to be very effective when combined with the polynomial R-matrix technique (PRT): we apply both of them to the study of the extended Hubbard models, for which we find all the subcases enjoying several kinds of (super)symmetries. In particular, we derive a geometrical construction expressing any gl(2,1)-invariant model as a linear combination of EKS and U-supersymmetric models. Further, we use the PRT to obtain 32 integrable so(4)-invariant models. By joint use of the Sutherland's species technique and η-pairs construction we propose a general method to derive their physical features, and we provide some explicit results

  18. Composite symmetry-protected topological order and effective models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietner, A.; Krumnow, C.; Bergholtz, E. J.; Eisert, J.

    2017-12-01

    Strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at low dimension exhibit a wealth of phenomena, ranging from features of geometric frustration to signatures of symmetry-protected topological order. In suitable descriptions of such systems, it can be helpful to resort to effective models, which focus on the essential degrees of freedom of the given model. In this work, we analyze how to determine the validity of an effective model by demanding it to be in the same phase as the original model. We focus our study on one-dimensional spin-1 /2 systems and explain how nontrivial symmetry-protected topologically ordered (SPT) phases of an effective spin-1 model can arise depending on the couplings in the original Hamiltonian. In this analysis, tensor network methods feature in two ways: on the one hand, we make use of recent techniques for the classification of SPT phases using matrix product states in order to identify the phases in the effective model with those in the underlying physical system, employing Künneth's theorem for cohomology. As an intuitive paradigmatic model we exemplify the developed methodology by investigating the bilayered Δ chain. For strong ferromagnetic interlayer couplings, we find the system to transit into exactly the same phase as an effective spin-1 model. However, for weak but finite coupling strength, we identify a symmetry broken phase differing from this effective spin-1 description. On the other hand, we underpin our argument with a numerical analysis making use of matrix product states.

  19. Viability of minimal left–right models with discrete symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Dekens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide a systematic study of minimal left–right models that are invariant under P, C, and/or CP transformations. Due to the high amount of symmetry such models are quite predictive in the amount and pattern of CP violation they can produce or accommodate at lower energies. Using current experimental constraints some of the models can already be excluded. For this purpose we provide an overview of the experimental constraints on the different left–right symmetric models, considering bounds from colliders, meson-mixing and low-energy observables, such as beta decay and electric dipole moments. The features of the various Yukawa and Higgs sectors are discussed in detail. In particular, we give the Higgs potentials for each case, discuss the possible vacua and investigate the amount of fine-tuning present in these potentials. It turns out that all left–right models with P, C, and/or CP symmetry have a high degree of fine-tuning, unless supplemented with mechanisms to suppress certain parameters. The models that are symmetric under both P and C are not in accordance with present observations, whereas the models with either P, C, or CP symmetry cannot be excluded by data yet. To further constrain and discriminate between the models measurements of B-meson observables at LHCb and B-factories will be especially important, while measurements of the EDMs of light nuclei in particular could provide complementary tests of the LRMs.

  20. Solvable models and hidden symmetries in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepez-Martinez, Tochtli; Hess, P. O.; Szczepaniak, A.; Civitarese, O.; Lerma H., S.

    2010-01-01

    We show that QCD Hamiltonians at low energy exhibit an SU(2) structure, when only few orbital levels are considered. In case many orbital levels are taken into account we also find a semi-analytic solution for the energy levels of the dominant part of the QCD Hamiltonian. The findings are important to propose the structure of phenomenological models.

  1. Dual models with SL(2, C) symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Brink, L

    1972-01-01

    Making use of homogeneous space techniques, the authors construct a class of dual models, which is a generalization of the Virasoro- Shapiro type of model. The integrand in the integral representation for the N-point function depends not only on the modulus of the distances between two-dimensional Koba-Nielsen variables, but also on the corresponding phases. This is in fact the most general SL(2, C) invariant amplitude that can be constructed using complex integration variables. The extra phase factors in the integrand provide a possible means of avoiding tachyons both as external particles and as intermediate states in the amplitude. When factorized in a simple- minded fashion the intercepts are fixed to be integers. Although the external particles can be chosen not to be tachyons, such states appear as intermediate states. Within this factorization one can show that there are gauge conditions for the amplitude that can provide a ghostkilling mechanism. (19 refs).

  2. A model of electroweak symmetry breaking from a fifth dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panico, Giuliano [ISAS-SISSA and INFN, Via Beirut 2-4, I-34013 Trieste (Italy); Serone, Marco [ISAS-SISSA and INFN, Via Beirut 2-4, I-34013 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: serone@sissa.it; Wulzer, Andrea [ISAS-SISSA and INFN, Via Beirut 2-4, I-34013 Trieste (Italy) and IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-04-03

    We reconsider the idea of identifying the Higgs field as the internal component of a gauge field in the flat space R{sup 4}xS{sup 1}/Z{sub 2}, by relaxing the constraint of having unbroken SO(4,1) Lorentz symmetry in the bulk. In this way, we show that the main common problems of previous models of this sort, namely the prediction of a too light Higgs and top mass, as well as of a too low compactification scale, are all solved. We mainly focus our attention on a previously constructed model. We show how, with few minor modifications and by relaxing the requirement of SO(4,1) symmetry, a potentially realistic model can be obtained with a moderate tuning in the parameter space of the theory. In this model, the Higgs potential is stabilized and the hierarchy of fermion masses explained.

  3. Model for extended Pati-Salam gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.; Lew, H.; Volkas, R.R.

    1990-11-01

    The possibility of constructing non-minimal models of the Pati-Salam type is investigated. The most interesting examples are found to have an SU(6) x SU(2) L x SU(2) R guage invariance. Two interesting symmetry breaking patterns are analysed: one leading to the theory of SU(5) colour at an intermediate scale, the other to the quark-lepton symmetric model. 15 refs

  4. Model dependence in the density content of nuclear symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, C.; Agrawal, B.K.; Singh, S.K.; Patra, S.K.; Centelles, M.; Viñas, X.; Colò, G.; Roca-Maza, X.; Paar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from very few light nuclei, all nuclear systems in nature, starting from tiny finite nuclei to huge astrophysical objects like neutron stars, are asymmetric. Densities of these systems vary over a wide range. So, accurate knowledge of symmetry energy over a wide range of density is very essential to understand several phenomena in finite nuclei as well as in neutron stars. We have shown using a representative set of systematically varied mean models that the correlation of symmetry energy slope parameter with the neutron skin thickness in 208 Pb nucleus has a noticeable amount of model dependence. The investigations in order to unveil the source of the model dependence in such correlations are underway

  5. Angular momentum non-conserving symmetries in bosonic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortunato, L [ECT, Strada delle Tabarelle 286, I-38123 Villazzano (Trento) (Italy); De Graaf, W A, E-mail: fortunat@pd.infn.it [Dip. Matematica, Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 24, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2011-04-08

    The Levi-Malcev decomposition is applied to bosonic models of quantum mechanics based on unitary Lie algebras u(2), u(2)+u(2), u(3) and u(4) to clearly disentangle semisimple subalgebras. The theory of weighted Dynkin diagrams is then applied to identify conjugacy classes of relevant A{sub 1} subalgebras allowing us to introduce a complete classification of new angular momentum non conserving (AMNC) dynamical symmetries. The tensor analysis of the whole algebra based on the new 'angular momentum' operators reveals unexpected spinors to occur in purely bosonic models. The new chains of subalgebra can be invoked to set up ANMC bases for diagonalization.

  6. Angular momentum non-conserving symmetries in bosonic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, L.; de Graaf, W. A.

    2011-04-01

    The Levi-Malcev decomposition is applied to bosonic models of quantum mechanics based on unitary Lie algebras u(2), u(2)⊕u(2), u(3) and u(4) to clearly disentangle semisimple subalgebras. The theory of weighted Dynkin diagrams is then applied to identify conjugacy classes of relevant A1 subalgebras allowing us to introduce a complete classification of new angular momentum non conserving (AMNC) dynamical symmetries. The tensor analysis of the whole algebra based on the new 'angular momentum' operators reveals unexpected spinors to occur in purely bosonic models. The new chains of subalgebra can be invoked to set up ANMC bases for diagonalization.

  7. On radiative gauge symmetry breaking in the minimal supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamberini, G.; Ridolfi, G.; Zwirner, F.

    1990-01-01

    We present a critical reappraisal of radiative gauge symmetry breaking in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We show that a naive use of the renormalization group improved tree-level potential can lead to incorrect conclusions. We specify the conditions under which the above method gives reliable results, by performing a comparison with the results obtained from the full one-loop potential. We also point out how the stability constraint and the conditions for the absence of charge- and colour-breaking minima should be applied. Finally, we comment on the uncertainties affecting the model predictions for physical observables, in particular for the top quark mass. (orig.)

  8. Cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research and Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-15

    We study general constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models coming from the cosmological effects of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, R-axions. They are substantially produced in the early Universe and may cause several cosmological problems. We focus on relatively long-lived R-axions and find that in a wide range of parameter space, models are severely constrained. In particular, R-axions with mass less than 1 MeV are generally ruled out for relatively high reheating temperature, T{sub R}>10 GeV.

  9. Search for composite models with family gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, B.R.; Huerta, R.

    1985-01-01

    We have analyzed a class of three-preon models based on a strategy expected to lead to family gauge symmetry SUsup(F)(n) and found that, in order to obey the assumption of asymptotic freedom and infrared confinement for the hypercolor group SUsub(H)(N), 't Hooft anomaly consistency conditions, especially the requirement of dynamical generation of quark-lepton masses by means of color condensates of exotic fermions, the only possible model is the three-fermion model with the hypercolor group SUsub(H)(4) and the family gauge group SUsup(F)(2). All the models considered which contain scalar-preons are excluded from being realistic models unless some new mechanism of quark-lepton mass generation is worked out. (orig.)

  10. Charge and CP symmetry breaking in two Higgs doublet models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P.M.; Santos, R.

    2006-01-01

    We show that, for the most generic model with two Higgs doublets possessing a minimum that preserves the U(1) em symmetry, charge breaking (CB) cannot occur. If CB does not occur, the potential could have two different minima, and there is in principle no general argument to show which one is the deepest. The depth of the potential at a stationary point that breaks CB or CP, relative to the U(1) em preserving minimum, is proportional to the squared mass of the charged or pseudoscalar Higgs, respectively

  11. Quark-flavour phenomenology of models with extended gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Maria Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Gauge invariance is one of the fundamental principles of the Standard Model of particles and interactions, and it is reasonable to believe that it also regulates the physics beyond it. In this thesis we have studied the theory and phenomenology of two New Physics models based on gauge symmetries that are extensions of the Standard Model group. Both of them are particularly interesting because they provide some answers to the question of the origin of flavour, which is still unexplained. Moreover, the flavour sector represents a promising field for the research of indirect signatures of New Physics, since after the first run of LHC we do not have any direct hint of it yet. The first model assumes that flavour is a gauge symmetry of nature, SU(3) 3 f , spontaneously broken by the vacuum expectation values of new scalar fields; the second model is based on the gauge group SU(3) c x SU(3) L x U(1) X , the simplest non-abelian extension of the Standard Model group. We have traced the complete theoretical building of the models, from the gauge group, passing through the nonanomalous fermion contents and the appropriate symmetry breakings, up to the spectra and the Feynman rules, with a particular attention to the treatment of the flavour structure, of tree-level Flavour Changing Neutral Currents and of new CP-violating phases. In fact, these models present an interesting flavour phenomenology, and for both of them we have analytically calculated the contributions to the ΔF=2 and ΔF=1 down-type transitions, arising from new tree-level and box diagrams. Subsequently, we have performed a comprehensive numerical analysis of the phenomenology of the two models. In both cases we have found very effective the strategy of first to identify the quantities able to provide the strongest constraints to the parameter space, then to systematically scan the allowed regions of the latter in order to obtain indications about the key flavour observables, namely the mixing parameters of

  12. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FRAUD TRIANGLE ON DETECTING FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL STATEMENT: USING BENEISH MODEL AND THE CASE OF SPECIAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprillia Aprillia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fraudulent financial statement is a serious problem and to be a threat to stakeholders, especially for investor. The thing is happened because there is illegal action done intentionally, such as disclosing financial information that doesn’t match with the real condition. The purpose of this research is to acquire a effectiveness of empirical proof of fraud triangle consisting of Pressure, Opportunity, and Rationalization in detecting financial statement fraud that are indicated by using Beneish Model. The sample of this research consists of 39 companies are indicated doing fraud and 57 companies aren’t indicated doing fraud listing at BEI (Bursa Efek Indonesia in 2012 – 2014. Test of this research uses logistic regression method. Based on the result and conclusion, this research shows that opportunity (independent commissioner ownership has significant effect to fraudulent financial statement while pressure (AGROW, financial target (ROA, and rationalization (Total accrual don’t have significant effect to fraudulent financial statement.

  13. Sakai-Sugimoto model, tachyon condensation and chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, Avinash; Nag, Partha

    2008-01-01

    We modify the Sakai-Sugimoto model of chiral symmetry breaking to take into account the open string tachyon which stretches between the flavour D8-branes and D8-bar-branes. There are several reasons of consistency for doing this: (i) Even if it might be reasonable to ignore the tachyon in the ultraviolet where the flavour branes and antibranes are well separated and the tachyon is small, it is likely to condense and acquire large values in the infrared where the branes meet. This takes the system far away from the perturbatively stable minimum of the Sakai-Sugimoto model; (ii) The bifundamental coupling of the tachyon to fermions of opposite chirality makes it a suitable candidate for the quark mass and chiral condensate parameters. We show that the modified Sakai-Sugimoto model with the tachyon present has a classical solution satisfying all the desired consistency properties. In this solution chiral symmetry breaking coincides with tachyon condensation. We identify the parameters corresponding to the quark mass and the chiral condensate and also briefly discuss the mesonic spectra

  14. Vector models with spontaneous Lorentz-symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, C. A.; Urrutia, L. F.

    2018-01-01

    Even though models with spontaneous Lorentz-symmetry breaking also damage gauge invariance, an interesting possibility that emerges is to interpret the resultant massless Goldstone bosons as the gauge bosons of the related gauge theory. In this contribution we review the conditions under which gauge invariance is recovered from such models. To illustrate our general approach we consider the classical Abelian bumblebee and Nambu models. In the former case we prove its connection with electrodynamics by a procedure which takes proper care of the gauge-fixing conditions. In the case of the Abelian Nambu model its relation with electrodynamics is established in such a way that the generalization to the non-Abelian case is straightforward.

  15. Threshold corrections and gauge symmetry in twisted superstring models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Threshold corrections to the running of gauge couplings are calculated for superstring models with free complex world sheet fermions. For two N=1 SU(2)xU(1) 5 models, the threshold corrections lead to a small increase in the unification scale. Examples are given to illustrate how a given particle spectrum can be described by models with different boundary conditions on the internal fermions. We also discuss how complex twisted fermions can enhance the symmetry group of an N=4, SU(3)xU(1)xU(1) model to the gauge group SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1). It is then shown how a mixing angle analogous to the Weinberg angle depends on the boundary conditions of the internal fermions

  16. Symmetry breaking in a bull and bear financial market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, Iryna; Tramontana, Fabio; Westerhoff, Frank; Avrutin, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    We investigate bifurcation structures in the parameter space of a one-dimensional piecewise linear map with two discontinuity points. This map describes endogenous bull and bear market dynamics arising from a simple asset-pricing model. An important feature of our model is that some speculators only enter the market if the price is sufficiently distant to its fundamental value. Our analysis starts with the investigation of a particular case in which the map is symmetric with respect to the origin, associated with equal market entry thresholds in the bull and bear market. We then generalize our analysis by exploring how novel bifurcation structures may emerge when the map’s symmetry is broken.

  17. Consequences of Symmetries on the Analysis and Construction of Turbulence Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Razafindralandy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Since they represent fundamental physical properties in turbulence (conservation laws, wall laws, Kolmogorov energy spectrum, ..., symmetries are used to analyse common turbulence models. A class of symmetry preserving turbulence models is proposed. This class is refined such that the models respect the second law of thermodynamics. Finally, an example of model belonging to the class is numerically tested.

  18. Lie Markov models with purine/pyrimidine symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, Jesús; Sumner, Jeremy G; Jarvis, Peter D; Woodhams, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Continuous-time Markov chains are a standard tool in phylogenetic inference. If homogeneity is assumed, the chain is formulated by specifying time-independent rates of substitutions between states in the chain. In applications, there are usually extra constraints on the rates, depending on the situation. If a model is formulated in this way, it is possible to generalise it and allow for an inhomogeneous process, with time-dependent rates satisfying the same constraints. It is then useful to require that, under some time restrictions, there exists a homogeneous average of this inhomogeneous process within the same model. This leads to the definition of "Lie Markov models" which, as we will show, are precisely the class of models where such an average exists. These models form Lie algebras and hence concepts from Lie group theory are central to their derivation. In this paper, we concentrate on applications to phylogenetics and nucleotide evolution, and derive the complete hierarchy of Lie Markov models that respect the grouping of nucleotides into purines and pyrimidines-that is, models with purine/pyrimidine symmetry. We also discuss how to handle the subtleties of applying Lie group methods, most naturally defined over the complex field, to the stochastic case of a Markov process, where parameter values are restricted to be real and positive. In particular, we explore the geometric embedding of the cone of stochastic rate matrices within the ambient space of the associated complex Lie algebra.

  19. Dynamical symmetry breaking in models with strong Yukawa interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 62, 1-2 (2012), s. 1-274 ISSN 0323-0465 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0734; GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : spontaneus symmetry breaking * Gauge symmetries * nonperturbative techniques * radiative symmetry breaking * Quark and lepton masses * Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements * extensions of electroweak Higgs sector Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2012

  20. Triangle and GA Methods for UAVs Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on how to jam UAVs network efficiently. The system model is described and the problem is formulated. Based on two properties and a theorem which helps to decide good location for a jammer, we present the Triangle method to find good locations for jammers. The Triangle method is easy to understand and has overall computational complexity of ON2. We also present a genetic algorithm- (GA- based jamming method, which has computational complex of OLMN2. New chromosome, mutation, and crossover operations are redefined for the GA method. The simulation shows that Triangle and GA methods perform better than Random method. If the ratio of jammers’ number to UAVs’ number is low (lower than 1/5 in this paper, GA method does better than Triangle method. Otherwise, Triangle method performs better.

  1. Symmetry, Landau theory and polytope models of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.R.; Widom, M.

    1984-01-01

    Order in supercooled liquids and metallic glasses is related to a regular icosahedral ''crystal'' consisting of 120 particles inscribed on the surface of a sphere in four dimensions. Hyperspherical harmonics and the discrete symmetry group of this four-dimensional platonic solid can be used to construct an order parameter for glasses in three-dimensional flat space. A uniformly frustrated Landau expansion in this order parameter suggests a ground state with a regular array of wedge disclination lines. Homotopy theory is used to classify all topologically stable defects. A generalization of Bloch's theorem for electronic states in flat space solids allows explicit diagonalization of tight binding models defined on the curved-space icosahedral crystal. (orig.)

  2. Beyond Pascal's Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Darrell P.

    2005-01-01

    In "Beyond Pascals Triangle" the author demonstrates ways of using "Pascallike" triangles to expand polynomials raised to powers in a fairly quick and easy fashion. The recursive method could easily be implemented within a spreadsheet, or simply by using paper and pencil. An explanation of why the method works follows the several examples that are…

  3. Broken Time Translation Symmetry as a Model for Quantum State Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper van Wezel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The symmetries that govern the laws of nature can be spontaneously broken, enabling the occurrence of ordered states. Crystals arise from the breaking of translation symmetry, magnets from broken spin rotation symmetry and massive particles break a phase rotation symmetry. Time translation symmetry can be spontaneously broken in exactly the same way. The order associated with this form of spontaneous symmetry breaking is characterised by the emergence of quantum state reduction: systems which spontaneously break time translation symmetry act as ideal measurement machines. In this review the breaking of time translation symmetry is first compared to that of other symmetries such as spatial translations and rotations. It is then discussed how broken time translation symmetry gives rise to the process of quantum state reduction and how it generates a pointer basis, Born’s rule, etc. After a comparison between this model and alternative approaches to the problem of quantum state reduction, the experimental implications and possible tests of broken time translation symmetry in realistic experimental settings are discussed.

  4. Symmetry-dictated trucation: Solutions of the spherical shell model for heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of dynamical symmetry are used to simplify the spherical shell model. The resulting symmetry-dictated truncation leads to dynamical symmetry solutions that are often in quantitative agreement with a variety of observables. Numerical calculations, including terms that break the dynamical symmetries, are shown that correspond to shell model calculations for heavy deformed nuclei. The effective residual interaction is simple, well-behaved, and can be determined from basic observables. With this approach, we intend to apply the shell model in systematic fashion to all nuclei. The implications for nuclear structure far from stability and for nuclear masses and other quantities of interest in astrophysics are discussed

  5. Dodecagonal Square-Triangle Tiling Growth Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, B; Ben-Abraham, S.

    1999-01-01

    Some alloy systems such as NiCr and VNiSi have quasicrystalline phases with twelve-fold symmetry. These can be interpreted in terms of dodecagonal tilings by squares and equilateral triangles. The formation of quasicrystals may be due to a number of mechanisms such as local growth rules, cluster covering, etc., which may act separately or in synergy. This research focuses on the growth of such dodecagonal quasicrystals as well as the abundance of their vertex configurations, both regular and defective. We have simulated growth from the melt under various conditions in order to find the minimal constraints necessary to produce realistic Patterns as well as realistic vertex statistics. We have also calculated the exact vertex frequencies of the ideal square-triangle tiling by relying on inflation symmetry. The simulation showed that unrestricted random growth typically results in phase separation of triangles from squares. Favoring triangles to attract squares and vice versa brings about nearly perfect patterns with nearly perfect vertex abundances and very realistic defect concentrations

  6. The safety, efficacy and regulatory triangle in drug development: Impact for animal models and the use of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meer, Peter J K; Graham, Melanie L; Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2015-07-15

    Nonclinical studies in animals are conducted to demonstrate proof-of-concept, mechanism of action and safety of new drugs. For a large part, in particular safety assessment, studies are done in compliance with international regulatory guidance. However, animal models supporting the initiation of clinical trials have their limitations, related to uncertainty regarding the predictive value for a clinical condition. The 3Rs principles (refinement, reduction and replacement) are better applied nowadays, with a more comprehensive application with respect to the original definition. This regards also regulatory guidance, so that opportunities exist to revise or reduce regulatory guidance with the perspective that the optimal balance between scientifically relevant data and animal wellbeing or a reduction in animal use can be achieved. In this manuscript we review the connections in the triangle between nonclinical efficacy/safety studies and regulatory aspects, with focus on in vivo testing of drugs. These connections differ for different drugs (chemistry-based low molecular weight compounds, recombinant proteins, cell therapy or gene therapy products). Regarding animal models and their translational value we focus on regulatory aspects and indications where scientific outcomes warrant changes, reduction or replacement, like for, e.g., biosimilar evaluation and safety testing of monoclonal antibodies. On the other hand, we present applications where translational value has been clearly demonstrated, e.g., immunosuppressives in transplantation. Especially for drugs of more recent date like recombinant proteins, cell therapy products and gene therapy products, a regulatory approach that allows the possibility to conduct combined efficacy/safety testing in validated animal models should strengthen scientific outcomes and improve translational value, while reducing the numbers of animals necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Jacobi–Lie symmetry and Jacobi–Lie T-dual sigma models on group manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rezaei-Aghdam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the concept of Jacobi–Lie group and Jacobi–Lie bialgebra, we generalize the definition of Poisson–Lie symmetry to Jacobi–Lie symmetry. In this regard, we generalize the concept of Poisson–Lie T-duality to Jacobi–Lie T-duality and present Jacobi–Lie T-dual sigma models on Lie groups, which have Jacobi–Lie symmetry. Using this symmetry, new cases of duality appear and some examples are given. This generalization may provide insights to understand the quantum features of Poisson–Lie T-duality, in a more satisfactory way.

  8. Nearly Nice Right Triangles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Bob

    1989-01-01

    Relationships among the sides are developed for right triangles whose sides are in the ratios 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5. The golden ratio appears in the results which can be used in secondary mathematics. (DC)

  9. Symmetry breaking on density in escaping ants: experiment and alarm pheromone model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Li

    Full Text Available The symmetry breaking observed in nature is fascinating. This symmetry breaking is observed in both human crowds and ant colonies. In such cases, when escaping from a closed space with two symmetrically located exits, one exit is used more often than the other. Group size and density have been reported as having no significant impact on symmetry breaking, and the alignment rule has been used to model symmetry breaking. Density usually plays important roles in collective behavior. However, density is not well-studied in symmetry breaking, which forms the major basis of this paper. The experiment described in this paper on an ant colony displays an increase then decrease of symmetry breaking versus ant density. This result suggests that a Vicsek-like model with an alignment rule may not be the correct model for escaping ants. Based on biological facts that ants use pheromones to communicate, rather than seeing how other individuals move, we propose a simple yet effective alarm pheromone model. The model results agree well with the experimental outcomes. As a measure, this paper redefines symmetry breaking as the collective asymmetry by deducing the random fluctuations. This research indicates that ants deposit and respond to the alarm pheromone, and the accumulation of this biased information sharing leads to symmetry breaking, which suggests true fundamental rules of collective escape behavior in ants.

  10. From Coalgebra to Bialgebra for the Six-Vertex Model: The Star-Triangle Relation as a Necessary Condition for Commuting Transfer Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Schmidt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the most elementary methods and considerations, the solution of the star-triangle condition (a2+b2-c2/2ab = ((a’^2+(b’^2-(c’^2/2a’b’ is shown to be a necessary condition for the extension of the operator coalgebra of the six-vertex model to a bialgebra. A portion of the bialgebra acts as a spectrum-generating algebra for the algebraic Bethe ansatz, with which higher-dimensional representations of the bialgebra can be constructed. The star-triangle relation is proved to be necessary for the commutativity of the transfer matrices T(a, b, c and T(a’, b’, c’.

  11. FN-2HDM: Two Higgs Doublet Models with Froggatt-Nielsen symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dery, Avital; Nir, Yosef [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Herzl 234, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2017-04-03

    We embed Two Higgs Doublet Models (2HDMs) in the Froggatt Nielsen (FN) framework. We find that the approximate FN symmetry predicts i) approximate Natural Flavor Conservation (NFC) of Types II or IV in the Yukawa sector, and ii) approximate Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry in the scalar sector. We discuss the phenomenological consequences of these features.

  12. Modeling of the symmetry factor of electrochemical proton discharge via the Volmer reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björketun, Mårten E.; Tripkovic, Vladimir; Skúlason, Egill

    2013-01-01

    A scheme for evaluating symmetry factors of elementary electrode reactions using a density functional theory (DFT) based model of the electrochemical double layer is presented. As an illustration, the symmetry factor is determined for hydrogen adsorption via the electrochemical Volmer reaction...

  13. Kac-Moody algebra is not hidden symmetry of chiral models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devchand, C.; Schiff, J.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed examination of the infinite dimensional loop algebra of hidden symmetry transformations of the Principal Chiral Model reveals it to have a structure differing from a standard centreless Kac-Moody algebra. A new infinite dimensional Abelian symmetry algebra is shown to preserve a symplectic form on the space of solutions. (author). 15 refs

  14. Towards the establishment of nonlinear hidden symmetries of the Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Aguilar, A.; Kanakoglou, K.; Paschalis, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    We present a preliminary attempt to establish the existence of hidden nonlinear symmetries of the SU(N) Skyrme model which could, in principle, lead to the further integration of the system. An explicit illustration is given for the SU(2) symmetry group

  15. FN-2HDM: Two Higgs Doublet Models with Froggatt-Nielsen symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dery, Avital; Nir, Yosef

    2017-04-01

    We embed Two Higgs Doublet Models (2HDMs) in the Froggatt Nielsen (FN) framework. We find that the approximate FN symmetry predicts i) approximate Natural Flavor Conservation (NFC) of Types II or IV in the Yukawa sector, and ii) approximate Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry in the scalar sector. We discuss the phenomenological consequences of these features.

  16. Symmetry restoration in the Georgi-Glashow model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Junior, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Symmetry restoration in the SU(5) model is analysed by means of finite temperature field theory. In our calculations symmetry restoration is due to topological defects which appear thanks to thermodynamical effects. We apply our results in cosmology, in order to explain the primordial inhomogeneity. Our results are compatible with Zeldovich's spectrum. (author) [pt

  17. Spherical Detector Device Mathematical Modelling with Taking into Account Detector Module Symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyj, V.G.; Fedorchenko, D.V.; Prokopets, S.I.; Prokopets, I.M.; Kazhmuradov, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Model for spherical detector device accounting to symmetry properties is considered. Exact algorithm for simulation of measurement procedure with multiple radiation sources is developed. Modelling results are shown to have perfect agreement with calibration measurements

  18. Is it a triangle?

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the theory of the Standard Model, the masses, interactions and physical states of quarks – the basic constituents of matter – are described mathematically by a matrix known as the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Three angles enter into the definition of the elements of the matrix. If their sum is not 180°, new physics might be the reason.   A typical LHCb event during the recent proton-lead ion run. The LHCb experiment at CERN has measured precisely for the first time at a hadron collider one of the three angles - the “gamma” angle – so far known with the largest uncertainty.  It’s a matter of angles: if their sum is not exactly 180°, the geometric shape is not a triangle. And if the angles are those related to the CKM matrix, we enter the realm of physics beyond the Standard Model. Experiments at B-factories have measured the three angles – α, β and γ &...

  19. Long-range order and symmetry breaking in projected entangled-pair state models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispler, Manuel; Duivenvoorden, Kasper; Schuch, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    Projected entangled-pair states (PEPS) provide a framework for the construction of models where a single tensor gives rise to both Hamiltonian and ground state wave function on the same footing. A key problem is to characterize the behavior which emerges in the system in terms of the properties of the tensor, and thus of the Hamiltonian. In this paper, we consider PEPS models with Z2 on-site symmetry and study the occurrence of long-range order and spontaneous symmetry breaking. We show how long-range order is connected to a degeneracy in the spectrum of the PEPS transfer operator, and how the latter gives rise to spontaneous symmetry breaking under perturbations. We provide a succinct characterization of the symmetry-broken states in terms of the PEPS tensor, and find that using the symmetry-broken states we can derive a local entanglement Hamiltonian, thereby restoring locality of the entanglement Hamiltonian for all gapped phases.

  20. Symmetry properties of some nonlinear field theory models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvachka, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    Various approaches towards the study of symmetry properties of some nonlinear evolution equations as well as possible ways of their computer implementation using the computer algebra systems langage are discussed. Special attention is paid to the method of pseudopotential investigation of formal integrability and isovector method for the equations of balance

  1. Curvature-induced symmetry breaking in nonlinear Schrodinger models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Mingaleev, S. F.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2000-01-01

    We consider a curved chain of nonlinear oscillators and show that the interplay of curvature and nonlinearity leads to a symmetry breaking when an asymmetric stationary state becomes energetically more favorable than a symmetric stationary state. We show that the energy of localized states decrea...

  2. Reduction by Lie Group Symmetries in Diffeomorphic Image Registration and Deformation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Sommer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We survey the role of reduction by symmetry in the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping framework for registration of a variety of data types (landmarks, curves, surfaces, images and higher-order derivative data. Particle relabelling symmetry allows the equations of motion to be reduced to the Lie algebra allowing the equations to be written purely in terms of the Eulerian velocity field. As a second use of symmetry, the infinite dimensional problem of finding correspondences between objects can be reduced for a range of concrete data types, resulting in compact representations of shape and spatial structure. Using reduction by symmetry, we describe these models in a common theoretical framework that draws on links between the registration problem and geometric mechanics. We outline these constructions and further cases where reduction by symmetry promises new approaches to the registration of complex data types.

  3. The Incompatibility Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Amarița

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Launch of the euro in the late 90s, can be interpreted as a first step towards the monetarysystem outlined by Mundell. Economists have noted the incompatibility of fixed exchange regime,perfect mobility of capital and the independence of monetary policy, the so-called triangle ofincompatibility, which was highlighted by Robert Mundell since 1968. Tommaso Padoa - Schioppacontinued his research on the harmonization and convergence required to economic policies in“Financial Europe". The author shows that the triangle is the freedom of movement of capital, theexchange rate stability and the autonomy of national monetary policies. The triangle ofincompatibility stems from the fact that they can be combined in their entirety, but only two. Theautonomy of monetary policy is the freedom of states to choose the appropriate monetary policyand take appropriate measures in case of recessions.

  4. Ten dimensional SO(10) G.U.T. models with dynamical symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.E.; Joshi, G.C.

    1993-01-01

    To date, considerations on SO (10) models within Coset Space Dimensional Reduction (CSDR) have been diagonalized to the standard model or rely upon imaginative applications of Wilson lines so as to avoid the problem of the nonexistence of an intermediate Higgs mechanism. However, there is an alternative approach involving four fermion condensates, breaking symmetries by a dynamical mechanism. Indeed, dynamical symmetry breaking has been the direction taken in some SU(5) models within this framework in order to avoid the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking at the compactification scale. This paper presents realistic models which utilize this mechanism. It is shown that the appropriate fermionic representations can emerge from CSDR and the construction of such condensates within the constraints of this scheme is presented. By introducing discrete symmetries onto the internal manifold a strong breaking of the SO(10) G.U.T. is produced and, more importantly, eliminate Higgs fields of geometrical origin. 31 refs

  5. Mirror symmetry for two-parameter models. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelas, Philip; Font, Anamaria; Katz, Sheldon; Morrison, David R.

    1994-01-01

    We describe in detail the space of the two Kaehler parameters of the Calabi-Yau manifold P 4 (1,1,1,6,9) [D. R. Morrison, 1993] by exploiting mirror symmetry. The large complex structure limit of the mirror, which corresponds to the classical large radius limit, is found by studying the monodromy of the periods about the discriminant locus, the boundary of the moduli space corresponding to singular Calabi-Yau manifolds. A symplectic basis of periods is found and the action of the Sp(6, Z) generators of the modular group is determined. From the mirror map we compute the instanton expansion of the Yukawa couplings and the generalized N=2 index, arriving at the numbers of instantons of genus zero and genus one of each bidegree. We find that these numbers can be negative, even in genus zero. We also investigate an SL(2, Z) symmetry that acts on a boundary of the moduli space. ((orig.))

  6. The Copenhagen Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2014-01-01

    I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden.......I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden....

  7. Inflation and cosmic strings in models with dynamical symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheson, A.M.; Brandenberger, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    We derive the effective action for the composite field which in dynamical symmetry breaking plays the role of the Higgs field. We show that this effective action does not give rise to inflation. It is, however, possible to obtain topological defects such as cosmic strings. There will be fermionic zero modes trapped on the strings, and the strings will therefore be superconducting in a generalized sense. (orig.)

  8. On Lie point symmetry of classical Wess-Zumino-Witten model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharana, Karmadeva

    2001-06-01

    We perform the group analysis of Witten's equations of motion for a particle moving in the presence of a magnetic monopole, and also when constrained to move on the surface of a sphere, which is the classical example of Wess-Zumino-Witten model. We also consider variations of this model. Our analysis gives the generators of the corresponding Lie point symmetries. The Lie symmetry corresponding to Kepler's third law is obtained in two related examples. (author)

  9. Augmented Superfield Approach to Non-Yang Symmetries of Jackiw-Pi Model: Novel Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Kumar, R.

    2013-02-01

    We derive the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anti-commuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) as well as anti-BRST symmetry transformations corresponding to the non-Yang-Mills (NYM) symmetry transformations of (2+1)-dimensional Jackiw-Pi (JP) model within the framework of "augmented" superfield formalism. The Curci-Ferrari (CF) restriction, which is a hallmark of non-Abelian one-form gauge theories, does not appear in this case. One of the novel features of our present investigation is the derivation of proper (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations corresponding to the auxiliary field ρ that cannot be derived by any conventional means.

  10. Gamma-ray triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Lopez-Gehler, Sergio; Molinaro, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new type of gamma-ray spectral feature, which we denominate gamma-ray triangle. This spectral feature arises in scenarios where dark matter self-annihilates via a chiral interaction into two Dirac fermions, which subsequently decay in flight into another fermion and a photon...

  11. Discovery: Triangle Inequality Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2016-01-01

    As outlined in the paper "The 20 Matchstick Triangle Challenge: An Activity to Foster Reasoning and Problem Solving" by Pat Graham and Helen Chick [EJ1093090], an incredibly useful set of information about the mathematical ability of your students will be revealed. You can look at the way your students try to solve the 20 matchsticks…

  12. Topological insulation in a ladder model with particle-hole and reflection symmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, B; Yahyavi, M

    2018-03-14

    A two-legged ladder model, one dimensional, exhibiting the parity anomaly is constructed. The model belongs to the C and CI symmetry classes, depending on the parameters, but, due to reflection, it exhibits topological insulation. The model consists of two superimposed Creutz models with onsite potentials. The topological invariants of each Creutz model sum to give the mirror winding number, with winding numbers which are nonzero individually but equal and opposite in the topological phase, and both zero in the trivial phase. We demonstrate the presence of edge states and quantized Hall response in the topological region. Our model exhibits two distinct topological regions, distinguished by the different types of reflection symmetries.

  13. Pascal's Infinite Set of Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurnick, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Pascal's Triangle is, without question, the most well-known triangular array of numbers in all of mathematics. A well-known algorithm for constructing Pascal's Triangle is based on the following two observations. The outer edges of the triangle consist of all 1's. Each number not lying on the outer edges is the sum of the two numbers above it in…

  14. Thermal conductivity of the accidental degeneracy and enlarged symmetry group models for superconducting UPt3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, M.J.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM; Yip, S.K.; Sauls, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The authors present theoretical calculations of the thermal conductivity for the accidental degeneracy and enlarged symmetry group models that have been proposed to explain the phase diagram of UPt 3 . The order parameters for these models possess point nodes or cross nodes, reflecting the broken symmetries of the ground state. These broken symmetries lead to robust predictions for the ratio of the low-temperature thermal conductivity for heat flow along the c axis and in the basal plane. The anisotropy of the heat current response at low temperatures is determined by the phase space for scattering by impurities. The measured anisotropy ratio, κ c /κ b , provides a strong constraint on theoretical models for the ground state order parameter. The accidental degeneracy and enlarged symmetry group models based on no spin-orbit coupling do not account for the thermal conductivity of UPt 3 . The models for the order parameter that fit the experimental data for the c and b directions of the heat current are the 2D E 1g and E 2u models, for which the order parameters possess line nodes in the ab-plane and point nodes along the c axis, and the A 1g circle-plus E 1g model of Zhitomirsky and Ueda. This model spontaneously breaks rotational symmetry in the ab-plane below T c2 and predicts a large anisotropy for the ab-plane heat current

  15. Possible roles of Peccei-Quinn symmetry in an effective low energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Daijiro

    2017-12-01

    The strong C P problem is known to be solved by imposing Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry. However, the domain wall problem caused by the spontaneous breaking of its remnant discrete subgroup could make models invalid in many cases. We propose a model in which the PQ charge is assigned quarks so as to escape this problem without introducing any extra colored fermions. In the low energy effective model resulting after the PQ symmetry breaking, both the quark mass hierarchy and the CKM mixing could be explained through Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. If the model is combined with the lepton sector supplemented by an inert doublet scalar and right-handed neutrinos, the effective model reduces to the scotogenic neutrino mass model in which both the origin of neutrino masses and dark matter are closely related. The strong C P problem could be related to the quark mass hierarchy, neutrino masses, and dark matter through the PQ symmetry.

  16. The strong-weak coupling symmetry in 2D Φ4 field models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N.Shalaev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the exact beta-function β(g of the continuous 2D gΦ4 model possesses two types of dual symmetries, these being the Kramers-Wannier (KW duality symmetry and the strong-weak (SW coupling symmetry f(g, or S-duality. All these transformations are explicitly constructed. The S-duality transformation f(g is shown to connect domains of weak and strong couplings, i.e. above and below g*. Basically it means that there is a tempting possibility to compute multiloop Feynman diagrams for the β-function using high-temperature lattice expansions. The regular scheme developed is found to be strongly unstable. Approximate values of the renormalized coupling constant g* found from duality symmetry equations are in an agreement with available numerical results.

  17. Lie Symmetry Analysis of a First-Order Feedback Model of Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter Sinkala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A first-order feedback model of option pricing consisting of a coupled system of two PDEs, a nonliner generalised Black-Scholes equation and the classical Black-Scholes equation, is studied using Lie symmetry analysis. This model arises as an extension of the classical Black-Scholes model when liquidity is incorporated into the market. We compute the admitted Lie point symmetries of the system and construct an optimal system of the associated one-dimensional subalgebras. We also construct some invariant solutions of the model.

  18. High School Forum: Inexpensive Space-Filling Molecular Models Useful for VSEPR and Symmetry Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, J. Dudley, Ed.; Chapman, V. L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes models constructed of flat pieces cut from sheet plywood, hardboard, or plastic to replicate the shape of the main symmetry planes of molecules. Patterns for the model components are given as well as a list of pieces required to make various models. (BB)

  19. A network model for generating differential symmetry axes of shapes via receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbat, M A

    1994-01-01

    Some symmetries (e.g. bilateral, rotational, translational) only describe quite specialized shapes, but differential symmetry axes (e.g. Blum, J. Theoret. Biol. 38, 205-287, 1973; Brady and Asada, Int. J. Robotics Res. 3, 36-61, 1984) describe more general shapes. Such axes are of interest in part because they form the 'backbone' of generalized cylinder and other shape representations used in shape recognition (e.g. Marr, Vision, W. H. Freeman and Co., NY, 1982; Biederman, Psychol. Rev. 94, 115-147, 1987). However, despite the popularity of these representations as psychological models, algorithms from machine vision for computing them have strong limitations as psychological models. This paper presents two versions of a network model, one of which is more plausible as a psychological model because it derives symmetry axes from the activations of idealized visual receptive fields.

  20. Paying Attention to Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kootstra, Gert; Nederveen, Arco; de Boer, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Humans are very sensitive to symmetry in visual patterns. Symmetry is detected and recognized very rapidly. While viewing symmetrical patterns eye fixations are concentrated along the axis of symmetry or the symmetrical center of the patterns. This suggests that symmetry is a highly salient feature. Existing computational models of saliency, however, have mainly focused on contrast as a measure of saliency. These models do not take symmetry into account. In this paper, we discuss local symmet...

  1. A model of neutrino mass and dark matter with an accidental symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Ahriche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a model of radiative neutrino mass that automatically contains an accidental Z2 symmetry and thus provides a stable dark matter candidate. This allows a common framework for the origin of neutrino mass and dark matter without invoking any symmetries beyond those of the Standard Model. The model can be probed by direct-detection experiments and μ→e+γ searches, and predicts a charged scalar that can appear at the TeV scale, within reach of collider experiments.

  2. Parity Symmetry and Parity Breaking in the Quantum Rabi Model with Addition of Ising Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiong; He Zhi; Yao Chun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility to generate new parity symmetry in the quantum Rabi model after a bias is introduced. In contrast to a mathematical treatment in a previous publication [J. Phys. A 46 (2013) 265302], we consider a physically realistic method by involving an additional spin into the quantum Rabi model to couple with the original spin by an Ising interaction, and then the parity symmetry is broken as well as the scaling behavior of the ground state by introducing a bias. The rule can be found that the parity symmetry is broken by introducing a bias and then restored by adding new degrees of freedom. Experimental feasibility of realizing the models under discussion is investigated. (paper)

  3. { Z}_N symmetry breaking in projected entangled pair state models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispler, Manuel; Duivenvoorden, Kasper; Schuch, Norbert

    2017-09-01

    We consider projected entangled pair state (PEPS) models with a global { Z}N symmetry, which are constructed from { Z}N -symmetric tensors and are thus { Z}N -invariant wavefunctions, and study the occurence of long-range order and symmetry breaking in these systems. First, we show that long-range order in those models is accompanied by a degeneracy in the so-called transfer operator of the system. We subsequently use this degeneracy to determine the nature of the symmetry broken states, i.e. those stable under arbitrary perturbations, and provide a succinct characterization in terms of the fixed points of the transfer operator (i.e. the different boundary conditions) in the individual symmetry sectors. We verify our findings numerically through the study of a { Z}3 -symmetric model, and show that the entanglement Hamiltonian derived from the symmetry broken states is quasi-local (unlike the one derived from the symmetric state), reinforcing the locality of the entanglement Hamiltonian for gapped phases.

  4. Gauge-Higgs Unification Models in Six Dimensions with S2/Z2 Extra Space and GUT Gauge Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review gauge-Higgs unification models based on gauge theories defined on six-dimensional spacetime with S2/Z2 topology in the extra spatial dimensions. Nontrivial boundary conditions are imposed on the extra S2/Z2 space. This review considers two scenarios for constructing a four-dimensional theory from the six-dimensional model. One scheme utilizes the SO(12 gauge symmetry with a special symmetry condition imposed on the gauge field, whereas the other employs the E6 gauge symmetry without requiring the additional symmetry condition. Both models lead to a standard model-like gauge theory with the SU(3×SU(2L×U(1Y(×U(12 symmetry and SM fermions in four dimensions. The Higgs sector of the model is also analyzed. The electroweak symmetry breaking can be realized, and the weak gauge boson and Higgs boson masses are obtained.

  5. Crossing symmetry and phenomenological widths in effective Lagrangian models of the pion photoproduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ramirez, C. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: cesar@nuc2.fis.ucm.es; Moya de Guerra, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-02-21

    We investigate the importance of crossing symmetry in effective field models and the effects of phenomenological nucleon resonance widths on the paradigmatic case of pion photoproduction. We use reaction models containing four star resonances up to 1.8 GeV ({delta}(1232), N(1440), N(1520), N(1535), {delta}(1620), N(1650), {delta}(1700), and N(1720)) with different prescriptions for crossed terms and widths, to fit the latest world database on pion photoproduction. We compare {chi}{sup 2} results from selected multipoles and fits. The {chi}{sup 2} is highly dependent on the fulfillment of crossing symmetry and the inclusion of u channels.

  6. Symmetry breaking patterns of the 3-3-1 model at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, J.S. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica de Altas Energias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ramos, Rudnei O. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    We consider the minimal version of an extension of the standard electroweak model based on the SU(3){sub c} x SU(3){sub L} x U(1){sub X} gauge symmetry (the 3-3-1 model). We analyze the most general potential constructed from three scalars in the triplet representation of SU(3){sub L}, whose neutral components develop nonzero vacuum expectation values, giving mass for all the model's massive particles. For different choices of parameters, we obtain the particle spectrum for the two symmetry breaking scales: one where the SU(3){sub L} x U(1){sub X} group is broken down to SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} and a lower scale similar to the standard model one. Within the considerations used, we show that the model encodes two first-order phase transitions, respecting the pattern of symmetry restoration. The last transition, corresponding to the standard electroweak one, is found to be very weak first-order, most likely turning second-order or a crossover in practice. However, the first transition in this model can be strongly first-order, which might happen at a temperature not too high above the second one. We determine the respective critical temperatures for symmetry restoration for the model. (orig.)

  7. Verifying three-dimensional skull model reconstruction using cranial index of symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Woon-Man; Chen, Shuo-Tsung; Lin, Chung-Hsiang; Lu, Yu-Mei; Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Lin, Muh-Shi

    2013-01-01

    Difficulty exists in scalp adaptation for cranioplasty with customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) implant in situations of excessive wound tension and sub-cranioplasty dead space. To solve this clinical problem, the CAD/CAM technique should include algorithms to reconstruct a depressed contour to cover the skull defect. Satisfactory CAM-derived alloplastic implants are based on highly accurate three-dimensional (3-D) CAD modeling. Thus, it is quite important to establish a symmetrically regular CAD/CAM reconstruction prior to depressing the contour. The purpose of this study is to verify the aesthetic outcomes of CAD models with regular contours using cranial index of symmetry (CIS). From January 2011 to June 2012, decompressive craniectomy (DC) was performed for 15 consecutive patients in our institute. 3-D CAD models of skull defects were reconstructed using commercial software. These models were checked in terms of symmetry by CIS scores. CIS scores of CAD reconstructions were 99.24±0.004% (range 98.47-99.84). CIS scores of these CAD models were statistically significantly greater than 95%, identical to 99.5%, but lower than 99.6% (ppairs signed rank test). These data evidenced the highly accurate symmetry of these CAD models with regular contours. CIS calculation is beneficial to assess aesthetic outcomes of CAD-reconstructed skulls in terms of cranial symmetry. This enables further accurate CAD models and CAM cranial implants with depressed contours, which are essential in patients with difficult scalp adaptation.

  8. Merging symmetry projection methods with coupled cluster theory: Lessons from the Lipkin model Hamiltonian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlen-Strothman, J. M. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Henderson, T. H. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Hermes, M. R. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Degroote, M. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Qiu, Y. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Zhao, J. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Dukelsky, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Estructura de la Materia; Scuseria, G. E. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2018-01-03

    Coupled cluster and symmetry projected Hartree-Fock are two central paradigms in electronic structure theory. However, they are very different. Single reference coupled cluster is highly successful for treating weakly correlated systems, but fails under strong correlation unless one sacrifices good quantum numbers and works with broken-symmetry wave functions, which is unphysical for finite systems. Symmetry projection is effective for the treatment of strong correlation at the mean-field level through multireference non-orthogonal configuration interaction wavefunctions, but unlike coupled cluster, it is neither size extensive nor ideal for treating dynamic correlation. We here examine different scenarios for merging these two dissimilar theories. We carry out this exercise over the integrable Lipkin model Hamiltonian, which despite its simplicity, encompasses non-trivial physics for degenerate systems and can be solved via diagonalization for a very large number of particles. We show how symmetry projection and coupled cluster doubles individually fail in different correlation limits, whereas models that merge these two theories are highly successful over the entire phase diagram. Despite the simplicity of the Lipkin Hamiltonian, the lessons learned in this work will be useful for building an ab initio symmetry projected coupled cluster theory that we expect to be accurate in the weakly and strongly correlated limits, as well as the recoupling regime.

  9. Merging symmetry projection methods with coupled cluster theory: Lessons from the Lipkin model Hamiltonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlen-Strothman, Jacob M; Henderson, Thomas M; Hermes, Matthew R; Degroote, Matthias; Qiu, Yiheng; Zhao, Jinmo; Dukelsky, Jorge; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2017-02-07

    Coupled cluster and symmetry projected Hartree-Fock are two central paradigms in electronic structure theory. However, they are very different. Single reference coupled cluster is highly successful for treating weakly correlated systems but fails under strong correlation unless one sacrifices good quantum numbers and works with broken-symmetry wave functions, which is unphysical for finite systems. Symmetry projection is effective for the treatment of strong correlation at the mean-field level through multireference non-orthogonal configuration interaction wavefunctions, but unlike coupled cluster, it is neither size extensive nor ideal for treating dynamic correlation. We here examine different scenarios for merging these two dissimilar theories. We carry out this exercise over the integrable Lipkin model Hamiltonian, which despite its simplicity, encompasses non-trivial physics for degenerate systems and can be solved via diagonalization for a very large number of particles. We show how symmetry projection and coupled cluster doubles individually fail in different correlation limits, whereas models that merge these two theories are highly successful over the entire phase diagram. Despite the simplicity of the Lipkin Hamiltonian, the lessons learned in this work will be useful for building an ab initio symmetry projected coupled cluster theory that we expect to be accurate in the weakly and strongly correlated limits, as well as the recoupling regime.

  10. Anomaly-free discrete gauge symmetries in Froggatt-Nielsen models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhn, C.

    2006-05-15

    Discrete symmetries (DS) can forbid dangerous B- and L-violating operators in the supersymmetric Lagrangian. Due to the violation of global DSs by quantum gravity effects, the introduced DS should be a remnant of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry. Demanding anomaly freedom of the high-energy gauge theory, we determine all family-independent anomaly-free Z{sub N} symmetries which are consistent with the trilinear MSSM superpotential terms in Part I. We find one outstanding Z{sub 6} symmetry, proton hexality P{sub 6}, which prohibits all B- and L-violating operators up to dimension five, except for the Majorana neutrino mass terms LH{sub u}LH{sub u}. In Part II, we combine the idea that a DS should have a gauge origin with the scenario of Froggatt and Nielsen (FN). We construct concise U(1){sub X} FN models in which the Z{sub 3} symmetry baryon triality, B{sub 3}, arises from U(1){sub X} breaking. We choose this specific DGS because it allows for R-parity violating interactions; thus neutrino masses can be explained without introducing right-handed neutrinos. We find six phenomenologically viable B{sub 3}-conserving FN models. (orig.)

  11. Anomaly-free discrete gauge symmetries in Froggatt-Nielsen models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhn, C.

    2006-05-01

    Discrete symmetries (DS) can forbid dangerous B- and L-violating operators in the supersymmetric Lagrangian. Due to the violation of global DSs by quantum gravity effects, the introduced DS should be a remnant of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry. Demanding anomaly freedom of the high-energy gauge theory, we determine all family-independent anomaly-free Z N symmetries which are consistent with the trilinear MSSM superpotential terms in Part I. We find one outstanding Z 6 symmetry, proton hexality P 6 , which prohibits all B- and L-violating operators up to dimension five, except for the Majorana neutrino mass terms LH u LH u . In Part II, we combine the idea that a DS should have a gauge origin with the scenario of Froggatt and Nielsen (FN). We construct concise U(1) X FN models in which the Z 3 symmetry baryon triality, B 3 , arises from U(1) X breaking. We choose this specific DGS because it allows for R-parity violating interactions; thus neutrino masses can be explained without introducing right-handed neutrinos. We find six phenomenologically viable B 3 -conserving FN models. (orig.)

  12. Effective potential and spontaneous symmetry breaking in the noncommutative φ6 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    We study the conditions for spontaneous symmetry breaking of the (2+1)-dimensional noncommutative φ 6 model in the small-θ limit. In this regime, considering the model as a cutoff theory, it is reasonable to assume translational invariance as a property of the vacuum state and study the conditions for spontaneous symmetry breaking by an effective potential analysis. An investigation of up to the two-loop level reveals that noncommutative effects can modify drastically the shape of the effective potential. Under reasonable conditions, the nonplanar sector of the theory can become dominant and induce symmetry breaking for values of the mass and coupling constants not reached by the commutative counterpart

  13. Classically conformal radiative neutrino model with gauged B−L symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Okada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a classically conformal model in a minimal radiative seesaw, in which we employ a gauged B−L symmetry in the standard model that is essential in order to work the Coleman–Weinberg mechanism well that induces the B−L symmetry breaking. As a result, nonzero Majorana mass term and electroweak symmetry breaking simultaneously occur. In this framework, we show a benchmark point to satisfy several theoretical and experimental constraints. Here theoretical constraints represent inert conditions and Coleman–Weinberg condition. Experimental bounds come from lepton flavor violations (especially μ→eγ, the current bound on the Z′ mass at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, and neutrino oscillations.

  14. Dark matter model with non-Abelian gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hao; Li Chongsheng; Cao Qinghong; Li Zhao

    2010-01-01

    We propose a dark-matter model in which the dark sector is gauged under a new SU(2) group. The dark sector consists of SU(2) dark gauge fields, two triplet dark Higgs fields, and two dark fermion doublets (dark-matter candidates in this model). The dark sector interacts with the standard model sector through kinetic and mass mixing operators. The model explains both PAMELA and Fermi LAT data very well and also satisfies constraints from both the dark-matter relic density and standard model precision observables. The phenomenology of the model at the LHC is also explored.

  15. Quark condensates in nuclear matter in the global color symmetry model of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuxin; Gao Dongfeng; Guo Hua

    2003-01-01

    With the global color symmetry model being extended to finite chemical potential, we study the density dependence of the local and nonlocal scalar quark condensates in nuclear matter. The calculated results indicate that the quark condensates increase smoothly with the increasing of nuclear matter density before the critical value (about 12ρ 0 ) is reached. It also manifests that the chiral symmetry is restored suddenly as the density of nuclear matter reaches its critical value. Meanwhile, the nonlocal quark condensate in nuclear matter changes nonmonotonously against the space-time distance among the quarks

  16. Symmetry analysis for hyperbolic equilibria using a TB/dengue fever model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoukou, R. Y. M.'Pika; Govinder, K. S.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the interplay between Lie symmetry analysis and dynamical systems analysis. As an example, we take a toy model describing the spread of TB and dengue fever. We first undertake a comprehensive dynamical systems analysis including a discussion about local stability. For those regions in which such analyzes cannot be translated to global behavior, we undertake a Lie symmetry analysis. It is shown that the Lie analysis can be useful in providing information for systems where the (local) dynamical systems analysis breaks down.

  17. Enlarged symmetry algebras of spin chains, loop models, and S-matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, N.; Saleur, H.

    2007-01-01

    The symmetry algebras of certain families of quantum spin chains are considered in detail. The simplest examples possess m states per site (m>=2), with nearest-neighbor interactions with U(m) symmetry, under which the sites transform alternately along the chain in the fundamental m and its conjugate representation m-bar. We find that these spin chains, even with arbitrary coefficients of these interactions, have a symmetry algebra A m much larger than U(m), which implies that the energy eigenstates fall into sectors that for open chains (i.e., free boundary conditions) can be labeled by j=0,1,...,L, for the 2L-site chain such that the degeneracies of all eigenvalues in the jth sector are generically the same and increase rapidly with j. For large j, these degeneracies are much larger than those that would be expected from the U(m) symmetry alone. The enlarged symmetry algebra A m (2L) consists of operators that commute in this space of states with the Temperley-Lieb algebra that is generated by the set of nearest-neighbor interaction terms; A m (2L) is not a Yangian. There are similar results for supersymmetric chains with gl(m+n|n) symmetry of nearest-neighbor interactions, and a richer representation structure for closed chains (i.e., periodic boundary conditions). The symmetries also apply to the loop models that can be obtained from the spin chains in a spacetime or transfer matrix picture. In the loop language, the symmetries arise because the loops cannot cross. We further define tensor products of representations (for the open chains) by joining chains end to end. The fusion rules for decomposing the tensor product of representations labeled j 1 and j 2 take the same form as the Clebsch-Gordan series for SU(2). This and other structures turn the symmetry algebra A m into a ribbon Hopf algebra, and we show that this is 'Morita equivalent' to the quantum group U q (sl 2 ) for m=q+q -1 . The open-chain results are extended to the cases vertical bar m vertical

  18. Chiral symmetry restoration and pion properties in a q-deformed NJL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timoteo, V.S.; Lima, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    We review the implementation of a q-deformed fermionic algebra in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model (NJL). The gap equations obtained from a deformed condensate as well as from the deformation of the NJL Hamiltonian are discussed. The effect of both temperature and deformation in the chiral symmetry restoration process as well as in the pion properties is studied. (author)

  19. Analytical Modeling and Simulation of Four-Switch Hybrid Power Filter Working with Sixfold Switching Symmetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlustý, J.; Škramlík, Jiří; Švec, J.; Valouch, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 292178 (2012), s. 1-17 ISSN 1024-123X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : analytical modeling * four-switch hybrid power filter * sixfold switching symmetry Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.383, year: 2012 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2012/292178/

  20. Collider and dark matter searches in the inert doublet model from Peccei-Quinn symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Alexandre [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de São Paulo,Diadema-SP, 09972-270 (Brazil); Camargo, Daniel A.; Dias, Alex G. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas,09210-580, Santo André-SP (Brazil); Longas, Robinson [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia,Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Nishi, Celso C. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição Naturais,09210-580, Santo André-SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Farinaldo S. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Kernphysik,Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-10-04

    Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) and axions are arguably the most compelling dark matter candidates in the literature. Could they coexist as dark matter particles? More importantly, can they be incorporated in a well motivated framework in agreement with experimental data? In this work, we show that this two component dark matter can be realized in the Inert Doublet Model in an elegant and natural manner by virtue of the spontaneous breaking of a Peccei-Quinn U(1){sub PQ} symmetry into a residual ℤ{sub 2} symmetry. The WIMP stability is guaranteed by the ℤ{sub 2} symmetry and a new dark matter component, the axion, arises. There are two interesting outcomes: (i) vector-like quarks needed to implement the Peccei-Quinn symmetry in the model may act as a portal between the dark sector and the SM fields with a supersymmetry-type phenomenology at colliders; (ii) two-component Inert Doublet Model re-opens the phenomenologically interesting 100–500 GeV mass region. We show that the model can successfully realize a two component dark matter framework and at the same time avoid low and high energy physics constraints such as monojet and dijet plus missing energy, as well as indirect and direct dark matter detection bounds.

  1. Symmetry Breaking, Unification, and Theories Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2009-07-31

    A model was constructed in which the supersymmetric fine-tuning problem is solved without extending the Higgs sector at the weak scale. We have demonstrated that the model can avoid all the phenomenological constraints, while avoiding excessive fine-tuning. We have also studied implications of the model on dark matter physics and collider physics. I have proposed in an extremely simple construction for models of gauge mediation. We found that the {mu} problem can be simply and elegantly solved in a class of models where the Higgs fields couple directly to the supersymmetry breaking sector. We proposed a new way of addressing the flavor problem of supersymmetric theories. We have proposed a new framework of constructing theories of grand unification. We constructed a simple and elegant model of dark matter which explains excess flux of electrons/positrons. We constructed a model of dark energy in which evolving quintessence-type dark energy is naturally obtained. We studied if we can find evidence of the multiverse.

  2. Symmetry-Breaking in a Rate Model for a Biped Locomotion Central Pattern Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The timing patterns of animal gaits are produced by a network of spinal neurons called a Central Pattern Generator (CPG. Pinto and Golubitsky studied a four-node CPG for biped dynamics in which each leg is associated with one flexor node and one extensor node, with Ζ2 x Ζ2 symmetry. They used symmetric bifurcation theory to predict the existence of four primary gaits and seven secondary gaits. We use methods from symmetric bifurcation theory to investigate local bifurcation, both steady-state and Hopf, for their network architecture in a rate model. Rate models incorporate parameters corresponding to the strengths of connections in the CPG: positive for excitatory connections and negative for inhibitory ones. The three-dimensional space of connection strengths is partitioned into regions that correspond to the first local bifurcation from a fully symmetric equilibrium. The partition is polyhedral, and its symmetry group is that of a tetrahedron. It comprises two concentric tetrahedra, subdivided by various symmetry planes. The tetrahedral symmetry arises from the structure of the eigenvalues of the connection matrix, which is involved in, but not equal to, the Jacobian of the rate model at bifurcation points. Some of the results apply to rate equations on more general networks.

  3. Criticality of O (N ) symmetric models in the presence of discrete gauge symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissetto, Andrea; Tripodo, Antonio; Vicari, Ettore

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the critical properties of the three-dimensional antiferromagnetic RPN -1 model, which is characterized by a global O (N ) symmetry and a discrete Z2 gauge symmetry. We perform a field-theoretical analysis using the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson (LGW) approach and a numerical Monte Carlo study. The LGW field-theoretical results are obtained by high-order perturbative analyses of the renormalization-group flow of the most general Φ4 theory with the same global symmetry as the model, assuming a gauge-invariant order-parameter field. For N =4 no stable fixed point is found, implying that any transition must necessarily be of first order. This is contradicted by the numerical results that provide strong evidence for a continuous transition. This suggests that gauge modes are not always irrelevant, as assumed by the LGW approach, but they may play an important role to determine the actual critical dynamics at the phase transition of O (N ) symmetric models with a discrete Z2 gauge symmetry.

  4. Comment on bag models with spontaneously broken color symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandel, M.

    1985-01-01

    A recently suggested field-theoretic bag model, where gluons are confined via a Higgs mechanism, is discussed. It is found that the proposed model creates gluon boundary conditions that break global SU/sub c/(3) invariance. A modified scheme that removes this anomaly is suggested. However, some severe generic problems remain. Examples are the lack of a suppression mechanism for states with open color and the large surface energy of the bag states

  5. Breaking of the overall permutation symmetry in nonlinear optical susceptibilities of one-dimensional periodic dimerized Huckel model

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Minzhong; Jiang, Shidong

    2005-01-01

    Based on infinite one-dimensional single-electron periodic models of trans-polyacetylene, we show analytically that the overall permutation symmetry of nonlinear optical susceptibilities is, albeit preserved in the molecular systems with only bound states, no longer generally held for the periodic systems. The overall permutation symmetry breakdown provides a fairly natural explanation to the widely observed large deviations of Kleinman symmetry for periodic systems in off-resonant regions. P...

  6. Properties of hyperbolic Pascal triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbachir, Hacene; Németh, László; Szalay, László

    2017-08-01

    Here we summarize some results on a recently introduced new generalization of Pascal's triangle called hyperbolic Pascal triangles. The name comes from the mathematical background, which goes back to regular mosaics on the hyperbolic plane. A few open questions will also be posed.

  7. A Bermuda Triangle of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelsas, John

    2006-01-01

    The Bermuda Triangle is famous for the unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft, and for strange meteorological phenomena that allegedly have occurred within its boundaries. This article presents an activity wherein students are asked to create their own geographical triangles to research, but instead of focusing on the unexplainable,…

  8. The Bermuda Triangle of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Yves

    The pedagogical triangle of teacher, learner, and subject matter has in its center a fourth element: the communication system. Each feature of the pedagogical triangle, and the communication system as well, relies on a very important cultural component. Problems occur when communication processes in a classroom are fragmented and related to…

  9. Rainbow tensor model with enhanced symmetry and extreme melonic dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoyama, H.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce and briefly analyze the rainbow tensor model where all planar diagrams are melonic. This leads to considerable simplification of the large N limit as compared to that of the matrix model: in particular, what are dressed in this limit are propagators only, which leads to an oversimplified closed set of Schwinger-Dyson equations for multi-point correlators. We briefly touch upon the Ward identities, the substitute of the spectral curve and the AMM/EO topological recursion and their possible connections to Connes-Kreimer theory and forest formulas.

  10. N=2 superconformal symmetry in super coset models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Roenne, Peter B.; Schomerus, Volker [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). DESY Theory Group

    2009-07-15

    We extend the Kazama-Suzuki construction of models with N=(2,2) world-sheet supersymmetry to cosets S/K of supergroups. Among the admissible target spaces that allow for an extension to N=2 superconformal algebras are some simple Lie supergroups, including PSL(N vertical stroke N). Our general analysis is illustrated at the example of the N=1 WZNW model on GL(1 vertical stroke 1). After constructing its N=2 superconformal algebra we determine the (anti-)chiral ring of the theory. It exhibits an interesting interplay between world-sheet and target space supersymmetry. (orig.)

  11. Conformal internal symmetry of 2d σ-models coupled to gravity and a dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia, B.; Nicolai, H.

    1996-08-01

    General relativity reduced to two dimensions possesses a large group of symmetries that exchange classical solutions. The associated Lie algebra is known to contain the affine Kac-Moody algebra A 1 (1) and half of a real Witt algebra. In this paper we exhibit the full symmetry under the semi-direct product of Lie(A 1 (1) ) by the Witt algebra Lie(W). Furthermore we exhibit the corresponding hidden gauge symmetries. We show that the theory can be understood in terms of an infinite dimensional potential space involving all degrees of freedom: The dilaton as well as matter and gravitation. In the dilaton sector the linear system that extends the previously known Lax pair has the form of a twisted self-duality constraint that is the analog of the self-duality constraint arising in extended supergravities in higher spacetime dimensions. Our results furnish a group theoretical explanation for the simultaneous occurrence of two spectral parameters, a constant one (=y) and a variable one (=t). They hold for all 2d non-linear σ-models that are obtained by dimensional reduction of G/H models in three dimensions coupled to pure gravity. In that case the Lie algebra is Lie(W∝G (1) ); this symmetry acts on a set of off shell fields (in a fixed gauge) and preserves the equations of motion. (orig.)

  12. Electro symmetry breaking and beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.; Dawson, S.; Haber, H.E.

    1995-05-01

    The development of the Standard Model of particle physics is a remarkable success story. Its many facets have been tested at present day accelerators; no significant unambiguous deviations have yet been found. In some cases, the model has been verified at an accuracy of better than one part in a thousand. This state of affairs presents our field with a challenge. Where do we go from here? What is our vision for future developments in particle physics? Are particle physicists' recent successes a signal of the field's impending demise, or do real long-term prospects exist for further progress? We assert that the long-term health and intellectual vitality of particle physics depends crucially on the development of a new generation of particle colliders that push the energy frontier by an order of magnitude beyond present capabilities. In this report, we address the scientific issues underlying this assertion

  13. Electro symmetry breaking and beyond the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dawson, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Haber, H.E. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Inst. for Particle Physics; Siegrist, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The development of the Standard Model of particle physics is a remarkable success story. Its many facets have been tested at present day accelerators; no significant unambiguous deviations have yet been found. In some cases, the model has been verified at an accuracy of better than one part in a thousand. This state of affairs presents our field with a challenge. Where do we go from here? What is our vision for future developments in particle physics? Are particle physicists` recent successes a signal of the field`s impending demise, or do real long-term prospects exist for further progress? We assert that the long-term health and intellectual vitality of particle physics depends crucially on the development of a new generation of particle colliders that push the energy frontier by an order of magnitude beyond present capabilities. In this report, we address the scientific issues underlying this assertion.

  14. Spontaneous Symmetry-Breaking in a Network Model for Quadruped Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous symmetry-breaking proves a mechanism for pattern generation in legged locomotion of animals. The basic timing patterns of animal gaits are produced by a network of spinal neurons known as a Central Pattern Generator (CPG). Animal gaits are primarily characterized by phase differences between leg movements in a periodic gait cycle. Many different gaits occur, often having spatial or spatiotemporal symmetries. A natural way to explain gait patterns is to assume that the CPG is symmetric, and to classify the possible symmetry-breaking periodic motions. Pinto and Golubitsky have discussed a four-node model CPG network for biped gaits with ℤ2 × ℤ2 symmetry, classifying the possible periodic states that can arise. A more specific rate model with this structure has been analyzed in detail by Stewart. Here we extend these methods to quadruped gaits, using an eight-node network with ℤ4 × ℤ2 symmetry proposed by Golubitsky and coworkers. We formulate a rate model and calculate how the first steady or Hopf bifurcation depends on its parameters, which represent four connection strengths. The calculations involve a distinction between “real” gaits with one or two phase shifts (pronk, bound, pace, trot) and “complex” gaits with four phase shifts (forward and reverse walk, forward and reverse buck). The former correspond to real eigenvalues of the connection matrix, the latter to complex conjugate pairs. The partition of parameter space according to the first bifurcation, ignoring complex gaits, is described explicitly. The complex gaits introduce further complications, not yet fully understood. All eight gaits can occur as the first bifurcation from a fully synchronous equilibrium, for suitable parameters, and numerical simulations indicate that they can be asymptotically stable.

  15. Quark model with chiral-symmetry breaking and confinement in the Covariant Spectator Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmer P. [CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Pena, Maria Teresa [CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Ribiero, Jose' Emilio F. [CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal; Stadler, Alfred [Departamento de Física, Universidade de Évora, 7000-671 Évora, Portugal; Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We propose a model for the quark-antiquark interaction in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory. We show that with an equal-weighted scalar-pseudoscalar structure for the confining part of our interaction kernel the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is preserved and our model complies with the Adler-zero constraint for pi-pi-scattering imposed by chiral symmetry.

  16. Slavnov and Gaudin-Korepin Formulas for Models without U(1) Symmetry: the Twisted XXX Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliard, Samuel; Pimenta, Rodrigo A.

    2015-12-01

    We consider the XXX spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain on the circle with an arbitrary twist. We characterize its spectral problem using the modified algebraic Bethe anstaz and study the scalar product between the Bethe vector and its dual. We obtain modified Slavnov and Gaudin-Korepin formulas for the model. Thus we provide a first example of such formulas for quantum integrable models without U(1) symmetry characterized by an inhomogenous Baxter T-Q equation.

  17. Origin of family symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilles, Hans Peter

    2012-04-01

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  18. Origin of family symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  19. Stability and supersymmetry: Models with local gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtright, T.; Ghandour, G.

    1978-01-01

    Renormalization group analysis is used to show the supersymmetric point in the effective coupling constant space is an unstable fixed point for several model gauge theories. The physical significance of this result is discussed in terms of the stability of the semiclassical ground state. In perturbation theory the supersymmetric point appears to be surrounded by regions in the coupling space representing three classes of theories: class one consists of theories for which the effective potential V has no apparent lower bound for large (pseudo)scalar field expectations; class two theories have lower bounds and radiatively induced absolute minima for V with nonzero field expectations; class three theories apparently have an absolute minimum of V at the origin of field space. Thus radiatively induced breaking of gauge invariance occurs for theories in classes one and two, but perturbatively the class one theories appear to have no ground states. Class three theories have ground states in which all gauge invariance remains intact. For the supersymmetric limits of the models examined the origin is known to be neutrally stable in field space, permitting an ambiguous breakdown of gauge invariance but not supersymmetry. This phenomenon is discussed in some detail. Calculations are performed in both Lorentz covariant and noncovariant gauges with a detailed comparison between gauges of the relevant one-loop diagrams

  20. Absence of Replica Symmetry Breaking in the Transverse and Longitudinal Random Field Ising Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoi, C.

    2018-02-01

    It is proved that replica symmetry is not broken in the transverse and longitudinal random field Ising model. In this model, the variance of spin overlap of any component vanishes in any dimension almost everywhere in the coupling constant space in the infinite volume limit. The weak Fortuin-Kasteleyn-Ginibre property in this model and the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities in artificial models in a path integral representation based on the Lie-Trotter-Suzuki formula enable us to extend Chatterjee's proof for the random field Ising model to the quantum model.

  1. Verifying three-dimensional skull model reconstruction using cranial index of symmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon-Man Kung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Difficulty exists in scalp adaptation for cranioplasty with customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM implant in situations of excessive wound tension and sub-cranioplasty dead space. To solve this clinical problem, the CAD/CAM technique should include algorithms to reconstruct a depressed contour to cover the skull defect. Satisfactory CAM-derived alloplastic implants are based on highly accurate three-dimensional (3-D CAD modeling. Thus, it is quite important to establish a symmetrically regular CAD/CAM reconstruction prior to depressing the contour. The purpose of this study is to verify the aesthetic outcomes of CAD models with regular contours using cranial index of symmetry (CIS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2011 to June 2012, decompressive craniectomy (DC was performed for 15 consecutive patients in our institute. 3-D CAD models of skull defects were reconstructed using commercial software. These models were checked in terms of symmetry by CIS scores. RESULTS: CIS scores of CAD reconstructions were 99.24±0.004% (range 98.47-99.84. CIS scores of these CAD models were statistically significantly greater than 95%, identical to 99.5%, but lower than 99.6% (p<0.001, p = 0.064, p = 0.021 respectively, Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. These data evidenced the highly accurate symmetry of these CAD models with regular contours. CONCLUSIONS: CIS calculation is beneficial to assess aesthetic outcomes of CAD-reconstructed skulls in terms of cranial symmetry. This enables further accurate CAD models and CAM cranial implants with depressed contours, which are essential in patients with difficult scalp adaptation.

  2. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed

  3. More on cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Kamada, Kohei; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Ookouchi, Yutaka

    2013-10-01

    We study the spontaneous R-symmetry breaking model and investigate the cosmological constraints on this model due to the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, R-axion. We consider the R-axion which has relatively heavy mass in order to complement our previous work. In this regime, model parameters, R-axions mass and R-symmetry breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the gravitino produced from R-axion decay and thermal plasma. We find that the allowed parameter space is very small for high reheating temperature. For low reheating temperature, the U(1) R breaking scale f a is constrained as f a 12-14 GeV regardless of the value of R-axion mass.

  4. PT -symmetry breaking for the scattering problem in a one-dimensional non-Hermitian lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baogang; Lü, Rong; Chen, Shu

    2016-03-01

    We study the PT -symmetry breaking for the scattering problem in a one-dimensional non-Hermitian tight-binding lattice model with balanced gain and loss distributed on two adjacent sites. In the scattering process the system undergoes a transition from the exact PT -symmetric phase to the phase with spontaneously breaking PT symmetry as the amplitude of complex potentials increases. Using the S-matrix method, we derive an exact discriminant, which can be used to distinguish different symmetry phases, and determine the exceptional point for the symmetry breaking analytically. In the PT -symmetry-breaking region, we also confirm the appearance of the unique feature, i.e., the coherent perfect absorption laser, in this simple non-Hermitian lattice model. The study of the scattering problem of such a simple model provides an additional way to unveil the physical effect of non-Hermitian PT -symmetric potentials.

  5. On the particle-hole symmetry of the fermionic spinless Hubbard model in D=1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Thomaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the particle-hole symmetry of the one-dimensional (D=1 fermionic spinless Hubbard model, associating that symmetry to the invariance of the Helmholtz free energy of the one-dimensional spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg model, under reversal of the longitudinal magnetic field and at any finite temperature. Upon comparing two regimes of that chain model so that the number of particles in one regime equals the number of holes in the other, one finds that, in general, their thermodynamics is similar, but not identical: both models share the specific heat and entropy functions, but not the internal energy per site, the first-neighbor correlation functions, and the number of particles per site. Due to that symmetry, the difference between the first-neighbor correlation functions is proportional to the z-component of magnetization of the XXZ Heisenberg model. The results presented in this paper are valid for any value of the interaction strength parameter V, which describes the attractive/null/repulsive interaction of neighboring fermions.

  6. Flocking with discrete symmetry: The two-dimensional active Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, A P; Tailleur, J

    2015-10-01

    We study in detail the active Ising model, a stochastic lattice gas where collective motion emerges from the spontaneous breaking of a discrete symmetry. On a two-dimensional lattice, active particles undergo a diffusion biased in one of two possible directions (left and right) and align ferromagnetically their direction of motion, hence yielding a minimal flocking model with discrete rotational symmetry. We show that the transition to collective motion amounts in this model to a bona fide liquid-gas phase transition in the canonical ensemble. The phase diagram in the density-velocity parameter plane has a critical point at zero velocity which belongs to the Ising universality class. In the density-temperature "canonical" ensemble, the usual critical point of the equilibrium liquid-gas transition is sent to infinite density because the different symmetries between liquid and gas phases preclude a supercritical region. We build a continuum theory which reproduces qualitatively the behavior of the microscopic model. In particular, we predict analytically the shapes of the phase diagrams in the vicinity of the critical points, the binodal and spinodal densities at coexistence, and the speeds and shapes of the phase-separated profiles.

  7. Symmetry breaking and adaptation: evidence from a 'toy model' of a virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, J M; Stephens, C R; Waelbroeck, H; Zertuche, F

    1999-07-01

    We argue that an induced breaking of the genetic synonym symmetry due to the action of genetic operators such as mutation can enhance the adaptability of a species to changes in the environment. In the case of a virus, the claim is that the codon bias in the neutralization epitope improves the virus' ability to generate mutants that evade the induced immune response. We support our claim with a simple 'toy model' of a viral epitope evolving in competition with the immune system. The effective selective advantage of a higher mutability leads to a dominance of codons that favor non-synonymous mutations. As further evidence we present a simple model for a genetic regulatory network that leads to adaptive evolution in a population of giraffes by means of an induced symmetry breaking rather than through any direct selective advantage.

  8. Chiral symmetry restoration and quark deconfinement beyond mean field in a magnetized PNJL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shijun

    2018-01-01

    We study chiral symmetry restoration and quark deconfinement beyond the mean field approximation in a magnetized PNJL model. The feedback from mesons to quarks modifies the quark coupling constant and Polyakov potential. As a result, the separate critical temperatures for the two phase transitions at the mean field level coincide, and the magnetic catalysis becomes an inverse magnetic catalysis when the meson contribution is included.

  9. Topological Symmetry, Spin Liquids and CFT Duals of Polyakov Model with Massless Fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Mithat

    2008-04-30

    We prove the absence of a mass gap and confinement in the Polyakov model with massless complex fermions in any representation of the gauge group. A U(1){sub *} topological shift symmetry protects the masslessness of one dual photon. This symmetry emerges in the IR as a consequence of the Callias index theorem and abelian duality. For matter in the fundamental representation, the infrared limits of this class of theories interpolate between weakly and strongly coupled conformal field theory (CFT) depending on the number of flavors, and provide an infinite class of CFTs in d = 3 dimensions. The long distance physics of the model is same as certain stable spin liquids. Altering the topology of the adjoint Higgs field by turning it into a compact scalar does not change the long distance dynamics in perturbation theory, however, non-perturbative effects lead to a mass gap for the gauge fluctuations. This provides conceptual clarity to many subtle issues about compact QED{sub 3} discussed in the context of quantum magnets, spin liquids and phase fluctuation models in cuprate superconductors. These constructions also provide new insights into zero temperature gauge theory dynamics on R{sup 2,1} and R{sup 2,1} x S{sup 1}. The confined versus deconfined long distance dynamics is characterized by a discrete versus continuous topological symmetry.

  10. A model of spontaneous CP violation and neutrino phenomenology with approximate LμLτ symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikary, Biswajit

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a model where CP and Z 2 symmetry violate spontaneously. CP and Z 2 violate spontaneously through a singlet complex scalar S which obtains vacuum expectation value with phase S = Ve iα /2 and this is the only source of CP violation in this model. Low energy CP violation in the leptonic sector is connected to the large scale phase by three generations of left and right handed singlet fermions in the inverse see-saw like structure of model. We have considered approximate LμL τ symmetry to study neutrino phenomenology. Considering two mass square differences and three mixing angles including non zero θ 13 to their experimental 3σ limit, we have restricted the Lagrangian parameters for reasonably small value of L μ L τ symmetry breaking parameters. We have predicted the three masses, Dirac phase and two Majorana phases. We also evaluate CP violating parameter J CP , sum-mass and effective mass parameter involved in neutrino less double beta decay. (author)

  11. The photino sector and a confining potential in a supersymmetric Lorentz-symmetry-violating model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Bernald, L.D.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gaete, Patricio [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departmento de Fisica and Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-11-15

    We study the spectrum of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Carroll-Field-Jackiw model for Electrodynamics with a topological Chern-Simons-like Lorentz-symmetry violating term. We identify a number of independent background fermion condensates, work out the gaugino dispersion relation and propose a photonic effective action to consider aspects of confinement induced by the SUSY background fermion condensates, which also appear to signal Lorentz-symmetry violation in the photino sector of the action. Our calculations of the static potential are carried out within the framework of the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variables formalism which are alternative to the Wilson loop approach. Our results show that the interaction energy contains a linear term leading to the confinement of static probe charges. (orig.)

  12. On the SU(2)× SU(2) symmetry in the Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Dorota; Jakubczyk, Paweł

    2012-08-01

    We discuss the one-dimensional Hubbard model, on finite sites spin chain, in context of the action of the direct product of two unitary groups SU(2)× SU(2). The symmetry revealed by this group is applicable in the procedure of exact diagonalization of the Hubbard Hamiltonian. This result combined with the translational symmetry, given as the basis of wavelets of the appropriate Fourier transforms, provides, besides the energy, additional conserved quantities, which are presented in the case of a half-filled, four sites spin chain. Since we are dealing with four elementary excitations, two quasiparticles called "spinons", which carry spin, and two other called "holon" and "antyholon", which carry charge, the usual spin- SU(2) algebra for spinons and the so called pseudospin-SU(2) algebra for holons and antiholons, provide four additional quantum numbers.

  13. Conformal internal symmetry of 2d σ-models coupled to gravity and a dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia, B.

    1996-01-01

    General relativity reduced to two dimensions possesses a large group of symmetries that exchange classical solutions. The associated Lie algebra is known to contain the affine Kac-Moody algebra A 1 (1) and half of a real Witt algebra. In this paper we exhibit the full symmetry under the semi-direct product of Lie(A 1 (1) ) by the Witt algebra Lie(W). Furthermore we exhibit the corresponding hidden gauge symmetries. We show that the theory can be understood in terms of an infinite dimensional potential space involving all degrees of freedom: the dilaton as well as matter and gravitation. In the dilaton sector the linear system that extends the previously known Lax pair has the form of a twisted self-duality constraint that is the analog of the self-duality constraint arising in extended supergravities in higher space-time dimensions. Our results furnish a group theoretical explanation for the simultaneous occurrence of two spectral parameters, a constant one (=y) and a variable one (=t). They hold for all 2d non-linear σ-models that are obtained by dimensional reduction of G/H models in three dimensions coupled to pure gravity. (orig./WL) (orig.)

  14. Symplectic symmetry and the ab initio no-core shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draayer, J.P.; Dytrych, T.; Sviratcheva, K.D.; Bahri, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Vary, J.P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The symplectic symmetry of eigenstates for the O{sub gs}{sup +} in {sup 16}O and the O{sub gs}{sup +}s and lowest 2{sup +} and 4{sup +} configurations of {sup 12}C that are well-converged within the framework of the no-core shell model with the JISP16 realistic interaction is examined. These states are found to project at the 85-90% level onto very few symplectic representations including the most deformed configuration, which confirms the importance of a symplectic no-core shell model and reaffirms the relevance of the Elliott SU(3) model upon which the symplectic scheme is built. (Author)

  15. On spherical symmetry modelling of DNA packing within bacteriophage heads according to small angle scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dembo, A.T.; Tikhonychev, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    Spherical symmetry models were used for interpretation of X-ray small angle scattering curves of bacteriophage solutions. These models were built of concentric spherical layers of finite thickness with various scattering densities. The attention was attached to the ripple intensity of DNA packing maximum. In model calculations such parameters as external radius, scattering densities, number of DNA-imitating layers and internal radii were changed. The results show that the fine structure of DNA packing maximum depends on the overall shape and size of the region occupied by DNA inside the bacteriophage head. (author)

  16. Nonlinear symmetry realizations and the generalized CP sup(n-1) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    The genralized CP sup(n-1) model having U(p) as Gauge group in the two-dimension Euclidean space in the several existing formulations is presented. Such a model is described as a nonlinear symmetry realization which becames linear when restricted to a determined sub-groups treating therefore of fields which have values in the quocient space G/H. Classical instanton and meron solutions for this model are presented and the existence of a mechanism to generate a family of non auto-dual solutions with finite action, taking as starting point the instanton solutions, is demonstrated. (L.C.) [pt

  17. Structure of transition nuclei states in fermion dynamic-symmetry model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktybaev, K.; Kojlyk, N.O.; Romankulov, K.

    2007-01-01

    In the paper collective structures of osmium heavy isotopes nucleons are studied. Results of diagonalization of SO(6) symmetric Hamiltonian of fermion-dynamical symmetry-model are comparing with results of other phenomenological methods such as Bohr-Mottelson model and interacting bosons model. For heavy osmium isotopes not only collective excitations spectral bands but also for probability of E2-electromagnet transition are which are compared with existing experimental data. It is revealed, that complexity of state structure for examined nuclei is related with competition and interweaving of rotation and vibration states and also more complicated states of γ instable nature

  18. Radiative symmetry breaking from flat potential in various U(1)' models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Iso, Satoshi; Orikasa, Yuta

    2014-03-01

    We investigate a radiative electroweak gauge symmetry breaking scenario via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism starting from a completely flat Higgs potential at the Planck scale ("flatland scenario"). In our previous paper, we showed that the flatland scenario is possible only when an inequality K <1 among the coefficients of the β functions is satisfied. In this paper, we calculate the number K in various models with an extra U(1) gauge sector in addition to the standard model particles. We also show the renormalization group behaviors of a couple of the models as examples.

  19. Symplectic Symmetry and the Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draayer, Jerry P.; Dytrych, Tomas; Sviratcheva, Kristina D.; Bahri, Chairul; /Louisiana State U.; Vary, James P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC

    2007-03-14

    The symplectic symmetry of eigenstates for the 0{sub gs}{sup +} in {sup 16}O and the 0{sub gs}{sup +} and lowest 2{sup +} and 4{sup +} configurations of {sup 12}C that are well-converged within the framework of the no-core shell model with the JISP16 realistic interaction is examined. These states are found to project at the 85-90% level onto very few symplectic representations including the most deformed configuration, which confirms the importance of a symplectic no-core shell model and reaffirms the relevance of the Elliott SU(3) model upon which the symplectic scheme is built.

  20. Ordering dynamics of microscopic models with nonconserved order parameter of continuous symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Z.; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.

    1993-01-01

    from a disordered phase to an orientationally ordered phase of continuous symmetry. The Lebwohl-Lasher model accounts for the orientational ordering properties of the nematic-isotropic transition in liquid crystals and the Heisenberg model for the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition in magnetic...... crystals. For both models, which have a nonconserved order parameter, it is found that the linear scale, R(t), of the evolving order, following quenches to below the transition temperature, grows at late times in an effectively algebraic fashion, R(t)∼tn, with exponent values which are strongly temperature...

  1. Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The CKM Unitarity Triangle Workshop is meant to provide an opportunity for an intense and fruitful exchange of ideas between experimentalists and theorists to assess the present knowledge on fundamental parameters from the data of LEP and other colliders, to define an agenda of future measurements to further probe the model assumptions employed in the interpretation of the data and to indicate paths for the B physics programme at LHC.

  2. Applying the Triangle Method for the parameterization of irrigated areas as input for spatially distributed hydrological modeling - Assessing future drought risk in the Gaza Strip (Palestine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, David; Ludwig, Ralf; Qahman, Khalid; Afifi, Samir

    2016-02-01

    In the Mediterranean region, particularly in the Gaza strip, an increased risk of drought is among the major concerns related to climate change. The impacts of climate change on water availability, drought risk and food security can be assessed by means of hydro-climatological modeling. However, the region is prone to severe observation data scarcity, which limits the potential for robust model parameterization, calibration and validation. In this study, the physically based, spatially distributed hydrological model WaSiM is parameterized and evaluated using satellite imagery to assess hydrological quantities. The Triangle Method estimates actual evapotranspiration (ETR) through the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST) provided by Landsat TM imagery. So-derived spatially distributed evapotranspiration is then used in two ways: first a subset of the imagery is used to parameterize the irrigation module of WaSiM and second, withheld scenes are applied to evaluate the performance of the hydrological model in the data scarce study area. The results show acceptable overall correlation with the validation scenes (r=0.53) and an improvement over the usual irrigation parameterization scheme using land use information exclusively. This model setup is then applied for future drought risk assessment in the Gaza Strip using a small ensemble of four regional climate projections for the period 2041-2070. Hydrological modeling reveals an increased risk of drought, assessed with an evapotranspiration index, compared to the reference period 1971-2000. Current irrigation procedures cannot maintain the agricultural productivity under future conditions without adaptation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A predictive model for high-quality blastocyst based on blastomere number, fragmentation, and symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-He; Zhang, Ruo-Peng; Li, Juan; A, Zhou-Cun

    2018-03-03

    The aim of this study was to create a predictive model for high-quality blastocyst progression based on the traditional morphology parameters of embryos. A total of 1564 embryos from 234 women underwent conventional in vitro fertilization and were involved in the present study. High-quality blastocysts were defined as having a grade of at least 3BB, and all embryos were divided based on the development of high-quality blastocysts (group HQ) or the failure to develop high-quality blastocysts (group NHQ). A retrospective analysis of day-3 embryo parameters, focused on blastomere number, fragmentation, the presence of a vacuole, symmetry, and the presence of multinucleated blastomeres was conducted. All parameters were related to high-quality blastocysts (p quality blastocysts. Parameters are indicated by s_bn (blastomere number), s_f (fragmentation), s_pv (presence of a vacuole), s_s (symmetry), and s_MNB (multinucleated blastomeres). Subsequently, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore their relationship. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, a predictive model was constructed, and a parameter Hc was created based on the s_bn, s_f, and s_s parameters and their corresponding odds ratios. The value of Hc in group HQ was significantly higher than that in group NHQ. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to test the effectiveness of the model. An area under the curve of 0.790, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.766-0.813, was calculated. A dataset was used to validate the predictive utility of the model. Moreover, another dataset was used to ensure that the model can be applied to predict the implantation of day-3 embryos. A predictive model for high-quality blastocysts was created based on blastomere number, fragmentation, and symmetry. This model provides novel information on the selection of potential embryos.

  4. Perilaku Kecurangan Akademik Mahasiswa Akuntansi: Dimensi Fraud Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Fitriana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examine the dimensions of Fraud Triangle to explain this effect on the student’s cheating. This study uses a model of research The Academic Dishonesty Scale modifi cation. Sample in this study were 217 accounting students in Brawijaya University Malang. Data was collected through survey methods. This study have obtained empirical evidence that student’s cheating behaviorwas determined by the dimensions of the Fraud Triangle consists of incentive, opportunity and rationalization.

  5. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...... findings can find application in off-shore, seismic and other engi- neering practice, or inspire new branches of research and modelling wherever dynamic, cyclic or transient loaded sand is encountered....

  6. Symmetry breaking and physical properties of the bosonic single-impurity Anderson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnes, J. H.; Miranda, E.

    2012-10-01

    We show how exact diagonalization of small clusters can be used as a fast and reliable impurity solver by determining the phase diagram and physical properties of the bosonic single-impurity Anderson model. This is specially important for applications which require the solution of a large number of different single-impurity problems, such as the bosonic dynamical mean field theory of disordered systems. In particular, we investigate the connection between spontaneous global gauge symmetry breaking and the occurrence of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). We show how BEC is accurately signaled by the appearance of broken symmetry, even when a fairly modest number of states is retained. The occurrence of symmetry breaking can be detected both by adding a small conjugate field or, as in generic quantum critical points, by the divergence of the associated phase susceptibility. Our results show excellent agreement with the considerably more demanding numerical renormalization group (NRG) method. We also investigate the mean impurity occupancy and its fluctuations, identifying an asymmetry in their critical behavior across the quantum phase transitions between BEC and `Mott' phases.

  7. Dynamical recovery of SU(2) symmetry in the mass-quenched Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liang; Fiete, Gregory A.

    2018-02-01

    We use nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory with iterative perturbation theory as an impurity solver to study the recovery of SU(2) symmetry in real time following a hopping integral parameter quench from a mass-imbalanced to a mass-balanced single-band Hubbard model at half filling. A dynamical order parameter γ (t ) is defined to characterize the evolution of the system towards SU(2) symmetry. By comparing the momentum-dependent occupation from an equilibrium calculation [with the SU(2) symmetric Hamiltonian after the quench at an effective temperature] with the data from our nonequilibrium calculation, we conclude that the SU(2) symmetry recovered state is a thermalized state. Further evidence from the evolution of the density of states supports this conclusion. We find the order parameter in the weak Coulomb interaction regime undergoes an approximate exponential decay. We numerically investigate the interplay of the relevant parameters (initial temperature, Coulomb interaction strength, initial mass-imbalance ratio) and their combined effect on the thermalization behavior. Finally, we study evolution of the order parameter as the hopping parameter is changed with either a linear ramp or a pulse. Our results can be useful in strategies to engineer the relaxation behavior of interacting quantum many-particle systems.

  8. Note: Design and capability verification of fillet triangle flexible support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; San, Xiao-Gang; Gao, Shi-Jie; Wang, Jing; Ni, Ying-Xue; Sang, Zhi-Xin

    2017-12-01

    By increasing the section thickness of a triangular flexible hinge, this study focuses on optimal selection of parameters of fillet triangle flexible hinges and flexible support. Based on Castigliano's second theorem, the flexibility expression of the fillet triangle flexible hinge was derived. Then, the case design is performed, and the comparison of three types of flexible hinges with this type of flexible hinge was carried out. The finite element models of fillet triangle flexible hinges and flexible support were built, and then the simulation results of performance parameters were calculated. Finally, the experiment platform was established to validate analysis results. The maximum error is less than 8%, which verifies the accuracy of the simulation process and equations derived; also the fundamental frequency fits the requirements of the system. The fillet triangle flexible hinge is proved to have the advantages of high precision and low flexibility.

  9. Using Lie Symmetry Analysis to Solve a Problem That Models Mass Transfer from a Horizontal Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sinkala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use Lie symmetry analysis to solve a boundary value problem that arises in chemical engineering, namely, mass transfer during the contact of a solid slab with an overhead flowing fluid. This problem was earlier tackled using Adomian decomposition method (Fatoorehchi and Abolghasemi 2011, leading to the Adomian series form of solution. It turns out that the application of Lie group analysis yields an elegant form of the solution. After introducing the governing mathematical model and some preliminaries of Lie symmetry analysis, we compute the Lie point symmetries admitted by the governing equation and use these to construct the desired solution as an invariant solution.

  10. Relation between PT -symmetry breaking and topologically nontrivial phases in the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger and Kitaev models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Marcel; Cartarius, Holger; Dast, Dennis; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter

    2017-05-01

    Non-Hermitian systems with PT symmetry can possess purely real eigenvalue spectra. In this work two one-dimensional systems with two different topological phases, the topological nontrivial phase (TNP) and the topological trivial phase (TTP), combined with PT -symmetric non-Hermitian potentials are investigated. The models of choice are the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model and the Kitaev chain. The interplay of a spontaneous PT -symmetry breaking due to gain and loss with the topological phase is different for the two models. The SSH model undergoes a PT -symmetry breaking transition in the TNP immediately with the presence of a nonvanishing gain and loss strength γ , whereas the TTP exhibits a parameter regime in which a purely real eigenvalue spectrum exists. For the Kitaev chain the PT -symmetry breaking is independent of the topological phase. We show that the topologically interesting states—the edge states—are the reason for the different behaviors of the two models and that the intrinsic particle-hole symmetry of the edge states in the Kitaev chain is responsible for a conservation of PT symmetry in the TNP.

  11. Supersymmetric models for quarks and leptons with nonlinearly realized E8 symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    We propose three supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models with global symmetry E 8 . The models can accommodate three left-handed families of quarks and leptons without incurring the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly with respect to either the standard SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) gauge group, or the SU(5), or SO(10) grand unifying gauge group. They also predict unambiguously a right-handed, fourth family of quarks and leptons. In order to explore the structure of the models, we develop a differential-form formulation of the Kahler manifolds, resulting in general expressions for the curvature tensors and other geometrical objects in terms of the structure constants of the algebra, and the squashing parameters. These results, in turn, facilitate a general method for determining the Lagrangian to quartic order, and so the structure of the inherent four-fermion interactions of the models. We observe that the Kahlerian condition dω = 0 on the fundamental two-form ω greatly reduces the number of the independent squashing parameters. We also point out two plausible mechanisms for symmetry breaking, involving gravity

  12. Statistical symmetry restoration in fully developed turbulence: Renormalization group analysis of two models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, N. V.; Gulitskiy, N. M.; Kostenko, M. M.; Malyshev, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we consider the model of incompressible fluid described by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation with finite correlation time of a random force. Inertial-range asymptotic behavior of fully developed turbulence is studied by means of the field theoretic renormalization group within the one-loop approximation. It is corroborated that regardless of the values of model parameters and initial data the inertial-range behavior of the model is described by the limiting case of vanishing correlation time. This indicates that the Galilean symmetry of the model violated by the "colored" random force is restored in the inertial range. This regime corresponds to the only nontrivial fixed point of the renormalization group equation. The stability of this point depends on the relation between the exponents in the energy spectrum E ∝k1 -y and the dispersion law ω ∝k2 -η . The second analyzed problem is the passive advection of a scalar field by this velocity ensemble. Correlation functions of the scalar field exhibit anomalous scaling behavior in the inertial-convective range. We demonstrate that in accordance with Kolmogorov's hypothesis of the local symmetry restoration the main contribution to the operator product expansion is given by the isotropic operator, while anisotropic terms should be considered only as corrections.

  13. Discriminative phenomenological features of scale invariant models for electroweak symmetry breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Hashino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical scale invariance (CSI may be one of the solutions for the hierarchy problem. Realistic models for electroweak symmetry breaking based on CSI require extended scalar sectors without mass terms, and the electroweak symmetry is broken dynamically at the quantum level by the Coleman–Weinberg mechanism. We discuss discriminative features of these models. First, using the experimental value of the mass of the discovered Higgs boson h(125, we obtain an upper bound on the mass of the lightest additional scalar boson (≃543 GeV, which does not depend on its isospin and hypercharge. Second, a discriminative prediction on the Higgs-photon–photon coupling is given as a function of the number of charged scalar bosons, by which we can narrow down possible models using current and future data for the di-photon decay of h(125. Finally, for the triple Higgs boson coupling a large deviation (∼+70% from the SM prediction is universally predicted, which is independent of masses, quantum numbers and even the number of additional scalars. These models based on CSI can be well tested at LHC Run II and at future lepton colliders.

  14. Symmetries and Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    2016-03-01

    In this talk, I will describe global and gauge symmetries and the interplay between them. The meaning of global symmetries is clear: they act on physical observables. Gauge symmetries are more elusive as they typically do not act on physical observables. Gauge symmetries are redundancies in the mathematical description of a physical system rather than properties of the system itself. The existence of nonperturbative dualities makes it clear that this distinction is unavoidable. Yet in our best understanding the gauge symmetries are deeper. The lepton number symmetries that are probed by the wonderful experimental results that will be reported in this session give an excellent illustration. They are regarded in the Standard Model as indirect consequences of gauge symmetries and they are expected to be only approximate. This expectation is supported by the observation of neutrino oscillations.

  15. Dynamical symmetry breaking in the Jackiw-Johnson model and the gauge technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The Jackiw-Johnson model of dynamical gauge symmetry breaking has been re-examined in the light of the gauge technique. In the limit where the ratio of the axial to vector coupling constants becomes small, or, consistently, in the limit where the ratio of the axial-vector-boson mass to the fermion mass becomes small, an approximate solution for the fermion spectral function has been derived. This gives an extremely small ratio of the axial-vector-boson mass to the fermion mass. (author)

  16. Fermion condensates and weak symmetry breaking in a superstring-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, S.; Misra, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    We start with the gauge group SU(3)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1)/sub R/ x U(1)/sub N/ (equivalentG 3211 ), which is a rank-five subgroup of E 6 . We include chiral-fermion-condensate terms in the effective four-dimensional Lagrangian derived from superstrings and discuss how this condensation can be responsible for weak symmetry breaking at a scale of 100 GeV. One experimental effect of the above will be the nonobservation of light Higgs scalars of the Salam-Weinberg model, although the other results of the same remain unchanged

  17. Entanglement Properties of a Higher-Integer-Spin AKLT Model with Quantum Group Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikashi Arita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the entanglement properties of a higher-integer-spin Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model with quantum group symmetry in the periodic boundary condition. We exactly calculate the finite size correction terms of the entanglement entropies from the double scaling limit. We also evaluate the geometric entanglement, which serves as another measure for entanglement. We find the geometric entanglement reaches its maximum at the isotropic point, and decreases with the increase of the anisotropy. This behavior is similar to that of the entanglement entropies.

  18. Complex Langevin analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in dimensionally reduced super Yang-Mills models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos N.; Azuma, Takehiro; Ito, Yuta; Nishimura, Jun; Papadoudis, Stratos Kovalkov

    2018-02-01

    In recent years the complex Langevin method (CLM) has proven a powerful method in studying statistical systems which suffer from the sign problem. Here we show that it can also be applied to an important problem concerning why we live in four-dimensional spacetime. Our target system is the type IIB matrix model, which is conjectured to be a nonperturbative definition of type IIB superstring theory in ten dimensions. The fermion determinant of the model becomes complex upon Euclideanization, which causes a severe sign problem in its Monte Carlo studies. It is speculated that the phase of the fermion determinant actually induces the spontaneous breaking of the SO(10) rotational symmetry, which has direct consequences on the aforementioned question. In this paper, we apply the CLM to the 6D version of the type IIB matrix model and show clear evidence that the SO(6) symmetry is broken down to SO(3). Our results are consistent with those obtained previously by the Gaussian expansion method.

  19. Evidence for Symplectic Symmetry in Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Results for Light Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytrych, Tomas; Sviratcheva, Kristina D.; Bahri, Chairul; Draayer, Jerry P.; /Louisiana State U.; Vary, James P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC

    2007-04-24

    Clear evidence for symplectic symmetry in low-lying states of {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O is reported. Eigenstates of {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O, determined within the framework of the no-core shell model using the JISP16 NN realistic interaction, typically project at the 85-90% level onto a few of the most deformed symplectic basis states that span only a small fraction of the full model space. The results are nearly independent of whether the bare or renormalized effective interactions are used in the analysis. The outcome confirms Elliott's SU(3) model which underpins the symplectic scheme, and above all, points to the relevance of a symplectic no-core shell model that can reproduce experimental B(E2) values without effective charges as well as deformed spatial modes associated with clustering phenomena in nuclei.

  20. Mixed Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking in Models with Anomalous U(1) Gauge Symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kiwoon

    2010-01-01

    There can be various built-in sources of supersymmetry breaking in models with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry, e.g. the U(1) D-term, the F-components of the modulus superfield required for the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism and the chiral matter superfields required to cancel the Fayet-Iliopoulos term, and finally the supergravity auxiliary component which can be parameterized by the F-component of chiral compensator. The relative strength between these supersymmetry breaking sources depends crucially on the characteristics of D-flat direction and also on how the D-flat direction is stabilized at a vacuum with nearly vanishing cosmological constant. We examine the possible pattern of the mediation of supersymmetry breaking in models with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry, and find that various different mixed mediation scenarios can be realized, including the mirage mediation which corresponds to a mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, D-term domination giving a split sparticle spectrum, and also a mixed gauge-D-term mediation scenario.

  1. Integrable lax hierarchies, their symmetry reductions and multi-matrix models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratyn, H. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]. E-mail: aratyn@uic.edu

    1996-07-01

    Some new developments in constrained Lax integrable systems and their applications to physics are reviewed. After summarizing the tau function construction of the K P hierarchy and the basic concepts of the symmetry of nonlinear equations, more recent ideas dealing with constrained K P models are described. A unifying approach to constrained K P hierarchy based on graded S L(r+n,n) algebra is presented and equivalence formulas are obtained for various pseudo-differential Lax operators appearing in this context. It is then shown how the Toda lattice structure emerges from constrained K P models via canonical Darboux-Baecklund transformations. These transformations enable to find simple Wronskian solutions for the underlying tau-functions. We also establish a relation between two-matrix models and constrained Toda lattice systems and derive from this relation expressions for the corresponding partition function. (author)

  2. Enhancement of neutral tc transitions in the model of dynamical breaking of electroweak symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.; Osipov, M.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of possible deviations from the standard model is considered in the framework of a variant of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. It comes clear, that the parameters of the theory, being obtained earlier and describing deviations from standard model in Z → b-barb decay, are also consistent with the existence of a nontrivial solution for vertex t-bar (Z, γ)c. The occurrence of this solution leads to a significant enhancement in neutral flavor changing transition t → c. The intensity of this transition is connected with the c-quark mass, that leads to estimates of probabilities of exotic decays t → c(Z, γ) and of the cross section of a single t-quark production in process e + e - → tc-bar, which threshold is already overcome at LEP2. The model is shown to be consistent with the totality of the existing data, the predictions allow its unambiguous check [ru

  3. Multigrid for refined triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-02-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of (locally) refined finite element schemes using triangle meshes is introduced. In the isotropic SPD case, it is shown that the condition number of the preconditioned stiffness matrix is bounded uniformly for all sufficiently regular triangulations. This is also verified numerically for an isotropic diffusion problem with highly discontinuous coefficients.

  4. Quantum phase transition in the U(4) vibron model and the E(3) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Hou Zhanfeng; Chen Huan; Wei Haiqing; Liu Yuxin

    2008-01-01

    We study the details of the U(3)-O(4) quantum phase transition in the U(4) vibron model. Both asymptotic analysis in the classical limit and rigorous calculations for finite boson number systems indicate that a second-order phase transition is still there even for the systems with boson number N ranging from tens to hundreds. Two kinds of effective order parameters, including E1 transition ratios B(E1:2 1 →1 1 )/B(E1:1 1 →0 1 ) and B(E1:0 2 →1 1 )/B(E1:1 1 →0 1 ), and the energy ratios E 2 1 /E 0 2 and E 3 1 /E 0 2 are proposed to identify the second-order phase transition in experiments. We also found that the critical point of phase transition can be approximately described by the E(3) symmetry, which persists even for moderate N∼10 protected by the scaling behaviors of quantities at the critical point. In addition, a possible empirical example exhibiting roughly the E(3) symmetry is discussed

  5. Hidden symmetry in asymmetric morphology: significance of Hjortsjo's anatomical model in liver surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindoh, Junichi; Satou, Shoichi; Aoki, Taku; Beck, Yoshifumi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have recently reappraised the liver classification proposed by Hjortsjo in the 1940's and reported it as a surgically relevant theory. However, its clinical relevance and significance in liver surgery have not yet been well documented. Three-dimensional (3D) simulations of the livers of 100 healthy donors for living donor liver transplantation were reviewed. The adequacy of Hjortsjo's model was evaluated using 3D simulations and its clinical relevance was demonstrated in donor surgery. Both portal and hepatic venous branches exhibited symmetrical configuration on either side of the Rex-Cantlie line on the 3D images. In terms of the symmetry, the right paramedian sector seemed to be subdivided into two longitudinal parts, namely the "ventral" and "dorsal" parts. Volume analysis revealed that these longitudinal parts occupied relatively large areas of the liver (the ventral part, 15.7% and the dorsal part, 20.9% of the whole livers, respectively). Postoperative CT imaging confirmed marked congestion and/or impaired regeneration of these areas due to deprivation of the middle or right hepatic veins. Considering the symmetry of intrahepatic vascular distributions and clinical relevance, Hjortsjo's classification offers important viewpoint for surgeons to handle the liver based on both the portal and venous distributions.

  6. Horizontal, anomalous U(1) symmetry for the more minimal supersymmetric standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.E.; Wright, D.

    1997-01-01

    We construct explicit examples with a horizontal, open-quotes anomalousclose quotes U(1) gauge group, which, in a supersymmetric extension of the standard model, reproduce qualitative features of the fermion spectrum and CKM matrix, and suppress FCNC and proton decay rates without the imposition of global symmetries. We review the motivation for such open-quotes moreclose quotes minimal supersymmetric standard models and their predictions for the sparticle spectrum. There is a mass hierarchy in the scalar sector which is the inverse of the fermion mass hierarchy. We show in detail why ΔS=2 FCNCs are greatly suppressed when compared with naive estimates for nondegenerate squarks. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. A symmetry-breaking phase transition in a dynamical decision model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Gaultier; Chevereau, Guillaume; Bertin, Eric

    2011-01-01

    We consider a simple decision model in which a set of agents randomly choose one of two competing shops selling the same perishable products (typically food). The satisfaction of agents with respect to a given store is related to the freshness of the previously bought products. Agents select with a higher probability the store that they are most satisfied with. Studying the model from a statistical physics perspective, both through numerical simulations and mean-field analytical methods, we find a rich behaviour with continuous and discontinuous phase transitions between a symmetric phase where both stores maintain the same level of activity, and a phase with broken symmetry where one of the two shops attracts more customers than the other

  8. A symmetry-breaking phase transition in a dynamical decision model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Gaultier; Chevereau, Guillaume; Bertin, Eric

    2011-06-01

    We consider a simple decision model in which a set of agents randomly choose one of two competing shops selling the same perishable products (typically food). The satisfaction of agents with respect to a given store is related to the freshness of the previously bought products. Agents select with a higher probability the store that they are most satisfied with. Studying the model from a statistical physics perspective, both through numerical simulations and mean-field analytical methods, we find a rich behaviour with continuous and discontinuous phase transitions between a symmetric phase where both stores maintain the same level of activity, and a phase with broken symmetry where one of the two shops attracts more customers than the other.

  9. Modeling finite-volume effects and chiral symmetry breaking in two-flavor QCD thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Bertram

    2017-11-01

    Finite-volume effects in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) have been a subject of much theoretical interest for more than two decades. They are in particular important for the analysis and interpretation of QCD simulations on a finite, discrete space-time lattice. Most of these effects are closely related to the phenomenon of spontaneous breaking of the chiral flavor symmetry and the emergence of pions as light Goldstone bosons. These long-range fluctuations are strongly affected by putting the system into a finite box, and an analysis with different methods can be organized according to the interplay between pion mass and box size. The finite volume also affects critical behavior at the chiral phase transition in QCD. In the present review, I will be mainly concerned with modeling such finite volume effects as they affect the thermodynamics of the chiral phase transition for two quark flavors. I review recent work on the analysis of finite-volume effects which makes use of the quark-meson model for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. To account for the effects of critical long-range fluctuations close to the phase transition, most of the calculations have been performed using non-perturbative Renormalization Group (RG) methods. I give an overview over the application of these methods to a finite volume. The method, the model and the results are put into the context of related work in random matrix theory for very small volumes, chiral perturbation theory for larger volumes, and related methods and approaches. They are applied towards the analysis of finite-volume effects in lattice QCD simulations and their interpretation, mainly in the context of the chiral phase transition for two quark flavors.

  10. Inference in Graphical Gaussian Models with Edge and Vertex Symmetries with the gRc Package for R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsgaard, Søren; Lauritzen, Steffen L

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the R package gRc for statistical inference in graphical Gaussian models in which symmetry restrictions have been imposed on the concentration or partial correlation matrix. The models are represented by coloured graphs where parameters associated with edges or vertices...

  11. Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics Prize Lecture: Correlation Functions in Integrable Models II: The Role of Quantum Affine Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimbo, Michio

    2013-03-01

    Since the beginning of 1980s, hidden infinite dimensional symmetries have emerged as the origin of integrability: first in soliton theory and then in conformal field theory. Quest for symmetries in quantum integrable models has led to the discovery of quantum groups. On one hand this opened up rapid mathematical developments in representation theory, combinatorics and other fields. On the other hand it has advanced understanding of correlation functions of lattice models, leading to multiple integral formulas in integrable spin chains. We shall review these developments which continue up to the present time.

  12. Loop models on random maps via nested loops: the case of domain symmetry breaking and application to the Potts model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borot, G.; Bouttier, J.; Guitter, E.

    2012-12-01

    We use the nested loop approach to investigate loop models on random planar maps where the domains delimited by the loops are given two alternating colors, which can be assigned different local weights, hence allowing for an explicit Z2 domain symmetry breaking. Each loop receives a non-local weight n, as well as a local bending energy which controls loop turns. By a standard cluster construction that we review, the Q = n2 Potts model on general random maps is mapped to a particular instance of this problem with domain-non-symmetric weights. We derive in full generality a set of coupled functional relations for a pair of generating series which encode the enumeration of loop configurations on maps with a boundary of a given color, and solve it by extending well-known complex analytic techniques. In the case where loops are fully packed, we analyze in detail the phase diagram of the model and derive exact equations for the position of its non-generic critical points. In particular, we underline that the critical Potts model on general random maps is not self-dual whenever Q ≠ 1. In a model with domain-symmetric weights, we also show the possibility of a spontaneous domain symmetry breaking driven by the bending energy. This article is part of ‘Lattice models and integrability’, a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of F Y Wu's 80th birthday.

  13. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  14. Absence of the fifth force problem in a model with spontaneously broken dilatation symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, E.I.; Kaganovich, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    A scale invariant model containing dilaton φ and dust (as a model of matter) is studied where the shift symmetry φ → φ + const. is spontaneously broken at the classical level due to intrinsic features of the model. The dilaton to matter coupling 'constant'f appears to be dependent of the matter density. In normal conditions, i.e. when the matter energy density is many orders of magnitude larger than the dilaton contribution to the dark energy density, f becomes less than the ratio of the 'mass of the vacuum' in the volume occupied by the matter to the Planck mass. The model yields this kind of 'Archimedes law' without any especial (intended for this) choice of the underlying action and without fine tuning of the parameters. The model not only explains why all attempts to discover a scalar force correction to Newtonian gravity were unsuccessful so far but also predicts that in the near future there is no chance to detect such corrections in the astronomical measurements as well as in the specially designed fifth force experiments on intermediate, short (like millimeter) and even ultrashort (a few nanometer) ranges. This prediction is alternative to predictions of other known models

  15. Charged fluids with symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metric tensor field and generate constants of the motion along null geodesics for massless particles. Conformal symmetries arise in various physical applications. The existence of conformal symmetries in relativistic cosmological models, with restrictions on the matter content and fluid four-velocity, have been extensively ...

  16. Rapid Separation of Disconnected Triangle Meshes Based on Graph Traversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, S J; Wang, Y

    2006-01-01

    In recent year, The STL file become a de facto standard on the file presentation in CAD/CAM, computer graph and reverse engineering. When point cloud which is obtained by scanning object body using optical instrument is used to reconstruct an original model, the points cloud is presented by the STL file. Usually, datum of several separated and relative objects are stored in a single STL file, when such a file is operated by a computer, the datum in the file is firstly separated and then each element of every triangle pitch on the triangle mesh is traversed and visited and is calculated. The problem is analyzed and studied by many experts, but there is still a lack of a simple and quick algorithm. An algorithm which uses graph traversal to traverse each element of the triangle meshes and separate several disconnected triangle meshes is presented by the paper, the searching and calculating speed of the data on the triangle meshes is enhanced, memory size of the computer is reduced, complexity of the data structure is simplified and powerful guarantee is made for the next process by using this algorithm

  17. Twisted Spectral Triple for the Standard Model and Spontaneous Breaking of the Grand Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devastato, Agostino, E-mail: agostino.devastato@na.infn.it; Martinetti, Pierre, E-mail: martinetti@dima.unige.it [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Grand symmetry models in noncommutative geometry, characterized by a non-trivial action of functions on spinors, have been introduced to generate minimally (i.e. without adding new fermions) and in agreement with the first order condition an extra scalar field beyond the standard model, which both stabilizes the electroweak vacuum and makes the computation of the mass of the Higgs compatible with its experimental value. In this paper, we use a twist in the sense of Connes-Moscovici to cure a technical problem due to the non-trivial action on spinors, that is the appearance together with the extra scalar field of unbounded vectorial terms. The twist makes these terms bounded and - thanks to a twisted version of the first-order condition that we introduce here - also permits to understand the breaking to the standard model as a dynamical process induced by the spectral action, as conjectured in [24]. This is a spontaneous breaking from a pre-geometric Pati-Salam model to the almost-commutativegeometryofthestandardmodel,withtwoHiggs-likefields: scalar and vector.

  18. Neutrinophilic two Higgs doublet model with dark matter under an alternative U(1)_{B-L} gauge symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    We propose a Dirac type active neutrino with rank two mass matrix and a Majorana fermion dark matter candidate with an alternative local U(1)_{B-L} extension of neutrinophilic two Higgs doublet model. Our dark matter candidate can be stabilized due to charge assignment under the gauge symmetry without imposing extra discrete Z_2 symmetry and the relic density is obtained from an Z' boson exchanging process. Taking into account collider constraints on the Z' boson mass and coupling, we estimate the relic density.

  19. Symmetries for Light-Front Quantization of Yukawa Model with Renormalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żochowski, Jan; Przeszowski, Jerzy A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we discuss the Yukawa model with the extra term of self-interacting scalar field in D=1+3 dimensions. We present the method of derivation the light-front commutators and anti-commutators from the Heisenberg equations induced by the kinematical generating operator of the translation P+. Mentioned Heisenberg equations are the starting point for obtaining this algebra of the (anti-) commutators. Some discrepancies between existing and proposed method of quantization are revealed. The Lorentz and the CPT symmetry, together with some features of the quantum theory were applied to obtain the two-point Wightman function for the free fermions. Moreover, these Wightman functions were computed especially without referring to the Fock expansion. The Gaussian effective potential for the Yukawa model was found in the terms of the Wightman functions. It was regularized by the space-like point-splitting method. The coupling constants within the model were redefined. The optimum mass parameters remained regularization independent. Finally, the Gaussian effective potential was renormalized.

  20. Affine q-deformed symmetry and the classical Yang-Baxter σ-model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delduc, F.; Kameyama, T.; Magro, M. [Université de Lyon, ENS de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique,F-69342 Lyon (France); Vicedo, B. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire,College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-23

    The Yang-Baxter σ-model is an integrable deformation of the principal chiral model on a Lie group G. The deformation breaks the G×G symmetry to U(1){sup rank(G)}×G. It is known that there exist non-local conserved charges which, together with the unbroken U(1){sup rank(G)} local charges, form a Poisson algebra U{sub q}(g), which is the semiclassical limit of the quantum group U{sub q}(g), with g the Lie algebra of G. For a general Lie group G with rank(G)>1, we extend the previous result by constructing local and non-local conserved charges satisfying all the defining relations of the infinite-dimensional Poisson algebra U{sub q}(Lg), the classical analogue of the quantum loop algebra U{sub q}(Lg), where Lg is the loop algebra of g. Quite unexpectedly, these defining relations are proved without encountering any ambiguity related to the non-ultralocality of this integrable σ-model.

  1. Exact Solutions of an Extended Bose-Hubbard Model with E 2 Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Zhang, Ningyun; Wang, Qianyun; Draayer, J. P.

    2015-07-01

    An extended Bose-Hubbard (BH) model with number-dependent multi-site and infinite-range hopping is proposed, which, similar to the original BH model, describes a phase transition between the delocalized superfluid (SF) phase and localized Mott insulator (MI) phase. It is shown that this extended model with local Euclidean E 2 symmetry is exactly solvable when on-site local potentials are included, while the model without local potentials is quasi-exactly solvable, which means only a part of the excited states including the ground state being exactly solvable. As applications of the exact solution for the ground state, phase diagram of the model in 1D without local potential and on-site disorder for filling factor ρ = 1 with M = 6, M = 10, and M = 14 sites are obtained. The ground state probabilities to detect n particles on a single site, P n , for n = 0, 1, 2 as functions of the control parameter U/ t in these cases are also calculated. It is shown that the critical point in P n and in the entanglement measure is away from that of the SF-MI transition determined in the phase analysis. It is also shown that the model-independent entanglement measure is related with P n , which, therefore, may be practically useful because P n is measurable experimentally. The ground state expectation value of local particle numbers, the ground state local particle number fluctuations, the ground state probabilities to detect n particles on every site, and the entanglement measure have also been studied in the model for N = M = 4 with the two-body onsite repulsion and a local confining harmonic potential. The connection between these quantities and the entanglement observed previously is verified.

  2. Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Model of tooth morphogenesis predicts carabelli cusp expression, size, and symmetry in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Hunter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The patterning cascade model of tooth morphogenesis accounts for shape development through the interaction of a small number of genes. In the model, gene expression both directs development and is controlled by the shape of developing teeth. Enamel knots (zones of nonproliferating epithelium mark the future sites of cusps. In order to form, a new enamel knot must escape the inhibitory fields surrounding other enamel knots before crown components become spatially fixed as morphogenesis ceases. Because cusp location on a fully formed tooth reflects enamel knot placement and tooth size is limited by the cessation of morphogenesis, the model predicts that cusp expression varies with intercusp spacing relative to tooth size. Although previous studies in humans have supported the model's implications, here we directly test the model's predictions for the expression, size, and symmetry of Carabelli cusp, a variation present in many human populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a dental cast sample of upper first molars (M1s (187 rights, 189 lefts, and 185 antimeric pairs, we measured tooth area and intercusp distances with a Hirox digital microscope. We assessed Carabelli expression quantitatively as an area in a subsample and qualitatively using two typological schemes in the full sample. As predicted, low relative intercusp distance is associated with Carabelli expression in both right and left samples using either qualitative or quantitative measures. Furthermore, asymmetry in Carabelli area is associated with asymmetry in relative intercusp spacing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the model's predictions for Carabelli cusp expression both across and within individuals. By comparing right-left pairs of the same individual, our data show that small variations in developmental timing or spacing of enamel knots can influence cusp pattern independently of genotype. Our findings suggest that during evolution new cusps

  4. Model of Tooth Morphogenesis Predicts Carabelli Cusp Expression, Size, and Symmetry in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, John P.; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Weston, Theresia C.; Durner, Ryan; Betsinger, Tracy K.

    2010-01-01

    Background The patterning cascade model of tooth morphogenesis accounts for shape development through the interaction of a small number of genes. In the model, gene expression both directs development and is controlled by the shape of developing teeth. Enamel knots (zones of nonproliferating epithelium) mark the future sites of cusps. In order to form, a new enamel knot must escape the inhibitory fields surrounding other enamel knots before crown components become spatially fixed as morphogenesis ceases. Because cusp location on a fully formed tooth reflects enamel knot placement and tooth size is limited by the cessation of morphogenesis, the model predicts that cusp expression varies with intercusp spacing relative to tooth size. Although previous studies in humans have supported the model's implications, here we directly test the model's predictions for the expression, size, and symmetry of Carabelli cusp, a variation present in many human populations. Methodology/Principal Findings In a dental cast sample of upper first molars (M1s) (187 rights, 189 lefts, and 185 antimeric pairs), we measured tooth area and intercusp distances with a Hirox digital microscope. We assessed Carabelli expression quantitatively as an area in a subsample and qualitatively using two typological schemes in the full sample. As predicted, low relative intercusp distance is associated with Carabelli expression in both right and left samples using either qualitative or quantitative measures. Furthermore, asymmetry in Carabelli area is associated with asymmetry in relative intercusp spacing. Conclusions/Significance These findings support the model's predictions for Carabelli cusp expression both across and within individuals. By comparing right-left pairs of the same individual, our data show that small variations in developmental timing or spacing of enamel knots can influence cusp pattern independently of genotype. Our findings suggest that during evolution new cusps may first appear as

  5. Enjoyment of Euclidean planar triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-09-01

    This article adopts the following classification for a Euclidean planar ?, purely based on angles alone. A Euclidean planar triangle is said to be acute angled if all the three angles of the Euclidean planar ? are acute angles. It is said to be right angled at a specific vertex, say B, if the angle ? is a right angle with the two remaining angles as acute angles. It is said to be obtuse angled at the vertex B if ? is an obtuse angle, with the two remaining angles as acute angles. In spite of the availability of numerous text books that contain our human knowledge of Euclidean plane geometry, softwares can offer newer insights about the characterizations of planar geometrical objects. The author's characterizations of triangles involve points like the centroid G, the orthocentre H of the ?, the circumcentre S of the ?, the centre N of the nine-point circle of the ?. Also the radical centre rc of three involved diameter circles of the sides BC, AC and AB of the ? provides a reformulation of the orthocentre, resulting in an interesting theorem, dubbed by the author as 'Three Circles Theorem'. This provides a special result for a right-angled ?, again dubbed by the author as 'The Four Circles Theorem'. Apart from providing various inter connections between the geometrical points, the relationships between shapes of the triangle and the behaviour of the points are reasonably explored in this article. Most of these results will be useful to students that take courses in Euclidean Geometry at the college level and the high school level. This article will be useful to teachers in mathematics at the high school level and the college level.

  6. Z → bb-bar probability and asymmetry in a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.; Osipov, M.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    The deviations from the standard model in the probability of Z → bb-bar decay and in the forward-backward asymmetry in the reaction e + e - → bb-bar are studied in the framework of the model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking, the basic point of which is the existence of a triple anomalous W-boson vertex in a region of momenta restricted by a cutoff. A set of equations for additional terms in the W b t-bar vertex is obtained and its solution to the process Z → bb-bar is applied. It is shown that it is possible to obtain a consistent description of both deviations, which is quite nontrivial because these effects are not simply correlated. The necessary value of the anomalous W interaction coupling, λ = -0.22 ± 0.01, is consistent with existing limitations and leads to definite predictions, e.g., for pair W production in e + e - collisions at LEP 200

  7. Searching for dark matter signals in the left-right symmetric gauge model with CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanlei; Wu Yueliang; Zhou Yufeng

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the singlet scalar dark matter (DM) candidate in a left-right symmetric gauge model with two Higgs bidoublets in which the stabilization of the DM particle is induced by the discrete symmetries P and CP. According to the observed DM abundance, we predict the DM direct and indirect detection cross sections for the DM mass range from 10 to 500 GeV. We show that the DM indirect detection cross section is not sensitive to the light Higgs mixing and Yukawa couplings except for the resonance regions. The predicted spin-independent DM-nucleon elastic scattering cross section is found to be significantly dependent on the above two factors. Our results show that the future DM direct search experiments can cover the most parts of the allowed parameter space. The PAMELA antiproton data can only exclude two very narrow regions in the two Higgs bidoublets model. It is very difficult to detect the DM direct or indirect signals in the resonance regions due to the Breit-Wigner resonance effect.

  8. Modeling film uniformity and symmetry in ionized metal physical vapor deposition with cylindrical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junqing; Yang Lin; Yoon, Jae Hong; Cho, Tong Yul; Tao Guoqing

    2008-01-01

    Severe asymmetry of the metal deposits on the trench sidewalls occurs near the wafer edge during low pressure ionized metal physical vapor deposition of Cu seed layer for microprocessor interconnects. To investigate this process and mitigate the asymmetry, an analytical view factor model based on the analogy between metal sputtering and diffuse thermal radiation was constructed to investigate deposition uniformity and symmetry for cylindrical target sputtering in low pressure (below 0.1 Pa) ionized Cu physical vapor deposition. The model predictions indicate that as the distance from the cylindrical target to wafer increases, the metal film thickness becomes more uniform across the wafer and the asymmetry of the metal deposits at the wafer edge increases significantly. These trends are similar to those for planar targets. To minimize the asymmetry, the height of the cylindrical target should be kept at a minimum. For cylindrical targets, the outward-facing sidewall of the trench could receive more direct Cu fluxes than the inward-facing one when the target to wafer distance is short. The predictions also indicate that increasing the diameter of the cylindrical target could significantly reduce the asymmetry in metal deposits at the wafer edge and make the film thickness more uniform across the wafer

  9. Group analysis and renormgroup symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V.F.; Pustovalov, V.V.; Shirkov, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    An original regular approach to constructing special type symmetries for boundary-value problems, namely renormgroup symmetries, is presented. Different methods of calculating these symmetries based on modern group analysis are described. An application of the approach to boundary value problems is demonstrated with the help of a simple mathematical model. 35 refs

  10. Broken symmetries in field theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Mark Okker de

    2008-01-01

    The thesis discusses the role of symmetries in Quantum Field Theory. Quantum Field Theory is the mathematical framework to describe the physics of elementary particles. A symmetry here means a transformation under which the model at hand is invariant. Three types of symmetry are distinguished: 1.

  11. Partial symmetries in nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1996-01-01

    The notions of exact, dynamical and partial symmetries are discussed in relation to nuclear spectroscopy. Explicit forms of Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry are presented in the framework of the interacting boson model of nuclei. An analysis of the resulting spectrum and electromagnetic transitions demonstrates the relevance of such partial symmetry to the spectroscopy of axially deformed nuclei. (Author)

  12. Interactions between constituent single symmetries in multiple symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, Matthias Sebastian; van der Vloed, Gert; van der Helm, Peter A

    2011-07-01

    As a rule, the discriminability of multiple symmetries from random patterns increases with the number of symmetry axes, but this number does not seem to be the only determinant. In particular, multiple symmetries with orthogonal axes seem better discriminable than multiple symmetries with nonorthogonal axes. In six experiments on imperfect two-fold symmetry, we investigated whether this is due to extra structure in the form of so-called correlation rectangles, which arise only in the case of orthogonal axes, or to the relative orientation of the axes as such. The results suggest that correlation rectangles are not perceptually relevant and that the percept of a multiple symmetry results from an orientation-dependent interaction between the constituent single symmetries. The results can be accounted for by a model involving the analysis of symmetry at all orientations, smoothing (averaging over neighboring orientations), and extraction of peaks.

  13. Determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters by end 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; Parodi, F.; Caravaglios, F.

    2000-02-01

    Within the Standard Model, a review of the current determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters is presented, using experimental constraints from the measurements of |ε K |, |V ub /V cb |, Δm d and from the limit on Δm s , available by end 1999. (authors)

  14. Pascal's Triangle: 100% of the Numbers Are Even!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhindi, Nayan; McMenamin, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Pascal's triangle is an arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle. Each number inside Pascal's triangle is calculated by adding the two numbers above it. When all the odd integers in Pascal's triangle are highlighted (black) and the remaining evens are left blank (white), one of many patterns in Pascal's triangle is displayed. By…

  15. Symmetry witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniello, Paolo; Chruściński, Dariusz

    2017-07-01

    A symmetry witness is a suitable subset of the space of selfadjoint trace class operators that allows one to determine whether a linear map is a symmetry transformation, in the sense of Wigner. More precisely, such a set is invariant with respect to an injective densely defined linear operator in the Banach space of selfadjoint trace class operators (if and) only if this operator is a symmetry transformation. According to a linear version of Wigner’s theorem, the set of pure states—the rank-one projections—is a symmetry witness. We show that an analogous result holds for the set of projections with a fixed rank (with some mild constraint on this rank, in the finite-dimensional case). It turns out that this result provides a complete classification of the sets of projections with a fixed rank that are symmetry witnesses. These particular symmetry witnesses are projectable; i.e. reasoning in terms of quantum states, the sets of ‘uniform’ density operators of corresponding fixed rank are symmetry witnesses too.

  16. On-Road Vehicle Recognition Using the Symmetry Property and Snake Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle recognition is a fundamental task for advanced driver assistance systems and contributes to the avoidance of collisions with other vehicles. In recent years, numerous approaches using monocular image analysis have been reported for vehicle detection. These approaches are primarily applied in motorway scenarios and may not be suitable for complex urban traffic with a diversity of obstacles and a clustered background. In this paper, stereovision is firstly used to segment potential vehicles from the traffic background. Given that the contour curve is the most straightforward cue for object recognition, we present here a novel method for complete contour curve extraction using symmetry properties and a snake model. Finally, two shape factors, including the aspect ratio and the area ratio calculated from the contour curve, are used to judge whether the object detected is a vehicle or not. The approach presented here was tested with substantial urban traffic images and the experimental results demonstrated that the correction rate for vehicle recognition reaches 93%.

  17. Boundary fidelity and entanglement in the symmetry protected topological phase of the SSH model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirker, J; Maiti, M; Konstantinidis, N P; Sedlmayr, N

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the fidelity, the entanglement entropy and the entanglement spectrum, for a dimerized chain of spinless fermions—a simplified Su–Schrieffer–Heeger (SSH) model—with open boundary conditions which is a well-known example for a model supporting a symmetry protected topological (SPT) phase. In the non-interacting case the Hamiltonian matrix is tridiagonal and the eigenvalues and vectors can be given explicitly as a function of a single parameter which is known analytically for odd chain lengths and can be determined numerically in the even length case. From a scaling analysis of these data for essentially semi-infinite chains we obtain the fidelity susceptibility and show that it contains a boundary contribution which is different in the topologically ordered than in the topologically trivial phase. For the entanglement spectrum and entropy we confirm predictions from massive field theory for a block in the middle of an infinite chain but also consider blocks containing the edge of the chain. For the latter case we show that in the SPT phase additional entanglement—as compared to the trivial phase—is present which is localized at the boundary. Finally, we extend our study to the dimerized chain with a nearest-neighbour interaction using exact diagonalization, Arnoldi and density-matrix renormalization group methods and show that a phase transition into a topologically trivial charge-density wave phase occurs. (paper)

  18. Dynamical symmetries for fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction is given to the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM). The analytical symmetry limits of the model are then applied to the calculation of physical quantities such as ground-state masses and B(E 2 ) values in heavy nuclei. These comparisons with data provide strong support for a new principle of collective motion, the Dynamical Pauli Effect, and suggest that dynamical symmetries which properly account for the pauli principle are much more persistent in nuclear structure than the corresponding boson symmetries. Finally, we present an assessment of criticisms which have been voiced concerning the FDSM, and a discussion of new phenomena and ''exotic spectroscopy'' which may be suggested by the model. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, Claire

    1999-01-01

    This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the ...

  20. Symmetry breaking in frustrated XY models: Results from new self-consistent fluctuation approach and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Azad Esmailov

    1999-10-01

    The critical behavior of the fully frustrated XY model has remained controversial in spite of almost two decades of related research. In this study, we have developed a new method inspired by Netz and Berker's hard-spin mean- field theory. Our approach for XY models yields results consistent with Monte Carlo simulations as the ratio of antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic interactions is varied. The method captures two phase transitions clearly separated in temperature for ratios of 0.5, 0.6, and 1.5, with these transitions moving closer together in temperature as the interaction ratio approaches 1.0, the fully frustrated case. From the system's chirality as a function of temperature in the critical region, we calculate the critical exponent β in agreement with an Ising transition for all of the interaction ratios studied, including 1.0. This result provides support for the view that there are two transitions, rather than one transition in a new universality class, occurring in the fully frustrated XY model. Finite size effects in this model can be essentially eliminated by rescaling the local magnetization, the quantity retained self- consistently in our computations. This rescaling scheme also shows excellent results when tested on the two- dimensional Ising model, and the method, as generalized, provides a framework for an analytical approach to complex systems. Monte Carlo simulations of the fully frustrated XY model in a magnetic field provide further evidence of two transitions. The magnetic field breaks the rotational symmetry of the model, but the two-fold chiral degeneracy of the ground state persists in the field. This lower degeneracy with the field present makes Monte Carlo simulations converge more rapidly. The critical exponent δ determined from the sublattice magnetizations as a function of field agrees with the value expected for a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Further, the zero-field specific heat obtained by extrapolation from simulations in a

  1. Fulfilling the Promise of the Learning Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The learning triangle described by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) offers a powerful vision for improved student learning. Learning theory clearly plays a central role in the construct-centered approach presented by the learning triangle. But the assumption of such an important role requires Black et al. to devote corresponding care to the…

  2. The Weimar Triangle and The Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Romer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the activity of Weimar Triangle (Germany, France, Poland during Ukrainian crisis (2013-2014 as an efficient, but still largely underestimated negotiation force of the European Union. The evolution of role of Weimar Triangle in post-bipolar era is indicated, as well as the role of this specific structure during Ukrainian crisis.

  3. Toughness and Triangle-Free Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, D.; van den Heuvel, J.; Schmeichel, E.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that there exist triangle-free graphs with arbitrarily large toughness, thereby settling a longstanding open question. We also explore the problem of whether there exists a t-tough, n/(t + 1)-regular, triangle-free graph on n vertices for various values of t, and provide a

  4. The posterior triangle in radical neck surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnik, E M; Yee, K F; Friedman, M; Golden, T A

    1976-01-01

    We evaluate the importance of cancer spread to the lymphatic system in the posterior triangle. The posterior triangle tissues of 51 radical neck specimens were serially sectioned and studied for metastic involvement. The findings were correlated with the findings in the anterior triangle and the primary tumor. Of the 51 neck operations performed, 25 were elective and 26 were therapeutic for carcinoma of the larynx, pharynx, and oral cavity. Metastasis in the anterior triangles was detected in 88.4% of the therapeutic group and in 24.0% of the elective group. However, no metastasis in the posterior triangel was found in either group, regardless of the site of the tumor. We suggest that the posterior triangle can be totally preserved in radical neck surgery, which may make preservation of the spinal accessory nerve a more likely practice.

  5. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Parity-Time Symmetry and the Toy Models of Gain-Loss Dynamics near the Real Kato's Exceptional Points

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2016), s. 52 ISSN 2073-8994 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : parity-time symmetry * Schrodinger equation * physical Hilbert space * inner-product metric operator * real exceptional points * solvable models * quantum Big Bang * quantum Inflation period Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.457, year: 2016

  7. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D 4 , the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D 14 . In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V ud - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  8. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-06-10

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  9. Modeling techniques for analysis and interpretation of electron magnetic resonance (EMR) data for transition ions at low symmetry sites in crystals-A primer for experimentalists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudowicz, Czeslaw; Gnutek, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    Electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies of paramagnetic centers exhibiting monoclinic and triclinic local site symmetry have gained renewed importance, since such centers occur often in various technologically important materials and biological systems. The intricate low symmetry aspects, which arise for such centers, bear on meaningful interpretation of EMR data and their correlation with structural data. This review provides a primer for experimentalists who wish to utilize efficiently the modeling techniques for analysis and interpretation of EMR data for transition ions, especially ions located at low symmetry sites in crystals. This requires proper understanding of the low symmetry effects observable in EMR spectra as well as related theoretical questions concerning, e.g., (i) existence of physically equivalent zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameter sets, (ii) clear definitions of the axis systems, (iii) proper forms of spin Hamiltonians, and (iv) distinction between apparent and actual low symmetry cases. The question (i) involves consideration of the orthorhombic standardization, which provides basis for standardization of monoclinic and triclinic ZFS parameters. Thus, the aspects pertaining to orthorhombic site symmetry are also outlined. To solve other questions several modeling techniques have been utilized and related computer packages have recently been developed in our group: (1) the superposition model calculations of the zero-field splitting parameters (ZFSPs) in arbitrary symmetry, (2) the procedure for diagonalization of the 2nd-rank ZFSPs and transformation of respective 4th- and 6th-rank ZFSPs, (3) the pseudosymmetry axes method for approximation of the 4th- and 6th-rank ZFSPs to higher symmetry, and (4) the closeness factors and norm ratios for quantitative comparisons of various ZFSP sets. These modeling techniques enable deeper analysis and interpretation of the low symmetry aspects involved in the fitted and theoretical ZFSPs. The computer

  10. An explicitly solvable model of the spontaneous PT-symmetry breaking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubský, Vít; Znojil, Miloslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 9 (2005), s. 1113-1116 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1048302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : point interactions * PT-symmetry * square-well Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005

  11. Sequence selection by dynamical symmetry breaking in an autocatalytic binary polymer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold; Tanaka, Shinpei; Rasmussen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    the appearance of a few population structures with highly ordered and repetitive sequence patterns when starting from a pool of monomers. We demonstrate both analytically and through simulation how this "selection of the dullest" is caused by continued symmetry breaking through random fluctuations...

  12. Anomalous breaking of anisotropic scaling symmetry in the quantum lifshitz model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggio, M.; de Boer, J.; Holsheimer, K.

    2012-01-01

    In this note we investigate the anomalous breaking of anisotropic scaling symmetry (t, x) → (λ z t, λ x) in a non-relativistic field theory with dynamical exponent z = 2. On general grounds, one can show that there exist two possible "central charges" which characterize the breaking of scale

  13. Prediction of Human Eye Fixations using Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kootstra, Gert; Schomaker, Lambert R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are very sensitive to symmetry in visual patterns. Reaction time experiments show that symmetry is detected and recognized very rapidly. This suggests that symmetry is a highly salient feature. Existing computational models of saliency, however, have mainly focused on contrast as a measure of saliency. In this paper, we discuss local symmetry as a measure of saliency. We propose a number of symmetry models and perform an eye-tracking study with human participants viewing photographic i...

  14. Rabi lattice models with discrete gauge symmetry: Phase diagram and implementation in trapped-ion quantum simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevado, Pedro; Porras, Diego

    2015-07-01

    We study a spin-boson chain that exhibits a local Z2 symmetry. We investigate the quantum phase diagram of the model by means of perturbation theory, mean-field theory, and the density matrix renormalization group method. Our calculations show the existence of a first-order phase transition in the region where the boson quantum dynamics is slow compared to the spin-spin interactions. Our model can be implemented with trapped-ion quantum simulators, leading to a realization of minimal models showing local gauge invariance and first-order phase transitions.

  15. Are bilinear quadrilaterals better than linear triangles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.

    1993-08-01

    This paper compares the theoretical effectiveness of bilinear approximation over quadrilaterals with linear approximation over triangles. Anisotropic mesh transformation is used to generate asymptotically optimally efficient meshes for piecewise linear interpolation over triangles and bilinear interpolation over quadrilaterals. The theory and numerical results suggest triangles may have a slight advantage over quadrilaterals for interpolating convex data function but bilinear approximation may offer a higher order approximation for saddle-shaped functions on a well-designed mesh. This work is a basic study on optimal meshes with the intention of gaining insight into the more complex meshing problems in finite element analysis.

  16. Are Bilinear Quadrilaterals Better Than Linear Triangles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper compares the theoretical effectiveness of bilinear approximation over quadrilaterals with linear approximation over triangles. Anisotropic mesh transformation is used to generate asymptotically optimally efficient meshes for piecewise linear interpolation over triangles and bilinear interpolation over quadrilaterals. For approximating a convex function, although bilinear quadrilaterals are more efficient, linear triangles are more accurate and may be preferred in finite element computations; whereas for saddle-shaped functions, quadrilaterals may offer a higher order approximation on a well-designed mesh. A surprising finding is different grid orientations may yield an order of magnitude improvement in approximation accuracy.

  17. Quarks, baryons and chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    This book describes baryon models constructed from quarks, mesons and chiral symmetry. The role of chiral symmetry and of quark model structure with SU(6) spin-flavor symmetry are discussed in detail, starting from a pedagogic introduction. Emphasis is placed on symmetry aspects of the theories. As an application, the chiral bag model is studied for nucleon structure, where important methods of theoretical physics, mostly related to the semiclassical approach for a system of strong interactions, are demonstrated. The text is more practical than formal; tools and ideas are explained in detail w

  18. Viable dark matter via radiative symmetry breaking in a scalar singlet Higgs portal extension of the standard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, T G; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Contreras, D; Mann, R B

    2014-05-02

    We consider the generation of dark matter mass via radiative electroweak symmetry breaking in an extension of the conformal standard model containing a singlet scalar field with a Higgs portal interaction. Generating the mass from a sequential process of radiative electroweak symmetry breaking followed by a conventional Higgs mechanism can account for less than 35% of the cosmological dark matter abundance for dark matter mass M(s)>80 GeV. However, in a dynamical approach where both Higgs and scalar singlet masses are generated via radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, we obtain much higher levels of dark matter abundance. At one-loop level we find abundances of 10%-100% with 106 GeVdark matter mass. The dynamical approach also predicts a small scalar-singlet self-coupling, providing a natural explanation for the astrophysical observations that place upper bounds on dark matter self-interaction. The predictions in all three approaches are within the M(s)>80 GeV detection region of the next generation XENON experiment.

  19. Noether symmetries of a modified model in teleparallel gravity and a new approach for exact solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajahmad, Behzad [University of Tabriz, Faculty of Physics, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, we present the Noether symmetries of flat FRW spacetime in the context of a new action in teleparallel gravity which we construct based on the f(R) version. This modified action contains a coupling between the scalar field potential and magnetism. Also, we introduce an innovative approach, the beyond Noether symmetry (B.N.S.) approach, for exact solutions which carry more conserved currents than the Noether approach. By data analysis of the exact solutions, obtained from the Noether approach, late-time acceleration and phase crossing are realized, and some deep connections with observational data such as the age of the universe, the present value of the scale factor as well as the state and deceleration parameters are observed. In the B.N.S. approach, we consider the dark energy dominated era. (orig.)

  20. Study of theory and phenomenology of some classes of family symmetry and unification models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, Gordon L.; King, Steve F.; Peddie, Iain N.R.; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    We review and compare theoretically and phenomenologically a number of possible family symmetries, which when combined with unification, could be important in explaining quark, lepton and neutrino masses and mixings, providing new results in several cases. Theoretical possibilities include abelian or non-abelian, symmetric or non symmetric Yukawa matrices, Grand Unification or not. Our main focus is on anomaly-free U(1) family symmetry combined with SU(5) unification, although we also discuss other possibilities. We provide a detailed phenomenological fit of the fermion masses and mixings for several examples, and discuss the supersymmetric flavour issues in such theories, including a detailed analysis of lepton flavour violation. We show that it is not possible to quantitatively and decisively discriminate between these different theoretical possibilities at the present time

  1. A geometrical model for testing bilateral symmetry of bamboo leaf with a simplified Gielis equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuyan; Zhang, Li; Reddy, Gadi V P; Hui, Cang; Gielis, Johan; Ding, Yulong; Shi, Peijian

    2016-10-01

    The size and shape of plant leaves change with growth, and an accurate description of leaf shape is crucial for describing plant morphogenesis and development. Bilateral symmetry, which has been widely observed but poorly examined, occurs in both dicot and monocot leaves, including all nominated bamboo species (approximately 1,300 species), of which at least 500 are found in China. Although there are apparent differences in leaf size among bamboo species due to genetic and environmental profiles, bamboo leaves have bilateral symmetry with parallel venation and appear similar across species. Here, we investigate whether the shape of bamboo leaves can be accurately described by a simplified Gielis equation, which consists of only two parameters (leaf length and shape) and produces a perfect bilateral shape. To test the applicability of this equation and the occurrence of bilateral symmetry, we first measured the leaf length of 42 bamboo species, examining >500 leaves per species. We then scanned 30 leaves per species that had approximately the same length as the median leaf length for that species. The leaf-shape data from scanned profiles were fitted to the simplified Gielis equation. Results confirmed that the equation fits the leaf-shape data extremely well, with the coefficients of determination being 0.995 on average. We further demonstrated the bilateral symmetry of bamboo leaves, with a clearly defined leaf-shape parameter of all 42 bamboo species investigated ranging from 0.02 to 0.1. This results in a simple and reliable tool for precise determination of bamboo species, with applications in forestry, ecology, and taxonomy.

  2. Group theoretical classification of broken symmetry states of the two-fold degenerate Hubbard model on a triangular lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masago, Akira; Suzuki, Naoshi

    2001-01-01

    By a group theoretical procedure we derive the possible spontaneously broken-symmetry states for the two-fold degenerate Hubbard model on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. For ordering wave vectors corresponding to the points Γ and K in the first BZ we find 22 states which include 16 collinear and six non-collinear states. The collinear states include the usual SDW and CDW states which appear also in the single-band Hubbard model. The non-collinear states include exotic ordering states of orbitals and spins as well as the triangular arrangement of spins

  3. Symmetry energies for A =24 and 48 and the USD and KB3 shell model Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingan, A.; Neergârd, K.; Zamick, L.

    2017-12-01

    Calculations in the sd and pf shells reported some time ago by Satuła et al. [Phys. Lett. B 407, 103 (1997), 10.1016/S0370-2693(97)00711-9] are redone for an extended analysis of the results. As in the original work, we do calculations for one mass number in each shell and consider in each case the sequence of lowest energies for isospins 0, 2, and 4, briefly the symmetry spectrum. Following further the original work, we study how this spectrum changes when parts of the two-nucleon interaction are turned off. The variation of its width is explored in detail. A differential combination ɛW of the three energies was taken in the original work as a measure of the so-called Wigner term in semiempirical mass formulas, and it was found to decrease drastically when the two-nucleon interaction in the channel of zero isospin is turned off. Our analysis shows that the width of the symmetry spectrum experiences an equally drastic decrease, which can be explained qualitatively in terms of schematic approximations. We therefore suggest that the decrease of ɛW be seen mainly as a side effect of a narrowing of the symmetry spectrum rather than an independent manifestation of the two-nucleon interaction in the channel of zero isospin.

  4. Density conditions for triangles in multipartite graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Adrian; Shen, Jin; Thomassé, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    subgraphs in G. We investigate in particular the case where G is a complete multipartite graph. We prove that a finite tripartite graph with all edge densities greater than the golden ratio has a triangle and that this bound is best possible. Also we show that an infinite-partite graph with finite parts has......We consider the problem of finding a large or dense triangle-free subgraph in a given graph G. In response to a question of P. Erdos, we prove that, if the minimum degree of G is at least 9 vertical bar V(G)vertical bar/10, the largest triangle-free subgraphs are precisely the largest bipartite...... a triangle, provided that the edge density between any two parts is greater than 1/2....

  5. Activities: Golden Triangles, Pentagons, and Pentagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William A.; Clason, Robert G.

    1994-01-01

    Presents lesson plans for activities to introduce recursive sequences of polygons: golden triangles, regular pentagons, and pentagrams. The resulting number patterns involve Fibonacci sequences. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  6. Application of Sivasubramanian Kalimuthu Hypothesis to Triangles

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sivasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The interior angles sum of a number of Euclidean triangles was transformed into quadratic equations. The analysis of those quadratic equations yielded the following proposition: There exists Euclidean triangle whose interior angle sum is a straight angle. Approach: In this study, the researchers introduced a new hypothesis for quadratic equations and derived an entirely new result. Results: The result of the study was controversial, but mathematically consistent. Conclusion...

  7. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety......, antidepressive, antimanic, and antipsychotic), of clinically unwanted effects of these drugs, and the patients' own subjective perception of the balance between wanted and unwanted effects are analysed using rating scales assessed by modern psychometric tests (item response theory models) RESULTS: Symptom rating...... scales fulfilling the item response theory models have been shown to be psychometrically valid outcome scales as their total scores are sufficient statistics for demonstrating dose-response relationship within the various classes of antianxiety, antidepressive, antimanic or antipsychotic drugs. The total...

  8. 75 FR 68398 - Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Golden Triangle Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35428] Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Golden Triangle Railroad Company Golden Triangle...) Acquire from Golden Triangle Railroad Company (Old GTRA) and to operate approximately 8.6 miles of rail...

  9. Introduction to Chiral Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-09

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.

  10. Neutrino masses and family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinstein, B.; Preskill, J.; Wise, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Neutrino masses in the 100 eV-1 MeV range are permitted if there is a spontaneously broken global family symmetry that allows the heavy neutrinos to decay by Goldstone boson emission with a cosmologically acceptable lifetime. The family symmetry may be either abelian or nonabelian; we present models illustrating both possibilities. If the family symmetry is nonabelian, then the decay tau -> μ + Goldstone boson or tau -> e + Goldstone may have an observable rate. (orig.)

  11. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  12. Breaking Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Peters

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that πmix (the π-calculus with mixed choice is more expressive than πsep (its subset with only separate choice. The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla offered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of incestual processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (initial symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result - based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reasonable encoding from πmix into πsep. We indicate how the respective proofs can be adapted and exhibit the consequences of varying notions of uniformity and reasonableness. In each case, the ability to break initial symmetries turns out to be essential.

  13. Electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1990-09-01

    The Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, requiring the existence of a new symmetry-breaking force and associated particles, which need not however be Higgs bosons. The first lecture reviews the essential elements of the Higgs mechanism, which suffice to establish low energy theorems for the scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z gauge bosons. An upper bound on the scale of the symmetry-breaking physics then follows from the low energy theorems and partial wave unitarity. The second lecture reviews particular models, with and without Higgs bosons, paying special attention to how the general features discussed in lecture 1 are realized in each model. The third lecture focuses on the experimental signals of strong WW scattering that can be observed at the SSC above 1 TeV in the WW subenergy, which will allow direct measurement of the strength of the symmetry-breaking force. 52 refs., 10 figs.

  14. A{sub 4} symmetry and prediction of U{sub e3} in a modified Altarelli-Feruglio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikary, Biswajit [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata (Calcutta) 700064 (India); Brahmachari, Biswajoy [Department of Physics, Vidyasagar Evening College 39, Sankar Ghosh Lane, Kolkata 700006 (India); Ghosal, Ambar [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata (Calcutta) 700064 (India)]. E-mail: ambar.ghosal@saha.ac.in; Ma, Ernest [Physics Department, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Parida, M.K. [Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028 (India)

    2006-07-13

    We show that a radiative modification of a recently proposed model by Altarelli and Feruglio with softly broken A{sub 4} symmetry leads naturally to nonvanishing U{sub e3} with {theta}{sub 13}{approx}2{sup o}-4{sup o}. The observed mass squ differences for solar and atmospheric neutrinos are reproduced, whereas the predicted solar neutrino mixing angle is brought down from the tri-bimaximal prediction to be in better agreement with the latest global analysis including experimental data from KamLAND and SNO.

  15. Visualization on triangle concept using Adobe Flash Professional SC6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagita, Laela; Ratih Kusumarini, Adha

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop teaching aids using Adobe Flash Professional CS6 emphasize on Triangle concept. A new alternative way to deliver a basic concept in geometry with visualization is software Adobe Flash Professional CS 6. Research method is research and development with 5 phase of Ploom’s model, namely (1) preliminary, (2) design, (3) realization/ construction, (4) test, evaluation and revision, and 5) implementation. The results showed that teaching aids was valid, practice, and effective. Validity: expert judgement for material score is 3.95 and media expert judgement produce an average score of 3,2, both in the category are valid. Practically: the average of questionnaire response is 4,04 (good). Effectiveness: n-gain test value is 0,36 (medium). It concluded that developed of teaching aids using Adobe Flash CS6 on triangle can improve student achievement.

  16. Classical mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jinzenji, Masao

    2018-01-01

    This book furnishes a brief introduction to classical mirror symmetry, a term that denotes the process of computing Gromov–Witten invariants of a Calabi–Yau threefold by using the Picard–Fuchs differential equation of period integrals of its mirror Calabi–Yau threefold. The book concentrates on the best-known example, the quintic hypersurface in 4-dimensional projective space, and its mirror manifold. First, there is a brief review of the process of discovery of mirror symmetry and the striking result proposed in the celebrated paper by Candelas and his collaborators. Next, some elementary results of complex manifolds and Chern classes needed for study of mirror symmetry are explained. Then the topological sigma models, the A-model and the B-model, are introduced. The classical mirror symmetry hypothesis is explained as the equivalence between the correlation function of the A-model of a quintic hyper-surface and that of the B-model of its mirror manifold. On the B-model side, the process of construct...

  17. An introduction to Yangian symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, D.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of the quantum Yangians as symmetry algebras of two-dimensional quantum field theories are reviewed. They include two main issues: the first is the classical Heisenberg model, covering non-Abelian symmetries, generators of the symmetries and the semi-classical Yangians, an alternative presentation of the semi-classical Yangians, digression on Poisson-Lie groups. The second is the quantum Heisenberg chain, covering non-Abelian symmetries and the quantum Yangians, the transfer matrix and an alternative presentation of the Yangians, digression on the double Yangians. (K.A.) 15 refs

  18. Discrete symmetries in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieren, Roland

    2010-12-02

    The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry is discovered which solves the {mu}-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z{sup R}{sub 4} is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)

  19. In a search of symmetry behind topological chiral current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainshtein, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    We try to identify symmetry associated with the topological current of gluon field K μ . We argue that in the case of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory the matrix elements of d μ K μ can be evaluated by varying the effective action with respect to the bare coupling constant. The triangle graph does not obey this relation and represent an anomaly. In the case of pure Yang-Mills fields the notion of conserved chirality is introduced for a special background in one-loop order. In particular the conservation of the chirality implies again the 'naive' vanishing of the triangle graph. (orig.)

  20. Persistent current in triangle silicene rings with spin–orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ning, E-mail: nxu@ycit.cn [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Zhang, Haiyang; Wu, Xiuqiang; Bai, Yujie [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Ding, Jianwen, E-mail: jwding@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2017-06-28

    The energy spectrum and magnetic response of triangle silicene rings (TSRs) are investigated within the tight-binding model. It is shown that the flux-dependent energy spectrum is divided into bands, with three levels per band, owing to the three-fold rotational symmetry structure of TSRs. The zigzag TSRs are metallic, exhibiting either diamagnetic or paramagnetic response depending on the size of inner ring radius. Armchair TSRs are semiconducting, exhibiting diamagnetic response. Taking into account the intrinsic spin–orbit interaction, the magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise around the TSRs and the spin-down electrons flow clockwise around the TSRs. Additionally, paramagnetism–diamagnetism or diamagnetism–paramagnetism transitions are observed with the increase of exchange field. The results may be very helpful for the design and application of TSR-based nanodevices. - Highlights: • The zigzag TSRs are metallic. • Armchair TSRs which exhibit diamagnetic response are semiconducting. • The spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise and spin-down electrons flow clockwise around the rings.

  1. Supersymmetry of Affine Toda Models as Fermionic Symmetry Flows of the Extended mKdV Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Schmidtt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We couple two copies of the supersymmetric mKdV hierarchy by means of the algebraic dressing technique. This allows to deduce the whole set of (N,N supersymmetry transformations of the relativistic sector of the extended mKdV hierarchy and to interpret them as fermionic symmetry flows. The construction is based on an extended Riemann-Hilbert problem for affine Kac-Moody superalgebras with a half-integer gradation. A generalized set of relativistic-like fermionic local current identities is introduced and it is shown that the simplest one, corresponding to the lowest isospectral times t_{±1} provides the supercharges generating rigid supersymmetry transformations in 2D superspace. The number of supercharges is equal to the dimension of the fermionic kernel of a given semisimple element E in ^g which defines both, the physical degrees of freedom and the symmetries of the model. The general construction is applied to the N=(1,1 and N=(2,2 sinh-Gordon models which are worked out in detail.

  2. Lattice QCD inputs to the CKM unitarity triangle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiho, Jack; Lunghi, E.; Van de Water, Ruth S.

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global fit to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle using the latest experimental and theoretical constraints. Our emphasis is on the hadronic weak matrix elements that enter the analysis, which must be computed using lattice QCD or other nonperturbative methods. Realistic lattice QCD calculations which include the effects of the dynamical up, down, and strange quarks are now available for all of the standard inputs to the global fit. We therefore present lattice averages for all of the necessary hadronic weak matrix elements. We attempt to account for correlations between lattice QCD results in a reasonable but conservative manner: whenever there are reasons to believe that an error is correlated between two lattice calculations, we take the degree of correlation to be 100%. These averages are suitable for use as inputs both in the global Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle fit and other phenomenological analyses. In order to illustrate the impact of the lattice averages, we make standard model predictions for the parameters B-circumflex K , |V cb |, and |V ub |/|V cb |. We find a (2-3)σ tension in the unitarity triangle, depending upon whether we use the inclusive or exclusive determination of |V cb |. If we interpret the tension as a sign of new physics in either neutral kaon or B mixing, we find that the scenario with new physics in kaon mixing is preferred by present data.

  3. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  4. LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2011-01-28

    We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.

  5. Triangle Counting in Dynamic Graph Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulteau, Laurent; Froese, Vincent; Pagh, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the number of triangles in graph streams using a limited amount of memory has become a popular topic in the last decade. Different variations of the problem have been studied, depending on whether the graph edges are provided in an arbitrary order or as incidence lists. However......, with a few exceptions, the algorithms have considered insert-only streams. We present a new algorithm estimating the number of triangles in dynamic graph streams where edges can be both inserted and deleted. We show that our algorithm achieves better time and space complexity than previous solutions...... for various graph classes, for example sparse graphs with a relatively small number of triangles. Also, for graphs with constant transitivity coefficient, a common situation in real graphs, this is the first algorithm achieving constant processing time per edge. The result is achieved by a novel approach...

  6. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...... of foreign policy calculations and moves in the strategic triangle; and finally, some concluding remarks are offered to explain the recent shifts in interactions between these core players in the emerging world order and whether a new geopolitical architecture is emerging...... applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators...

  7. Charge symmetry at the partonic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.

  8. Shape analysis with subspace symmetries

    KAUST Repository

    Berner, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    We address the problem of partial symmetry detection, i.e., the identification of building blocks a complex shape is composed of. Previous techniques identify parts that relate to each other by simple rigid mappings, similarity transforms, or, more recently, intrinsic isometries. Our approach generalizes the notion of partial symmetries to more general deformations. We introduce subspace symmetries whereby we characterize similarity by requiring the set of symmetric parts to form a low dimensional shape space. We present an algorithm to discover subspace symmetries based on detecting linearly correlated correspondences among graphs of invariant features. We evaluate our technique on various data sets. We show that for models with pronounced surface features, subspace symmetries can be found fully automatically. For complicated cases, a small amount of user input is used to resolve ambiguities. Our technique computes dense correspondences that can subsequently be used in various applications, such as model repair and denoising. © 2010 The Author(s).

  9. Fibonacci-like sequences and generalized Pascal's triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, G.; Siani, S.

    2014-05-01

    The properties pertaining to diagonals of generalized Pascal's triangles are studied. Combinatorial relationships between Fibonacci-like sequences and Fibonacci sequence itself are determined, using the sequence of diagonals of generalized Pascal's triangle.

  10. Evaluation of the Historic Triangle Wayfinding Sign System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The "Historic Triangle" in Virginia is named for the historic areas comprising and surrounding Williamsburg, Jamestown, and Yorktown, Virginia. A Historic Triangle Wayfinding Sign System was designed to lead travelers from I-64 to historic sites in W...

  11. Canonical quantization of nonlinear sigma models with a theta term and applications to symmetry-protected topological phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Matthew F.; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2017-08-01

    We canonically quantize O (D +2 ) nonlinear sigma models (NLSMs) with a theta term on arbitrary smooth, closed, connected, oriented D -dimensional spatial manifolds M , with the goal of proving the suitability of these models for describing symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases of bosons in D spatial dimensions. We show that in the disordered phase of the NLSM, and when the coefficient θ of the theta term is an integer multiple of 2 π , the theory on M has a unique ground state and a finite energy gap to all excitations. We also construct the ground state wave functional of the NLSM in this parameter regime, and we show that it is independent of the metric on M and given by the exponential of a Wess-Zumino term for the NLSM field, in agreement with previous results on flat space. Our results show that the NLSM in the disordered phase and at θ =2 π k , k ∈Z , has a symmetry-preserving ground state but no topological order (i.e., no topology-dependent ground state degeneracy), making it an ideal model for describing SPT phases of bosons. Thus, our work places previous results on SPT phases derived using NLSMs on solid theoretical ground. To canonically quantize the NLSM on M , we use Dirac's method for the quantization of systems with second class constraints, suitably modified to account for the curvature of space. In a series of four Appendixes, we provide the technical background needed to follow the discussion in the main sections of the paper.

  12. Renormgroup symmetry for solution functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.; Kovalev, V.F.

    2004-01-01

    The paper contains generalization of the renormgroup algorithm for boundary value problems of mathematical physics and related concept of the renormgroup symmetry, formulated earlier by the authors with reference to models based on differential equations. These algorithm and symmetry are formulated now for models with nonlocal (integral) equations. We discuss in detail and illustrate by examples the applications of the generalized algorithm to models with nonlocal terms which appear as linear functionals of the solution. (author)

  13. Discovery of Intrinsic Primitives on Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Solomon, Justin

    2011-04-01

    The discovery of meaningful parts of a shape is required for many geometry processing applications, such as parameterization, shape correspondence, and animation. It is natural to consider primitives such as spheres, cylinders and cones as the building blocks of shapes, and thus to discover parts by fitting such primitives to a given surface. This approach, however, will break down if primitive parts have undergone almost-isometric deformations, as is the case, for example, for articulated human models. We suggest that parts can be discovered instead by finding intrinsic primitives, which we define as parts that posses an approximate intrinsic symmetry. We employ the recently-developed method of computing discrete approximate Killing vector fields (AKVFs) to discover intrinsic primitives by investigating the relationship between the AKVFs of a composite object and the AKVFs of its parts. We show how to leverage this relationship with a standard clustering method to extract k intrinsic primitives and remaining asymmetric parts of a shape for a given k. We demonstrate the value of this approach for identifying the prominent symmetry generators of the parts of a given shape. Additionally, we show how our method can be modified slightly to segment an entire surface without marking asymmetric connecting regions and compare this approach to state-of-the-art methods using the Princeton Segmentation Benchmark. © 2011 The Author(s).

  14. Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one...

  15. Transfinite C2 interpolant over triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfeld, P.; Barnhill, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A transfinite C 2 interpolant on a general triangle is created. The required data are essentially C 2 , no compatibility conditions arise, and the precision set includes all polynomials of degree less than or equal to eight. The symbol manipulation language REDUCE is used to derive the scheme. The scheme is discretized to two different finite dimensional C 2 interpolants in an appendix

  16. Towards better management of Coral Triangle tuna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, M.L.; Flores, J.; Pokajam, S.; Rashid Sumaila, U.

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea, all part of a regional sub-group known as the Coral Triangle, have sizeable skipjack, yellowfin and bigeye tuna fisheries. Recent figures suggest that as much as a third of tuna catch from the western and central Pacific Ocean can be attributed to

  17. Reexamination of a novel determination of density, temperature, and symmetry energy based on a modified Fisher model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Zheng, H.; Lin, W.; Huang, M.; Yang, Y. Y.; Wang, J. S.; Wada, R.; Bonasera, A.; Natowitz, J. B.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, a mistake in the formulation of the modified Fisher model (MFM) derived in the pioneering works of the Purdue group is addressed and corrected by reversing the sign of the mixing entropy term in the original formulation. The errors in the results of the previous MFM-related studies, such as isotopic yield distribution, isobaric yield ratios, isoscaling, m scaling, self-consistent determination of density, symmetry energy, and temperature, and density and temperature determination related to the intermediate mass fragment (IMF) freezeout, are quantitatively analyzed. It is found that the errors originating from the mistake in sign of the mixing entropy term are generally small and even have no effect in some cases.

  18. Discrete symmetries, spectra, degeneracies, cross sections: a toy model with interactions centred at the vertices of Platonic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Prunelé, E

    2012-01-01

    The point spectrum, its degeneracy degrees and the symmetry properties of eigenstates are determined for a one-particle Hamiltonian with interactions centred at the vertices of the five Platonic solids, within the framework of an exactly solvable non-relativistic quantum-mechanical model. The interaction at a given vertex is a projector on the s wave relative to this vertex. The critical points in the parameter space of the Hamiltonian, i.e. points where a bound state appears or disappears, are determined analytically. The positive-energy domain corresponding to the scattering of a particle is also investigated. A simple formula for the limit of the total cross section at zero energy is obtained. (paper)

  19. Antiferroquadrupolar Order and Rotational Symmetry Breaking in a Generalized Bilinear-Biquadratic Model on a Square Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsin-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; Nica, Emilian M.; Yu, Rong; Si, Qimiao

    2017-04-01

    The magnetic and nematic properties of the iron chalcogenides have recently been the subject of intense interest. Motivated by the proposed antiferroquadrupolar and Ising-nematic orders for the bulk FeSe, we study the phase diagram of an S =1 generalized bilinear-biquadratic model with multineighbor interactions. We find a large parameter regime for a (π , 0) antiferroquadrupolar phase, showing how quantum fluctuations stabilize it by lifting an infinite degeneracy of certain semiclassical states. Evidence for this C4 -symmetry-breaking quadrupolar phase is also provided by an unbiased density matrix renormalization group analysis. We discuss the implications of our results for FeSe and related iron-based superconductors.

  20. Symmetry breaking by electric discharges in water and formation of light magnetic monopoles in an extended standard model. Pt. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpf, Harald [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Theoretical Physics

    2011-03-15

    By Lochak (theory) and Urutskoev (experiment) the hypothesis has been suggested that during electric discharges in water (fluids) light magnetic monopoles can be created which according to Lochak should be considered as a kind of excited neutrinos. Based on a quantum field theoretic development of de Broglie's and Heisenberg's fusion ideas and the results of preceding papers a transparent proof is given that such magnetic monopoles can occur during discharges. In the theoretical description these circumstances are formulated within the scope of an extended (effective) Standard Model and the monopoles with vanishing electric charge arise from neutrinos whose states are modified by the symmetry breaking caused by the discharge. In the introduction some technical implications are referred to. The article is divided into two parts. (orig.)

  1. Prediction of human eye fixations using symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Gert; Schomaker, Lambert

    2009-01-01

    Humans are very sensitive to symmetry in visual patterns. Reaction time experiments show that symmetry is detected and recognized very rapidly. This suggests that symmetry is a highly salient feature. Existing computational models of saliency, however, have mainly focused on contrast as a measure of

  2. Generalized partial dynamical symmetry in nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, A; Isacker, P Van

    2002-11-25

    We introduce the notion of a generalized partial dynamical-symmetry for which part of the eigenstates have part of the dynamical symmetry. This general concept is illustrated with the example of Hamiltonians with a partial dynamical O(6) symmetry in the framework of the interacting boson model. The resulting spectrum and electromagnetic transitions are compared with empirical data in 162Dy.

  3. Partial Dynamical Symmetry in Deformed Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the notion of partial dynamical symmetry in relation to nuclear spectroscopy. Explicit forms of Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry are presented in the framework of the interacting boson model of nuclei. An analysis of the resulting spectrum and electromagnetic transitions demonstrates the relevance of such partial symmetry to the spectroscopy of axially deformed nuclei. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Generalized partial dynamical symmetry in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.; Isacker, P. van

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a generalized partial dynamical-symmetry for which part of the eigenstates have part of the dynamical symmetry. This general concept is illustrated with the example of Hamiltonians with a partial dynamical O(6) symmetry in the framework of the interacting boson model. The resulting spectrum and electromagnetic transitions are compared with empirical data in Dy 162

  5. Partial Dynamical Symmetry in Deformed Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    1996-07-01

    We discuss the notion of partial dynamical symmetry in relation to nuclear spectroscopy. Explicit forms of Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry are presented in the framework of the interacting boson model of nuclei. An analysis of the resulting spectrum and electromagnetic transitions demonstrates the relevance of such partial symmetry to the spectroscopy of axially deformed nuclei. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Symmetry chains and adaptation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzer, H.P.; Gruber, B.

    1985-01-01

    Given a symmetry chain of physical significance it becomes necessary to obtain states which transform properly with respect to the symmetries of the chain. In this article we describe a method which permits us to calculate symmetry-adapted quantum states with relative ease. The coefficients for the symmetry-adapted linear combinations are obtained, in numerical form, in terms of the original states of the system and can thus be represented in the form of numerical tables. In addition, one also obtains automatically the matrix elements for the operators of the symmetry groups which are involved, and thus for any physical operator which can be expressed either as an element of the algebra or of the enveloping algebra. The method is well suited for computers once the physically relevant symmetry chain, or chains, have been defined. While the method to be described is generally applicable to any physical system for which semisimple Lie algebras play a role we choose here a familiar example in order to illustrate the method and to illuminate its simplicity. We choose the nuclear shell model for the case of two nucleons with orbital angular momentum l = 1. While the states of the entire shell transform like the smallest spin representation of SO(25) we restrict our attention to its subgroup SU(6) x SU(2)/sub T/. We determine the symmetry chains which lead to total angular momentum SU(2)/sub J/ and obtain the symmetry-adapted states for these chains

  7. The Triangle of Smallest Area Which Circumscribes a Semicircle

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    An interesting problem that determine a triangle of smallest area which circumscribes a semicircle is solved. Then a generalized golden right triangles sequence $T_n$ is obtained, and an interesting construction of the maximum generalized golden right triangle $T_2$ is also shown.

  8. 76 FR 52649 - Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-531-000] Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application On August 5, 2011, Golden Triangle Storage, Inc. (Golden... County, Texas. Golden Triangle also seeks market based rates for its proposed expansion services, all as...

  9. Space vector-based analysis of overmodulation in triangle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The equivalence of triangle-comparison-based pulse width modulation (TCPWM) and space vector based PWM (SVPWM) during linear modulation is well-known. This paper analyses triangle-comparison based PWM techniques (TCPWM) such as sine-triangle PWM (SPWM) and common-mode voltage injection PWM ...

  10. Detecting Statistically Significant Communities of Triangle Motifs in Undirected Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    extend the work of Perry et al. [6] by developing a statistical framework that supports the detection of triangle motif- based clusters in complex...priori, the need for triangle motif- based clustering. 2. Developed an algorithm for clustering undirected networks, where the triangle con guration was...13 5 Application to Real Networks 18 5.1 2012 FBS Football Schedule Network

  11. Tests of Predictions of the Algebraic Cluster Model: the Triangular D 3h Symmetry of 12C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Moshe

    2016-07-01

    A new theoretical approach to clustering in the frame of the Algebraic Cluster Model (ACM) has been developed. It predicts rotation-vibration structure with rotational band of an oblate equilateral triangular symmetric spinning top with a D 3h symmetry characterized by the sequence of states: 0+, 2+, 3-, 4±, 5- with a degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Our measured new 2+ 2 in 12C allows the first study of rotation-vibration structure in 12C. The newly measured 5- state and 4- states fit very well the predicted ground state rotational band structure with the predicted sequence of states: 0+, 2+, 3-, 4±, 5- with almost degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Such a D 3h symmetry is characteristic of triatomic molecules, but it is observed in the ground state rotational band of 12C for the first time in a nucleus. We discuss predictions of the ACM of other rotation-vibration bands in 12 C such as the (0+) Hoyle band and the (1-) bending mode with prediction of (“missing 3- and 4-”) states that may shed new light on clustering in 12C and light nuclei. In particular, the observation (or non observation) of the predicted (“missing”) states in the Hoyle band will allow us to conclude the geometrical arrangement of the three alpha particles composing the Hoyle state at 7.6542 MeV in 12C. We discuss proposed research programs at the Darmstadt S-DALINAC and at the newly constructed ELI-NP facility near Bucharest to test the predictions of the ACM in isotopes of carbon.

  12. Beyond axial symmetry: An improved class of models for global data

    KAUST Repository

    Castruccio, Stefano

    2014-03-01

    An important class of models for data on a spherical domain, called axially symmetric, assumes stationarity across longitudes but not across latitudes. The main aim of this work is to introduce a new and more flexible class of models by relaxing the assumption of longitudinal stationarity in the context of regularly gridded climate model output. In this investigation, two other related topics are discussed: the lack of fit of an axially symmetric parametric model compared with a non-parametric model and to longitudinally reversible processes, an important subclass of axially symmetric models.

  13. Precursors and BRST symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Freivogel, Ben; Kabir, Laurens; Lokhande, Sagar F.

    2017-07-01

    In the AdS/CFT correspondence, bulk information appears to be encoded in the CFT in a redundant way. A local bulk field corresponds to many different non-local CFT operators (precursors). We recast this ambiguity in the language of BRST symmetry, and propose that in the large N limit, the difference between two precursors is a BRST exact and ghost-free term. This definition of precursor ambiguities has the advantage that it generalizes to any gauge theory. Using the BRST formalism and working in a simple model with global symmetries, we re-derive a precursor ambiguity appearing in earlier work. Finally, we show within this model that the obtained ambiguity has the right number of parameters to explain the freedom to localize precursors within different spatial regions of the boundary order by order in the large N expansion.

  14. A 3-3-1 model with right-handed neutrinos based on the Δ (27) family symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A.E.C. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria and Centro Cienti fico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Long, H.N. [Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Institute of Physics, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vien, V.V. [Duy Tan University, Institute of Research and Development, Da Nang City (Viet Nam); Tay Nguyen University, Department of Physics, Buon Ma Thuot, DakLak (Viet Nam)

    2016-05-15

    We present the first multiscalar singlet extension of the original 3-3-1 model with right-handed neutrinos, based on the Δ (27) family symmetry, supplemented by the Z{sub 4} x Z{sub 8} x Z{sub 14} flavor group, consistent with current low energy fermion flavor data. In the model under consideration, the light active neutrino masses are generated from a double seesaw mechanism and the observed pattern of charged fermion masses and quark mixing angles is caused by the breaking of the Δ (27) x Z{sub 4} x Z{sub 8} x Z{sub 14} discrete group at very high energy. Our model has only 14 effective free parameters, which are fitted to reproduce the experimental values of the 18 physical observables in the quark and lepton sectors. The obtained physical observables for the quark sector agree with their experimental values, whereas those for the lepton sector also do, only for the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. The normal neutrino mass hierarchy scenario of the model is disfavored by the neutrino oscillation experimental data. We find an effective Majorana neutrino mass parameter of neutrinoless double beta decay of m{sub ββ} = 22 meV, a leptonic Dirac CP violating phase of 34 {sup circle}, and a Jarlskog invariant of about 10{sup -2} for the inverted neutrino mass spectrum. (orig.)

  15. Numerical research of a 2D axial symmetry hybrid model for the radio-frequency ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenchen, WU; Xinfeng, SUN; Zuo, GU; Yanhui, JIA

    2018-04-01

    Since the high efficiency discharge is critical to the radio-frequency ion thruster (RIT), a 2D axial symmetry hybrid model has been developed to study the plasma evolution of RIT. The fluid method and the drift energy correction of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) are applied to the analysis of the RIT discharge. In the meantime, the PIC-MCC method is used to investigate the ion beam current extraction character for the plasma plume region. The beam current simulation results, with the hybrid model, agree well with the experimental results, and the error is lower than 11%, which shows the validity of the model. The further study shows there is an optimal ratio for the radio-frequency (RF) power and the beam current extraction power under the fixed RIT configuration. And the beam extraction efficiency will decrease when the discharge efficiency beyond a certain threshold (about 87 W). As the input parameters of the hybrid model are all the design values, it can be directly used to the optimum design for other kinds of RITs and radio-frequency ion sources.

  16. Dynamical study of symmetries: breaking and restauration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, P.

    1986-09-01

    First symmetry breaking (spontaneous) is explained and the physical implication discussed for infinite systems. The relation with phase transitions is indicated. Then the specific aspects of symmetry breaking in finite systems is treated and illustrated in detail for the case of translational invariance with the help of an oversimplified but exactly solvable model. The method of projection (restauration of symmetry) is explained for the static case and also applied to the model. Symmetry breaking in the dynamical case and for instance the notion of a soft mode responsible for the symmetry breaking is discussed in the case of superfluidity and another exactly solvable model is introduced. The Goldstone mode is treated in detail. Some remarks on analogies with the breaking of chiral symmetry are made. Some recent developments in the theory of symmetry restauration are briefly outlined [fr

  17. Properties of distance spaces with power triangle inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Greenhoe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metric spaces provide a framework for analysis and have several very useful properties. Many of these properties follow in part from the  triangle inequality. However, there are several applications in which the triangle inequality does not hold but in which we may still like to perform analysis. This paper investigates what happens if the triangle inequality is removed all together, leaving what is called a distance space, and also what happens if the triangle inequality is replaced with a much more general two parameter relation, which is herein called the "power triangle inequality". The power triangle inequality represents an uncountably large class of inequalities, and includes the  triangle inequality,  relaxed triangle inequality, and   inframetric inequality as special cases. The power triangle inequality is defined in terms of a function that is herein called the power triangle function. The power triangle function is itself a power mean, and as such is continuous and monotone with respect to its exponential parameter, and also includes the operations of  maximum,  minimum,  mean square,  arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and  harmonic mean as special cases.

  18. Scale symmetry and virial theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenholz, C. von

    1978-01-01

    Scale symmetry (or dilatation invariance) is discussed in terms of Noether's Theorem expressed in terms of a symmetry group action on phase space endowed with a symplectic structure. The conventional conceptual approach expressing invariance of some Hamiltonian under scale transformations is re-expressed in alternate form by infinitesimal automorphisms of the given symplectic structure. That is, the vector field representing scale transformations leaves the symplectic structure invariant. In this model, the conserved quantity or constant of motion related to scale symmetry is the virial. It is shown that the conventional virial theorem can be derived within this framework

  19. Nonlinear electromagnetic fields and symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjašić, Irena; Gulin, Luka; Smolić, Ivica

    2017-06-01

    We extend the classical results on the symmetry inheritance of the canonical electromagnetic fields, described by the Maxwell's Lagrangian, to a much wider class of models, which include those of the Born-Infeld, power Maxwell and the Euler-Heisenberg type. Symmetry inheriting fields allow the introduction of electromagnetic scalar potentials and these are proven to be constant on the Killing horizons. Finally, using the relations obtained along the analysis, we generalize and simplify the recent proof for the symmetry inheritance of the 3-dimensional case, as well as give the first constraint for the higher dimensional electromagnetic fields.

  20. Gauge origin of discrete flavor symmetries in heterotic orbifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Beye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We show that non-Abelian discrete symmetries in orbifold string models have a gauge origin. This can be understood when looking at the vicinity of a symmetry enhanced point in moduli space. At such an enhanced point, orbifold fixed points are characterized by an enhanced gauge symmetry. This gauge symmetry can be broken to a discrete subgroup by a nontrivial vacuum expectation value of the Kähler modulus T. Using this mechanism it is shown that the Δ(54 non-Abelian discrete symmetry group originates from a SU(3 gauge symmetry, whereas the D4 symmetry group is obtained from a SU(2 gauge symmetry.

  1. Q{sub 6} as the flavor symmetry in a non-minimal SUSY SU(5) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Izquierdo, J.C.; Mondragon, M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Gonzalez-Canales, F. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma, Facultad de Ciencias de la Electronica, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular-CSIC/Universitat de Valencia, AHEP Group, Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    We present a non-minimal renormalizable SUSY SU(5) model, with extended Higgs sector and right-handed neutrinos, where the flavor sector exhibits a Q{sub 6} flavor symmetry. We analyzed the simplest version of this model, in which R-parity is conserved and the right-handed neutrino masses in the flavor doublet are considered with and without degeneracy. We find the generic form of the mass matrices both in the quark and lepton sectors. We reproduce, according to current data, the mixing in the CKM matrix. In the leptonic sector, in the general case where the right-handed neutrino masses are not degenerate, we find that the values for the solar, atmospheric, and reactor mixing angles are in very good agreement with the experimental data, both for a normal and an inverted hierarchy. In the particular case where the right-handed neutrinos masses are degenerate, the model predicts a strong inverted hierarchy spectrum and a sum rule among the neutrino masses. In this case the atmospheric and solar angles are in very good agreement with experimental data, and the reactor one is different from zero, albeit too small (θ{sub 13}{sup l{sup t{sup h}}}). This value constitutes a lower bound for θ{sub 13} in the general case.We also find the range of the values for the neutrino masses in each case. (orig.)

  2. A survey of numerical cubature over triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyness, J.N.; Cools, R.

    1993-12-31

    This survey collects together theoretical results in the area of numerical cubature over triangles and is a vehicle for a current bibliography. We treat first the theory relating to regular integrands and then the corresponding theory for singular integrands with emphasis on the ``full comer singularity.`` Within these two sections we treat successively approaches based on transforming the triangle into a square, formulas based on polynomial moment fitting, and extrapolation techniques. Within each category we quote key theoretical results without proof, and relate other results and references to these. Nearly all the references we have found may be readily placed in one of these categories. This survey is theoretical in character and does not include recent work in adaptive and automatic integration.

  3. 3D Printed Molecules and Extended Solid Models for Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Vaid, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Tangible models help students and researchers visualize chemical structures in three dimensions (3D). 3D printing offers a unique and straightforward approach to fabricate plastic 3D models of molecules and extended solids. In this article, we prepared a series of digital 3D design files of molecular structures that will be useful for teaching…

  4. A mechanism for the downturn in inverse susceptibility in triangle-based frustrated spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, M

    2008-01-01

    A mechanism for the downturn of inverse magnetic susceptibility below an intermediate temperature, recently observed in many experiments, is proposed as an intrinsic feature of lattices with triangle-based frustrated geometries. The temperature at the bending of the inverse susceptibility curve may be related to the features of other thermodynamic properties; the hump of the specific heat and the emergence of a 1/3 plateau in magnetization under a magnetic field. This fact is derived through a Monte Carlo simulation study of the Ising model on triangular and kagome lattices, and the exact calculation for the single and small-sized triangle clusters, on both the Ising and Heisenberg models. These results may indicate the dominance of S(S z ) = 1/2 quantum (classical) trimer formation in the intermediate-energy regime in two-dimensional triangle-based lattices

  5. Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one ver...

  6. State of the Coral Triangle: Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has made a firm commitment to sustainable management and conservation of its coastal and marine resources, helping formulate and implement the Sulu–Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Initiative and the Coral Triangle Initiative. Rapid economic growth, uncontrolled tourism development, unregulated fishing, and unsustainable use of marine resources have depleted the country’s fish stocks, lost nearly 36% of its mangrove forests, and increased the number of endangered species. Despite impressive...

  7. Dark discrete gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigate scenarios in which dark matter is stabilized by an Abelian Z N discrete gauge symmetry. Models are surveyed according to symmetries and matter content. Multicomponent dark matter arises when N is not prime and Z N contains one or more subgroups. The dark sector interacts with the visible sector through the renormalizable kinetic mixing and Higgs portal operators, and we highlight the basic phenomenology in these scenarios. In particular, multiple species of dark matter can lead to an unconventional nuclear recoil spectrum in direct detection experiments, while the presence of new light states in the dark sector can dramatically affect the decays of the Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC, thus providing a window into the gauge origin of the stability of dark matter.

  8. Broken Reflection Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugari, Steven Louis

    1992-01-01

    We have carried out a search for broken reflection symmetry in the exotic nucleus ^{114 }Xe. Evidence for broken reflection symmetry has been previously observed in the actinide region, most notably Ra-Th nuclei, and more recently in the neutron rich nuclei ^{144}Ba, ^{146}Ce, and ^{146,148}Nd. This evidence has been discussed in terms of two conceptually different theoretical frameworks, namely alpha clustering and octupole deformation. The alpha clustering model makes global predictions of the relative strengths of enhanced electric dipole (E1) transitions characteristic of broken reflection symmetry, and predicts a dependence on isospin divided by nuclear mass (N-Z) ^2/A^2 of the reduced transition probability, B(E1), where A is the nuclear mass number and N and Z are, respectively, the neutron and proton number. The nuclei studied previously have approximately the same value of (N-Z)^2/A ^2 between 0.033 and 0.05. In ^ {114}Xe this parameter is much different, (N-Z)^2/A^2 =.0028, allowing for a test of the prediction. On the other hand, the octupole model description is less straightforward. Two terms contributing to the calculation of reduced transition strengths are based on the collective liquid drop model of nuclei and have a global dependence on A^2 Z^2. A third term, however, depends explicitly on the shell model description of the valence nucleons and can be large enough to remove this global dependence. The nucleus ^{114}Xe was produced in the heavy ion fusion evaporation reaction ^{60}Ni(^ {58}Ni,2p2n)^{114 }Xe in two separate measurements at Daresbury Laboratory and at Yale University. The nucleus was identified by means of a recoil mass spectrometer in the first reaction and by detection of evaporated neutrons in the second. Gamma ray spectra were collected in coincidence with these triggers using similar gamma detector setups. Information on the angular distributions of the gamma rays was collected for at least three separate angles in each

  9. Modeling spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and deracemization phenomena: discrete versus continuum approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Celia; Ribó, Josep M; Hochberg, David

    2015-02-01

    We derive the class of population balance equations (PBE), recently applied to model the Viedma deracemization experiment, from an underlying microreversible kinetic reaction scheme. The continuum limit establishing the relationship between the micro- and macroscopic processes and the associated particle fluxes erases the microreversible nature of the molecular interactions in the population growth rate functions and limits the scope of such PBE models to strict kinetic control. The irreversible binary agglomeration processes modeled in those PBEs contribute an additional source of kinetic control. These limitations are crucial regarding the question of the origin of biological homochirality, where the interest in any model lies precisely in its ability for absolute asymmetric synthesis and the amplification of the tiny inherent statistical chiral fluctuations about the ideal racemic composition up to observable enantiometric excess levels.

  10. Symmetry in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffé, Hans H

    1977-01-01

    This book, devoted exclusively to symmetry in chemistry and developed in an essentially nonmathematical way, is a must for students and researchers. Topics include symmetry elements and operations, multiple symmetry operations, multiplication tables and point groups, group theory applications, and crystal symmetry. Extensive appendices provide useful tables.

  11. Scaling symmetry, renormalization, and time series modeling: the case of financial assets dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamparo, Marco; Baldovin, Fulvio; Caraglio, Michele; Stella, Attilio L

    2013-12-01

    We present and discuss a stochastic model of financial assets dynamics based on the idea of an inverse renormalization group strategy. With this strategy we construct the multivariate distributions of elementary returns based on the scaling with time of the probability density of their aggregates. In its simplest version the model is the product of an endogenous autoregressive component and a random rescaling factor designed to embody also exogenous influences. Mathematical properties like increments' stationarity and ergodicity can be proven. Thanks to the relatively low number of parameters, model calibration can be conveniently based on a method of moments, as exemplified in the case of historical data of the S&P500 index. The calibrated model accounts very well for many stylized facts, like volatility clustering, power-law decay of the volatility autocorrelation function, and multiscaling with time of the aggregated return distribution. In agreement with empirical evidence in finance, the dynamics is not invariant under time reversal, and, with suitable generalizations, skewness of the return distribution and leverage effects can be included. The analytical tractability of the model opens interesting perspectives for applications, for instance, in terms of obtaining closed formulas for derivative pricing. Further important features are the possibility of making contact, in certain limits, with autoregressive models widely used in finance and the possibility of partially resolving the long- and short-memory components of the volatility, with consistent results when applied to historical series.

  12. Symmetry-breaking dynamics of the finite-size Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model near ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Li, Tongcang; Yin, Zhang-qi

    2018-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model with a finite number of spins. In the thermodynamic limit, the ground state of the LMG model with an isotropic Hamiltonian in the broken phase breaks to a mean-field ground state with a certain direction. However, when the spin number N is finite, the exact ground state is always unique and is not given by a classical mean-field ground state. Here, we prove that when N is large but finite, through a tiny external perturbation, a localized state which is close to a mean-field ground state can be prepared, which mimics spontaneous symmetry breaking. Also, we find the localized in-plane spin polarization oscillates with two different frequencies ˜O (1 /N ) , and the lifetime of the localized state is long enough to exhibit this oscillation. We numerically test the analytical results and find that they agree very well with each other. Finally, we link the phenomena to quantum time crystals and time quasicrystals.

  13. Chiral symmetry restoration in the massive Thirring model at finite /T and /μ: dimensional reduction and the Coulomb gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Nicola, A.; Rivers, R. J.; Steer, D. A.

    2000-03-01

    We show that in certain limits the (1+1)-dimensional massive Thirring model at finite temperature T is equivalent to a one-dimensional Coulomb gas of charged particles at the same T. This equivalence is then used to explore the phase structure of the massive Thirring model. For strong coupling and T ≫ m (the fermion mass), the system is shown to behave as a free gas of "molecules" (charge pairs in the Coulomb gas terminology) made of pairs of chiral condensates. This binding of chiral condensates is responsible for the restoration of chiral symmetry as T→∞. In addition, when a fermion chemical potential μ≠0 is included, the analogy with a Coulomb gas still holds with μ playing the rôle of a purely imaginary external electric field. For small T and μ we find a typical massive Fermi gas behaviour for the fermion density, whereas for large μ it shows chiral restoration by means of a vanishing effective fermion mass. Some similarities with the chiral properties of low-energy QCD at finite T and baryon chemical potential are discussed.

  14. Model building by coset space dimensional reduction in ten dimensions with direct product gauge symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittoh, Toshifumi; Koike, Masafumi; Nomura, Takaaki; Sato, Joe; Shimomura, Takashi

    2009-03-01

    We investigate ten-dimensional gauge theories whose extra six-dimensional space is a compact coset space, S/R, and whose gauge group is a direct product of two Lie groups. We list candidates of the gauge group and embeddings of R into them. After dimensional reduction of the coset space, we find fermion and scalar representations of GGUT×U(1) with GGUT=SU(5), SO(10) and E6, which accommodate all of the standard model particles. We also discuss possibilities to generate distinct Yukawa couplings among the generations using representations with different dimensions for GGUT=SO(10) and E6 models.

  15. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, P

    2009-11-01

    To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepressive, antimanic, and antipsychotic), of clinically unwanted effects of these drugs, and the patients' own subjective perception of the balance between wanted and unwanted effects are analysed using rating scales assessed by modern psychometric tests (item response theory models) Symptom rating scales fulfilling the item response theory models have been shown to be psychometrically valid outcome scales as their total scores are sufficient statistics for demonstrating dose-response relationship within the various classes of antianxiety, antidepressive, antimanic or antipsychotic drugs. The total scores of side-effect rating scales are, however, not sufficient statistics, implying that each symptom has to be analysed individually. Self-rating scales with very few items appear to be sufficient statistics when measuring the patients' own perception of quality of life. Applied psychometrics in psychiatry have been found to cover a pharmacopsychometric triangle illustrating the measurements of wanted and unwanted effects of pharmacotherapeutic drugs as well as health-related quality of life.

  16. Model of the transverse modes of stable and unstable porro–prism resonators using symmetry considerations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available intensities in the central region of each petal, each pattern reminiscent of a small Gaussian beam. Following from the model of the petal−pattern formation2,3 it is hypothesized that the petals are individual Gaussian−like modes, each resonating...

  17. Searching for realistic 4d string models with a Pati-Salam symmetry. Orbifold grand unified theories from heterotic string compactification on a Z6 orbifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Raby, Stuart; Zhang Renjie

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by orbifold grand unified theories, we construct a class of three-family Pati-Salam models in a Z6 Abelian symmetric orbifold with two discrete Wilson lines. These models have marked differences from previously-constructed three-family models in prime-order orbifolds. In the limit where one of the six compactified dimensions (which lies in a Z2 sub-orbifold) is large compared to the string length scale, our models reproduce the supersymmetry and gauge symmetry breaking pattern of 5d orbifold grand unified theories on an S1/Z2 orbicircle. We find a horizontal 2+1 splitting in the chiral matter spectra-2 families of matter are localized on the Z2 orbifold fixed points, and 1 family propagates in the 5d bulk-and identify them as the first-two and third families. Remarkably, the first two families enjoy a non-Abelian dihedral D4 family symmetry, due to the geometric setup of the compactified space. In all our models there are always some color triplets, i.e., (6,1,1) representations of the Pati-Salam group, survive orbifold projections. They could be utilized to spontaneously break the Pati-Salam symmetry to that of the Standard Model. One model, with a 5d E 6 symmetry, may give rise to interesting low energy phenomenology. We study gauge coupling unification, allowed Yukawa couplings and some of their phenomenological consequences. The E6 model has a renormalizable Yukawa coupling only for the third family. It predicts a gauge-Yukawa unification relation at the 5d compactification scale, and is capable of generating reasonable quark/lepton masses and mixings. Potential problems are also addressed, they may point to the direction for refining our models

  18. Verifying Three-Dimensional Skull Model Reconstruction Using Cranial Index of Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kung, Woon-Man; Chen, Shuo-Tsung; Lin, Chung-Hsiang; Lu, Yu-Mei; Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Lin, Muh-Shi

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Difficulty exists in scalp adaptation for cranioplasty with customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) implant in situations of excessive wound tension and sub-cranioplasty dead space. To solve this clinical problem, the CAD/CAM technique should include algorithms to reconstruct a depressed contour to cover the skull defect. Satisfactory CAM-derived alloplastic implants are based on highly accurate three-dimensional (3-D) CAD modeling. Thus, it is quite important ...

  19. Breaking of SU(4) symmetry and interplay between strongly-correlated phases in the Hubbard model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Golubeva, A.; Sotnikov, A.; Cichy, A.; Kuneš, Jan; Hofstetter, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-7, č. článku 125108. ISSN 2469-9950 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 646807 - EXMAG Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Hubbard model * SU(4) Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  20. Unsupervised Object Modeling and Segmentation with Symmetry Detection for Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yuan Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel unsupervised approach to detecting and segmenting objects as well as their constituent symmetric parts in an image. Traditional unsupervised image segmentation is limited by two obvious deficiencies: the object detection accuracy degrades with the misaligned boundaries between the segmented regions and the target, and pre-learned models are required to group regions into meaningful objects. To tackle these difficulties, the proposed approach aims at incorporating the pair-wise detection of symmetric patches to achieve the goal of segmenting images into symmetric parts. The skeletons of these symmetric parts then provide estimates of the bounding boxes to locate the target objects. Finally, for each detected object, the graphcut-based segmentation algorithm is applied to find its contour. The proposed approach has significant advantages: no a priori object models are used, and multiple objects are detected. To verify the effectiveness of the approach based on the cues that a face part contains an oval shape and skin colors, human objects are extracted from among the detected objects. The detected human objects and their parts are finally tracked across video frames to capture the object part movements for learning the human activity models from video clips. Experimental results show that the proposed method gives good performance on publicly available datasets.

  1. Superconductivity with s and p symmetries in an extended Hubbard model with correlated hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aligia, A. A.; Gagliano, E.; Arrachea, L.; Hallberg, K.

    1998-10-01

    We consider a generalized Hubbard model with on-site and nearest-neighbour repulsions U and V respectively, and nearest-neighbour hopping for spin up (down) which depends on the total occupation n_b of spin down (up) electrons on both sites involved. The hopping parameters are t_{AA}, t_{AB} and t_{BB} for n_b=0,1,2 respectively. We briefly summarize results which support that the model exhibits s-wave superconductivity for certain parameters and extend them by studying the Berry phases. Using a generalized Hartree-Fock(HF) BCS decoupling of the two and three-body terms, we obtain that at half filling, for t_{AB}model leads to triplet p-wave superconductivity for a simple cubic lattice in any dimension. In one dimension, the resulting phase diagram is compared with that obtained numerically using two quantized Berry phases (topological numbers) as order parameters. While this novel method supports the previous results, there are quantitative differences.

  2. Superconductivity with s and p symmetries in an extended Hubbard model with correlated hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aligia, A.A.; Gagliano, E.; Hallberg, K. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche (CAB); Arrachea, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    We consider a generalized Hubbard model with on-site and nearest-neighbour repulsions U and V respectively, and nearest-neighbour hopping for spin up (down) which depends on the total occupation n{sub b} of spin down (up) electrons on both sites involved. The hopping parameters are t{sub AA}, t{sub AB} and t{sub BB} for n{sub b}=0,1,2 respectively. We briefly summarize results which support that the model exhibits s-wave superconductivity for certain parameters and extend them by studying the Berry phases. Using a generalized Hartree-Fock(HF) BCS decoupling of the two and three-body terms, we obtain that at half filling, for t{sub AB}model leads to triplet p-wave superconductivity for a simple cubic lattice in any dimension. In one dimension, the resulting phase diagram is compared with that obtained numerically using two quantized Berry phases (topological numbers) as order parameters. While this novel method supports the previous results, there are quantitative differences. (orig.) 68 refs.

  3. Models for mirror symmetry breaking via β-sheet-controlled copolymerization: (i) mass balance and (ii) probabilistic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Celia; Hochberg, David

    2012-12-06

    Experimental mechanisms that yield the growth of homochiral copolymers over their heterochiral counterparts have been advocated by Lahav and co-workers. These chiral amplification mechanisms proceed through racemic β-sheet-controlled polymerization operative in both surface crystallites as well as in solution. We develop two complementary theoretical models for these template-induced desymmetrization processes leading to multicomponent homochiral copolymers. First, assuming reversible β-sheet formation, the equilibrium between the free monomer pool and the polymer strand within the template is assumed. This yields coupled nonlinear mass balance equations whose solutions are used to calculate enantiomeric excesses and average lengths of the homochiral chains formed. The second approach is a probabilistic treatment based on random polymerization. The occlusion probabilities depend on the polymerization activation energies for each monomer species and are proportional to the concentrations of the monomers in solution in the constant pool approximation. The monomer occlusion probabilities are represented geometrically in terms of unit simplexes from which conditions for maximizing or minimizing the likelihood for mirror symmetry breaking can be determined.

  4. Validation and scale dependencies of the triangle method for the evaporative fraction estimation over heterogeneous areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Tomás, Alberto; Nieto, Héctor; Guzinski, Radoslaw

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing has proved to be a consistent tool for monitoring water fluxes at regional scales. The triangle method, in particular, estimates the evaporative fraction (EF), defined as the ratio of latent heat flux (LE) to available energy, based on the relationship between satellite observations...... a heterogeneous area in central Spain, using Landsat5-TM, Envisat-AATSR/MERIS and MSG-SEVIRI images. Some aspects affecting the model performance such as spatial resolution, terrain conditions, vegetation index applied and method for deriving the triangle edges have been assessed. The derived EF estimations have...

  5. Parent of origin, mosaicism, and recurrence risk: probabilistic modeling explains the broken symmetry of transmission genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian M; Stewart, Jonathan R; James, Regis A; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Olofsson, Peter; Shaw, Chad A

    2014-10-02

    Most new mutations are observed to arise in fathers, and increasing paternal age positively correlates with the risk of new variants. Interestingly, new mutations in X-linked recessive disease show elevated familial recurrence rates. In male offspring, these mutations must be inherited from mothers. We previously developed a simulation model to consider parental mosaicism as a source of transmitted mutations. In this paper, we extend and formalize the model to provide analytical results and flexible formulas. The results implicate parent of origin and parental mosaicism as central variables in recurrence risk. Consistent with empirical data, our model predicts that more transmitted mutations arise in fathers and that this tendency increases as fathers age. Notably, the lack of expansion later in the male germline determines relatively lower variance in the proportion of mutants, which decreases with paternal age. Subsequently, observation of a transmitted mutation has less impact on the expected risk for future offspring. Conversely, for the female germline, which arrests after clonal expansion in early development, variance in the mutant proportion is higher, and observation of a transmitted mutation dramatically increases the expected risk of recurrence in another pregnancy. Parental somatic mosaicism considerably elevates risk for both parents. These findings have important implications for genetic counseling and for understanding patterns of recurrence in transmission genetics. We provide a convenient online tool and source code implementing our analytical results. These tools permit varying the underlying parameters that influence recurrence risk and could be useful for analyzing risk in diverse family structures. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Symmetry analysis of a model for the exercise of a barrier option

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, J. G.; Sophocleous, C.; Leach, P. G. L.

    2013-09-01

    A barrier option takes into account the possibility of an unacceptable change in the price of the underlying stock. Such a change could carry considerable financial loss. We examine one model based upon the Black-Scholes-Merton Equation and determine the functional forms of the barrier function and rebate function which are consistent with a solution of the underlying evolution partial differential equation using the Lie Theory of Extended Groups. The solution is consistent with the possibility of no rebate and the barrier function is very similar to one adopted on an heuristic basis.

  7. Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetry and the mechanisms of its breaking are the subject of the present review.

  8. A Time-Space Symmetry Based Cylindrical Model for Quantum Mechanical Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo Van, Thuan

    2017-12-01

    Following a bi-cylindrical model of geometrical dynamics, our study shows that a 6D-gravitational equation leads to geodesic description in an extended symmetrical time-space, which fits Hubble-like expansion on a microscopic scale. As a duality, the geodesic solution is mathematically equivalent to the basic Klein-Gordon-Fock equations of free massive elementary particles, in particular, the squared Dirac equations of leptons. The quantum indeterminism is proved to have originated from space-time curvatures. Interpretation of some important issues of quantum mechanical reality is carried out in comparison with the 5D space-time-matter theory. A solution of lepton mass hierarchy is proposed by extending to higher dimensional curvatures of time-like hyper-spherical surfaces than one of the cylindrical dynamical geometry. In a result, the reasonable charged lepton mass ratios have been calculated, which would be tested experimentally.

  9. Grading and Academic Freedom: An English Academic's Angle on Hill's Contentious Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglear, John

    2011-01-01

    Following the dismissal of a Canadian professor over disputed grading practices, Hill produced his triangle model of competing interests of academics, administrators and students. In the UK, academic freedom in relation to grading is increasingly constrained reflecting more assertive institutional management supervising over-burdened academic…

  10. Sex determination of human crania using Mastoid triangle and Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepali; Jasuja, O P; Nath, Surinder

    2013-05-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to establish standards for sex determination from the various direct and indirect measurements of the cranium. A total of 100 cranium (50 of either sex) were measured for nine direct measurements pertaining to Mastoid triangle and Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle. These measurements were used further to calculate four indirect measurements pertaining to the calculation of Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle area and angles. Analysis of data reveals that the male crania exhibit greater values for all the measurements except the angle right Mastoidale-Opisthion-left Mastoidale. The sex difference has been observed to be statistically significant for all the measurements except for the angles of the Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle. Sectioning point was calculated for the diagnosis of sex based on the mean values of these measurements; the accuracy of sex determination varied from measurement to measurement. The highest value for determining sex was obtained for Asterion-Mastoidale length of right side i.e. 80%, followed by Bi-mastoid breadth i.e. 75%. This suggests that these measurements could be used with relatively high degree of accuracy in determining sex of the unknown crania. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Symmetry structure in discrete models of biochemical systems: natural subsystems and the weak control hierarchy in a new model of computation driven by interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehaniv, Chrystopher L; Rhodes, John; Egri-Nagy, Attila; Dini, Paolo; Morris, Eric Rothstein; Horváth, Gábor; Karimi, Fariba; Schreckling, Daniel; Schilstra, Maria J

    2015-07-28

    Interaction computing is inspired by the observation that cell metabolic/regulatory systems construct order dynamically, through constrained interactions between their components and based on a wide range of possible inputs and environmental conditions. The goals of this work are to (i) identify and understand mathematically the natural subsystems and hierarchical relations in natural systems enabling this and (ii) use the resulting insights to define a new model of computation based on interactions that is useful for both biology and computation. The dynamical characteristics of the cellular pathways studied in systems biology relate, mathematically, to the computational characteristics of automata derived from them, and their internal symmetry structures to computational power. Finite discrete automata models of biological systems such as the lac operon, the Krebs cycle and p53-mdm2 genetic regulation constructed from systems biology models have canonically associated algebraic structures (their transformation semigroups). These contain permutation groups (local substructures exhibiting symmetry) that correspond to 'pools of reversibility'. These natural subsystems are related to one another in a hierarchical manner by the notion of 'weak control'. We present natural subsystems arising from several biological examples and their weak control hierarchies in detail. Finite simple non-Abelian groups are found in biological examples and can be harnessed to realize finitary universal computation. This allows ensembles of cells to achieve any desired finitary computational transformation, depending on external inputs, via suitably constrained interactions. Based on this, interaction machines that grow and change their structure recursively are introduced and applied, providing a natural model of computation driven by interactions.

  12. Symmetry and perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Giuseppe

    A co-chain map for the G invariant De Rham complex -- New examples of trihamiltonian structures linking different Lenard chains -- Wave propagation in an elastic medium: GDS equations -- Parametric excitation in nonlinear dynamics -- Collisionless action-minimizing trajectories for the equivariant 3-body problem in R2 -- The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations for a special class of non-conservative systems -- Shadowing chains of collision orbits for the elliptic 3-body problem -- Similarity reductions of an optical model -- Fold, transcritical and pitchfork singularities for time-reversible systems -- Homographic three-body motions with positive and negative masses -- Remarks on conformal Killing tensors and separation of variables -- A regularity theory for optimal partition problems -- Lambda and mu-symmetries -- Potential symmetries and linearization of some evolution equations -- Periodic solutions for zero mass nonlinear wave equations -- Fundamental covariants in the invariant theory of Killing tensors -- Global geometry of 3-body trajectories with vanishing angular momentum -- The relation between the topological structure of the set of controllable affine systems and topological structures of the set of controllable homogenuous systems in low dimension -- On preservation of action variables for satellite librations in elliptic orbits with account of solar light pressure -- An explicit solution of the (quantum) elliptic Calogero-Sutherland model -- An application of the Melnikov integral to a restricted three body problem -- Reductions of integrable equations and automorphic Lie algebras -- Geometric reduction of Poisson operators -- Closed manifolds admitting metrics with the same geodesics -- A transcritical-flip bifurcation in a model for a robot-arm -- Alignment and the classification of Lorentz-signature tensors -- Renormalization group symmetry and gas dynamics -- Refined computation of hypernormal forms -- New order reductions for Euler

  13. Symmetries leading to inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirregabiria, Juan M.; Lazkoz, Ruth; Chimento, Luis P.; Jakubi, Alejandro S.

    2003-01-01

    We present here the general transformation that leaves unchanged the form of the field equations for perfect fluid Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi type V cosmologies. The symmetries found can be used as algorithms for generating new cosmological models from existing ones. A particular case of the general transformation is used to illustrate the crucial role played by the number of scalar fields in the occurrence of inflation. Related to this, we also study the existence and stability of Bianchi type V power law solutions

  14. Integral Isosceles Triangle-Parallelogram and Heron triangle-Rhombus Pairs with a Common Area and Common Perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pradeep; Juyal, Abhishek; Moody, Dustin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we show that there are infinitely many pairs of integer isosceles triangles and integer parallelograms with a common (integral) area and common perimeter. We also show that there are infinitely many Heron triangles and integer rhombuses with common area and common perimeter. As a corollary, we show there does not exist any Heron triangle and integer square which have a common area and common perimeter.

  15. Symmetry and emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    2018-02-01

    In a modern understanding of particle physics, global symmetries are approximate and gauge symmetries may be emergent. This view, which has echoes in condensed-matter physics, is supported by a variety of arguments from experiment and theory.

  16. A κ-symmetry calculus for superparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntlett, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    We develop a κ-symmetry calculus for the d=2 and d=3, N=2 massive superparticles, which enables us to construct higher order κ-invariant actions. The method relies on a reformulation of these models as supersymmetric sigma models that are invariant under local worldline superconformal transformations. We show that the κ-symmetry is embedded in the superconformal symmetry so that a calculus for the κ-symmetry is equivalent to a tensor calculus for the latter. We develop such a calculus without the introduction of a wordline supergravity multiplet. (orig.)

  17. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This article elucidates the important role the no- tion of symmetry has played in physics. It dis- cusses the proof of one of the important theorems of quantum mechanics, viz., Wigner's Symmetry. Representation Theorem. It also shows how the representations of various continuous and dis- crete symmetries follow from the ...

  18. Weak C* Hopf Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Rehren, K. -H.

    1996-01-01

    Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.

  19. Symmetry, asymmetry and dissymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.; Zollner, G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the concept of symmetry and defect of symmetry in radiological imaging and recall the definition of asymmetry (congenital or constitutional) and dissymmetry (acquired). They then describe a rule designed for the cognitive method of automatic evaluation of shape recognition data and propose the use of reversal symmetry [fr

  20. Polynomial Graphs and Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehle, Geoff; Kobayashi, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Most quadratic functions are not even, but every parabola has symmetry with respect to some vertical line. Similarly, every cubic has rotational symmetry with respect to some point, though most cubics are not odd. We show that every polynomial has at most one point of symmetry and give conditions under which the polynomial has rotational or…

  1. Symmetry violation in weak decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Kimberley Keri

    2016-01-01

    Our current knowledge of particle physics is described by the Standard Model (SM). This model, however, leaves important observations unexplained. To answer these outstanding questions, as of yet, unknown physics is required. In the search for new physics, symmetries and their breaking play a

  2. Applications of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T χ implies that the ρ and a 1 vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the ρ mass increases with temperature, m ρ (T χ ) > m ρ (0). The author conjectures that at T χ the thermal ρ - a 1 , peak is relatively high, at about ∼1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The ω meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the ρ, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least ∼100 MeV by T χ . The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from open-quotes quenchedclose quotes heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates

  3. From Concept to Reality in Implementing the Knowledge Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoer, Ellen; Nørgaard, Bente; Goossens, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Knowledge Triangle (KT) links together research, education and innovation and replaces the traditional "one way" flow of knowledge, essentially from research to education, by a "both ways" circular motion between all the corners of a triangle that, besides research and education, also includes innovation, the…

  4. Developing Formulas by Skipping Rows in Pascal's Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonpastore, Robert J.; Osler, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    A table showing the first thirteen rows of Pascal's triangle, where the rows are, as usual numbered from 0 to 12 is presented. The entries in the table are called binomial coefficients. In this note, the authors systematically delete rows from Pascal's triangle and, by trial and error, try to find a formula that allows them to add new rows to the…

  5. Teaching Pascal's Triangle from a Computer Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurnick, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Pascal's Triangle is named for the seventeenth-century French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal (the same person for whom the computer programming language is named). Students are generally introduced to Pascal's Triangle in an algebra or precalculus class in which the Binomial Theorem is presented. This article, presents a new method…

  6. What Do You Find? Students Investigating Patterns in Pascal's Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, students used problem-solving skills to investigate what patterns exist in the Pascal triangle and incorporated technology using Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) in the process. Students came up with patterns such as natural numbers, triangular numbers, and Fibonacci numbers. Although the patterns inherent in Pascal's triangle may seem…

  7. Albime triangles and Guy’s favourite elliptic curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Erika; Chahal, Jasbir S; Top, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    This text discusses triangles with the property that a bisector at one vertex, the median at another, and the altitude at the third vertex are concurrent. It turns out that since the 1930s, such triangles appeared in the problem sections of various journals. We recall their well known relation with

  8. THE SPECTRA OF THE SPHERICAL AND EUCLIDEAN TRIANGLE GROUPS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harmer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2008), s. 217-227 ISSN 1446-7887 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : triangle groups * spectral multiplicity * equilateral triangle Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.315, year: 2008

  9. Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John

    2000-01-01

    Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph...

  10. Some Unusual Expressions for the Inradius of a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2005-01-01

    Several formulae for the inradius of various types of triangles are derived. Properties of the inradius and trigonometric functions of the angles of Pythagorean and Heronian triangles are also presented. The entire presentation is elementary and suitable for classes in geometry, precalculus mathematics and number theory.

  11. Triangle-free graphs whose independence number equals the degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    In a triangle-free graph, the neighbourhood of every vertex is an independent set. We investigate the class S of triangle-free graphs where the neighbourhoods of vertices are maximum independent sets. Such a graph G must be regular of degree d = α (G) and the fractional chromatic number must...

  12. Homothetic Transformations and Geometric Loci: Properties of Triangles and Quadrilaterals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammana, Maria Flavia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we use geometric transformations to find some interesting properties related with geometric loci. In particular, given a triangle or a cyclic quadrilateral, the locus generated by the centroid or by the orthocentre (for triangles) or by the anticentre (for cyclic quadrilaterals) when one vertex moves on the circumcircle of the…

  13. Uses of systemic approach and chemist's triangle in teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes uses of the systemic chemistry triangle [SCT] in which we get the benefits of both systemic approach and chemist's triangle in teaching and learning chemistry. SCT creates active learning environment enable students to gain high mental and professional skills, correct cognition, positive attitudes ...

  14. Parastatistics and gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorkov, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    A possible formulation of gauge symmetries in the Green parafield theory is analysed and the SO(3) gauge symmetry is shown to be on a distinct status. The Greenberg paraquark hypothesis turns out to be not equivalent to the hypothesis of quark colour SU(3)sub(c) symmetry. Specific features of the gauge SO(3) symmetry are discussed, and a possible scheme where it is an exact subgroup of the broken SU(3)sub(c) symmetry is proposed. The direct formulation of the gauge principle for the parafield represented by quaternions is also discussed

  15. Z n clock models and chains of so(n)2 non-Abelian anyons: symmetries, integrable points and low energy properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Peter E.; Flohr, Michael; Frahm, Holger

    2018-02-01

    We study two families of quantum models which have been used previously to investigate the effect of topological symmetries in one-dimensional correlated matter. Various striking similarities are observed between certain {Z}n quantum clock models, spin chains generalizing the Ising model, and chains of non-Abelian anyons constructed from the so(n)2 fusion category for odd n, both subject to periodic boundary conditions. In spite of the differences between these two types of quantum chains, e.g. their Hilbert spaces being spanned by tensor products of local spin states or fusion paths of anyons, the symmetries of the lattice models are shown to be closely related. Furthermore, under a suitable mapping between the parameters describing the interaction between spins and anyons the respective Hamiltonians share part of their energy spectrum (although their degeneracies may differ). This spin-anyon correspondence can be extended by fine-tuning of the coupling constants leading to exactly solvable models. We show that the algebraic structures underlying the integrability of the clock models and the anyon chain are the same. For n  =  3,5,7 we perform an extensive finite size study—both numerical and based on the exact solution—of these models to map out their ground state phase diagram and to identify the effective field theories describing their low energy behaviour. We observe that the continuum limit at the integrable points can be described by rational conformal field theories with extended symmetry algebras which can be related to the discrete ones of the lattice models.

  16. Model for particle masses, flavor mixing, and CP violation, based on spontaneously broken discrete chiral symmetry as the origin of families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    We construct extensions of the standard model based on the hypothesis that Higgs bosons also exhibit a family structure and that the flavor weak eigenstates in the three families are distinguished by a discrete Z 6 chiral symmetry that is spontaneously broken by the Higgs sector. We study in detail at the tree level models with three Higgs doublets and with six Higgs doublets comprising two weakly coupled sets of three. In a leading approximation of S 3 cyclic permutation symmetry the three-Higgs-doublet model gives a open-quotes democraticclose quotes mass matrix of rank 1, while the six-Higgs-doublet model gives either a rank-1 mass matrix or, in the case when it spontaneously violates CP, a rank-2 mass matrix corresponding to nonzero second family masses. In both models, the CKM matrix is exactly unity in the leading approximation. Allowing small explicit violations of cyclic permutation symmetry generates small first family masses in the six-Higgs-doublet model, and first and second family masses in the three-Higgs-doublet model, and gives a nontrivial CKM matrix in which the mixings of the first and second family quarks are naturally larger than mixings involving the third family. Complete numerical fits are given for both models, flavor-changing neutral current constraints are discussed in detail, and the issues of unification of couplings and neutrino masses are addressed. On a technical level, our analysis uses the theory of circulant and retrocirculant matrices, the relevant parts of which are reviewed. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  17. 9th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Document Server

    CKM2016

    2016-01-01

    The 9th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle (CKM 2016) will be held during November 28 to December 3, 2016 at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai, India. The CKM series is a well-established international meeting in the field of quark-flavour physics that brings both experimenters and theorists on a common platform. On the experimental front, we bridge borders between neutron, kaon, charm and beauty hadron, and top quark physics. The theory program tries to cover a wide range of approaches. We shall discuss how this marriage of the two can indirectly probe physics beyond the standard model, taking into account the interplay with high-pT collider searches.

  18. Symmetries of nonlinear ordinary differential equations: The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... Lie point symmetries; -symmetries; Noether symmetries; contact symmetries; adjoint symmetries; nonlocal symmetries; hidden symmetries; ... 620 024, India; Centre for Nonlinear Science and Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, India ...

  19. Generalized global symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q=0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a subgroup). They can also have ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. Our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.

  20. Symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation

  1. How to get the magic triangle and the MAD triangle into your protein crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Tobias; Cunha, Carlos Eduardo da; Sheldrick, George M.

    2009-01-01

    The handling of the phasing tools I3C and B3C is described, emphasizing practical aspects such as the preparation of solutions and incorporation of the compounds into protein crystals. The magic triangle 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid (I3C) and the MAD triangle 5-amino-2,4,6-tribromoisophthalic acid (B3C) are two representatives of a novel class of compounds that combine heavy atoms for experimental phasing with functional groups for protein interactions. These compounds are readily available and provide easy access to experimental phasing. The preparation of stock solutions and the incorporation of the compounds into protein crystals are discussed. As an example of incorporation via cocrystallization, the incorporation of B3C into bovine trypsin, resulting in a single site with high occupancy, is described

  2. "The mother of all black triangles" case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David

    2012-02-01

    Before the Bioclear matrix and a disciplined approach to composite treatment of black triangles, many treatments ended with significant compromise in periodontal health. Many cases debonded soon after placement. Others suffered problems with stain. Nonetheless, our patients are hopeful for a better solution. The interdental papilla serves as both a functional and aesthetic asset. Anatomically ideal interproximal composite shapes that are mirror smooth can serve as a predictable scaffold to regain this valuable gingival architecture. Clean enamel surfaces can be leveraged to permanently retain the restorations. However, the reader is cautioned that to attempt this elective procedure using no magnification, without a strict adherence to dentin detoxification with a blasting appliance, and using a flat matrix, nontreatment or referral is recommended. Our profession can change its thought processes, retrain its hands and expand its armamentarium to perform techniques that were previously impossible.

  3. Discrete symmetries and their stringy origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorga Pena, Damian Kaloni

    2014-05-01

    Discrete symmetries have proven to be very useful in controlling the phenomenology of theories beyond the standard model. In this work we explore how these symmetries emerge from string compactifications. Our approach is twofold: On the one hand, we consider the heterotic string on orbifold backgrounds. In this case the discrete symmetries can be derived from the orbifold conformal field theory, and it can be shown that they are in close relation with the orbifold geometry. We devote special attention to R-symmetries, which arise from discrete remnants of the Lorentz group in compact space. Further we discuss the physical implications of these symmetries both in the heterotic mini-landscape and in newly constructed models based on the Z 2 x Z 4 orbifold. In both cases we observe that the discrete symmetries favor particular locations in the orbifold where the particles of standard model should live. On the other hand we consider a class of F-theory models exhibiting an SU(5) gauge group, times additional U(1) symmetries. In this case, the smooth compactification background does not permit us to track the discrete symmetries as transparently as in orbifold models. Hence, we follow a different approach and search for discrete subgroups emerging after the U(1)s are broken. We observe that in this approach it is possible to obtain the standard Z 2 matter parity of the MSSM.

  4. Chiral symmetry on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.

    1994-11-01

    The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model.

  5. Symmetry of intramolecular quantum dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Burenin, Alexander V

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to give a systematic description of intramolecular quantum dynamics on the basis of only the symmetry principles. In this respect, the book has no analogs in the world literature. The obtained models lead to a simple, purely algebraic, scheme of calculation and are rigorous in the sense that their correctness is limited only to the correct choice of symmetry of the internal dynamics. The book is basically intended for scientists working in the field of molecular spectroscopy, quantum and structural chemistry.

  6. Scale symmetry of quantum solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepilko, N.M.; Fujii, K.; Kobushkin, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    A collective-coordinate Lagrangian for a rotating and vibrating quantum soliton in the nonlinear σ-model is shown to possess a symmetry under scale transformation of the chiral field. Using this symmetry an integrodifferential equation for the chiral angle is obtained. A consistency condition between this equation and the Schroedinger equation for the quantum soliton is also discussed. At limiting cases (a vibrating, but not rotating soliton; or a rotating, but not vibrating soliton) the integrodifferential ones and the chiral angle becomes independent of the solution of the Schroedinger equation. 7 refs

  7. Chiral symmetry on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1994-11-01

    The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model

  8. Symmetries in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainzer, K.

    1988-01-01

    Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs

  9. Partial dynamical symmetry in a fermion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher; Leviatan

    2000-02-28

    The relevance of the partial dynamical symmetry concept for an interacting fermion system is demonstrated. Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry are presented in the framework of the symplectic shell model of nuclei and shown to be closely related to the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. Implications are discussed for the deformed light nucleus 20Ne.

  10. Comparing MapReduce and Pipeline Implementations for Counting Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelmira Pasarella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A common method to define a parallel solution for a computational problem consists in finding a way to use the Divide and Conquer paradigm in order to have processors acting on its own data and scheduled in a parallel fashion. MapReduce is a programming model that follows this paradigm, and allows for the definition of efficient solutions by both decomposing a problem into steps on subsets of the input data and combining the results of each step to produce final results. Albeit used for the implementation of a wide variety of computational problems, MapReduce performance can be negatively affected whenever the replication factor grows or the size of the input is larger than the resources available at each processor. In this paper we show an alternative approach to implement the Divide and Conquer paradigm, named dynamic pipeline. The main features of dynamic pipelines are illustrated on a parallel implementation of the well-known problem of counting triangles in a graph. This problem is especially interesting either when the input graph does not fit in memory or is dynamically generated. To evaluate the properties of pipeline, a dynamic pipeline of processes and an ad-hoc version of MapReduce are implemented in the language Go, exploiting its ability to deal with channels and spawned processes. An empirical evaluation is conducted on graphs of different topologies, sizes, and densities. Observed results suggest that dynamic pipelines allows for an efficient implementation of the problem of counting triangles in a graph, particularly, in dense and large graphs, drastically reducing the execution time with respect to the MapReduce implementation.

  11. From symmetries to number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempesta, P.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the finite-operator calculus provides a simple formalism useful for constructing symmetry-preserving discretizations of quantum-mechanical integrable models. A related algebraic approach can also be used to define a class of Appell polynomials and of L series.

  12. Bodily symmetry increases across human childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, David; Bates, Timothy C; Dykiert, Dominika; Der, Geoff; Deary, Ian J

    2013-08-01

    Although bodily symmetry is widely used in studies of fitness and individual differences, little is known about how symmetry changes across development, especially in childhood. To test how, if at all, bodily symmetry changes across childhood. We measured bodily symmetry via digital images of the hands. Participants provided information on their age. We ran polynomial regression models testing for associations between age and symmetry. 887 children attending a public science event aged between 4 and 15 years old. Mean asymmetry for the eight traits (an average of the asymmetry scores for the lengths and widths of digits 2 to 5). Symmetry increases in childhood and we found that this period of development is best described by a nonlinear function. Symmetry may be under active control, increasing with time as the organism approaches an optimal state, prior to a subsequent decline in symmetry during senescence. The causes and consequences of this contrasting pattern of developmental improvement in symmetry and reversal in old age should be studied in more detail. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mirror Symmetry, Hitchin's Equations, And Langlands Duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    This chapter begins with a discussion of the A-model and B-model. It then describes mirror symmetry and Hitchin's equations, Hitchin fibration, ramification, wild ramification, and four-dimensional gauge theory and stacks.

  14. Grouper: A Compact, Streamable Triangle Mesh Data Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luffel, Mark [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Gurung, Topraj [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Lindstrom, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rossignac, Jarek [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU)

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We also present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. In this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle-i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format-Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.

  15. Partial dynamical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Leviatan, A.

    1993-01-01

    A novel symmetry structure, partial dynamical symmetry is introduced. The Hamiltonian is not invariant under the transformations of a group G and irreps of G are mixed in its eigenstates. it possesses, however, a partial set of eigenstates which do have good symmetry and can be labeled by irreps of G. A general algorithm to construct such Hamiltonians for a semi-simple group G is presented. (Author) 6 refs

  16. Penrose triangles of the fossil-to-bio-based transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, Andrzej

    2017-09-21

    Transition within the chemical industry from fossil to green feedstocks is a complex process characterized by the generation of commercially viable feedstock-process-product triangles. The research in this area encompasses a great diversity of relevant topics. A number of those topics have been addressed within this volume of Faraday Discussions and are summarized in this paper. They are categorized and discussed along with seven general questions arising from the feedstock-process-product triangles. Opportunities are identified that should make more of these triangles technically and economically feasible. The future role of renewable electricity as the primary energy source for the bio-based industry is emphasized.

  17. Spectral distributions and symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesne, C.

    1980-01-01

    As it is now well known, the spectral distribution method has both statistical and group theoretical aspects which make for great simplifications in many-Fermion system calculations with respect to more conventional ones. Although both aspects intertwine and are equally essential to understand what is going on, we are only going to discuss some of the group theoretical aspects, namely those connected with the propagation of information, in view of their fundamental importance for the actual calculations of spectral distributions. To be more precise, let us recall that the spectral distribution method may be applied in principle to many-Fermion spaces which have a direct-product structure, i.e., are obtained by distributing a certain number n of Fermions over N single-particle states (O less than or equal to n less than or equal to N), as it is the case for instance for the nuclear shell model spaces. For such systems, the operation of a central limit theorem is known to provide us with a simplifying principle which, when used in conjunction with exact or broken symmetries, enables us to make definite predictions in those cases which are not amendable to exact shell model diagonalizations. The distribution (in energy) of the states corresponding to a fixed symmetry is then defined by a small number of low-order energy moments. Since the Hamiltonian is defined in few-particle subspaces embedded in the n-particlespace, the low-order moments, we are interested in, can be expressed in terms of simpler quantities defined in those few-particle subspaces: the information is said to propagate from the simple subspaces to the more complicated ones. The possibility of actually calculating spectral distributions depends upon the finding of simple ways to propagate the information

  18. Solution of the classical Yang–Baxter equation with an exotic symmetry, and integrability of a multi-species boson tunnelling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Links

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of the classical Yang–Baxter equation provide a systematic method to construct integrable quantum systems in an algebraic manner. A Lie algebra can be associated with any solution of the classical Yang–Baxter equation, from which commuting transfer matrices may be constructed. This procedure is reviewed, specifically for solutions without skew-symmetry. A particular solution with an exotic symmetry is identified, which is not obtained as a limiting expansion of the usual Yang–Baxter equation. This solution facilitates the construction of commuting transfer matrices which will be used to establish the integrability of a multi-species boson tunnelling model. The model generalises the well-known two-site Bose–Hubbard model, to which it reduces in the one-species limit. Due to the lack of an apparent reference state, application of the algebraic Bethe Ansatz to solve the model is prohibitive. Instead, the Bethe Ansatz solution is obtained by the use of operator identities and tensor product decompositions.

  19. Solution of the classical Yang–Baxter equation with an exotic symmetry, and integrability of a multi-species boson tunnelling model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Links, Jon, E-mail: jrl@maths.uq.edu.au

    2017-03-15

    Solutions of the classical Yang–Baxter equation provide a systematic method to construct integrable quantum systems in an algebraic manner. A Lie algebra can be associated with any solution of the classical Yang–Baxter equation, from which commuting transfer matrices may be constructed. This procedure is reviewed, specifically for solutions without skew-symmetry. A particular solution with an exotic symmetry is identified, which is not obtained as a limiting expansion of the usual Yang–Baxter equation. This solution facilitates the construction of commuting transfer matrices which will be used to establish the integrability of a multi-species boson tunnelling model. The model generalises the well-known two-site Bose–Hubbard model, to which it reduces in the one-species limit. Due to the lack of an apparent reference state, application of the algebraic Bethe Ansatz to solve the model is prohibitive. Instead, the Bethe Ansatz solution is obtained by the use of operator identities and tensor product decompositions.

  20. The brain MRI image sparse representation based on the gradient information and the non-symmetry and anti-packing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hu; Zhao, Shengrong; Dong, Xiangjun

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, sparse representation has been widely used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The commonly used sparse representation methods are based on symmetrical partition, which have not considered the complex structure of MRI image. In this paper, we proposed a sparse representation method for the brain MRI image, called GNAMlet transform, which is based on the gradient information and the non-symmetry and anti-packing model. The proposed sparse representation method can reduce the lost detail information, improving the reconstruction accuracy. The experiment results show the superiority of the proposed transform for the brain MRI image representation in comparison with some state-of-the-art sparse representation methods.

  1. One-loop corrections to the perturbative unitarity bounds in the CP-conserving two-Higgs doublet model with a softly broken ℤ{sub 2} symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinstein, Benjamín [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Murphy, Christopher W. [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, Pisa 56126 (Italy); Uttayarat, Patipan [Department of Physics, Srinakharinwirot University, Wattana, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand)

    2016-06-13

    We compute all of the one-loop corrections that are enhanced, O(λ{sub i}λ{sub j}/16π{sup 2}), in the limit s≫|λ{sub i}|v{sup 2}≫M{sub W}{sup 2}, s≫m{sub 12}{sup 2} to all the 2→2 longitudinal vector boson and Higgs boson scattering amplitudes in the CP-conserving two-Higgs doublet model with a softly broken ℤ{sub 2} symmetry. In the two simplified scenarios we study, the typical bound we find is |λ{sub i}(s)|⪅4.

  2. Superdeformations and fermion dynamical symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng-Li

    1990-01-01

    In this talk, I will present a link between nuclear collective motions and their underlying fermion dynamical symmetries. In particular, I will focus on the microscopic understanding of deformations. It is shown that the SU 3 of the one major shell fermion dynamical symmetry model (FDSM) is responsible for the physics of low and high spins in normal deformation. For the recently observed phenomena of superdeformation, the physics of the problem dictates a generalization to a supershell structure (SFDSM), which also has an SU 3 fermion dynamical symmetry. Many recently discovered feature of superdeformation are found to be inherent in such an SU 3 symmetry. In both cases the dynamical Pauli effect plays a vital role. A particularly noteworthy discovery from this model is that the superdeformed ground band is not the usual unaligned band but the D-pair aligned (DPA) band, which sharply crosses the excited bands. The existence of such DPA band is a key point to understand many properties of superdeformation. Our studies also poses new experimental challenge. This is particularly interesting since there are now plans to build new and exciting γ-ray detecting systems, like the GAMMASPHERE, which could provide answers to some of these challenges. 34 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Dark Energy and Spacetime Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Dymnikova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Petrov classification of stress-energy tensors provides a model-independent definition of a vacuum by the algebraic structure of its stress-energy tensor and implies the existence of vacua whose symmetry is reduced as compared with the maximally symmetric de Sitter vacuum associated with the Einstein cosmological term. This allows to describe a vacuum in general setting by dynamical vacuum dark fluid, presented by a variable cosmological term with the reduced symmetry which makes vacuum fluid essentially anisotropic and allows it to be evolving and clustering. The relevant solutions to the Einstein equations describe regular cosmological models with time-evolving and spatially inhomogeneous vacuum dark energy, and compact vacuum objects generically related to a dark energy: regular black holes, their remnants and self-gravitating vacuum solitons with de Sitter vacuum interiors—which can be responsible for observational effects typically related to a dark matter. The mass of objects with de Sitter interior is generically related to vacuum dark energy and to breaking of space-time symmetry. In the cosmological context spacetime symmetry provides a mechanism for relaxing cosmological constant to a needed non-zero value.

  4. Fermion masses and mixings in the 3-3-1 model with right-handed neutrinos based on the S{sub 3} flavor symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A.E.C. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Martinez, R.; Ochoa, F. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota (Colombia)

    2016-11-15

    We propose a 3-3-1 model where the SU(3){sub C} x SU(3){sub L} x U(1){sub X} symmetry is extended by S{sub 3} x Z{sub 3} x Z{sub 3}{sup '} x Z{sub 8} x Z{sub 16} and the scalar spectrum is enlarged by extra SU(3){sub L} singlet scalar fields. The model successfully describes the observed SM fermion mass and mixing pattern. In this framework, the light active neutrino masses arise via an inverse seesaw mechanism and the observed charged fermion mass and quark mixing hierarchy is a consequence of the Z{sub 3} x Z{sub 3}{sup '} x Z{sub 8} x Z{sub 16} symmetry breaking at very high energy. The obtained physical observables for both quark and lepton sectors are compatible with their experimental values. The model predicts the effective Majorana neutrino mass parameter of neutrinoless double beta decay to be m{sub ββ} = 4 and 48 meV for the normal and the inverted neutrino spectra, respectively. Furthermore, we found a leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase close to (π)/(2) and a Jarlskog invariant close to about 3 x 10{sup -2} for both normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. (orig.)

  5. GLINT. Gravitational-wave laser INterferometry triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aria, Shafa; Azevedo, Rui; Burow, Rick; Cahill, Fiachra; Ducheckova, Lada; Holroyd, Alexa; Huarcaya, Victor; Järvelä, Emilia; Koßagk, Martin; Moeckel, Chris; Rodriguez, Ana; Royer, Fabien; Sypniewski, Richard; Vittori, Edoardo; Yttergren, Madeleine

    2017-11-01

    When the universe was roughly one billion years old, supermassive black holes (103-106 solar masses) already existed. The occurrence of supermassive black holes on such short time scales are poorly understood in terms of their physical or evolutionary processes. Our current understanding is limited by the lack of observational data due the limits of electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves as predicted by the theory of general relativity have provided us with the means to probe deeper into the history of the universe. During the ESA Alpach Summer School of 2015, a group of science and engineering students devised GLINT (Gravitational-wave Laser INterferometry Triangle), a space mission concept capable of measuring gravitational waves emitted by black holes that have formed at the early periods after the big bang. Morespecifically at redshifts of 15 big bang) in the frequency range 0.01 - 1 Hz. GLINT design strain sensitivity of 5× 10^{-24} 1/√ { {Hz}} will theoretically allow the study of early black holes formations as well as merging events and collapses. The laser interferometry, the technology used for measuring gravitational waves, monitors the separation of test masses in free-fall, where a change of separation indicates the passage of a gravitational wave. The test masses will be shielded from disturbing forces in a constellation of three geocentric orbiting satellites.

  6. TRIANGLING BELLOW’S SEIZE THE DAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Novianti

    2015-12-01

     Abstrak Teori-teori kritik sastra terus bermunculan, baik sebagai tanggapan, kritik, atau perkembangan dari teori-teori sebelumnya. Makalah ini memperkenalkan sebuah teori yang cukup baru yang bisa memperkaya khasanah kritik sastra di Indonesia, yaitu terapi sistem keluarga, melalui sebuah analisis terhadap novel berjudul Seize the Day karangan Saul Bellow, seorang penulis Amerika yang karya-karyanya terutama mengangkat tema keluarga dan permasalahan yang melingkupinya. Sebagai kritik terhadap teori Psikoanalisis oleh Freud dan variasi-variasinya, terapi sistem keluarga percaya bahwa identitas seseorang adalah bagian dari matriks identitas, sehingga analisis terhadap keterhubungan seseorang dengan orang lain yang terlibat dalam matriks tersebut diperlukan jika ingin memahami diri seseorang. Analisis menunjukkan bahwa protagonis novel tersebut, Wilhelm, terlibat dalam sebuah hubungan segitiga atau triangling dalam usahanya untuk menghadapi kegelisahan hidupnya; selain itu, hubungan segitiga hanyalah satu dari sekian jalan keluar untuk kegelisahan yang dihadapi protagonis. Makalah ini menyimpulkan bahwa teori psikoterapi keluarga cocok untuk menganalisis secara kritis karya-karya sastra yang berkenaan dengan masalah keluarga, seperti Seize the Day. Teori ini menawarkan sudut pandang baru, tidak hanya terhadap praktik dalam kritik sastra, tapi juga terhadap cara melihat permasalahan dalam hidup. Kata kunci: Terapi sistem keluarga, segitiga, kegelisahan.

  7. Band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying, E-mail: yliu5@bjtu.edu.cn; Liang, Tianshu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals (FPPCs) are studied with the aim to clarify the effect of fractal hierarchy on the band structures. Firstly, one kind of FPPCs based on Sierpinski triangle routine is proposed. Then the influence of the porosity on the elastic wave dispersion in Sierpinski triangle FPPCs is investigated. The sensitivity of the band structures to the fractal hierarchy is discussed in detail. The results show that the increase of the hierarchy increases the sensitivity of ABG (Absolute band gap) central frequency to the porosity. But further increase of the fractal hierarchy weakens this sensitivity. On the same hierarchy, wider ABGs could be opened in Sierpinski equilateral triangle FPPC; whilst, a lower ABG could be opened at lower porosity in Sierpinski right-angled isosceles FPPCs. These results will provide a meaningful guidance in tuning band structures in porous phononic crystals by fractal design.

  8. A Pascal-like triangle from finding power sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo

    2014-08-01

    A Pascal-like triangle is constructed so that power sums can be conveniently obtained by college (or high school) students with no need for memorizing complicated formulas or performing difficult calculations.

  9. The comfort triangles : A new tool for bioclimatic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a new graphic tool to identify and select bioclimatic strategies according to climate conditions and comfort requirements. The Comfort Triangle relates outdoor daily temperature variations with the modification of thermal performance achieved indoors, using two key variables,

  10. A Heuristic Algorithm for Solving Triangle Packing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the triangle packing problem has important theoretic significance, which has broad application prospects in material processing, network resource optimization, and so forth. Generally speaking, the orientation of the triangle should be limited in advance, since the triangle packing problem is NP-hard and has continuous properties. For example, the polygon is not allowed to rotate; then, the approximate solution can be obtained by optimization method. This paper studies the triangle packing problem by a new kind of method. Such concepts as angle region, corner-occupying action, corner-occupying strategy, and edge-conjoining strategy are presented in this paper. In addition, an edge-conjoining and corner-occupying algorithm is designed, which is to obtain an approximate solution. It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient, and by the time complexity analysis and the analogue experiment result is found.

  11. Symmetry and Interculturality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    Symmetry is one of the fundamental concepts in Geometry. It is a Mathematical concept, which can be very well connected with Art and Ethnography. The aim of the article is to show how to link the geometrical concept symmetry with interculturality. For this mosaics from different countries are used.

  12. Quantum symmetry for pedestrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Schomerus, V.

    1992-03-01

    Symmetries more general than groups are possible in quantum therory. Quantum symmetries in the narrow sense are compatible with braid statistics. They are theoretically consistent much as supersymmetry is, and they could lead to degenerate multiplets of excitations with fractional spin in thin films. (orig.)

  13. Symmetries in Optimal Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1987-01-01

    It is argued that the existence of symmetries may simplify, as in classical mechanics, the solution of optimal control problems. A procedure for obtaining symmetries for the optimal Hamiltonian resulting from the Maximum Principle is given; this avoids the actual calculation of the optimal

  14. Symmetry Festival 2016

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Symmetry Festival is a science and art program series, the most important periodic event (see its history) to bring together scientists, artists, educators and practitioners interested in symmetry (its roots, what is behind, applications, etc.), or in the consequences of its absence.

  15. Symmetry Breaking in MILP Formulations for Unit Commitment Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo

    2015-12-11

    This paper addresses the study of symmetry in Unit Commitment (UC) problems solved by Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulations, and using Linear Programming based Branch & Bound MILP solvers. We propose three sets of symmetry breaking constraints for UC MILP formulations exhibiting symmetry, and its impact on three UC MILP models are studied. The case studies involve the solution of 24 instances by three widely used models in the literature, with and without symmetry breaking constraints. The results show that problems that could not be solved to optimality within hours can be solved with a relatively small computational burden if the symmetry breaking constraints are assumed. The proposed symmetry breaking constraints are also compared with the symmetry breaking methods included in two MILP solvers, and the symmetry breaking constraints derived in this work have a distinct advantage over the methods in the MILP solvers.

  16. Human Odometry Verifies the Symmetry Perspective on Bipedal Gaits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, M. T.; Harrison, Steven J.; Frank, Till D.; Carello, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Bipedal gaits have been classified on the basis of the group symmetry of the minimal network of identical differential equations (alias "cells") required to model them. Primary gaits are characterized by dihedral symmetry, whereas secondary gaits are characterized by a lower, cyclic symmetry. This fact was used in a test of human…

  17. Gauge principle, vector-meson dominance, and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Yoichiro

    1989-01-01

    The author concentrates on certain theoretical developments of the late 1950s which are concerned with the meaning and role of symmetries and symmetry breaking, and especially work done in Chicago, and notes his own involvement in this debate. He worked on symmetry-breaking in superconductivity, using a four-fermion interaction model. (UK)

  18. Optimal Spatial Harvesting Strategy and Symmetry-Breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Kazuhiro; Shi Junping

    2008-01-01

    A reaction-diffusion model with logistic growth and constant effort harvesting is considered. By minimizing an intrinsic biological energy function, we obtain an optimal spatial harvesting strategy which will benefit the population the most. The symmetry properties of the optimal strategy are also discussed, and related symmetry preserving and symmetry breaking phenomena are shown with several typical examples of habitats

  19. On the symmetry of phosphorous doped ZnSe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The site symmetry of P doped ZnSe is analysed in detail here, as the recent experiments suggest two possible symmetries T d and C 3 V . The reduction to C 3 V is attributed to the presence of natural impurity, Ga. Our calculations based on molecular model and Green's functions suggest that the symmetry C 3 V is possible ...

  20. On the symmetry of phosphorous doped ZnSe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The site symmetry of P doped ZnSe is analysed in detail here, as the recent experiments suggest two possible symmetries Td and C3V. The reduction to C3V is attributed to the presence of natural impurity,. Ga. Our calculations based on molecular model and Green's functions suggest that the symmetry C3V is.

  1. Some constructions on total labelling of m triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voon, Chen Huey; Hui, Liew How; How, Yim Kheng

    2016-01-01

    Let mK 3 = (V m , E m ) be a finite disconnected graph consisting of m disjoint triangles K 3 , where V m is the set of vertices, E m is the set of edges and both V m and E m are of the same size 3m. A total labelling of mK 3 is a function f which maps the elements in V m and E m to positive integer values, i.e. f : V m ∪ E m → {1, 2, 3,···}. Let c be a positive integer. A triangle is said have a c-Erdősian triangle labelling if it is a total labelling f : V m ∪ E m → {c, c + 1, ···, c + 6m − 1} such that f (x) + f (y) = f (xy) for any x, y ∈ V m and an edge xy ∈ E m joining them. In order to find all the c-Erdősian triangle labelling, a straightforward is to use the exhaustive search. However, the exhaustive search is only able to find c-Erdősian triangle labelling for m ≤ 5 due to combinatorial explosion. By studying the constant sum of vertex labels, we propose a strong permutation approach, which allows us to generate a certain classes of c-Erdősian triangle labelling up until m = 8.

  2. Partial dynamical symmetry at critical points of quantum phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, A

    2007-06-15

    We show that partial dynamical symmetries can occur at critical points of quantum phase transitions, in which case underlying competing symmetries are conserved exactly by a subset of states, and mix strongly in other states. Several types of partial dynamical symmetries are demonstrated with the example of critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions in the framework of the interacting boson model, whose dynamical symmetries correspond to different shape phases in nuclei.

  3. Partial Dynamical Symmetry at Critical Points of Quantum Phase Transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    2007-01-01

    We show that partial dynamical symmetries can occur at critical points of quantum phase transitions, in which case underlying competing symmetries are conserved exactly by a subset of states, and mix strongly in other states. Several types of partial dynamical symmetries are demonstrated with the example of critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions in the framework of the interacting boson model, whose dynamical symmetries correspond to different shape phases in nuclei

  4. The impact of energy conservation in transport models on the π−/π+ multiplicity ratio in heavy-ion collisions and the symmetry energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Cozma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The charged pion multiplicity ratio in intermediate energy central heavy-ion collisions has been proposed as a suitable observable to constrain the high density dependence of the isovector part of the equation of state. A comparison of various transport model predictions with existing experimental data has led, however, to contradictory results. Using an upgraded version of the Tübingen QMD transport model, which allows the conservation of energy at a local or global level by accounting for the potential energy of hadrons in two-body collisions and leading thus to particle production threshold shifts, we demonstrate that compatible constraints for the symmetry energy stiffness can be extracted from pion multiplicity and elliptic flow observables. However, pion multiplicities and ratios are proven to be highly sensitive to the yet unknown isovector part of the in-medium Δ(1232 potential which hinders, at present, the extraction of meaningful information on the high density dependence of the symmetry energy. A solution to this problem together with the inclusion of contributions presently neglected, such as in-medium pion potentials and retardation effects, are needed for a final verdict on this topic.

  5. Microstructure for ferroelastic transitions from strain pseudo-spin clock models in two and three dimensions: a mean field analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vasseur, Romain [ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE

    2009-01-01

    We obtain the microstructure of ferroelastic transitions in two and three dimensions from the solution of their corresponding discrete pseudo-spin models. In two dimensions we consider two transitions each from the high symmetry square and triangle symmetries: square-to-rectangle (SR), square-to-oblique (SO), triangle-to-centered rectangle (TR) and triangle-to-oblique (TO). In three dimensions we study the corresponding spin model for the cubic to tetragonal transition. The Landau free energies for these transitions result in N+ I states clock models (Z{sub N}) with long range interactions and we derive mean-field self-consistency equations for the clock model Hamiltonians. The microstructures from the mean-field solutions of the models are very similar to those obtained from the original continuum models or Monte Carlo simulations on the spin models (in the SR case), illustrating that these discrete models capture the salient physics. The models, in the presence of disorder, provide the basis for the study of the strain glass phase observed in martensitic alloys.

  6. Discrete symmetries and solar neutrino mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Mayr, P.; Nilles, H.P. (Physik Dept., Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany) Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Inst., Muenchen (Germany))

    1992-05-21

    We study the question of resonant solar neutrino mixing in the framework of the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Discrete symmetries that are consistent with solar neutrino mixing and proton stability are classified. In the minimal model they are shown to lead to two distinct patterns of allowed dimension-four operators. Imposing anomaly freedom, only three different discrete Z{sub N}-symmetries (with N=2, 3, 6) are found to be phenomenologically acceptable. (orig.).

  7. Discrete symmetries and solar neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Mayr, P.; Nilles, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    We study the question of resonant solar neutrino mixing in the framework of the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Discrete symmetries that are consistent with solar neutrino mixing and proton stability are classified. In the minimal model they are shown to lead to two distinct patterns of allowed dimension-four operators. Imposing anomaly freedom, only three different discrete Z N -symmetries (with N=2, 3, 6) are found to be phenomenologically acceptable. (orig.)

  8. Dark matter and global symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Mambrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left–Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee–Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. Assuming that (i global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O(1 couplings, that (iii the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV–TeV, including the WIMP regime.

  9. Physics from symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schwichtenberg, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry.   It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations.

  10. Symmetry Adapted Basis Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Rettrup, Sten; Avery, James Emil

    In theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry and engineering, one often wishes to solve partial differential equations subject to a set of boundary conditions. This gives rise to eigenvalue problems of which some solutions may be very difficult to find. For example, the problem of finding...... in such problems can be much reduced by making use of symmetry-adapted basis functions. The conventional method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets is through the application of group theory, but this can be difficult. This book describes an easier method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets...

  11. Analysing Diagnostic Assessment on the Ratio of Sine in a Right Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andika, R.; Juandi, D.; Rosjanuardi, R.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to develop diagnostic assessment with the special topic of the ratio of sinus in a right triangle and analyze the result whether the students are ready to continue to the next lesson of trigonometry specially the sinus rule. The methodology that use in this study is a design research of Plomp model which is it comprises of 3 phases: (a) preliminary research; (b) prototyping phase; and (c) assessment phase. The findings show that almost half of students made a mistake in determining the ratio of sin in a right triangle, consequently the procedure for solving the problem went wrong. In strategic competency and adaptive communication most of students did not solve the problem that was given. According to the result, the students have to get remedial program before to the next lesson, the rule of sin.

  12. Lie-algebra approach to symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    A formal Lie-algebra approach to symmetry breaking is studied in an attempt to reduce the arbitrariness of Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) models which include several free parameters and/or ad hoc symmetry groups. From Lie algebra it is shown that the unbroken Lagrangian vacuum symmetry can be identified from a linear function of integers which are Cartan matrix elements. In broken symmetry if the breaking operators form an algebra then the breaking symmetry (or symmetries) can be identified from linear functions of integers characteristic of the breaking symmetries. The results are applied to the Dirac Hamiltonian of a sum of flavored fermions and colored bosons in the absence of dynamical symmetry breaking. In the partially reduced quadratic Hamiltonian the breaking-operator functions are shown to consist of terms of order g 2 , g, and g 0 in the color coupling constants and identified with strong (boson-boson), medium strong (boson-fermion), and fine-structure (fermion-fermion) interactions. The breaking operators include a boson helicity operator in addition to the familiar fermion helicity and ''spin-orbit'' terms. Within the broken vacuum defined by the conventional formalism, the field divergence yields a gauge which is a linear function of Cartan matrix integers and which specifies the vacuum symmetry. We find that the vacuum symmetry is chiral SU(3) x SU(3) and the axial-vector-current divergence gives a PCAC -like function of the Cartan matrix integers which reduces to PCAC for SU(2) x SU(2) breaking. For the mass spectra of the nonets J/sup P/ = 0 - ,1/2 + ,1 - the integer runs through the sequence 3,0,-1,-2, which indicates that the breaking subgroups are the simple Lie groups. Exact axial-vector-current conservation indicates a breaking sum rule which generates octet enhancement. Finally, the second-order breaking terms are obtained from the second-order spin tensor sum of the completely reduced quartic Hamiltonian

  13. Anomalous Symmetry Fractionalization and Surface Topological Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In addition to possessing fractional statistics, anyon excitations of a 2D topologically ordered state can realize symmetry in distinct ways, leading to a variety of symmetry-enriched topological (SET phases. While the symmetry fractionalization must be consistent with the fusion and braiding rules of the anyons, not all ostensibly consistent symmetry fractionalizations can be realized in 2D systems. Instead, certain “anomalous” SETs can only occur on the surface of a 3D symmetry-protected topological (SPT phase. In this paper, we describe a procedure for determining whether a SET of a discrete, on-site, unitary symmetry group G is anomalous or not. The basic idea is to gauge the symmetry and expose the anomaly as an obstruction to a consistent topological theory combining both the original anyons and the gauge fluxes. Utilizing a result of Etingof, Nikshych, and Ostrik, we point out that a class of obstructions is captured by the fourth cohomology group H^{4}(G,U(1, which also precisely labels the set of 3D SPT phases, with symmetry group G. An explicit procedure for calculating the cohomology data from a SET is given, with the corresponding physical intuition explained. We thus establish a general bulk-boundary correspondence between the anomalous SET and the 3D bulk SPT whose surface termination realizes it. We illustrate this idea using the chiral spin liquid [U(1_{2}] topological order with a reduced symmetry Z_{2}×Z_{2}⊂SO(3, which can act on the semion quasiparticle in an anomalous way. We construct exactly solved 3D SPT models realizing the anomalous surface terminations and demonstrate that they are nontrivial by computing three-loop braiding statistics. Possible extensions to antiunitary symmetries are also discussed.

  14. Symmetries in the world of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, D.; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen

    2003-01-01

    Symmetries are leading to conservation laws and these are important features of interactions. Elementary particles are classified according to their spin into fermions and bosons with accordingly different symmetry features. Each particle has its corresponding antiparticle that is leading to the CPT symmetry. Particles can also be classified according to the type of interaction they take part in. Leptons are not taking part in the strong interaction, while the quark model can describe all particles. The model has been made complete with the introduction of a new quantum number, the colour. The next theoretical stage has been that of the GIM mechanism leading to the Standard Model, according to which all interactions are rooted in local symmetries. The carriers of the three basic interactions are: the photon for the electromagnetic one, the weak bosons for the weak interaction, and the gluons for the strong one. The Standard Model has been brought to its actual form by the Higgs mechanism, the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Further development of the model is envisaged. One direction might be that of super symmetry, which created the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. (Gy.M.)

  15. Microscopic Symmetry Imposed by Rotational Symmetry Boundary Conditions in Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amitava; Post, Carol Beth

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viral capsids, as well as other macromolecular assemblies, have icosahedral structure or structures with other rotational symmetries. This symmetry can be exploited during molecular dynamics (MD) to model in effect the full viral capsid using only a subset of primary atoms plus copies of image atoms generated from rotational symmetry boundary conditions (RSBC). A pure rotational symmetry operation results in both primary and image atoms at short range, and within nonbonded interaction distance of each other, so that nonbonded interactions can not be specified by the minimum image convention and explicit treatment of image atoms is required. As such an unavoidable consequence of RSBC is that the enumeration of nonbonded interactions in regions surrounding certain rotational axes must include both a primary atom and its copied image atom, thereby imposing microscopic symmetry for some forces. We examined the possibility of artifacts arising from this imposed microscopic symmetry of RSBC using two simulation systems: a water shell and human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) capsid with explicit water. The primary unit was a pentamer of the icosahedron, which has the advantage of direct comparison of icosahedrally equivalent spatial regions, for example regions near a 2-fold symmetry axis with imposed symmetry and a 2-fold axis without imposed symmetry. Analysis of structural and dynamic properties of water molecules and protein atoms found similar behavior near symmetry axes with imposed symmetry and where the minimum image convention fails compared with that in other regions in the simulation system, even though an excluded volume effect was detected for water molecules near the axes with imposed symmetry. These results validate the use of RSBC for icosahedral viral capsids or other rotationally symmetric systems. PMID:22096451

  16. Dual Symmetry in Gauge Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Koshkarov, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    Continuous dual symmetry in electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory and gravitation is investigated. Dual invariant which leads to badly nonlinear motion equations is chosen as a Lagrangian of the pure classical dual nonlinear electrodynamics. In a natural manner some dual angle which is determined by the electromagnetic strengths at the point of the time-space appears in the model. Motion equations may well be interpreted as the equations of the standard Maxwell theory with source. Alternative in...

  17. Superconducting pairing symmetry and energy gaps of the two-orbital t-t'-J-J' model: comparisons with the ARPES experiments in iron pnictides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Zou, Liang-Jian

    2009-06-24

    Motivated by the discovery of the iron-based superconductors, we present the theoretical results on the superconducting phase diagram, the temperature-dependent Fermi surface structures in normal state and the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) character of quasiparticles of the two-orbital t-t'-J-J' model. In the reasonable physical parameter region of LaFeAsO(1-x)F(x), we find the superconducting phase is stable, and the pairing symmetry is weakly anisotropic and nodeless d(x(2)-ηy(2))+S(x(2)y(2))-wave, qualitatively in agreement with the ARPES experiments in iron pnictide superconductors. Nevertheless, the two ratios of the energy gaps to T(c) deviate from the ARPES data, suggesting that a more elaborate theoretical model is needed.

  18. Gauge symmetry from decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.

  19. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem: At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 900-916 ...

  20. Frameworks with crystallographic symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcea, Ciprian S; Streinu, Ileana

    2014-02-13

    Periodic frameworks with crystallographic symmetry are investigated from the perspective of a general deformation theory of periodic bar-and-joint structures in Euclidean spaces of arbitrary dimension. It is shown that natural parametrizations provide affine section descriptions for families of frameworks with a specified graph and symmetry. A simple geometrical setting for displacive phase transitions is obtained. Upper bounds are derived for the number of realizations of minimally rigid periodic graphs.

  1. Interactions between constituent single symmetries in multiple symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treder, M.S.; Vloed, G. van der; Helm, P.A. van der

    2011-01-01

    As a rule, the discriminability of multiple symmetries from random patterns increases with the number of symmetry axes, but this number does not seem to be the only determinant. In particular, multiple symmetries with orthogonal axes seem better discriminable than multiple symmetries with

  2. Stem Cell Differentiation Stage Factors and Their Role in Triggering Symmetry Breaking Processes during Cancer Development: A Quantum Field Theory Model for Reprogramming Cancer Cells to Healthy Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biava, Pier Mario; Burigana, Fabio; Germano, Roberto; Kurian, Philip; Verzegnassi, Claudio; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2017-09-20

    A long history of research has pursued the use of embryonic factors isolated during cell differentiation processes for the express purpose of transforming cancer cells back to healthy phenotypes. Recent results have clarified that the substances present at different stages of cell differentiation-which we call stem cell differentiation stage factors (SCDSFs)-are proteins with low molecular weight and nucleic acids that regulate genomic expression. The present review summarizes how these substances, taken at different stages of cellular maturation, are able to retard proliferation of many human tumor cell lines and thereby reprogram cancer cells to healthy phenotypes. The model presented here is a quantum field theory (QFT) model in which SCDSFs are able to trigger symmetry breaking processes during cancer development. These symmetry breaking processes, which lie at the root of many phenomena in elementary particle physics and condensed matter physics, govern the phase transitions of totipotent cells to higher degrees of diversity and order, resulting in cell differentiation. In cancers, which share many genomic and metabolic similarities with embryonic stem cells, stimulated re-differentiation often signifies the phenotypic reversion back to health and non-proliferation. In addition to acting on key components of the cellular cycle, SCDSFs are able to reprogram cancer cells by delicately influencing the cancer microenvironment, modulating the electrochemistry and thus the collective electrodynamic behaviors between dipole networks in biomacromolecules and the interstitial water field. Coherent effects in biological water, which are derived from a dissipative QFT framework, may offer new diagnostic and therapeutic targets at a systemic level, before tumor instantiation occurs in specific tissues or organs. Thus, by including the environment as an essential component of our model, we may push the prevailing paradigm of mutation-driven oncogenesis toward a closer

  3. Nonlinear (super)symmetries and amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallosh, Renata [Physics Department, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2017-03-07

    There is an increasing interest in nonlinear supersymmetries in cosmological model building. Independently, elegant expressions for the all-tree amplitudes in models with nonlinear symmetries, like D3 brane Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory, were recently discovered. Using the generalized background field method we show how, in general, nonlinear symmetries of the action, bosonic and fermionic, constrain amplitudes beyond soft limits. The same identities control, for example, bosonic E{sub 7(7)} scalar sector symmetries as well as the fermionic goldstino symmetries. We present a universal derivation of the vanishing amplitudes in the single (bosonic or fermionic) soft limit. We explain why, universally, the double-soft limit probes the coset space algebra. We also provide identities describing the multiple-soft limit. We discuss loop corrections to N≥5 supergravity, to the D3 brane, and the UV completion of constrained multiplets in string theory.

  4. Symmetry realization of texture zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Joshipura, A.S.; Lavoura, L.; Tanimoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    We show that it is possible to enforce texture zeros in arbitrary entries of the fermion mass matrices by means of Abelian symmetries; in this way, many popular mass-matrix textures find a symmetry justification. We propose two alternative methods which allow one to place zeros in any number of elements of the mass matrices that one wants. They are applicable simultaneously in the quark and lepton sectors. They are also applicable in grand unified theories. The number of scalar fields required by our methods may be large; still, in many interesting cases this number can be reduced considerably. The larger the desired number of texture zeros is, the simpler are the models which reproduce the texture. (orig.)

  5. Cressey’s fraud triangle (1953 and agency theory: study applied to brazilian banking institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rílany Rodrigues Machado

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research examined if Cressey’s (1953 fraud triangle and the agency theory, jointly, enables investigate corporate fraud occurrence in Brazilian banking institutions. It was formulated  six research hypotheses were segregated in fraud triangle – pressure,  opportunity and rationalization – and measured by variables taken from the agency theory, criminology and empirical papers on corporate fraud. The identification of probability of fraud occurrence was operationalized from multinomial logistic model, applied to data of 44 banking, for the period between January 2001 and December 2012. For element pressure, hypotheses No. 01 was confirmed, since this showed that the lower an institution’s previous performance, the greater probability there is of fraudulent events occurring in the future.  In the element of opportunity, the hypothesis No. 03 was confirmed, which showed that low corporate governance indicators increased the possibility of fraud occurrences.  In rationalization element, the hypothesis No. 08 was confirmed, therefore, the predominance of women in management reduces the probability of fraud.  We thereby conclude that Cressey’s Triangle, when combined with the theory of agency is an appropriate research instrument to use when carrying out an investigation into corporate fraud occurrence in banking institutions.

  6. Density dependence of nucleon radius and mass in the global color symmetry model of QCD with a sophisticated effective gluon propagator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Lei; Liu Yuxin; Guo Hua

    2005-01-01

    Making use of the global color symmetry model (GCM) at finite chemical potential and with a sophisticated effective gluon propagator, the density dependence of the bag constant, the total energy and the radius of a nucleon in nuclear matter is investigated. A maximal nuclear matter density for the existence of the bag with three quarks confined within is given as about 8 times the normal nuclear matter density. The calculated results indicate that, before the maximal density is reached, the bag constant and the total energy of a nucleon decrease, and the radius of a nucleon increases, with the increasing of the nuclear matter density. As the maximal nuclear matter density is reached, the mass and the bag constant of the nucleon vanish and the radius becomes infinite suddenly. It manifests that a phase transition from nucleons to quarks takes place. Meanwhile, shortening the interaction range among quarks can induce the phase transition to happen easier

  7. Baryon spectroscopy: symmetries, symmetry breaking and hadronic loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenczykowski, P.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of hadronic loop effects in baryon spectroscopy is thoroughly discussed. It is argued that such effects very likely constitute the dominant contribution to the observed splitting and mixing pattern of the (56,0 + ) and (70,1 - ) baryon multiplets. In particular, this dominance is demonstrated in the original Isgur-Karl-Koniuk model of baryons, in which hadronic loops are shown to provide an explanation for at least 2/3 of the observed size of splittings, both for the ground-state and excited baryons. The unitarity-induced mixing angles in the (70,1 - )-multiplet are also shown to be in good agreement with experiment. For the ground-state baryons the formula relating Σ-Λ and Δ-Ν mass differences - as originally derived by de Rujula, Georgi and Glashow from the single gluon exchange-is obtained from the hadronic loop effects as well. This (and other) results are derived after taking into account a complete set of symmetry-related hadronic loops. Consideration of such a complete set of symmetry-related processes is shown to be crucial in restoring proper symmetry properties of the calculated spectrum. 74 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs. (author)

  8. Value Triangles in the Management of Building Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate value triangles and their implementation in the management of building projects. The paper is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for Danish...... Broadcasting Corporation (DR) over time. The conventional iron triangle of quality, cost and schedule for project management is the theoretical starting point, but this is seen as mainly being related to process integrity in the construction stage. It is supplemented by a similar value triangle of cultural...... value, use value and quality of realization for product integrity, mainly for the design stage. Based on this framework an evaluation is made of the value management in six of DR’s building projects from the first around 1930 to the most recent – the new headquarters DR Byen finalised in 2009...

  9. Developing Lesson Design to Help Students’ Triangle Conseptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabawanto, S.; Mulyana, E.

    2017-09-01

    The research was aimed to develop a lesson design so that students’ triangle conceptual understanding could be achieved. The method that be used in this research was qualitative with applied didactical design research (DDR). The DDR consisted of three main stepts, namely prospective analysis, metapedadicdactic analysis, and retrospective analysis. From the three stepts above, it was gained the empirical lesson design of triangle topic. The reseach results are: (1) there were some learning obstacles of students deal with the triangle topic, namely ontogenical, epietimological, and didactical obstacles; (2) implementaion of the lesson was conducted under three main stepts, namely action, formulation, and validation. For answering weather the design can be applied to other group of students, it was recommended that it cound be investigated by doing advanced reseach.

  10. An Indoor Collaborative Coefficient-Triangle APIT Localization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ting Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Approximate Point-In-Triangulation (APIT localization algorithm is a widely used indoor positioning technology due to its simplicity and low power consumption. However, in practice, In-to-Out misjudgments exist regularly in APIT, and a considerable amount of nodes cannot be positioned due to the low node density. To tackle this issue, a Collaborative Coefficient-triangle APIT Localization (CCAL algorithm is proposed. Firstly, an effective triangle criterion is put forward to reduce the probability of In-to-Out misjudgment and reduce the computational complexity. Then, a further Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI location and weighted triangle coordinate calculation method is adopted to reduce the positioning error. Meanwhile, the idea of iterative collaborative positioning of the positioned unknown nodes is introduced to remarkably expand the localization coverage rate. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms APIT, RSSI, and other improved algorithms in terms of both node location error and localization coverage rate.

  11. Folding model study of the charge-exchange scattering to the isobaric analog state and implication for the nuclear symmetry energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoa, Dao T.; Thang, Dang Ngoc [VINATOM, Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, Bui Minh [VINATOM, Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, Hanoi (Viet Nam); University of Pedagogy, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2014-02-15

    The Fermi transition (ΔL = ΔS = 0 and ΔT = 1) between the nuclear isobaric analog states (IAS), induced by the charge-exchange (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) reaction, can be considered as ''elastic'' scattering of proton or {sup 3}He by the isovector term of the optical potential (OP) that flips the projectile isospin. The accurately measured (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) scattering cross section to the IAS can be used, therefore, to probe the isospin dependence of the proton or {sup 3}He optical potential. Within the folding model, the isovector part of the OP is determined exclusively by the neutron-proton difference in the nuclear densities and the isospin dependence of the effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. Because the isovector coupling explicitly links the isovector part of the proton or {sup 3}He optical potential to the cross section of the charge-exchange (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) scattering to the IAS, the isospin dependence of the effective (in-medium) NN interaction can be well tested in the folding model analysis of these charge-exchange reactions. On the other hand, the same isospin- and density-dependent NN interaction can also be used in a Hartree-Fock calculation of asymmetric nuclear matter, to estimate the nuclear matter energy and its asymmetry part (the nuclear symmetry energy). As a result, the fine-tuning of the isospin dependence of the effective NN interaction against the measured (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) cross sections should allow us to make some realistic prediction of the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence. (orig.)

  12. Folding model study of the charge-exchange scattering to the isobaric analog state and implication for the nuclear symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoa, Dao T.; Thang, Dang Ngoc; Loc, Bui Minh

    2014-01-01

    The Fermi transition (ΔL = ΔS = 0 and ΔT = 1) between the nuclear isobaric analog states (IAS), induced by the charge-exchange (p, n) or ( 3 He, t) reaction, can be considered as ''elastic'' scattering of proton or 3 He by the isovector term of the optical potential (OP) that flips the projectile isospin. The accurately measured (p, n) or ( 3 He, t) scattering cross section to the IAS can be used, therefore, to probe the isospin dependence of the proton or 3 He optical potential. Within the folding model, the isovector part of the OP is determined exclusively by the neutron-proton difference in the nuclear densities and the isospin dependence of the effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. Because the isovector coupling explicitly links the isovector part of the proton or 3 He optical potential to the cross section of the charge-exchange (p, n) or ( 3 He, t) scattering to the IAS, the isospin dependence of the effective (in-medium) NN interaction can be well tested in the folding model analysis of these charge-exchange reactions. On the other hand, the same isospin- and density-dependent NN interaction can also be used in a Hartree-Fock calculation of asymmetric nuclear matter, to estimate the nuclear matter energy and its asymmetry part (the nuclear symmetry energy). As a result, the fine-tuning of the isospin dependence of the effective NN interaction against the measured (p, n) or ( 3 He, t) cross sections should allow us to make some realistic prediction of the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence. (orig.)

  13. Some constructions on total labelling of m triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voon, Chen Huey, E-mail: chenhv@utar.edu.my; Hui, Liew How, E-mail: liewhh@utar.edu.my; How, Yim Kheng, E-mail: tidusyimhome@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematical and Actuarial Sciences, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-06-02

    Let mK{sub 3} = (V{sub m}, E{sub m}) be a finite disconnected graph consisting of m disjoint triangles K{sub 3}, where V{sub m} is the set of vertices, E{sub m} is the set of edges and both V{sub m} and E{sub m} are of the same size 3m. A total labelling of mK{sub 3} is a function f which maps the elements in V{sub m} and E{sub m} to positive integer values, i.e. f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {1, 2, 3,···}. Let c be a positive integer. A triangle is said have a c-Erdősian triangle labelling if it is a total labelling f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {c, c + 1, ···, c + 6m − 1} such that f (x) + f (y) = f (xy) for any x, y ∈ V{sub m} and an edge xy ∈ E{sub m} joining them. In order to find all the c-Erdősian triangle labelling, a straightforward is to use the exhaustive search. However, the exhaustive search is only able to find c-Erdősian triangle labelling for m ≤ 5 due to combinatorial explosion. By studying the constant sum of vertex labels, we propose a strong permutation approach, which allows us to generate a certain classes of c-Erdősian triangle labelling up until m = 8.

  14. Vertex Normals and Face Curvatures of Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2016-08-12

    This study contributes to the discrete differential geometry of triangle meshes, in combination with discrete line congruences associated with such meshes. In particular we discuss when a congruence defined by linear interpolation of vertex normals deserves to be called a ʼnormal’ congruence. Our main results are a discussion of various definitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula.

  15. Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John

    2000-01-01

    Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph...... of genus g. Using the new result, we slightly improve this bound to cg(1/3)(log g)(-2/3). Both bounds are best possible, up to a constant multiple. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Quantum Space-Time Deformed Symmetries Versus Broken Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, G

    2002-01-01

    Several recent studies have concerned the faith of classical symmetries in quantum space-time. In particular, it appears likely that quantum (discretized, noncommutative,...) versions of Minkowski space-time would not enjoy the classical Lorentz symmetries. I compare two interesting cases: the case in which the classical symmetries are "broken", i.e. at the quantum level some classical symmetries are lost, and the case in which the classical symmetries are "deformed", i.e. the quantum space-time has as many symmetries as its classical counterpart but the nature of these symmetries is affected by the space-time quantization procedure. While some general features, such as the emergence of deformed dispersion relations, characterize both the symmetry-breaking case and the symmetry-deformation case, the two scenarios are also characterized by sharp differences, even concerning the nature of the new effects predicted. I illustrate this point within an illustrative calculation concerning the role of space-time symm...

  17. Analysis of Condensation Heat Transfer Performance in Curved Triangle Microchannels Based on the Volume of Fluid Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yuchuan; Chen, Zhenqian; Shi, Juan

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulations of condensation heat transfer of R134a in curved triangle microchannels with various curvatures are proposed. The model is established on the volume of fluid (VOF) approach and user-defined routines which including mass transfer at the vapor-liquid interface and latent heat. Microgravity operating condition is assumed in order to highlight the surface tension. The predictive accuracy of the model is assessed by comparing the simulated results with available correlations in the literature. Both an increased mass flux and the decreased hydraulic diameter could bring better heat transfer performance. No obvious effect of the wall heat flux is observed in condensation heat transfer coefficient. Changes in geometry and surface tension lead to a reduction of the condensate film thickness at the sides of the channel and accumulation of the condensate film at the corners of the channel. Better heat transfer performance is obtained in the curved triangle microchannels over the straight ones, and the performance could be further improved in curved triangle microchannels with larger curvatures. The minimum film thickness where most of the heat transfer process takes place exists near the corners and moves toward the corners in curved triangle microchannels with larger curvatures.

  18. Renormalization Method and Mirror Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief summary of our works [arXiv:1112.4063, arXiv:1201.4501] on constructing higher genus B-model from perturbative quantization of BCOV theory. We analyze Givental's symplectic loop space formalism in the context of B-model geometry on Calabi-Yau manifolds, and explain the Fock space construction via the renormalization techniques of gauge theory. We also give a physics interpretation of the Virasoro constraints as the symmetry of the classical BCOV action functional, and discuss the Virasoro constraints in the quantum theory.

  19. Physics from symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schwichtenberg, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations. Thanks to the input of readers from around the world, this second edition has been purged of typographical errors and also contains several revised sections with improved explanations. .

  20. Rigidity and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme.  Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology.  The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...

  1. Measures with symmetry properties

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, Werner

    2003-01-01

    Symmetries and invariance principles play an important role in various branches of mathematics. This book deals with measures having weak symmetry properties. Even mild conditions ensure that all invariant Borel measures on a second countable locally compact space can be expressed as images of specific product measures under a fixed mapping. The results derived in this book are interesting for their own and, moreover, a number of carefully investigated examples underline and illustrate their usefulness and applicability for integration problems, stochastic simulations and statistical applications.

  2. Symmetry and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, Luis P.

    2002-01-01

    We find the group of symmetry transformations under which the Einstein equations for the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe are form invariant. They relate the energy density and the pressure of the fluid to the expansion rate. We show that inflation can be obtained from nonaccelerated scenarios by a symmetry transformation. We derive the transformation rule for the spectrum and spectral index of the curvature perturbations. Finally, the group is extended to investigate inflation in the anisotropic Bianchi type-I spacetime and the brane-world cosmology

  3. Symmetry, structure, and spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Rickles, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In this book Rickles considers several interpretative difficulties raised by gauge-type symmetries (those that correspond to no change in physical state). The ubiquity of such symmetries in modern physics renders them an urgent topic in philosophy of physics. Rickles focuses on spacetime physics, and in particular classical and quantum general relativity. Here the problems posed are at their most pathological, involving the apparent disappearance of spacetime! Rickles argues that both traditional ontological positions should be replaced by a structuralist account according to which relational

  4. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality. S Kesavan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 135-148. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Characteristic mixing triangles in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Temperature-salinity structures in the inner part of Bay of Bengal showed complete mixing processes in the upper bay, less than about 600 m can be characterisEd. by a mixing triangle constitutEd. by three characteristic water properties. In outer...

  6. Borromean Triangles and Prime Knots in an Ancient Temple

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 5. Borromean Triangles and Prime Knots in an Ancient Temple. Arul Lakshminarayan. General Article Volume 12 ... Author Affiliations. Arul Lakshminarayan1. Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology Madras Chennai, 600036, India.

  7. Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J

    2016-03-30

    Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Triangles and tribulations: the politics of Nazi symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, R A

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the politics of "reclamation." Its focus is on pink and black triangles, currently used as symbols for gay and lesbian pride and liberation. Previously, these same identifiers were worn by those destined for annihilation during the Holocaust. I suggest that, in [re]claiming these markers, activists, however well intentioned, run a path dangerously close to the denial of history.

  9. Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While the solution state structure of 1 can be best described as a trinuclear complex, in the solidstate well-fashioned intermolecular - and CH- interactions are observed. Thus, in the solid-state further self-assembly of already self-assembled molecular triangle is witnessed. The triangular panels are arranged in a linear ...

  10. Triangle of Safety Technique: A New Approach to Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman F. M. S. Almutairi

    2009-01-01

    dissection of the Calot's triangle can lead to such injuries. The aim of the authors in this study is to present a new safe triangle of dissection. Patients and Method. 501 patients under went LC in the following approach; The cystic artery is identified and mobilized from the gall bladder (GB medial wall down towards the cystic duct which would simultaneously divide the medial GB peritoneal attachment. This is then followed by dividing the lateral peritoneal attachment. The GB will be unfolded and the borders of the triangle of safety (TST are achieved: cystic artery medially, cystic duct laterally and the gallbladder wall superiorly. The floor of the triangle is then divided to delineate both cystic duct and artery in an area relatively far from CBD. Results. There were little significant immediate or delayed complications. The mean operating time was 68 minutes, nearly equivalent to the conventional method. Conclusions. Dissection at TST appears to be a safe procedure which clearly demonstrates the cystic duct and may help to reduce the CBD injuries.

  11. Balancing in direction (1,-1 in Pascal's Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacene Belbachir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of balancing binomial coefficients in Pascal's triangle. We give the complete solution in the direction (1,-1 for the first four cases of the possible rays. Some linked questions have been also examined.

  12. The chemist's triangle and a general systemic approach to teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three levels of science thought (macro, micro, symbolic), identified by Johnstone and represented by a triangle, may be viewed as a core closed-cluster concept map of the type advocated in the systemic approach to teaching and learning of chemistry. Some of the implications of this view for teaching, learning and ...

  13. Borromean Triangles and Prime Knots in an Ancient Temple

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have also been found in Japanese shrines and family emblems, and in medieval Christian iconography where it reconciles mono- theism with the potential polytheism implied by the Trinity of the. Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. While the Borromean circles and triangles are topologically similar, they are geometrically ...

  14. Higgsless approach to electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grojean, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Higgsless models are an attempt to achieve a breaking of the electroweak symmetry via boundary conditions at the end-points of a fifth dimension compactified on an interval, as an alternative to the usual Higgs mechanism. There is no physical Higgs scalar in the spectrum and the perturbative unitarity violation scale is delayed via the exchange of massive spin-1 KK resonances. The correct mass spectrum is reproduced in a model in warped space, which inherits a custodial symmetry from a left–right gauge symmetry in the bulk. Phenomenological challenges as well as collider signatures are presented. From the AdS/CFT perspective, this model appears as a weakly coupled dual to walking technicolour models.

  15. Gauged discrete symmetries and proton stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Ratz, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the results of a search for anomaly-free Abelian Z N discrete symmetries that lead to automatic R-parity conservation and prevent dangerous higher-dimensional proton decay operators in simple extensions of minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model based on the left-right symmetric group, the Pati-Salam group and SO(10). We require that the superpotential for the models have enough structures to be able to give correct symmetry breaking to minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model and potentially realistic fermion masses. We find viable models in each of the extensions, and for all the cases, anomaly freedom of the discrete symmetry restricts the number of generations

  16. Molecular symmetry and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Philip; Jensen, Per

    2006-01-01

    The first edition, by P.R. Bunker, published in 1979, remains the sole textbook that explains the use of the molecular symmetry group in understanding high resolution molecular spectra. Since 1979 there has been considerable progress in the field and a second edition is required; the original author has been joined in its writing by Per Jensen. The Material of the first edition has been reorganized and much has been added. The molecular symmetry group is now introduced early on, and the explanation of how to determine nuclear spin statistical weights has been consolidated in one chapter, after groups, symmetry groups, character tables and the Hamiltonian have been introduced. A description of the symmetry in the three-dimensional rotation group K(spatial), irreducible spherical tensor operators, and vector coupling coefficients is now included. The chapters on energy levels and selection rules contain a great deal of material that was not in the first edition (much of it was undiscovered in 1979), concerning ...

  17. Groups and Symmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. Groups and Symmetry: A Guide to Discovering Mathematics. Geetha Venkataraman. Book Review Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 91-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Testing for central symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, John; Gan, Zhuojiong

    Omnibus tests for central symmetry of a bivariate probability distribution are proposed. The test statistics compare empirical measures of opposite regions. Under rather weak conditions, we establish the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics under the null hypothesis; it follows that they

  19. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P.Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also underst...

  20. Charged fluids with symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conformal Killing vector on the electromagnetic field tensor and the role of Maxwell's equations. 2. Conformal symmetries. Manifolds with structure may admit groups of transformations which preserve this struc- ture. A conformal motion preserves the metric up to a factor and maps null geodesics conformally. A conformal ...

  1. Horror Vacui Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson used with children in the third grade to help them learn about symmetry, as well as encouraging them to draw larger than usual. Explains that students learn about the belief called "Horror Vacui" of the Northwest American Indian tribes and create their interpretation of this belief. (CMK)

  2. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P. Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also unders...

  3. SYMMETRY OF COMPOSITE CRYSTALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSMAALEN, S

    1991-01-01

    Composite crystals are crystals that consist of two or more subsystems, in first approximation each one having its own three-dimensional periodicity. The symmetry of these subsystems is then characterized by an ordinary space group. Due to their mutual interaction the true structure consists of a

  4. Numerical study of the enlarged O(5) symmetry of the 3D antiferromagnetic RP2 spin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.A.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Sciretti, D.; Tarancon, A.; Velasco, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate by means of Monte Carlo simulation and finite-size scaling analysis the critical properties of the three-dimensional O(5) non-linear σ model and of the antiferromagnetic RP 2 model, both of them regularized on a lattice. High accuracy estimates are obtained for the critical exponents, universal dimensionless quantities and critical couplings. It is concluded that both models belong to the same universality class, provided that rather non-standard identifications are made for the momentum-space propagator of the RP 2 model. We have also investigated the phase diagram of the RP 2 model extended by a second-neighbor interaction. A rich phase diagram is found, where most of the phase transitions are of the first order

  5. Identifying translational science within the triangle of biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Griffin M

    2013-05-24

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap places special emphasis on "bench-to-bedside" research, or the "translation" of basic science research into practical clinical applications. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Consortium is one example of the large investments being made to develop a national infrastructure to support translational science, which involves reducing regulatory burdens, launching new educational initiatives, and forming partnerships between academia and industry. However, while numerous definitions have been suggested for translational science, including the qualitative T1-T4 classification, a consensus has not yet been reached. This makes it challenging to tract the impact of these major policy changes. In this study, we use a bibliometric approach to map PubMed articles onto a graph, called the Triangle of Biomedicine. The corners of the triangle represent research related to animals, cells and molecules, and humans; and, the position of a publication on the graph is based on its topics, as determined by its Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We define translation as movement of a collection of articles, or the articles that cite those articles, towards the human corner. The Triangle of Biomedicine provides a quantitative way of determining if an individual scientist, research organization, funding agency, or scientific field is producing results that are relevant to clinical medicine. We validate our technique using examples that have been previously described in the literature and by comparing it to prior methods of measuring translational science. The Triangle of Biomedicine is a novel way to identify translational science and track changes over time. This is important to policy makers in evaluating the impact of the large investments being made to accelerate translation. The Triangle of Biomedicine also provides a simple visual way of depicting this impact, which can be far more powerful than numbers alone.

  6. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V ub /V cb = √m u /m c and V td /V ts = √m d /m s , are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay β → sγ constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanΒ, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model

  7. Crossing symmetry in Alpha space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The conformal bootstrap program aims to catalog all conformal field theories (second-order phase transitions) in D dimensions. Despite its ambitious scope much progress has been made over the past decade, e.g. in computing critical exponents for the 3D O(N) models to high precision. At this stage, analytic methods to explore the CFT landscape are not as well developed. In this talk I will describe a new mathematical framework for the bootstrap known as "alpha space", which reduces crossing symmetry to a set of integral equations. Based on arXiv:1702.08471 (with Balt van Rees) and arXiv:1703.08159.

  8. Symmetries applied to reactor calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makai, M.

    1982-03-01

    Three problems of a reactor-calculational model are discussed with the help of symmetry considerations. 1/ A coarse mesh method applicable to any geometry is derived. It is shown that the coarse mesh solution can be constructed from a few standard boundary value problems. 2/ A second stage homogenization method is given based on the Bloch theorem. This ensures the continuity of the current and the flux at the boundary. 3/ The validity of the micro-macro separation is shown for heterogeneous lattices. A formula for the neutron density is derived for cell homogenization. (author)

  9. Effective operators and extended symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Frère, J M; Moreno, J M; Orloff, J

    1994-01-01

    In this note we expand on our previous study of the implications of LEP1 results for future colliders. We extend the effective operator-based analysis of De R\\'ujula et al. to a larger symmetry group, and show at which cost their expectations can be relaxed. Of particular interest to experiment is a rephrasing of our previous results in terms of the Renard et al. parametrization for the gauge boson self-couplings (slightly extended to include $\\delta g_{\\gamma}$). We suggest the use of a ($\\delta g_{\\gamma}$, $\\delta g_{Z}$) plot to confront the expectations of various models.

  10. Polynomial conservation laws and exact solutions connected with isometrical and homothetic symmetries in the nonlinear sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    In the non linear delta-model conserved tensor currents connected with the isometrical, homothetic and affine motions in the space Vsup(N) of the chiral field values are constructed. New classes of the exact solutions are obtained in the SO(3) and SO(5) invariant delta-models using the connection between the groups of isometrical and homothetic motions in the space-time and isometrical motions in Vsup(N). Some methods of obtaining exact solutions in 4-dimensional delta-model with non trivial topological charge are considered

  11. Chiral Symmetry, Heavy Quark Symmetry and Bound States

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Yuhsuke

    1995-01-01

    I investigate the bound state problems of lowest-lying mesons and heavy mesons. Chiral symmetry is essential when one consider lowest-lying mesons. Heavy quark symmetry plays an central role in considering the semi-leptonic form factors of heavy mesons. Various properties based on the symmetries are revealed using Bethe-Salpeter equations.

  12. Discrete symmetries in Heterotic/F-theory duality and mirror symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Grassi, Antonella; Poretschkin, Maximilian

    2017-06-01

    We study aspects of Heterotic/F-theory duality for compactifications with Abelian discrete gauge symmetries. We consider F-theory compactifications on genus-one fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds with n-sections, associated with the Tate-Shafarevich group Z_n. Such models are obtained by studying first a specific toric set-up whose associated Heterotic vector bundle has structure group Z_n. By employing a conjectured Heterotic/F-theory mirror symmetry we construct dual geometries of these original toric models, where in the stable degeneration limit we obtain a discrete gauge symmetry of order two and three, for compactifications to six dimensions. We provide explicit constructions of mirror-pairs for symmetric examples with Z_2 and Z_3, in six dimensions. The Heterotic models with symmetric discrete symmetries are related in field theory to a Higgsing of Heterotic models with two symmetric abelian U(1) gauge factors, where due to the Stückelberg mechanism only a diagonal U(1) factor remains massless, and thus after Higgsing only a diagonal discrete symmetry of order n is present in the Heterotic models and detected via Heterotic/F-theory duality. These constructions also provide further evidence for the conjectured mirror symmetry in Heterotic/F-theory at the level of fibrations with torsional sections and those with multi-sections.

  13. Lowest-lying even-parity anti B{sub s} mesons: heavy-quark spin-flavor symmetry, chiral dynamics, and constituent quark-model bare masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaladejo, M.; Fernandez-Soler, P.; Nieves, J.; Ortega, P.G. [Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptd. 22085, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    The discovery of the D{sup *}{sub s0}(2317) and D{sub s1}(2460) resonances in the charmed-strange meson spectra revealed that formerly successful constituent quark models lose predictability in the vicinity of two-meson thresholds. The emergence of non-negligible effects due to meson loops requires an explicit evaluation of the interplay between Q anti q and (Q anti q)(q anti q) Fock components. In contrast to the c anti s sector, there is no experimental evidence of J{sup P} = 0{sup +}, 1{sup +} bottom-strange states yet. Motivated by recent lattice studies, in this work the heavy-quark partners of the D{sub s0}{sup *}(2317) and D{sub s1}(2460) states are analyzed within a heavy meson chiral unitary scheme. As a novelty, the coupling between the constituent quark-model P-wave anti B{sub s} scalar and axial mesons and the anti B{sup (*)}K channels is incorporated employing an effective interaction, consistent with heavy-quark spin symmetry, constrained by the lattice energy levels. (orig.)

  14. Parity-Time Symmetry and the Toy Models of Gain-Loss Dynamics near the Real Kato’s Exceptional Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Znojil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For a given operator D ( t of an observable in theoretical parity-time symmetric quantum physics (or for its evolution-generator analogues in the experimental gain-loss classical optics, etc. the instant t c r i t i c a l of a spontaneous breakdown of the parity-time alias gain-loss symmetry should be given, in the rigorous language of mathematics, the Kato’s name of an “exceptional point”, t c r i t i c a l = t ( E P . In the majority of conventional applications the exceptional point (EP values are not real. In our paper, we pay attention to several exactly tractable toy-model evolutions for which at least some of the values of t ( E P become real. These values are interpreted as “instants of a catastrophe”, be it classical or quantum. In the classical optical setting the discrete nature of our toy models might make them amenable to simulations. In the latter context the instant of Big Bang is mentioned as an illustrative sample of possible physical meaning of such an EP catastrophe in quantum cosmology.

  15. On Symmetries in Optimal Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1986-01-01

    We discuss the use of symmetries in solving optimal control problems. In particular a procedure for obtaining symmetries is given which can be performed before the actual calculation of the optimal control and optimal Hamiltonian.

  16. Partial Dynamical Symmetry in a Many-Fermion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escher, J.; Leviatan, A.

    1999-01-01

    Partial dynamical symmetry (PDS) describes a situation in which some eigenstates exhibit a symmetry which the associated Hamiltonian does not share. We present a family of fermionic Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry in the framework of the Symplectic Shell Model. We briefly review the symplectic theory and establish a relation between the PDS Hamiltonians and commonly employed symplectic Hamiltonians. Characteristics of the PDS eigenstates are discussed and the resulting spectra are compared to those of real nuclei. We point out similarities and differences between the fermion case and a recently established partial SU(3) symmetry in the Interacting Boson Model

  17. Topological phases with generalized global symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Beni

    2016-04-01

    We present simple lattice realizations of symmetry-protected topological phases with q -form global symmetries where charged excitations have q spatial dimensions. Specifically, we construct d space-dimensional models supported on a (d +1 ) -colorable graph by using a family of unitary phase gates, known as multiqubit control-Z gates in quantum information community. In our construction, charged excitations of different dimensionality may coexist and form a short-range entangled state which is protected by symmetry operators of different dimensionality. Nontriviality of proposed models, in a sense of quantum circuit complexity, is confirmed by studying protected boundary modes, gauged models, and corresponding gapped domain walls. We also comment on applications of our construction to quantum error-correcting codes, and discuss corresponding fault-tolerant logical gates.

  18. Quantum mechanics and hidden superconformal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonezzi, R.; Corradini, O.; Latini, E.; Waldron, A.

    2017-12-01

    Solvability of the ubiquitous quantum harmonic oscillator relies on a spectrum generating osp (1 |2 ) superconformal symmetry. We study the problem of constructing all quantum mechanical models with a hidden osp (1 |2 ) symmetry on a given space of states. This problem stems from interacting higher spin models coupled to gravity. In one dimension, we show that the solution to this problem is the Vasiliev-Plyushchay family of quantum mechanical models with hidden superconformal symmetry obtained by viewing the harmonic oscillator as a one dimensional Dirac system, so that Grassmann parity equals wave function parity. These models—both oscillator and particlelike—realize all possible unitary irreducible representations of osp (1 |2 ).

  19. Discrete R-symmetries and anomaly universality in heterotic orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizet, Nana G. Cabo [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear,Calle 30, esq.a 5ta Ave, Miramar, 6122 La Habana (Cuba); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Peña, Damián K. Mayorga [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Parameswaran, Susha L. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Leibniz Universität Hannover,Welfengarten 1, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Schmitz, Matthias [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Zavala, Ivonne [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-02-24

    We study discrete R-symmetries, which appear in the 4D low energy effective field theory derived from heterotic orbifold models. We derive the R-symmetries directly from the geometrical symmetries of the orbifolds. In particular, we obtain the corresponding R-charges by requiring that the couplings be invariant under these symmetries. This allows for a more general treatment than the explicit computations of correlation functions made previously by the authors, including models with discrete Wilson lines, and orbifold symmetries beyond plane-by-plane rotational invariance. The R-charges obtained in this manner differ from those derived in earlier explicit computations. We study the anomalies associated with these R-symmetries, and comment on the results.

  20. Symmetry and topology in evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Berczi, S.; Molnar, I.; Paal, G.

    1991-10-01

    This volume contains papers of an interdisciplinary symposium on evolution. The aim of this symposium, held in Budapest, Hungary, 28-29 May 1991, was to clear the role of symmetry and topology at different levels of the evolutionary processes. 21 papers were presented, their topics included evolution of the Universe, symmetry of elementary particles, asymmetry of the Earth, symmetry and asymmetry of biomolecules, symmetry and topology of lining objects, human asymmetry etc. (R.P.)