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Sample records for model successfully accounts

  1. Wealth Accumulation and Factors Accounting for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawasutipaisit, Anan; Townsend, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    We use detailed income, balance sheet, and cash flow statements constructed for households in a long monthly panel in an emerging market economy, and some recent contributions in economic theory, to document and better understand the factors underlying success in achieving upward mobility in the distribution of net worth. Wealth inequality is decreasing over time, and many households work their way out of poverty and lower wealth over the seven year period. The accounts establish that, mechanically, this is largely due to savings rather than incoming gifts and remittances. In turn, the growth of net worth can be decomposed household by household into the savings rate and how productively that savings is used, the return on assets (ROA). The latter plays the larger role. ROA is, in turn, positively correlated with higher education of household members, younger age of the head, and with a higher debt/asset ratio and lower initial wealth, so it seems from cross-sections that the financial system is imperfectly channeling resources to productive and poor households. Household fixed effects account for the larger part of ROA, and this success is largely persistent, undercutting the story that successful entrepreneurs are those that simply get lucky. Persistence does vary across households, and in at least one province with much change and increasing opportunities, ROA changes as households move over time to higher-return occupations. But for those households with high and persistent ROA, the savings rate is higher, consistent with some micro founded macro models with imperfect credit markets. Indeed, high ROA households save by investing in their own enterprises and adopt consistent financial strategies for smoothing fluctuations. More generally growth of wealth, savings levels and/or rates are correlated with TFP and the household fixed effects that are the larger part of ROA. PMID:21643466

  2. Wealth Accumulation and Factors Accounting for Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawasutipaisit, Anan; Townsend, Robert M

    2011-03-01

    We use detailed income, balance sheet, and cash flow statements constructed for households in a long monthly panel in an emerging market economy, and some recent contributions in economic theory, to document and better understand the factors underlying success in achieving upward mobility in the distribution of net worth. Wealth inequality is decreasing over time, and many households work their way out of poverty and lower wealth over the seven year period. The accounts establish that, mechanically, this is largely due to savings rather than incoming gifts and remittances. In turn, the growth of net worth can be decomposed household by household into the savings rate and how productively that savings is used, the return on assets (ROA). The latter plays the larger role. ROA is, in turn, positively correlated with higher education of household members, younger age of the head, and with a higher debt/asset ratio and lower initial wealth, so it seems from cross-sections that the financial system is imperfectly channeling resources to productive and poor households. Household fixed effects account for the larger part of ROA, and this success is largely persistent, undercutting the story that successful entrepreneurs are those that simply get lucky. Persistence does vary across households, and in at least one province with much change and increasing opportunities, ROA changes as households move over time to higher-return occupations. But for those households with high and persistent ROA, the savings rate is higher, consistent with some micro founded macro models with imperfect credit markets. Indeed, high ROA households save by investing in their own enterprises and adopt consistent financial strategies for smoothing fluctuations. More generally growth of wealth, savings levels and/or rates are correlated with TFP and the household fixed effects that are the larger part of ROA.

  3. Psychological attributes of successful trainee accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmari Štrbac

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested that certain psychological attributes of accounting graduates are significant predictors of the later success of trainee accountants in the work environment. Since selection is a key human resources function in public accounting firms the present study investigated the relationship between academic performance, specific personality traits, examination pass rate and the work performance of a sample (N = 77 of trainee accountants from an international, mid-sized firm. The results indicate that the majority of cases could be correctly predicted as successful or not by a verbal ability variable and that the criterion measure developed for this study (Cronbach alpha = 0,95 can be used successfully to measure the work performance of trainee accountants. The importance of academic performance as well as the pass rate in the qualifying examinations are also discussed. Opsomming Daar word gesuggereer dat sekere sielkundige eienskappe van rekeningkunde gegradueerdes as voorspellers van hul latere sukses in die werkomgewing kan dien. Aangesien keuring ’n kernfunksie van die menslikehulpbronaktiwiteite binne openbare ouditeursfirmas is, het hierdie studie die verhouding tussen akademiese prestasie, spesifieke persoonlikheidstrekke, die eksamenslaagsyfer en die werkprestasie van ’n steekproef (N = 77 kwekelinggeoktrooieerde-rekenmeesters binne ’n internasionale, gemiddelde grootte firma ondersoek. Die resultate dui daarop dat die meerderheid gevalle korrek as suksesvol aldan nie voorspel kan word deur ’n verbale vermoëveranderlike en dat die kriteriuminstrument wat vir hierdie studie ontwikkel is (Cronbach alfa = 0,95, gebruik kan word om die werkprestasie van hierdie kwekelinge te meet. Die belangrikheid van akademiese prestasie en die slaagsyfer in die kwalifiserende eksamens word ook bespreek.

  4. Good Accounting Skills: What More Does a Successful Accountant Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Leslie Jane

    1994-01-01

    Most of 189 accounting students surveyed (77% of whom were nonnative speakers of English) were not in favor of adding communication skills courses, although they recognized their importance in hiring. The area most needing improvement for nonnative speakers was vocabulary, for native speakers speaking and spelling. All preferred maintaining their…

  5. What Does It Take to Be Successful in Accounting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reha, Rose K.; Lu, Debbie

    1985-01-01

    A study of 427 univrsity accounting students was conducted to gain insight on student perceptions of career success factors and related data. Findings show that female students appear less confident than male students, and professionals in finance and accounting and students disagree significantly on the importance of various career success…

  6. What Does It Take to Be Successful in Accounting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reha, Rose K.; Lu, Debbie

    1985-01-01

    A study of 427 univrsity accounting students was conducted to gain insight on student perceptions of career success factors and related data. Findings show that female students appear less confident than male students, and professionals in finance and accounting and students disagree significantly on the importance of various career success…

  7. Teamwork fosters successful, pleasing environment for patient accounts employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, C M

    1994-07-01

    If a patient accounts manager can cultivate teamwork successfully--if he or she can "tear down the walls" and "open up the lines of communication"--a positive and productive working environment can be created. Too often, though, invisible barriers exist within a patient accounts department: One area is in conflict with another area, representatives from each area blaming the other for high receivables and low cash flow. If this situation exists, the atmosphere it creates ultimately is reflected in every employee's performance. Further, if a patient accounts manager is engulfed by this atmosphere, his or her support staff certainly will be affected adversely.

  8. Rethinking infant knowledge: toward an adaptive process account of successes and failures in object permanence tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Y; McClelland, J L; Johnson, M H; Siegler, R S

    1997-10-01

    Infants seem sensitive to hidden objects in habituation tasks at 3.5 months but fail to retrieve hidden objects until 8 months. The authors first consider principle-based accounts of these successes and failures, in which early successes imply knowledge of principles and failures are attributed to ancillary deficits. One account is that infants younger than 8 months have the object permanence principle but lack means-ends abilities. To test this, 7-month-olds were trained on means-ends behaviors and were tested on retrieval of visible and occluded toys. Means-ends demands were the same, yet infants made more toy-guided retrievals in the visible case. The authors offer an adaptive process account in which knowledge is graded and embedded in specific behavioral processes. Simulation models that learn gradually to represent occluded objects show how this approach can account for success and failure in object permanence tasks without assuming principles and ancillary deficits.

  9. Models of Success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Wu Renbao made national celebrity for his commitment to achieving common prosperity among his co-villagers in Huaxi Village, Jiangsu Province.Wu's recipe for success was to take advantage of collective strength by encouraging mutual assistance between villages and households.

  10. Accountable Care Organizations: how to dress for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayen, Arthur P; van den Berg, Michael J; Meijboom, Bert R; Westert, Gert P

    2013-06-01

    Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) need to reconsider their provider configuration and make it capable of managing clinical and financial risk. To that aim, their management must decide which medical procedures are done by the ACO itself, and which are contracted out to market providers. Making this decision requires a balanced treatment of market and firm organization, recognizing that each has properties that can turn into relative strengths. Such a balanced treatment is lacking in the ACO debate. Using the transaction cost theory, we provide such a balanced treatment of market and firm organization, and discuss implications for the design of ACOs and accountable care initiatives in general.

  11. Accountable Care Organizations: how to dress for success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayen, A.P.; Berg, M.J. van den; Meijboom, B.R.; Westert, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) need to reconsider their provider configuration and make it capable of managing clinical and financial risk. To that aim, their management must decide which medical procedures are done by the ACO itself, and which are contracted out to market providers. Making t

  12. Modelling in Accounting. Theoretical and Practical Dimensions

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    Teresa Szot-Gabryś

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accounting in the theoretical approach is a scientific discipline based on specific paradigms. In the practical aspect, accounting manifests itself through the introduction of a system for measurement of economic quantities which operates in a particular business entity. A characteristic of accounting is its flexibility and ability of adaptation to information needs of information recipients. One of the main currents in the development of accounting theory and practice is to cover by economic measurements areas which have not been hitherto covered by any accounting system (it applies, for example, to small businesses, agricultural farms, human capital, which requires the development of an appropriate theoretical and practical model. The article illustrates the issue of modelling in accounting based on the example of an accounting model developed for small businesses, i.e. economic entities which are not obliged by law to keep accounting records.

  13. Implementing a trustworthy cost-accounting model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Jay; Seargeant, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Hospitals and health systems can develop an effective cost-accounting model and maximize the effectiveness of their cost-accounting teams by focusing on six key areas: Implementing an enhanced data model. Reconciling data efficiently. Accommodating multiple cost-modeling techniques. Improving transparency of cost allocations. Securing department manager participation. Providing essential education and training to staff members and stakeholders.

  14. Student Success and Institutional Accountability through the Components of Voluntary Framework Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    Demands on higher education institutions are growing. Stakeholders are demanding proof of quality to ensure students are receiving the education they are paying for. Institutional accountability is a growing concern for higher education institutions, more specifically community colleges. The diverse characteristics of community colleges have made…

  15. Successful Succession in Family Businesses : Individual Level Factors and Succession Planning Models.

    OpenAIRE

    Aleem, Majid; Islam, Md. Shariful

    2009-01-01

    Individual level factors related to the successor have a central role to play in the succession process of the business. When these factors are viewed in relation to succession planning models, these factors have a direct relation to the succession models in terms of success or failure of the succession process. The major contributing factor to the success or failure of the succession process is that of the leadership provided to the organization by the predecessor. These leadership qualities...

  16. Display of the information model accounting system

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    Matija Varga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the accounting information system in public companies, business technology matrix and data flow diagram. The paper describes the purpose and goals of the accounting process, matrix sub-process and data class. Data flow in the accounting process and the so-called general ledger module are described in detail. Activities of the financial statements and determining the financial statements of the companies are mentioned as well. It is stated how the general ledger module should function and what characteristics it must have. Line graphs will depict indicators of the company’s business success, indebtedness and company’s efficiency coefficients based on financial balance reports, and profit and loss report.

  17. Working toward More Engaged and Successful Accounting Students: A Balanced Scorecard Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, Amy; Fuchsteiner, Peter; Portz, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Prior research indicates that student engagement is the key to student success, as measured by college grades, degree completion, and graduate school enrollment. We propose a set of goals and objectives for accounting students, in particular, to help them become engaged not only in the educational process, but also in the accounting profession.…

  18. Tips for medical practice success in the upcoming accountable care era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, Julian D

    2012-01-01

    Due to the unsustainable cost of healthcare, the movement to accountable care will be inevitable. This author predicts that recent Medicare Accountable Care Organization (ACO) regulations will energize ACO development. There are specific practical strategies every medical practice leader should know in order to navigate this new healthcare environment successfully. There is a window of opportunity, which will not stay open long, to control a medical practice's destiny in molding a fair, sustainable, and successful ACO. Not being prepared and defaulting to the status quo through passivity is also a choice that promises more work for less compensation for medical practices. The choice is clear, and the blueprint for success is available.

  19. Modeling in Accounting, an Imperative Process?

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    Robu Sorin-Adrian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The approach of this topic suggested to us by the fact that currently, it persists a controversy regarding the elements that influence decisively the qualitative characteristics of useful financial information. From these elements, we remark accounting models and concepts of capital maintenance in terms of the accounting result, which can be under the influence of factors such as subjectivity or even lack of neutrality. Therefore, in formulating the response to the question that is the title of the paper, we will start from the fact that the financial statements prepared by the accounting systems must be the result of processing after appropriate models, which ultimately can respond as good as possible to external user’s requirements and internal, in particular the knowledge of the financial position and performance of economic entities.

  20. Modeling habitat dynamics accounting for possible misclassification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veran, Sophie; Kleiner, Kevin J.; Choquet, Remi; Collazo, Jaime; Nichols, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Land cover data are widely used in ecology as land cover change is a major component of changes affecting ecological systems. Landscape change estimates are characterized by classification errors. Researchers have used error matrices to adjust estimates of areal extent, but estimation of land cover change is more difficult and more challenging, with error in classification being confused with change. We modeled land cover dynamics for a discrete set of habitat states. The approach accounts for state uncertainty to produce unbiased estimates of habitat transition probabilities using ground information to inform error rates. We consider the case when true and observed habitat states are available for the same geographic unit (pixel) and when true and observed states are obtained at one level of resolution, but transition probabilities estimated at a different level of resolution (aggregations of pixels). Simulation results showed a strong bias when estimating transition probabilities if misclassification was not accounted for. Scaling-up does not necessarily decrease the bias and can even increase it. Analyses of land cover data in the Southeast region of the USA showed that land change patterns appeared distorted if misclassification was not accounted for: rate of habitat turnover was artificially increased and habitat composition appeared more homogeneous. Not properly accounting for land cover misclassification can produce misleading inferences about habitat state and dynamics and also misleading predictions about species distributions based on habitat. Our models that explicitly account for state uncertainty should be useful in obtaining more accurate inferences about change from data that include errors.

  1. Media Accountability Systems: Models, proposals and outlooks

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    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes one of the basic actions of SOS-Imprensa, the mechanism to assure Media Accountability with the goal of proposing a synthesis of models for the Brazilian reality. The article aims to address the possibilities of creating and improving mechanisms to stimulate the democratic press process and to mark out and assure freedom of speech and personal rights with respect to the media. Based on the Press Social Responsibility Theory, the hypothesis is that the experiences analyzed (Communication Council, Press Council, Ombudsman and Readers Council are alternatives for accountability, mediation and arbitration, seeking visibility, trust and public support in favor of fairer media.

  2. Ethical budgets: a critical success factor in implementing new public management accountability in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosa, Iris M

    2010-05-01

    New public management accountability is increasingly being introduced into health-care systems throughout the world - albeit with mixed success. This paper examines the successful introduction of new management accounting systems among general practitioners (GPs) as an aspect of reform in the Italian health-care system. In particular, the study examines the critical role played by the novel concept of an 'ethical budget' in engaging the willing cooperation of the medical profession in implementing change. Utilizing a qualitative research design, with in-depth interviews with GPs, hospital doctors and managers, along with archival analysis, the present study finds that management accounting can be successfully implemented among medical professionals provided there is alignment between the management imperative and the ethical framework in which doctors practise their profession. The concept of an 'ethical budget' has been shown to be an innovative and effective tool in achieving this alignment.

  3. Fusion of expertise among accounting accounting faculty. Towards an expertise model for academia in accounting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njoku, Jonathan C.; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Inanga, Eno L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to portray an accounting faculty expert. It is argued that neither the academic nor the professional orientation alone appears adequate in developing accounting faculty expertise. The accounting faculty expert is supposed to develop into a so-called ‘flexpert’ (Van der Heijden, 2003)

  4. Successful Sino-Western Business Negotiation: Participants' Accounts of National and Professional Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheer, Vivian C.; Chen, Ling

    2003-01-01

    Explores the role of national and professional cultures in Sino-Western negotiations. Considers the way participants accounted for their experiences in an effort to gain more insight into Sino-Western negotiations. Discusses three successful strategies for both Chinese and Western groups: Adequate preparation, image work, and good relationship.…

  5. Mexico: a model for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J E

    1986-03-01

    In Mexico, a 40 year period of political stability and economic advancement, hailed for its high rates of growth in income per capita, rapid urbanization, and impressive gains in indicators of health and education, seemed to come to a halt in the early 1980s. Since the early 1970s, fertility has declined sharply in chronological association with a new population policy and the implementation of a national family planning program. If in 1940 there was no apparent reason for the Mexican state to have much interest in limiting fertility, such was no longer the case by 1970. The General Law of Population that had been passed in 1947 was laced with the expansionist ideology that dominated demographic issues for more that a century; its pro-natalism had been reinforced by health regulations prohibiting the sale and use of contraceptives and by a penal code that made abortion a crime. Between 1970 and 1981 the total fertility rate fell by about 39%. Since 1975, change in contraceptive practice accounts for the bulk of the measured fertility decline. Between 1976 and 1982 there was a 66% increase in contraceptive prevalence. The government's involvement in family planning activities helped to: 1) develop an effective contraceptive distribution system; 2) circulate extensive information, education, and communication publicizing fertility and images of the small family; and 3) mobilize health practitioners in public institutions to counsel and persuade their clients to accept and practice contraception. The emerging debate over population policy in Brazil may well prefigure debates in other Latin American countries; the recent democratization in Brazil is the vocalization of a demand from women's groups and the left for government provided family planning services. Overall, Mexico's willingness to take the long view tackle the birth rate issue head on is likely to remain an exception in Latin America.

  6. MODEL OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING FOR MERCHANDISES SECTOR COMPANIES

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    Glăvan Elena Mariana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Romanian accounting system have been articulated with priority to financial accounting, without leaving aside management accounting. Changes in management accounting covered a few general indicative directions giving to managers enhanced skills regarding the organisation and function of this branch of the accounting system. Roumanian regulations offered solutions[16] regarding the accounts and records in managerial accounting, but all these elements are recommendations. In the Roumanian chart of accounts there is a specific class of accounts, class number 9-accounts for management accounting, but this class of accounts is an optional one. In fact there are a lot of models applied by companies, but all are based on the accounts that are mentioned in class 9. After an analysis of Romanian accounting literature, we realized that an important part of studies focuses on management accounting models applied to manufacturing companies. As a result, we conceived a model for management accounting specific for marchendises companies. In our model there are two groups of accounts: one from chart of accounts (class 9 and another group composed by accounts proposed by authors. We think that our model could provide more information about each cost object, regarding sales, acquisition cost of sales, distribution cost, administration cost, total cost of sales, contribution margin and profitability. Our model was exemplified by a case study applied to a wholesales company.

  7. A Model of Successful School Leadership from the International Successful School Principalship Project

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    David Gurr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The International Successful School Principalship Project (ISSPP has been actively conducting research about the work of successful principals since 2001. Findings from four project books and eight models derived from this project are synthesised into a model of successful school leadership. Building on Gurr, Drysdale and Mulford’s earlier model, the work of school leaders is described as engaging within the school context to influence student and school outcomes through interventions in teaching and learning, school capacity building, and the wider context. The qualities a leader brings to their role, a portfolio approach to using leadership ideas, constructing networks, collaborations and partnerships, and utilising accountability and evaluation for evidence-informed improvement, are important additional elements. The model is applicable to all in leadership roles in schools.

  8. Who Is Your Successful Aging Role Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp, Daniela S; Jung, Seojung; Damarin, Amanda K; Mirpuri, Sheena; Spini, Dario

    2017-03-01

    Having a role model of successful aging may contribute to views on aging. This article investigated the nature and correlates of young, middle-aged, and older adults' successful aging role models. One hundred and fifty-one individuals aged 18-99 were asked whether they had a role model of successful aging and if so, the reasons for their choice. Open-ended answers were coded for recurring themes. Views on aging and attitudes toward own aging were assessed with questionnaires. Eighty-five percent of participants indicated at least one role model. Most mentioned role models from their family, including parents and grandparents. Role models were gender matched. Most frequent reasons for model choices were health, activities, and social resources. Participants with family role models had less negative views on aging. Mediation analyses confirmed that family role models were associated with more reasons for role model choice, which in turn was associated with less negative views on aging. Furthermore, the effect of reasons on attitudes toward own aging was mediated by negative views on aging. Young, middle-aged, and older adults have role models for successful aging. Links between role model features and views on aging suggest that role models may be useful in promoting successful aging.

  9. Deconstructing national leadership: politicians' accounts of electoral success and failure in the Irish Lisbon Treaty referenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michele; Stevenson, Clifford

    2013-03-01

    The Self Categorization approach to national leadership proposes that leaders rhetorically construct national identity as essentialized and inevitable in order to consensualize and mobilize the population. In contrast, discursive studies have demonstrated how national politicians flexibly construct the nation to manage their own accountability in local interactions, though this in turn has neglected broader leadership processes. The present paper brings both approaches together to examine how and when national politicians construct versions of national identity in order to account for their failure as well as success in mobilizing the electorate. Eight semi-structured conversational style interviews were conducted with a strategic sample of eight leading Irish politicians on the subject of the 2008/2009 Irish Lisbon Treaty referenda. Using a Critical Discourse Psychology approach, the hegemonic repertoire of the 'settled will' of the informed and consensualized Irish nation was identified across all interviews. Politicians either endorsed the 'settled will' repertoire as evidence of their successful leadership, or rejected the repertoire by denying the rationality or unity of the populace to account for their failure. Our results suggest national identity is only constructed as essentialized and inevitable to the extent that it serves a strategic political purpose.

  10. Aging Successfully: A Four-Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Yen, Tung-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to validate a model for a successful aging process and examine the gender differences in the aging process. Three hundred twelve participants who were 65 or older completed a Taiwan Social Change Survey that measures four factors that define successful aging process: including physical, psychological, social support, and…

  11. Aging Successfully: A Four-Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Yen, Tung-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to validate a model for a successful aging process and examine the gender differences in the aging process. Three hundred twelve participants who were 65 or older completed a Taiwan Social Change Survey that measures four factors that define successful aging process: including physical, psychological, social support, and…

  12. DMFCA Model as a Possible Way to Detect Creative Accounting and Accounting Fraud in an Enterprise

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    Jindřiška Kouřilová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of reported accounting data as well as the quality and behaviour of their users influence the efficiency of an enterprise’s management. Its assessment could therefore be changed as well. To identify creative accounting and fraud, several methods and tools were used. In this paper we would like to present our proposal of the DMFCA (Detection model Material Flow Cost Accounting balance model based on environmental accounting and the MFCA (Material Flow Cost Accounting as its method. The following balance areas are included: material, financial and legislative. Using the analysis of strengths and weaknesses of the model, its possible use within a production and business company were assessed. Its possible usage to the detection of some creative accounting techniques was also assessed. The Model is developed in details for practical use and describing theoretical aspects.

  13. MODEL OF TRAINING OF SUCCESS IN LIFE

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    Екатерина Александровна Лежнева

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the importance of the development of motive to succeed in adolescence. It is determined the value of the motive to achieve success in the further development of the teenager: a motive to achieve effective internal forces mobilized for the implementation of successful operation ensures the active involvement of teenagers in social and interpersonal relationships. As the primary means of motive development success is considered training. The author provides a definition of "training for success in life," creates a model of training for success in life, and describes its units (targeted, informative, technological, productive, reveals the successful development of the technology life strategy used during the training (self-presentation, targets, incentives, subject-orientation. The author pays attention to the need for a future psychologist to develop teenagers’ motive to achieve success through the mastery of competence in constructing a model of training for success in life, and its implementation in the course of professional activities. The main means of training students of psychology to the use of training success in life identified the additional educational programs and psychological section.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-77

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ACCOUNTING MODELS "CASH" AND "ACCRUAL"

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Danescu; Luminita Rus

    2013-01-01

    Accounting, as a source of information, can recognize the economic transactionstaking into account the time of payment or receipt thereof, as soon as they occur. There are twobasic models of accounting: accrual basis and cash basis. In the cash accounting method thetransactions are recorded only when cash is received or paid, shall not make the difference betweenthe purchase of an asset and the payment of expenditure - both of which are considered"payments". Accrual accounting achieves this d...

  15. Methods for detrending success metrics to account for inflationary and deflationary factors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, A. M.; Penner, O.; Stanley, H. E.

    2011-01-01

    Time-dependent economic, technological, and social factors can artificially inflate or deflate quantitative measures for career success. Here we develop and test a statistical method for normalizing career success metrics across time dependent factors. In particular, this method addresses the long standing question: how do we compare the career achievements of professional athletes from different historical eras? Developing an objective approach will be of particular importance over the next decade as major league baseball (MLB) players from the "steroids era" become eligible for Hall of Fame induction. Some experts are calling for asterisks (*) to be placed next to the career statistics of athletes found guilty of using performance enhancing drugs (PED). Here we address this issue, as well as the general problem of comparing statistics from distinct eras, by detrending the seasonal statistics of professional baseball players. We detrend player statistics by normalizing achievements to seasonal averages, which accounts for changes in relative player ability resulting from a range of factors. Our methods are general, and can be extended to various arenas of competition where time-dependent factors play a key role. For five statistical categories, we compare the probability density function (pdf) of detrended career statistics to the pdf of raw career statistics calculated for all player careers in the 90-year period 1920-2009. We find that the functional form of these pdfs is stationary under detrending. This stationarity implies that the statistical regularity observed in the right-skewed distributions for longevity and success in professional sports arises from both the wide range of intrinsic talent among athletes and the underlying nature of competition. We fit the pdfs for career success by the Gamma distribution in order to calculate objective benchmarks based on extreme statistics which can be used for the identification of extraordinary careers.

  16. Successful and unsuccessful psychopaths: a neurobiological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in psychopathy research, surprisingly little is known about the etiology of non-incarcerated, successful psychopaths. This review provides an analysis of current knowledge on the similarities and differences between successful and unsuccessful psychopaths derived from five population sources: community samples, individuals from employment agencies, college students, industrial psychopaths, and serial killers. An initial neurobiological model of successful and unsuccessful psychopathy is outlined. It is hypothesized that successful psychopaths have intact or enhanced neurobiological functioning that underlies their normal or even superior cognitive functioning, which in turn helps them to achieve their goals using more covert and nonviolent methods. In contrast, in unsuccessful, caught psychopaths, brain structural and functional impairments together with autonomic nervous system dysfunction are hypothesized to underlie cognitive and emotional deficits and more overt violent offending.

  17. Improving Localization Accuracy: Successive Measurements Error Modeling

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    Najah Abu Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle self-localization is an essential requirement for many of the safety applications envisioned for vehicular networks. The mathematical models used in current vehicular localization schemes focus on modeling the localization error itself, and overlook the potential correlation between successive localization measurement errors. In this paper, we first investigate the existence of correlation between successive positioning measurements, and then incorporate this correlation into the modeling positioning error. We use the Yule Walker equations to determine the degree of correlation between a vehicle’s future position and its past positions, and then propose a -order Gauss–Markov model to predict the future position of a vehicle from its past  positions. We investigate the existence of correlation for two datasets representing the mobility traces of two vehicles over a period of time. We prove the existence of correlation between successive measurements in the two datasets, and show that the time correlation between measurements can have a value up to four minutes. Through simulations, we validate the robustness of our model and show that it is possible to use the first-order Gauss–Markov model, which has the least complexity, and still maintain an accurate estimation of a vehicle’s future location over time using only its current position. Our model can assist in providing better modeling of positioning errors and can be used as a prediction tool to improve the performance of classical localization algorithms such as the Kalman filter.

  18. A holistic model for Islamic accountants and its value added

    OpenAIRE

    El-Halaby, Sherif; Hussainey, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The core objective for this study is introduce the holistic model for Islamic accountants through exploring the perspectives of Muslim scholars; Islamic sharia and AAOIFI ethical standards. The study also contributes to existing literature by exploring the main added value of Muslim accountant towards stakeholders through investigates the main roles of an Islamic accountants. Design/methodology/approach – The paper critically reviews historical debates about Islamic accounting and t...

  19. Accountancy Modeling on Intangible Fixed Assets in Terms of the Main Provisions of International Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intangible fixed assets are of great importance in terms of progress of economic units. In recent years new approaches have been developed, additions to old standards so that intangible assets have gained a reputation both in the economic environment and in academia. We intend to develop a practical study on the main accounting approaches of the accounting modeling of the intangibles that impact on a company's brand development research PRORESEARCH SRL.

  20. The financial accounting model from a system dynamics' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the foundation of the financial accounting model. We examine the properties of the accounting equation as the principal algorithm for the design and the development of a System Dynamics model. Key to the perspective is the foundational requirement that resolves the temporal

  1. The financial accounting model from a system dynamics' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the foundation of the financial accounting model. We examine the properties of the accounting equation as the principal algorithm for the design and the development of a System Dynamics model. Key to the perspective is the foundational requirement that resolves the temporal confl

  2. The financial accounting model from a system dynamics' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the foundation of the financial accounting model. We examine the properties of the accounting equation as the principal algorithm for the design and the development of a System Dynamics model. Key to the perspective is the foundational requirement that resolves the temporal confl

  3. Long-Run Success in the Accounting Profession: A Study of Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Linda; Harwell, Jeff; Morris, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Accounting students are generally well aware of the skills, education, and accomplishments needed to get that first job and initially enter the accounting profession. However, it is equally important that accounting students approaching graduation have a good understanding of the skills, education and accomplishments required for an experienced…

  4. Developing a Successful Open Source Training Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Lopez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Training programs for open source software provide a tangible, and sellable, product. A successful training program not only builds revenue, it also adds to the overall body of knowledge available for the open source project. By gathering best practices and taking advantage of the collective expertise within a community, it may be possible for a business to partner with an open source project to build a curriculum that promotes the project and supports the needs of the company's training customers. This article describes the initial approach used by Canonical, the commercial sponsor of the Ubuntu Linux operating system, to engage the community in the creation of its training offerings. We then discuss alternate curriculum creation models and some of the conditions that are necessary for successful collaboration between creators of existing documentation and commercial training providers.

  5. "The forbidden list" in Accounting Firms: A study into the foundations of CRM success

    OpenAIRE

    Amstelveen, Euydice; van Dijk, Erik; Dorsman, André; Kuijl, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Accounting firms have generally used a broad range of measures and internal procedures in an effort to prevent running into potential trouble. The nature of their controlling tasks suggests they might become privy to price sensitive information, which could lead to abuse or suspicion of abuse if the accounting firms (senior) partners are trading at the stock exchange. To avoid these problems accounting firms forbid partners to invest in all stocks. Such a policy has the disadvantage that it l...

  6. Analysis Of Factors Affecting The Success Of The Application Of Accounting Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Iskandar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to find solutions for problems related to the quality of accounting information systems accounting information quality when connected with management commitment user competency and organizational culture. This research was conducted through deductive analysis supported the phenomenon then sought evidence through empirical facts especially about the effect of management commitment competence and users of organizational culture on the quality of accounting information systems and their impact on the quality of accounting information. This research was conducted at the State-Owned Enterprises SOEs.

  7. Lessons from Successes in Medical Communication Training and Their Applications to Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daff, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Accountants interact with people from diverse backgrounds. While accounting knowledge and technical skills are essential, it is well-developed interpersonal skills that will enhance their relationships with clients and staff alike. Similarly, patients want their doctors to have extensive medical knowledge and an agreeable bedside manner. To…

  8. Lessons from Successes in Medical Communication Training and Their Applications to Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daff, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Accountants interact with people from diverse backgrounds. While accounting knowledge and technical skills are essential, it is well-developed interpersonal skills that will enhance their relationships with clients and staff alike. Similarly, patients want their doctors to have extensive medical knowledge and an agreeable bedside manner. To…

  9. Improving Student Success in Principles of Accounting 211 with the Integration of Situational Leadership Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewell, Paul L.

    2001-01-01

    Looks at the failure rate of students in Accounting 211 in the Virginia Community College System. States that rote teaching styles that do not incorporate interdisciplinary and other diverse methods, do not take into account developing learning skills, and do not encourage active learning are doomed to fail. Makes recommendations for new…

  10. Models and Rules of Evaluation in International Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Feleaga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The accounting procedures cannot be analyzed without a previous evaluation. Value is in general a very subjective issue, usually the result of a monetary evaluation made to a specific asset, group of assets or entities, or to some rendered services. Within the economic sciences, value comes from its very own deep history. In accounting, the concept of value had a late and fragile start. The term of value must not be misinterpreted as being the same thing with cost, even though value is frequently measured through costs. At the origin of the international accounting standards lays the framework for preparing, presenting and disclosing the financial statements. The framework stays as a reference matrix, as a standard of standards, as a constitution of financial accounting. According to the international framework, the financial statements use different evaluation basis: the hystorical cost, the current cost, the realisable (settlement value, the present value (the present value of cash flows. Choosing the evaluation basis and the capital maintenance concept will eventually determine the accounting evaluation model used in preparing the financial statements of a company. The multitude of accounting evaluation models differentiate themselves one from another through various relevance and reliable degrees of accounting information and therefore, accountants (the prepares of financial statements must try to equilibrate these two main qualitative characteristics of financial information.

  11. Models and Rules of Evaluation in International Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The accounting procedures cannot be analyzed without a previous evaluation. Value is in general a very subjective issue, usually the result of a monetary evaluation made to a specific asset, group of assets or entities, or to some rendered services. Within the economic sciences, value comes from its very own deep history. In accounting, the concept of value had a late and fragile start. The term of value must not be misinterpreted as being the same thing with cost, even though value is frequently measured through costs. At the origin of the international accounting standards lays the framework for preparing, presenting and disclosing the financial statements. The framework stays as a reference matrix, as a standard of standards, as a constitution of financial accounting. According to the international framework, the financial statements use different evaluation basis: the hystorical cost, the current cost, the realisable (settlement value, the present value (the present value of cash flows. Choosing the evaluation basis and the capital maintenance concept will eventually determine the accounting evaluation model used in preparing the financial statements of a company. The multitude of accounting evaluation models differentiate themselves one from another through various relevance and reliable degrees of accounting information and therefore, accountants (the prepares of financial statements must try to equilibrate these two main qualitative characteristics of financial information.

  12. An Examination of the Use of Accounting Information Systems and the Success of Small Businesses in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracina, Tara H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the use and sophistication of accounting information systems (AISs) and the success of small businesses in South Carolina. Additionally, this study explored the variables that influence South Carolinian small business owners/managers in the extent of adoption (sophistication) of…

  13. An Examination of the Use of Accounting Information Systems and the Success of Small Businesses in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracina, Tara H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the use and sophistication of accounting information systems (AISs) and the success of small businesses in South Carolina. Additionally, this study explored the variables that influence South Carolinian small business owners/managers in the extent of adoption (sophistication) of…

  14. Reporting success rates in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas: are we accounting for the natural history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Lau, Tsz; Vasan, Rohit; Danner, Christopher; Youssef, A Samy; van Loveren, Harry; Agazzi, Siviero

    2014-06-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is generally accepted as one of the best treatment options for vestibular schwannomas. We question whether growth control is an accurate measure of success in vestibular schwannoma treatment. We aim to clarify the success rate of stereotactic radiosurgery and adjust the reported results to the benign natural history of untreated tumors. All articles were taken from a PubMed search of the English literature from the years 2000-2011. Inclusion criteria were articles containing the number of patients treated, radiation technique, average tumor size, follow-up time, and percentage of tumors growing during follow-up. Data were extracted from 19 articles. Success rates were adjusted using published data that 17% to 30% of vestibular schwannomas grow. The average reported success rate for stereotactic radiosurgery across all articles was 95.5%. When considering 17% or 30% natural growth without intervention, the adjusted success rates became 78.2% and 86.9% respectively. These rates were obtained by applying the natural history growth percentages to any tumors not reported to be growing before radiosurgical intervention. Success in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas with stereotactic radiosurgery is often defined as lack of further growth. Recent data on the natural growth history of vestibular schwannomas raise the question of whether this is the best definition of success. We have identified a lack of continuity regarding the reporting of success and emphasize the importance of the clarification of the success of radiosurgery to make informed decisions regarding the best treatment options for vestibular schwannoma.

  15. Saving for Success: Financial Education and Savings Goal Achievement in Individual Development Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Mary L.; Mauldin, Teresa; Sabia, Joseph J.; Koonce, Joan; Palmer, Lance

    2011-01-01

    Using microdata from the American Dream Demonstration, the current study examines factors associated with savings and savings goal achievement (indicated by a matched withdrawal) among participants of individual development account (IDA) programs. Multinomial logit results show that hours of participation in financial education programs, higher…

  16. Assessing California's Accountability System: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities for Improvement. Policy Brief 04-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Jennifer; Bitter, Catherine; Kirst, Mike; Carnoy, Martin; Woody, Elisabeth; Buttles, Melissa; Fuller, Bruce; Ruenzel, David

    2004-01-01

    During the past two years, three independent studies--conducted by Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE), American Institutes for Research (AIR), and the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE)--have examined the accomplishments, shortcomings, and continuing challenges of California's Public Schools Accountability Act (PSAA).…

  17. Great Expectations and Post-Feminist Accountability: Young Women Living up to the "Successful Girls" Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of the discourse of "successful girls" (and failing boys) in Australia and internationally has been widely documented. Against the much-vaunted lifting of barriers to opportunity for girls and women, it might reasonably be expected that their educational experiences and career paths are expressive of wider opportunities, greater…

  18. Expanding on Successful Concepts, Models, and Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Edwards, Stephen W.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Anderson, Kim A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kile, Molly L.; L. Massey Simonich, Staci; Stone, David; Tanguay, Robert L.; Waters, Katrina M.; Harper, Stacey L.; Williams, David E.

    2016-09-06

    In her letter to the editor1 regarding our recent Feature Article “Completing the Link between Exposure Science and Toxicology for Improved Environmental Health Decision Making: The Aggregate Exposure Pathway Framework” 2, Dr. von Göetz expressed several concerns about terminology, and the perception that we propose the replacement of successful approaches and models for exposure assessment with a concept. We are glad to have the opportunity to address these issues here. If the goal of the AEP framework was to replace existing exposure models or databases for organizing exposure data with a concept, we would share Dr. von Göetz concerns. Instead, the outcome we promote is broader use of an organizational framework for exposure science. The framework would support improved generation, organization, and interpretation of data as well as modeling and prediction, not replacement of models. The field of toxicology has seen the benefits of wide use of one or more organizational frameworks (e.g., mode and mechanism of action, adverse outcome pathway). These frameworks influence how experiments are designed, data are collected, curated, stored and interpreted and ultimately how data are used in risk assessment. Exposure science is poised to similarly benefit from broader use of a parallel organizational framework, which Dr. von Göetz correctly points out, is currently used in the exposure modeling community. In our view, the concepts used so effectively in the exposure modeling community, expanded upon in the AEP framework, could see wider adoption by the field as a whole. The value of such a framework was recognized by the National Academy of Sciences.3 Replacement of models, databases, or any application with the AEP framework was not proposed in our article. The positive role broader more consistent use of such a framework might have in enabling and advancing “general activities such as data acquisition, organization…,” and exposure modeling was discussed

  19. Stochastic models in risk theory and management accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekelmans, R.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with stochastic models in two fields: risk theory and management accounting. Firstly, two extensions of the classical risk process are analyzed. A method is developed that computes bounds of the probability of ruin for the classical risk rocess extended with a constant interest

  20. Stochastic models in risk theory and management accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekelmans, R.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with stochastic models in two fields: risk theory and management accounting. Firstly, two extensions of the classical risk process are analyzed. A method is developed that computes bounds of the probability of ruin for the classical risk rocess extended with a constant interest for

  1. Accountability Analysis of Electronic Commerce Protocols by Finite Automaton Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xiao-yao; Zhang Huan-guo

    2004-01-01

    The accountability of electronic commerce protocols is an important aspect to insures security of electronic transaction. This paper proposes to use Finite Automaton (FA) model as a new kind of framework to analyze the trans action protocols in the application of electronic commerce.

  2. Stochastic models in risk theory and management accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekelmans, R.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with stochastic models in two fields: risk theory and management accounting. Firstly, two extensions of the classical risk process are analyzed. A method is developed that computes bounds of the probability of ruin for the classical risk rocess extended with a constant interest for

  3. The Two-Step Student Teaching Model: Training for Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, Donna

    This model of student teaching preparation was developed in collaboration with public schools to focus on systematic experience in teaching and training for accountability in the classroom. In the two-semester plan, students begin with teacher orientation and planning days, serve as teacher aides, attend various methods courses, teach several…

  4. Driving Strategic Risk Planning With Predictive Modelling For Managerial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Pontoppidan, Iens Christian

    for managerial accounting and shows how it can be used to determine the impact of different types of risk assessment input parameters on the variability of important outcome measures. The purpose is to: (i) point out the theoretical necessity of a stochastic risk framework; (ii) present a stochastic framework......Currently, risk management in management/managerial accounting is treated as deterministic. Although it is well-known that risk estimates are necessarily uncertain or stochastic, until recently the methodology required to handle stochastic risk-based elements appear to be impractical and too...... mathematical. The ultimate purpose of this paper is to “make the risk concept procedural and analytical” and to argue that accountants should now include stochastic risk management as a standard tool. Drawing on mathematical modelling and statistics, this paper methodically develops risk analysis approach...

  5. Quantum-like models cannot account for the conjunction fallacy

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer-Kassem, Thomas; Guerci, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Human agents happen to judge that a conjunction of two terms is more probable than one of the terms, in contradiction with the rules of classical probabilities---this is the conjunction fallacy. One of the most discussed accounts of this fallacy is currently the quantum-like explanation, which relies on models exploiting the mathematics of quantum mechanics. The aim of this paper is to investigate the empirical adequacy of major such quantum-like models. We first argue that they can be tested in three different ways, in a question order effect configuration which is different from the traditional conjunction fallacy experiment. We then carry out our proposed experiment, with varied methodologies from experimental economics. The experimental results we get are at odds with the predictions of the quantum-like models. This strongly suggests that the quantum-like account of the conjunction fallacy fails. Future possible research paths are discussed.

  6. Application of a predictive Bayesian model to environmental accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anex, R P; Englehardt, J D

    2001-03-30

    Environmental accounting techniques are intended to capture important environmental costs and benefits that are often overlooked in standard accounting practices. Environmental accounting methods themselves often ignore or inadequately represent large but highly uncertain environmental costs and costs conditioned by specific prior events. Use of a predictive Bayesian model is demonstrated for the assessment of such highly uncertain environmental and contingent costs. The predictive Bayesian approach presented generates probability distributions for the quantity of interest (rather than parameters thereof). A spreadsheet implementation of a previously proposed predictive Bayesian model, extended to represent contingent costs, is described and used to evaluate whether a firm should undertake an accelerated phase-out of its PCB containing transformers. Variability and uncertainty (due to lack of information) in transformer accident frequency and severity are assessed simultaneously using a combination of historical accident data, engineering model-based cost estimates, and subjective judgement. Model results are compared using several different risk measures. Use of the model for incorporation of environmental risk management into a company's overall risk management strategy is discussed.

  7. Accounting for Business Models: Increasing the Visibility of Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Haslam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper conceptualises a firm’s business model employing stakeholder theory as a central organising element to help inform the purpose and objective(s of business model financial reporting and disclosure. Framework: Firms interact with a complex network of primary and secondary stakeholders to secure the value proposition of a firm’s business model. This value proposition is itself a complex amalgam of value creating, value capturing and value manipulating arrangements with stakeholders. From a financial accounting perspective the purpose of the value proposition for a firm’s business model is to sustain liquidity and solvency as a going concern. Findings: This article argues that stakeholder relations impact upon the financial viability of a firm’s business model value proposition. However current financial reporting by function of expenses and the central organising objectives of the accounting conceptual framework conceal firm-stakeholder relations and their impact on reported financials. Practical implications: The practical implication of our paper is that ‘Business Model’ financial reporting would require a reorientation in the accounting conceptual framework that defines the objectives and purpose of financial reporting. This reorientation would involve reporting about stakeholder relations and their impact on a firms financials not simply reporting financial information to ‘investors’. Social Implications: Business model financial reporting has the potential to be stakeholder inclusive because the numbers and narratives reported by firms in their annual financial statements will increase the visibility of stakeholder relations and how these are being managed. What is original/value of paper: This paper’s original perspective is that it argues that a firm’s business model is structured out of stakeholder relations. It presents the firm’s value proposition as the product of value creating, capturing and

  8. Optimal control design that accounts for model mismatch errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hull, D.G. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics

    1995-02-01

    A new technique is presented in this paper that reduces the complexity of state differential equations while accounting for modeling assumptions. The mismatch controls are defined as the differences between the model equations and the true state equations. The performance index of the optimal control problem is formulated with a set of tuning parameters that are user-selected to tune the control solution in order to achieve the best results. Computer simulations demonstrate that the tuned control law outperforms the untuned controller and produces results that are comparable to a numerically-determined, piecewise-linear optimal controller.

  9. Accounting for microbial habitats in modeling soil organic matter dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Claire; Garnier, Patricia; Nunan, Naoise; Pot, Valérie; Raynaud, Xavier; Vieublé, Laure; Otten, Wilfred; Falconer, Ruth; Monga, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The extreme heterogeneity of soils constituents, architecture and inhabitants at the microscopic scale is increasingly recognized. Microbial communities exist and are active in a complex 3-D physical framework of mineral and organic particles defining pores of various sizes, more or less inter-connected. This results in a frequent spatial disconnection between soil carbon, energy sources and the decomposer organisms and a variety of microhabitats that are more or less suitable for microbial growth and activity. However, current biogeochemical models account for C dynamics at the macroscale (cm, m) and consider time- and spatially averaged relationships between microbial activity and soil characteristics. Different modelling approaches have intended to account for this microscale heterogeneity, based either on considering aggregates as surrogates for microbial habitats, or pores. Innovative modelling approaches are based on an explicit representation of soil structure at the fine scale, i.e. at µm to mm scales: pore architecture and their saturation with water, localization of organic resources and of microorganisms. Three recent models are presented here, that describe the heterotrophic activity of either bacteria or fungi and are based upon different strategies to represent the complex soil pore system (Mosaic, LBios and µFun). These models allow to hierarchize factors of microbial activity in soil's heterogeneous architecture. Present limits of these approaches and challenges are presented, regarding the extensive information required on soils at the microscale and to up-scale microbial functioning from the pore to the core scale.

  10. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-07-01

    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  11. Financial modeling: Rx for financial success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, D

    2001-01-01

    In an era of managed care, cost cutting and finding ways to increase revenue are key goals in the survival of group practices. Many practices find that they have to boost their revenue by a certain amount (for example, 20-30% within the next three years) to maintain viability in the health care marketplace. Understanding how to generate that revenue and influence short-term and long-term financial outcomes is a far trickier process. This article details how practice administrators can influence a practice's bottom line through a three-step process: (1) identify the components of the practice's financial performance and drivers of performance results, (2) diagnose the practice's current financial situation, and (3) pinpoint benchmarks and targets for success.

  12. Discrete Model of Ideological Struggle Accounting for Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K; Rotundo, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    A discrete in time model of ideological competition is formulated taking into account population migration. The model is based on interactions between global populations of non-believers and followers of different ideologies. The complex dynamics of the attracting manifolds is investigated. Conversion from one ideology to another by means of (i) mass media influence and (ii) interpersonal relations is considered. Moreover a different birth rate is assumed for different ideologies, the rate being assumed to be positive for the reference population, made of initially non-believers. Ideological competition can happen in one or several regions in space. In the latter case, migration of non-believers and adepts is allowed; this leads to an enrichment of the ideological dynamics. Finally, the current ideological situation in the Arab countries and China is commented upon from the point of view of the presently developed mathematical model. The massive forced conversion by Ottoman Turks in the Balkans is briefly dis...

  13. Accounting models and devolution in the Italian public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pavan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s Italy started a public sector administrative reform process consistent, in general terms, with the New Public Management movement. In particular, changes have been introduced in the budgeting and accounting systems of the State, municipalities, health care bodies, etc. In the same years an institutional reform also started and a strong power devolution process began to be realised; a shift to a federal form of the State seems to be the goal. Stating form the challenges coming from the devolution process, the article questions 1 if it is possible to find some shared features in theh reformed accounting systems of the different public sector organisation categories, and to shape in this way on or more accounting Italian models, and 2 if these models have an information capacity adequate to sustain the information needs- in terms of accountability, government co-ordination and decision making- emerging from the devolution process. The information needs in a devolved environment are recognised; eleven budgeting and accounting systems are analysed and compared. The issue of the consistency level existing between accountign and institutional reforms is also discussed.En la Italia de los años 90, se inició un proceso de reforma administrativa del sector público en consonancia, en términos generales, con el movimineto New Public Management. En concreto, se han introducido modificaciones en los sistemas contables y presupuestarios del Estado, de las corporaciones locales y de las instituciones sanitarias. Durante el mismo periodo se empreendió una reforma de carácter constitucional cuyo objetivo último parecía ser la constitución de un estado federal. A partir de los desafíos que supone todo proceso de descentralización, el artículo abre dos interrogantes: 1 la posibilidad de encontrar rasgos comunes en los sitemas contables reformados de los distintos niveles organizativos del sector público, con el fin de confirmar uno o

  14. Expanding on Successful Concepts, Models, and Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    If the goal of the AEP framework was to replace existing exposure models or databases for organizing exposure data with a concept, we would share Dr. von Göetz concerns. Instead, the outcome we promote is broader use of an organizational framework for exposure science. The f...

  15. A Predictive Model for MSSW Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Angela Michele

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a hypothetical model for predicting both graduate GPA and graduation of University of Louisville Kent School of Social Work Master of Science in Social Work (MSSW) students entering the program during the 2001-2005 school years. The preexisting characteristics of demographics, academic preparedness and culture shock along with…

  16. Accounting for Trust: A Conceptual Model for the Determinants of Trust in the Australian Public Accountant – SME Client Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cherry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates trust as it relates to the relationship between Australia’s public accountants and their SME clients. It describes the contribution of the accountancy profession to the SME market, as well as the key challenges faced by accountants and their SME clients. Following the review of prior scholarly studies, a working definition of trust as it relates to this important relationship is also developed and presented. A further consequence of prior academic work is the development of a comprehensive conceptual model to describe the determinants of trust in the Australian public accountant – SME client relationship, which requires testing via empirical studies.

  17. Relations between Balance Sheet Policy and Accounting Policy in the Context of Different Accounting Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Grabowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Polish professional literature the terms balance sheet policy (in German: bilanzpolitik and accounting policy are commonly used. The problem raised by the author is defined by the fact that there exist at least a few perspectives of their meaning and their relations with each other. In some opinions balance sheet policy and accounting policy represent the same issues. In other opinions there appear differences between the two, however, there is no consensus as to the nature of the differences. The lack of clarity with regard to the explanation methods of balance sheet policy and accounting policy and their relations represents a research problem for theory and practice. The theory is required to codify the academic debate and systematize the terminology while in practice it is the management board that holds responsibility for a financial statement which is determined by accounting policy adopted by the entity. In this working paper the author has tried to point out the substance of balance sheet policy and accounting policy as well as to provide explanation of existing differences between them. Although the topic has already been discussed in professional literature, there have been no attempts to explain the substance of the two policies and their relations by making reference to their origin, ie. accounting approaches from which they evolved.

  18. LIFE DISTRIBUTION OF SERIES UNDER THE SUCCESSIVE DAMAGE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dongqian; C. D. Lai; LI Guoying

    2003-01-01

    We analyse further the reliability behaviour of series and parallel systems in the successive damage model initiated by Downton. The results are compared with those obtained for other models with different bivariate distributions.

  19. Model of key success factors for Business Intelligence implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mesaros

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available New progressive technologies recorded growth in every area. Information-communication technologies facilitate the exchange of information and it facilitates management of everyday activities in enterprises. Specific modules (such as Business Intelligence facilitate decision-making. Several studies have demonstrated the positive impact of Business Intelligence to decision-making. The first step is to put in place the enterprise. The implementation process is influenced by many factors. This article discusses the issue of key success factors affecting to successful implementation of Business Intelligence. The article describes the key success factors for successful implementation and use of Business Intelligence based on multiple studies. The main objective of this study is to verify the effects and dependence of selected factors and proposes a model of key success factors for successful implementation of Business Intelligence. Key success factors and the proposed model are studied in Slovak enterprises.

  20. The Road of ERP Success: A Framework Model for Successful ERP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevenpri Candra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available To compete with nowadays business is to implement technology and align it into their business strategy. One of technology that commonly implement is Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP. This research will examined what are critical success factor of ERP and the impact of their business outcomes. A framework model for ERP Implementation success is constructs from several research or previous study in Implementation ERP. This study will extends in the research field of successful implementation ERP and implication factor for business practice to have more knowledge in term of implementation ERP and their business strategy. 

  1. Meander migration modeling accounting for the effect of riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, E.; Parker, G.

    2010-12-01

    A numerical model is proposed to study the development of meandering rivers so as to reproduce patterns of both migration and spatial/temporal width variation pattern observed in nature. The model comprises of: a) a depth-averaged channel hydrodynamic/morphodynamic model developed using a two-parameter perturbation expansion technique that considers perturbations induced by curvature and spatial channel width variation and b) a bank migration model which separately considers bank erosional and depositional processes. Unlike most previous meandering river models where channel migration is characterized only in terms of bank erosion, channel dynamics are here defined at channel banks which are allowed to migrate independently via deposition/erosion based on the local flow field and bank characteristics. A bank erodes (deposits) if the near bank Shields stress computed from the flow field is greater (less) than a specified threshold. This threshold Shields number is equivalent to the formative Shields stress characterizing bankfull flow. Excessive bank erosion is controlled by means of natural armoring provided by cohesive/rooted slump blocks produced when a stream erodes into the lower non-cohesive part of a composite bank. Bank deposition is largely due to sediment trapping by vegetation; resultant channel narrowing is related to both a natural rate of vegetal encroachment and flow characteristics. This new model allows the channel freedom to vary in width both spatially and in time as it migrates, so accounting for the bi-directional coupling between vegetation and flow dynamics and reproducing more realistic planform geometries. Preliminary results based on the model are presented.

  2. Generalized Stefan models accounting for a discontinuous temperature field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danescu, A.

    We construct a class of generalized Stefan models able to account for a discontinuous temperature field across a nonmaterial interface. The resulting theory introduces a constitutive scalar interfacial field, denoted by /lineθ and called the equivalent temperature of the interface. A classical procedure, based on the interfacial dissipation inequality, relates the interfacial energy release to the interfacial mass flux and restricts the equivalent temperature of the interface. We show that previously proposed theories are obtained as particular cases when /lineθ = ⪉θ > or /lineθ = ⪉(1)/(θ )>-1 or, more generally, when /lineθ = ⪉θ r ⪉ 1/θ1-r-1 for 0<= r<= 1. We study in a particular constitutive framework the solidification of an under-cooled liquid and we are able to give a sufficient condition for the existence of travelling wave solutions.

  3. A STUDY ON THE SUCCESSION MODEL OF FAMILY BUSINESSS

    OpenAIRE

    Hung-Jung Chang; Szu-Ju Lin

    2011-01-01

    Family business has to face issues such as ownership issue, governance structure issue and succession issue, etc. in enterprise development history. Among them, the succession issue is an important transition point in enterprise’s survival and development. It is thus thought of as one of the most important strategic and decision making issues in the enterprise. This article aims at investigating the succession model of Family business. First, reviews are done on the meaning of Family business...

  4. Natural Resource Accounting Systems and Environmental Policy Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Cabe; Johnson, Stanley R

    1990-01-01

    Natural Resource Accounting (RCA) combines national income and product accounting concepts with analysis of natural resource and environmental issues. This paper considers this approach for the RCA Appraisal required by the Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act. Recent natural resource accounting literature is examined in light of requirements of the RCA Appraisal. The paper provides a critique of the economic content of the Second RCA Appraisal and develops a natural resource accounting ...

  5. Accounting for Water Insecurity in Modeling Domestic Water Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaitsis, S. E.; Huber-lee, A. T.; Vogel, R. M.; Naumova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Water demand management uses price elasticity estimates to predict consumer demand in relation to water pricing changes, but studies have shown that many additional factors effect water consumption. Development scholars document the need for water security, however, much of the water security literature focuses on broad policies which can influence water demand. Previous domestic water demand studies have not considered how water security can affect a population's consumption behavior. This study is the first to model the influence of water insecurity on water demand. A subjective indicator scale measuring water insecurity among consumers in the Palestinian West Bank is developed and included as a variable to explore how perceptions of control, or lack thereof, impact consumption behavior and resulting estimates of price elasticity. A multivariate regression model demonstrates the significance of a water insecurity variable for data sets encompassing disparate water access. When accounting for insecurity, the R-squaed value improves and the marginal price a household is willing to pay becomes a significant predictor for the household quantity consumption. The model denotes that, with all other variables held equal, a household will buy more water when the users are more water insecure. Though the reasons behind this trend require further study, the findings suggest broad policy implications by demonstrating that water distribution practices in scarcity conditions can promote consumer welfare and efficient water use.

  6. [Active ageing and success: A brief history of conceptual models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petretto, Donatella Rita; Pili, Roberto; Gaviano, Luca; Matos López, Cristina; Zuddas, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse and describe different conceptual models of successful ageing, active and healthy ageing developed in Europe and in America in the 20° century, starting from Rowe and Kahn's original model (1987, 1997). A narrative review was conducted on the literature on successful ageing. Our review included definition of successful ageing from European and American scholars. Models were found that aimed to describe indexes of active and healthy ageing, models devoted to describe processes involved in successful ageing, and additional views that emphasise subjective and objective perception of successful ageing. A description is also given of critiques on previous models and remedies according to Martin et al. (2014) and strategies for successful ageing according to Jeste and Depp (2014). The need is discussed for the enhancement of Rowe and Kahn's model and other models with a more inclusive, universal description of ageing, incorporating scientific evidence regarding active ageing. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Modesto Junior College's Student Success Plan: A Model for Student Success/PFE Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKuin, Kathleen

    This is a report on the student success model designed by Modesto Junior College (MJC) (California) in conjunction with the state-established Partnership for Excellence (PFE) program goals. The PFE program addresses goals of the community college's mission along with more direct emphasis on transfer programs, degrees and certificates awarded,…

  8. Modesto Junior College's Student Success Plan: A Model for Student Success/PFE Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKuin, Kathleen

    This is a report on the student success model designed by Modesto Junior College (MJC) (California) in conjunction with the state-established Partnership for Excellence (PFE) program goals. The PFE program addresses goals of the community college's mission along with more direct emphasis on transfer programs, degrees and certificates awarded,…

  9. Capture-recapture survival models taking account of transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradel, R.; Hines, J.E.; Lebreton, J.D.; Nichols, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of transient animals, common enough in natural populations, invalidates the estimation of survival by traditional capture- recapture (CR) models designed for the study of residents only. Also, the study of transit is interesting in itself. We thus develop here a class of CR models to describe the presence of transients. In order to assess the merits of this approach we examme the bias of the traditional survival estimators in the presence of transients in relation to the power of different tests for detecting transients. We also compare the relative efficiency of an ad hoc approach to dealing with transients that leaves out the first observation of each animal. We then study a real example using lazuli bunting (Passerina amoena) and, in conclusion, discuss the design of an experiment aiming at the estimation of transience. In practice, the presence of transients is easily detected whenever the risk of bias is high. The ad hoc approach, which yields unbiased estimates for residents only, is satisfactory in a time-dependent context but poorly efficient when parameters are constant. The example shows that intermediate situations between strict 'residence' and strict 'transience' may exist in certain studies. Yet, most of the time, if the study design takes into account the expected length of stay of a transient, it should be possible to efficiently separate the two categories of animals.

  10. Islamic Theoretical Intertemporal Model of the Current Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Belkacem Ghassan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop an Islamic intertemporal model of the current account based on the prevailing theoretical and empirical literature of PVMCA (Obstfeld and Rogoff, 1996, Cerrato et al., 2014. The proposed model is based on the budget constraint of the present and future consumption, which depends on the obligatory Zakat from the income and assets, the return rate on the owned assets, the inheritance linking previous to subsequent generation. Using logarithmic utility function, featured by a unitary elasticity of intertemporal substitution and a unitary coefficient of relative risk aversion, we show through Euler equation of consumption that there is an inverse relationship between consumption growth from the last age to the first one and the Zakat rate on assets. The outcomes of this result are that the Zakat on assets disciplines the consumer to have more rationality in consumption, and allows additional marginal assets for future generations. By assuming a unitary subjective discount rate, we indicate that the more the return rate on assets is high, the more the consumption growth between today and tomorrow will be fast. Through the budget constraint, if Zakat rate on the Zakatable assets is greater than Zakat rate on income, this leads to a relative expansion in private consumption of the wealthy group. Besides, we point out that an increase in return rate on assets, can drive to increasing or decreasing current consumption, because the substitution and income effects work in opposite ways.

  11. Establishing a Cloud Computing Success Model for Hospitals in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Woei Lian PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand the critical quality-related factors that affect cloud computing success of hospitals in Taiwan. In this study, private cloud computing is the major research target. The chief information officers participated in a questionnaire survey. The results indicate that the integration of trust into the information systems success model will have acceptable explanatory power to understand cloud computing success in the hospital. Moreover, information quality and system quality directly affect cloud computing satisfaction, whereas service quality indirectly affects the satisfaction through trust. In other words, trust serves as the mediator between service quality and satisfaction. This cloud computing success model will help hospitals evaluate or achieve success after adopting private cloud computing health care services.

  12. A STUDY ON THE SUCCESSION MODEL OF FAMILY BUSINESSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Jung Chang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Family business has to face issues such as ownership issue, governance structure issue and succession issue, etc. in enterprise development history. Among them, the succession issue is an important transition point in enterprise’s survival and development. It is thus thought of as one of the most important strategic and decision making issues in the enterprise. This article aims at investigating the succession model of Family business. First, reviews are done on the meaning of Family business. Next, reviews and comments are made on the related models of the succession of Family business. It can be seen from the research that the ways of succession of Family business can be divided into process point of view and psychological point of view. Finally, main conclusions of this article are summarized and perspectives are also made on the future researches.

  13. Establishing a Cloud Computing Success Model for Hospitals in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiunn-Woei

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the critical quality-related factors that affect cloud computing success of hospitals in Taiwan. In this study, private cloud computing is the major research target. The chief information officers participated in a questionnaire survey. The results indicate that the integration of trust into the information systems success model will have acceptable explanatory power to understand cloud computing success in the hospital. Moreover, information quality and system quality directly affect cloud computing satisfaction, whereas service quality indirectly affects the satisfaction through trust. In other words, trust serves as the mediator between service quality and satisfaction. This cloud computing success model will help hospitals evaluate or achieve success after adopting private cloud computing health care services.

  14. Modeling of Accounting Doctoral Thesis with Emphasis on Solution for Financial Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mansoori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available By passing the instruction period and increase of graduate students and also research budget, knowledge of accounting in Iran entered to the field of research in a way that number of accounting projects has been implemented in the real world. Because of that different experience in implementing the accounting standards were achieved. So, it was expected the mentioned experiences help to solve the financial problems in country, in spite of lots of efforts which were done for researching; we still have many financial and accounting problems in our country. PHD projects could be considered as one of the important solutions to improve the University subjects including accounting. PHD projects are considered as team work job and it will be legitimate by supervisor teams in universities.It is obvious that applied projects should solve part of the problems in accounting field but unfortunately it is not working in the real world. The question which came in to our mind is how come that the out put of the applied and knowledge base projects could not make the darkness of the mentioned problems clear and also why politicians in difficult situations prefer to use their own previous experiences in important decision makings instead of using the consultant’s knowledge base suggestions.In this research I’m going to study, the reasons behind that prevent the applied PHD projects from success in real world which relates to the point of view that consider the political suggestions which are out put of knowledge base projects are not qualified enough for implementation. For this purpose, the indicators of an applied PHD project were considered and 110 vise people were categorized the mentioned indicators and then in a comprehensive study other applied PHD accounting projects were compared to each other.As result, in this study problems of the studied researches were identified and a proper and applied model for creating applied research was developed.

  15. A selection model for accounting for publication bias in a full network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Dimitris; Welton, Nicky J; Sutton, Alex; Salanti, Georgia

    2014-12-30

    Copas and Shi suggested a selection model to explore the potential impact of publication bias via sensitivity analysis based on assumptions for the probability of publication of trials conditional on the precision of their results. Chootrakool et al. extended this model to three-arm trials but did not fully account for the implications of the consistency assumption, and their model is difficult to generalize for complex network structures with more than three treatments. Fitting these selection models within a frequentist setting requires maximization of a complex likelihood function, and identification problems are common. We have previously presented a Bayesian implementation of the selection model when multiple treatments are compared with a common reference treatment. We now present a general model suitable for complex, full network meta-analysis that accounts for consistency when adjusting results for publication bias. We developed a design-by-treatment selection model to describe the mechanism by which studies with different designs (sets of treatments compared in a trial) and precision may be selected for publication. We fit the model in a Bayesian setting because it avoids the numerical problems encountered in the frequentist setting, it is generalizable with respect to the number of treatments and study arms, and it provides a flexible framework for sensitivity analysis using external knowledge. Our model accounts for the additional uncertainty arising from publication bias more successfully compared to the standard Copas model or its previous extensions. We illustrate the methodology using a published triangular network for the failure of vascular graft or arterial patency.

  16. A statistical RCL interconnect delay model taking account of process variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhang-Ming; wan Da-Jing; Yang Yin-Tang; En Yun-Fei

    2011-01-01

    As the feature size of the CMOS integrated circuit continues to shrink, process variations have become a key factor affecting the interconnect performance. Based on the equivalent Elmore model and the use of the polynomial chaos theory and the Galerkin method, we propose a linear statistical RCL interconnect delay model, taking into account process variations by successive application of the linear approximation method. Based on a variety of nano-CMOS process parameters, HSPICE simulation results show that the maximum error of the proposed model is less than 3.5%.The proposed model is simple, of high precision, and can be used in the analysis and design of nanometer integrated circuit interconnect systems.

  17. Models Predicting Success of Infertility Treatment: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarinara, Alireza; Zeraati, Hojjat; Kamali, Koorosh; Mohammad, Kazem; Shahnazari, Parisa; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertile couples are faced with problems that affect their marital life. Infertility treatment is expensive and time consuming and occasionally isn’t simply possible. Prediction models for infertility treatment have been proposed and prediction of treatment success is a new field in infertility treatment. Because prediction of treatment success is a new need for infertile couples, this paper reviewed previous studies for catching a general concept in applicability of the models. Methods: This study was conducted as a systematic review at Avicenna Research Institute in 2015. Six data bases were searched based on WHO definitions and MESH key words. Papers about prediction models in infertility were evaluated. Results: Eighty one papers were eligible for the study. Papers covered years after 1986 and studies were designed retrospectively and prospectively. IVF prediction models have more shares in papers. Most common predictors were age, duration of infertility, ovarian and tubal problems. Conclusion: Prediction model can be clinically applied if the model can be statistically evaluated and has a good validation for treatment success. To achieve better results, the physician and the couples’ needs estimation for treatment success rate were based on history, the examination and clinical tests. Models must be checked for theoretical approach and appropriate validation. The privileges for applying the prediction models are the decrease in the cost and time, avoiding painful treatment of patients, assessment of treatment approach for physicians and decision making for health managers. The selection of the approach for designing and using these models is inevitable. PMID:27141461

  18. A model of succession planning for mental health nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Sally; Procter, Nicholas; Deuter, Kate

    2010-08-01

    This paper reviews current literature on succession planning for mental health nurse practitioners (NPs) and discusses a model of succession planning that is underpinned by principals of leadership development, workforce participation and client engagement. The paper identifies succession planning as a means of managing a present and future workforce, while simultaneously addressing individual and organizational learning and practice development needs. A discussion of the processes attendant upon sustainable succession planning - collegial support, career planning and development, information exchange, capacity building, and mentoring is framed within the potential interrelationships between existing NP, developing NP and service directors and/or team managers. Done effectively and in partnership with wider clinical services, succession planning has the potential to build NP leadership development and leadership transition more broadly within mental health services.

  19. A Career Success Model for Academics at Malaysian Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Said, Al-Mansor; Mohd Rasdi, Roziah; Abu Samah, Bahaman; Silong, Abu Daud; Sulaiman, Suzaimah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a career success model for academics at the Malaysian research universities. Design/methodology/approach: Self-administered and online surveys were used for data collection among 325 academics from Malaysian research universities. Findings: Based on the analysis of structural equation modeling, the…

  20. Expert System Models in the Companies' Financial and Accounting Domain

    CERN Document Server

    Mates, D; Bostan, I; Grosu, V

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is based on studying, analyzing and implementing the expert systems in the financial and accounting domain of the companies, describing the use method of the informational systems that can be used in the multi-national companies, public interest institutions, and medium and small dimension economical entities, in order to optimize the managerial decisions and render efficient the financial-accounting functionality. The purpose of this paper is aimed to identifying the economical exigencies of the entities, based on the already used accounting instruments and the management software that could consent the control of the economical processes and patrimonial assets.

  1. Formulation of a Success Model in Pharmaceutical R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunju Rachel Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, pharmaceutical R&D has been demanded to increase productivity in terms of time efficiency and innovation as well. There have been discontinuous challenges coming up in this industry, such as globalized R&D competition, stricter regulation, lengthy process of clinical trials, and so on. Considering external changes, high competition, and discontinuities in the industry, it is a good time to redefine the concept of success in pharmaceutical R&D. Thus, this article attempts to formulate a new success model in pharmaceutical R&D, through contextualizing the industry’s success factors.

  2. Evaluating the predictive abilities of community occupancy models using AUC while accounting for imperfect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Fagan, William F.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict patterns of species' occurrences is fundamental to the successful management of animal communities. To determine optimal management strategies, it is essential to understand species-habitat relationships and how species habitat use is related to natural or human-induced environmental changes. Using five years of monitoring data in the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Maryland, USA, we developed four multi-species hierarchical models for estimating amphibian wetland use that account for imperfect detection during sampling. The models were designed to determine which factors (wetland habitat characteristics, annual trend effects, spring/summer precipitation, and previous wetland occupancy) were most important for predicting future habitat use. We used the models to make predictions of species occurrences in sampled and unsampled wetlands and evaluated model projections using additional data. Using a Bayesian approach, we calculated a posterior distribution of receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) values, which allowed us to explicitly quantify the uncertainty in the quality of our predictions and to account for false negatives in the evaluation dataset. We found that wetland hydroperiod (the length of time that a wetland holds water) as well as the occurrence state in the prior year were generally the most important factors in determining occupancy. The model with only habitat covariates predicted species occurrences well; however, knowledge of wetland use in the previous year significantly improved predictive ability at the community level and for two of 12 species/species complexes. Our results demonstrate the utility of multi-species models for understanding which factors affect species habitat use of an entire community (of species) and provide an improved methodology using AUC that is helpful for quantifying the uncertainty in model predictions while explicitly accounting for

  3. The Drivers of Success in Business Model Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Savič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing empirical literature on business models is still inconclusive about the key drivers of successful business model transformation. The paper explores this issue by using a single longitudinal case study design in combination with grounded theory approach on a medium-sized, high-tech and globally oriented company. Based on on-site visits, interviews and secondary documentation data analysis, the study identifies six generic drivers of successful business model transformation: transformational leadership, discovery driven decision-making, industry improvement – customer specific orientation, content-oriented communication, self-initiative collaborators, and phased separation strategy. The new drivers supplement our existing knowledge on how successful transformation takes place and add to existing drivers, while extensive discussion of their implications may help the managers to execute business transformations more effectively.

  4. Forest-succession models and their ecological and management implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, D.; Smith, T.M.; Weinstein, D.A.; Shugart, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Computer models of forest succession have been developed to an extent that allows their use as a tool for predicting forest ecosystem behavior over long periods of time. This paper outlines the use of one approach to forest succession modeling for a variety of problems including: (1) determining the effect of climate change on forests; (2) integrating information on wildlife habitat changes with the changes in forest structure associated with timber management; (3) assessing the potential effect of air pollutants on forest dynamics; and (4) determining the theoretical importance of disturbance on forest community diversity and function.

  5. Electronic Commerce Success Model: A Search for Multiple Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Achjari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study attempts to develop and examine framework of e-commerce success. In order to obtain comprehensive and robust measures, the framework accomodates key factors that are identified in the literature concerning the success of electronic commerce. The structural model comprises of four exogenous variables (Internal Driver, Internal Impediment, External Driver and Exgternal Impediment and one endogenous variable (Electornic Commerce Success eith 24 observed variables. The study that was administered within large Australian companies using questionaire survey concluded that benefits for both internal organization and external parties from the use of e-commerce were the main factor tro predict perceived and/or expected success of electronic commerce.

  6. Models and Rules of Evaluation in International Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Feleaga; Niculae Feleaga

    2006-01-01

    The accounting procedures cannot be analyzed without a previous evaluation. Value is in general a very subjective issue, usually the result of a monetary evaluation made to a specific asset, group of assets or entities, or to some rendered services. Within the economic sciences, value comes from its very own deep history. In accounting, the concept of value had a late and fragile start. The term of value must not be misinterpreted as being the same thing with cost, even though value is freque...

  7. MODELING OF A STRUCTURED PLAN OF ACCOUNTS IN PROCEDURES OF INSOLVENCY AND BANKRUPTCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalenko R. V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article details the problems of constructing a structured plan of accounts in bankruptcy and insolvency proceedings. The proposed model is based on two principal positions, first structured chart of accounts has its own dimension, and secondly, it is built on the principles of architectonics. Architectonics constructing structured chart of accounts allows you to integrate managerial, strategic, transactional accounting and making accounting transparent and efficient

  8. Accounting for heterogeneity of public lands in hedonic property models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlotte Ham; Patricia A. Champ; John B. Loomis; Robin M. Reich

    2012-01-01

    Open space lands, national forests in particular, are usually treated as homogeneous entities in hedonic price studies. Failure to account for the heterogeneous nature of public open spaces may result in inappropriate inferences about the benefits of proximate location to such lands. In this study the hedonic price method is used to estimate the marginal values for...

  9. Accounting for Recoil Effects in Geochronometers: A New Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V. E.; Huber, C.

    2012-12-01

    dated grain is a major control on the magnitude of recoil loss, the first feature is the ability to calculate recoil effects on isotopic compositions for realistic, complex grain shapes and surface roughnesses. This is useful because natural grains may have irregular shapes that do not conform to simple geometric descriptions. Perhaps more importantly, the surface area over which recoiled nuclides are lost can be significantly underestimated when grain surface roughness is not accounted for, since the recoil distances can be of similar characteristic lengthscales to surface roughness features. The second key feature is the ability to incorporate dynamical geologic processes affecting grain surfaces in natural settings, such as dissolution and crystallization. We describe the model and its main components, and point out implications for the geologically-relevant chronometers mentioned above.

  10. A Lotka-Volterra competition model with seasonal succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sze-Bi; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    A complete classification for the global dynamics of a Lotka-Volterra two species competition model with seasonal succession is obtained via the stability analysis of equilibria and the theory of monotone dynamical systems. The effects of two death rates in the bad season and the proportion of the good season on the competition outcomes are also discussed. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  11. Student Success in College Composition through the Puente Project Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Barbara

    Much can be learned from California's Puente Project Model that would help students' success in classrooms as well as in college in general, and in their daily lives. Puente, which means "bridge" in Spanish, began in 1982 at Chabot College in northern California and is now in 38 colleges and 19 high schools statewide. Originally designed…

  12. Acquisition Integration Models: How Large Companies Successfully Integrate Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Carbone

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mergers and acquisitions (M&A have been popular means for many companies to address the increasing pace and level of competition that they face. Large companies have pursued acquisitions to more quickly access technology, markets, and customers, and this approach has always been a viable exit strategy for startups. However, not all deals deliver the anticipated benefits, in large part due to poor integration of the acquired assets into the acquiring company. Integration can greatly impact the success of the acquisition and, indeed, the combined company’s overall market success. In this article, I explore the implementation of several integration models that have been put into place by a large company and extract principles that may assist negotiating parties with maximizing success. This perspective may also be of interest to smaller companies as they explore exit options while trying to ensure continued market success after acquisition. I assert that business success with acquisitions is dependent on an appropriate integration model, but that asset integration is not formulaic. Any integration effort must consider the specific market context and personnel involved.

  13. Accounting for choice of measurement scale in extreme value modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Wadsworth, J. L.; Tawn, J. A.; Jonathan, P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect that the choice of measurement scale has upon inference and extrapolation in extreme value analysis. Separate analyses of variables from a single process on scales which are linked by a nonlinear transformation may lead to discrepant conclusions concerning the tail behavior of the process. We propose the use of a Box--Cox power transformation incorporated as part of the inference procedure to account parametrically for the uncertainty surrounding the scale of extrapo...

  14. Exploring nursing e-learning systems success based on information system success model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Feng; Hwang, Hsin-Ginn

    2011-12-01

    E-learning is thought of as an innovative approach to enhance nurses' care service knowledge. Extensive research has provided rich information toward system development, courses design, and nurses' satisfaction with an e-learning system. However, a comprehensive view in understanding nursing e-learning system success is an important but less focused-on topic. The purpose of this research was to explore net benefits of nursing e-learning systems based on the updated DeLone and McLean's Information System Success Model. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to collected 208 valid nurses' responses from 21 of Taiwan's medium- and large-scale hospitals that have implemented nursing e-learning systems. The result confirms that the model is sufficient to explore the nurses' use of e-learning systems in terms of intention to use, user satisfaction, and net benefits. However, while the three exogenous quality factors (system quality, information quality, and service quality) were all found to be critical factors affecting user satisfaction, only information quality showed a direct effect on the intention to use. This study provides useful insights for evaluating nursing e-learning system qualities as well as an understanding of nurses' intentions and satisfaction related to performance benefits.

  15. SUCCESSFUL INNOVATIVE CLUSTERS IN ROMANIA – A POSSIBLE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana SCUTARU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes the construction of a successful innovative cluster model which will help creating strategies and policies to support the Romanian economic growth and development in the medium and long term. One such architecture designed for supporting innovative clusters, including by attracting foreign capital within clusters order to increase their competitiveness, addresses some concrete measures both in terms of organizational system and management strategy as well as the funding system of clusters. The paper is also emphasizing the multiplicity of factors that are contributing to the creation, to the progressive development and to the success of clusters, the activities developed and the relationships established internationally, so as to ensure that the clusters remain on the market and have a good visibility at national and international levels, essentially contributing to the success of cluster.

  16. Advances in stream shade modelling. Accounting for canopy overhang and off-centre view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Colley, R.; Meleason, M. A.; Rutherford, K.

    2005-05-01

    Riparian shade controls the stream thermal regime and light for photosynthesis of stream plants. The quantity difn (diffuse non-interceptance), defined as the proportion of incident lighting received under a sky of uniform brightness, is useful for general specification of stream light exposure, having the virtue that it can be measured directly with common light sensors of appropriate spatial and spectral character. A simple model (implemented in EXCEL-VBA) (Davies-Colley & Rutherford Ecol. Engrg in press) successfully reproduces the broad empirical trend of decreasing difn at the channel centre with increasing ratio of canopy height to stream width. We have now refined this model to account for (a) foliage overhanging the channel (for trees of different canopy form), and (b) off-centre view of the shade (rather than just the channel centre view). We use two extreme geometries bounding real (meandering) streams: the `canyon' model simulates an infinite straight canal, whereas the `cylinder' model simulates a stream meandering so tightly that its geometry collapses into an isolated pool in the forest. The model has been validated using a physical `rooftop' model of the cylinder case, with which it is possible to measure shade with different geometries.

  17. The business of emergency medicine: a model for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, John; Hall, Peter; Carr, Janet

    2004-02-01

    Today's EPOs and their physicians face an array of daunting challenges. Falling reimbursement, rising malpractice costs. ED and hospital crowding,and demands for improving ED efficiency and patient satisfaction all contribute to the challenging and sometimes threatening environment of EM practice. The EP involved in a busy and often hectic ED shift may feel unduly and unnecessarily distracted when required to continuously acknowledge and address the business aspect of the practice. Nevertheless,regardless of the size and structure, fiscal viability ultimately determines the EPO's ability to continue to offer access to care. This article contends that a comprehensive business strategy drives superior financial performance and supports the organization's mission. The business strategy must identify financial and non-financial determinants of the EPO's success and provide a mechanism for understanding how the organization's resources are converted to value for customers. The section offers a framework for developing this strategy, for identifying possible gaps or deficiencies, and for measuring and monitoring progress in achieving strategic objectives and ultimately, the EPO's mission. The importance of the mission and the dynamic EM environment require that the strategy development process be more than an annual exercise for the leadership of the organization. Though key leaders in any size EPO--set the course for the organization, the entire organization must be aware and understand the strategy before they commit themselves and adopt actions and behaviors that promote it. The model presented here provides a graphic display that lends itself well to consistent communication of a comprehensive strategy in a concise way throughout the organization.Furthermore, the balance of the model, across four perspectives, recognizes the value of balanced organizational objectives and lends itself well to the creation of a measurement system that supports cause and effect

  18. Modelling clinical systemic lupus erythematosus: similarities, differences and success stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celhar, Teja; Fairhurst, Anna-Marie

    2016-12-24

    Mouse models of SLE have been indispensable tools to study disease pathogenesis, to identify genetic susceptibility loci and targets for drug development, and for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. Recent insights into immunological mechanisms of disease progression have boosted a revival in SLE drug development. Despite promising results in mouse studies, many novel drugs have failed to meet clinical end points. This is probably because of the complexity of the disease, which is driven by polygenic predisposition and diverse environmental factors, resulting in a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Each mouse model recapitulates limited aspects of lupus, especially in terms of the mechanism underlying disease progression. The main mouse models have been fairly successful for the evaluation of broad-acting immunosuppressants. However, the advent of targeted therapeutics calls for a selection of the most appropriate model(s) for testing and, ultimately, identification of patients who will be most likely to respond.

  19. Modelling clinical systemic lupus erythematosus: similarities, differences and success stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celhar, Teja

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mouse models of SLE have been indispensable tools to study disease pathogenesis, to identify genetic susceptibility loci and targets for drug development, and for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. Recent insights into immunological mechanisms of disease progression have boosted a revival in SLE drug development. Despite promising results in mouse studies, many novel drugs have failed to meet clinical end points. This is probably because of the complexity of the disease, which is driven by polygenic predisposition and diverse environmental factors, resulting in a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Each mouse model recapitulates limited aspects of lupus, especially in terms of the mechanism underlying disease progression. The main mouse models have been fairly successful for the evaluation of broad-acting immunosuppressants. However, the advent of targeted therapeutics calls for a selection of the most appropriate model(s) for testing and, ultimately, identification of patients who will be most likely to respond. PMID:28013204

  20. Dynamic Model of Markets of Successive Product Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic microeconomic model is presented that establishes the price and unit sales evolution of heterogeneous goods consisting of successive homogenous product generations. It suggests that for a fast growing supply the mean price of the generations are governed by a logistic decline towards a floor price. It is shown that generations of a heterogeneous good are in mutual competition. Their market shares are therefore governed by a Fisher-Pry law while the total unit sales are governed by t...

  1. 76 FR 29249 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model: Request for Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... participate in the Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model for a period beginning in 2011 and ending...://innovations.cms.gov/areas-of-focus/seamless-and-coordinated-care-models/pioneer-aco . Application Submission... Accountable Care Organization Model or the application process. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background...

  2. 76 FR 34712 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model; Extension of the Submission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ...: This notice extends the deadlines for the submission of the Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model...-coordinated-care-models/pioneer-aco . Application Submission Deadline: Applications must be postmarked on or before August 19, 2011. The Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model ] Application is available...

  3. MODELLING THE LESOTHO ECONOMY: A SOCIAL ACCOUNTING MATRIX APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonas Tesfamariam Bahta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a 2000 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM for Lesotho, this paper investigates the key features of the Lesotho economy and the role played by the agricultural sector. A novel feature of the SAM is the elaborate disaggregation of the agricultural sector into finer subcategories. The fundamental importance of agriculture development emerges clearly from a descriptive review and from SAM multiplier analysis. It is dominant with respect to income generation and value of production. It contributes 23 percent of gross domestic product and 12 percent of the total value of production. It employs 26 percent of labour and 24 percent of capital. The construction sector has the highest open SAM output multiplier (1,588 and SAM output multiplier (1.767. The household multipliers indicate that in the rural and urban areas, agriculture and mining respectively generate most household income. Agriculture has the highest employment coefficient. Agriculture and mining sectors also have the largest employment multipliers in Lesotho.

  4. Resource Allocation Models and Accountability: A Jamaican Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) may be funded privately, by the state or by a mixture of the two. Nevertheless, any state financing of HE necessitates a mechanism to determine the level of support and the channels through which it is to be directed; that is, a resource allocation model. Public funding, through resource allocation models,…

  5. Accountability: a missing construct in models of adherence behavior and in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussedik, Elias; Foy, Capri G; Masicampo, E J; Kammrath, Lara K; Anderson, Robert E; Feldman, Steven R

    2017-01-01

    Piano lessons, weekly laboratory meetings, and visits to health care providers have in common an accountability that encourages people to follow a specified course of action. The accountability inherent in the social interaction between a patient and a health care provider affects patients' motivation to adhere to treatment. Nevertheless, accountability is a concept not found in adherence models, and is rarely employed in typical medical practice, where patients may be prescribed a treatment and not seen again until a return appointment 8-12 weeks later. The purpose of this paper is to describe the concept of accountability and to incorporate accountability into an existing adherence model framework. Based on the Self-Determination Theory, accountability can be considered in a spectrum from a paternalistic use of duress to comply with instructions (controlled accountability) to patients' autonomous internal desire to please a respected health care provider (autonomous accountability), the latter expected to best enhance long-term adherence behavior. Existing adherence models were reviewed with a panel of experts, and an accountability construct was incorporated into a modified version of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory. Defining accountability and incorporating it into an adherence model will facilitate the development of measures of accountability as well as the testing and refinement of adherence interventions that make use of this critical determinant of human behavior.

  6. Nonlinear model accounting for minor hysteresis of embedded SMA actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kai; GU Chenglin

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative index martensite fraction was used to describe the phase transformation degree of shape memory alloy (SMA).On the basis of the martensite fraction,a nonlinear analysis model for major and minor hysteresis loops was developed.The model adopted two exponential equations to calculate the martensite fractions for cooling and heating,respectively.The martensite fractions were derived as the relative parameters were adjusted timely according to continuous,common initial and common limit constraints.By use of the linear relationship between the curvature of embedded SMA actuator and SMA's martensite fraction,the curvature was determined.The results of the simulations and experiments prove the validity and veracity of the model.

  7. Modeling tools to Account for Ethanol Impacts on BTEX Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread usage of ethanol in gasoline leads to impacts at leak sites which differ from those of non-ethanol gasolines. The presentation reviews current research results on the distribution of gasoline and ethanol, biodegradation, phase separation and cosolvancy. Model results f...

  8. A Historical Account of the Hypodermic Model in Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bineham, Jeffery L.

    1988-01-01

    Critiques different historical conceptions of mass communication research. Argues that the different conceptions of the history of mass communication research, and of the hypodermic model (viewing the media as an all-powerful and direct influence on society), influence the theoretical and methodological choices made by mass media scholars. (MM)

  9. An agent-based simulation model to study accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pai; Wu, Shinyi

    2016-03-01

    Creating accountable care organizations (ACOs) has been widely discussed as a strategy to control rapidly rising healthcare costs and improve quality of care; however, building an effective ACO is a complex process involving multiple stakeholders (payers, providers, patients) with their own interests. Also, implementation of an ACO is costly in terms of time and money. Immature design could cause safety hazards. Therefore, there is a need for analytical model-based decision-support tools that can predict the outcomes of different strategies to facilitate ACO design and implementation. In this study, an agent-based simulation model was developed to study ACOs that considers payers, healthcare providers, and patients as agents under the shared saving payment model of care for congestive heart failure (CHF), one of the most expensive causes of sometimes preventable hospitalizations. The agent-based simulation model has identified the critical determinants for the payment model design that can motivate provider behavior changes to achieve maximum financial and quality outcomes of an ACO. The results show nonlinear provider behavior change patterns corresponding to changes in payment model designs. The outcomes vary by providers with different quality or financial priorities, and are most sensitive to the cost-effectiveness of CHF interventions that an ACO implements. This study demonstrates an increasingly important method to construct a healthcare system analytics model that can help inform health policy and healthcare management decisions. The study also points out that the likely success of an ACO is interdependent with payment model design, provider characteristics, and cost and effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

  10. Applying the International Medical Graduate Program Model to Alleviate the Supply Shortage of Accounting Doctoral Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    HassabElnaby, Hassan R.; Dobrzykowski, David D.; Tran, Oanh Thikie

    2012-01-01

    Accounting has been faced with a severe shortage in the supply of qualified doctoral faculty. Drawing upon the international mobility of foreign scholars and the spirit of the international medical graduate program, this article suggests a model to fill the demand in accounting doctoral faculty. The underlying assumption of the suggested model is…

  11. A successful solar model using new solar composition data

    CERN Document Server

    Vagnozzi, Sunny; Zurbuchen, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    A resolution is proposed to the "solar abundance problem", that is, the discrepancy between helioseismological observations and the predictions of solar models, computed implementing state-of-the-art photospheric abundances. We reassess the problem considering a newly determined set of abundances, which indicate a lower limit to the metallicity of $Z_{\\odot} = 0.0196 \\pm 0.0014$, significantly higher than findings during the past decade. Such value for the metallicity is determined in situ, measuring the least fractionated solar winds over the poles of the Sun, rather than spectroscopically. We determine the response of helioseismological observables to the corresponding changes in elemental abundances. Our findings indicate that, taking inversion errors into account, good agreement between models and observations is achieved. The definitive test for these abundances will be measurements of the CNO neutrino fluxes by SNO$^+$ (which we expect to be $\\sim$ 30-50\\% higher than predictions using abundances based ...

  12. Entrepreneurial Women in Radiology: Role Models of Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Yoshimi; Meltzer, Carolyn C; DeStigter, Kristen K; Destounis, Stamatia; Pawley, Barbara K; Oates, M Elizabeth

    2016-11-01

    Radiology is undeniably male dominated. Alongside surgery and orthopedic surgery, academic radiology ranks near the bottom in having the lowest proportion of full-time female faculty members. Despite many efforts to recruit talented women, the pipeline entering the radiologic disciplines continues to flow at a trickle. One factor is the relative lack of role models for female medical students. Entrepreneurial women in radiology can lead the field with their innovation and creativity, courage, and commitment. In this article, the authors highlight two entrepreneurial female radiologists who shared their success stories at the American Association for Women Radiologists' session at the 2015 ACR annual meeting. Their successes underscore the potential for such women to serve as role models to female medical students and even college undergraduates. Despite the gender gap in radiology, the field has yielded some exceptional women who can take on challenges, overcome barriers and assume risks, create strategies and processes to operationalize their visions, secure funding, and expand their enterprises to make sustainable impacts both at home and abroad. As we move toward more patient- and family-centered care models and become increasingly visible to diverse populations, there is no better time for female leaders in radiology to inspire the next generation to join our essential and rewarding specialty. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 33306 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model, Request for Applications; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Care Organization Model: Request for Applications.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maria Alexander... http://innovations.cms.gov/areas-of-focus/seamless-and-coordinated-care-models/pioneer-aco... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable...

  14. Improving student success using predictive models and data visualisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Ayad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to educate a competitive workforce is a global problem. In the US, for example, despite billions of dollars spent to improve the educational system, approximately 35% of students never finish high school. The drop rate among some demographic groups is as high as 50–60%. At the college level in the US only 30% of students graduate from 2-year colleges in 3 years or less and approximately 50% graduate from 4-year colleges in 5 years or less. A basic challenge in delivering global education, therefore, is improving student success. By student success we mean improving retention, completion and graduation rates. In this paper we describe a Student Success System (S3 that provides a holistic, analytical view of student academic progress.1 The core of S3 is a flexible predictive modelling engine that uses machine intelligence and statistical techniques to identify at-risk students pre-emptively. S3 also provides a set of advanced data visualisations for reaching diagnostic insights and a case management tool for managing interventions. S3's open modular architecture will also allow integration and plug-ins with both open and proprietary software. Powered by learning analytics, S3 is intended as an end-to-end solution for identifying at-risk students, understanding why they are at risk, designing interventions to mitigate that risk and finally closing the feedback look by tracking the efficacy of the applied intervention.

  15. Towards accounting for dissolved iron speciation in global ocean models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tagliabue

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The trace metal iron (Fe is now routinely included in state-of-the-art ocean general circulation and biogeochemistry models (OGCBMs because of its key role as a limiting nutrient in regions of the world ocean important for carbon cycling and air-sea CO2 exchange. However, the complexities of the seawater Fe cycle, which impact its speciation and bioavailability, are simplified in such OGCBMs due to gaps in understanding and to avoid high computational costs. In a similar fashion to inorganic carbon speciation, we outline a means by which the complex speciation of Fe can be included in global OGCBMs in a reasonably cost-effective manner. We construct an Fe speciation model based on hypothesised relationships between rate constants and environmental variables (temperature, light, oxygen, pH, salinity and assumptions regarding the binding strengths of Fe complexing organic ligands and test hypotheses regarding their distributions. As a result, we find that the global distribution of different Fe species is tightly controlled by spatio-temporal environmental variability and the distribution of Fe binding ligands. Impacts on bioavailable Fe are highly sensitive to assumptions regarding which Fe species are bioavailable and how those species vary in space and time. When forced by representations of future ocean circulation and climate we find large changes to the speciation of Fe governed by pH mediated changes to redox kinetics. We speculate that these changes may exert selective pressure on phytoplankton Fe uptake strategies in the future ocean. In future work, more information on the sources and sinks of ocean Fe ligands, their bioavailability, the cycling of colloidal Fe species and kinetics of Fe-surface coordination reactions would be invaluable. We hope our modeling approach can provide a means by which new observations of Fe speciation can be tested against hypotheses of the processes present in governing the ocean Fe cycle in an

  16. Towards accounting for dissolved iron speciation in global ocean models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tagliabue

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The trace metal iron (Fe is now routinely included in state-of-the-art ocean general circulation and biogeochemistry models (OGCBMs because of its key role as a limiting nutrient in regions of the world ocean important for carbon cycling and air-sea CO2 exchange. However, the complexities of the seawater Fe cycle, which impact its speciation and bioavailability, are highly simplified in such OGCBMs to avoid high computational costs. In a similar fashion to inorganic carbon speciation, we outline a means by which the complex speciation of Fe can be included in global OGCBMs in a reasonably cost-effective manner. We use our Fe speciation to suggest the global distribution of different Fe species is tightly controlled by environmental variability (temperature, light, oxygen and pH and the assumptions regarding Fe binding ligands. Impacts on bioavailable Fe are highly sensitive to assumptions regarding which Fe species are bioavailable. When forced by representations of future ocean circulation and climate we find large changes to the speciation of Fe governed by pH mediated changes to redox kinetics. We speculate that these changes may exert selective pressure on phytoplankton Fe uptake strategies in the future ocean. We hope our modeling approach can also be used as a ''test bed'' for exploring our understanding of Fe speciation at the global scale.

  17. A mathematical model of sentimental dynamics accounting for marital dissolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Rey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marital dissolution is ubiquitous in western societies. It poses major scientific and sociological problems both in theoretical and therapeutic terms. Scholars and therapists agree on the existence of a sort of second law of thermodynamics for sentimental relationships. Effort is required to sustain them. Love is not enough. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Building on a simple version of the second law we use optimal control theory as a novel approach to model sentimental dynamics. Our analysis is consistent with sociological data. We show that, when both partners have similar emotional attributes, there is an optimal effort policy yielding a durable happy union. This policy is prey to structural destabilization resulting from a combination of two factors: there is an effort gap because the optimal policy always entails discomfort and there is a tendency to lower effort to non-sustaining levels due to the instability of the dynamics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These mathematical facts implied by the model unveil an underlying mechanism that may explain couple disruption in real scenarios. Within this framework the apparent paradox that a union consistently planned to last forever will probably break up is explained as a mechanistic consequence of the second law.

  18. Preparing for success: Readiness models for rural telehealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennett P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Readiness is an integral and preliminary step in the successful implementation of telehealth services into existing health systems within rural communities. Methods and Materials: This paper details and critiques published international peer-reviewed studies that have focused on assessing telehealth readiness for rural and remote health. Background specific to readiness and change theories is provided, followed by a critique of identified telehealth readiness models, including a commentary on their readiness assessment tools. Results: Four current readiness models resulted from the search process. The four models varied across settings, such as rural outpatient practices, hospice programs, rural communities, as well as government agencies, national associations, and organizations. All models provided frameworks for readiness tools. Two specifically provided a mechanism by which communities could be categorized by their level of telehealth readiness. Discussion: Common themes across models included: an appreciation of practice context, strong leadership, and a perceived need to improve practice. Broad dissemination of these telehealth readiness models and tools is necessary to promote awareness and assessment of readiness. This will significantly aid organizations to facilitate the implementation of telehealth.

  19. MODEL OF ACCOUNTING ENGINEERING IN VIEW OF EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Michalczyk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the theoretical foundations of the author’s original concept of accounting engineering. We assume a theoretical premise whereby accounting engineering is understood as a system of accounting practice utilising differences in economic events resultant from the use of divergent accounting methods. Unlike, for instance, creative or praxeological accounting, accounting engineering is composed only, and under all circumstances, of lawful activities and adheres to the current regulations of the balance sheet law. The aim of the article is to construct a model of accounting engineering exploiting taking into account differences inherently present in variant accounting. These differences result in disparate financial results of identical economic events. Given the fact that regardless of which variant is used in accounting, all settlements are eventually equal to one another, a new class of differences emerges - the accounting engineering potential. It is transferred to subsequent reporting (balance sheet periods. In the end, the profit “made” in a given period reduces the financial result of future periods. This effect is due to the “transfer” of costs from one period to another. Such actions may have sundry consequences and are especially dangerous whenever many individuals are concerned with the profit of a given company, e.g. on a stock exchange. The reverse may be observed when a company is privatised and its value is being intentionally reduced by a controlled recording of accounting provisions, depending on the degree to which they are justified. The reduction of a company’s goodwill in Balcerowicz’s model of no-tender privatisation allows to justify the low value of the purchased company. These are only some of many manifestations of variant accounting which accounting engineering employs. A theoretical model of the latter is presented in this article.

  20. Academic dropout or academic success: a model for prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel-Flom, P

    1986-09-01

    Why do some students who qualify for admission to optometry school become academic dropouts while others succeed? This question was addressed in a study which compared the admission records of 21 academic dropouts from three classes at the University of Houston College of Optometry (UHCO) with 269 retained students. Academic dropouts were found to have significantly lower preoptometry grades, lower Optometry College Admission Test (OCAT) scores, attended less competitive (i.e., less selective) undergraduate institutions, scored lower on the California Psychological Inventory (CPI), and were older than retained students. When these differentiating admission variables, excepting age, were applied to a new entering class, prediction of subsequent academic dismissal or serious academic difficulty was highly accurate. However, it was found that such prediction must take into account not only areas of weakness, i.e., academic and psychological factors which place a student at risk, but also areas of strength which give the student an advantage. For all students, regardless of age, sex, or ethnic origin, it was the ratio of "advantage" factors to "risk" factors which gave the most valid prediction of academic success or failure.

  1. Habitat fragmentation and reproductive success: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tortorec, Eric; Helle, Samuli; Käyhkö, Niina; Suorsa, Petri; Huhta, Esa; Hakkarainen, Harri

    2013-09-01

    1. There is great interest on the effects of habitat fragmentation, whereby habitat is lost and the spatial configuration of remaining habitat patches is altered, on individual breeding performance. However, we still lack consensus of how this important process affects reproductive success, and whether its effects are mainly due to reduced fecundity or nestling survival. 2. The main reason for this may be the way that habitat fragmentation has been previously modelled. Studies have treated habitat loss and altered spatial configuration as two independent processes instead of as one hierarchical and interdependent process, and therefore have not been able to consider the relative direct and indirect effects of habitat loss and altered spatial configuration. 3. We investigated how habitat (i.e. old forest) fragmentation, caused by intense forest harvesting at the territory and landscape scales, is associated with the number of fledged offspring of an area-sensitive passerine, the Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris). We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine the complex hierarchical associations between habitat loss and altered spatial configuration on the number of fledged offspring, by controlling for individual condition and weather conditions during incubation. 4. Against generally held expectations, treecreeper reproductive success did not show a significant association with habitat fragmentation measured at the territory scale. Instead, our analyses suggested that an increasing amount of habitat at the landscape scale caused a significant increase in nest predation rates, leading to reduced reproductive success. This effect operated directly on nest predation rates, instead of acting indirectly through altered spatial configuration. 5. Because habitat amount and configuration are inherently strongly collinear, particularly when multiple scales are considered, our study demonstrates the usefulness of a SEM approach for hierarchical partitioning

  2. Latino Definitions of Success: A Cultural Model of Intercultural Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    The present study sought to examine Latino intercultural competence via two separate methodologies. Phase 1 entailed discovering and generating themes regarding the features of intercultural competence based on semistructured interviews of 15 Latino adults. Phase 2 included conducting a cultural consensus analysis from the quantitative responses of 46 Latino adults to determine the cultural model of intercultural competence. The major results indicated that the participants, despite variations in socioeconomic and generational statuses, shared a common knowledge base regarding the competencies needed for Latinos to successfully navigate different cultures. Overall, the cultural model of Latino intercultural competence includes a set of skills that integrates traditional cultural values along with attributes of self-efficacy. The findings are discussed within a competence-based conceptualization of cultural adaptation and potential advancements in acculturation research.

  3. Successes and shortcomings of polio eradication: a transmission modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Bryan T; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Henry, Christopher J; Gomes, M Gabriela M; Ionides, Edward L; Koopman, James S

    2013-06-01

    Polio eradication is on the cusp of success, with only a few regions still maintaining transmission. Improving our understanding of why some regions have been successful and others have not will help with both global eradication of polio and development of more effective vaccination strategies for other pathogens. To examine the past 25 years of eradication efforts, we constructed a transmission model for wild poliovirus that incorporates waning immunity (which affects both infection risk and transmissibility of any resulting infection), age-mediated vaccination rates, and transmission of oral polio vaccine. The model produces results consistent with the 4 country categories defined by the Global Polio Eradication Program: elimination with no subsequent outbreaks; elimination with subsequent transient outbreaks; elimination with subsequent outbreaks and transmission detected for more than 12 months; and endemic polio transmission. Analysis of waning immunity rates and oral polio vaccine transmissibility reveals that higher waning immunity rates make eradication more difficult because of increasing numbers of infectious adults, and that higher oral polio vaccine transmission rates make eradication easier as adults become reimmunized. Given these dynamic properties, attention should be given to intervention strategies that complement childhood vaccination. For example, improvement in sanitation can reduce the reproduction number in problematic regions, and adult vaccination can lower adult transmission.

  4. Development of Groundwater Modeling Capacity in Mongolia: Keys to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. T.; Valder, J. F.; Carter, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, is totally dependent on groundwater for its municipal and industrial water supply. Water is drawn from a network of shallow wells in an alluvial aquifer along the Tuul River. Evidence, however, suggests that current water use and especially the projected water demand from a rapidly growing urban population, is not sustainable from existing water sources. In response, the Mongolia Ministry of Environment and the Mongolian Fresh Water Institute requested technical assistance on groundwater modeling through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Scientists from the USGS-SD Water Science Center provided a workshop to Mongolian water experts on basic principles of groundwater modeling using MODFLOW. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together representatives from the Government of Mongolia, local universities, technical experts, and other key stakeholders to build in-country capacity in hydrogeology and groundwater modeling. A preliminary steady-state groundwater flow model was developed to simulate groundwater conditions in the Tuul River Basin and for use in water use decision-making. The model consisted of 2 layers, 226 rows, and 260 columns with uniform 500 meter grid spacing. The upper model layer represented the alluvial aquifer and the lower layer represented the underlying bedrock, which includes areas characterized by permafrost. Estimated groundwater withdrawal was 180 m3/day, and estimated recharge was 114 mm/yr. The model will be modified and updated by Mongolian scientists as more data are available. Ultimately the model will be used to assist managers in developing a sustainable water supply, for current use and changing climate scenarios. A key to success was developing in-country technical capacity and partnerships with the Mongolian University of Science and Technology, Mongolian Freshwater Institute, a non-profit organization, UNESCO, and the government of Mongolia.

  5. A Case Study of the Accounting Models for the Participants in an Emissions Trading Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Deac

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As emissions trading schemes are becoming more popular across the world, accounting has to keep up with these new economic developments. The absence of guidance regarding the accounting for greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions generated by the withdrawal of IFRIC 3- Emission Rights - is the main reason why there is a diversity of accounting practices. This diversity of accounting methods makes the financial statements of companies that are taking part in emissions trading schemes like EU ETS, difficult to compare. The present paper uses a case study that assumes the existence of three entities that have chosen three different accounting methods: the IFRIC 3 cost model, the IFRIC 3 revaluation model and the “off balance sheet” approach. This illustrates how the choice of an accounting method regarding GHGs emissions influences their interim and annual reports through the chances in the companies’ balance sheet and financial results.

  6. Dynamic model of production enterprises based on accounting registers and its identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirazetdinov, R. T.; Samodurov, A. V.; Yenikeev, I. A.; Markov, D. S.

    2016-06-01

    The report focuses on the mathematical modeling of economic entities based on accounting registers. Developed the dynamic model of financial and economic activity of the enterprise as a system of differential equations. Created algorithms for identification of parameters of the dynamic model. Constructed and identified the model of Russian machine-building enterprises.

  7. Identifying Opportunities to Reduce Uncertainty in a National-Scale Forest Carbon Accounting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C. H.; Metsaranta, J. M.; Kurz, W.; Hilger, A.

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the quality of forest carbon budget models used for national and international reporting of greenhouse gas emissions is essential, but model evaluations are rarely conducted mainly because of lack of appropriate, independent ground plot data sets. Ecosystem carbon stocks for all major pools estimated from data collected for 696 ground plots from Canada's new National Forest Inventory (NFI) were used to assess plot-level carbon stocks predicted by the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector 3 (CBM-CFS3) -- a model compliant with the most complex (Tier-3) approach in the reporting guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The model is the core of Canada's National Forest Carbon Monitoring, Accounting, and Reporting System. At the landscape scale, a major portion of total uncertainty in both C stock and flux estimation is associated with biomass productivity, turnover, and soil and dead organic matter modelling parameters, which can best be further evaluated using plot-level data. Because the data collected for the ground plots were comprehensive we were able to compare carbon stock estimates for 13 pools also estimated by the CBM-CFS3 (all modelled pools excepting coarse and fine root biomass) using the classical comparison statistics of mean difference and correlation. Using a Monte Carlo approach we were able to determine the contribution of aboveground biomass, deadwood and soil pool error to modeled ecosystem total error, as well as the contribution of pools that are summed to estimate aboveground biomass, deadwood and soil, to the error of these three subtotal pools. We were also able to assess potential sources of error propagation in the computational sequence of the CBM-CFS3. Analysis of the data grouped by the 16 dominant tree species allowed us to isolate the leading species where further research would lead to the greatest reductions in uncertainty for modeling of carbon stocks using the CBM-CFS3. This analysis

  8. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Schomacker, Kristian Juul

    2015-01-01

    and unit-linked insurance. By use of a two-account model, we are able to illustrate general concepts without making the model too abstract. To allow for complicated financial markets without dramatically increasing the mathematical complexity, we focus on economic scenarios. We illustrate the use of our......Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death...... product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account...

  9. Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeling, Christian; Gonzales, Omar; Schultz, Ted R; Bacci, Maurício; Garcia, Marcos V B; Verhaagh, Manfred; Ishak, Heather D; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-07-26

    Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexual populations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexual populations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5-1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex.

  10. Successes and Challenges Porting Weather and Climate Models to GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govett, M. W.; Middlecoff, J.; Henderson, T. B.; Rosinski, J.; Madden, P.

    2011-12-01

    NOAA ESRL has had significant success parallelizing and running the Non-Hydrostatic Icosahedral Model (NIM) dynamical core on GPUs. A key ingredient in the success was the development of our Fortran-to-CUDA compiler (called F2C-ACC) to convert the model code. Compiler directives, inserted by the user, define regions of code to be run on the GPU, identify where fine-grain parallelism can be exploited, and manage data transfers between CPU and GPU. In 2009, we demonstrated that our compiler, with limited analysis capabilities, was able to produce code that ran the NIM 25x faster on a single GPU than a similar generation CPU. As F2C-ACC matured, fewer hand-translations were required until the GPU parallelization of NIM became fully automatic. The usefulness of F2C-ACC as a language translation tool will diminish as commercial compilers from CAPS, PGI and Cray mature; however, porting codes to GPUs will continue to require significant user involvement due to limited tools to support parallelization. Code inspection and analysis is currently very challenging and requires heavy user involvement to parallelize, debug, and achieve respectable speedup on GPUs. Users must inspect their code to locate fine grain parallelism, determine performance bottlenecks, manage data transfers, identify data dependencies, place inter-GPU communications, and manage a myriad of other issues in porting CPU-based codes to GPU architectures. This talk will describe the F2C-ACC compiler, discuss code porting challenges, and describe further development of the analysis capabilities of F2C-ACC to improve GPU parallelization of Fortran-based, Numerical Weather Prediction codes.

  11. A Successive Selection Method for finite element model updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Baiyong; Zhang, Weijie; Lu, Qiuhai; Wang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Finite Element (FE) model can be updated effectively and efficiently by using the Response Surface Method (RSM). However, it often involves performance trade-offs such as high computational cost for better accuracy or loss of efficiency for lots of design parameter updates. This paper proposes a Successive Selection Method (SSM), which is based on the linear Response Surface (RS) function and orthogonal design. SSM rewrites the linear RS function into a number of linear equations to adjust the Design of Experiment (DOE) after every FE calculation. SSM aims to interpret the implicit information provided by the FE analysis, to locate the Design of Experiment (DOE) points more quickly and accurately, and thereby to alleviate the computational burden. This paper introduces the SSM and its application, describes the solution steps of point selection for DOE in detail, and analyzes SSM's high efficiency and accuracy in the FE model updating. A numerical example of a simply supported beam and a practical example of a vehicle brake disc show that the SSM can provide higher speed and precision in FE model updating for engineering problems than traditional RSM.

  12. An Integrative Model of the Strategic Management Accounting at the Enterprises of Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vasilyevna Glushchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the issues of information and analytical support of strategic management enabling to take timely and high-quality management decisions, are extremely relevant. Conflicting and poor information, haphazard collected in the practice of large companies from unreliable sources, affects the effective implementation of their development strategies and carries the threat of risk, by the increasing instability of the external environment. Thus chemical industry is one of the central places in the industry of Russia and, of course, has its specificity in the formation of the informationsupport system. Such an information system suitable for the development and implementation of strategic directions, changes in recognized competitive advantages of strategic management accounting. The issues of the lack of requirements for strategic accounting information, its inconsistency in the result of simultaneous accumulation in different parts and using different methods of calculation and assessment of indicators is impossible without a well-constructed model of organization of strategic management accounting. The purpose of this study is to develop such a model, the implementation of which will allow realizing the possibility of achieving strategic goals by harmonizing information from the individual objects of the strategic account to increase the functional effectiveness of management decisions with a focus on strategy. Case study was based on dialectical logic and methods of system analysis, and identifying causal relationships in building a model of strategic management accounting that contributes to the forecasts of its development. The study proposed to implement an integrative model of organization of strategic management accounting. The purpose of a phased implementation of this model defines the objects and tools of strategic management accounting. Moreover, it is determined that from the point of view of increasing the usefulness of management

  13. Modeling the Hellenic karst catchments with the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanou, K.; Lambrakis, N.

    2017-01-01

    Karst aquifers are very complex due to the presence of dual porosity. Rain-runoff hydrological models are frequently used to characterize these aquifers and assist in their management. The calibration of such models requires knowledge of many parameters, whose quality can be directly related to the quality of the simulation results. The Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model includes a number of physically based parameters that permit accurate simulations and predictions of the rain-runoff relationships. Due to common physical characteristics of mature karst structures, expressed by sharp recession limbs of the runoff hydrographs, the calibration of the model becomes relatively simple, and the values of the parameters range within narrow bands. The most sensitive parameters are those related to groundwater storage regulated by the zone of the epikarst. The SAC-SMA model was calibrated for data from the mountainous part of the Louros basin, north-western Greece, which is considered to be representative of such geological formations. Visual assessment of the hydrographs as statistical outcomes revealed that the SAC-SMA model simulated the timing and magnitude of the peak flow and the shape of recession curves well.

  14. Modeling the Hellenic karst catchments with the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanou, K.; Lambrakis, N.

    2017-05-01

    Karst aquifers are very complex due to the presence of dual porosity. Rain-runoff hydrological models are frequently used to characterize these aquifers and assist in their management. The calibration of such models requires knowledge of many parameters, whose quality can be directly related to the quality of the simulation results. The Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model includes a number of physically based parameters that permit accurate simulations and predictions of the rain-runoff relationships. Due to common physical characteristics of mature karst structures, expressed by sharp recession limbs of the runoff hydrographs, the calibration of the model becomes relatively simple, and the values of the parameters range within narrow bands. The most sensitive parameters are those related to groundwater storage regulated by the zone of the epikarst. The SAC-SMA model was calibrated for data from the mountainous part of the Louros basin, north-western Greece, which is considered to be representative of such geological formations. Visual assessment of the hydrographs as statistical outcomes revealed that the SAC-SMA model simulated the timing and magnitude of the peak flow and the shape of recession curves well.

  15. Long-term fiscal implications of funding assisted reproduction: a generational accounting model for Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Matorras

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the lifetime economic benefits of assisted reproduction in Spain by calculating the return on this investment. We developed a generational accounting model that simulates the flow of taxes paid by the individual, minus direct government transfers received over the individual’s lifetime. The difference between discounted transfers and taxes minus the cost of either IVF or artificial insemination (AI equals the net fiscal contribution (NFC of a child conceived through assisted reproduction. We conducted sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of our results under various macroeconomic scenarios. A child conceived through assisted reproduction would contribute €370,482 in net taxes to the Spanish Treasury and would receive €275,972 in transfers over their lifetime. Taking into account that only 75% of assisted reproduction pregnancies are successful, the NFC was estimated at €66,709 for IVF-conceived children and €67,253 for AI-conceived children. The return on investment for each euro invested was €15.98 for IVF and €18.53 for AI. The long-term NFC of a child conceived through assisted reproduction could range from €466,379 to €-9,529 (IVF and from €466,923 to €-8,985 (AI. The return on investment would vary between €-2.28 and €111.75 (IVF, and €-2.48 and €128.66 (AI for each euro invested. The break-even point at which the financial position would begin to favour the Spanish Treasury ranges between 29 and 41 years of age. Investment in assisted reproductive techniques may lead to positive discounted future fiscal revenue, notwithstanding its beneficial psychological effect for infertile couples in Spain.

  16. Extension of the hard-sphere particle-wall collision model to account for particle deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Pawel; Hoffmann, Alex C

    2009-06-01

    Numerical simulations of flows of fluids with granular materials using the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach involve the problem of modeling of collisions: both between the particles and particles with walls. One of the most popular techniques is the hard-sphere model. This model, however, has a major drawback in that it does not take into account cohesive or adhesive forces. In this paper we develop an extension to a well-known hard-sphere model for modeling particle-wall interactions, making it possible to account for adhesion. The model is able to account for virtually any physical interaction, such as van der Waals forces or liquid bridging. In this paper we focus on the derivation of the new model and we show some computational results.

  17. Mutual Calculations in Creating Accounting Models: A Demonstration of the Power of Matrix Mathematics in Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskaya, Anna; Kolvakh, Oleg; Stoner, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the innovative teaching approach used in the Southern Federal University, Russia, to teach accounting via a form of matrix mathematics. It thereby contributes to disseminating the technique of teaching to solve accounting cases using mutual calculations to a worldwide audience. The approach taken in this course…

  18. Mutual Calculations in Creating Accounting Models: A Demonstration of the Power of Matrix Mathematics in Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskaya, Anna; Kolvakh, Oleg; Stoner, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the innovative teaching approach used in the Southern Federal University, Russia, to teach accounting via a form of matrix mathematics. It thereby contributes to disseminating the technique of teaching to solve accounting cases using mutual calculations to a worldwide audience. The approach taken in this course…

  19. Characteristics of successful opinion leaders in a bounded confidence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuwei; Glass, David H.; McCartney, Mark

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyses the impact of competing opinion leaders on attracting followers in a social group based on a bounded confidence model in terms of four characteristics: reputation, stubbornness, appeal and extremeness. In the model, reputation differs among leaders and normal agents based on the weights assigned to them, stubbornness of leaders is reflected by their confidence towards normal agents, appeal of the leaders is represented by the confidence of followers towards them, and extremeness is captured by the opinion values of leaders. Simulations show that increasing reputation, stubbornness or extremeness makes it more difficult for the group to achieve consensus, but increasing the appeal will make it easier. The results demonstrate that successful opinion leaders should generally be less stubborn, have greater appeal and be less extreme in order to attract more followers in a competing environment. Furthermore, the number of followers can be very sensitive to small changes in these characteristics. On the other hand, reputation has a more complicated impact: higher reputation helps the leader to attract more followers when the group bound of confidence is high, but can hinder the leader from attracting followers when the group bound of confidence is low.

  20. Business Models for Successfully Maintaining Games for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Moderator Tom; Isaac, Participants Fikry; Ashford, Chris; Goldman, Ron; Lenihan, David J; Poole, Brent; Buday, Richard; van Rijswijk, Jurriaan

    2013-04-01

    Videogames for health provide innovative, exciting, and possibly highly effective new media for helping players change their behaviors or otherwise benefit their health. Getting the right videogames into the hands of players who can benefit most in a way that pays for the continued innovation and creation of such games is a current challenge. Entertainment videogame companies, which create games primarily to enhance players' enjoyment, have used the general business marketplace (e.g., online stores, walk-in stores, app stores) to deliver their products directly to consumers and earn enough capital to invest in making new products. No one believes, however, that enough kids or adults would use the general business marketplace to purchase games for health in sufficient volume to provide the down payment for the innovation and creation of new games for health. A successful business model is critical to the financial future of games for health. We asked members of our Editorial Board who are in health-related companies (Fikry Isaac, MD, MPH), in several game development companies (Chris Ashford, Ron Goldman, David J. Lenihan, Brent Poole, and Richard Buday, FAIA), and the head of the Games for Health Europe Foundation (Jurriaan van Rijswijk, MSc) to address questions in a roundtable about the current and possible future business models for games for health.

  1. A Teacher Accountability Model for Overcoming Self-Exclusion of Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Abu-Hussain; Tilchin, Oleg; Essawi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Self-exclusion of pupils is one of the prominent challenges of education. In this paper we propose the TERA model, which shapes the process of creating formative accountability of teachers to overcome the self-exclusion of pupils. Development of the model includes elaboration and integration of interconnected model components. The TERA model…

  2. Accounting for spatial correlation errors in the assimilation of GRACE into hydrological models through localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaki, M.; Schumacher, M.; Forootan, E.; Kuhn, M.; Awange, J. L.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Assimilation of terrestrial water storage (TWS) information from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission can provide significant improvements in hydrological modelling. However, the rather coarse spatial resolution of GRACE TWS and its spatially correlated errors pose considerable challenges for achieving realistic assimilation results. Consequently, successful data assimilation depends on rigorous modelling of the full error covariance matrix of the GRACE TWS estimates, as well as realistic error behavior for hydrological model simulations. In this study, we assess the application of local analysis (LA) to maximize the contribution of GRACE TWS in hydrological data assimilation. For this, we assimilate GRACE TWS into the World-Wide Water Resources Assessment system (W3RA) over the Australian continent while applying LA and accounting for existing spatial correlations using the full error covariance matrix. GRACE TWS data is applied with different spatial resolutions including 1° to 5° grids, as well as basin averages. The ensemble-based sequential filtering technique of the Square Root Analysis (SQRA) is applied to assimilate TWS data into W3RA. For each spatial scale, the performance of the data assimilation is assessed through comparison with independent in-situ ground water and soil moisture observations. Overall, the results demonstrate that LA is able to stabilize the inversion process (within the implementation of the SQRA filter) leading to less errors for all spatial scales considered with an average RMSE improvement of 54% (e.g., 52.23 mm down to 26.80 mm) for all the cases with respect to groundwater in-situ measurements. Validating the assimilated results with groundwater observations indicates that LA leads to 13% better (in terms of RMSE) assimilation results compared to the cases with Gaussian errors assumptions. This highlights the great potential of LA and the use of the full error covariance matrix of GRACE TWS

  3. Development of an Electronic Portfolio System Success Model: An Information Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Igor; Mu, Enrique; Divjak, Blazenka

    2013-01-01

    This research has two main goals: to develop an instrument for assessing Electronic Portfolio (ePortfolio) success and to build a corresponding ePortfolio success model using DeLone and McLean's information systems success model as the theoretical framework. For this purpose, we developed an ePortfolio success measurement instrument and structural…

  4. 算好廉政三本账的理性思考%Rational Thought of the Successful Management of Three An- ti-corruption Accounts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡娟

    2012-01-01

    What do three anti-con'uption accounts mean? They refer to the accounts of morality, finance and credit. With the successful management of the three accounts, a person can enjoy the spiritual peace, physical safety and good fortune during the whole life. How can we manage them well? Firstly, reading and learning atmosphere should be cultivated so as to improve the cultural deposits. Secondly, moral integrity education should be strengthened so as to establish the ideological basis. Last, the innovation of anti-corruption system should be deepened so as to perfect the working mechanism.%何为廉政三本账?就是道德账、经济账和诚信账。为何要算好廉政三本账?因为只有算好廉政三本账,人生才能心安、平安、福安。如何算好廉政三本账?一是营造读书学习氛围,增强算好廉政三本账的文化底蕴;二是强化道德诚信教育,夯实算好廉政三本账的思想基础;三是深化廉政制度创新,健全算好廉政三本账的运行机制。

  5. Accountability: a missing construct in models of adherence behavior and in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussedik E

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Elias Oussedik,1 Capri G Foy,2 E J Masicampo,3 Lara K Kammrath,3 Robert E Anderson,1 Steven R Feldman1,4,5 1Center for Dermatology Research, Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Pathology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 5Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: Piano lessons, weekly laboratory meetings, and visits to health care providers have in common an accountability that encourages people to follow a specified course of action. The accountability inherent in the social interaction between a patient and a health care provider affects patients’ motivation to adhere to treatment. Nevertheless, accountability is a concept not found in adherence models, and is rarely employed in typical medical practice, where patients may be prescribed a treatment and not seen again until a return appointment 8–12 weeks later. The purpose of this paper is to describe the concept of accountability and to incorporate accountability into an existing adherence model framework. Based on the Self-Determination Theory, accountability can be considered in a spectrum from a paternalistic use of duress to comply with instructions (controlled accountability to patients’ autonomous internal desire to please a respected health care provider (autonomous accountability, the latter expected to best enhance long-term adherence behavior. Existing adherence models were reviewed with a panel of experts, and an accountability construct was incorporated into a modified version of Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory. Defining accountability and incorporating it into an adherence model will facilitate the development of measures of accountability as well

  6. Accounting for the influence of vegetation and landscape improves model transferability in a tropical savannah region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongkai; Hrachowitz, Markus; Sriwongsitanon, Nutchanart; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gharari, Shervan; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding which catchment characteristics dominate hydrologic response and how to take them into account remains a challenge in hydrological modeling, particularly in ungauged basins. This is even more so in nontemperate and nonhumid catchments, where—due to the combination of seasonality and the occurrence of dry spells—threshold processes are more prominent in rainfall runoff behavior. An example is the tropical savannah, the second largest climatic zone, characterized by pronounced dry and wet seasons and high evaporative demand. In this study, we investigated the importance of landscape variability on the spatial variability of stream flow in tropical savannah basins. We applied a stepwise modeling approach to 23 subcatchments of the Upper Ping River in Thailand, where gradually more information on landscape was incorporated. The benchmark is represented by a classical lumped model (FLEXL), which does not account for spatial variability. We then tested the effect of accounting for vegetation information within the lumped model (FLEXLM), and subsequently two semidistributed models: one accounting for the spatial variability of topography-based landscape features alone (FLEXT), and another accounting for both topographic features and vegetation (FLEXTM). In cross validation, each model was calibrated on one catchment, and then transferred with its fitted parameters to the remaining catchments. We found that when transferring model parameters in space, the semidistributed models accounting for vegetation and topographic heterogeneity clearly outperformed the lumped model. This suggests that landscape controls a considerable part of the hydrological function and explicit consideration of its heterogeneity can be highly beneficial for prediction in ungauged basins in tropical savannah.

  7. Matrix Representation of the Kaliningrad Regional Accounts System: Experimental Development and Modelling Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatova S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the task of creating a regional Social Accounting Matrix (SAM in the Kaliningrad region. Analyzing the behavior of economic systems of national and sub-national levels in the changing environment is one of the main objectives of macroeconomic research. Matrices are used in examining the flow of financial resources, which makes it possible to conduct a comprehensive analysis of commodity and cash flows at the regional level. The study identifies key data sources for matrix development and presents its main results: the data sources for the accounts development and filling the social accounting matrix are identified, regional accounts consolidated, the structure of regional matrix devised, and the multiplier of the regional social accounting matrix calculated. An important aspect of this approach is the set target, which determines the composition of matrix accounts representing different aspects of regional performance. The calculated multiplier suggests the possibility of modelling of a socioeconomic system for the region using a social accounting matrix. The regional modelling approach ensures the matrix compliance with the methodological requirements of the national system.

  8. Matrix Representation of the Kaliningrad Regional Accounts System: Experimental Development and Modelling Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatova S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the task of creating a regional Social Accounting Matrix (SAM in the Kaliningrad region. Analyzing the behavior of economic systems of national and sub-national levels in the changing environment is one of the main objectives of macroeconomic research. Matrices are used in examining the flow of financial resources, which makes it possible to conduct a comprehensive analysis of commodity and cash flows at the regional level. The study identifies key data sources for matrix development and presents its main results: the data sources for the accounts development and filling the social accounting matrix are identified, regional accounts consolidated, the structure of regional matrix devised, and the multiplier of the regional social accounting matrix calculated. An important aspect of this approach is the set target, which determines the composition of matrix accounts representing different aspects of regional performance. The calculated multiplier suggests the possibility of modelling of a socioeconomic system for the region using a social accounting matrix. The regional modelling approach ensures the matrix compliance with the methodological requirements of the national system

  9. Matrix Representation of the Kaliningrad Regional Accounts System: Experimental Development and Modelling Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatova Svetlana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the task of creating a regional Social Accounting Matrix (SAM in the Kaliningrad region. Analyzing the behavior of economic systems of national and sub-national levels in the changing environment is one of the main objectives of macroeconomic research. Matrices are used in examining the flow of financial resources, which makes it possible to conduct a comprehensive analysis of commodity and cash flows at the regional level. The study identifies key data sources for matrix development and presents its main results: the data sources for the accounts development and filling the social accounting matrix are identified, regional accounts consolidated, the structure of regional matrix devised, and the multiplier of the regional social accounting matrix calculated. An important aspect of this approach is the set target, which determines the composition of matrix accounts representing different aspects of regional performance. The calculated multiplier suggests the possibility of modelling of a socioeconomic system for the region using a social accounting matrix. The regional modelling approach ensures the matrix compliance with the methodological requirements of the national system

  10. Development and application of a large scale river system model for National Water Accounting in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dushmanta; Vaze, Jai; Kim, Shaun; Hughes, Justin; Yang, Ang; Teng, Jin; Lerat, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate models, are of very coarse spatial resolutions and lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing water accounts, which have become increasingly important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scales. A continental scale river system model called Australian Water Resource Assessment River System model (AWRA-R) has been developed and implemented for national water accounting in Australia using a node-link architecture. The model includes major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. Two key components of the model are an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. The results in the Murray-Darling Basin shows highly satisfactory performance of the model with median daily Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.64 and median annual bias of less than 1% for the period of calibration (1970-1991) and median daily NSE of 0.69 and median annual bias of 12% for validation period (1992-2014). The results have demonstrated that the performance of the model is less satisfactory when the key processes such as overbank flow, groundwater seepage and irrigation diversion are switched off. The AWRA-R model, which has been operationalised by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for continental scale water accounting, has contributed to improvements in the national water account by substantially reducing accounted different volume (gain/loss).

  11. A simulation model of hospital management based on cost accounting analysis according to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Koji; Sato, Junzo; Guo, Jinqiu; Takada, Akira; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2004-12-01

    Since a little before 2000, hospital cost accounting has been increasingly performed at Japanese national university hospitals. At Kumamoto University Hospital, for instance, departmental costs have been analyzed since 2000. And, since 2003, the cost balance has been obtained according to certain diseases for the preparation of Diagnosis-Related Groups and Prospective Payment System. On the basis of these experiences, we have constructed a simulation model of hospital management. This program has worked correctly at repeated trials and with satisfactory speed. Although there has been room for improvement of detailed accounts and cost accounting engine, the basic model has proved satisfactory. We have constructed a hospital management model based on the financial data of an existing hospital. We will later improve this program from the viewpoint of construction and using more various data of hospital management. A prospective outlook may be obtained for the practical application of this hospital management model.

  12. Towards ecosystem accounting: a comprehensive approach to modelling multiple hydrological ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, C.; Rathjens, H.; Zwart, S. J.; Hein, L.

    2015-10-01

    Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment-economy interactions. One of the specific features of ecosystem accounting is the distinction between the capacity and the flow of ecosystem services. Ecohydrological modelling to support ecosystem accounting requires considering among others physical and mathematical representation of ecohydrological processes, spatial heterogeneity of the ecosystem, temporal resolution, and required model accuracy. This study examines how a spatially explicit ecohydrological model can be used to analyse multiple hydrological ecosystem services in line with the ecosystem accounting framework. We use the Upper Ouémé watershed in Benin as a test case to demonstrate our approach. The Soil Water and Assessment Tool (SWAT), which has been configured with a grid-based landscape discretization and further enhanced to simulate water flow across the discretized landscape units, is used to simulate the ecohydrology of the Upper Ouémé watershed. Indicators consistent with the ecosystem accounting framework are used to map and quantify the capacities and the flows of multiple hydrological ecosystem services based on the model outputs. Biophysical ecosystem accounts are subsequently set up based on the spatial estimates of hydrological ecosystem services. In addition, we conduct trend analysis statistical tests on biophysical ecosystem accounts to identify trends in changes in the capacity of the watershed ecosystems to provide service flows. We show that the integration of hydrological ecosystem services into an ecosystem accounting framework provides relevant information on ecosystems and hydrological ecosystem services at appropriate scales suitable for decision-making.

  13. School Board Improvement Plans in Relation to the AIP Model of Educational Accountability: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Barneveld, Christina; Stienstra, Wendy; Stewart, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    For this study we analyzed the content of school board improvement plans in relation to the Achievement-Indicators-Policy (AIP) model of educational accountability (Nagy, Demeris, & van Barneveld, 2000). We identified areas of congruence and incongruence between the plans and the model. Results suggested that the content of the improvement…

  14. Social Media Success for Academic Knowledge Sharing in Indonesia (Conceptual Model Development)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assegaff, Setiawan

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how success is the social media as a tool for knowledge sharing among scholars in Indonesia. To evaluate the success of social media we develop a model base on Delone and McLeane IS Success Model. In this article, we would like discuss the process of developing the research model. In developing the model, we conduct literature review from knowledge management, social media and IS Success Model area from previous study. This study resulted in the social success model for academic knowledge sharing in Indonesia.

  15. Africa's Great Green Wall Initiative: a model for restoration success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrahmouni, Nora; Sacande, Moctar

    2014-05-01

    The Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative was launched to address the increasing challenges of land degradation, desertification and drought, climate change, food insecurity and poverty in more than 20 countries. Restoration of agro-sylvo-pastoral landscapes and degraded lands is one of the priority interventions initiated, enabling the springing up of green nests of life. When complete, the Great Green Wall of Africa will reverse the seemingly unstoppable desertification and address the development of its drylands' inhabitant rural communities. Today's planting of modest seedlings will grow into vast mosaics of forest and agroforestry landscapes and grasslands, which will provide essential ecosystem goods and services, restore lost livelihoods and create new wealth. The ambition of reforestation efforts within this initiative - the like of which the world has never seen before - sounds like an impossible dream. However, learning from past mistakes and capitalising on current advancement in science and technology, it is a reality that is taking root. Following a successful restoration model that RBG Kew experts have devised, we are helping to mobilise, train and support communities in four border regions in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. In collaboration with FAO, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership is using its unique expertise to ensure that seeds of environmentally well-adapted and economically useful local species are collected and planted in communal gardens and village agroforestry systems managed by the communities themselves. In our first year, an estimated total of 162,000 seedlings and 61 kg of seeds from 40 useful native species, including grasses for livestock, have been planted to cover 237 ha of farmer-managed land in 19 villages. The keen interest it has created has indicated that these figures will rise five-fold in the second year. These green bricks are the foundations of the living wall that will eventually reach across the

  16. An Australian Model of Successful School Leadership: Moving from Success to Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Lawrie; Goode, Helen; Gurr, David

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to demonstrate how the principal was instrumental in turning around an underperforming school by using a leadership style that modelled appropriate behaviour, and which was consultative, conciliatory, inspirational and empathetic, through having a clearly articulated whole-child-focused educational philosophy, by building…

  17. Situated sentence processing: the coordinated interplay account and a neurobehavioral model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Matthew W; Knoeferle, Pia; Mayberry, Marshall R

    2010-03-01

    Empirical evidence demonstrating that sentence meaning is rapidly reconciled with the visual environment has been broadly construed as supporting the seamless interaction of visual and linguistic representations during situated comprehension. Based on recent behavioral and neuroscientific findings, however, we argue for the more deeply rooted coordination of the mechanisms underlying visual and linguistic processing, and for jointly considering the behavioral and neural correlates of scene-sentence reconciliation during situated comprehension. The Coordinated Interplay Account (CIA; Knoeferle, P., & Crocker, M. W. (2007). The influence of recent scene events on spoken comprehension: Evidence from eye movements. Journal of Memory and Language, 57(4), 519-543) asserts that incremental linguistic interpretation actively directs attention in the visual environment, thereby increasing the salience of attended scene information for comprehension. We review behavioral and neuroscientific findings in support of the CIA's three processing stages: (i) incremental sentence interpretation, (ii) language-mediated visual attention, and (iii) the on-line influence of non-linguistic visual context. We then describe a recently developed connectionist model which both embodies the central CIA proposals and has been successfully applied in modeling a range of behavioral findings from the visual world paradigm (Mayberry, M. R., Crocker, M. W., & Knoeferle, P. (2009). Learning to attend: A connectionist model of situated language comprehension. Cognitive Science). Results from a new simulation suggest the model also correlates with event-related brain potentials elicited by the immediate use of visual context for linguistic disambiguation (Knoeferle, P., Habets, B., Crocker, M. W., & Münte, T. F. (2008). Visual scenes trigger immediate syntactic reanalysis: Evidence from ERPs during situated spoken comprehension. Cerebral Cortex, 18(4), 789-795). Finally, we argue that the mechanisms

  18. Accounting for imperfect forward modeling in geophysical inverse problems — Exemplified for crosshole tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Cordua, Knud Skou; Holm Jacobsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    forward models, can be more than an order of magnitude larger than the measurement uncertainty. We also found that the modeling error is strongly linked to the spatial variability of the assumed velocity field, i.e., the a priori velocity model.We discovered some general tools by which the modeling error...... synthetic ground-penetrating radar crosshole tomographic inverse problems. Ignoring the modeling error can lead to severe artifacts, which erroneously appear to be well resolved in the solution of the inverse problem. Accounting for the modeling error leads to a solution of the inverse problem consistent...

  19. Accounting for uncertainty in ecological analysis: the strengths and limitations of hierarchical statistical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressie, Noel; Calder, Catherine A; Clark, James S; Ver Hoef, Jay M; Wikle, Christopher K

    2009-04-01

    Analyses of ecological data should account for the uncertainty in the process(es) that generated the data. However, accounting for these uncertainties is a difficult task, since ecology is known for its complexity. Measurement and/or process errors are often the only sources of uncertainty modeled when addressing complex ecological problems, yet analyses should also account for uncertainty in sampling design, in model specification, in parameters governing the specified model, and in initial and boundary conditions. Only then can we be confident in the scientific inferences and forecasts made from an analysis. Probability and statistics provide a framework that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty. Given the complexities of ecological studies, the hierarchical statistical model is an invaluable tool. This approach is not new in ecology, and there are many examples (both Bayesian and non-Bayesian) in the literature illustrating the benefits of this approach. In this article, we provide a baseline for concepts, notation, and methods, from which discussion on hierarchical statistical modeling in ecology can proceed. We have also planted some seeds for discussion and tried to show where the practical difficulties lie. Our thesis is that hierarchical statistical modeling is a powerful way of approaching ecological analysis in the presence of inevitable but quantifiable uncertainties, even if practical issues sometimes require pragmatic compromises.

  20. Optimization of Actuarial Model for Individual Account of Rural Social Pension Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxian; CAO

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzes different payment methods of individual account and the pension replacement rate under the pension payment method.Results show that it will be more scientific and reasonable for the individual account of new rural social pension insurance to adopt the actuarial model of payment according to proportion of income and periodic prestation at variable amount.The Guiding Opinions on New Rural Social Pension Insurance sets forth individual account should be paid at fixed amount,and the insured voluntarily selects payment level as per criteria set by the State.The monthly calculation and distribution amount of pension is the total amount of individual account divided by139.Therefore,it should start from continuation of policies and make adjustment of payment level in accordance with growth of per capita net income of rural residents.When condition permits,it is expected to realize transition to payment as per income proportion and periodic prestation at variable amount.

  1. Modelling characteristics of photovoltaic panels with thermal phenomena taken into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krac, Ewa; Górecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In the paper a new form of the electrothermal model of photovoltaic panels is proposed. This model takes into account the optical, electrical and thermal properties of the considered panels, as well as electrical and thermal properties of the protecting circuit and thermal inertia of the considered panels. The form of this model is described and some results of measurements and calculations of mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline panels are presented.

  2. Shadow Segmentation and Augmentation Using á-overlay Models that Account for Penumbra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael; Madsen, Claus B.

    2006-01-01

    that an augmented virtual object can cast an exact shadow. The penumbras (half-shadows) must be taken into account so that we can model the soft shadows.We hope to achieve this by modelling the shadow regions (umbra and penumbra alike) with a transparent overlay. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art shadow...... theories and presents two overlay models. These are analyzed analytically in relation to color theory and tangibility....

  3. A Neuronal Model of Predictive Coding Accounting for the Mismatch Negativity

    OpenAIRE

    Wacongne, Catherine; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The mismatch negativity (MMN) is thought to index the activation of specialized neural networks for active prediction and deviance detection. However, a detailed neuronal model of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the MMN is still lacking, and its computational foundations remain debated. We propose here a detailed neuronal model of auditory cortex, based on predictive coding, that accounts for the critical features of MMN. The model is entirely composed of spi...

  4. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Schomacker, Kristian Juul

    2015-01-01

    Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death......, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance...... model by conducting scenario analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, but the model applies to scenarios in general and to worst-case and best-estimate scenarios in particular. In addition to easy computations, our model offers a common framework for the valuation of life insurance payments across...

  5. The Anachronism of the Local Public Accountancy Determinate by the Accrual European Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Placing the European accrual model upon cash accountancy model,presently used in Romania, at the level of the local communities, makespossible that the anachronism of the model to manifest itself on the discussion’sconcentration at the nominalization about the model’s inclusion in everydaypublic practice. The basis of the accrual model were first defined in the lawregarding the commercial societies adopted in Great Britain in 1985, when theydetermined that all income and taxes referring to the financial year “will betaken into consideration without any boundary to the reception or paymentdate.”1 The accrual model in accountancy needs the recording of the non-casheffects in transactions or financial events for their appearance periods and not inany generated cash, received or paid. The business development was the basisfor “sophistication” of the recordings of the transactions and financial events,being prerequisite for recording the debtors’ or creditors’ sums.

  6. Model Application of Accounting Information Systems of Spare Parts Sales and Purchase on Car Service Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianawati Christian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze accounting information systems of sales and purchases of spare parts in general car service companies and to identify the problems encountered and the needs of necessary information. This research used literature study to collect data, field study with observation, and design using UML (Unified Modeling Language with activity diagrams, class diagrams, use case diagrams, database design, form design, display design, draft reports. The result achieved is an application model of accounting information systems of sales and purchases of spare parts in general car service companies. As a conclusion, the accounting information systems of sales and purchases provides ease for management to obtain information quickly and easily as well as the presentation of reports quickly and accurately.

  7. Extension of the gurson model accounting for the void size effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wen; Keh-Chih Hwang; Yonggang Huang

    2005-01-01

    A continuum model of solids with cylindrical microvoids is proposed based on the Taylor dislocation model.The model is an extension of Gurson model in the sense that the void size effect is accounted for. Beside the void volume fraction f, the intrinsic material length l becomes a parameter representing voids since the void size comes into play in the Gurson model. Approximate yield functions in analytic forms are suggested for both solids with cylindrical microvoids and with spherical microvoids. The application to uniaxial tension curves shows a precise agreement between the approximate analytic yield function and the "exact" parametric form of integrals.

  8. Modelling the rate of secondary succession after farmland abandonment in a Mediterranean mountain area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; Pueyo, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Secondary succession after farmland abandonment has become a common process in north Mediterranean countries, especially in mountain areas. In this paper a methodology is tested which combines Markov chains and logistic multivariate regression to model secondary succession after farmland abandonment

  9. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninna Reitzel Jensen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance and unit-linked insurance. By use of a two-account model, we are able to illustrate general concepts without making the model too abstract. To allow for complicated financial markets without dramatically increasing the mathematical complexity, we focus on economic scenarios. We illustrate the use of our model by conducting scenario analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, but the model applies to scenarios in general and to worst-case and best-estimate scenarios in particular. In addition to easy computations, our model offers a common framework for the valuation of life insurance payments across product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account the Markov model for the state of the policyholder and, hereby, facilitating event risk.

  10. Accounting for environmental variability, modeling errors, and parameter estimation uncertainties in structural identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmanesh, Iman; Moaveni, Babak

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a Hierarchical Bayesian model updating framework to account for the effects of ambient temperature and excitation amplitude. The proposed approach is applied for model calibration, response prediction and damage identification of a footbridge under changing environmental/ambient conditions. The concrete Young's modulus of the footbridge deck is the considered updating structural parameter with its mean and variance modeled as functions of temperature and excitation amplitude. The identified modal parameters over 27 months of continuous monitoring of the footbridge are used to calibrate the updating parameters. One of the objectives of this study is to show that by increasing the levels of information in the updating process, the posterior variation of the updating structural parameter (concrete Young's modulus) is reduced. To this end, the calibration is performed at three information levels using (1) the identified modal parameters, (2) modal parameters and ambient temperatures, and (3) modal parameters, ambient temperatures, and excitation amplitudes. The calibrated model is then validated by comparing the model-predicted natural frequencies and those identified from measured data after deliberate change to the structural mass. It is shown that accounting for modeling error uncertainties is crucial for reliable response prediction, and accounting only the estimated variability of the updating structural parameter is not sufficient for accurate response predictions. Finally, the calibrated model is used for damage identification of the footbridge.

  11. Business Models, Accounting and Billing Concepts in Grid-Aware Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsos, Serafim; Racz, Peter; Morariu, Cristian; Iskioupi, Katerina; Hausheer, David; Stiller, Burkhard

    The emerging Grid Economy, shall set new challenges for the network. More and more literature underlines the significance of network - awareness for efficient and effective grid services. Following this path to Grid evolution, this paper identifies some key challenges in the areas of business modeling, accounting and billing and proposes an architecture that addresses them.

  12. An analytical model for particulate reinforced composites (PRCs) taking account of particle debonding and matrix cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunpeng

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a simple micromechanics-based model was developed to describe the overall stress-strain relations of particulate reinforced composites (PRCs), taking into account both particle debonding and matrix cracking damage. Based on the secant homogenization frame, the effective compliance tensor could be firstly given for the perfect composites without any damage. The progressive interface debonding damage is controlled by a Weibull probability function, and then the volume fraction of detached particles is involved in the equivalent compliance tensor to account for the impact of particle debonding. The matrix cracking was introduced in the present model to embody the stress softening stage in the deformation of PRCs. The analytical model was firstly verified by comparing with the corresponding experiment, and then parameter analyses were conducted. This modeling will shed some light on optimizing the microstructures in effectively improving the mechanical behaviors of PRCs.

  13. Determinants of Business Success – Theoretical Model and Empirical Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozielski Robert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Market knowledge, market orientation, learning competencies, and a business performance were the key issues of the research project conducted in the 2006 study. The main findings identified significant relationships between the independent variables (market knowledge, market orientation, learning competencies and the dependent variables (business success. A partial correlation analysis indicated that a business success primarily relies on organisational learning competencies. Organisational learning competencies, to a large extent (almost 60%, may be explained by the level of corporate market knowledge and market orientation. The aim of the paper is to evaluate to what extent the relationships between the variables are still valid. The research was based on primary and secondary data sources. The major field of the research was carried out in the form of quantitative studies. The results of the 2014 study are consistent with the previous (2006 results.

  14. A nurse manager succession planning model with associated empirical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzer, Jennifer L; Shirey, Maria R; Hauck, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of leadership and management competency after a formal nurse manager succession planning program were evaluated. A lack of strategic workforce planning and development of a leadership pipeline contributes to a predicted nurse manager shortage. To meet the anticipated needs for future leadership, evidence-based action is critical. A quasi-experimental mixed-methods, 1-group pretest/posttest research design was used. Nurses working in an acute care hospital were recruited for the study and selected using an objective evaluative process. Participant perceptions regarding their leadership and management competencies significantly increased after the leadership program. Program evaluations confirmed that participants found the program beneficial. One year after program completion, 100% of the program participants have been retained at the organization and 73% had transitioned to leadership roles. Succession planning and leadership development serve as beneficial and strategic mechanisms for identifying and developing high-potential individuals for leadership positions, contributing toward the future nursing leadership pipeline.

  15. A WEAKLY NONLINEAR WATER WAVE MODEL TAKING INTO ACCOUNT DISPERSION OF WAVE PHASE VELOCITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞杰; 李东永

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a weakly nonlinear water wave model using a mild slope equation and a new explicit formulation which takes into account dispersion of wave phase velocity, approximates Hedges' (1987) nonlinear dispersion relationship, and accords well with the original empirical formula. Comparison of the calculating results with those obtained from the experimental data and those obtained from linear wave theory showed that the present water wave model considering the dispersion of phase velocity is rational and in good agreement with experiment data.

  16. The Quantum Atomic Model "Electronium": A Successful Teaching Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Marion; Niedderer, Hans; Scott, Philip; Leach, John

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the quantum atomic model Electronium. Outlines the Bremen teaching approach in which this model is used, and analyzes the learning of two students as they progress through the teaching unit. (Author/MM)

  17. Accounting for model error due to unresolved scales within ensemble Kalman filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to account for model error due to unresolved scales in the context of the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF). The approach extends to this class of algorithms the deterministic model error formulation recently explored for variational schemes and extended Kalman filter. The model error statistic required in the analysis update is estimated using historical reanalysis increments and a suitable model error evolution law. Two different versions of the method are described; a time-constant model error treatment where the same model error statistical description is time-invariant, and a time-varying treatment where the assumed model error statistics is randomly sampled at each analysis step. We compare both methods with the standard method of dealing with model error through inflation and localization, and illustrate our results with numerical simulations on a low order nonlinear system exhibiting chaotic dynamics. The results show that the filter skill is significantly improved through th...

  18. Accounting for covariate measurement error in a Cox model analysis of recurrence of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K; Mazumdar, S; Stone, R A; Dew, M A; Houck, P R; Reynolds, C F

    2001-01-01

    When a covariate measured with error is used as a predictor in a survival analysis using the Cox model, the parameter estimate is usually biased. In clinical research, covariates measured without error such as treatment procedure or sex are often used in conjunction with a covariate measured with error. In a randomized clinical trial of two types of treatments, we account for the measurement error in the covariate, log-transformed total rapid eye movement (REM) activity counts, in a Cox model analysis of the time to recurrence of major depression in an elderly population. Regression calibration and two variants of a likelihood-based approach are used to account for measurement error. The likelihood-based approach is extended to account for the correlation between replicate measures of the covariate. Using the replicate data decreases the standard error of the parameter estimate for log(total REM) counts while maintaining the bias reduction of the estimate. We conclude that covariate measurement error and the correlation between replicates can affect results in a Cox model analysis and should be accounted for. In the depression data, these methods render comparable results that have less bias than the results when measurement error is ignored.

  19. Cost accounting models used for price-setting of health services: an international review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulinajtys-Grzybek, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article was to present and compare cost accounting models which are used in the area of healthcare for pricing purposes in different countries. Cost information generated by hospitals is further used by regulatory bodies for setting or updating prices of public health services. The article presents a set of examples from different countries of the European Union, Australia and the United States and concentrates on DRG-based payment systems as they primarily use cost information for pricing. Differences between countries concern the methodology used, as well as the data collection process and the scope of the regulations on cost accounting. The article indicates that the accuracy of the calculation is only one of the factors that determine the choice of the cost accounting methodology. Important aspects are also the selection of the reference hospitals, precise and detailed regulations and the existence of complex healthcare information systems in hospitals.

  20. THE ROLE OF TECHNICAL CONSUMPTION CALCULATION MODELS ON ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC UTILITIES SERVICES OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE CLAUDIU FEIES

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available After studying how the operators’ management works, an influence of the specific activities of public utilities on their financial accounting system can be noticed. The asymmetry of these systems is also present, resulting from organization and specific services, which implies a close link between the financial accounting system and the specialized technical department. The research methodology consists in observing specific activities of public utility operators and their influence on information system and analysis views presented in the context of published work in some journals. It analyses the impact of technical computing models used by public utility community services on the financial statements and therefore the information provided by accounting information system stakeholders.

  1. Modeling of vapor intrusion from hydrocarbon-contaminated sources accounting for aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verginelli, Iason; Baciocchi, Renato

    2011-11-01

    A one-dimensional steady state vapor intrusion model including both anaerobic and oxygen-limited aerobic biodegradation was developed. The aerobic and anaerobic layer thickness are calculated by stoichiometrically coupling the reactive transport of vapors with oxygen transport and consumption. The model accounts for the different oxygen demand in the subsurface required to sustain the aerobic biodegradation of the compound(s) of concern and for the baseline soil oxygen respiration. In the case of anaerobic reaction under methanogenic conditions, the model accounts for the generation of methane which leads to a further oxygen demand, due to methane oxidation, in the aerobic zone. The model was solved analytically and applied, using representative parameter ranges and values, to identify under which site conditions the attenuation of hydrocarbons migrating into indoor environments is likely to be significant. Simulations were performed assuming a soil contaminated by toluene only, by a BTEX mixture, by Fresh Gasoline and by Weathered Gasoline. The obtained results have shown that for several site conditions oxygen concentration below the building is sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation. For these scenarios the aerobic biodegradation is the primary mechanism of attenuation, i.e. anaerobic contribution is negligible and a model accounting just for aerobic biodegradation can be used. On the contrary, in all cases where oxygen is not sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation alone (e.g. highly contaminated sources), anaerobic biodegradation can significantly contribute to the overall attenuation depending on the site specific conditions.

  2. Modeling of vapor intrusion from hydrocarbon-contaminated sources accounting for aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verginelli, Iason; Baciocchi, Renato

    2011-11-01

    A one-dimensional steady state vapor intrusion model including both anaerobic and oxygen-limited aerobic biodegradation was developed. The aerobic and anaerobic layer thickness are calculated by stoichiometrically coupling the reactive transport of vapors with oxygen transport and consumption. The model accounts for the different oxygen demand in the subsurface required to sustain the aerobic biodegradation of the compound(s) of concern and for the baseline soil oxygen respiration. In the case of anaerobic reaction under methanogenic conditions, the model accounts for the generation of methane which leads to a further oxygen demand, due to methane oxidation, in the aerobic zone. The model was solved analytically and applied, using representative parameter ranges and values, to identify under which site conditions the attenuation of hydrocarbons migrating into indoor environments is likely to be significant. Simulations were performed assuming a soil contaminated by toluene only, by a BTEX mixture, by Fresh Gasoline and by Weathered Gasoline. The obtained results have shown that for several site conditions oxygen concentration below the building is sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation. For these scenarios the aerobic biodegradation is the primary mechanism of attenuation, i.e. anaerobic contribution is negligible and a model accounting just for aerobic biodegradation can be used. On the contrary, in all cases where oxygen is not sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation alone (e.g. highly contaminated sources), anaerobic biodegradation can significantly contribute to the overall attenuation depending on the site specific conditions.

  3. The self-consistent field model for Fermi systems with account of three-body interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Poluektov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a microscopic model of self-consistent field, the thermodynamics of the many-particle Fermi system at finite temperatures with account of three-body interactions is built and the quasiparticle equations of motion are obtained. It is shown that the delta-like three-body interaction gives no contribution into the self-consistent field, and the description of three-body forces requires their nonlocality to be taken into account. The spatially uniform system is considered in detail, and on the basis of the developed microscopic approach general formulas are derived for the fermion's effective mass and the system's equation of state with account of contribution from three-body forces. The effective mass and pressure are numerically calculated for the potential of "semi-transparent sphere" type at zero temperature. Expansions of the effective mass and pressure in powers of density are obtained. It is shown that, with account of only pair forces, the interaction of repulsive character reduces the quasiparticle effective mass relative to the mass of a free particle, and the attractive interaction raises the effective mass. The question of thermodynamic stability of the Fermi system is considered and the three-body repulsive interaction is shown to extend the region of stability of the system with the interparticle pair attraction. The quasiparticle energy spectrum is calculated with account of three-body forces.

  4. Concepts, Challenges and Successes in Modeling Thermodynamics of Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Cannon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of the chemical reactions involved in metabolism is a daunting task. Ideally, the modeling of metabolism would use kinetic simulations, but these simulations require knowledge of the thousands of rate constants involved in the reactions. The measurement of rate constants is very labor intensive, and hence rate constants for most enzymatic reactions are not available. Consequently, flux-based approaches have been the methods of choice because they do not require the use of the rate constants of the law of mass action. However, this convenience also limits the predictive power of flux-based approaches in that the law of mass action is not used directly, making it very difficult to predict metabolite levels or energy requirements of pathways.An alternative to both of these approaches is to model metabolism using simulations of states rather than simulations of reactions, in which the state is defined as the set of all metabolite counts or concentrations. While kinetic simulations model reactions based on the likelihood of the reaction derived from the law of mass action, states are modeled based on likelihood ratios of mass action. Both approaches provide information on the energy requirements of metabolic reactions and pathways. However, modeling states rather than reactions has the advantage that the parameters needed to model states (chemical potentials are much easier to determine than the parameters needed to model reactions (rate constants. Herein we discuss recent results, assumptions and issues in using simulations of state to model metabolism.

  5. Simulating historical landscape dynamics using the landscape fire succession model LANDSUM version 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Sarah D. Pratt

    2006-01-01

    The range and variation of historical landscape dynamics could provide a useful reference for designing fuel treatments on today's landscapes. Simulation modeling is a vehicle that can be used to estimate the range of conditions experienced on historical landscapes. A landscape fire succession model called LANDSUMv4 (LANDscape SUccession Model version 4.0) is...

  6. A Multi-Stage Maturity Model for Long-Term IT Outsourcing Relationship Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Ming; Stevens, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-Stage Maturity Model for Long-Term IT Outsourcing Relationship Success, a theoretical stages-of-growth model, explains long-term success in IT outsourcing relationships. Research showed the IT outsourcing relationship life cycle consists of four distinct, sequential stages: contract, transition, support, and partnership. The model was…

  7. Modeling the interaction of electric current and tissue: importance of accounting for time varying electric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Daniel J; Manwaring, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Time varying computer models of the interaction of electric current and tissue are very valuable in helping to understand the complexity of the human body and biological tissue. The electrical properties of tissue, permittivity and conductivity, are vital to accurately modeling the interaction of the human tissue with electric current. Past models have represented the electric properties of the tissue as constant or temperature dependent. This paper presents time dependent electric properties that change as a result of tissue damage, temperature, blood flow, blood vessels, and tissue property. Six models are compared to emphasize the importance of accounting for these different tissue properties in the computer model. In particular, incorporating the time varying nature of the electric properties of human tissue into the model leads to a significant increase in tissue damage. An important feature of the model is the feedback loop created between the electric properties, tissue damage, and temperature.

  8. Successes and failures of the constituent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references.

  9. The Carerra Model: A Success in Pregnancy Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elling, Duane M.

    This document outlines the development, evaluation, and replication of the Carrera model for pregnancy prevention. The Carerra model helps teens avoid pregnancy by empowering them to develop and reach personal goals, and by providing them with information on sexual issues, including abstinence, contraception, and the consequences of sexual…

  10. Testing a Model of Teaching for Anxiety and Success for English Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önem, Evrim; Ergenç, Iclal

    2013-01-01

    Much research has shown that there is a negative relationship between high levels of anxiety and success for English language teaching. This paper aimed to test a model of teaching for anxiety and success in English language teaching to affect anxiety and success levels at the same time in a control-experiment group with pre- and post-test study…

  11. A Model for Physician Leadership Development and Succession Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Isser; Feerasta, Nadia; Lash, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Although the presence of physicians in formal leadership positions has often been limited to roles of department chiefs, MAC chairs, etc., a growing number of organizations are recruiting physicians to other leadership positions (e.g., VP, CEO) where their involvement is being genuinely sought and valued. While physicians have traditionally risen to leadership positions based on clinical excellence or on a rotational basis, truly effective physician leadership that includes competencies such as strategic planning, budgeting, mentoring, network development, etc., is essential to support organizational goals, improve performance and overall efficiency as well as ensuring the quality of care. In this context, the authors have developed a physician leader development and succession planning matrix and supporting toolkit to assist hospitals in identifying and nurturing the next generation of physician leaders.

  12. Successful public-private partnerships: The NYPD shield model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadeo, Vincent; Iannone, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    This article will identify the challenges that post 9/11 law enforcement faces regarding privatepublic partnerships and describe in detail the NYPD Shield programme, created to combat those challenges. Recommendations made by the 911 Commission included the incorporation of the private sector into future homeland security strategies. One such strategy is NYPD Shield. This programme is a nationally recognized award-winning public-private partnership dedicated to providing counterterrorism training and information sharing with government agencies, non-government organizations, private businesses, and the community. Information is shared through several platforms that include a dedicated website, instruction of counterterrorism training curricula, e-mail alerts, intelligence assessments and the hosting of quarterly conferences. This article also details how the NYPD Shield is providing its successful template to other law enforcement agencies enabling them to initiate similar programmes in their respective jurisdictions, and in doing so joining a National Shield Network.

  13. Using a micro-level model to generate a macro-level model of productive successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jessica K M; Sarkisian, Natalia; Williamson, John B

    2015-02-01

    Aging successfully entails good physical and cognitive health, as well as ongoing participation in social and productive activity. This study hones in on participation in productive activity, a factor that makes an important contribution to successful aging. One conceptual model of productive activity in later life specifies the antecedents and consequences of productivity. This study draws on that micro-level model to develop a corresponding macro-level model and assesses its utility for examining the predictors of and explaining the relationships between one form of productivity (labor force participation rates) and one aspect of well-being (average life expectancy) among males and females. Random effects regression models and path analysis were used to analyze cross-national longitudinal data for 24 high-income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries at seven time points (1980-2010; 168 observations total). OECD countries with higher labor force participation rates among older workers have higher life expectancies. Labor force participation mediates the effects of gross domestic product per capita on male and female life expectancy, and it mediates the effect of self-employment rate for men, but it acts as a suppressor with regard to the effect of public spending on male and female life expectancy. A well-known micro-level model of productive activity can be fruitfully adapted to account for macro-level cross-national variation in productivity and well-being. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Problematic healthcare insurance: a comparison with successful models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the experiences of problematic health insurance models in Canada, France, Germany, and Spain, based on news reports, facts, and data. Those nations were selected because they represent typical socialist economies with nationalized health insurance systems. Major findings are that (a) these health insurance systems are not cheap, (b) they sometimes contribute to governments' own financial deficits, (c) there are significant restrictions for access to private health care, (d) many services are not covered, and (e) the insurance plans create conflict as to what treatment options are offered. The author also provides a description of the current U.S. health care insurance model and compares it with the European socialist model. What comes subsequently is an examination of two ideal models of efficient health care insurance: the ones of Switzerland and the Netherlands. This analysis ends with a discussion section that provides implications for U.S. health care and offers suggestions for future research.

  15. Cross-Paradigm Simulation Modeling: Challenges and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This paper addresses the broad topic area of cross-paradigm simulation modeling with a focus on the discrete-event, system dynamics and agent-based...used in simulation modeling are also discussed, and the implications of these mechanisms for each paradigm is explored....and definitions are presented. The difference between the process-oriented worldview and the event-oriented worldview within discrete-event simulation

  16. Meta-analysis of diagnostic tests accounting for disease prevalence: a new model using trivariate copulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, A; Kuss, O

    2015-05-20

    In real life and somewhat contrary to biostatistical textbook knowledge, sensitivity and specificity (and not only predictive values) of diagnostic tests can vary with the underlying prevalence of disease. In meta-analysis of diagnostic studies, accounting for this fact naturally leads to a trivariate expansion of the traditional bivariate logistic regression model with random study effects. In this paper, a new model is proposed using trivariate copulas and beta-binomial marginal distributions for sensitivity, specificity, and prevalence as an expansion of the bivariate model. Two different copulas are used, the trivariate Gaussian copula and a trivariate vine copula based on the bivariate Plackett copula. This model has a closed-form likelihood, so standard software (e.g., SAS PROC NLMIXED) can be used. The results of a simulation study have shown that the copula models perform at least as good but frequently better than the standard model. The methods are illustrated by two examples.

  17. Efficient modeling of sun/shade canopy radiation dynamics explicitly accounting for scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bodin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The separation of global radiation (Rg into its direct (Rb and diffuse constituents (Rd is important when modeling plant photosynthesis because a high Rd:Rg ratio has been shown to enhance Gross Primary Production (GPP. To include this effect in vegetation models, the plant canopy must be separated into sunlit and shaded leaves, for example using an explicit 3-dimensional ray tracing model. However, because such models are often too intractable and computationally expensive for theoretical or large scale studies simpler sun-shade approaches are often preferred. A widely used and computationally efficient sun-shade model is a model originally developed by Goudriaan (1977 (GOU, which however does not explicitly account for radiation scattering.

    Here we present a new model based on the GOU model, but which in contrast explicitly simulates radiation scattering by sunlit leaves and the absorption of this radiation by the canopy layers above and below (2-stream approach. Compared to the GOU model our model predicts significantly different profiles of scattered radiation that are in better agreement with measured profiles of downwelling diffuse radiation. With respect to these data our model's performance is equal to a more complex and much slower iterative radiation model while maintaining the simplicity and computational efficiency of the GOU model.

  18. Successful Aging: A Psychosocial Resources Model for Very Old Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kevin Randall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Using data from the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian Study, we proposed a latent factor structure for the Duke OARS domains: Economic Resources, Mental Health, Activities of Daily Living, Physical Health, and Social Resources. Methods. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on two waves of the Georgia Centenarian Study to test a latent variable measurement model of the five resources; nested model testing was employed to assess the final measurement model for equivalency of factor structure over time. Results. The specified measurement model fit the data well at Time 1. However, at Time 2, Social Resources only had one indicator load significantly and substantively. Supplemental analyses demonstrated that a model without Social Resources adequately fit the data. Factorial invariance over time was confirmed for the remaining four latent variables. Discussion. This study’s findings allow researchers and clinicians to reduce the number of OARS questions asked of participants. This has practical implications because increased difficulties with hearing, vision, and fatigue in older adults may require extended time or multiple interviewer sessions to complete the battery of OARS questions.

  19. Accounting Models of the Human Factor and its Architecture in Scheduling and Acceptance of Administrative Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    terrorism or fighting, as for example in Bhopal, Goiânia, Chernobyl , Novosibirsk. General global trend is an extension of the tasks from military... animals . Accounting Models of the Human Factor and its Architecture in Scheduling and Acceptance of Administrative Solutions RTO-MP-HFM-202 P14 - 5...endemic infections, dangerous insects and animals . Vector equipment and protective equipment (Eq) describes the physiological and hygienic

  20. An enhanced temperature index model for debris-covered glaciers accounting for thickness effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenzo, M; Pellicciotti, F; Mabillard, J; Reid, T; Brock, B W

    2016-08-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are increasingly studied because it is assumed that debris cover extent and thickness could increase in a warming climate, with more regular rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and more englacial melt-out material. Debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the melt rate enhancement/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya, and can be difficult to extrapolate. Due to their lower data requirements, empirical models have been used extensively in clean glacier melt modelling. For debris-covered glaciers, however, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single melt-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of varying debris thickness on melt and prescribe a constant reduction for the entire melt across a glacier. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model that accounts for debris thickness in the computation of melt rates at the debris-ice interface. The model empirical parameters are optimized at the point scale for varying debris thicknesses against melt rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter is validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. We develop the model on Miage Glacier, Italy, and then test its transferability on Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. The performance of the new debris temperature-index (DETI) model in simulating the glacier melt rate at the point scale is comparable to the one of the physically based approach, and the definition of model parameters as a function of debris thickness allows the simulation of the nonlinear relationship of melt rate to debris thickness, summarised by the

  1. An enhanced temperature index model for debris-covered glaciers accounting for thickness effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenzo, M.; Pellicciotti, F.; Mabillard, J.; Reid, T.; Brock, B. W.

    2016-08-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are increasingly studied because it is assumed that debris cover extent and thickness could increase in a warming climate, with more regular rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and more englacial melt-out material. Debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the melt rate enhancement/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya, and can be difficult to extrapolate. Due to their lower data requirements, empirical models have been used extensively in clean glacier melt modelling. For debris-covered glaciers, however, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single melt-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of varying debris thickness on melt and prescribe a constant reduction for the entire melt across a glacier. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model that accounts for debris thickness in the computation of melt rates at the debris-ice interface. The model empirical parameters are optimized at the point scale for varying debris thicknesses against melt rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter is validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. We develop the model on Miage Glacier, Italy, and then test its transferability on Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. The performance of the new debris temperature-index (DETI) model in simulating the glacier melt rate at the point scale is comparable to the one of the physically based approach, and the definition of model parameters as a function of debris thickness allows the simulation of the nonlinear relationship of melt rate to debris thickness, summarised by the

  2. Mitigating BeiDou Satellite-Induced Code Bias: Taking into Account the Stochastic Model of Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Li, Xin; Liu, Wanke

    2016-06-18

    The BeiDou satellite-induced code biases have been confirmed to be orbit type-, frequency-, and elevation-dependent. Such code-phase divergences (code bias variations) severely affect absolute precise applications which use code measurements. To reduce their adverse effects, an improved correction model is proposed in this paper. Different from the model proposed by Wanninger and Beer (2015), more datasets (a time span of almost two years) were used to produce the correction values. More importantly, the stochastic information, i.e., the precision indexes, were given together with correction values in the improved model. However, only correction values were given while the precision indexes were completely missing in the traditional model. With the improved correction model, users may have a better understanding of their corrections, especially the uncertainty of corrections. Thus, it is helpful for refining the stochastic model of code observations. Validation tests in precise point positioning (PPP) reveal that a proper stochastic model is critical. The actual precision of the corrected code observations can be reflected in a more objective manner if the stochastic model of the corrections is taken into account. As a consequence, PPP solutions with the improved model outperforms the traditional one in terms of positioning accuracy, as well as convergence speed. In addition, the Melbourne-Wübbena (MW) combination which serves for ambiguity fixing were verified as well. The uncorrected MW values show strong systematic variations with an amplitude of half a wide-lane cycle, which prevents precise ambiguity determination and successful ambiguity resolution. After application of the code bias correction models, the systematic variations can be greatly removed, and the resulting wide lane ambiguities are more likely to be fixed. Moreover, the code residuals show more reasonable distributions after code bias corrections with either the traditional or the improved model.

  3. Mitigating BeiDou Satellite-Induced Code Bias: Taking into Account the Stochastic Model of Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Li, Xin; Liu, Wanke

    2016-01-01

    The BeiDou satellite-induced code biases have been confirmed to be orbit type-, frequency-, and elevation-dependent. Such code-phase divergences (code bias variations) severely affect absolute precise applications which use code measurements. To reduce their adverse effects, an improved correction model is proposed in this paper. Different from the model proposed by Wanninger and Beer (2015), more datasets (a time span of almost two years) were used to produce the correction values. More importantly, the stochastic information, i.e., the precision indexes, were given together with correction values in the improved model. However, only correction values were given while the precision indexes were completely missing in the traditional model. With the improved correction model, users may have a better understanding of their corrections, especially the uncertainty of corrections. Thus, it is helpful for refining the stochastic model of code observations. Validation tests in precise point positioning (PPP) reveal that a proper stochastic model is critical. The actual precision of the corrected code observations can be reflected in a more objective manner if the stochastic model of the corrections is taken into account. As a consequence, PPP solutions with the improved model outperforms the traditional one in terms of positioning accuracy, as well as convergence speed. In addition, the Melbourne-Wübbena (MW) combination which serves for ambiguity fixing were verified as well. The uncorrected MW values show strong systematic variations with an amplitude of half a wide-lane cycle, which prevents precise ambiguity determination and successful ambiguity resolution. After application of the code bias correction models, the systematic variations can be greatly removed, and the resulting wide lane ambiguities are more likely to be fixed. Moreover, the code residuals show more reasonable distributions after code bias corrections with either the traditional or the improved model

  4. [AIDS prevention in Germany - a successful model in crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbrock, R

    2007-04-01

    The rising number of new HIV infections in Germany, particularly among men who have sex with men, raises the question whether the previously successful prevention strategy should be revised. This strategy has been based on a New Public Health approach which arose from the specific historical context in Europe at the start of the epidemic. The hallmarks of this approach are: the active involvement of the target groups; the central role of non-governmental organizations; the combination of population level and targeted, context specific interventions; and an emphasis on social integration and voluntary participation in the work with target group members. Current challenges include: changes in risk perception (at least in part due to the availability of more effective treatments); a diversification of prevention behavioral strategies among target group members; the formation of new sexual subcultures and target groups; as well as changes in hard-to-reach populations such as immigrants and people of lower socioeconomic status. In order to meet these challenges the following measures are necessary: an increased investment in prevention research (with a particular focus on interventions specific to social contexts in which risk behavior is increasing); further development of the institutional infrastructure for prevention, including the full implementation of UNAIDS guidelines for national prevention strategies; and improving the prevention work of local AIDS service organizations and public health authorities through an increase in funding and the implementation of quality assurance measures based on participatory action research.

  5. Bayesian model accounting for within-class biological variability in Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brentani Helena

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important challenge for transcript counting methods such as Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE, "Digital Northern" or Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS, is to carry out statistical analyses that account for the within-class variability, i.e., variability due to the intrinsic biological differences among sampled individuals of the same class, and not only variability due to technical sampling error. Results We introduce a Bayesian model that accounts for the within-class variability by means of mixture distribution. We show that the previously available approaches of aggregation in pools ("pseudo-libraries" and the Beta-Binomial model, are particular cases of the mixture model. We illustrate our method with a brain tumor vs. normal comparison using SAGE data from public databases. We show examples of tags regarded as differentially expressed with high significance if the within-class variability is ignored, but clearly not so significant if one accounts for it. Conclusion Using available information about biological replicates, one can transform a list of candidate transcripts showing differential expression to a more reliable one. Our method is freely available, under GPL/GNU copyleft, through a user friendly web-based on-line tool or as R language scripts at supplemental web-site.

  6. Teaching Modeling with Partial Differential Equations: Several Successful Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Joseph; Trubatch, David; Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the introduction and teaching of partial differential equations (heat and wave equations) via modeling physical phenomena, using a new approach that encompasses constructing difference equations and implementing these in a spreadsheet, numerically solving the partial differential equations using the numerical differential equation…

  7. Successively refined models for crack tip plasticity in polymer blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenburg, KGW; Seelig, T; van der Giessen, E

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a comparative study of different, partly complementary micromechanical models for crack tip plasticity in polymer-rubber blends. It is experimentally well established that interspersion of micron-scale rubber particles into a polymer matrix can lead to a significantly en

  8. e-Learning Success Model: An Information Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Post, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the observations made and experience gained from developing and delivering an online quantitative methods course for Business undergraduates. Inspired by issues and challenges experienced in developing the online course, a model is advanced to address the question of how to guide the design, development, and delivery of…

  9. Teaching Modeling with Partial Differential Equations: Several Successful Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Joseph; Trubatch, David; Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the introduction and teaching of partial differential equations (heat and wave equations) via modeling physical phenomena, using a new approach that encompasses constructing difference equations and implementing these in a spreadsheet, numerically solving the partial differential equations using the numerical differential equation…

  10. The importance of accounting for the uncertainty of published prognostic model estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tracey A; Thompson, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Reported is the importance of properly reflecting uncertainty associated with prognostic model estimates when calculating the survival benefit of a treatment or technology, using liver transplantation as an example. Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used to account for the uncertainty of prognostic model estimates using the standard errors of the regression coefficients and their correlations. These methods were applied to patients with primary biliary cirrhosis undergoing liver transplantation using a prognostic model from a historic cohort who did not undergo transplantation. The survival gain over 4 years from transplantation was estimated. Ignoring the uncertainty in the prognostic model, the estimated survival benefit of liver transplantation was 16.7 months (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 13.5 to 20.1), and was statistically significant (p important that the precision of regression coefficients is available for users of published prognostic models. Ignoring this additional information substantially underestimates uncertainty, which can then impact misleadingly on policy decisions.

  11. Accounting for crop rotations in acreage choice modeling: a tractable modeling framework

    OpenAIRE

    Carpentier, Alain; Gohin, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Crop rotation effects and constraints are major determinants of farmers’ crop choices. Crop rotations are also keystone elements of most environmentally friendly cropping systems. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it proposes simple tools for investigating optimal dynamic crop acreage choices accounting for crop rotation effects and constraints in an uncertain context. Second, it illustrates the impacts of crop rotation effects and constraints on farmers’ acreage choices through simple...

  12. Analysis of behavioral intention on ABC system adoption: Model of information systems technology and success acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Nensi Veni Indipenrian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of individual behavioral change on the adoption of activity- based costing (ABC system and its usage, using Unified Theory of Accep-tance and Use of Technology (UTAUT and Information System Success Model. The sample involves 78 respondents who have positions as financial manager, controller manager, accounting manager, and production manager in mid-sized manufacturing companies in East java. The data were collected by survey method. This study used a Partial Least Square (PLS as the data analysis method. It was found that not all of the main UTAUT models were supported, because performance expectancy and effort expectancy have no effect on behavioral intention and use behavior to adopt ABC system. Whereas, social factors, information quality and facilitating conditions had a positive effect on behavioral intention and use behavior to adopt ABC system. The different results of this study with several previous studies are probably caused by the differences in the context of system, culture and characteristics of the sample. The implication of this study is not only to propose a theoretical framework for researches in future, but also useful for companies to optimize the use of ABC system that should be supported by top level and mid-level management and the readiness of the individu-als to accept the adoption of the ABC system.

  13. The Applicant Based Training Model Setting Conditions for Recruiting Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    the recruiting districts there are functions performed that help guide and support the billet holders at the RSSs and RSs in the performance of their...one can use to evaluate and prioritize training requirements for key members of RSSs and RS. The following paragraphs offer general conclusions and...training model validates training for recruiters. Due to the geographical dispersion of the RSSs , distance learning initiatives could help support this type

  14. Student Success: Approaches to Modeling Student Matriculation and Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jien-Jou

    2013-01-01

    Every year a group of graduates from high schools enter the engineering programs across this country with remarkable academic record. However, as reported in numerous studies, the number of students switching out of engineering majors continues to be an important issue. Previous studies have suggested various factors as predictors for student retention in engineering. To assist the engineering students with timely advising early in their program, an effective prediction model of matriculation...

  15. Current Account Imbalances and Economic Growth: a two-country model with real-financial linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Barbosa de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    This paper builds a two-country stock-flow consistent model by com- bining a debt-led economy that emits the international reserve currency with an export-led economy. The model has two major implications. First, an initial trade deficit in the debt-led country leads to a perma- nent imbalance in the current account, even when the exchange rate is at parity. Second, different re-balancing mechanisms, namely a currency depreciation or the reduction of the propensity to import in the debt-led c...

  16. Model of inventory replenishment in periodic review accounting for the occurrence of shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Krzyżaniak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the development of alternative concepts of goods flow management, the inventory management under conditions of random variations of demand is still an important issue, both from the point of view of inventory keeping and replenishment costs and the service level measured as the level of inventory availability. There is a number of inventory replenishment systems used in these conditions, but they are mostly developments of two basic systems: reorder point-based and periodic review-based. The paper deals with the latter system. Numerous researches indicate the need to improve the classical models describing that system, the reason being mainly the necessity to adapt the model better to the actual conditions. This allows a correct selection of parameters that control the used inventory replenishment system and - as a result - to obtain expected economic effects. Methods: This research aimed at building a model of the periodic review system to reflect the relations (observed during simulation tests between the volume of inventory shortages and the degree of accounting for so-called deferred demand, and the service level expressed as the probability of satisfying the demand in the review and the inventory replenishment cycle. The following model building and testing method has been applied: numerical simulation of inventory replenishment - detailed analysis of simulation results - construction of the model taking into account the regularities observed during the simulations - determination of principles of solving the system of relations creating the model - verification of the results obtained from the model using the results from simulation. Results: Presented are selected results of calculations based on classical formulas and using the developed model, which describe the relations between the service level and the parameters controlling the discussed inventory replenishment system. The results are compared to the simulation

  17. The secret to successful solute-transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, L.F.

    2011-01-01

    Modeling subsurface solute transport is difficult—more so than modeling heads and flows. The classical governing equation does not always adequately represent what we see at the field scale. In such cases, commonly used numerical models are solving the wrong equation. Also, the transport equation is hyperbolic where advection is dominant, and parabolic where hydrodynamic dispersion is dominant. No single numerical method works well for all conditions, and for any given complex field problem, where seepage velocity is highly variable, no one method will be optimal everywhere. Although we normally expect a numerically accurate solution to the governing groundwater-flow equation, errors in concentrations from numerical dispersion and/or oscillations may be large in some cases. The accuracy and efficiency of the numerical solution to the solute-transport equation are more sensitive to the numerical method chosen than for typical groundwater-flow problems. However, numerical errors can be kept within acceptable limits if sufficient computational effort is expended. But impractically long

  18. Modeling Forest Succession among Ecological Land Units in Northern Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Host

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Field and modeling studies were used to quantify potential successional pathways among fine-scale ecological classification units within two geomorphic regions of north-central Minnesota. Soil and overstory data were collected on plots stratified across low-relief ground moraines and undulating sand dunes. Each geomorphic feature was sampled across gradients of topography or soil texture. Overstory conditions were sampled using five variable-radius point samples per plot; soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen content. Climatic, forest composition, and soil data were used to parameterize the sample plots for use with LINKAGES, a forest growth model that simulates changes in composition and soil characteristics over time. Forest composition and soil properties varied within and among geomorphic features. LINKAGES simulations were using "bare ground" and the current overstory as starting conditions. Northern hardwoods or pines dominated the late-successional communities of morainal and dune landforms, respectively. The morainal landforms were dominated by yellow birch and sugar maple; yellow birch reached its maximum abundance in intermediate landscape positions. On the dune sites, pine was most abundant in drier landscape positions, with white spruce increasing in abundance with increasing soil moisture and N content. The differences in measured soil properties and predicted late-successional composition indicate that ecological land units incorporate some of the key variables that govern forest composition and structure. They further show the value of ecological classification and modeling for developing forest management strategies that incorporate the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest ecosystems.

  19. Using the internet in middle schools: A model for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addessio, B.; Boorman, M.; Eker, P.; Fletcher, K.; Judd, B.; Trainor, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corn, C.; Olsen, J.; Trottier, A. [Los Alamos Middle School, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a model for school networking using Los Alamos Middle School as a testbed. The project was a collaborative effort between the school and the Laboratory. The school secured administrative funding for hardware and software; and LANL provided the network architecture, installation, consulting, and training. The model is characterized by a computer classroom linked with two GatorBoxes and a UNIX-based workstation server. Six additional computers have also been networked from a teacher learning center and the library. The model support infrastructure includes: local school system administrators/lead teachers, introductory and intermediate hands-on teacher learning, teacher incentives for involvement and use, opportunities for student training and use, and ongoing LANL consulting. Formative evaluation data reveals that students and teachers alike are finding the Internet to be a tool that crosses disciplines, allowing them to obtain more, timely information and to communicate with others more effectively and efficiently. A lead teacher`s enthusiastic comments indicate some of the value gained: ``We have just scratched the surface. Each day someone seems to find something new and interesting on the Internet. The possibilities seem endless.``

  20. A model for successful research partnerships: a New Brunswick experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamlyn, Karen; Creelman, Helen; Fisher, Garfield

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of a partnership model used to conduct a research study entitled "Needs of patients with cancer and their family members in New Brunswick Health Region 3 (NBHR3)" (Tamlyn-Leaman, Creelman, & Fisher, 1997). This partial replication study carried out by the three authors between 1995 and 1997 was a needs assessment, adapted with permission from previous work by Fitch, Vachon, Greenberg, Saltmarche, and Franssen (1993). In order to conduct a comprehensive needs assessment with limited resources, a partnership between academic, public, and private sectors was established. An illustration of this partnership is presented in the model entitled "A Client-Centred Partnership Model." The operations of this partnership, including the strengths, the perceived benefits, lessons learned by each partner, the barriers, and the process for conflict resolution, are described. A summary of the cancer care initiatives undertaken by NBHR3, which were influenced directly or indirectly by the recommendations from this study, is included.

  1. Generation of SEEAW asset accounts based on water resources management models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Solera, Abel; Andreu, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    One of the main challenges in the XXI century is related with the sustainable use of water. This is due to the fact that water is an essential element for the life of all who inhabit our planet. In many cases, the lack of economic valuation of water resources causes an inefficient water use. In this regard, society expects of policymakers and stakeholders maximise the profit produced per unit of natural resources. Water planning and the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) represent the best way to achieve this goal. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEAW) is displayed as a tool for water allocation which enables the building of water balances in a river basin. The main concern of the SEEAW is to provide a standard approach which allows the policymakers to compare results between different territories. But building water accounts is a complex task due to the difficulty of the collection of the required data. Due to the difficulty of gauging the components of the hydrological cycle, the use of simulation models has become an essential tool extensively employed in last decades. The target of this paper is to present the building up of a database that enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models developed with AQUATOOL DSSS to fill in the SEEAW tables. This research is framed within the Water Accounting in a Multi-Catchment District (WAMCD) project, financed by the European Union. Its main goal is the development of water accounts in the Mediterranean Andalusian River Basin District, in Spain. This research pretends to contribute to the objectives of the "Blueprint to safeguard Europe's water resources". It is noteworthy that, in Spain, a large part of these methodological decisions are included in the Spanish Guideline of Water Planning with normative status guaranteeing consistency and comparability of the results.

  2. The social networking application success model : An Empirical Study of Facebook and Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.; Huang, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Social networking applications (SNAs) are among the fastest growing web applications of recent years. In this paper, we propose a causal model to assess the success of SNAs, grounded on DeLone and McLean’s updated information systems (IS) success model. In addition to their original three dimensions

  3. The social networking application success model : An empirical study of Facebook and Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.; Huang, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Social networking applications (SNAs) are among the fastest growing web applications of recent years. In this paper, we propose a causal model to assess the success of SNAs, grounded on DeLone and McLean’s updated information systems (IS) success model. In addition to their original three dimensions

  4. Accounting for anatomical noise in search-capable model observers for planar nuclear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Anando; Gifford, Howard C

    2016-01-01

    Model observers intended to predict the diagnostic performance of human observers should account for the effects of both quantum and anatomical noise. We compared the abilities of several visual-search (VS) and scanning Hotelling-type models to account for anatomical noise in a localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) study involving simulated nuclear medicine images. Our VS observer invoked a two-stage process of search and analysis. The images featured lesions in the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. Lesion contrast and the geometric resolution and sensitivity of the imaging collimator were the study variables. A set of anthropomorphic mathematical phantoms was imaged with an analytic projector based on eight parallel-hole collimators with different sensitivity and resolution properties. The LROC study was conducted with human observers and the channelized nonprewhitening, channelized Hotelling (CH) and VS model observers. The CH observer was applied in a "background-known-statistically" protocol while the VS observer performed a quasi-background-known-exactly task. Both of these models were applied with and without internal noise in the decision variables. A perceptual search threshold was also tested with the VS observer. The model observers without inefficiencies failed to mimic the average performance trend for the humans. The CH and VS observers with internal noise matched the humans primarily at low collimator sensitivities. With both internal noise and the search threshold, the VS observer attained quantitative agreement with the human observers. Computational efficiency is an important advantage of the VS observer.

  5. A Buffer Model Account of Behavioral and ERP Patterns in the Von Restorff Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri-Maria Kamp

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We combined a mechanistic model of episodic encoding with theories on the functional significance of two event-related potential (ERP components to develop an integrated account for the Von Restorff effect, which refers to the enhanced recall probability for an item that deviates in some feature from other items in its study list. The buffer model of Lehman and Malmberg (2009, 2013 can account for this effect such that items encountered during encoding enter an episodic buffer where they are actively rehearsed. When a deviant item is encountered, in order to re-allocate encoding resources towards this item the buffer is emptied from its prior content, a process labeled “compartmentalization”. Based on theories on their functional significance, the P300 component of the ERP may co-occur with this hypothesized compartmentalization process, while the frontal slow wave may index rehearsal. We derived predictions from this integrated model for output patterns in free recall, systematic variance in ERP components, as well as associations between the two types of measures in a dataset of 45 participants who studied and freely recalled lists of the Von Restorff type. Our major predictions were confirmed and the behavioral and physiological results were consistent with the predictions derived from the model. These findings demonstrate that constraining mechanistic models of episodic memory with brain activity patterns and generating predictions for relationships between brain activity and behavior can lead to novel insights into the relationship between the brain, the mind, and behavior.

  6. Pathways to success: AIME’s educational mentoring model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Priestly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience (AIME is a structured educational mentoring program provided for Indigenous students to access throughout their high school experience. The program is designed to support students to complete high school and transition into university, further education and training or employment at the same rate as every Australian child, effectively closing the gap on educational outcomes. To better understand the impact of the program, AIME has developed a research partnership with a team of researchers from the University of Wollongong (UOW and the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS. Comprising researchers with experience in qualitative and quantitative approaches, this research has grown from a small UOW internally funded project, to a large national project. This collaborative research partnership has already spanned five years and has produced several theorised academic papers, based on both qualitative and quantitative research that describes the AIME program and its merits (Bodkin-Andrews et al. 2013; O’Shea et al. 2013; Kervin et al. 2014; O’Shea et al. 2014; Harwood et al. 2015. Findings from the research to date have reported the success of the AIME program in engaging Indigenous young people in education (Bodkin-Andrews et al. 2013 as well as described the novel ways that the AIME program reorients the focus on aspirations to one of ‘recognition of aspirations’ (Harwood et al. 2014. Further analysis continues to be conducted, including the outcomes of an AIME national survey in 2014 and a paper currently under review that explains the different pedagogy used in the AIME program (McMahon et al, under review. All research activities through this partnership are aligned with protocols for research with Indigenous Australians, as described by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. We work collaboratively to discuss, plan and develop research projects and we

  7. Microsimulation Model Estimating Czech Farm Income from Farm Accountancy Data Network Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hloušková

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural income is one of the most important measures of economic status of agricultural farms and the whole agricultural sector. This work is focused on finding the optimal method of estimating national agricultural income from micro-economic database managed by the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN. Use of FADN data base is relevant due to the representativeness of the results for the whole country and the opportunity to carry out micro-level analysis. The main motivation for this study was a first forecast of national agricultural income from FADN data undertaken 9 months before the final official FADN results were published. Our own method of estimating the income estimation and the simulation procedure were established and successfully tested on the whole database on data from two preceding years. Present paper also provides information on used method of agricultural income prediction and on tests of its suitability.

  8. Spallation reactions. A successful interplay between modeling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    David, J -C

    2015-01-01

    The spallation reactions are a type of nuclear reaction which occur in space by interaction of the cosmic rays with interstellar bodies. The first spallation reactions induced with an accelerator took place in 1947 at the Berkeley cyclotron (University of California) with 200 MeV deuterons and 400 MeV alpha beams. They highlighted the multiple emission of neutrons and charged particles and the production of a large number of residual nuclei far different from the target nuclei. The same year R. Serber describes the reaction in two steps: a first and fast one with high-energy particle emission leading to an excited remnant nucleus, and a second one, much slower, the de-excitation of the remnant. In 2010 IAEA organized a worskhop to present the results of the most widely used spallation codes within a benchmark of spallation models. If one of the goals was to understand the deficiencies, if any, in each code, one remarkable outcome points out the overall high-quality level of some models and so the great improv...

  9. Regional Balance Model of Financial Flows through Sectoral Approaches System of National Accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Zaharchuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study, the results of which are reflected in this article, is the theoretical and methodological substantiation of possibilities to build a regional balance model of financial flows consistent with the principles of the construction of the System of National Accounts (SNA. The paper summarizes the international experience of building regional accounts in the SNA as well as reflects the advantages and disadvantages of the existing techniques for constructing Social Accounting Matrix. The authors have proposed an approach to build the regional balance model of financial flows, which is based on the disaggregated tables of the formation, distribution and use of the added value of territory in the framework of institutional sectors of SNA (corporations, public administration, households. Within the problem resolution of the transition of value added from industries to sectors, the authors have offered an approach to the accounting of development, distribution and use of value added within the institutional sectors of the territories. The methods of calculation are based on the publicly available information base of statistics agencies and federal services. The authors provide the scheme of the interrelations of the indicators of the regional balance model of financial flows. It allows to coordinate mutually the movement of regional resources by the sectors of «corporation», «public administration» and «households» among themselves, and cash flows of the region — by the sectors and directions of use. As a result, they form a single account of the formation and distribution of territorial financial resources, which is a regional balance model of financial flows. This matrix shows the distribution of financial resources by income sources and sectors, where the components of the formation (compensation, taxes and gross profit, distribution (transfers and payments and use (final consumption, accumulation of value added are

  10. A comparison of Graham and Piotroski investment models using accounting information and efficacy measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Jahan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the investment models of Benjamin Graham and Joseph Piotroski and compare the efficacy of these two models by running backtest, using screening rules and ranking systems built in Portfolio 123. Using different combinations of screening rules and ranking systems, we also examine the performance of Piotroski and Graham investment models. We find that the combination of Piotroski and Graham investment models performs better than S&P 500. We also find that the Piotroski screening with Graham ranking generates the highest average annualized return among different combinations of screening rules and ranking systems analyzed in this paper. Overall, our results show a profound impact of accounting information on investor’s decision making.

  11. Improved Mathematical Model of PMSM Taking Into Account Cogging Torque Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUDORACHE, T.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved mathematical model of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM that takes into account the Cogging Torque (CT oscillations that appear due to the mutual attraction between the Permanent Magnets (PMs and the anisotropic stator armature. The electromagnetic torque formula in the proposed model contains an analytical expression of the CT calibrated by Finite Element (FE analysis. The numerical calibration is carried out using a data fitting procedure based on the Simplex Downhill optimization algorithm. The proposed model is characterized by good accuracy and reduced computation effort, its performance being verified by comparison with the classical d-q model of the machine using Matlab/Simulink environment.

  12. Accounting for uncertainty due to 'last observation carried forward' outcome imputation in a meta-analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulou, Vasiliki; Efthimiou, Orestis; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-02-28

    Missing outcome data are a problem commonly observed in randomized control trials that occurs as a result of participants leaving the study before its end. Missing such important information can bias the study estimates of the relative treatment effect and consequently affect the meta-analytic results. Therefore, methods on manipulating data sets with missing participants, with regard to incorporating the missing information in the analysis so as to avoid the loss of power and minimize the bias, are of interest. We propose a meta-analytic model that accounts for possible error in the effect sizes estimated in studies with last observation carried forward (LOCF) imputed patients. Assuming a dichotomous outcome, we decompose the probability of a successful unobserved outcome taking into account the sensitivity and specificity of the LOCF imputation process for the missing participants. We fit the proposed model within a Bayesian framework, exploring different prior formulations for sensitivity and specificity. We illustrate our methods by performing a meta-analysis of five studies comparing the efficacy of amisulpride versus conventional drugs (flupenthixol and haloperidol) on patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Our meta-analytic models yield estimates similar to meta-analysis with LOCF-imputed patients. Allowing for uncertainty in the imputation process, precision is decreased depending on the priors used for sensitivity and specificity. Results on the significance of amisulpride versus conventional drugs differ between the standard LOCF approach and our model depending on prior beliefs on the imputation process. Our method can be regarded as a useful sensitivity analysis that can be used in the presence of concerns about the LOCF process.

  13. Successful Manipulation in Stable Marriage Model with Complete Preference Lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirotatsu; Matsui, Tomomi

    This paper deals with a strategic issue in the stable marriage model with complete preference lists (i.e., a preference list of an agent is a permutation of all the members of the opposite sex). Given complete preference lists of n men over n women, and a marriage µ, we consider the problem for finding preference lists of n women over n men such that the men-proposing deferred acceptance algorithm (Gale-Shapley algorithm) adopted to the lists produces µ. We show a simple necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a set of preference lists of women over men. Our condition directly gives an O(n2) time algorithm for finding a set of preference lists, if it exists.

  14. MODELING ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION IN HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELS: ACCOUNTING FOR FATIGUE AND EPOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure and dose models often require a quantification of oxygen consumption for a simulated individual. Oxygen consumption is dependent on the modeled Individual's physical activity level as described in an activity diary. Activity level is quantified via standardized val...

  15. MODELING ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION IN HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELS: ACCOUNTING FOR FATIGUE AND EPOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure and dose models often require a quantification of oxygen consumption for a simulated individual. Oxygen consumption is dependent on the modeled Individual's physical activity level as described in an activity diary. Activity level is quantified via standardized val...

  16. Statistical model of rough surface contact accounting for size-dependent plasticity and asperity interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H.; Vakis, A. I.; Liu, X.; Van der Giessen, E.

    2017-09-01

    The work by Greenwood and Williamson (GW) has initiated a simple but effective method of contact mechanics: statistical modeling based on the mechanical response of a single asperity. Two main assumptions of the original GW model are that the asperity response is purely elastic and that there is no interaction between asperities. However, as asperities lie on a continuous substrate, the deformation of one asperity will change the height of all other asperities through deformation of the substrate and will thus influence subsequent contact evolution. Moreover, a high asperity contact pressure will result in plasticity, which below tens of microns is size dependent, with smaller being harder. In this paper, the asperity interaction effect is taken into account through substrate deformation, while a size-dependent plasticity model is adopted for individual asperities. The intrinsic length in the strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theory is obtained by fitting to two-dimensional discrete dislocation plasticity simulations of the flattening of a single asperity. By utilizing the single asperity response in three dimensions and taking asperity interaction into account, a statistical calculation of rough surface contact is performed. The effectiveness of the statistical model is addressed by comparison with full-detail finite element simulations of rough surface contact using SGP. Throughout the paper, our focus is on the difference of contact predictions based on size-dependent plasticity as compared to conventional size-independent plasticity.

  17. Modelling representative and coherent Danish farm types based on farm accountancy data for use in environmental assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Randi; Halberg, Niels; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak

    2006-01-01

    -oriented environmental assessment (e.g. greenhouse gas emissions per kg pork). The objective of this study was to establish a national agricultural model for estimating data on resource use, production and environmentally important emissions for a set of representative farm types. Every year a sample of farm accounts...... is established in order to report Danish agro-economical data to the ‘Farm Accountancy Data Network’ (FADN), and to produce ‘The annual Danish account statistics for agriculture’. The farm accounts are selected and weighted to be representative for the Danish agricultural sector, and similar samples of farm...... accounts are collected in most of the European countries. Based on a sample of 2138 farm accounts from year 1999 a national agricultural model, consisting of 31 farm types, was constructed. The farm accounts were grouped according to the major soil types, the number of working hours, the most important...

  18. Green accounts for sulphur and nitrogen deposition in Sweden. Implementation of a theoretical model in practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlroth, S.

    2001-01-01

    This licentiate thesis tries to bridge the gap between the theoretical and the practical studies in the field of environmental accounting. In the paper, 1 develop an optimal control theory model for adjusting NDP for the effects Of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, and subsequently insert empirically estimated values. The model includes correction entries for the effects on welfare, real capital, health and the quality and quantity of renewable natural resources. In the empirical valuation study, production losses were estimated with dose-response functions. Recreational and other welfare values were estimated by the contingent valuation (CV) method. Effects on capital depreciation are also included. For comparison, abatement costs and environmental protection expenditures for reducing sulfur and nitrogen emissions were estimated. The theoretical model was then utilized to calculate the adjustment to NDP in a consistent manner.

  19. A simple model for predicting sprint-race times accounting for energy loss on the curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureika, J. R.

    1997-11-01

    The mathematical model of J. Keller for predicting World Record race times, based on a simple differential equation of motion, predicted quite well the records of the day. One of its shortcoming is that it neglects to account for a sprinter's energy loss around a curve, a most important consideration particularly in the 200m--400m. An extension to Keller's work is considered, modeling the aforementioned energy loss as a simple function of the centrifugal force acting on the runner around the curve. Theoretical World Record performances for indoor and outdoor 200m are discussed, and the use of the model at 300m is investigated. Some predictions are made for possible 200m outdoor and indoor times as run by Canadian 100m WR holder Donovan Bailey, based on his 100m final performance at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta.

  20. A Simple Model for Predicting Sprint Race Times Accounting for Energy Loss on the Curve

    CERN Document Server

    Mureika, J R

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical model of J. Keller for predicting World Record race times, based on a simple differential equation of motion, predicted quite well the records of the day. One of its shortcoming is that it neglects to account for a sprinter's energy loss around a curve, a most important consideration particularly in the 200m--400m. An extension to Keller's work is considered, modeling the aforementioned energy loss as a simple function of the centrifugal force acting on the runner around the curve. Theoretical World Record performances for indoor and outdoor 200m are discussed, and the use of the model at 300m is investigated. Some predictions are made for possible 200m outdoor and indoor times as run by Canadian 100m WR holder Donovan Bailey, based on his 100m final performance at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta.

  1. A Diffusion Theory Model of Adoption and Substitution for Successive Generations of High-Technology Products

    OpenAIRE

    John A. Norton; Frank M. Bass

    1987-01-01

    This study deals with the dynamic sales behavior of successive generations of high-technology products. New technologies diffuse through a population of potential buyers over time. Therefore, diffusion theory models are related to this demand growth. Furthermore, successive generations of a technology compete with earlier ones, and that behavior is the subject of models of technological substitution. Building upon the Bass (Bass, F. M. 1969. A new-product growth model for consumer durables. M...

  2. Accounting for Epistemic Uncertainty in PSHA: Logic Tree and Ensemble Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, M.; Marzocchi, W.; Selva, J.

    2014-12-01

    The logic tree scheme is the probabilistic framework that has been widely used in the last decades to take into account epistemic uncertainties in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Notwithstanding the vital importance for PSHA to incorporate properly the epistemic uncertainties, we argue that the use of the logic tree in a PSHA context has conceptual and practical drawbacks. Despite some of these drawbacks have been reported in the past, a careful evaluation of their impact on PSHA is still lacking. This is the goal of the present work. In brief, we show that i) PSHA practice does not meet the assumptions that stand behind the logic tree scheme; ii) the output of a logic tree is often misinterpreted and/or misleading, e.g., the use of percentiles (median included) in a logic tree scheme raises theoretical difficulties from a probabilistic point of view; iii) in case the assumptions that stand behind a logic tree are actually met, this leads to several problems in testing any PSHA model. We suggest a different strategy - based on ensemble modeling - to account for epistemic uncertainties in a more proper probabilistic framework. Finally, we show that in many PSHA practical applications, the logic tree is de facto loosely applied to build sound ensemble models.

  3. Climate projections of future extreme events accounting for modelling uncertainties and historical simulation biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Simon J.; Murphy, James M.; Sexton, David M. H.; Harris, Glen R.

    2014-11-01

    A methodology is presented for providing projections of absolute future values of extreme weather events that takes into account key uncertainties in predicting future climate. This is achieved by characterising both observed and modelled extremes with a single form of non-stationary extreme value (EV) distribution that depends on global mean temperature and which includes terms that account for model bias. Such a distribution allows the prediction of future "observed" extremes for any period in the twenty-first century. Uncertainty in modelling future climate, arising from a wide range of atmospheric, oceanic, sulphur cycle and carbon cycle processes, is accounted for by using probabilistic distributions of future global temperature and EV parameters. These distributions are generated by Bayesian sampling of emulators with samples weighted by their likelihood with respect to a set of observational constraints. The emulators are trained on a large perturbed parameter ensemble of global simulations of the recent past, and the equilibrium response to doubled CO2. Emulated global EV parameters are converted to the relevant regional scale through downscaling relationships derived from a smaller perturbed parameter regional climate model ensemble. The simultaneous fitting of the EV model to regional model data and observations allows the characterisation of how observed extremes may change in the future irrespective of biases that may be present in the regional models simulation of the recent past climate. The clearest impact of a parameter perturbation in this ensemble was found to be the depth to which plants can access water. Members with shallow soils tend to be biased hot and dry in summer for the observational period. These biases also appear to have an impact on the potential future response for summer temperatures with some members with shallow soils having increases for extremes that reduce with extreme severity. We apply this methodology for London, using the

  4. FORMATION OF CONSUMER ACCOMMODATION MODELS WITH DUE ACCOUNT OF POPULATION INVESTMENT POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Shaniukevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a theme of typological urban housing diversity  which is relevant for a modern residential real estate market. Analyzed Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the existing urban residential accommodation, new  house building have been analyzed in the paper. The paper presents author’s calculations of differentiation extent and changes in economic opportunities of the population. Differentiation of  potential consumer accommodation models with specific standardized characteristics has been made in terms of the population economic prosperity.  The paper substantiates proposals on accountability and implementation of typological differences in the government housing policy.

  5. A simple bioclogging model that accounts for spatial spreading of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Demaret

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An extension of biobarrier formation and bioclogging models is presented that accounts for spatial expansion of the bacterial population in the soil. The bacteria move into neighboring sites if locally almost all of the available pore space is occupied and the environmental conditions are such that further growth of the bacterial population is sustained. This is described by a density-dependent, double degenerate diffusion-equation that is coupled with the Darcy equations and a transport-reaction equation for growth limiting substrates. We conduct computational simulations of the governing differential equation system.

  6. A parametric ribcage geometry model accounting for variations among the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulong; Cao, Libo; Bai, Zhonghao; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hoff, Carrie N; Hu, Jingwen

    2016-09-06

    The objective of this study is to develop a parametric ribcage model that can account for morphological variations among the adult population. Ribcage geometries, including 12 pair of ribs, sternum, and thoracic spine, were collected from CT scans of 101 adult subjects through image segmentation, landmark identification (1016 for each subject), symmetry adjustment, and template mesh mapping (26,180 elements for each subject). Generalized procrustes analysis (GPA), principal component analysis (PCA), and regression analysis were used to develop a parametric ribcage model, which can predict nodal locations of the template mesh according to age, sex, height, and body mass index (BMI). Two regression models, a quadratic model for estimating the ribcage size and a linear model for estimating the ribcage shape, were developed. The results showed that the ribcage size was dominated by the height (p=0.000) and age-sex-interaction (p=0.007) and the ribcage shape was significantly affected by the age (p=0.0005), sex (p=0.0002), height (p=0.0064) and BMI (p=0.0000). Along with proper assignment of cortical bone thickness, material properties and failure properties, this parametric ribcage model can directly serve as the mesh of finite element ribcage models for quantifying effects of human characteristics on thoracic injury risks.

  7. Improvement of the integration of Soil Moisture Accounting into the NRCS-CN model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Barroso, Pablo; González, Javier; Valdés, Juan B.

    2016-11-01

    Rainfall-runoff quantification is one of the most important tasks in both engineering and watershed management as it allows the identification, forecast and explanation of the watershed response. This non-linear process depends on the watershed antecedent conditions, which are commonly related to the initial soil moisture content. Although several studies have highlighted the relevance of soil moisture measures to improve flood modelling, the discussion is still open in the literature about the approach to use in lumped model. The integration of these previous conditions in the widely used rainfall-runoff models NRCS-CN (e.g. National Resources Conservation Service - Curve Number model) could be handled in two ways: using the Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) concept to modify the model parameter; or alternatively, using a Soil Moisture Accounting (SMA) procedure into the NRCS-CN, being the soil moisture a state variable. For this second option, the state variable does not have a direct physical representation. This make difficult the estimation of the initial soil moisture store level. This paper presents a new formulation that overcomes such issue, the rainfall-runoff model called RSSa. Its suitability is evaluated by comparing the RSSa model with the original NRCS-CN model and alternatives SMA procedures in 12 watersheds located in six different countries, with different climatic conditions, from Mediterranean to Semi-arid regions. The analysis shows that the new model, RSSa, performs better when compared with previously proposed CN-based models. Finally, an assessment is made of the influence of the soil moisture parameter for each watershed and the relative weight of scale effects over model parameterization.

  8. Accountability and pediatric physician-researchers: are theoretical models compatible with Canadian lived experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czoli Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physician-researchers are bound by professional obligations stemming from both the role of the physician and the role of the researcher. Currently, the dominant models for understanding the relationship between physician-researchers' clinical duties and research duties fit into three categories: the similarity position, the difference position and the middle ground. The law may be said to offer a fourth "model" that is independent from these three categories. These models frame the expectations placed upon physician-researchers by colleagues, regulators, patients and research participants. This paper examines the extent to which the data from semi-structured interviews with 30 physician-researchers at three major pediatric hospitals in Canada reflect these traditional models. It seeks to determine the extent to which existing models align with the described lived experience of the pediatric physician-researchers interviewed. Ultimately, we find that although some physician-researchers make references to something like the weak version of the similarity position, the pediatric-researchers interviewed in this study did not describe their dual roles in a way that tightly mirrors any of the existing theoretical frameworks. We thus conclude that either physician-researchers are in need of better training regarding the nature of the accountability relationships that flow from their dual roles or that models setting out these roles and relationships must be altered to better reflect what we can reasonably expect of physician-researchers in a real-world environment.

  9. Successful aging as a continuum of functional independence: lessons from physical disability models of aging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowry, K.A.; Vallejo, A.N.; Studenski, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Successful aging is a multidimensional construct that could be viewed as a continuum of achievement. Based on the disability model proposed by the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, successful aging includes not only the presence or absence of disease, but also

  10. SUCCESS AND PROGRESS IN HIGHER-EDUCATION : A STRUCTURAL MODEL OF STUDYING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MINNAERT, A; JANSSEN, PJ

    1992-01-01

    In Belgium, the success rates of freshmen in higher education are relatively low. To understand this phenomenon a structural model for indiviaual differences in study success and progress is suggested. Starting from the theory that studying is the integration of thinking and learning on the basis of

  11. Successful aging as a continuum of functional independence: lessons from physical disability models of aging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowry, K.A.; Vallejo, A.N.; Studenski, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Successful aging is a multidimensional construct that could be viewed as a continuum of achievement. Based on the disability model proposed by the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, successful aging includes not only the presence or absence of disease, but also a

  12. Radiative transfer modeling through terrestrial atmosphere and ocean accounting for inelastic processes: Software package SCIATRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, V. V.; Dinter, T.; Rozanov, A. V.; Wolanin, A.; Bracher, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    SCIATRAN is a comprehensive software package which is designed to model radiative transfer processes in the terrestrial atmosphere and ocean in the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the thermal infrared (0.18-40 μm). It accounts for multiple scattering processes, polarization, thermal emission and ocean-atmosphere coupling. The main goal of this paper is to present a recently developed version of SCIATRAN which takes into account accurately inelastic radiative processes in both the atmosphere and the ocean. In the scalar version of the coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer solver presented by Rozanov et al. [61] we have implemented the simulation of the rotational Raman scattering, vibrational Raman scattering, chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence. In this paper we discuss and explain the numerical methods used in SCIATRAN to solve the scalar radiative transfer equation including trans-spectral processes, and demonstrate how some selected radiative transfer problems are solved using the SCIATRAN package. In addition we present selected comparisons of SCIATRAN simulations with those published benchmark results, independent radiative transfer models, and various measurements from satellite, ground-based, and ship-borne instruments. The extended SCIATRAN software package along with a detailed User's Guide is made available for scientists and students, who are undertaking their own research typically at universities, via the web page of the Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen: http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de.

  13. Implementation of a cost-accounting model in a biobank: practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, Maria Beatriz; Lopez-Valeiras, Ernesto; García-Montero, Andres C

    2014-01-01

    Given the state of global economy, cost measurement and control have become increasingly relevant over the past years. The scarcity of resources and the need to use these resources more efficiently is making cost information essential in management, even in non-profit public institutions. Biobanks are no exception. However, no empirical experiences on the implementation of cost accounting in biobanks have been published to date. The aim of this paper is to present a step-by-step implementation of a cost-accounting tool for the main production and distribution activities of a real/active biobank, including a comprehensive explanation on how to perform the calculations carried out in this model. Two mathematical models for the analysis of (1) production costs and (2) request costs (order management and sample distribution) have stemmed from the analysis of the results of this implementation, and different theoretical scenarios have been prepared. Global analysis and discussion provides valuable information for internal biobank management and even for strategic decisions at the research and development governmental policies level.

  14. An extended car-following model accounting for the average headway effect in intelligent transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Hua; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Li, Xing-Li; Lo, Siu-Ming

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an extended car-following model is proposed to simulate traffic flow by considering average headway of preceding vehicles group in intelligent transportation systems environment. The stability condition of this model is obtained by using the linear stability analysis. The phase diagram can be divided into three regions classified as the stable, the metastable and the unstable ones. The theoretical result shows that the average headway plays an important role in improving the stabilization of traffic system. The mKdV equation near the critical point is derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves by applying the reductive perturbation method. Furthermore, through the simulation of space-time evolution of the vehicle headway, it is shown that the traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently with taking into account the average headway effect, and the analytical result is consistent with the simulation one.

  15. Accounting for the kinetics in order parameter analysis: lessons from theoretical models and a disordered peptide

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovska, Ganna; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Molecular simulations as well as single molecule experiments have been widely analyzed in terms order parameters, the latter representing candidate probes for the relevant degrees of freedom. Notwithstanding this approach is very intuitive, mounting evidence showed that such description is not accurate, leading to ambiguous definitions of states and wrong kinetics. To overcome these limitations a framework making use of order parameter fluctuations in conjunction with complex network analysis is investigated. Derived from recent advances in the analysis of single molecule time traces, this approach takes into account of the fluctuations around each time point to distinguish between states that have similar values of the order parameter but different dynamics. Snapshots with similar fluctuations are used as nodes of a transition network, the clusterization of which into states provides accurate Markov-State-Models of the system under study. Application of the methodology to theoretical models with a noisy orde...

  16. Implementation of "Learning from Success" Model on Learning Disabilities Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeev Greenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Students who have difficulties with studies lack study skills, demonstrate inconsistent achievements and are generally assigned to low-level study groups. In light of this situation, they tend to develop a poor self-image and low self-esteem. Therefore it is important to identify the coping skills that lead to success, which can serve as a model for the work of education systems. The purpose of this article is to describe learning from success model that involves the examination of events that can be translated into modes of action that promote future success. The research is innovative in its application of the model, which is commonly used among professionals, in work with high-school students. Approach: The research is qualitative, based on analysis of project presentations created by the students according to the learning from success model and discussions held after showing the presentations. The research examined the principles of action that led to the success of these students in national final exams, by means of reflection on their learning. Results: The results of the research indicate that use of the learning from success model highlights the importance of studying in small groups and learning from peers, which help students develop a sense of success and personal responsibility. Conclusion: The model can be applied with students in order to identify the principles of action that contribute to their success in final exams. In addition, during application of the model, the students develop a sense of success and personal responsibility for studying.

  17. Water accounting for stressed river basins based on water resources management models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Solera, Abel; Ferrer, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Estrela, Teodoro

    2016-09-15

    Water planning and the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) represent the best way to help decision makers to identify and choose the most adequate alternatives among other possible ones. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-W) is displayed as a tool for the building of water balances in a river basin, providing a standard approach to achieve comparability of the results between different territories. The target of this paper is to present the building up of a tool that enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models to fill in the SEEA-W tables. At every step of the modelling chain, we are capable to build the asset accounts and the physical water supply and use tables according to SEEA-W approach along with an estimation of the water services costs. The case study is the Jucar River Basin District (RBD), located in the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula in Spain which as in other many Mediterranean basins is currently water-stressed. To guide this work we have used PATRICAL model in combination with AQUATOOL Decision Support System (DSS). The results indicate that for the average year the total use of water in the district amounts to 15,143hm(3)/year, being the Total Water Renewable Water Resources 3909hm(3)/year. On the other hand, the water service costs in Jucar RBD amounts to 1634 million € per year at constant 2012 prices. It is noteworthy that 9% of these costs correspond to non-conventional resources, such as desalinated water, reused water and water transferred from other regions.

  18. An Analytic Model for the Success Rate of a Robotic Actuator System in Hitting Random Targets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bradley, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    .... While simulations and measurements exist for the success rate of hitting targets by some systems, there is a dearth of analytic models which can give insight into, and guidance on optimization, of new robotic systems...

  19. A Model for Urban Environment and Resource Planning Based on Green GDP Accounting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyu Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment and resources are currently on course that is unsustainable in the long run due to excessive human pursuit of economic goals. Thus, it is very important to develop a model to analyse the relationship between urban economic development and environmental resource protection during the process of rapid urbanisation. This paper proposed a model to identify the key factors in urban environment and resource regulation based on a green GDP accounting system, which consisted of four parts: economy, society, resource, and environment. In this model, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method and a modified Pearl curve model were combined to allow for dynamic evaluation, with higher green GDP value as the planning target. The model was applied to the environmental and resource planning problem of Wuyishan City, and the results showed that energy use was a key factor that influenced the urban environment and resource development. Biodiversity and air quality were the most sensitive factors that influenced the value of green GDP in the city. According to the analysis, the urban environment and resource planning could be improved for promoting sustainable development in Wuyishan City.

  20. A model proposal concerning balance scorecard application integrated with resource consumption accounting in enterprise performance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORHAN ELMACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to investigate the “Balance Scorecard (BSC model integrated with Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA” which helps to evaluate the enterprise as matrix structure in its all parts. It aims to measure how much tangible and intangible values (assets of enterprises contribute to the enterprises. In other words, it measures how effectively, actively, and efficiently these values (assets are used. In short, it aims to measure sustainable competency of enterprises. As expressing the effect of tangible and intangible values (assets of the enterprise on the performance in mathematical and statistical methods is insufficient, it is targeted that RCA Method integrated with BSC model is based on matrix structure and control models. The effects of all complex factors in the enterprise on the performance (productivity and efficiency estimated algorithmically with cause and effect diagram. The contributions of matrix structures for reaching the management functional targets of the enterprises that operate in market competitive environment increasing day to day, is discussed. So in the context of modern management theories, as a contribution to BSC approach which is in the foreground in today’s administrative science of enterprises in matrix organizational structures, multidimensional performance evaluation model -RCA integrated with BSC Model proposal- is presented as strategic planning and strategic evaluation instrument.

  1. Pointing, looking at, and pressing keys: A diffusion model account of response modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Pablo; Ratcliff, Roger; Childers, Russ

    2015-12-01

    Accumulation of evidence models of perceptual decision making have been able to account for data from a wide range of domains at an impressive level of precision. In particular, Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model has been used across many different 2-choice tasks in which the response is executed via a key-press. In this article, we present 2 experiments in which we used a letter-discrimination task exploring 3 central aspects of a 2-choice task: the discriminability of the stimulus, the modality of the response execution (eye movement, key pressing, and pointing on a touchscreen), and the mapping of the response areas for the eye movement and the touchscreen conditions (consistent vs. inconsistent). We fitted the diffusion model to the data from these experiments and examined the behavior of the model's parameters. Fits of the model were consistent with the hypothesis that the same decision mechanism is used in the task with 3 different response methods. Drift rates are affected by the duration of the presentation of the stimulus while the response execution time changed as a function of the response modality.

  2. A kinetic model for type I and II IP3R accounting for mode changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmann, Ivo; Wagner, Larry E; Yule, David; Crampin, Edmund J; Sneyd, James

    2012-08-22

    Based upon an extensive single-channel data set, a Markov model for types I and II inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)R) is developed. The model aims to represent accurately the kinetics of both receptor types of IP(3)R depending on the concentrations of inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)), adenosine trisphosphate (ATP), and intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)). In particular, the model takes into account that for some combinations of ligands the IP(3)R switches between extended periods of inactivity alternating with intervals of bursting activity (mode changes). In a first step, the inactive and active modes are modeled separately. It is found that, within modes, both receptor types are ligand-independent. In a second step, the submodels are connected by transition rates. Ligand-dependent regulation of the channel activity is achieved by modulating these transitions between active and inactive modes. As a result, a compact representation of the IP(3)R is obtained that accurately captures stochastic single-channel dynamics including mode changes in a model with six states and 10 rate constants, only two of which are ligand-dependent.

  3. Modelling the spatial distribution of snow water equivalent at the catchment scale taking into account changes in snow covered area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Skaugen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A successful modelling of the snow reservoir is necessary for water resources assessments and the mitigation of spring flood hazards. A good estimate of the spatial probability density function (PDF of snow water equivalent (SWE is important for obtaining estimates of the snow reservoir, but also for modelling the changes in snow covered area (SCA, which is crucial for the runoff dynamics in spring. In a previous paper the PDF of SWE was modelled as a sum of temporally correlated gamma distributed variables. This methodology was constrained to estimate the PDF of SWE for snow covered areas only. In order to model the PDF of SWE for a catchment, we need to take into account the change in snow coverage and provide the spatial moments of SWE for both snow covered areas and for the catchment as a whole. The spatial PDF of accumulated SWE is, also in this study, modelled as a sum of correlated gamma distributed variables. After accumulation and melting events the changes in the spatial moments are weighted by changes in SCA. The spatial variance of accumulated SWE is, after both accumulation- and melting events, evaluated by use of the covariance matrix. For accumulation events there are only positive elements in the covariance matrix, whereas for melting events, there are both positive and negative elements. The negative elements dictate that the correlation between melt and SWE is negative. The negative contributions become dominant only after some time into the melting season so at the onset of the melting season, the spatial variance thus continues to increase, for later to decrease. This behaviour is consistent with observations and called the "hysteretic" effect by some authors. The parameters for the snow distribution model can be estimated from observed historical precipitation data which reduces by one the number of parameters to be calibrated in a hydrological model. Results from the model are in good agreement with observed spatial moments

  4. Modelling the spatial distribution of snow water equivalent at the catchment scale taking into account changes in snow covered area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaugen, T.; Randen, F.

    2011-12-01

    A successful modelling of the snow reservoir is necessary for water resources assessments and the mitigation of spring flood hazards. A good estimate of the spatial probability density function (PDF) of snow water equivalent (SWE) is important for obtaining estimates of the snow reservoir, but also for modelling the changes in snow covered area (SCA), which is crucial for the runoff dynamics in spring. In a previous paper the PDF of SWE was modelled as a sum of temporally correlated gamma distributed variables. This methodology was constrained to estimate the PDF of SWE for snow covered areas only. In order to model the PDF of SWE for a catchment, we need to take into account the change in snow coverage and provide the spatial moments of SWE for both snow covered areas and for the catchment as a whole. The spatial PDF of accumulated SWE is, also in this study, modelled as a sum of correlated gamma distributed variables. After accumulation and melting events the changes in the spatial moments are weighted by changes in SCA. The spatial variance of accumulated SWE is, after both accumulation- and melting events, evaluated by use of the covariance matrix. For accumulation events there are only positive elements in the covariance matrix, whereas for melting events, there are both positive and negative elements. The negative elements dictate that the correlation between melt and SWE is negative. The negative contributions become dominant only after some time into the melting season so at the onset of the melting season, the spatial variance thus continues to increase, for later to decrease. This behaviour is consistent with observations and called the "hysteretic" effect by some authors. The parameters for the snow distribution model can be estimated from observed historical precipitation data which reduces by one the number of parameters to be calibrated in a hydrological model. Results from the model are in good agreement with observed spatial moments of SWE and SCA

  5. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, J.; Nielsen, L.S.; Lueg, Rainer;

    2014-01-01

    Dalby, J., Nielsen, Lueg, R., L. S., Pedersen, L., Tomoni, A. C. 2014. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 22(4): 379-498.......Dalby, J., Nielsen, Lueg, R., L. S., Pedersen, L., Tomoni, A. C. 2014. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 22(4): 379-498....

  6. Modelling succession of key resource harvesting traits of mixotrophic plankton populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berge, Terje; Chakraborty, Subhendu; Hansen, Per Juel;

    2016-01-01

    Unicellular eukaryotes make up the base of the ocean food web and exist as a continuum in trophic strategy from pure heterotrophy (phagotrophic zooplankton) to pure photoautotrophy (‘phytoplankton’), with a dominance of mixotrophic organisms combining both strategies. Here we formulate a trait...... in the spring and increased phagotrophy during the summer, reflecting general seasonal succession patterns of temperate waters. Our trait-based model presents a simple and general approach for the inclusion of mixotrophy, succession and evolution in ecosystem models....

  7. Using state-and-transition modeling to account for imperfect detection in invasive species management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Leonardo; Holcombe, Tracy; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Olsson, Aaryn D.; Brigham, Lindy; Bean, Travis M.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Bryan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Buffelgrass, a highly competitive and flammable African bunchgrass, is spreading rapidly across both urban and natural areas in the Sonoran Desert of southern and central Arizona. Damages include increased fire risk, losses in biodiversity, and diminished revenues and quality of life. Feasibility of sustained and successful mitigation will depend heavily on rates of spread, treatment capacity, and cost–benefit analysis. We created a decision support model for the wildland–urban interface north of Tucson, AZ, using a spatial state-and-transition simulation modeling framework, the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses. We addressed the issues of undetected invasions, identifying potentially suitable habitat and calibrating spread rates, while answering questions about how to allocate resources among inventory, treatment, and maintenance. Inputs to the model include a state-and-transition simulation model to describe the succession and control of buffelgrass, a habitat suitability model, management planning zones, spread vectors, estimated dispersal kernels for buffelgrass, and maps of current distribution. Our spatial simulations showed that without treatment, buffelgrass infestations that started with as little as 80 ha (198 ac) could grow to more than 6,000 ha by the year 2060. In contrast, applying unlimited management resources could limit 2060 infestation levels to approximately 50 ha. The application of sufficient resources toward inventory is important because undetected patches of buffelgrass will tend to grow exponentially. In our simulations, areas affected by buffelgrass may increase substantially over the next 50 yr, but a large, upfront investment in buffelgrass control could reduce the infested area and overall management costs.

  8. Air quality modeling for accountability research: Operational, dynamic, and diagnostic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lucas R. F.; Liu, Cong; Hu, Yongtao; Mulholland, James A.; Russell, Armistead G.

    2017-10-01

    Photochemical grid models play a central role in air quality regulatory frameworks, including in air pollution accountability research, which seeks to demonstrate the extent to which regulations causally impacted emissions, air quality, and public health. There is a need, however, to develop and demonstrate appropriate practices for model application and evaluation in an accountability framework. We employ a combination of traditional and novel evaluation techniques to assess four years (2001-02, 2011-12) of simulated pollutant concentrations across a decade of major emissions reductions using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We have grouped our assessments in three categories: Operational evaluation investigates how well CMAQ captures absolute concentrations; dynamic evaluation investigates how well CMAQ captures changes in concentrations across the decade of changing emissions; diagnostic evaluation investigates how CMAQ attributes variability in concentrations and sensitivities to emissions between meteorology and emissions, and how well this attribution compares to empirical statistical models. In this application, CMAQ captures O3 and PM2.5 concentrations and change over the decade in the Eastern United States similarly to past CMAQ applications and in line with model evaluation guidance; however, some PM2.5 species-EC, OC, and sulfate in particular-exhibit high biases in various months. CMAQ-simulated PM2.5 has a high bias in winter months and low bias in the summer, mainly due to a high bias in OC during the cold months and low bias in OC and sulfate during the summer. Simulated O3 and PM2.5 changes across the decade have normalized mean bias of less than 2.5% and 17%, respectively. Detailed comparisons suggest biased EC emissions, negative wintertime SO42- sensitivities to mobile source emissions, and incomplete capture of OC chemistry in the summer and winter. Photochemical grid model-simulated O3 and PM2.5 responses to emissions and

  9. Modelling the attack success of planktonic predators: patterns and mechanisms of prey size selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caparroy, P.; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Visser, Andre

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model of the attack success of planktonic predators (fish larvae and carnivorous copepods) is proposed. Based on a geometric representation of attack events, the model considers how the escape reaction characteristics (speed and direction) of copepod prey affect their probability...... of being captured. By combining the attack success model with previously published hydrodynamic models of predator and prey perception, we examine how predator foraging behaviour and prey perceptive ability affect the size spectra of encountered and captured copepod prey. We examine food size spectra of (i...... also acts in modifying the prey escape direction. The model demonstrates that the reorientation of the prey escape path towards the centre of the feeding current's flow field results in increased attack success of the predator. Finally, the model examines how variability in the kinetics of approach...

  10. Enterprise marketing potential modeling taking into account optimizing and dynamic essence of the potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potrashkova Lyudmyla Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    consequent enumeration. At the same time, the constituent part of the models system is constrained optimization block. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The suggested simulation and optimization models system of b2b-enterprise marketing potential result-based estimation has the following advantages: it corresponds optimizing essence of potential, takes into account marketing resources dynamics and allows to get estimation in the view of enterprise potential hierarchic levels. The suggested models system is the instrument for estimation and analysis of the future enterprise sales and marketing abilities, comparison of which with producing and financial abilities will allow to define narrow places in the analyzed enterprise activity and increase its general potential. The given models system is a part of mathematical providing to manage future enterprise abilities. The further investigations on research area have to be oriented to build models of the enterprise marketing potential estimation in integral system concerning enterprise integral potential estimation.

  11. A Unifying Modeling of Plant Shoot Gravitropism With an Explicit Account of the Effects of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud eBastien

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gravitropism, the slow reorientation of plant growth in response to gravity, is a major determinant of the form and posture of land plants. Recently a universal model of shoot gravitropism, the AC model, has been presented, in which the dynamics of the tropic movement is only determined by the contradictory controls of i graviception, that tends to curve the plants towards the vertical, and ii proprioception, that tends to keep the stem straights. This model was found valid over a large range of species and over two order of magnitude in organ size. However the motor of the movement, the elongation, has been neglected in the AC model. Taking into account explicit growth effects, however, requires consideration of the material derivative, i.e. the rate of change of curvature bound to an expanding and convected organ elements. Here we show that it is possible to rewrite the material equation of curvature in a compact simplified form that express directly the curvature variation as a function of the median elongation andof the distribution of the differential growth. Through this extended model, called the ACE model, two main destabilizing effects of growth on the tropic movement are identified : i the passive orientation drift, which occurs when a curved element elongates without differential growth and ii the fixed curvature which occurs when a element leaves the elongation zone and is no longer able to change its curvature actively. By comparing the AC and ACE models to experiments, these two effects were however found negligible, revealing a probable selection for rapid convergence to the steady state shape during the tropic movement so as to escape the growth destabilizing effects, involving in particular a selection over proprioceptive sensitivity. Then the simplified AC mode can be used to analyze gravitropism and posture control in actively elongating plant organs without significant information loss.

  12. Adjusting particle-size distributions to account for aggregation in tephra-deposit model forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.; Van Eaton, Alexa; Durant, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are used to forecast tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. Model accuracy is limited by the fact that fine-ash aggregates (clumps into clusters), thus altering patterns of deposition. In most models this is accounted for by ad hoc changes to model input, representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg, and a log-normal size distribution with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Optimal values may vary between eruptions. To test the variance, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens; 16–17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr); 17 June 1996 Ruapehu; and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt. In 192 simulations, we systematically varied μagg and σagg, holding ρagg constant at 600 kg m−3. We evaluated the fit using three indices that compare modeled versus measured (1) mass load at sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, under these inputs, the best-fit value of μagg ranged narrowly between  ∼  2.3 and 2.7φ (0.20–0.15 mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25–50 Tg), plume height (8.5–25 km), mass fraction of fine ( operational model forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.

  13. Adjusting particle-size distributions to account for aggregation in tephra-deposit model forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Durant, Adam J.

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are used to forecast tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. Model accuracy is limited by the fact that fine-ash aggregates (clumps into clusters), thus altering patterns of deposition. In most models this is accounted for by ad hoc changes to model input, representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg, and a log-normal size distribution with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Optimal values may vary between eruptions. To test the variance, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens; 16-17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr); 17 June 1996 Ruapehu; and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt. In 192 simulations, we systematically varied μagg and σagg, holding ρagg constant at 600 kg m-3. We evaluated the fit using three indices that compare modeled versus measured (1) mass load at sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, under these inputs, the best-fit value of μagg ranged narrowly between ˜ 2.3 and 2.7φ (0.20-0.15 mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25-50 Tg), plume height (8.5-25 km), mass fraction of fine ( water content between these eruptions. This close agreement suggests that aggregation may be treated as a discrete process that is insensitive to eruptive style or magnitude. This result offers the potential for a simple, computationally efficient parameterization scheme for use in operational model forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.

  14. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT): Modeling and Simulation Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dunn, Timothy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Durbin, Samual [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Durkee, Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); England, Jeff [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ketusky, Edward [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Li, Shelly [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lindgren, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meier, David [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scaglione, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-05

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal. This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling. To aid in framing its long-term goal, during FY16, a modeling and simulation roadmap is being developed for three major areas of investigation: (1) radiation transport and sensors, (2) process and chemical models, and (3) shock physics and assessments. For each area, current modeling approaches are described, and gaps and needs are identified.

  15. Accounting for exhaust gas transport dynamics in instantaneous emission models via smooth transition regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarianakis, Yiannis; Gao, H Oliver

    2010-02-15

    Collecting and analyzing high frequency emission measurements has become very usual during the past decade as significantly more information with respect to formation conditions can be collected than from regulated bag measurements. A challenging issue for researchers is the accurate time-alignment between tailpipe measurements and engine operating variables. An alignment procedure should take into account both the reaction time of the analyzers and the dynamics of gas transport in the exhaust and measurement systems. This paper discusses a statistical modeling framework that compensates for variable exhaust transport delay while relating tailpipe measurements with engine operating covariates. Specifically it is shown that some variants of the smooth transition regression model allow for transport delays that vary smoothly as functions of the exhaust flow rate. These functions are characterized by a pair of coefficients that can be estimated via a least-squares procedure. The proposed models can be adapted to encompass inherent nonlinearities that were implicit in previous instantaneous emissions modeling efforts. This article describes the methodology and presents an illustrative application which uses data collected from a diesel bus under real-world driving conditions.

  16. Can the forward-shock model account for the multiwavelength emission of GRB afterglow 090510 ?

    CERN Document Server

    Neamus, Ano

    2010-01-01

    GRB 090510 is the first burst whose afterglow emission above 100 MeV was measured by Fermi over two decades in time. Owing to its power-law temporal decay and power-law spectrum, it seems likely that the high-energy emission is from the forward-shock energizing the ambient medium (the standard blast-wave model for GRB afterglows), the GeV flux and its decay rate being consistent with that model's expectations. However, the synchrotron emission from a collimated outflow (the standard jet model) has difficulties in accounting for the lower-energy afterglow emission, where a simultaneous break occurs in the optical and X-ray light-curves at 2 ks, but with the optical flux decay (before and after the break) being much slower than in the X-rays (at same time). The measured X-ray and GeV fluxes are incompatible with the higher-energy afterglow emission being from same spectral component as the lower-energy afterglow emission, which suggests a synchrotron self-Compton model for this afterglow. Cessation of energy in...

  17. Integrated Approach Model of Risk, Control and Auditing of Accounting Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu BRANDAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of IT in the financial and accounting processes is growing fast and this leads to an increase in the research and professional concerns about the risks, control and audit of Ac-counting Information Systems (AIS. In this context, the risk and control of AIS approach is a central component of processes for IT audit, financial audit and IT Governance. Recent studies in the literature on the concepts of risk, control and auditing of AIS outline two approaches: (1 a professional approach in which we can fit ISA, COBIT, IT Risk, COSO and SOX, and (2 a research oriented approach in which we emphasize research on continuous auditing and fraud using information technology. Starting from the limits of existing approaches, our study is aimed to developing and testing an Integrated Approach Model of Risk, Control and Auditing of AIS on three cycles of business processes: purchases cycle, sales cycle and cash cycle in order to improve the efficiency of IT Governance, as well as ensuring integrity, reality, accuracy and availability of financial statements.

  18. Statistical approaches to account for missing values in accelerometer data: Applications to modeling physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Selene Yue; Nelson, Sandahl; Kerr, Jacqueline; Godbole, Suneeta; Patterson, Ruth; Merchant, Gina; Abramson, Ian; Staudenmayer, John; Natarajan, Loki

    2016-07-10

    Physical inactivity is a recognized risk factor for many chronic diseases. Accelerometers are increasingly used as an objective means to measure daily physical activity. One challenge in using these devices is missing data due to device nonwear. We used a well-characterized cohort of 333 overweight postmenopausal breast cancer survivors to examine missing data patterns of accelerometer outputs over the day. Based on these observed missingness patterns, we created psuedo-simulated datasets with realistic missing data patterns. We developed statistical methods to design imputation and variance weighting algorithms to account for missing data effects when fitting regression models. Bias and precision of each method were evaluated and compared. Our results indicated that not accounting for missing data in the analysis yielded unstable estimates in the regression analysis. Incorporating variance weights and/or subject-level imputation improved precision by >50%, compared to ignoring missing data. We recommend that these simple easy-to-implement statistical tools be used to improve analysis of accelerometer data.

  19. The Social Networking Application Success Model: An Empirical Study of Facebook and Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol X. J. Ou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social networking applications (SNAs are among the fastest growing web applications of recent years. In this paper, we propose a causal model to assess the success of SNAs, grounded on DeLone and McLean’s updated information systems (IS success model. In addition to their original three dimensions of quality, i.e., system quality, information quality and service quality, we propose that a fourth dimension - networking quality - contributes to SNA success. We empirically examined the proposed research model with a survey of 168 Facebook and 149 Twitter users. The data validates the significant role of networking quality in determining the focal SNA’s success. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  20. ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION AND HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a huge interest in accounting harmonization and historical costs accounting, in what they offer us. In this article, different valuation models are discussed. Although one notices the movement from historical cost accounting to fair value accounting, each one has its advantages.

  1. REGRESSION MODEL FOR RISK REPORTING IN FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF ACCOUNTING SERVICES ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela NICHITA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of financial reports is to provide useful information to users; the utility of information is defined through the qualitative characteristics (fundamental and enhancing. The financial crisis emphasized the limits of financial reporting which has been unable to prevent investors about the risks they were facing. Due to the current changes in business environment, managers have been highly motivated to rethink and improve the risk governance philosophy, processes and methodologies. The lack of quality, timely data and adequate systems to capture, report and measure the right information across the organization is a fundamental challenge for implementing and sustaining all aspects of effective risk management. Starting with the 80s, the investors are more interested in narratives (Notes to financial statements, than in primary reports (financial position and performance. The research will apply a regression model for assessment of risk reporting by the professional (accounting and taxation services for major companies from Romania during the period 2009 – 2013.

  2. A Thermodamage Strength Theoretical Model of Ceramic Materials Taking into Account the Effect of Residual Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodamage strength theoretical model taking into account the effect of residual stress was established and applied to each temperature phase based on the study of effects of various physical mechanisms on the fracture strength of ultrahigh-temperature ceramics. The effects of SiC particle size, crack size, and SiC particle volume fraction on strength corresponding to different temperatures were studied in detail. This study showed that when flaw size is not large, the bigger SiC particle size results in the greater effect of tensile residual stress in the matrix grains on strength reduction, and this prediction coincides with experimental results; and the residual stress and the combined effort of particle size and crack size play important roles in controlling material strength.

  3. Taking individual scaling differences into account by analyzing profile data with the Mixed Assessor Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per Bruun; Schlich, Pascal; Skovgaard, Ib

    2015-01-01

    are deduced that include scaling difference in the error term to the proper extent. A meta study of 8619 sensory attributes from 369 sensory profile data sets from SensoBase (www.sensobase.fr) is conducted. In 45.3% of all attributes scaling heterogeneity is present (P-value ...) that properly takes this into account by a simple inclusion of the product averages as a covariate in the modeling and allowing the covariate regression coefficients to depend on the assessor. This gives a more powerful analysis by removing the scaling difference from the error term and proper confidence limits.......9% of the attributes having a product difference P-value in an intermediate range by the traditional approach, the new approach resulted in a clearly more significant result for 42.3% of these cases. Overall, the new approach claimed significant product difference (P-value

  4. REGRESSION MODEL FOR RISK REPORTING IN FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF ACCOUNTING SERVICES ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela NICHITA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of financial reports is to provide useful information to users; the utility of information is defined through the qualitative characteristics (fundamental and enhancing. The financial crisis emphasized the limits of financial reporting which has been unable to prevent investors about the risks they were facing. Due to the current changes in business environment, managers have been highly motivated to rethink and improve the risk governance philosophy, processes and methodologies. The lack of quality, timely data and adequate systems to capture, report and measure the right information across the organization is a fundamental challenge for implementing and sustaining all aspects of effective risk management. Starting with the 80s, the investors are more interested in narratives (Notes to financial statements, than in primary reports (financial position and performance. The research will apply a regression model for assessment of risk reporting by the professional (accounting and taxation services for major companies from Romania during the period 2009 – 2013.

  5. Accounting for detectability in fish distribution models: an approach based on time-to-first-detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Imperfect detection (i.e., failure to detect a species when the species is present is increasingly recognized as an important source of uncertainty and bias in species distribution modeling. Although methods have been developed to solve this problem by explicitly incorporating variation in detectability in the modeling procedure, their use in freshwater systems remains limited. This is probably because most methods imply repeated sampling (≥ 2 of each location within a short time frame, which may be impractical or too expensive in most studies. Here we explore a novel approach to control for detectability based on the time-to-first-detection, which requires only a single sampling occasion and so may find more general applicability in freshwaters. The approach uses a Bayesian framework to combine conventional occupancy modeling with techniques borrowed from parametric survival analysis, jointly modeling factors affecting the probability of occupancy and the time required to detect a species. To illustrate the method, we modeled large scale factors (elevation, stream order and precipitation affecting the distribution of six fish species in a catchment located in north-eastern Portugal, while accounting for factors potentially affecting detectability at sampling points (stream depth and width. Species detectability was most influenced by depth and to lesser extent by stream width and tended to increase over time for most species. Occupancy was consistently affected by stream order, elevation and annual precipitation. These species presented a widespread distribution with higher uncertainty in tributaries and upper stream reaches. This approach can be used to estimate sampling efficiency and provide a practical framework to incorporate variations in the detection rate in fish distribution models.

  6. Accounting comparability and the accuracy of peer-based valuation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, S.; Zeng, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the link between enhanced accounting comparability and the valuation performance of pricing multiples. Using the warranted multiple method proposed by Bhojraj and Lee (2002, Journal of Accounting Research), we demonstrate how enhanced accounting comparability leads to better peer-based va

  7. Accounting comparability and the accuracy of peer-based valuation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, S.; Zeng, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the link between enhanced accounting comparability and the valuation performance of pricing multiples. Using the warranted multiple method proposed by Bhojraj and Lee (2002, Journal of Accounting Research), we demonstrate how enhanced accounting comparability leads to better peer-based va

  8. Modeling Lung Carcinogenesis in Radon-Exposed Miner Cohorts: Accounting for Missing Information on Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, Teun; Dekkers, Fieke; Bijwaard, Harmen; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, H-Erich; Kreuzer, Michaela; Grosche, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological miner cohort data used to estimate lung cancer risks related to occupational radon exposure often lack cohort-wide information on exposure to tobacco smoke, a potential confounder and important effect modifier. We have developed a method to project data on smoking habits from a case-control study onto an entire cohort by means of a Monte Carlo resampling technique. As a proof of principle, this method is tested on a subcohort of 35,084 former uranium miners employed at the WISMUT company (Germany), with 461 lung cancer deaths in the follow-up period 1955-1998. After applying the proposed imputation technique, a biologically-based carcinogenesis model is employed to analyze the cohort's lung cancer mortality data. A sensitivity analysis based on a set of 200 independent projections with subsequent model analyses yields narrow distributions of the free model parameters, indicating that parameter values are relatively stable and independent of individual projections. This technique thus offers a possibility to account for unknown smoking habits, enabling us to unravel risks related to radon, to smoking, and to the combination of both.

  9. The Iquique earthquake sequence of April 2014: Bayesian modeling accounting for prediction uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duputel, Zacharie; Jiang, Junle; Jolivet, Romain; Simons, Mark; Rivera, Luis; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Riel, Bryan; Owen, Susan E; Moore, Angelyn W; Samsonov, Sergey V; Ortega Culaciati, Francisco; Minson, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    The subduction zone in northern Chile is a well-identified seismic gap that last ruptured in 1877. On 1 April 2014, this region was struck by a large earthquake following a two week long series of foreshocks. This study combines a wide range of observations, including geodetic, tsunami, and seismic data, to produce a reliable kinematic slip model of the Mw=8.1 main shock and a static slip model of the Mw=7.7 aftershock. We use a novel Bayesian modeling approach that accounts for uncertainty in the Green's functions, both static and dynamic, while avoiding nonphysical regularization. The results reveal a sharp slip zone, more compact than previously thought, located downdip of the foreshock sequence and updip of high-frequency sources inferred by back-projection analysis. Both the main shock and the Mw=7.7 aftershock did not rupture to the trench and left most of the seismic gap unbroken, leaving the possibility of a future large earthquake in the region.

  10. A common signal detection model accounts for both perception and discrimination of the watercolor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinck, Frédéric; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2012-03-21

    Establishing the relation between perception and discrimination is a fundamental objective in psychophysics, with the goal of characterizing the neural mechanisms mediating perception. Here, we show that a procedure for estimating a perceptual scale based on a signal detection model also predicts discrimination performance. We use a recently developed procedure, Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS), to measure the perceptual strength of a long-range, color, filling-in phenomenon, the Watercolor Effect (WCE), as a function of the luminance ratio between the two components of its generating contour. MLDS is based on an equal-variance, gaussian, signal detection model and yields a perceptual scale with interval properties. The strength of the fill-in percept increased 10-15 times the estimate of the internal noise level for a 3-fold increase in the luminance ratio. Each observer's estimated scale predicted discrimination performance in a subsequent paired-comparison task. A common signal detection model accounts for both the appearance and discrimination data. Since signal detection theory provides a common metric for relating discrimination performance and neural response, the results have implications for comparing perceptual and neural response functions.

  11. A Modified Model of Ecological Footprint Accounting and Its Application to Cropland in Jiangsu,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qin-Pu; LIN Zhen-Shan; FENG Nian-Hua; LIU Yong-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Based on the theory of emergy analysis,a modified model of ecological footprint accounting,termed emergetic ecological footprint (EMEF) in contrast to the conventional ecological footprint (EF) model,is formulated and applied to a case study of Jiangsu cropland,China.Comparisons between the EF and the EMEF with respect to grain,cotton,and food oil were outlined.Per capita EF and EMEF of cropland were also presented to depict the resources consumption level by comparing the biocapacity (BC) or emergetic biocapacity (EMBC,a new BC calculation by emergy analysis)of the same area.In the meanwhile,the ecological sustainability index (ESI),a new concept initiated by the authors,was established in the modified model to indicate and compare the sustainability of cropland use at different levels and between different regions.The results from conventional EF showed that per capita EF of the cropland has exceeded its per capita BC in Jiangsu since 1986.In contrast,based on the EMBC,the per capita EMEF exceeded the per capita EMBC 5 years earlier.The ESIs of Jiangsu cropland use were between 0.7 and 0.4 by the conventional method,while the numbers were between 0.7 and 0.3 by the modified one.The fact that the results of the two methods were similar showed that the modified model was reasonable and feasible,although some principles of the EF and EMEF were quite different.Also,according to the realities of Jiangsu'cropland use,the results from the modified model were more acceptable.

  12. Assessing eGovernment Systems Success: A Validation of the DeLone and McLean Model of Information Systems Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Liao, Yi-Wen

    2008-01-01

    With the proliferation of the Internet and World Wide Web applications, people are increasingly interacting with government to citizen (G2C) eGovernment systems. It is therefore important to measure the success of G2C eGovernment systems from the citizen's perspective. While general information systems (IS) success models have received much…

  13. Accounting for selection bias in species distribution models: An econometric approach on forested trees based on structural modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Jean-Sauveur; Guillemot, Joannès; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K.; Doyen, Luc; Leadley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to study and predict the outcome of global change on species. In human dominated ecosystems the presence of a given species is the result of both its ecological suitability and human footprint on nature such as land use choices. Land use choices may thus be responsible for a selection bias in the presence/absence data used in SDM calibration. We present a structural modelling approach (i.e. based on structural equation modelling) that accounts for this selection bias. The new structural species distribution model (SSDM) estimates simultaneously land use choices and species responses to bioclimatic variables. A land use equation based on an econometric model of landowner choices was joined to an equation of species response to bioclimatic variables. SSDM allows the residuals of both equations to be dependent, taking into account the possibility of shared omitted variables and measurement errors. We provide a general description of the statistical theory and a set of application on forested trees over France using databases of climate and forest inventory at different spatial resolution (from 2km to 8 km). We also compared the output of the SSDM with outputs of a classical SDM in term of bioclimatic response curves and potential distribution under current climate. According to the species and the spatial resolution of the calibration dataset, shapes of bioclimatic response curves the modelled species distribution maps differed markedly between the SSDM and classical SDMs. The magnitude and directions of these differences were dependent on the correlations between the errors from both equations and were highest for higher spatial resolutions. A first conclusion is that the use of classical SDMs can potentially lead to strong miss-estimation of the actual and future probability of presence modelled. Beyond this selection bias, the SSDM we propose represents a crucial step to account for economic constraints on tree

  14. Translational PK/PD modeling to increase probability of success in drug discovery and early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavé, Thierry; Caruso, Antonello; Parrott, Neil; Walz, Antje

    In this review we present ways in which translational PK/PD modeling can address opportunities to enhance probability of success in drug discovery and early development. This is achieved by impacting efficacy and safety-driven attrition rates, through increased focus on the quantitative understanding and modeling of translational PK/PD. Application of the proposed principles early in the discovery and development phases is anticipated to bolster confidence of successfully evaluating proof of mechanism in humans and ultimately improve Phase II success. The present review is centered on the application of predictive modeling and simulation approaches during drug discovery and early development, and more specifically of mechanism-based PK/PD modeling. Case studies are presented, focused on the relevance of M&S contributions to real-world questions and the impact on decision making.

  15. Successive inverse polynomial interpolation to optimize Smagorinsky's model for large-eddy simulation of homogeneous turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Bernard J.; Meyers, Johan

    2006-01-01

    We propose the successive inverse polynomial interpolation method to optimize model parameters in subgrid parameterization for large-eddy simulation. This approach is illustrated for the Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity model used in homogeneous decaying turbulence. The optimal Smagorinsky parameter is re

  16. Successive inverse polynomial interpolation to optimize Smagorinsky's model for large-eddy simulation of homogeneous turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Bernardus J.; Meyers, Johan

    We propose the successive inverse polynomial interpolation method to optimize model parameters in subgrid parameterization for large-eddy simulation. This approach is illustrated for the Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity model used in homogeneous decaying turbulence. The optimal Smagorinsky parameter is

  17. Modeling Success: Using Preenrollment Data to Identify Academically At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.; Compton, Jonathan; Wohlgemuth, Darin; Forbes, Greg; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Improving student success and degree completion is one of the core principles of strategic enrollment management. To address this principle, institutional data were used to develop a statistical model to identify academically at-risk students. The model employs multiple linear regression techniques to predict students at risk of earning below a…

  18. [Innovative health care models in Germany - success factors, barriers and transferability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Beate S; Leiferman, Mareike; Wilke, Dennis; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Erler, Antje

    2016-10-01

    Safeguarding country-wide health care in Germany requires innovative ideas: a shortage of skilled staff among medical professionals and in long-term care on the one hand contrasts with an increasing number of multi-morbid elderly patients on the other hand. In the "Innovative Health Care Models" project sponsored by the Robert Bosch Foundation a nationwide status review and systematization of innovative approaches to health care was conducted, along with an analysis of the factors that promote or hinder the implementation of a health care model, and a study of the conditions that must be satisfied if successful concepts are to be transferred to other regions. After identifying innovative and successfully implemented health care models, data on success factors and barriers for implementation as well as data on conditions of their transferability to other regions were collected during structured telephone interviews and entered into a specifically developed database. Content analysis was used to qualitatively evaluate the interviews. Interviews with 65 representatives of successfully implemented models with differing organizational structures and priorities were conducted and evaluated. Success factors and barriers were most obvious in the fields of leadership, readiness to participate, relational aspects, personality traits, cooperation and communication, resources and organizational and structural factors. Various regionally linked health care concepts already exist throughout Germany. The barriers, success factors and conditions influencing the transferability of a model to other regions are largely independent of the type of organization. The success of a model is determined by adequate personal and financial resources, sound organizational structures and external support from political and funding bodies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Carbon accounting of forest bioenergy: from model calibrations to policy options (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, P.

    2013-12-01

    knowledge in the field by comparing different state-of-the-art temporal forest carbon modeling efforts, and discusses whether or to what extent a deterministic ';carbon debt' accounting is possible and appropriate. It concludes upon the possible scientific and eventually political choices in temporal carbon accounting for regulatory frameworks including alternative options to address unintentional carbon losses within forest ecosystems/bioenergy systems.

  20. Modelling the range expansion of the Tiger mosquito in a Mediterranean Island accounting for imperfect detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavecchia, Giacomo; Miranda, Miguel-Angel; Borrás, David; Bengoa, Mikel; Barceló, Carlos; Paredes-Esquivel, Claudia; Schwarz, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Diptera; Culicidae) is a highly invasive mosquito species and a competent vector of several arboviral diseases that have spread rapidly throughout the world. Prevalence and patterns of dispersal of the mosquito are of central importance for an effective control of the species. We used site-occupancy models accounting for false negative detections to estimate the prevalence, the turnover, the movement pattern and the growth rate in the number of sites occupied by the mosquito in 17 localities throughout Mallorca Island. Site-occupancy probability increased from 0.35 in the 2012, year of first reported observation of the species, to 0.89 in 2015. Despite a steady increase in mosquito presence, the extinction probability was generally high indicating a high turnover in the occupied sites. We considered two site-dependent covariates, namely the distance from the point of first observation and the estimated yearly occupancy rate in the neighborhood, as predicted by diffusion models. Results suggested that mosquito distribution during the first year was consistent with what predicted by simple diffusion models, but was not consistent with the diffusion model in subsequent years when it was similar to those expected from leapfrog dispersal events. Assuming a single initial colonization event, the spread of Ae. albopictus in Mallorca followed two distinct phases, an early one consistent with diffusion movements and a second consistent with long distance, 'leapfrog', movements. The colonization of the island was fast, with ~90% of the sites estimated to be occupied 3 years after the colonization. The fast spread was likely to have occurred through vectors related to human mobility such as cars or other vehicles. Surveillance and management actions near the introduction point would only be effective during the early steps of the colonization.

  1. Comprehensive Model of Annual Plankton Succession Based on the Whole-Plankton Time Series Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Baptiste Romagnan; Louis Legendre; Lionel Guidi; Jean-Louis Jamet; Dominique Jamet; Laure Mousseau; Maria-Luiza Pedrotti; Marc Picheral; Gabriel Gorsky; Christian Sardet; Lars Stemmann

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Ecological succession provides a widely accepted description of seasonal changes in phy-toplankton and mesozooplankton assemblages in the natural environment, but concurrent changes in smaller (i.e. microbes) and larger (i.e. macroplankton) organisms are not included in the model because plankton ranging from bacteria to jellies are seldom sampled and analyzed simultaneously. Here we studied, for the first time in the aquatic literature, the succession of marine plankt...

  2. A spatial simulation model for forest succession in the Upper Mississippi River floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Wu, Y.; Bartell, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    A Markov-chain transition model (FORSUM) and Monte Carlo simulations were used to simulate the succession patterns and predict a long-term impact of flood on the forest structure and growth in the floodplain of the Upper Mississippi River and Illinois River. Model variables, probabilities, functions, and parameters were derived from the analysis of two comprehensive field surveys conducted in this floodplain. This modeling approach describes the establishment, growth, competition, and death of individual trees for modeled species on a 10,000-ha landscape with spatial resolution of 1 ha. The succession characteristics of each Monte Carlo simulation are summed up to describe forest development and dynamics on a landscape level. FORSUM simulated the impacts of flood intensity and frequency on species composition and dynamics in the Upper Mississippi River floodplain ecosystem. The model provides a useful tool for testing hypotheses about forest succession and enables ecologists and managers to evaluate the impacts of flood disturbances and ecosystem restoration on forest succession. The simulation results suggest that the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method is an efficient tool to help organize the existing data and knowledge of forest succession into a system of quantitative predictions for the Upper Mississippi River floodplain ecosystem. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Thermodynamic Modeling of Developed Structural Turbulence Taking into Account Fluctuations of Energy Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnichenko, A. V.

    2004-03-01

    A thermodynamic approach to the construction of a phenomenological macroscopic model of developed turbulence in a compressible fluid is considered with regard for the formation of space-time dissipative structures. A set of random variables were introduced into the model as internal parameters of the turbulent-chaos subsystem. This allowed us to obtain, by methods of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, the kinetic Fokker-Planck equation in the configuration space. This equation serves to determine the temporary evolution of the conditional probability distribution function of structural parameters pertaining to the cascade process of fragmentation of large-scale eddies and temperature inhomogeneities and to analyze Markovian stochastic processes of transition from one nonequilibrium stationary turbulent-motion state to another as a result of successive loss of stability caused by a change in the governing parameters. An alternative method for investigating the mechanisms of such transitions, based on the stochastic Langevin-type equation intimately related to the derived kinetic equation, is also considered. Some postulates and physical and mathematical assumptions used in the thermodynamic model of structurized turbulence are discussed in detail. In particular, we considered, using the deterministic transport equation for conditional means, the cardinal problem of the developed approach-the possibility of the existence of asymptotically stable stationary states of the turbulent-chaos subsystem. Also proposed is the nonequilibrium thermodynamic potential for internal coordinates, which extends the well-known Boltzmann-Planck relationship for equilibrium states to the nonequilibrium stationary states of the representing ensemble. This potential is shown to be the Lyapunov function for such states. The relation is also explored between the internal intermittence in the inertial interval of scales and the fluctuations of the energy of dissipation. This study is aimed at

  4. A performance weighting procedure for GCMs based on explicit probabilistic models and accounting for observation uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Benjamin; Vidal, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the climate modeling community has put a lot of effort into releasing the outputs of multimodel experiments for use by the wider scientific community. In such experiments, several structurally distinct GCMs are run using the same observed forcings (for the historical period) or the same projected forcings (for the future period). In addition, several members are produced for a single given model structure, by running each GCM with slightly different initial conditions. This multiplicity of GCM outputs offers many opportunities in terms of uncertainty quantification or GCM comparisons. In this presentation, we propose a new procedure to weight GCMs according to their ability to reproduce the observed climate. Such weights can be used to combine the outputs of several models in a way that rewards good-performing models and discards poorly-performing ones. The proposed procedure has the following main properties: 1. It is based on explicit probabilistic models describing the time series produced by the GCMs and the corresponding historical observations, 2. It can use several members whenever available, 3. It accounts for the uncertainty in observations, 4. It assigns a weight to each GCM (all weights summing up to one), 5. It can also assign a weight to the "H0 hypothesis" that all GCMs in the multimodel ensemble are not compatible with observations. The application of the weighting procedure is illustrated with several case studies including synthetic experiments, simple cases where the target GCM output is a simple univariate variable and more realistic cases where the target GCM output is a multivariate and/or a spatial variable. These case studies illustrate the generality of the procedure which can be applied in a wide range of situations, as long as the analyst is prepared to make an explicit probabilistic assumption on the target variable. Moreover, these case studies highlight several interesting properties of the weighting procedure. In

  5. Historical Account to the State of the Art in Debris Flow Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2013-04-01

    In this contribution, I present a historical account of debris flow modelling leading to the state of the art in simulations and applications. A generalized two-phase model is presented that unifies existing avalanche and debris flow theories. The new model (Pudasaini, 2012) covers both the single-phase and two-phase scenarios and includes many essential and observable physical phenomena. In this model, the solid-phase stress is closed by Mohr-Coulomb plasticity, while the fluid stress is modeled as a non-Newtonian viscous stress that is enhanced by the solid-volume-fraction gradient. A generalized interfacial momentum transfer includes viscous drag, buoyancy and virtual mass forces, and a new generalized drag force is introduced to cover both solid-like and fluid-like drags. Strong couplings between solid and fluid momentum transfer are observed. The two-phase model is further extended to describe the dynamics of rock-ice avalanches with new mechanical models. This model explains dynamic strength weakening and includes internal fluidization, basal lubrication, and exchanges of mass and momentum. The advantages of the two-phase model over classical (effectively single-phase) models are discussed. Advection and diffusion of the fluid through the solid are associated with non-linear fluxes. Several exact solutions are constructed, including the non-linear advection-diffusion of fluid, kinematic waves of debris flow front and deposition, phase-wave speeds, and velocity distribution through the flow depth and through the channel length. The new model is employed to study two-phase subaerial and submarine debris flows, the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes/oceans, and rock-ice avalanches. Simulation results show that buoyancy enhances flow mobility. The virtual mass force alters flow dynamics by increasing the kinetic energy of the fluid. Newtonian viscous stress substantially reduces flow deformation, whereas non-Newtonian viscous stress may change the

  6. Modelling overbank flow on farmed catchments taking into account spatial hydrological discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, R.; Tilma, M.; Chahinian, N.; Huttel, O.

    2003-04-01

    In agricultural catchments, hydrological processes are largely variable in space due to human impact causing hydrological discontinuities such as ditch network, field limits and terraces. The ditch network accelerates runoff by concentrating flows, drains the water table or replenishes it by reinfiltration of the runoff water. During extreme flood events, overbank flow occurs and surface pathflows are modified. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of overbank flow on hydrograph shape during flood events. For that, MHYDAS, a physically based distributed hydrological model, was especially developed to take into account these hydrological discontinuities. The model considers the catchment as a series of interconnected hydrological unit. Runoff from each unit is estimated using a deterministic model based on the pounding-time algorithm and then routed through the ditch network using the diffusive wave equation. Overbank flow is modelled by modifying links between the hydrological units and the ditch network. The model was applied to simulate the main hydrological processes on a small headwater farmed Mediterranean catchment located in Southern France. The basic hydrometeorological equipment consists of a meteorological station, rain gauges, a tensio-neutronic and a piezometric measurement network, and eight water flow measurements. A multi-criteria and multi-scale approach was used. Three independent error criteria (Nash, error on volume and error on peak flow) were calculated and combined using the Pareto technique. Then, a multi-scale approach was used to calibrate and validate the model for the eight water flow measurements. The application of MHYDAS on the extreme ten flood events of the last decade enables to identify the ditches where overbank flows occur and to calculate discharge at various points of the ditch network. Results show that for the extreme flood event, more than 45% of surface runoff occur due to overbank flow. Discussion shows that

  7. Use of the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model in Areas with Insufficient Forcing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model (SAC-SMA) is known as a very reliable and effective hydrological model. It is widely used by the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) and many organizations in other countries for operational forecasting of flash floods. As a purely conceptual model, the SAC-SMA requires a periodic re-calibration. However, this procedure is not trivial in watersheds with little or no historical data, in areas with changing watershed properties, in a changing climate environment, in regions with low quality and low spatial resolution forcing data etc. In such cases, so-called physically based models with measurable parameters also may not be an alternative, because they usually require high quality forcing data and, hence, are quite expensive. Therefore, this type of models can not be implemented in countries with scarce surface observation data. To resolve this problem, we offer using a very fast and efficient automatic calibration algorithm, a Stepwise Line Search (SLS), which has been implementing in NWS since 2005, and also its modifications that were developed especially for automated operational forecasting of flash floods in regions where high resolution and high quality forcing data are not available. The SLS-family includes several simple yet efficient calibration algorithms: 1) SLS-F, which supposes simultaneous natural smoothing of the response surface by quasi-local estimation of F-indices, what allows finding the most stable and reliable parameters that can be different from "global" optima in usual sense. (Thus, this method slightly transforms the original objective function); 2) SLS-2L (Two-Loop SLS), which is suitable for basins where hydraulic properties of soil are unknown; 3) SLS-2LF, which represents a conjunction of the SLS-F and SLS-2L algorithms and allows obtaining the SAC-SMA parameters that can be transferred to ungauged catchments; 4) SLS-E, which also supposes stochastic filtering of the model input through

  8. Do current connectionist learning models account for reading development in different languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Florian; Ziegler, Johannes C; Perry, Conrad; Wimmer, Heinz; Zorzi, Marco

    2004-04-01

    Learning to read a relatively irregular orthography, such as English, is harder and takes longer than learning to read a relatively regular orthography, such as German. At the end of grade 1, the difference in reading performance on a simple set of words and nonwords is quite dramatic. Whereas children using regular orthographies are already close to ceiling, English children read only about 40% of the words and nonwords correctly. It takes almost 4 years for English children to come close to the reading level of their German peers. In the present study, we investigated to what extent recent connectionist learning models are capable of simulating this cross-language learning rate effect as measured by nonword decoding accuracy. We implemented German and English versions of two major connectionist reading models, Plaut et al.'s (Plaut, D. C., McClelland, J. L., Seidenberg, M. S., & Patterson, K. (1996). Understanding normal and impaired word reading: computational principles in quasi-regular domains. Psychological Review, 103, 56-115) parallel distributed model and Zorzi et al.'s (Zorzi, M., Houghton, G., & Butterworth, B. (1998a). Two routes or one in reading aloud? A connectionist dual-process model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 1131-1161); two-layer associative network. While both models predicted an overall advantage for the more regular orthography (i.e. German over English), they failed to predict that the difference between children learning to read regular versus irregular orthographies is larger earlier on. Further investigations showed that the two-layer network could be brought to simulate the cross-language learning rate effect when cross-language differences in teaching methods (phonics versus whole-word approach) were taken into account. The present work thus shows that in order to adequately capture the pattern of reading acquisition displayed by children, current connectionist models must not only be

  9. The Charitable Trust Model: An Alternative Approach For Department Of Defense Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Constitution declares, “No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law ; and a regular Statement and Account...accounting to supplant the current corporate-style financial management and reporting practices mandated by federal law . First, the researcher identifies... administration . The researcher then analyzes how the misapplied logic of private sector accounting creates weakness and inconsistencies in federal

  10. A Partial Test and Development of Delone and Mclean's Model of IS Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Seddon

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available DeLone and McLean's (1992 comprehensive review of different information system success measures concludes with a model of interrelationships between six IS Success constructs. This paper critically examines the meaning of four of these constructs and the evidence of relationships between them. It then provides results from empirical tests of these relationships. Tests are conducted using both conventional ordinary least squares regression path analysis and structural equation modeling - with substantially similar results. The empirical results provide substantial support for the "up stream" two thirds of DeLone and McLean's model. Three factors. System Quality, Information Quality, and Usefulness, are found to explain 75% of the variance in the overall User Satisfaction measure. The empirical results also provide substantial support for the use of usefulness as an IS success measure, and of the hitherto-unreported importance of "Importance of the task" in user perceptions of IS usefulness.

  11. Open Source Software Success Model for Iran: End-User Satisfaction Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niknafs

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The open source software development is notable option for software companies. Recent years, many advantages of this software type are cause of move to that in Iran. National security and international restrictions problems and also software and services costs and more other problems intensified importance of use of this software. Users and their viewpoints are the critical success factor in the software plans. But there is not an appropriate model for open source software case in Iran. This research tried to develop a measuring open source software success model for Iran. By use of data gathered from open source users and online survey the model was tested. The results showed that components by positive effect on open source success were user satisfaction, open source community services quality, open source quality, copyright and security.

  12. Theoretical Model of User Acceptance: In the View of Measuring Success in Web Personalization

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Mohd Afandi Md; Nayak, Richi

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper attempts to develop a theoretical acceptance model for measuring Web personalization success. Key factors impacting Web personalization acceptance are identified from a detailed literature review. The final model is then cast in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework comprising nineteen manifest variables, which are grouped into three focal behaviors of Web users. These variables could provide a framework for better understanding of numerous factors ...

  13. Understanding a Father-Daughter Succession Case: Applying the 5+5+5 Bernelli Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leann Mischel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Research on father-daughter succession in family businesses has only recently begun to get some traction. Still, examples of these situations often elude researchers. Futhermore, there has not been adequate attention paid to how children are raised in family businesses and how they learn to be entrepreneurial. Approach: This study outlines a father-daughter succession case in this unique American setting-the Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia. West Virginia offers an opportunity to examine family businesses embedded in the Appalachian culture-one where much of the popular and scholarly literature contend that deficiencies have contributed to, or reinforced, economic poverty and backwardness. These ideals are now being challenged and this case offers evidence of reversal. We also use the Bernelli 5+5+5 Model as a lens through which to examine the daughter’s entrepreneurial growth in this case. Results: The Bernelli 5+5+5 Model allowed us to structure the daughter’s experiences and better understand how she got to be such a successful successor. Conclusion/Recommendations: We recommend that the Bernelli 5+5+5 Model be used as a framework to view succession in family businesses. The Model also serves as a lens through which to view and better understand how children raised in family businesses become more successful entrepreneurs as adults.

  14. Short-run analysis of fiscal policy and the current account in a finite horizon model

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-fu Zou

    1995-01-01

    This paper utilizes a technique developed by Judd to quantify the short-run effects of fiscal policies and income shocks on the current account in a small open economy. It is found that: (1) a future increase in government spending improves the short-run current account; (2) a future tax increase worsens the short-run current account; (3) a present increase in the government spending worsens the short-run current account dollar by dollar, while a present increase in the income improves the cu...

  15. Process Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  16. Models for Measuring E-Learning Success in Universities: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana DOROBAT (SCORTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that in the Internet era the higher education institutions (HEIs must innovate the services they offer by integrating ICT (Information and Communication Technology in the learning process. According to the theoreticians and practitioners insights in the matter, the e-learning systems offer many advantages and compensate the weaknesses of the traditional learning methods. In consequence, it emerged the need for developing a model that measures the success of the e-learning systems. This paper presents results of the research conducted in order to develop a comprehensive model for measuring e-learning system success in universi-ties.

  17. Critical success factors model developing for sustainable Kaizen implementation in manufactur-ing industry in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftu Hailu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to identify critical success factors and model developing for sustaining kaizen implementation. Peacock shoe is one of the manufacturing industries in Ethiopia facing challenges on sustaining. The methodology followed is factor analysis and empirically testing hypothesis. A database was designed using SPSS version 20. The survey was validated using statistical validation using the Cronbach alpha index; the result is 0.908. The KMO index value was obtained for the 32 items and had a value of 0.642 with Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 4503.007, degree of freedom 496 and significance value 0.000. A factor analysis by principal components and varimax rotation was applied for finding the critical success factors. Finding designates that 32 items were merged into eight critical success factors. All the eight factors together explain for 76.941 % of the variance. Multiple regression model analysis has indicated that some of the critical success factors had relationship with success indicators. Due to constraint of time, the researcher focused only at peacock shoe manufacturing industry. Other limitation also includes the absence of any local research that shows the critical success factors at the moment.

  18. Experienced Practitioners’ Beliefs Utilized to Create a Successful Massage Therapist Conceptual Model: a Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Anne B.; Munk, Niki

    2017-01-01

    Background The massage therapy profession in the United States has grown exponentially, with 35% of the profession’s practitioners in practice for three years or less. Investigating personal and social factors with regard to the massage therapy profession could help to identify constructs needed to be successful in the field. Purpose This data-gathering exercise explores massage therapists’ perceptions on what makes a successful massage therapist that will provide guidance for future research. Success is defined as supporting oneself and practice solely through massage therapy and related, revenue-generating field activity. Participants and Setting Ten successful massage therapy practitioners from around the United States who have a minimum of five years of experience. Research Design Semistructured qualitative interviews were used in an analytic induction framework; index cards with preidentified concepts printed on them were utilized to enhance conversation. An iterative process of interview coding and analysis was used to determine themes and subthemes. Results Based on the participants input, the categories in which therapists needed to be successful were organized into four main themes: effectively establish therapeutic relationships, develop massage therapy business acumen, seek valuable learning environments and opportunities, and cultivate strong social ties and networks. The four themes operate within specific contexts (e.g., regulation and licensing requirements in the therapists’ state), which may also influence the success of the massage therapist. Conclusions The model needs to be tested to explore which constructs explain variability in success and attrition rate. Limitations and future research implications are discussed. PMID:28690704

  19. Success rate evaluation of clinical governance implementation in teaching hospitals in Kerman (Iran) based on nine steps of Karsh's model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Leila; Mastaneh, Zahra; Mouseli, Ali; Kardanmoghadam, Vida; Kamali, Sodabeh

    2017-07-01

    One of the ways to improve the quality of services in the health system is through clinical governance. This method aims to create a framework for clinical services providers to be accountable in return for continuing improvement of quality and maintaining standards of services. To evaluate the success rate of clinical governance implementation in Kerman teaching hospitals based on 9 steps of Karsh's Model. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on 94 people including chief executive officers (CEOs), nursing managers, clinical governance managers and experts, head nurses and nurses. The required data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire containing 38 questions with three-point Likert Scale (good, moderate, and weak). The Karsh's Model consists of nine steps including top management commitment to change, accountability for change, creating a structured approach for change, training, pilot implementation, communication, feedback, simulation, and end-user participation. Data analysis using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test was done by SPSS software version 16. About 81.9 % of respondents were female and 74.5 have a Bachelor of Nursing (BN) degree. In general, the status of clinical governance implementation in studied hospitals based on 9 steps of the model was 44 % (moderate). A significant relationship was observed among accountability and organizational position (p=0.0012) and field of study (p=0.000). Also, there were significant relationships between structure-based approach and organizational position (p=0.007), communication and demographic characteristics (p=0.000), and end-user participation with organizational position (p=0.03). Clinical governance should be implemented by correct needs assessment and participation of all stakeholders, to ensure its enforcement in practice, and to enhance the quality of services.

  20. Underwriting information-theoretic accounts of quantum mechanics with a realist, psi-epistemic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, W. M.; Silberstein, Michael; McDevitt, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    We propose an adynamical interpretation of quantum theory called Relational Blockworld (RBW) where the fundamental ontological element is a 4D graphical amalgam of space, time and sources called a “spacetimesource element.” These are fundamental elements of space, time and sources, not source elements in space and time. The transition amplitude for a spacetimesource element is computed using a path integral with discrete graphical action. The action for a spacetimesource element is constructed from a difference matrix K and source vector J on the graph, as in lattice gauge theory. K is constructed from graphical field gradients so that it contains a non-trivial null space and J is then restricted to the row space of K, so that it is divergence-free and represents a conserved exchange of energy-momentum. This construct of K and J represents an adynamical global constraint between sources, the spacetime metric and the energy-momentum content of the spacetimesource element, rather than a dynamical law for time-evolved entities. To illustrate this interpretation, we explain the simple EPR-Bell and twin-slit experiments. This interpretation of quantum mechanics constitutes a realist, psi-epistemic model that might underwrite certain information-theoretic accounts of the quantum.

  1. Design of a Competency-Based Assessment Model in the Field of Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad-Gómez, Adelaida; Valverde-Berrocoso, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the phases involved in the design of a methodology to contribute both to the acquisition of competencies and to their assessment in the field of Financial Accounting, within the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) framework, which we call MANagement of COMpetence in the areas of Accounting (MANCOMA). Having selected and…

  2. Information System Success Model for Customer Relationship Management System in Health Promotion Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wona; Rho, Mi Jung; Park, Jiyun; Kim, Kwang-Jum; Kwon, Young Dae

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Intensified competitiveness in the healthcare industry has increased the number of healthcare centers and propelled the introduction of customer relationship management (CRM) systems to meet diverse customer demands. This study aimed to develop the information system success model of the CRM system by investigating previously proposed indicators within the model. Methods The evaluation areas of the CRM system includes three areas: the system characteristics area (system quality, information quality, and service quality), the user area (perceived usefulness and user satisfaction), and the performance area (personal performance and organizational performance). Detailed evaluation criteria of the three areas were developed, and its validity was verified by a survey administered to CRM system users in 13 nationwide health promotion centers. The survey data were analyzed by the structural equation modeling method, and the results confirmed that the model is feasible. Results Information quality and service quality showed a statistically significant relationship with perceived usefulness and user satisfaction. Consequently, the perceived usefulness and user satisfaction had significant influence on individual performance as well as an indirect influence on organizational performance. Conclusions This study extends the research area on information success from general information systems to CRM systems in health promotion centers applying a previous information success model. This lays a foundation for evaluating health promotion center systems and provides a useful guide for successful implementation of hospital CRM systems. PMID:23882416

  3. Information system success model for customer relationship management system in health promotion centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wona; Rho, Mi Jung; Park, Jiyun; Kim, Kwang-Jum; Kwon, Young Dae; Choi, In Young

    2013-06-01

    Intensified competitiveness in the healthcare industry has increased the number of healthcare centers and propelled the introduction of customer relationship management (CRM) systems to meet diverse customer demands. This study aimed to develop the information system success model of the CRM system by investigating previously proposed indicators within the model. THE EVALUATION AREAS OF THE CRM SYSTEM INCLUDES THREE AREAS: the system characteristics area (system quality, information quality, and service quality), the user area (perceived usefulness and user satisfaction), and the performance area (personal performance and organizational performance). Detailed evaluation criteria of the three areas were developed, and its validity was verified by a survey administered to CRM system users in 13 nationwide health promotion centers. The survey data were analyzed by the structural equation modeling method, and the results confirmed that the model is feasible. Information quality and service quality showed a statistically significant relationship with perceived usefulness and user satisfaction. Consequently, the perceived usefulness and user satisfaction had significant influence on individual performance as well as an indirect influence on organizational performance. This study extends the research area on information success from general information systems to CRM systems in health promotion centers applying a previous information success model. This lays a foundation for evaluating health promotion center systems and provides a useful guide for successful implementation of hospital CRM systems.

  4. A pluralistic account of homology: adapting the models to the data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Leanne S; Jachiet, Pierre-Alain; Hanage, William P; Fitzpatrick, David A; Lopez, Philippe; O'Connell, Mary J; Pisani, Davide; Wilkinson, Mark; Bapteste, Eric; McInerney, James O

    2014-03-01

    Defining homologous genes is important in many evolutionary studies but raises obvious issues. Some of these issues are conceptual and stem from our assumptions of how a gene evolves, others are practical, and depend on the algorithmic decisions implemented in existing software. Therefore, to make progress in the study of homology, both ontological and epistemological questions must be considered. In particular, defining homologous genes cannot be solely addressed under the classic assumptions of strong tree thinking, according to which genes evolve in a strictly tree-like fashion of vertical descent and divergence and the problems of homology detection are primarily methodological. Gene homology could also be considered under a different perspective where genes evolve as "public goods," subjected to various introgressive processes. In this latter case, defining homologous genes becomes a matter of designing models suited to the actual complexity of the data and how such complexity arises, rather than trying to fit genetic data to some a priori tree-like evolutionary model, a practice that inevitably results in the loss of much information. Here we show how important aspects of the problems raised by homology detection methods can be overcome when even more fundamental roots of these problems are addressed by analyzing public goods thinking evolutionary processes through which genes have frequently originated. This kind of thinking acknowledges distinct types of homologs, characterized by distinct patterns, in phylogenetic and nonphylogenetic unrooted or multirooted networks. In addition, we define "family resemblances" to include genes that are related through intermediate relatives, thereby placing notions of homology in the broader context of evolutionary relationships. We conclude by presenting some payoffs of adopting such a pluralistic account of homology and family relationship, which expands the scope of evolutionary analyses beyond the traditional, yet

  5. Toward an Human Resource Accounting (HRA)-Based Model for Designing an Organizational Effectiveness Audit in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myroon, John L.

    The major purpose of this paper was to develop a Human Resource Accounting (HRA) macro-model that could be used for designing a school organizational effectiveness audit. Initially, the paper reviewed the advent and definition of HRA. In order to develop the proposed model, the different approaches to measuring effectiveness were reviewed,…

  6. An Interactive Activation Model of Context Effects in Letter Perception: Part 1. An Account of Basic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, James L.; Rumelhart, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A model of context effects in perception is applied to perception of letters. Perception results from excitatory and inhibitory interactions of detectors for visual features, letters, and words. The model produces facilitation for letters in pronounceable pseudowords as well as words and accounts for rule-governed performance without any rules.…

  7. Materials measurement and accounting in an operating plutonium conversion and purification process. Phase I. Process modeling and simulation. [PUCSF code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.C. Jr.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.

    1981-04-01

    A model of an operating conversion and purification process for the production of reactor-grade plutonium dioxide was developed as the first component in the design and evaluation of a nuclear materials measurement and accountability system. The model accurately simulates process operation and can be used to identify process problems and to predict the effect of process modifications.

  8. An Interactive Activation Model of Context Effects in Letter Perception: Part 1. An Account of Basic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, James L.; Rumelhart, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A model of context effects in perception is applied to perception of letters. Perception results from excitatory and inhibitory interactions of detectors for visual features, letters, and words. The model produces facilitation for letters in pronounceable pseudowords as well as words and accounts for rule-governed performance without any rules.…

  9. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "A Model for Success: CART's Linked Learning Program Increases College Enrollment"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study, "A Model for Success: CART's Linked Learning Program Increases College Enrollment" examined whether students who enrolled in courses at a high school that combined academics and technical education had higher college enrollment rates than students who did not. The research described in this report does not meet What Works…

  10. A Model-Based Approach for Visualizing the Dimensional Structure of Ordered Successive Categories Preference Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSarbo, Wayne S.; Park, Joonwook; Scott, Crystal J.

    2008-01-01

    A cyclical conditional maximum likelihood estimation procedure is developed for the multidimensional unfolding of two- or three-way dominance data (e.g., preference, choice, consideration) measured on ordered successive category rating scales. The technical description of the proposed model and estimation procedure are discussed, as well as the…

  11. The Achieving Success Everyday Group Counseling Model: Fostering Resiliency in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Joy; Steen, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a group counseling intervention used to develop and foster resiliency in middle school students by implementing the Achieving Success Everyday (ASE) group counseling model. The authors aimed to discover what impact this group counseling intervention, which focused on resiliency characteristics, would have on students'…

  12. The Groningen Active Living Model, an example of successful recruitment of sedentary and underactive older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Martin; de Jong, Johan; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Many physical activity interventions do not reach those people who would benefit the most from them. The Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) was successful in recruiting sedentary and underactive older adults. Method. In the fall of 2000 older adults in three municipalities in the Nether

  13. The Success of a Policy Model: Irrigation Management Transfer in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Mexican policy of Irrigation Management Transfer has been widely propagated as a success and has become a model for other countries seeking to improve the performance of their irrigation systems while also cutting public expenditures. This article analyses the process of policy-making that has g

  14. Creating a Successful Training Program for Frontline Staff: The University of Minnesota's Integrated Student Services Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Heather L.; Otto, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    Successfully preparing frontline counseling staff in an integrated student services model is a challenge--one that management staff in One Stop Student Services at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (UMTC) have been fine-tuning for almost ten years. The effort has required collaboration across units in a series of trial and error attempts…

  15. An exploratory analysis of the model for understanding success in quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Heather C; Froehle, Craig M; Cassedy, Amy; Provost, Lloyd P; Margolis, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Experience suggests that differences in context produce variability in the effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) interventions. However, little is known about which contextual factors affect success or how they exert influence. Using the Model for Understanding Success in Quality (MUSIQ), we perform exploratory quantitative tests of the role of context in QI success. We used a cross-sectional design to survey individuals participating in QI projects in three settings: a pediatric hospital, hospitals affiliated with a state QI collaborative, and organizations sponsoring participants in an improvement advisor training program. Individuals participating in QI projects completed a questionnaire assessing contextual factors included in MUSIQ and measures of perceived success. Path analysis was used to test the direct, indirect, and total effects of context variables on QI success as hypothesized in MUSIQ. In the 74 projects studied, most contextual factors in MUSIQ were found to be significantly related to at least one QI project performance outcome. Contextual factors exhibiting significant effects on two measures of perceived QI success included resource availability, QI team leadership, team QI skills, microsystem motivation, microsystem QI culture, and microsystem QI capability. There was weaker evidence for effects of senior leader project sponsors, organizational QI culture, QI team decision-making, and microsystem QI leadership. These initial tests add to the validity of MUSIQ as a tool for identifying which contextual factors affect improvement success and understanding how they exert influence. Using MUSIQ, managers and QI practitioners can begin to identify aspects of context that must be addressed before or during the execution of QI projects and plan strategies to modify context for increased success. Additional work by QI researchers to improve the theory, refine measurement approaches, and validate MUSIQ as a predictive tool in a wider range of QI

  16. Stochastic inverse modelling of hydraulic conductivity fields taking into account independent stochastic structures: A 3D case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Albert, C.; Capilla, J. E.

    2010-09-01

    SummaryMajor factors affecting groundwater flow through fractured rocks include the geometry of each fracture, its properties and the fracture-network connectivity together with the porosity and conductivity of the rock matrix. When modelling fractured rocks this is translated into attaining a characterization of the hydraulic conductivity ( K) as adequately as possible, despite its high heterogeneity. This links with the main goal of this paper, which is to present an improvement of a stochastic inverse model, named as Gradual Conditioning (GC) method, to better characterise K in a fractured rock medium by considering different K stochastic structures, belonging to independent K statistical populations (SP) of fracture families and the rock matrix, each one with its own statistical properties. The new methodology is carried out by applying independent deformations to each SP during the conditioning process for constraining stochastic simulations to data. This allows that the statistical properties of each SPs tend to be preserved during the iterative optimization process. It is worthwhile mentioning that so far, no other stochastic inverse modelling technique, with the whole capabilities implemented in the GC method, is able to work with a domain covered by several different stochastic structures taking into account the independence of different populations. The GC method is based on a procedure that gradually changes an initial K field, which is conditioned only to K data, to approximate the reproduction of other types of information, i.e., piezometric head and solute concentration data. The approach is applied to the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden, where, since the middle nineties, many experiments have been carried out to increase confidence in alternative radionuclide transport modelling approaches. Because the description of fracture locations and the distribution of hydrodynamic parameters within them are not accurate enough, we address the

  17. Incorporating the user perspective into a proposed model for assessing success of SHS implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Holtorf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern energy can contribute to development in multiple ways while approximately 20% of world's populations do not yet have access to electricity. Solar Home Systems (SHSs consists of a PV module, a charge controller and a battery supply in the range of 100 Wh/d in Sunbelt countries. The question addressed in this paper is how SHS users approach success of their systems and how these user's views can be integrated in to an existing model of success. Information was obtained on the user's approach to their SHSs by participatory observation, interviews with users and by self-observation undertaken by the lead author while residing under SHS electricity supply conditions. It was found that success of SHSs from the users' point of view is related to the ability of these systems to reduce the burdens of supplying energy services to homesteads. SHSs can alleviate some energy supply burdens, and they can improve living conditions by enabling communication on multiple levels and by addressing convenience and safety concerns. However, SHSs do not contribute to the energy services which are indispensable for survival, nor to the thermal energy services required and desired in dwellings of Sunbelt countries. The elements of three of the four components of our previously proposed model of success have been verified and found to be appropriate, namely the user's self-set goals, their importance and SHSs' success factors. The locally appropriate, and scientifically satisfactory, measurement of the level of achievement of self-set goals, the fourth component of our model of success, remains an interesting area for future research.

  18. Crash Simulation of Roll Formed Parts by Damage Modelling Taking Into Account Preforming Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Edwin T.; Hackl, Benjamin; Schauer, Hermann

    2011-08-01

    Complex phase steels of strength levels up to 1200 MPa are suitable to roll forming. These may be applied in automotive structures for enhancing the crashworthiness, e. g. as stiffeners in doors. Even though the strain hardening of the material is low there is considerable bending formability. However ductility decreases with the strength level. Higher strength requires more focus to the structural integrity of the part during the process planning stage and with respect to the crash behavior. Nowadays numerical simulation is used as a process design tool for roll-forming in a production environment. The assessment of the stability of a roll forming process is quite challenging for AHSS grades. There are two objectives of the present work. First to provide a reliable assessment tool to the roll forming analyst for failure prediction. Second to establish simulation procedures in order to predict the part's behavior in crash applications taking into account damage and failure. Today adequate ductile fracture models are available which can be used in forming and crash applications. These continuum models are based on failure strain curves or surfaces which depend on the stress triaxiality (e. g. Crach or GISSMO) and may additionally include the Lode angle (extended Mohr Coulomb or extended GISSMO model). A challenging task is to obtain the respective failure strain curves. In the paper the procedure is described in detail how these failure strain curves are obtained using small scale tests within voestalpine Stahl, notch tensile-, bulge and shear tests. It is shown that capturing the surface strains is not sufficient for obtaining reliable material failure parameters. The simulation tool for roll-forming at the site of voestalpine Krems is Copra® FEA RF, which is a 3D continuum finite element solver based on MSC.Marc. The simulation environment for crash applications is LS-DYNA. Shell elements are used for this type of analyses. A major task is to provide results of

  19. A Primary Human Critical Success Factors Model for the ERP System Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenko Aleksander

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Many researchers have investigated various Critical success factors (CSFs and the different causes of ERP implementation project failures. Despite a detailed literature preview, we were unable to find an appropriate research with a comprehensive overview of the true causes behind CSFs, observed from a human factors perspective. The objective of this research was therefore to develop and evaluate the Primary human factors (PHFs model and to confirm the significant impact of PHFs on traditional CSFs and on the project success.

  20. Modeling succession of key resource-harvesting traits of mixotrophic plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berge, Terje; Chakraborty, Subhendu; Hansen, Per Juel

    2017-01-01

    -based model for mixotrophy with three key resource-harvesting traits: photosynthesis, phagotrophy and inorganic nutrient uptake, which predicts the trophic strategy of species throughout the seasonal cycle. Assuming that simple carbohydrates from photosynthesis fuel respiration, and feeding primarily provides...... in the spring and increased phagotrophy during the summer, reflecting general seasonal succession patterns of temperate waters. Our trait-based model presents a simple and general approach for the inclusion of mixotrophy, succession and evolution in ecosystem models.The ISME Journal advance online publication......Unicellular eukaryotes make up the base of the ocean food web and exist as a continuum in trophic strategy from pure heterotrophy (phagotrophic zooplankton) to pure photoautotrophy (‘phytoplankton’), with a dominance of mixotrophic organisms combining both strategies. Here we formulate a trait...

  1. Modeling aeolian transport in response to succession, disturbance and future climate: Dynamic long-term risk assessment for contaminant redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, D.D.; Kirchner, T.B.; Whicker, J.J.; Field, J.P.; Allen, C.D.

    2012-01-01

    Aeolian sediment transport is a fundamental process redistributing sediment, nutrients, and contaminants in dryland ecosystems. Over time frames of centuries or longer, horizontal sediment fluxes and associated rates of contaminant transport are likely to be influenced by succession, disturbances, and changes in climate, yet models of horizontal sediment transport that account for these fundamental factors are lacking, precluding in large part accurate assessment of human health risks associated with persistent soil-bound contaminants. We present a simple model based on empirical measurements of horizontal sediment transport (predominantly saltation) to predict potential contaminant transport rates for recently disturbed sites such as a landfill cover. Omnidirectional transport is estimated within vegetation that changes using a simple Markov model that simulates successional trajectory and considers three types of short-term disturbances (surface fire, crown fire, and drought-induced plant mortality) under current and projected climates. The model results highlight that movement of contaminated soil is sensitive to vegetation dynamics and increases substantially (e.g., > fivefold) when disturbance and/or future climate are considered. The time-dependent responses in horizontal sediment fluxes and associated contaminant fluxes were sensitive to variability in the timing of disturbance, with longer intervals between disturbance allowing woody plants to become dominant and crown fire and drought abruptly reducing woody plant cover. Our results, which have direct implications for contaminant transport and landfill management in the specific context of our assessment, also have general relevance because they highlight the need to more fully account for vegetation dynamics, disturbance, and changing climate in aeolian process studies. ?? 2011.

  2. Do prevailing societal models influence reports of near-death experiences?: a comparison of accounts reported before and after 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athappilly, Geena K; Greyson, Bruce; Stevenson, Ian

    2006-03-01

    Transcendental near-death experiences show some cross-cultural variation that suggests they may be influenced by societal beliefs. The prevailing Western model of near-death experiences was defined by Moody's description of the phenomenon in 1975. To explore the influence of this cultural model, we compared near-death experience accounts collected before and after 1975. We compared the frequency of 15 phenomenological features Moody defined as characteristic of near-death experiences in 24 accounts collected before 1975 and in 24 more recent accounts matched on relevant demographic and situational variables. Near-death experience accounts collected after 1975 differed from those collected earlier only in increased frequency of tunnel phenomena, which other research has suggested may not be integral to the experience, and not in any of the remaining 14 features defined by Moody as characteristic of near-death experiences. These data challenge the hypothesis that near-death experience accounts are substantially influenced by prevailing cultural models.

  3. An investigation of potential success factors for an introductory model-driven programming course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the course design of a CS1 model-driven programming course we study potential indicators of success for such a course. We explain our specific interpretation of objects-first. Of eight potential indicators of success, we have found only two to be significant at a 95% confidence...... on the success factors for objects-first programming......., the impact of our findings on teaching, limits of what to conclude from the available data, and the variety of the notion "objects-first". Because of the variety of interpretations of "objects-first", the present research is necessary as a supplement to earlier research in order to make generalizable results...

  4. Providing a Model for Successful Implementation of Customer Relationship Management (Case Study: Zahedan Industrial City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin-Reza Kamalian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a model for Successful Implementation of Customer Relationship Management (CRM for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in Zahedan industrial city. Having extensive theoretical study, the factors influencing the success of customer relationship management were identified. Using a standard questionnaire with reliability of 96.2 percent (Cronbach's alpha coefficient, existing and desired situations of these factors were compared by experts' point of view. Research population consists of industrialists and professionals in Zahedan industrial city. Because of small population size, data obtained by the entire population; i.e. 54 companies. This applied study is in descriptive-analytical type. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results indicated that all factors affecting the success of implementing customer relationship management, except technology, are used in these companies.

  5. When Should Nintendo Launch its Wii? Insights From a Bivariate Successive Generation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Franses, Philip Hans; Hernández-Mireles, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    textabstractNovember 2006 most likely marks the launch of Sony’s PS3, the successor to PS2. Later, Nintendo is expected to launch the Wii, the successor to the GameCube. We answer the question in the title by analyzing the diffusion of the earlier generations of these consoles, and by using a new model that extends the successive-generations model of Norton and Bass (1987) by introducing two market players. Based on interviews with consumers and with retailers, we calibrate part of this model...

  6. CASE OF SUCCESSFUL APPLICATION OF METHOD FOR 3D VISUALIZATION AND MODELING IN THORACIC ONCOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Shchadenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The application of method of 3D-visualization and modeling in thoracic oncology is described.Materials and methods. The block diagram of system of 3D-visualization and modeling consisting of six stages is shown. The reconstructions of anatomic computer 3D-models of rib cage and tumor were performed for the patient with cancer (plasma cell myeloma. The tumor size and its topographic anatomy relatively to neighboring organs, bones and soft tissues were identified. Results.The obtained data had been used to plan surgical intervention, which was successfully conducted at Thoracic surgery department ofTomskRegionalClinicalHospital. 

  7. Project Sugar: a recruitment model for successful African-American participation in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruill, Ida

    2004-12-01

    Attempts to increase the number of African-Americans participating in clinical trials, regardless of age, have been hampered by a lack of published data regarding successful recruitment and retention strategies. Successful strategies can be used as a guide for future researchers in the design of studies to recruit African-Americans, regardless of age, into clinical as well as qualitative studies to promote health among this vulnerable population. The goal of the primary study was to recruit 400 families with 2 or more family members affected with diabetes, totaling 800 participants. Project Sugar utilized the coordinated research principals known as CPR (Community, Plan, Reward) to recruit 615 African-American families totalling 1,230 people known as the Sea Island people (Gullahs) in the first five years of the study. The intention of the study was to identify markers for diabetes among these Sea Island natives who tended to be genetically homogenous. In so doing, specific strategies were identified as serendipitous findings for this study. Nonetheless, these serendipitous findings were thought to be so integral to success in the recruitment of African-Americans, mainly because of their success among this fairly close-knit, historically isolated, and significantly genetically homogenous Sea Islanders (Gullah). In recognizing the success of this model, an alternate aim was examined to devise rigorous scientific strategies to promote methods for recruitment of African-Americans into clinical trials aimed at reducing health disparities among this vulnerable population. This projects success can be attributed to the involvement of a local citizen advisory committee and rewards in the form of services, benefits, and incentives to the community. Findings from this alternative aim, which was scientifically built on the CPR model, suggest that when services are provided to the community, coupled with the use of local community advisory committees, the possibilities of

  8. Group Dynamics in Top Management Teams: Groupthink, Vigilance, and Alternative Models of Organizational Failure and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson; Owens; Tetlock; Fan; Martorana

    1998-02-01

    This study explored the heuristic value of Janis' (1982) groupthink and vigilant decision making models as explanations of failure and success in top management team decision making using the Organizational Group Dynamics Q-sort (GDQ). Top management teams of seven Fortune 500 companies were examined at two historical junctures-one when the team was successful (defined as satisfying strategic constituencies) and one when the team was unsuccessful. Results strongly supported the notion that a group' decision making process is systematically related to the outcomes experienced by the team. Ideal-type Q-sorts organized around Janis' analysis of groupthink and vigilance were substantially correlated with Q-sorts of failing and successful groups, respectively. The fit was, however, far from perfect. Ideal-type Q-sorts derived from other frameworks correlated better with the failure-success classification than did the Janis-derived ideal types. Successful groups showed some indicators of groupthink (e.g., risk-taking, cohesion, and strong, opinionated leaders), whereas unsuccessful groups showed signs of vigilance (e.g., internal debate to the point of factionalism). The results illustrate the usefulness of the GDQ for developing and empirically testing theory in organizational behavior from historical cases. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  9. Validation of the DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Adebowale I

    2017-01-01

    This study is an adaptation of the widely used DeLone and McLean information system success model in the context of hospital information systems in a developing country. A survey research design was adopted in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 442 health information management personnel in five Nigerian teaching hospitals. A structural equation modeling technique was used to validate the model's constructs. It was revealed that system quality significantly influenced use (β = 0.53, p 0.05), but it significantly influenced perceived net benefits (β = 0.21, p 0.05). The study validates the DeLone and McLean information system success model in the context of a hospital information system in a developing country. Importantly, system quality and use were found to be important measures of hospital information system success. It is, therefore, imperative that hospital information systems are designed in such ways that are easy to use, flexible, and functional to serve their purpose.

  10. Validation of the DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study is an adaptation of the widely used DeLone and McLean information system success model in the context of hospital information systems in a developing country. Methods A survey research design was adopted in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 442 health information management personnel in five Nigerian teaching hospitals. A structural equation modeling technique was used to validate the model's constructs. Results It was revealed that system quality significantly influenced use (β = 0.53, p 0.05), but it significantly influenced perceived net benefits (β = 0.21, p 0.05). Conclusions The study validates the DeLone and McLean information system success model in the context of a hospital information system in a developing country. Importantly, system quality and use were found to be important measures of hospital information system success. It is, therefore, imperative that hospital information systems are designed in such ways that are easy to use, flexible, and functional to serve their purpose. PMID:28261532

  11. Modelled three-dimensional suction accuracy predicts prey capture success in three species of centrarchid fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Emily A.; Higham, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Prey capture is critical for survival, and differences in correctly positioning and timing a strike (accuracy) are likely related to variation in capture success. However, an ability to quantify accuracy under natural conditions, particularly for fishes, is lacking. We developed a predictive model of suction hydrodynamics and applied it to natural behaviours using three-dimensional kinematics of three centrarchid fishes capturing evasive and non-evasive prey. A spheroid ingested volume of water (IVW) with dimensions predicted by peak gape and ram speed was verified with known hydrodynamics for two species. Differences in capture success occurred primarily with evasive prey (64–96% success). Micropterus salmoides had the greatest ram and gape when capturing evasive prey, resulting in the largest and most elongate IVW. Accuracy predicted capture success, although other factors may also be important. The lower accuracy previously observed in M. salmoides was not replicated, but this is likely due to more natural conditions in our study. Additionally, we discuss the role of modulation and integrated behaviours in shaping the IVW and determining accuracy. With our model, accuracy is a more accessible performance measure for suction-feeding fishes, which can be used to explore macroevolutionary patterns of prey capture evolution. PMID:24718455

  12. 工业企业会计的集中核算模式%Centralized Accounting Model on Industrial Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇

    2012-01-01

    工业企业会计管理工作关系到企业的发展,当前的会计核算模式已经无法适应工业企业发展的需要。我们需要建立会计集中核算制度,提高工业企业会计管理水平,促使降低生产经营成本。涉及资金利用问题企业的可持续发展,资金利用率是会计工作的重要内容。工业企业需要实现从资金会计核算向会计监督管理转变,从根苯上提升会计管理水平。%Management of industrial enterprises in accounting related to the business development, the current accounting model is unable to adapt the needs of industrial enterprises. We need to estaldish the centralized accounting system, to improve the management level of industrial enterprises, to promote lower costs. Utilization of the funds of industrial enterprises related to the sustainable development. Capital utilization rate is an important part of accounting. Industrial companies need to achieve a transformation from accoumting of funds to accounting supervision and manangement. Fundamentally enhance the accounting management.

  13. THE MODEL OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES ENDURANCE, WITH TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE EVOLUTION OF THEIR MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Gorobets

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the mathematical model describing the process of changing a limit of durability of the railway rolling stock materials and structures with taking into account the change of parameters of durability curve during loading them is presented.

  14. Accounting for non-linear chemistry of ship plumes in the GEOS-Chem global chemistry transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinken, G.C.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Jacob, D.J.; Meijer, E.W.

    2011-01-01

    We present a computationally efficient approach to account for the non-linear chemistry occurring during the dispersion of ship exhaust plumes in a global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem). We use a plume-in-grid formulation where ship emissions age chemically for 5 h before being relea

  15. Accounting for non-linear chemistry of ship plumes in the GEOS-Chem global chemistry transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.W.; Vinken, G.C.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Jacob, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. We present a computationally efficient approach to account for the non-linear chemistry occurring during the dispersion of ship exhaust plumes in a global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem). We use a plume-ingrid formulation where ship emissions age chemically for 5 h before be

  16. Closing the Gaps : Taking into Account the Effects of Heat stress and Fatique Modeling in an Operational Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodill, G.; Barbier, R.R.; Fiamingo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional, combat model based analysis of Dismounted Combatant Operations (DCO) has focused on the ‘lethal’ aspects in an engagement, and to a limited extent the environment in which the engagement takes place. These are however only two of the factors that should be taken into account when conduc

  17. Structural equation models using partial least squares: an example of the application of SmartPLS® in accounting research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Hipólito Bernardes do Nascimento

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the Accounting academy’s increasing in the investigation of latent phenomena, researchers have used robust multivariate techniques. Although Structural Equation Models are frequently used in the international literature, however, the Accounting academy has made little use of the variant based on Partial Least Squares (PLS-SEM, mostly due to lack of knowledge on the applicability and benefits of its use for Accounting research. Even if the PLS-SEM approach is regularly used in surveys, this method is appropriate to model complex relations with multiple relationships of dependence and independence between latent variables. In that sense, it is very useful for application in experiments and file data. In that sense, a literature review is presented of Accounting studies that used the PLS-SEM technique. Next, as no specific publications were observed that exemplified the application of the technique in Accounting, a PLS-SEM application is developed to encourage exploratory research by means of the software SmartPLS®, being particularly useful to graduate students. Therefore, the main contribution of this article is methodological, given its objective to clearly identify the guidelines for the appropriate use of PLS. By presenting an example of how to conduct an exploratory research using PLS-SEM, the intention is to contribute to researchers’ enhanced understanding of how to use and report on the technique in their research.

  18. Current-account effects of a devaluation in an optimizing model with capital accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    1991-01-01

    short, the devaluation is bound to improve the current account on impact, whereas this will deteriorate in the case of a long contract period, and the more so the smaller are adjustment costs in investment. In addition, we study the consequences for the terms of trade and for the stocks of foreign...

  19. A two-phase moisture transport model accounting for sorption hysteresis in layered porous building constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Björn; Janz, Mårten

    2009-01-01

    , with account also to sorption hysteresis. The different materials in the considered layered construction are assigned different properties, i.e. vapor and liquid water diffusivities and boundary (wetting and drying) sorption curves. Further, the scanning behavior between wetting and drying boundary curves...

  20. Accounting Department Chairpersons' Perceptions of Business School Performance Using a Market Orientation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Robert L.; Hammond, Kevin L.; Rothwell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript is part of a stream of continuing research examining market orientation within higher education and its potential impact on organizational performance. The organizations researched are business schools and the data collected came from chairpersons of accounting departments of AACSB member business schools. We use a reworded Narver…

  1. Accounting Department Chairpersons' Perceptions of Business School Performance Using a Market Orientation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Robert L.; Hammond, Kevin L.; Rothwell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript is part of a stream of continuing research examining market orientation within higher education and its potential impact on organizational performance. The organizations researched are business schools and the data collected came from chairpersons of accounting departments of AACSB member business schools. We use a reworded Narver…

  2. Internet Accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pras, Aiko; Beijnum, van Bert-Jan; Sprenkels, Ron; Párhonyi, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Internet accounting and discusses the status of related work within the IETF and IRTF, as well as certain research projects. Internet accounting is different from accounting in POTS. To understand Internet accounting, it is important to answer questions like

  3. Social Dancing for Successful Ageing: Models for Health, Happiness and Social Inclusion amongst Senior Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Skinner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article presents findings from a qualitative study of social dancing for successful ageing amongst senior citizens in three locales: in Blackpool (GB, around Belfast (NI, and in Sacramento (US. Findings also attest to the social, psychological and health benefits of social dancing amongst senior citizens. They also articulate three different social dancing models: social dance as tea dance (Sacramento, social dance as practice dance (Blackpool, social dance as motility (Belfast and environs.

  4. Models for Measuring E-Learning Success in Universities: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliana DOROBAT

    2014-01-01

    It is obvious that in the Internet era the higher education institutions (HEIs) must innovate the services they offer by integrating ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in the learning process. According to the theoreticians and practitioners insights in the matter, the e-learning systems offer many advantages and compensate the weaknesses of the traditional learning methods. In consequence, it emerged the need for developing a model that measures the success of the e-learning syst...

  5. A regional-scale, high resolution dynamical malaria model that accounts for population density, climate and surface hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian M; Ermert, Volker

    2013-02-18

    The relative roles of climate variability and population related effects in malaria transmission could be better understood if regional-scale dynamical malaria models could account for these factors. A new dynamical community malaria model is introduced that accounts for the temperature and rainfall influences on the parasite and vector life cycles which are finely resolved in order to correctly represent the delay between the rains and the malaria season. The rainfall drives a simple but physically based representation of the surface hydrology. The model accounts for the population density in the calculation of daily biting rates. Model simulations of entomological inoculation rate and circumsporozoite protein rate compare well to data from field studies from a wide range of locations in West Africa that encompass both seasonal endemic and epidemic fringe areas. A focus on Bobo-Dioulasso shows the ability of the model to represent the differences in transmission rates between rural and peri-urban areas in addition to the seasonality of malaria. Fine spatial resolution regional integrations for Eastern Africa reproduce the malaria atlas project (MAP) spatial distribution of the parasite ratio, and integrations for West and Eastern Africa show that the model grossly reproduces the reduction in parasite ratio as a function of population density observed in a large number of field surveys, although it underestimates malaria prevalence at high densities probably due to the neglect of population migration. A new dynamical community malaria model is publicly available that accounts for climate and population density to simulate malaria transmission on a regional scale. The model structure facilitates future development to incorporate migration, immunity and interventions.

  6. Adaptation of an Electrochemistry-based Li-Ion Battery Model to Account for Deterioration Observed Under Randomized Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    Adaptation of an Electrochemistry -based Li-Ion Battery Model to Account for Deterioration Observed Under Randomized Use Brian Bole1, Chetan S...application’s accuracy requirements and available resources (Daigle et al., 2011). In this paper, we use an electrochemistry -based lithium ion (Li-ion...the use of UKF not only to estimate the states in an electrochemistry model that vary over a charge- discharge cycle, but also to adapt certain

  7. An Analytic Model for the Success Rate of a Robotic Actuator System in Hitting Random Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Stuart

    2015-11-20

    Autonomous robotic systems are increasingly being used in a wide range of applications such as precision agriculture, medicine, and the military. These systems have common features which often includes an action by an "actuator" interacting with a target. While simulations and measurements exist for the success rate of hitting targets by some systems, there is a dearth of analytic models which can give insight into, and guidance on optimization, of new robotic systems. The present paper develops a simple model for estimation of the success rate for hitting random targets from a moving platform. The model has two main dimensionless parameters: the ratio of actuator spacing to target diameter; and the ratio of platform distance moved (between actuator "firings") to the target diameter. It is found that regions of parameter space having specified high success are described by simple equations, providing guidance on design. The role of a "cost function" is introduced which, when minimized, provides optimization of design, operating, and risk mitigation costs.

  8. Comprehensive model of annual plankton succession based on the whole-plankton time series approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnan, Jean-Baptiste; Legendre, Louis; Guidi, Lionel; Jamet, Jean-Louis; Jamet, Dominique; Mousseau, Laure; Pedrotti, Maria-Luiza; Picheral, Marc; Gorsky, Gabriel; Sardet, Christian; Stemmann, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ecological succession provides a widely accepted description of seasonal changes in phytoplankton and mesozooplankton assemblages in the natural environment, but concurrent changes in smaller (i.e. microbes) and larger (i.e. macroplankton) organisms are not included in the model because plankton ranging from bacteria to jellies are seldom sampled and analyzed simultaneously. Here we studied, for the first time in the aquatic literature, the succession of marine plankton in the whole-plankton assemblage that spanned 5 orders of magnitude in size from microbes to macroplankton predators (not including fish or fish larvae, for which no consistent data were available). Samples were collected in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Villefranche) weekly during 10 months. Simultaneously collected samples were analyzed by flow cytometry, inverse microscopy, FlowCam, and ZooScan. The whole-plankton assemblage underwent sharp reorganizations that corresponded to bottom-up events of vertical mixing in the water-column, and its development was top-down controlled by large gelatinous filter feeders and predators. Based on the results provided by our novel whole-plankton assemblage approach, we propose a new comprehensive conceptual model of the annual plankton succession (i.e. whole plankton model) characterized by both stepwise stacking of four broad trophic communities from early spring through summer, which is a new concept, and progressive replacement of ecological plankton categories within the different trophic communities, as recognised traditionally.

  9. Comprehensive model of annual plankton succession based on the whole-plankton time series approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Romagnan

    Full Text Available Ecological succession provides a widely accepted description of seasonal changes in phytoplankton and mesozooplankton assemblages in the natural environment, but concurrent changes in smaller (i.e. microbes and larger (i.e. macroplankton organisms are not included in the model because plankton ranging from bacteria to jellies are seldom sampled and analyzed simultaneously. Here we studied, for the first time in the aquatic literature, the succession of marine plankton in the whole-plankton assemblage that spanned 5 orders of magnitude in size from microbes to macroplankton predators (not including fish or fish larvae, for which no consistent data were available. Samples were collected in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Villefranche weekly during 10 months. Simultaneously collected samples were analyzed by flow cytometry, inverse microscopy, FlowCam, and ZooScan. The whole-plankton assemblage underwent sharp reorganizations that corresponded to bottom-up events of vertical mixing in the water-column, and its development was top-down controlled by large gelatinous filter feeders and predators. Based on the results provided by our novel whole-plankton assemblage approach, we propose a new comprehensive conceptual model of the annual plankton succession (i.e. whole plankton model characterized by both stepwise stacking of four broad trophic communities from early spring through summer, which is a new concept, and progressive replacement of ecological plankton categories within the different trophic communities, as recognised traditionally.

  10. An Analytic Model for the Success Rate of a Robotic Actuator System in Hitting Random Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Bradley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous robotic systems are increasingly being used in a wide range of applications such as precision agriculture, medicine, and the military. These systems have common features which often includes an action by an “actuator” interacting with a target. While simulations and measurements exist for the success rate of hitting targets by some systems, there is a dearth of analytic models which can give insight into, and guidance on optimization, of new robotic systems. The present paper develops a simple model for estimation of the success rate for hitting random targets from a moving platform. The model has two main dimensionless parameters: the ratio of actuator spacing to target diameter; and the ratio of platform distance moved (between actuator “firings” to the target diameter. It is found that regions of parameter space having specified high success are described by simple equations, providing guidance on design. The role of a “cost function” is introduced which, when minimized, provides optimization of design, operating, and risk mitigation costs.

  11. Accounting Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

    Accounting Automation   Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/accounting-automation/  Or Visit www.hwcampus.com Accounting Automation” Please respond to the following: Imagine you are a consultant hired to convert a manual accounting system to an automated system. Suggest the key advantages and disadvantages of automating a manual accounting system. Identify the most important step in the conversion process. Provide a rationale for your response. ...

  12. Physical and Theoretical Models of Heat Pollution Applied to Cramped Conditions Welding Taking into Account the Different Types of Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygin, Y. I.; Koronchik, D. A.; Legkonogikh, A. N.; Zharkova, M. G.; Azimova, N. N.

    2017-05-01

    The standard k-epsilon turbulence model, adapted for welding workshops, equipped with fixed workstations with sources of pollution took into account only the convective component of heat transfer, which is quite reasonable for large-volume rooms (with low density distribution of sources of pollution) especially the results of model calculations taking into account only the convective component correlated well with experimental data. For the purposes of this study, when we are dealing with a small confined space where necessary to take account of the body heated to a high temperature (for welding), located next to each other as additional sources of heat, it can no longer be neglected radiative heat exchange. In the task - to experimentally investigate the various types of heat transfer in a limited closed space for welding and behavior of a mathematical model, describing the contribution of the various components of the heat exchange, including radiation, influencing the formation of fields of concentration, temperature, air movement and thermal stress in the test environment. Conducted field experiments to model cubic body, allowing you to configure and debug the model of heat and mass transfer processes with the help of the developed approaches, comparing the measurement results of air flow velocity and temperature with the calculated data showed qualitative and quantitative agreement between process parameters, that is an indicator of the adequacy of heat and mass transfer model.

  13. Investigation of a new model accounting for rotors of finite tip-speed ratio in yaw or tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel; Gaunaa, Mac; Machefaux, Ewan

    2014-01-01

    from the MEXICO experiment are used as a basis for validation. Three tools using the same 2D airfoil coefficient data are compared: a BEM code, an Actuator-Line and a vortex code. The vortex code is further used to validate the results from the newly implemented BEM yaw-model. Significant improvements......The main results from a recently developed vortex model are implemented into a Blade Element Momentum(BEM) code. This implementation accounts for the effect of finite tip-speed ratio, an effect which was not considered in standard BEM yaw-models. The model and its implementation are presented. Data...

  14. Stress field sensitivity analysis within Mesozoic successions in the Swiss Alpine foreland using 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Karsten; Hergert, Tobias; Heidbach, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The in situ stress conditions are of key importance for the evaluation of radioactive waste repositories. In stage two of the Swiss site selection program, the three siting areas of high-level radioactive waste are located in the Alpine foreland in northern Switzerland. The sedimentary succession overlays the basement, consisting of variscan crystalline rocks as well as partly preserved Permo-Carboniferous deposits in graben structures. The Mesozoic sequence represents nearly the complete era and is covered by Cenozoic Molasse deposits as well as Quaternary sediments, mainly in the valleys. The target horizon (designated host rock) is an >100 m thick argillaceous Jurassic deposit (Opalinus Clay). To enlighten the impact of site-specific features on the state of stress within the sedimentary succession, 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models with elasto-plastic rock properties are set up for three potential siting areas. The lateral extent of the models ranges between 12 and 20 km, the vertical extent is up to a depth of 2.5 or 5 km below sea level. The sedimentary sequence plus the basement are separated into 10 to 14 rock mechanical units. The Mesozoic succession is intersected by regional fault zones; two or three of them are present in each model. The numerical problem is solved with the finite element method with a resolution of 100-150 m laterally and 10-30 m vertically. An initial stress state is established for all models taking into account the depth-dependent overconsolidation ratio in Opalinus Clay in northern Switzerland. The influence of topography, rock properties, friction on the faults as well as the impact of tectonic shortening on the state of stress is investigated. The tectonic stress is implemented with lateral displacement boundary conditions, calibrated on stress data that are compiled in Northern Switzerland. The model results indicate that the stress perturbation by the topography is significant to depths greater than the relief contrast. The

  15. On the treatment of evapotranspiration, soil moisture accounting, and aquifer recharge in monthly water balance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Several two- to six-parameter regional water balance models are examined by using 50-year records of monthly streamflow at 10 sites in New Jersey. These models include variants of the Thornthwaite-Mather model, the Palmer model, and the more recent Thomas abcd model. Prediction errors are relatively similar among the models. However, simulated values of state variables such as soil moisture storage differ substantially among the models, and fitted parameter values for different models sometimes indicated an entirely different type of basin response to precipitation.-from Author

  16. Comprehensive benefit of flood resources utilization through dynamic successive fuzzy evaluation model: A case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking the flood resources utilization in Baicheng, Jilin during 2002–2007 as the research background, and based on the entropy weight and multi-level & multi-objective fuzzy optimization theory, this research established a multi-level & semi-constructive index system and dynamic successive evaluation model for comprehensive benefit evaluation of regional flood resources utilization. With the year 2002 as the base year, the analyzing results showed that there existed a close positive correlation between flood utilization volume and its benefits, comprehensive evaluation value and its comparison increment. Within the six successive evaluation years, the comprehensive benefit of 2003 was the best, in which the benefit evaluation increment reached 82.8% whereas the year of 2004 was the worst, in which the increment was only 18.2%. Thus the sustainability and correctness of the evaluation were verified by six years successive evaluation and increment comparison. The analyzing results showed that the economic benefits, ecological benefits and social benefits of flood utilization were remarkable, and that the comprehensive benefit could be improved by increasing flood utilization capacity, which would promote the regional sustainable development as well. The established dynamic successive evaluation provides a stable theoretical basis and technical support for further flood utilization.

  17. A Blueprint for Success: A Model for Developing Engineering Education in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Rose Nova King

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the emergence and development of the ‘Centre for Engineering and Design Education’ (CEDE at Loughborough University, UK, and provides a blueprint for success. With ample evidence that such a Centre can prove to be a highly effective support mechanism for discipline-specific academics and can develop and maintain valuable national and international networks and collaborations along with considerable esteem for the host university. The CEDE is unique in the UK and has achieved considerable success and recognition within the local engineering education community and beyond for the past 16 years. Here we discuss the historical background of the Centre’s development, the context in which it operates, and its effective management and operation strategy. The success it has enjoyed is described through examples, with much evidence of the generation of a significant amount of external funding; the development of high quality learning spaces; learning technology systems, open source software and improvements in curriculum design; a strong record of research and publication on the pedagogy of engineering; strong links with industry and employers; and a wealth of connections and know-how built up over the years. This paper provides the institutions with a model blueprint for success in developing engineering education.

  18. Mouse models for studying genetic influences on factors determining smoking cessation success in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, F. Scott; Markou, Athina; Levin, Edward D.; Uhl, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Humans differ in their ability to quit using addictive substances, including nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in tobacco. For tobacco smoking, a substantial body of evidence, largely derived from twin studies, indicates that approximately half of these individual differences in ability to quit are heritable [1, 2], genetic influences that likely overlap with those for other addictive substances [3]. Both twin and molecular genetic studies support overlapping influences on nicotine addiction vulnerability and smoking cessation success, although there is little formal analysis of the twin data that supports this important point [2, 3]. None of the current datasets provides clear data concerning which heritable factors might provide robust dimensions around which individuals differ in ability to quit smoking. One approach to this problem is to test mice with genetic variations in genes that contain human variants that alter quit-success. This review considers which features of quit success should be included in a comprehensive approach to elucidating the genetics of quit success, and how those features may be modeled in mice. PMID:22304675

  19. Spatial patterns of breeding success of grizzly bears derived from hierarchical multistate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason T; Wheatley, Matthew; Mackenzie, Darryl

    2014-10-01

    Conservation programs often manage populations indirectly through the landscapes in which they live. Empirically, linking reproductive success with landscape structure and anthropogenic change is a first step in understanding and managing the spatial mechanisms that affect reproduction, but this link is not sufficiently informed by data. Hierarchical multistate occupancy models can forge these links by estimating spatial patterns of reproductive success across landscapes. To illustrate, we surveyed the occurrence of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Canadian Rocky Mountains Alberta, Canada. We deployed camera traps for 6 weeks at 54 surveys sites in different types of land cover. We used hierarchical multistate occupancy models to estimate probability of detection, grizzly bear occupancy, and probability of reproductive success at each site. Grizzly bear occupancy varied among cover types and was greater in herbaceous alpine ecotones than in low-elevation wetlands or mid-elevation conifer forests. The conditional probability of reproductive success given grizzly bear occupancy was 30% (SE = 0.14). Grizzly bears with cubs had a higher probability of detection than grizzly bears without cubs, but sites were correctly classified as being occupied by breeding females 49% of the time based on raw data and thus would have been underestimated by half. Repeated surveys and multistate modeling reduced the probability of misclassifying sites occupied by breeders as unoccupied to grizzly bear occupancy varied across the landscape. Those patches with highest probabilities of breeding occupancy-herbaceous alpine ecotones-were small and highly dispersed and are projected to shrink as treelines advance due to climate warming. Understanding spatial correlates in breeding distribution is a key requirement for species conservation in the face of climate change and can help identify priorities for landscape management and protection.

  20. 会计监督的数学模型%The Math Model for the Accounting Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英

    2001-01-01

    应用概率论和优化理论,对会计行为进行了系统的分析 ,建立了会计监督的数学模型,确定了会计单位和监督者的反应函数及最优行动选择,同时 给出监管者对会计单位违规处罚的最低值。%By analyzing the profit distributing of the managers and account ing units with probability and optimization theories,reaction function of manage rs and accounting units is present,and the math model of the accounting supervis ion is established.Minimum value of the punishment to the illegality in the acco unting units is determined.

  1. A simple model to quantitatively account for periodic outbreaks of the measles in the Dutch Bible Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Martin; Brak, Bastiaan

    2015-04-01

    In the Netherlands there has been nationwide vaccination against the measles since 1976. However, in small clustered communities of orthodox Protestants there is widespread refusal of the vaccine. After 1976, three large outbreaks with about 3000 reported cases of the measles have occurred among these orthodox Protestants. The outbreaks appear to occur about every twelve years. We show how a simple Kermack-McKendrick-like model can quantitatively account for the periodic outbreaks. Approximate analytic formulae to connect the period, size, and outbreak duration are derived. With an enhanced model we take the latency period in account. We also expand the model to follow how different age groups are affected. Like other researchers using other methods, we conclude that large scale underreporting of the disease must occur.

  2. Accounting for Slipping and Other False Negatives in Logistic Models of Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLellan, Christopher J.; Liu, Ran; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Additive Factors Model (AFM) and Performance Factors Analysis (PFA) are two popular models of student learning that employ logistic regression to estimate parameters and predict performance. This is in contrast to Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT) which uses a Hidden Markov Model formalism. While all three models tend to make similar predictions,…

  3. Equity Valuation and Accounting Numbers: Applying Zhang (2000 and Zhang and Chen (2007 models to Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Caio Galdi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how accounting variables explain cross-sectional stocks returns in Brazilian capital markets. The analysis is based on Zhang (2000 and Zhang and Chen (2007 models. These models predict that stock returns are a function of net income, change in profitability, invested capital, changes in opportunity growths and discount rate. Generally, the empirical results for the Brazilian capital market are consistent with the theoretical relations that models describe, similarly to the results found in the US. Using different empirical tests (pooled regressions, Fama-Macbeth and panel data the results and coefficients remain similar, what support the robustness of our findings.

  4. Successful N{sub 2} leptogenesis with flavour coupling effects in realistic unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, Pasquale Di; King, Stephen F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-02

    In realistic unified models involving so-called SO(10)-inspired patterns of Dirac and heavy right-handed (RH) neutrino masses, the lightest right-handed neutrino N{sub 1} is too light to yield successful thermal leptogenesis, barring highly fine tuned solutions, while the second heaviest right-handed neutrino N{sub 2} is typically in the correct mass range. We show that flavour coupling effects in the Boltzmann equations may be crucial to the success of such N{sub 2} dominated leptogenesis, by helping to ensure that the flavour asymmetries produced at the N{sub 2} scale survive N{sub 1} washout. To illustrate these effects we focus on N{sub 2} dominated leptogenesis in an existing model, the A to Z of flavour with Pati-Salam, where the neutrino Dirac mass matrix may be equal to an up-type quark mass matrix and has a particular constrained structure. The numerical results, supported by analytical insight, show that in order to achieve successful N{sub 2} leptogenesis, consistent with neutrino phenomenology, requires a “flavour swap scenario” together with a less hierarchical pattern of RH neutrino masses than naively expected, at the expense of some mild fine-tuning. In the considered A to Z model neutrino masses are predicted to be normal ordered, with an atmospheric neutrino mixing angle well into the second octant and the Dirac phase δ≃20{sup ∘}, a set of predictions that will be tested in the next years in neutrino oscillation experiments. Flavour coupling effects may be relevant for other SO(10)-inspired unified models where N{sub 2} leptogenesis is necessary.

  5. Educational Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincoffs, Edmund L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses educational accountability as the paradigm of performance contracting, presents some arguments for and against accountability, and discusses the goals of education and the responsibility of the teacher. (Author/PG)

  6. Efficient modeling of sun/shade canopy radiation dynamics explicitly accounting for scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bodin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The separation of global radiation (Rg into its direct (Rb and diffuse constituents (Rg is important when modeling plant photosynthesis because a high Rd:Rg ratio has been shown to enhance Gross Primary Production (GPP. To include this effect in vegetation models, the plant canopy must be separated into sunlit and shaded leaves. However, because such models are often too intractable and computationally expensive for theoretical or large scale studies, simpler sun-shade approaches are often preferred. A widely used and computationally efficient sun-shade model was developed by Goudriaan (1977 (GOU. However, compared to more complex models, this model's realism is limited by its lack of explicit treatment of radiation scattering.

    Here we present a new model based on the GOU model, but which in contrast explicitly simulates radiation scattering by sunlit leaves and the absorption of this radiation by the canopy layers above and below (2-stream approach. Compared to the GOU model our model predicts significantly different profiles of scattered radiation that are in better agreement with measured profiles of downwelling diffuse radiation. With respect to these data our model's performance is equal to a more complex and much slower iterative radiation model while maintaining the simplicity and computational efficiency of the GOU model.

  7. Models for explaining the homeopathic healing process: a historical and critical account of principles central to homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, G; Wilson, J

    2005-01-01

    The success of Homeopathy in curing many diseases has been a serious challenge to science. Nineteenth century explanations for the healing process of Homeopathy cannot withstand the scrutiny of modern science and need to be abandoned or modified. The surviving propositions are discussed. A biocybernetic model with multilevels of electromagnetic feedback loops offers a hope of explaining the healing process. This model, its explanation of the healing process and experimental support are elaborated.

  8. Accounting outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Richtáriková, Paulína

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with accounting outsourcing and provides a comprehensive explanation of the topic. At first the thesis defines basic concepts (outsourcing, insourcing, offshoring and outplacement) and describes differences between the accounting outsourcing and outsourcing of other business activities. The emphasis is put on a decision whether or not to implement the accounting outsourcing. Thus the thesis describes main reasons why to implement the accounting outsourcing and risks that are ...

  9. An individual-based model of zebrafish population dynamics accounting for energy dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy Beaudouin

    Full Text Available Developing population dynamics models for zebrafish is crucial in order to extrapolate from toxicity data measured at the organism level to biological levels relevant to support and enhance ecological risk assessment. To achieve this, a dynamic energy budget for individual zebrafish (DEB model was coupled to an individual based model of zebrafish population dynamics (IBM model. Next, we fitted the DEB model to new experimental data on zebrafish growth and reproduction thus improving existing models. We further analysed the DEB-model and DEB-IBM using a sensitivity analysis. Finally, the predictions of the DEB-IBM were compared to existing observations on natural zebrafish populations and the predicted population dynamics are realistic. While our zebrafish DEB-IBM model can still be improved by acquiring new experimental data on the most uncertain processes (e.g. survival or feeding, it can already serve to predict the impact of compounds at the population level.

  10. A comparison of Graham and Piotroski investment models using accounting information and efficacy measurement

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We examine the investment models of Benjamin Graham and Joseph Piotroski and compare the efficacy of these two models by running backtest, using screening rules and ranking systems built in Portfolio 123. Using different combinations of screening rules and ranking systems, we also examine the performance of Piotroski and Graham investment models. We find that the combination of Piotroski and Graham investment models performs better than S&P 500. We also find that the Piotroski screening with ...

  11. Accounting outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Klečacká, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    This thesis gives a complex view on accounting outsourcing, deals with the outsourcing process from its beginning (condition of collaboration, making of contract), through collaboration to its possible ending. This work defines outsourcing, indicates the main advatages, disadvatages and arguments for its using. The main object of thesis is mainly practical side of accounting outsourcing and providing of first quality accounting services.

  12. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed companie

  13. Accounting for subgrid scale topographic variations in flood propagation modeling using MODFLOW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milzow, Christian; Kinzelbach, W.

    2010-01-01

    To be computationally viable, grid-based spatially distributed hydrological models of large wetlands or floodplains must be set up using relatively large cells (order of hundreds of meters to kilometers). Computational costs are especially high when considering the numerous model runs or model time...

  14. THE CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT AND THE FIXED EXCHANGE RATE. ADJUSTING MECHANISMS AND MODELS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HATEGAN D.B. Anca

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to explain what measures can be taken in order to fix the trade deficit, and the pressure that is upon a country by imposing such measures. The international and the national supply and demand conditions change rapidly, and if a country doesn’t succeed in keeping a tight control over its deficit, a lot of factors will affect its wellbeing. In order to reduce the external trade deficit, the government needs to resort to several techniques. The desired result is to have a balanced current account, and therefore, the government is free to use measures such as fixing its exchange rate, reducing government spending etc. We have shown that all these measures will have a certain impact upon an economy, by allowing its exports to thrive and eliminate the danger from excessive imports, or vice-versa. The main conclusion our paper is that government intervention is allowed in order to maintain the balance of the current account.

  15. Nonlinear analysis of a new car-following model accounting for the global average optimal velocity difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan; Lu, Weizhen; He, Hongdi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed by considering the global average optimal velocity difference effect on the basis of the full velocity difference (FVD) model. We investigate the influence of the global average optimal velocity difference on the stability of traffic flow by making use of linear stability analysis. It indicates that the stable region will be enlarged by taking the global average optimal velocity difference effect into account. Subsequently, the mKdV equation near the critical point and its kink-antikink soliton solution, which can describe the traffic jam transition, is derived from nonlinear analysis. Furthermore, numerical simulations confirm that the effect of the global average optimal velocity difference can efficiently improve the stability of traffic flow, which show that our new consideration should be taken into account to suppress the traffic congestion for car-following theory.

  16. Research on the Accounting Model of Circular Economy%循环经济会计模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王傲舒媞

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author combined with the characteristics of circular economy, the important significance of developing circular economy and points out the limitations of current accounting model in the development of circular economy, and puts forward the accounting model suitable for the development of circular economy.%笔者结合循环经济的特点,从发展循环经济的重要意义入手,指出我国现行会计模式在循环经济发展中的局限性,提出适合循环经济发展的会计模式,以期为进一步促进我国循环经济会计体系的良好构建做出有益的参考.

  17. Novel Causality in Consumer’s Online Behavior: Ecommerce Success Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna Khatoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping (e-Shopping has grown at a rapid pace with the advancement in modern web technologies, there are then socio and technical aspects (factors in the mentioned e-shopping. The following research paper highlights some mandatory socio-technical factors affecting consumer’s behavior in online shopping environment. In this work a comprehensive conceptual model is put forward based on proposed reform DeLone and McLean Success Model for Information Systems. This model is used for the assessment of the success of eCommerce web portals. Approximately thirteen different hypotheses are proposed on the bases of this methodology which represent the cause and effect relationship among the various variables affecting consumer’s online buying behavior. Further this work is simulated in iThink technology to show prominently that consumer’s satisfaction and trust directly affects productivity of the organization. For development organizations the proposed methodology is valuable because it will facilitate in building the eCommerce websites, web portals whereas retailers can improve the productivity of their organization by accomplishing this.

  18. Studying Impact of Organizational Factors in Information Technology Acceptance in Accounting Occupation by Use of TAM Model (Iranian Case Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Allahyari; Morteza Ramazani

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, information technology attitudes as the beneficial part of industry, economic and culture. Accounting posits as profession that provide information for decision- making of users and in the complex world, organizations must use information technology to present information for users in time. This research is by purpose of studying impact of organizational factors in information technology acceptance by use of TAM model in study descriptive-surveying method that researcher has used to...

  19. Accounting for spatial effects in land use regression for urban air pollution modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Johnson, Markey; Eccles, Kristin; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately assess air pollution risks, health studies require spatially resolved pollution concentrations. Land-use regression (LUR) models estimate ambient concentrations at a fine spatial scale. However, spatial effects such as spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation can reduce the accuracy of LUR estimates by increasing regression errors and uncertainty; and statistical methods for resolving these effects--e.g., spatially autoregressive (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models--may be difficult to apply simultaneously. We used an alternate approach to address spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation in LUR models for nitrogen dioxide. Traditional models were re-specified to include a variable capturing wind speed and direction, and re-fit as GWR models. Mean R(2) values for the resulting GWR-wind models (summer: 0.86, winter: 0.73) showed a 10-20% improvement over traditional LUR models. GWR-wind models effectively addressed both spatial effects and produced meaningful predictive models. These results suggest a useful method for improving spatially explicit models.

  20. A decision support model to determine the critical success factors of asset management services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooste, Johannes Lodewyk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Business-to-business services relating to physical asset management play an increasingly important role in industry. This is in the context of the current pressures that organisations experience in realising optimal value from their assets. Complying with asset management standards such as ISO 55000 contributes towards the importance of these services. This paper summarises the findings from a study identifying the critical success factors for asset management services, and presents a decision support model that provides the asset management community with access to these factors for decision-making and for improving asset management services.

  1. A domestic model for successful implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP systems in Iranian manufacturing enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the human-behavioral dimension of technology acceptance in enterprises. It is evident that accepting a technology depends on the underlying circumstances of the environment. We have approached this issue from two different angles of social and technological architecture. The research tries to explore proper enterprise architecture for ERP system acceptance. Social Architecture (SA is defined as the set of circumstances that makes people behave in a particular way. So behavior of persons (employees of an enterprise can be a function of SA. Hence acceptance of a system can be dictated by SA and manipulating SA can result in desirable success for a technology system. We have achieved various variables of social architecture and have examined their relevance to system acceptance and success in related enterprises (research domain beside technological architecture variables. The results have indicated that a special form of social and technological architecture can lead to success for ERP system in the enterprises of the research domain. This gave us a model of architecture.

  2. Modelling the interactions among factors that influence successful computerisation of small business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Fogarty

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Small businesses face many problems if they are to survive the first five years of operation. The increasing complexity of information needed to run a business in the 21st Century has added another obstacle to what is already a tough course. Sooner or later, survivors are faced with the prospect of investing in computer based information systems (CBIS. Properly handled, the investment will improve the competitiveness of the company. Badly handled, the investment will handicap the company and perhaps even lead to its closure. Using survey methodology, the present study collected information from 171 small businesses that had purchased computer systems with a view to finding out what factors contribute to successful implementation of CBIS. The variables studied included background characteristics of the organization, background characteristics of the Chief Executive Officer, decision making processes, and a range of variables relating to the performance of the system itself. The outcome variable was user satisfaction. We developed and tested a CBIS implementation success model based on these variables. Results showed that although the performance of the system was the immediate determinant of satisfaction, the background variables had both direct and indirect (mediated effects on satisfaction. These findings emphasise the importance of going beyond the immediate surrounds of a computing environment if one wishes to explain the factors that influence CBIS success in small businesses.

  3. JOMAR - A model for accounting the environmental loads from building constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, Anne; Nereng, Guro; Vold, Mie; Bjoerberg, Svein; Lassen, Niels

    2008-07-01

    The objective for this project was to develop a model as a basis for calculation of environmental profile for whole building constructions, based upon data from databases and general LCA software, in addition to the model structure from the Nordic project on LCC assessment of buildings. The model has been tested on three building constructions; timber based, flexible and heavy as well as heavy. Total energy consumption and emissions contributing to climate change are calculated in a total life cycle perspective. The developed model and exemplifying case assessments have shown that a holistic model including operation phase is both important and possible to implement. The project has shown that the operation phase causes the highest environmental loads when it comes to the exemplified impact categories. A suggestion on further development of the model along two different axes in collaboration with a broader representation from the building sector is given in the report (author)(tk)

  4. Modelling reverse characteristics of power LEDs with thermal phenomena taken into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Przemysław; Górecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This paper refers to modelling characteristics of power LEDs with a particular reference to thermal phenomena. Special attention is paid to modelling characteristics of the circuit protecting the considered device against the excessive value of the reverse voltage and to the description of the temperature influence on optical power. The network form of the worked out model is presented and some results of experimental verification of this model for the selected diodes operating at different cooling conditions are described. The very good agreement between the calculated and measured characteristics is obtained.

  5. Mathematical modeling taking into account of intrinsic kinetic properties of cylinder-type vanadium catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振兴; 李洪桂; 王零森

    2004-01-01

    The method to calculate internal surface effective factor of cylinder-type vanadium catalyst Ls-9 was given. Based on hypothesis of subjunctive one dimension diffusion and combined shape adjustment factor with threestep catalytic mechanism model, the macroscopic kinetic model equation about SO2 oxidation on Ls-9 was deduced.With fixed-bed integral reactor and under the conditions of temperature 350 - 410 ℃, space velocity 1 800 - 5 000h-1, SO2 inlet content 7 %- 12%, the macroscopic kinetic data were detected. Through model parameter estimation,the macroscopic kinetic model equation was obtained.

  6. A hybrid mode choice model to account for the dynamic effect of inertia over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherchi, Elisabetta; Börjesson, Maria; Bierlaire, Michel

    gathered over a continuous period of time, six weeks, to study both inertia and the influence of habits. Tendency to stick with the same alternative is measured through lagged variables that link the current choice with the previous trip made with the same purpose, mode and time of day. However, the lagged......The influence of habits, giving rise to inertia effect, in the choice process has been intensely debated in the literature. Typically inertia is accounted for by letting the indirect utility functions of the alternatives of the choice situation at time t depend on the outcome of the choice made...... at a previous point in time. However, according to the psychological literature, inertia is the results of a habit, which is formed in a longer process where many past decisions (not only the immediately previous one) remain in the memory of the consumer and influence behavior. In this study we use panel data...

  7. Modeling the pulse shape of Q-switched lasers to account for terminal-level relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Qin-Yong; Wan Yong; Xiong Ji-Chuan; Zhu Da-Yong

    2011-01-01

    To account for the effect of lower-level relaxation, we have derived a characteristic equation for describing the laser pulse from the modified rate equations for Q-switched lasers. The pulse temporal profile is related to the ratio of the lower-level lifetime to the cavity lifetime and the number of times the population inversion density is above the threshold. By solving the coupled rate equations numerically, the effect of terminal-level lifetime on pulse temporal behaviour is analysed. The mode is applied to the case of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser that is passively Q-switched by a Cr4+:YAG absorber. Theoretical results show good agreement with the experiments.

  8. Collaborative Testing as a Model for Addressing Equity in Student Success in STEM Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileonardo, C.; James, B. R.

    2016-12-01

    Introductory Earth science classes at two-year colleges play a critical role as "gateway courses" for underrepresented student populations into undergraduate STEM programs. Students entering college underprepared in math and science typically receive their only exposure to science at the undergraduate level in introductory courses in the Earth and space sciences. In many colleges a huge disparity exists in these classes between success rates amongst students from groups traditionally represented in the STEM fields and those from underrepresented populations. Closing the equity gap in success in these courses is a major focus of many pilot projects nationally. This concern has also led to the adoption of new teaching and learning practices, based on research in learning, in introductory Earth science pedagogy. Models of teaching practices including greater engagement, active learning approaches, and collaborative learning structures seem to help with student achievement in introductory courses. But, whereas these practices might increase overall student success they have not proven to close the equity gap in achievement. De Anza a two-year college in the San Francisco bay area has a long history in the geology department of incorporating and testing teaching practices developed out of research in learning. Collaborative learning has infused every aspect of our learning approaches in the Earth sciences, including laboratory, fieldwork, and test preparation. Though these approaches seemed to have educational benefit the huge equity gap department-wide persisted between targeted and non-targeted populations. Three years ago collaborative testing models were introduced into our geology and meteorology classes. The mechanism included methods for directly comparing collaborative to individual testing. The net result was that targeted populations including African Americans, Latinos, and Filipinos increased steadily at around 3.5% per year from 66% to 73%. The overall

  9. Empirical Succession Mapping and Data Assimilation to Constrain Demographic Processes in an Ecosystem Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R.; Andrews, T.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    Shifts in ecological communities in response to environmental change have implications for biodiversity, ecosystem function, and feedbacks to global climate change. Community composition is fundamentally the product of demography, but demographic processes are simplified or missing altogether in many ecosystem, Earth system, and species distribution models. This limitation arises in part because demographic data are noisy and difficult to synthesize. As a consequence, demographic processes are challenging to formulate in models in the first place, and to verify and constrain with data thereafter. Here, we used a novel analysis of the USFS Forest Inventory Analysis to improve the representation of demography in an ecosystem model. First, we created an Empirical Succession Mapping (ESM) based on ~1 million individual tree observations from the eastern U.S. to identify broad demographic patterns related to forest succession and disturbance. We used results from this analysis to guide reformulation of the Ecosystem Demography model (ED), an existing forest simulator with explicit tree demography. Results from the ESM reveal a coherent, cyclic pattern of change in temperate forest tree size and density over the eastern U.S. The ESM captures key ecological processes including succession, self-thinning, and gap-filling, and quantifies the typical trajectory of these processes as a function of tree size and stand density. Recruitment is most rapid in early-successional stands with low density and mean diameter, but slows as stand density increases; mean diameter increases until thinning promotes recruitment of small-diameter trees. Strikingly, the upper bound of size-density space that emerges in the ESM conforms closely to the self-thinning power law often observed in ecology. The ED model obeys this same overall size-density boundary, but overestimates plot-level growth, mortality, and fecundity rates, leading to unrealistic emergent demographic patterns. In particular

  10. Development and Evaluation of Model Algorithms to Account for Chemical Transformation in the Nearroad Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the development and evaluation of two new model algorithms for NOx chemistry in the R-LINE near-road dispersion model for traffic sources. With increased urbanization, there is increased mobility leading to higher amount of traffic related activity on a global scale. ...

  11. Accounting for correlated observations in an age-based state-space stock assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper Willestofte; Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Fish stock assessment models often relyon size- or age-specific observations that are assumed to be statistically independent of each other. In reality, these observations are not raw observations, but rather they are estimates from a catch-standardization model or similar summary statistics based...

  12. Development and Evaluation of Model Algorithms to Account for Chemical Transformation in the Nearroad Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the development and evaluation of two new model algorithms for NOx chemistry in the R-LINE near-road dispersion model for traffic sources. With increased urbanization, there is increased mobility leading to higher amount of traffic related activity on a global scale. ...

  13. Value-Added Models of Assessment: Implications for Motivation and Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M.; Anderman, Lynley H.; Yough, Michael S.; Gimbert, Belinda G.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we examine the relations of value-added models of measuring academic achievement to student motivation. Using an achievement goal orientation theory perspective, we argue that value-added models, which focus on the progress of individual students over time, are more closely aligned with research on student motivation than are more…

  14. Demand model for production of an enterprise taking into account factor of consumer expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Potrashkova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a dynamic mathematical model of demand for innovative and uninnovative production of enterprises. The model allows to estimate future demand as a result of consumer expectations of production quality. Consumer expectations are considered as the resource component of enterprise marketing potential.

  15. Rethinking motor learning and savings in adaptation paradigms: model-free memory for successful actions combines with internal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Vincent S; Haith, Adrian; Mazzoni, Pietro; Krakauer, John W

    2011-05-26

    Although motor learning is likely to involve multiple processes, phenomena observed in error-based motor learning paradigms tend to be conceptualized in terms of only a single process: adaptation, which occurs through updating an internal model. Here we argue that fundamental phenomena like movement direction biases, savings (faster relearning), and interference do not relate to adaptation but instead are attributable to two additional learning processes that can be characterized as model-free: use-dependent plasticity and operant reinforcement. Although usually "hidden" behind adaptation, we demonstrate, with modified visuomotor rotation paradigms, that these distinct model-based and model-free processes combine to learn an error-based motor task. (1) Adaptation of an internal model channels movements toward successful error reduction in visual space. (2) Repetition of the newly adapted movement induces directional biases toward the repeated movement. (3) Operant reinforcement through association of the adapted movement with successful error reduction is responsible for savings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modelling of L-valine Repeated Fed-batch Fermentation Process Taking into Account the Dissolved Oxygen Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanko Georgiev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with synthesis of dynamic unstructured model of variable volume fed-batch fermentation process with intensive droppings for L-valine production. The presented approach of the investigation includes the following main procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing and calculation of specific rates for main kinetic variables; identification of the specific rates takes into account the dissolved oxygen tension; establishment and optimisation of dynamic model of the process; simulation researches. MATLAB is used as a research environment.

  17. Designing for sustained adoption: A model of developing educational innovations for successful propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Raina; Henderson, Charles; Cole, Renée; Froyd, Jeffrey E.; Friedrichsen, Debra; Stanford, Courtney

    2016-06-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] The physics education research community has produced a wealth of knowledge about effective teaching and learning of college level physics. Based on this knowledge, many research-proven instructional strategies and teaching materials have been developed and are currently available to instructors. Unfortunately, these intensive research and development activities have failed to influence the teaching practices of many physics instructors. This paper describes interim results of a larger study to develop a model of designing materials for successful propagation. The larger study includes three phases, the first two of which are reported here. The goal of the first phase was to characterize typical propagation practices of education developers, using data from a survey of 1284 National Science Foundation (NSF) principal investigators and focus group data from eight disciplinary groups of NSF program directors. The goal of the second phase was to develop an understanding of successful practice by studying three instructional strategies that have been well propagated. The result of the first two phases is a tentative model of designing for successful propagation, which will be further validated in the third phase through purposeful sampling of additional well-propagated instructional strategies along with typical education development projects. We found that interaction with potential adopters was one of the key missing ingredients in typical education development activities. Education developers often develop a polished product before getting feedback, rely on mass-market communication channels for dissemination, and do not plan for supporting adopters during implementation. The tentative model resulting from this study identifies three key propagation activities: interactive development, interactive dissemination, and support of adopters. Interactive development

  18. Modeling coral calcification accounting for the impacts of coral bleaching and ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Evenhuis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems threatened by rising CO2 levels that are driving the observed increases in sea surface temperature and ocean acidification. Here we present a new unified model that links changes in temperature and carbonate chemistry to coral health. Changes in coral health and population are able to explicitly modelled by linking the rates of growth, recovery and calcification to the rates of bleaching and temperature stress induced mortality. The model is underpinned by four key principles: the Arrhenius equation, thermal specialisation, resource allocation trade-offs, and adaption to local environments. These general relationships allow this model to be constructed from a range of experimental and observational data. The different characteristics of this model are also assessed against independent data to show that the model captures the observed response of corals. We also provide new insights into the factors that determine calcification rates and provide a framework based on well-known biological principles for understanding the observed global distribution of calcification rates. Our results suggest that, despite the implicit complexity of the coral reef environment, a simple model based on temperature, carbonate chemistry and different species can reproduce much of the observed response of corals to changes in temperature and ocean acidification.

  19. Modeling coral calcification accounting for the impacts of coral bleaching and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, C.; Lenton, A.; Cantin, N. E.; Lough, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems threatened by rising CO2 levels that are driving the observed increases in sea surface temperature and ocean acidification. Here we present a new unified model that links changes in temperature and carbonate chemistry to coral health. Changes in coral health and population are able to explicitly modelled by linking the rates of growth, recovery and calcification to the rates of bleaching and temperature stress induced mortality. The model is underpinned by four key principles: the Arrhenius equation, thermal specialisation, resource allocation trade-offs, and adaption to local environments. These general relationships allow this model to be constructed from a range of experimental and observational data. The different characteristics of this model are also assessed against independent data to show that the model captures the observed response of corals. We also provide new insights into the factors that determine calcification rates and provide a framework based on well-known biological principles for understanding the observed global distribution of calcification rates. Our results suggest that, despite the implicit complexity of the coral reef environment, a simple model based on temperature, carbonate chemistry and different species can reproduce much of the observed response of corals to changes in temperature and ocean acidification.

  20. Reduced models accounting for parallel magnetic perturbations: gyrofluid and finite Larmor radius-Landau fluid approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, E.; Sulem, P. L.; Passot, T.

    2016-12-01

    Reduced models are derived for a strongly magnetized collisionless plasma at scales which are large relative to the electron thermal gyroradius and in two asymptotic regimes. One corresponds to cold ions and the other to far sub-ion scales. By including the electron pressure dynamics, these models improve the Hall reduced magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and the kinetic Alfvén wave model of Boldyrev et al. (2013 Astrophys. J., vol. 777, 2013, p. 41), respectively. We show that the two models can be obtained either within the gyrofluid formalism of Brizard (Phys. Fluids, vol. 4, 1992, pp. 1213-1228) or as suitable weakly nonlinear limits of the finite Larmor radius (FLR)-Landau fluid model of Sulem and Passot (J. Plasma Phys., vol 81, 2015, 325810103) which extends anisotropic Hall MHD by retaining low-frequency kinetic effects. It is noticeable that, at the far sub-ion scales, the simplifications originating from the gyroaveraging operators in the gyrofluid formalism and leading to subdominant ion velocity and temperature fluctuations, correspond, at the level of the FLR-Landau fluid, to cancellation between hydrodynamic contributions and ion finite Larmor radius corrections. Energy conservation properties of the models are discussed and an explicit example of a closure relation leading to a model with a Hamiltonian structure is provided.

  1. An individual-based model of Zebrafish population dynamics accounting for energy dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaudouin, Remy; Goussen, Benoit; Piccini, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Developing population dynamics models for zebrafish is crucial in order to extrapolate from toxicity data measured at the organism level to biological levels relevant to support and enhance ecological risk assessment. To achieve this, a dynamic energy budget for individual zebrafish (DEB model......, the predictions of the DEB-IBM were compared to existing observations on natural zebrafish populations and the predicted population dynamics are realistic. While our zebrafish DEB-IBM model can still be improved by acquiring new experimental data on the most uncertain processes (e.g. survival or feeding), it can...

  2. Mathematical modelling of complex equilibria taking into account experimental data on activities of components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, L.S.; Evseev, A.M.; Rozen, A.M.; Bobytev, A.P.; Kir' yanov, Yu.A. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1981-09-01

    The extraction systems, the application of which is possible when reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuels are considered. It is shown that the selection of the component activities as the observed properties of the system (responses) provides a possibility to model the equilibria using methods of the regression analysis. The mathematical model of nitric acid extraction with tributyl phosphate is presented. The data on the composition of the complexes in the system studied, obtained by the method of mathematical modelling, are confirmed with the study of the IR spectra of the extracts.

  3. Performance analysis of successive over relaxation method for solving glioma growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abida; Faye, Ibrahima; Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram

    2016-11-01

    Brain tumor is one of the prevalent cancers in the world that lead to death. In light of the present information of the properties of gliomas, mathematical models have been developed by scientists to quantify the proliferation and invasion dynamics of glioma. In this study, one-dimensional glioma growth model is considered, and finite difference method is used to discretize the problem. Then, two stationary methods, namely Gauss-Seidel (GS) and Successive Over Relaxation (SOR) are used to solve the governing algebraic system. The performance of the methods are evaluated in terms of number of iteration and computational time. On the basis of performance analysis, SOR method is shown to be more superior compared to GS method.

  4. Models of Success for the Romanian Economic Organizations: New Characteristics of the National Competitive Advantage Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Gelu LUPU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current period of uncertainty and economic stagnation, the national economies are trying to redefine and identify again the sources of the competitive advantage. The neo-Keynesian models are once more facing the liberal models, the austerity strategies are facing the investment strategies, the partisans of each of these opinions appreciating the opportunity of their own proposal. The results of the study come to align many of the specialists’ efforts, to contribute to identifying the optimum way of combining the resources, the mix of measures that can provide the lasting competitive advantage of the national economy, and, finally, to identify the component elements of the “Romanian diamond” of generating success and increasing external attractiveness.

  5. A new computational account of cognitive control over reinforcement-based decision-making: Modeling of a probabilistic learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehrouh, Sareh

    2015-11-01

    Recent work on decision-making field offers an account of dual-system theory for decision-making process. This theory holds that this process is conducted by two main controllers: a goal-directed system and a habitual system. In the reinforcement learning (RL) domain, the habitual behaviors are connected with model-free methods, in which appropriate actions are learned through trial-and-error experiences. However, goal-directed behaviors are associated with model-based methods of RL, in which actions are selected using a model of the environment. Studies on cognitive control also suggest that during processes like decision-making, some cortical and subcortical structures work in concert to monitor the consequences of decisions and to adjust control according to current task demands. Here a computational model is presented based on dual system theory and cognitive control perspective of decision-making. The proposed model is used to simulate human performance on a variant of probabilistic learning task. The basic proposal is that the brain implements a dual controller, while an accompanying monitoring system detects some kinds of conflict including a hypothetical cost-conflict one. The simulation results address existing theories about two event-related potentials, namely error related negativity (ERN) and feedback related negativity (FRN), and explore the best account of them. Based on the results, some testable predictions are also presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An agent-based simulation model of patient choice of health care providers in accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrahim, Abdullah; Wu, Shinyi

    2016-10-04

    Accountable care organizations (ACO) in the United States show promise in controlling health care costs while preserving patients' choice of providers. Understanding the effects of patient choice is critical in novel payment and delivery models like ACO that depend on continuity of care and accountability. The financial, utilization, and behavioral implications associated with a patient's decision to forego local health care providers for more distant ones to access higher quality care remain unknown. To study this question, we used an agent-based simulation model of a health care market composed of providers able to form ACO serving patients and embedded it in a conditional logit decision model to examine patients capable of choosing their care providers. This simulation focuses on Medicare beneficiaries and their congestive heart failure (CHF) outcomes. We place the patient agents in an ACO delivery system model in which provider agents decide if they remain in an ACO and perform a quality improving CHF disease management intervention. Illustrative results show that allowing patients to choose their providers reduces the yearly payment per CHF patient by $320, reduces mortality rates by 0.12 percentage points and hospitalization rates by 0.44 percentage points, and marginally increases provider participation in ACO. This study demonstrates a model capable of quantifying the effects of patient choice in a theoretical ACO system and provides a potential tool for policymakers to understand implications of patient choice and assess potential policy controls.

  7. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ in 1987, this article maps out the important themes...... and discussions that have emerged from the interdisciplinary field of ageing research. These include an emphasis on interdisciplinarity; the interaction between biology, psycho-social contexts and lifestyle choices; the experiences of elderly people; life-course perspectives; optimisation and prevention...... strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of ‘ successful ageing’....

  8. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ in 1987, this article maps out the important themes...... and discussions that have emerged from the interdisciplinary field of ageing research. These include an emphasis on interdisciplinarity; the interaction between biology, psycho-social contexts and lifestyle choices; the experiences of elderly people; life-course perspectives; optimisation and prevention...... strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of ‘ successful ageing’....

  9. Making Collaborative Innovation Accountable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    The public sector is increasingly expected to be innovative, but the prize for a more innovative public sector might be that it becomes difficult to hold public authorities to account for their actions. The article explores the tensions between innovative and accountable governance, describes...... the foundation for these tensions in different accountability models, and suggest directions to take in analyzing the accountability of collaborative innovation processes....

  10. Accounting for scattering in the Landauer-Datta-Lundstrom transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрій Олексійович Кругляк

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scattering of carriers in the LDL transport model during the changes of the scattering times in the collision processes is considered qualitatively. The basic relationship between the transmission coefficient T and the average mean free path  is derived for 1D conductor. As an example, the experimental data for Si MOSFET are analyzed with the use of various models of reliability.

  11. A retinal circuit model accounting for wide-field amacrine cells

    OpenAIRE

    SAĞLAM, Murat; Hayashida, Yuki; Murayama, Nobuki

    2008-01-01

    In previous experimental studies on the visual processing in vertebrates, higher-order visual functions such as the object segregation from background were found even in the retinal stage. Previously, the “linear–nonlinear” (LN) cascade models have been applied to the retinal circuit, and succeeded to describe the input-output dynamics for certain parts of the circuit, e.g., the receptive field of the outer retinal neurons. And recently, some abstract models composed of LN cascades as the cir...

  12. Loading Processes Dynamics Modelling Taking into Account the Bucket-Soil Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Debeleac

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The author propose three dynamic models specialized for the vibrations and resistive forces analysis that appear at the loading process with different construction equipment like frontal loaders and excavators.The models used putting into evidence the components of digging: penetration, cutting, and loading.The conclusions of this study consist by evidentiate the dynamic overloads that appear on the working state and that induced the self-oscillations into the equipment structure.

  13. Validation of a Prediction Model for Vaginal Birth after Cesarean Delivery Reveals Unexpected Success in a Diverse American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maykin, Melanie Mai; Mularz, Amanda J.; Lee, Lydia K.; Valderramos, Stephanie Gaw

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the validity of a prediction model for success of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) in an ethnically diverse population. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of women admitted at a single academic institution for a trial of labor after cesarean from May 2007 to January 2015. Individual predicted success rates were calculated using the Maternal–Fetal Medicine Units Network prediction model. Participants were stratified into three probability-of-success groups: low (65%). The actual versus predicted success rates were compared. Results In total, 568 women met inclusion criteria. Successful VBAC occurred in 402 (71%), compared with a predicted success rate of 66% (p = 0.016). Actual VBAC success rates were higher than predicted by the model in the low (57 vs. 29%; p < 0.001) and moderate (61 vs. 52%; p = 0.003) groups. In the high probability group, the observed and predicted VBAC rates were the same (79%). Conclusion When the predicted success rate was above 65%, the model was highly accurate. In contrast, for women with predicted success rates <35%, actual VBAC rates were nearly twofold higher in our population, suggesting that they should not be discouraged by a low prediction score.

  14. Validation of a Prediction Model for Vaginal Birth after Cesarean Delivery Reveals Unexpected Success in a Diverse American Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maykin, Melanie Mai; Mularz, Amanda J; Lee, Lydia K; Valderramos, Stephanie Gaw

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the validity of a prediction model for success of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) in an ethnically diverse population. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of women admitted at a single academic institution for a trial of labor after cesarean from May 2007 to January 2015. Individual predicted success rates were calculated using the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network prediction model. Participants were stratified into three probability-of-success groups: low (65%). The actual versus predicted success rates were compared. Results In total, 568 women met inclusion criteria. Successful VBAC occurred in 402 (71%), compared with a predicted success rate of 66% (p = 0.016). Actual VBAC success rates were higher than predicted by the model in the low (57 vs. 29%; p success rate was above 65%, the model was highly accurate. In contrast, for women with predicted success rates <35%, actual VBAC rates were nearly twofold higher in our population, suggesting that they should not be discouraged by a low prediction score.

  15. An extended continuum model accounting for the driver's timid and aggressive attributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia [Faculty of Maritime and Transportation, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Jiangsu Province Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Urban Traffic Technologies, Nanjing 210096 (China); National Traffic Management Engineering and Technology Research Centre Ningbo University Sub-centre, Ningbo 315211 (China); Wang, Jufeng, E-mail: wjf@nit.zju.edu.cn [Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2017-04-18

    Considering the driver's timid and aggressive behaviors simultaneously, a new continuum model is put forwarded in this paper. By applying the linear stability theory, we presented the analysis of new model's linear stability. Through nonlinear analysis, the KdV–Burgers equation is derived to describe density wave near the neutral stability line. Numerical results verify that aggressive driving is better than timid act because the aggressive driver will adjust his speed timely according to the leading car's speed. The key improvement of this new model is that the timid driving deteriorates traffic stability while the aggressive driving will enhance traffic stability. The relationship of energy consumption between the aggressive and timid driving is also studied. Numerical results show that aggressive driver behavior can not only suppress the traffic congestion but also reduce the energy consumption. - Highlights: • A new continuum model is developed with the consideration of the driver's timid and aggressive behaviors simultaneously. • Applying the linear stability theory, the new model's linear stability is obtained. • Through nonlinear analysis, the KdV–Burgers equation is derived. • The energy consumption for this model is studied.

  16. A retinal circuit model accounting for wide-field amacrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Murat; Hayashida, Yuki; Murayama, Nobuki

    2009-03-01

    In previous experimental studies on the visual processing in vertebrates, higher-order visual functions such as the object segregation from background were found even in the retinal stage. Previously, the "linear-nonlinear" (LN) cascade models have been applied to the retinal circuit, and succeeded to describe the input-output dynamics for certain parts of the circuit, e.g., the receptive field of the outer retinal neurons. And recently, some abstract models composed of LN cascades as the circuit elements could explain the higher-order retinal functions. However, in such a model, each class of retinal neurons is mostly omitted and thus, how those neurons play roles in the visual computations cannot be explored. Here, we present a spatio-temporal computational model of the vertebrate retina, based on the response function for each class of retinal neurons and on the anatomical inter-cellular connections. This model was capable of not only reproducing the spatio-temporal filtering properties of the outer retinal neurons, but also realizing the object segregation mechanism in the inner retinal circuit involving the "wide-field" amacrine cells. Moreover, the first-order Wiener kernels calculated for the neurons in our model showed a reasonable fit to the kernels previously measured in the real retinal neuron in situ.

  17. Analysis of homogeneous/non-homogeneous nanofluid models accounting for nanofluid-surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R.

    2016-07-01

    This article reports an unbiased analysis for the water based rod shaped alumina nanoparticles by considering both the homogeneous and non-homogeneous nanofluid models over the coupled nanofluid-surface interface. The mechanics of the surface are found for both the homogeneous and non-homogeneous models, which were ignored in previous studies. The viscosity and thermal conductivity data are implemented from the international nanofluid property benchmark exercise. All the simulations are being done by using the experimentally verified results. By considering the homogeneous and non-homogeneous models, the precise movement of the alumina nanoparticles over the surface has been observed by solving the corresponding system of differential equations. For the non-homogeneous model, a uniform temperature and nanofluid volume fraction are assumed at the surface, and the flux of the alumina nanoparticle is taken as zero. The assumption of zero nanoparticle flux at the surface makes the non-homogeneous model physically more realistic. The differences of all profiles for both the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous models are insignificant, and this is due to small deviations in the values of the Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters.

  18. Modelling coral calcification accounting for the impacts of coral bleaching and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, C.; Lenton, A.; Cantin, N. E.; Lough, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems that are threatened by rising CO2 levels through increases in sea surface temperature and ocean acidification. Here we present a new unified model that links changes in temperature and carbonate chemistry to coral health. Changes in coral health and population are explicitly modelled by linking rates of growth, recovery and calcification to rates of bleaching and temperature-stress-induced mortality. The model is underpinned by four key principles: the Arrhenius equation, thermal specialisation, correlated up- and down-regulation of traits that are consistent with resource allocation trade-offs, and adaption to local environments. These general relationships allow this model to be constructed from a range of experimental and observational data. The performance of the model is assessed against independent data to demonstrate how it can capture the observed response of corals to stress. We also provide new insights into the factors that determine calcification rates and provide a framework based on well-known biological principles to help understand the observed global distribution of calcification rates. Our results suggest that, despite the implicit complexity of the coral reef environment, a simple model based on temperature, carbonate chemistry and different species can give insights into how corals respond to changes in temperature and ocean acidification.

  19. Carbon accounting and economic model uncertainty of emissions from biofuels-induced land use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevin, Richard J; Beckman, Jayson; Golub, Alla A; Witcover, Julie; O'Hare, Michael

    2015-03-03

    Few of the numerous published studies of the emissions from biofuels-induced "indirect" land use change (ILUC) attempt to propagate and quantify uncertainty, and those that have done so have restricted their analysis to a portion of the modeling systems used. In this study, we pair a global, computable general equilibrium model with a model of greenhouse gas emissions from land-use change to quantify the parametric uncertainty in the paired modeling system's estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from ILUC induced by expanded production of three biofuels. We find that for the three fuel systems examined--US corn ethanol, Brazilian sugar cane ethanol, and US soybean biodiesel--95% of the results occurred within ±20 g CO2e MJ(-1) of the mean (coefficient of variation of 20-45%), with economic model parameters related to crop yield and the productivity of newly converted cropland (from forestry and pasture) contributing most of the variance in estimated ILUC emissions intensity. Although the experiments performed here allow us to characterize parametric uncertainty, changes to the model structure have the potential to shift the mean by tens of grams of CO2e per megajoule and further broaden distributions for ILUC emission intensities.

  20. Early structure formation with cold plus hot dark matter a success of strings plus inflation model

    CERN Document Server

    Battye, R A; Weller, J; Battye, Richard A.; Magueijo, Joao; Weller, Jochen

    1999-01-01

    Quantum fluctuations created during inflation can account for the observed matter distribution in the linear regime if the universe has two components of dark matter, one which is cold and collisionless, and the other which is hot and free streams on small scales. However, this free streaming property of the hot component prevents early structure formation, and since objects, such as damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ systems, have been observed at high redshift, it is necessary to produce more power on small scales. Here, we show that the situation can be improved substantially in models where cosmic strings are formed at the end of inflation, and in which both inflation and strings participate in the generation of structure.

  1. Accounting for anthropogenic actions in modeling of stream flow at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The modeling of the horizontal movement of water from land to coasts at scales ranging from 10^5 km^2 to 10^6 km^2 has benefited from extensive research within the past two decades. In parallel, community technology for gathering/sharing surface water observations and datasets for describing the geography of terrestrial water bodies have recently had groundbreaking advancements. Yet, the fields of computational hydrology and hydroinformatics have barely started to work hand-in-hand, and much research remains to be performed before we can better understand the anthropogenic impact on surface water through combined observations and models. Here, we build on our existing river modeling approach that leverages community state-of-the-art tools such as atmospheric data from the second phase of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS2), river networks from the enhanced National Hydrography Dataset (NHDPlus), and observations from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS) obtained through CUAHSI webservices. Modifications are made to our integrated observational/modeling system to include treatment for anthropogenic actions such as dams, pumping and divergences in river networks. Initial results of a study focusing on the entire State of California suggest that availability of data describing human alterations on natural river networks associated with proper representation of such actions in our models could help advance hydrology further. Snapshot from an animation of flow in California river networks. The full animation is available at: http://www.ucchm.org/david/rapid.htm.

  2. An extended continuum model accounting for the driver's timid and aggressive attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia; Wang, Jufeng

    2017-04-01

    Considering the driver's timid and aggressive behaviors simultaneously, a new continuum model is put forwarded in this paper. By applying the linear stability theory, we presented the analysis of new model's linear stability. Through nonlinear analysis, the KdV-Burgers equation is derived to describe density wave near the neutral stability line. Numerical results verify that aggressive driving is better than timid act because the aggressive driver will adjust his speed timely according to the leading car's speed. The key improvement of this new model is that the timid driving deteriorates traffic stability while the aggressive driving will enhance traffic stability. The relationship of energy consumption between the aggressive and timid driving is also studied. Numerical results show that aggressive driver behavior can not only suppress the traffic congestion but also reduce the energy consumption.

  3. Model of Environmental Development of the Urbanized Areas: Accounting of Ecological and other Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanina, E. N.; Pandakov, K. G.; Agapov, D. A.; Sorokina, Yu V.; Vasiliev, E. H.

    2017-05-01

    Modern cities and towns are often characterized by poor administration, which could be the reason of environmental degradation, the poverty growth, decline in economic growth and social isolation. In these circumstances it is really important to conduct fresh researches forming new ways of sustainable development of administrative districts. This development of the urban areas depends on many interdependent factors: ecological, economic, social. In this article we show some theoretical aspects of forming a model of environmental progress of the urbanized areas. We submit some model containing four levels including natural resources capacities of the territory, its social features, economic growth and human impact. The author describes the interrelations of elements of the model. In this article the program of environmental development of a city is offered and it could be used in any urban area.

  4. Multiphysics Model of Palladium Hydride Isotope Exchange Accounting for Higher Dimensionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Eliassi, Mehdi; Bon, Bradley Luis

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes computational model developm ent and simulations results for a series of isotope exchange dynamics experiments i ncluding long and thin isothermal beds similar to the Foltz and Melius beds and a lar ger non-isothermal experiment on the NENG7 test bed. The multiphysics 2D axi-symmetr ic model simulates the temperature and pressure dependent exchange reactio n kinetics, pressure and isotope dependent stoichiometry, heat generation from the r eaction, reacting gas flow through porous media, and non-uniformities in the bed perme ability. The new model is now able to replicate the curved reaction front and asy mmetry of the exit gas mass fractions over time. The improved understanding of the exchange process and its dependence on the non-uniform bed properties and te mperatures in these larger systems is critical to the future design of such sy stems.

  5. A new model to simulate climate-change impacts on forest succession for local land management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yospin, Gabriel I; Bridgham, Scott D; Neilson, Ronald P; Bolte, John P; Bachelet, Dominique M; Gould, Peter J; Harrington, Constance A; Kertis, Jane A; Evers, Cody; Johnson, Bart R

    2015-01-01

    We developed a new climate-sensitive vegetation state-and-transition simulation model (CV-STSM) to simulate future vegetation at a fine spatial grain commensurate with the scales of human land-use decisions, and under the joint influences of changing climate, site productivity, and disturbance. CV-STSM integrates outputs from four different modeling systems. Successional changes in tree species composition and stand structure were represented as transition probabilities and organized into a state-and-transition simulation model. States were characterized based on assessments of both current vegetation and of projected future vegetation from a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM). State definitions included sufficient detail to support the integration of CV-STSM with an agent-based model of land-use decisions and a mechanistic model of fire behavior and spread. Transition probabilities were parameterized using output from a stand biometric model run across a wide range of site productivities. Biogeographic and biogeochemical projections from the DGVM were used to adjust the transition probabilities to account for the impacts of climate change on site productivity and potential vegetation type. We conducted experimental simulations in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, USA. Our simulation landscape incorporated detailed new assessments of critically imperiled Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana) savanna and prairie habitats among the suite of existing and future vegetation types. The experimental design fully crossed four future climate scenarios with three disturbance scenarios. CV-STSM showed strong interactions between climate and disturbance scenarios. All disturbance scenarios increased the abundance of oak savanna habitat, but an interaction between the most intense disturbance and climate-change scenarios also increased the abundance of subtropical tree species. Even so, subtropical tree species were far less abundant at the end of simulations in CV-STSM than in

  6. Does Don Fisher's high-pressure manifold model account for phloem transport and resource partitioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John W

    2013-01-01

    The pressure flow model of phloem transport envisaged by Münch (1930) has gained wide acceptance. Recently, however, the model has been questioned on structural and physiological grounds. For instance, sub-structures of sieve elements may reduce their hydraulic conductances to levels that impede flow rates of phloem sap and observed magnitudes of pressure gradients to drive flow along sieve tubes could be inadequate in tall trees. A variant of the Münch pressure flow model, the high-pressure manifold model of phloem transport introduced by Donald Fisher may serve to reconcile at least some of these questions. To this end, key predicted features of the high-pressure manifold model of phloem transport are evaluated against current knowledge of the physiology of phloem transport. These features include: (1) An absence of significant gradients in axial hydrostatic pressure in sieve elements from collection to release phloem accompanied by transport properties of sieve elements that underpin this outcome; (2) Symplasmic pathways of phloem unloading into sink organs impose a major constraint over bulk flow rates of resources translocated through the source-path-sink system; (3) Hydraulic conductances of plasmodesmata, linking sieve elements with surrounding phloem parenchyma cells, are sufficient to support and also regulate bulk flow rates exiting from sieve elements of release phloem. The review identifies strong circumstantial evidence that resource transport through the source-path-sink system is consistent with the high-pressure manifold model of phloem transport. The analysis then moves to exploring mechanisms that may link demand for resources, by cells of meristematic and expansion/storage sinks, with plasmodesmal conductances of release phloem. The review concludes with a brief discussion of how these mechanisms may offer novel opportunities to enhance crop biomass yields.

  7. Taking dietary habits into account: A computational method for modeling food choices that goes beyond price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Igusa, Takeru

    2017-01-01

    Computational models have gained popularity as a predictive tool for assessing proposed policy changes affecting dietary choice. Specifically, they have been used for modeling dietary changes in response to economic interventions, such as price and income changes. Herein, we present a novel addition to this type of model by incorporating habitual behaviors that drive individuals to maintain or conform to prior eating patterns. We examine our method in a simulated case study of food choice behaviors of low-income adults in the US. We use data from several national datasets, including the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and the USDA, to parameterize our model and develop predictive capabilities in 1) quantifying the influence of prior diet preferences when food budgets are increased and 2) simulating the income elasticities of demand for four food categories. Food budgets can increase because of greater affordability (due to food aid and other nutritional assistance programs), or because of higher income. Our model predictions indicate that low-income adults consume unhealthy diets when they have highly constrained budgets, but that even after budget constraints are relaxed, these unhealthy eating behaviors are maintained. Specifically, diets in this population, before and after changes in food budgets, are characterized by relatively low consumption of fruits and vegetables and high consumption of fat. The model results for income elasticities also show almost no change in consumption of fruit and fat in response to changes in income, which is in agreement with data from the World Bank's International Comparison Program (ICP). Hence, the proposed method can be used in assessing the influences of habitual dietary patterns on the effectiveness of food policies.

  8. Mathematical modeling of pigment dispersion taking into account the full agglomerate particle size distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2017-01-01

    particle size distribution was simulated. Data from two previous experimental investigations were used for model validation. The first concerns two different yellow organic pigments dispersed in nitrocellulose/ethanol vehicles in a ball mill and the second a red organic pigment dispersed in a solvent-based....... The only adjustable parameter used was an apparent rate constant for the linear agglomerate erosion rate. Model simulations, at selected values of time, for the full agglomerate particle size distribution were in good qualitative agreement with the measured values. A quantitative match of the experimental...

  9. Accounting for Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pflueger, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Background Accounting-that is, standardized measurement, public reporting, performance evaluation and managerial control-is commonly seen to provide the core infrastructure for quality improvement in healthcare. Yet, accounting successfully for quality has been a problematic endeavor, often......, but that it would need to be understood and operationalized in new ways in order to contribute to this end. Proposals for this new way of advancing accounting are discussed. They include the cultivation of overlapping and even conflicting measures of quality, the evaluation of accounting regimes in terms of what...... producing dysfunctional effects. This has raised questions about the appropriate role for accounting in achieving quality improvement. This paper contributes to this debate by contrasting the specific way in which accounting is understood and operationalized for quality improvement in the UK National Health...

  10. Creative Accounting Model for Increasing Banking Industries’ Competitive Advantage in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bank Indonesia demands that the national banks should improve their transparency of financial condition and performance for public in line with the development of their products and activities. Furthermore, the banks’ financial statements of Bank Indonesia have become the basis for determining the status of their soundness. In fact, they tend to practice earnings management in order that they can meet the crite-ria required by Bank Indonesia. For internal purposes, the initiative of earning management has a positive impact on the performance of management. However, for the users of financial statements, it may dif-fer, for example for the value of company, length of time the financial audit, and other aspects of tax evasion by the banks. This study tries to find out 1 the effect of GCG on Earnings Management, 2 the effect of earning management on Company value, theAudit Report Lag, and Taxation, and 3 the effect of Audit Report Lag on Corporate Value and Taxation. This is a quantitative research with the data collected from the bank financial statements, GCG implementation report, and the banks’ annual reports of 2003-2013. There were 41 banks taken using purposive sampling, as listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results showed that the implementation of GCG affects the occurrence of earning management. Accounting policy flexibility through earning management is expected to affect the length of the audit process and the accuracy of the financial statements presentation on public side. This research is expected to provide managerial implications in order to consider the possibility of earnings management practices in the banking industry. In the long term, earning management is expected to improve the banks’ competitiveness through an increase in the value of the company. Explicitly, earning management also affects the tax avoidance; therefore, the banks intend to pay lower taxes without breaking the existing legislation Taxation

  11. Creative Accounting Model for Increasing Banking Industries’ Competitive Advantage in Indonesia (P.197-207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati Supriyati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bank Indonesia demands that the national banks should improve their transparency of financial condition and performance for public in line with the development of their products and activities. Furthermore, the banks’ financial statements of Bank Indonesia have become the basis for determining the status of their soundness. In fact, they tend to practice earnings management in order that they can meet the criteria required by Bank Indonesia. For internal purposes, the initiative of earning management has a positive impact on the performance of management. However, for the users of financial statements, it may differ, for example for the value of company, length of time the financial audit, and other aspects of tax evasion by the banks. This study tries to find out 1 the effect of GCG on Earnings Management, 2 the effect of earning management on Company value, the Audit Report Lag, and Taxation, and 3 the effect of Audit Report Lag on Corporate Value and Taxation. This is a quantitative research with the data collected from the bank financial statements, GCG implementation report, and the banks’ annual reports of 2003-2013. There were 41 banks taken using purposive sampling, as listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results showed that the implementation of GCG affects the occurrence of earning management. Accounting policy flexibility through earning management is expected to affect the length of the audit process and the accuracy of the financial statements presentation on public side. This research is expected to provide managerial implications in order to consider the possibility of earnings management practices in the banking industry. In the long term, earning management is expected to improve the banks’ competitiveness through an increase in the value of the company. Explicitly, earning management also affects the tax avoidance; therefore, the banks intend to pay lower taxes without breaking the existing legislation Taxation

  12. Accountability and non-proliferation nuclear regime: a review of the mutual surveillance Brazilian-Argentine model for nuclear safeguards; Accountability e regime de nao proliferacao nuclear: uma avaliacao do modelo de vigilancia mutua brasileiro-argentina de salvaguardas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles

    2014-08-01

    The regimes of accountability, the organizations of global governance and institutional arrangements of global governance of nuclear non-proliferation and of Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine of Nuclear Safeguards are the subject of research. The starting point is the importance of the institutional model of global governance for the effective control of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. In this context, the research investigates how to structure the current arrangements of the international nuclear non-proliferation and what is the performance of model Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine of Nuclear Safeguards in relation to accountability regimes of global governance. For that, was searched the current literature of three theoretical dimensions: accountability, global governance and global governance organizations. In relation to the research method was used the case study and the treatment technique of data the analysis of content. The results allowed: to establish an evaluation model based on accountability mechanisms; to assess how behaves the model Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine Nuclear Safeguards front of the proposed accountability regime; and to measure the degree to which regional arrangements that work with systems of global governance can strengthen these international systems. (author)

  13. Triple Diagonal modeling: A mechanism to focus productivity improvement for business success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Villareal, L.D. [Army Depot, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Triple Diagonal (M) modeling is a technique to help quickly diagnose an organization`s existing production system and to identify significant improvement opportunities in executing, controlling, and planning operations. TD modeling is derived from ICAM Definition Language (IDEF 0)-also known as Structured Analysis and Design Technique. It has been used successfully at several Department of Defense remanufacturing facilities trying to accomplish significant production system modernization. TD has several advantages over other modeling techniques. First, it quickly does ``As-ls`` analysis and then moves on to identify improvements. Second, creating one large diagram makes it easier to share the TD model throughout an organization, rather than the many linked 8 1/2 {times} 11`` drawings used in traditional decomposition approaches. Third, it acts as a communication mechanism to share understanding about improvement opportunities that may cross existing functional/organizational boundaries. Finally, TD acts as a vehicle to build a consensus on a prioritized list of improvement efforts that ``hangs togethers as an agenda for systemic changes in the production system and the improved integration of support functions.

  14. Hierarchical Bayesian Markov switching models with application to predicting spawning success of shovelnose sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, S.H.; Davis, G.M.; Wildhaber, M.L.; DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The timing of spawning in fish is tightly linked to environmental factors; however, these factors are not very well understood for many species. Specifically, little information is available to guide recruitment efforts for endangered species such as the sturgeon. Therefore, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for predicting the success of spawning of the shovelnose sturgeon which uses both biological and behavioural (longitudinal) data. In particular, we use data that were produced from a tracking study that was conducted in the Lower Missouri River. The data that were produced from this study consist of biological variables associated with readiness to spawn along with longitudinal behavioural data collected by using telemetry and archival data storage tags. These high frequency data are complex both biologically and in the underlying behavioural process. To accommodate such complexity we developed a hierarchical linear regression model that uses an eigenvalue predictor, derived from the transition probability matrix of a two-state Markov switching model with generalized auto-regressive conditional heteroscedastic dynamics. Finally, to minimize the computational burden that is associated with estimation of this model, a parallel computing approach is proposed. ?? Journal compilation 2009 Royal Statistical Society.

  15. An Exemplar-Model Account of Feature Inference from Uncertain Categorizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    In a highly systematic literature, researchers have investigated the manner in which people make feature inferences in paradigms involving uncertain categorizations (e.g., Griffiths, Hayes, & Newell, 2012; Murphy & Ross, 1994, 2007, 2010a). Although researchers have discussed the implications of the results for models of categorization and…

  16. Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment in Chinese Contexts: A Tripartite Model of Accountability, Improvement, and Irrelevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gavin T. L.; Hui, Sammy K. F.; Yu, Flora W. M.; Kennedy, Kerry J.

    2011-01-01

    The beliefs teachers have about assessment influence classroom practices and reflect cultural and societal differences. This paper reports the development of a new self-report inventory to examine beliefs teachers in Hong Kong and southern China contexts have about the nature and purpose of assessment. A statistically equivalent model for Hong…

  17. Accounting for false-positive acoustic detections of bats using occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew J.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    1. Acoustic surveys have become a common survey method for bats and other vocal taxa. Previous work shows that bat echolocation may be misidentified, but common analytic methods, such as occupancy models, assume that misidentifications do not occur. Unless rare, such misidentifications could lead to incorrect inferences with significant management implications.

  18. A Mathematical Model Accounting for the Organisation in Multiplets of the Genetic Code

    OpenAIRE

    Sciarrino, A.

    2001-01-01

    Requiring stability of genetic code against translation errors, modelised by suitable mathematical operators in the crystal basis model of the genetic code, the main features of the organisation in multiplets of the mitochondrial and of the standard genetic code are explained.

  19. Practical Model for First Hyperpolarizability Dispersion Accounting for Both Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Broadening Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Jochen; Wenseleers, Wim; Hales, Joel M; Makarov, Nikolay S; Perry, Joseph W

    2012-08-16

    A practical yet accurate dispersion model for the molecular first hyperpolarizability β is presented, incorporating both homogeneous and inhomogeneous line broadening because these affect the β dispersion differently, even if they are indistinguishable in linear absorption. Consequently, combining the absorption spectrum with one free shape-determining parameter Ginhom, the inhomogeneous line width, turns out to be necessary and sufficient to obtain a reliable description of the β dispersion, requiring no information on the homogeneous (including vibronic) and inhomogeneous line broadening mechanisms involved, providing an ideal model for practical use in extrapolating experimental nonlinear optical (NLO) data. The model is applied to the efficient NLO chromophore picolinium quinodimethane, yielding an excellent fit of the two-photon resonant wavelength-dependent data and a dependable static value β0 = 316 × 10(-30) esu. Furthermore, we show that including a second electronic excited state in the model does yield an improved description of the NLO data at shorter wavelengths but has only limited influence on β0.

  20. Fluid Simulations with Atomistic Resolution: Multiscale Model with Account of Nonlocal Momentum Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svitenkov, A.I.; Chivilikhin, S.A.; Hoekstra, A.G.; Boukhanovsky, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Nano- and microscale flow phenomena turn out to be highly non-trivial for simulation and require the use of heterogeneous modeling approaches. While the continuum Navier-Stokes equations and related boundary conditions quickly break down at those scales, various direct simulation methods and hybrid

  1. Accountability in Training Transfer: Adapting Schlenker's Model of Responsibility to a Persistent but Solvable Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lisa A.; Saks, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Decades have been spent studying training transfer in organizational environments in recognition of a transfer problem in organizations. Theoretical models of various antecedents, empirical studies of transfer interventions, and studies of best practices have all been advanced to address this continued problem. Yet a solution may not be so…

  2. Working Memory Span Development: A Time-Based Resource-Sharing Model Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gavens, Nathalie; Vergauwe, Evie; Gaillard, Vinciane; Camos, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    The time-based resource-sharing model (P. Barrouillet, S. Bernardin, & V. Camos, 2004) assumes that during complex working memory span tasks, attention is frequently and surreptitiously switched from processing to reactivate decaying memory traces before their complete loss. Three experiments involving children from 5 to 14 years of age…

  3. A coupled surface/subsurface flow model accounting for air entrapment and air pressure counterflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delfs, Jens Olaf; Wang, Wenqing; Kalbacher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces the soil air system into integrated hydrology by simulating the flow processes and interactions of surface runoff, soil moisture and air in the shallow subsurface. The numerical model is formulated as a coupled system of partial differential equations for hydrostatic (diffusive...

  4. Taking the Error Term of the Factor Model into Account: The Factor Score Predictor Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauducel, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The problem of factor score indeterminacy implies that the factor and the error scores cannot be completely disentangled in the factor model. It is therefore proposed to compute Harman's factor score predictor that contains an additive combination of factor and error variance. This additive combination is discussed in the framework of classical…

  5. Spatial modelling and ecosystem accounting for land use planning: addressing deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumarga, E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is a new area of environmental economic accounting that aims to measure ecosystem services in a way that is in line with national accounts. The key characteristics of ecosystem accounting include the extension of the valuation boundary of the System of National Accounts, allowin

  6. Spatial modelling and ecosystem accounting for land use planning: addressing deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumarga, E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is a new area of environmental economic accounting that aims to measure ecosystem services in a way that is in line with national accounts. The key characteristics of ecosystem accounting include the extension of the valuation boundary of the System of National Accounts,

  7. MODIS Inundation Estimate Assimilation into Soil Moisture Accounting Hydrologic Model: A Case Study in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Posner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Flash Flood Guidance consists of indices that estimate the amount of rain of a certain duration that is needed over a given small basin in order to cause minor flooding. Backwater catchment inundation from swollen rivers or regional groundwater inputs are not significant over the spatial and temporal scales for the majority of upland flash flood prone basins, as such, these effects are not considered. However, some lowland areas and flat terrain near large rivers experience standing water long after local precipitation has ceased. NASA is producing an experimental product from the MODIS that detects standing water. These observations were assimilated into the hydrologic model in order to more accurately represent soil moisture conditions within basins, from sources of water from outside of the basin. Based on the upper soil water content, relations are used to derive an error estimate for the modeled soil saturation fraction; whereby, the soil saturation fraction model state can be updated given the availability of satellite observed inundation. Model error estimates were used in a Monte Carlo ensemble forecast of soil water and flash flood potential. Numerical experiments with six months of data (July 2011–December 2011 showed that MODIS inundation data, when assimilated to correct soil moisture estimates, increased the likelihood that bankfull flow would occur, over non-assimilated modeling, at catchment outlets for approximately 44% of basin-days during the study time period. While this is a much more realistic representation of conditions, no actual events occurred allowing for validation during the time period.

  8. A Semi-Empirical Model for Tilted-Gun Planar Magnetron Sputtering Accounting for Chimney Shadowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, J. K.; Metting, C. J.; Hattrick-Simpers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) approaches to composition and thickness profiles of sputtered thin-film samples are the key to expediting materials exploration for these materials. Here, an ICME-based semi-empirical approach to modeling the thickness of thin-film samples deposited via magnetron sputtering is developed. Using Yamamura's dimensionless differential angular sputtering yield and a measured deposition rate at a point in space for a single experimental condition, the model predicts the deposition profile from planar DC sputtering sources. The model includes corrections for off-center, tilted gun geometries as well as shadowing effects from gun chimneys used in most state-of-the-art sputtering systems. The modeling algorithm was validated by comparing its results with experimental deposition rates obtained from a sputtering system utilizing sources with a multi-piece chimney assembly that consists of a lower ground shield and a removable gas chimney. Simulations were performed for gun-tilts ranging from 0° to 31.3° from the vertical with and without the gas chimney installed. The results for the predicted and experimental angular dependence of the sputtering deposition rate were found to have an average magnitude of relative error of for a 0°-31.3° gun-tilt range without the gas chimney, and for a 17.7°-31.3° gun-tilt range with the gas chimney. The continuum nature of the model renders this approach reverse-optimizable, providing a rapid tool for assisting in the understanding of the synthesis-composition-property space of novel materials.

  9. Codon-substitution models to detect adaptive evolution that account for heterogeneous selective pressures among site classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ziheng; Swanson, Willie J

    2002-01-01

    The nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratio (omega = d(N)/d(S)) provides a sensitive measure of selective pressure at the protein level, with omega values 1 indicating purifying selection, neutral evolution, and diversifying selection, respectively. Maximum likelihood models of codon substitution developed recently account for variable selective pressures among amino acid sites by employing a statistical distribution for the omega ratio among sites. Those models, called random-sites models, are suitable when we do not know a priori which sites are under what kind of selective pressure. Sometimes prior information (such as the tertiary structure of the protein) might be available to partition sites in the protein into different classes, which are expected to be under different selective pressures. It is then sensible to use such information in the model. In this paper, we implement maximum likelihood models for prepartitioned data sets, which account for the heterogeneity among site partitions by using different omega parameters for the partitions. The models, referred to as fixed-sites models, are also useful for combined analysis of multiple genes from the same set of species. We apply the models to data sets of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I alleles from human populations and of the abalone sperm lysin genes. Structural information is used to partition sites in MHC into two classes: those in the antigen recognition site (ARS) and those outside. Positive selection is detected in the ARS by the fixed-sites models. Similarly, sites in lysin are classified into the buried and solvent-exposed classes according to the tertiary structure, and positive selection was detected at the solvent-exposed sites. The random-sites models identified a number of sites under positive selection in each data set, confirming and elaborating the results of the fixed-sites models. The analysis demonstrates the utility of the fixed-sites models, as well as

  10. Refining Sunrise/set Prediction Models by Accounting for the Effects of Refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Current atmospheric models used to predict the times of sunrise and sunset have an error of one to four minutes at mid-latitudes (0° - 55° N/S). At higher latitudes, slight changes in refraction may cause significant discrepancies, including determining even whether the Sun appears to rise or set. While different components of refraction are known, how they affect predictions of sunrise/set has not yet been quantified. A better understanding of the contributions from temperature profile, pressure, humidity, and aerosols, could significantly improve the standard prediction. Because sunrise/set times and meteorological data from multiple locations will be necessary for a thorough investigation of the problem, we will collect this data using smartphones as part of a citizen science project. This analysis will lead to more complete models that will provide more accurate times for navigators and outdoorsman alike.

  11. Tree biomass in the Swiss landscape: nationwide modelling for improved accounting for forest and non-forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, B; Gomez, A; Mathys, L; Gardi, O; Schellenberger, A; Ginzler, C; Thürig, E

    2017-03-01

    Trees outside forest (TOF) can perform a variety of social, economic and ecological functions including carbon sequestration. However, detailed quantification of tree biomass is usually limited to forest areas. Taking advantage of structural information available from stereo aerial imagery and airborne laser scanning (ALS), this research models tree biomass using national forest inventory data and linear least-square regression and applies the model both inside and outside of forest to create a nationwide model for tree biomass (above ground and below ground). Validation of the tree biomass model against TOF data within settlement areas shows relatively low model performance (R (2) of 0.44) but still a considerable improvement on current biomass estimates used for greenhouse gas inventory and carbon accounting. We demonstrate an efficient and easily implementable approach to modelling tree biomass across a large heterogeneous nationwide area. The model offers significant opportunity for improved estimates on land use combination categories (CC) where tree biomass has either not been included or only roughly estimated until now. The ALS biomass model also offers the advantage of providing greater spatial resolution and greater within CC spatial variability compared to the current nationwide estimates.

  12. Diabetes reversal via gene transfer: building on successes in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerace D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dario Gerace,1,* Rosetta Martiniello-Wilks,1,2,* Ann M Simpson1 1School of Medical and Molecular Biosciences, Centre for Health Technologies, 2Translational Cancer Research Group, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia  *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Type 1 diabetes (T1D is caused by the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. People with T1D manage their hyperglycemia using daily insulin injections; however, this does not prevent the development of long-term diabetic complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and various macrovascular disorders. Currently, the only "cure" for T1D is pancreas transplantation or islet-cell transplantation; however, this is hampered by the limited number of donors and the requirement for life-long immunosuppression. As a result, the need for alternative therapies is vital. One of the strategies employed to correct T1D is the use of gene transfer to generate the production of an “artificial” β-cell that is capable of secreting insulin in response to fluctuating glucose concentrations that normally occurs in people without T1D. The treatment of many diseases using cell and gene therapy is generating significant attention in the T1D research community; however, for a cell therapy to enter clinical trials, success and safety must first be shown in an appropriate animal model. Animal models have been used in diabetes research for over a century, have improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetes, and have led to the discovery of useful drugs for the treatment of the disease. Currently, the nonobese diabetic mouse is the animal model of choice for the study of T1D as it most closely reflects disease development in humans. The aim of this review is to evaluate the success of cell and gene therapy to reverse T1D in animal models for future clinical application. Keywords: β-cell transcription factors, animal

  13. Modelling and experimental validation for off-design performance of the helical heat exchanger with LMTD correction taken into account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phu, Nguyen Minh; Trinh, Nguyen Thi Minh [Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-07-15

    Today the helical coil heat exchanger is being employed widely due to its dominant advantages. In this study, a mathematical model was established to predict off-design works of the helical heat exchanger. The model was based on the LMTD and e-NTU methods, where a LMTD correction factor was taken into account to increase accuracy. An experimental apparatus was set-up to validate the model. Results showed that errors of thermal duty, outlet hot fluid temperature, outlet cold fluid temperature, shell-side pressure drop, and tube-side pressure drop were respectively +-5%, +-1%, +-1%, +-5% and +-2%. Diagrams of dimensionless operating parameters and a regression function were also presented as design-maps, a fast calculator for usage in design and operation of the exchanger. The study is expected to be a good tool to estimate off-design conditions of the single-phase helical heat exchangers.

  14. Where's the problem? Considering Laing and Esterson's account of schizophrenia, social models of disability, and extended mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    In this article, I compare and evaluate R. D. Laing and A. Esterson's account of schizophrenia as developed in Sanity, Madness and the Family (1964), social models of disability, and accounts of extended mental disorder. These accounts claim that some putative disorders (schizophrenia, disability, certain mental disorders) should not be thought of as reflecting biological or psychological dysfunction within the afflicted individual, but instead as external problems (to be located in the family, or in the material and social environment). In this article, I consider the grounds on which such claims might be supported. I argue that problems should not be located within an individual putative patient in cases where there is some acceptable test environment in which there is no problem. A number of cases where such an argument can show that there is no internal disorder are discussed. I argue, however, that Laing and Esterson's argument-that schizophrenia is not within diagnosed patients-does not work. The problem with their argument is that they fail to show that the diagnosed women in their study function adequately in any environment.

  15. Method for determining the duration of construction basing on evolutionary modeling taking into account random organizational expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseytsev Anatoliy Viktorovich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems of construction planning is failure to meet time constraints and increase of workflow duration. In the recent years informational technologies are efficiently used to solve the problem of estimation of construction period. The issue of optimal estimate of the duration of construction, taking into account the possible organizational expectations is considered in the article. In order to solve this problem the iteration scheme of evolutionary modeling, in which random values of organizational expectations are used as variable parameters is developed. Adjustable genetic operators are used to improve the efficiency of the search for solutions. The reliability of the proposed approach is illustrated by an example of formation of construction schedules of monolithic foundations for buildings, taking into account possible disruptions of supply of concrete and reinforcement cages. Application of the presented methodology enables automated acquisition of several alternative scheduling of construction in accordance with standard or directive duration. Application of this computational procedure has the prospects of taking into account of construction downtime due to weather, accidents related to construction machinery breakdowns or local emergency collapses of the structures being erected.

  16. Accounting for non-linear chemistry of ship plumes in the GEOS-Chem global chemistry transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. M. Vinken

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a computationally efficient approach to account for the non-linear chemistry occurring during the dispersion of ship exhaust plumes in a global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem. We use a plume-in-grid formulation where ship emissions age chemically for 5 h before being released in the global model grid. Besides reducing the original ship NOx emissions in GEOS-Chem, our approach also releases the secondary compounds ozone and HNO3, produced during the 5 h after the original emissions, into the model. We applied our improved method and also the widely used "instant dilution" approach to a 1-yr GEOS-Chem simulation of global tropospheric ozone-NOx-VOC-aerosol chemistry. We also ran simulations with the standard model (emitting 10 molecules O3 and 1 molecule HNO3 per ship NOx molecule, and a model without any ship emissions at all. The model without any ship emissions simulates up to 0.1 ppbv (or 50% lower NOx concentrations over the North Atlantic in July than our improved GEOS-Chem model. "Instant dilution" overestimates NOx concentrations by 0.1 ppbv (50% and ozone by 3–5 ppbv (10–25%, compared to our improved model over this region. These conclusions are supported by comparing simulated and observed NOx and ozone concentrations in the lower troposphere over the Pacific Ocean. The comparisons show that the improved GEOS-Chem model simulates NOx concentrations in between the instant dilution model and the model without ship emissions, which results in lower O3 concentrations than the instant dilution model. The relative differences in simulated NOx and ozone between our improved approach and instant dilution are smallest over strongly polluted seas (e.g. North Sea, suggesting that accounting for in-plume chemistry is most relevant for pristine marine areas.

  17. Modeling community succession and assembly: A novel method for network evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of modeling community succession and assembly is in some sense a method for network evolution, as done by Barabasi and Albert (1999. It is also one of the methods to create a sample networkfrom the statistic network I proposed earlier. I think that the mechanism of network evolution supposed by Barabasi and Albert is most likely applicable to the natural phenomena with emergency property. For natural phenomena without emergency property, the present study indicated that a scale-free network may be produced through a new mechanism, i.e., whether the connection of a taxon x occurs, dependent on the type and property of taxon y (in particular, the degree of its direct correlation with x to be connected but not necessarily the existing number of connections of taxon y, as proposed in present study.

  18. Putting patients first: a novel patient-centered model for medical enterprise success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Naveen

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new way of viewing patient-customers. It encourages a greater emphasis on patients' needs and the importance of considering dimensions of the patient experience to better serve them. It also draws from examples in the general business world as they can be applied to medical enterprises. The author introduces a model that directs all business activities toward the end consumer with an underlying guidance by patient needs. A business is advised to understand its customer, design a patient-directed vision, and focus on creating a unique customer experience. The article delineates key action items for physicians and administrators that will allow them to better meet their patient-customers' needs and develop loyalty. By practicing a patient-centered approach and following these guidelines, one may ensure greater success of the medical enterprise.

  19. A method for improving predictive modeling by taking into account lag time: Example of selenium bioaccumulation in a flowing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckon, William N., E-mail: William_Beckon@fws.gov

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A method for estimating response time in cause-effect relationships is demonstrated. • Predictive modeling is appreciably improved by taking into account this lag time. • Bioaccumulation lag is greater for organisms at higher trophic levels. • This methodology may be widely applicable in disparate disciplines. - Abstract: For bioaccumulative substances, efforts to predict concentrations in organisms at upper trophic levels, based on measurements of environmental exposure, have been confounded by the appreciable but hitherto unknown amount of time it may take for bioaccumulation to occur through various pathways and across several trophic transfers. The study summarized here demonstrates an objective method of estimating this lag time by testing a large array of potential lag times for selenium bioaccumulation, selecting the lag that provides the best regression between environmental exposure (concentration in ambient water) and concentration in the tissue of the target organism. Bioaccumulation lag is generally greater for organisms at higher trophic levels, reaching times of more than a year in piscivorous fish. Predictive modeling of bioaccumulation is improved appreciably by taking into account this lag. More generally, the method demonstrated here may improve the accuracy of predictive modeling in a wide variety of other cause-effect relationships in which lag time is substantial but inadequately known, in disciplines as diverse as climatology (e.g., the effect of greenhouse gases on sea levels) and economics (e.g., the effects of fiscal stimulus on employment).

  20. Accounting for Long Term Sediment Storage in a Watershed Scale Numerical Model for Suspended Sediment Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, J. J.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Skalak, K.; Karwan, D. L.; Benthem, A.; Ackerman, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the delivery of suspended sediment from upland sources to downstream receiving waters is important for watershed management, but current routing models fail to accurately represent lag times in delivery resulting from sediment storage. In this study, we route suspended sediment tagged by a characteristic tracer using a 1-dimensional model that implicitly includes storage and remobilization processes and timescales. From an input location where tagged sediment is added, the model advects suspended sediment downstream at the velocity of the stream (adjusted for the intermittency of transport events). Deposition rates are specified by the fraction of the suspended load stored per kilometer of downstream transport (presumably available from a sediment budget). Tagged sediment leaving storage is evaluated from a convolution equation based on the probability distribution function (pdf) of sediment storage waiting times; this approach avoids the difficulty of accurately representing complex processes of sediment remobilization from floodplain and other deposits. To illustrate the role of storage on sediment delivery, we compare exponential and bounded power-law waiting time pdfs with identical means of 94 years. In both cases, the median travel time for sediment to reach the depocenter in fluvial systems less than 40km long is governed by in-channel transport and is unaffected by sediment storage. As the channel length increases, however, the median sediment travel time reflects storage rather than in-channel transport; travel times do not vary significantly between the two different waiting time functions. At distances of 50, 100, and 200 km, the median travel time for suspended sediment is 36, 136, and 325 years, orders of magnitude slower than travel times associated with in-channel transport. These computations demonstrate that storage can be neglected for short rivers, but for longer systems, storage controls the delivery of suspended sediment.