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Sample records for model studies suggest

  1. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  2. Design Studies Suggested by an Abstract Model for a Medical Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J. R.; Kimura, T. D.; Moore, P.; Gillett, W.; Stucki, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    We have developed a formal model of a database system that is unusual in that it has the ability to represent information about its own structure and to insure semantic consistency. The model distinguishes general laws from instances of events and objects, but many of its mechanisms serve both categories of information. The model forms a substrate upon which an information structure appropriate to neonatology is being developed. Some example queries are shown and a design study for an associative memory suggested by the model is described briefly.

  3. Coumarins as Potential Antioxidant Agents Complemented with Suggested Mechanisms and Approved by Molecular Modeling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasameen K. Al-Majedy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Syntheses of coumarins, which are a structurally interesting antioxidant activity, was done in this article. The modification of 7-hydroxycoumarin by different reaction steps was done to yield target compounds. Molecular structures were characterized by different spectroscopical techniques (Fourier transformation infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance. Antioxidant activities were performed by using various in vitro spectrophometric assays against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. All compounds exhibited high efficiency as antioxidants compared to ascorbic acid. The highest efficiency scavenging activity was found for compound 3 (91.0 ± 5.0, followed by compounds 2 and 4 (88.0 ± 2.00; and 87.0 ± 3.00. Ascorbic acid C was used as a standard drug with a percentage inhibition of 91.00 ± 1.5. The mechanism of the synthesized compounds as antioxidants was also studied. Hartree–Fock–based quantum chemical studies have been carried out with the basis set to 3-21G, in order to obtain information about the three-dimensional (3D geometries, electronic structure, molecular modeling, and electronic levels, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, to understand the antioxidant activity for the synthesized compounds.

  4. Health service marketing: a suggested model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltman, G; Vertinsky, I

    1971-07-01

    Focus is on social marketing in a health context, and attention is directed to the development of a psychosocial model of health-related behavior with emphasis on developing countries. Each component of the model is identified and defined, with some of the interactions among its components noted. There are both advantages and limitations to using the model in a social marketing context. The model's primary contribution at this stage of its development is in structuring and organizing diverse sources of knowledge and data. New relationships are suggested which were not previously considered in the literature. The relationship between risk-taking and perceived susceptibility is 1 example. The model also provides a basis for simulating health processes, providing a testing ground for health policies before their actual implementation. The model's perspective is uniquely appropriate for the development of social marketing strategies, and it promises to encompass health market behavior in various cultural settings.

  5. Skin care products can aggravate epidermal function: studies in a murine model suggest a pathogenic role in sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengxiao; Hu, Lizhi; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Sensitive skin is defined as a spectrum of unpleasant sensations in response to a variety of stimuli. However, only some skin care products provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. Hence, it would be useful to identify products that could provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. To assess whether vehicles, as well as certain branded skin care products, can alter epidermal function following topical applications to normal mouse skin. Following topical applications of individual vehicle or skin care product to C57BL/6J mice twice daily for 4 days, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) rates, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH were measured on treated versus untreated mouse skin with an MPA5 device and pH 900 pH meter. Our results show that all tested products induced abnormalities in epidermal functions of varying severity, including elevations in TEWL and skin surface pH, and reduced SC hydration. Our results suggest that mice can serve as a predictive model that could be used to evaluate the potential safety of skin care products in humans with sensitive skin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Model performance evaluation (validation and calibration) in model-based studies of therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular diseases : a review and suggested reporting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Ali Afzali, Hossein; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Decision analytic models play an increasingly important role in the economic evaluation of health technologies. Given uncertainties around the assumptions used to develop such models, several guidelines have been published to identify and assess 'best practice' in the model development process, including general modelling approach (e.g., time horizon), model structure, input data and model performance evaluation. This paper focuses on model performance evaluation. In the absence of a sufficient level of detail around model performance evaluation, concerns regarding the accuracy of model outputs, and hence the credibility of such models, are frequently raised. Following presentation of its components, a review of the application and reporting of model performance evaluation is presented. Taking cardiovascular disease as an illustrative example, the review investigates the use of face validity, internal validity, external validity, and cross model validity. As a part of the performance evaluation process, model calibration is also discussed and its use in applied studies investigated. The review found that the application and reporting of model performance evaluation across 81 studies of treatment for cardiovascular disease was variable. Cross-model validation was reported in 55 % of the reviewed studies, though the level of detail provided varied considerably. We found that very few studies documented other types of validity, and only 6 % of the reviewed articles reported a calibration process. Considering the above findings, we propose a comprehensive model performance evaluation framework (checklist), informed by a review of best-practice guidelines. This framework provides a basis for more accurate and consistent documentation of model performance evaluation. This will improve the peer review process and the comparability of modelling studies. Recognising the fundamental role of decision analytic models in informing public funding decisions, the proposed

  7. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  8. Disentangling unisensory from fusion effects in the attentional modulation of McGurk effects: a Bayesian modeling study suggests that fusion is attention-dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Tiiippana, Kaisa; Andersen, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The McGurk effect has been shown to be modulated by attention. However, it remains unclear whether attentional effects are due to changes in unisensory processing or in the fusion mechanism. In this paper, we used published experimental data showing that distraction of visual attention weakens th...... Selection criterion. Our findings suggest that distraction of visual attention affects fusion by decreasing the weight of the visual input.......The McGurk effect has been shown to be modulated by attention. However, it remains unclear whether attentional effects are due to changes in unisensory processing or in the fusion mechanism. In this paper, we used published experimental data showing that distraction of visual attention weakens...... the McGurk effect, to fit either the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception (FLMP) in which the fusion mechanism is fixed, or a variant of it in which the fusion mechanism could be varied depending on attention. The latter model was associated with a larger likelihood when assessed with a Bayesian Model...

  9. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  10. Halloween Costumes May Suggest Influence of Violent Models on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John W.; Sterling, Bruce S.

    Halloween costumes may be used to examine the influence violent models have on children. On Halloween evening observers recorded the frequency of violent and nonviolent costumes worn by children. When all of the data are inspected they suggest that children confronted with several aggressive models may be more likely to identify with the…

  11. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Molecular modeling and simulation studies of recombinant laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica suggests significant role in the biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Deepti; Rawat, Surender [Laboratory of Enzymology and Recombinant DNA Technology, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Waseem, Mohd; Gupta, Sunita; Lynn, Andrew [School of Computational & Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Nitin, Mukesh; Ramchiary, Nirala [School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Krishna Kant, E-mail: kekulsharma@gmail.com [Laboratory of Enzymology and Recombinant DNA Technology, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India)

    2016-01-08

    The YacK gene from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7, cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), showed laccase activity when oxidized with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol. The recombinant laccase protein was purified and characterized biochemically with a molecular mass of ≈58 KDa on SDS-PAGE and showed positive zymogram with ABTS. The protein was highly robust with optimum pH 9.0 and stable at 70 °C upto 12 h with residual activity of 70%. Kinetic constants, K{sub m} values, for ABTS and guaiacol were 675 μM and 2070 μM, respectively, with corresponding Vmax values of 0.125 μmol/ml/min and 6500 μmol/ml/min. It also possess antioxidative property against BSA and Cu{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} model system. Constant pH MD simulation studies at different protonation states of the system showed ABTS to be most stable at acidic pH, whereas, diclofenac at neutral pH. Interestingly, aspirin drifted out of the binding pocket at acidic and neutral pH, but showed stable binding at alkaline pH. The biotransformation of diclofenac and aspirin by laccase also corroborated the in silico results. This is the first report on biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) using recombinant laccase from gut bacteria, supported by in silico simulation studies. - Highlights: • Laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). • Recombinant laccase was found to be thermostable and alkali tolerant. • The in silico and experimental studied proves the biotransformation of NSAIDs. • Laccase binds to ligands differentially under different protonation state. • Laccase also possesses free radical scavenging property.

  13. Molecular modeling and simulation studies of recombinant laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica suggests significant role in the biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Deepti; Rawat, Surender; Waseem, Mohd; Gupta, Sunita; Lynn, Andrew; Nitin, Mukesh; Ramchiary, Nirala; Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-01-01

    The YacK gene from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7, cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), showed laccase activity when oxidized with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol. The recombinant laccase protein was purified and characterized biochemically with a molecular mass of ≈58 KDa on SDS-PAGE and showed positive zymogram with ABTS. The protein was highly robust with optimum pH 9.0 and stable at 70 °C upto 12 h with residual activity of 70%. Kinetic constants, K m values, for ABTS and guaiacol were 675 μM and 2070 μM, respectively, with corresponding Vmax values of 0.125 μmol/ml/min and 6500 μmol/ml/min. It also possess antioxidative property against BSA and Cu 2+ /H 2 O 2 model system. Constant pH MD simulation studies at different protonation states of the system showed ABTS to be most stable at acidic pH, whereas, diclofenac at neutral pH. Interestingly, aspirin drifted out of the binding pocket at acidic and neutral pH, but showed stable binding at alkaline pH. The biotransformation of diclofenac and aspirin by laccase also corroborated the in silico results. This is the first report on biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) using recombinant laccase from gut bacteria, supported by in silico simulation studies. - Highlights: • Laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). • Recombinant laccase was found to be thermostable and alkali tolerant. • The in silico and experimental studied proves the biotransformation of NSAIDs. • Laccase binds to ligands differentially under different protonation state. • Laccase also possesses free radical scavenging property.

  14. A model-based telecoupling analysis for the Patagonian shelf: a new suggested template on how to study global seabirds-fisheries interactions for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettmann, F.; Raya Rey, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Southwest Atlantic Ocean, and the extended Patagonian shelf in particular, presents us with a very complex ecosystem of global relevance for food security and global peace. It is a highly productive area and it maintains a great diversity and abundance of seabird species. Fisheries have been identified as a main stressor for the marine ecosystems and as one of the main causes of seabird population declines. Using the framework of telecoupling - a sophisticated description of natural and socioeconomic interactions over large distances - here we present a fresh holistic look at the dynamic fisheries and (endangered) seabird interactions for the Patagonian shelf. While data are sparse, we employ machine learning-based predictions for a more holistic overview. We found that these waters of the Patagonian Shelf are significantly affected by many nations and outside players. We found that the input, output and spill-over of the Patagonian shelf ecosystem are distributed virtually all over the globe. In addition, we also found `losers' (=nations and their citizens that are left out entirely from this global resource and its governance). Our findings are based on best-available public trade and fish harvest analysis for this region, linked with predictive modeling (machine learning and geographic information systems GIS) to generalize for nine seabird species. We conveniently extend this analysis with a perspective from the financial sector and policy that enables the Patagonian fisheries as international investment and development projects. As increasingly recognized elsewhere, we believe that telecoupling can serve as a new but rather sophisticated study template highlighting wider complexities, bottlenecks and sensitivities for a vastly improved conservation research on oceans and global sustainability questions.

  15. Transitioning from Student to Teacher in the Master-Apprentice Model of Piano Pedagogy: An Exploratory Study of Challenges, Solutions, Resources, Reflections, and Suggestions for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawsky, Melissa Maccarelli

    2011-01-01

    While many music educators learn how to teach through teacher training programs, the standard mode of transmission in which piano teachers learn to teach applied piano is through proficiency of the instrument under the guidance of a master teacher. This tacit development of pedagogical knowledge occurs through the master-apprentice model of…

  16. Modelling of Arabidopsis LAX3 expression suggests auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nathan; Péret, Benjamin; Porco, Silvana; Sairanen, Ilkka; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm; King, John

    2015-02-07

    Emergence of new lateral roots from within the primary root in Arabidopsis has been shown to be regulated by the phytohormone auxin, via the expression of the auxin influx carrier LAX3, mediated by the ARF7/19 IAA14 signalling module (Swarup et al., 2008). A single cell model of the LAX3 and IAA14 auxin response was formulated and used to demonstrate that hysteresis and bistability may explain the experimentally observed 'all-or-nothing' LAX3 spatial expression pattern in cortical cells containing a gradient of auxin concentrations. The model was tested further by using a parameter fitting algorithm to match model output with qRT-PCR mRNA expression data following exogenous auxin treatment. It was found that the model is able to show good agreement with the data, but only when the exogenous auxin signal is degraded over time, at a rate higher than that measured in the experimental medium, suggesting the triggering of an endogenous auxin homeostasis mechanism. Testing the model over a more physiologically relevant range of extracellular auxin shows bistability and hysteresis still occur when using the optimised parameters, providing the rate of LAX3 active auxin transport is sufficiently high relative to passive diffusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Suggestion of a Management Model: Total Entropy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Goksel Alpan,; Ismail Efil

    2011-01-01

    “Entropy” can be defined as the measure of disorder, uncertainty and consumed energy in a system or in the Universe. In the study, entropy concept is used as metaphor and it is aimed to construct the conceptual basis of a new management model which can be utilized to manage all entropy sources effectively. The study is conveyed with a multidisciplinary and holistic approach and by the use of qualitative research techniques. In the study, it is examined the relations of the entropy concept wit...

  18. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, Elshahat H A; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Model Suggestion to Predict Leverage Ratio for Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tüz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature, construction is an industry with high uncertainty and risk. Construction industry carries high leverage ratios. Firms with low equities work in big projects through progress payment system, but in this case, even a small negative in the planned cash flows constitute a major risk for the company.The use of leverage, with a small investment to achieve profit targets large-scale, high-profit, but also brings a high risk with it. Investors may lose all or the portion of the money. In this study, monitoring and measuring of the leverage ratio because of the displacement in cash inflows of construction projects which uses high leverage and low cash to do business in the sector is targeted. Cash need because of drifting the cash inflows may be seen due to the model. Work should be done in the early stages of the project with little capital but in the later stages, rapidly growing capital need arises.The values obtained from the model may be used to supply the capital held in the right time by anticipating the risks because of the delay in cashflow of construction projects which uses high leverage ratio.

  20. In vitro model suggests oxidative stress involved in keratoconus disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamichos, D.; Hutcheon, A. E. K.; Rich, C. B.; Trinkaus-Randall, V.; Asara, J. M.; Zieske, J. D.

    2014-04-01

    Keratoconus (KC) affects 1:2000 people and is a disorder where cornea thins and assumes a conical shape. Advanced KC requires surgery to maintain vision. The role of oxidative stress in KC remains unclear. We aimed to identify oxidative stress levels between human corneal keratocytes (HCKs), fibroblasts (HCFs) and keratoconus cells (HKCs). Cells were cultured in 2D and 3D systems. Vitamin C (VitC) and TGF-β3 (T3) were used for 4 weeks to stimulate self-assembled extracellular matrix (ECM). No T3 used as controls. Samples were analyzed using qRT-PCR and metabolomics. qRT-PCR data showed low levels of collagen I and V, as well as keratocan for HKCs, indicating differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype. Collagen type III, a marker for fibrosis, was up regulated in HKCs. We robustly detected more than 150 metabolites of the targeted 250 by LC-MS/MS per condition and among those metabolites several were related to oxidative stress. Lactate levels, lactate/malate and lactate/pyruvate ratios were elevated in HKCs, while arginine and glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio were reduced. Similar patterns found in both 2D and 3D. Our data shows that fibroblasts exhibit enhanced oxidative stress compared to keratocytes. Furthermore the HKC cells exhibit the greatest level suggesting they may have a myofibroblast phenotype.

  1. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Mohsen Ali; Mohaidin, Zurina

    2017-01-01

    To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the 'persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model', the stimuli-response marketing model', the 'agency theory', the theory of planned behaviour,' and 'social power theory,' in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research.

  2. Suggestions for teacher education from concept mapping studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Reiska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance primary and secondary education, teaching and learning methods need to be continuously developed as well as, of course, promote teaching quality dependent on teacher personality, teacher professional development, teacher self-development, etc. Teacher professional development gives the novice teacher access to a wide set of teaching methods and assessment opportunities, especially geared to flexible learning and assessment methods, which can be considered for adoption. One such flexible method is the use of concept mapping. This article describes the results of several studies, where concept mapping method was used, giving many didactical suggestions for using concept mapping for learning and especially for assessment. Additionally, considerations are introduced on using concept maps as a research instrument.

  3. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murshid M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the ‘persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model’, the stimuli–response marketing model’, the ‘agency theory’, the theory of planned behaviour,’ and ‘social power theory,’ in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research.

  4. Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidin, Zurina

    2017-01-01

    To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the ‘persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model’, the stimuli–response marketing model’, the ‘agency theory’, the theory of planned behaviour,’ and ‘social power theory,’ in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research. PMID:28690701

  5. Suggestibility, intelligence, memory recall and personality: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1983-01-01

    A new suggestibility test, potentially useful in the context of police interrogation, was administered to 45 subjects who also completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Suggestibility was significantly related to low intelligence, poor memory recall, neuroticism and social desirability.

  6. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  7. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  8. Directions in Geoheritage Studies: Suggestions from the Italian Geomorphological Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Valeria

    2015-04-01

    More and more attention has been focused on geological and geomorphological heritage in the past years, leading to several researches in the framework of conservation projects, both at administrative and at scientific level, involving national and international research groups whose purposes are the promotion of Earth Sciences knowledge and the conservation of geological heritage. This paper presents an overview of research and conservation projects in Italy, mainly focused on the geomorphological heritage. Members of the AIGEO Working Group on geomorphosites and cultural landscape analyzed the historical development, methodological issues and main results of these research projects in order to identify possible innovation lines to improve the awareness and knowledge on geodiversity and geoheritage by a wide public, including education, tourism and conservation sectors. In Italy numerous projects of research have been realized with the main aim of geomorphosites inventory and the proposal of assessment methodologies, and so to the improvement and to the analysis of risks and impacts related to their fruition. At an international level, many Italian researchers have also been involved in studies carried out in the Working Group "Geomorphological sites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists (IAG). At a national level several research lines are under development, offering different responses to methodological issues within the general topic of geodiversity and geoheritage: Geosites inventories and assessment activities are performed with powerful digital techniques and new reference models: among these, the investigation on the ecologic support role for increasing geomorphosites global value and the elaboration of quantitative assessment methods of the scientific quality of Geomorphosites, carried out specifically for territorial planning. Improvements in field data collection and visual representation of landforms lead to new findings in

  9. Authority Delegation in Boyerahmad Health Centers through Model to Combine Suggestions System and Delphi Method 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Momeninezhad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Authority delegation means to transmit part of organization`s manager and leader`s special authorities and executive duties, regardless its root to subordinates and heads of units and related offices to speed up implementing affairs and organizational purposes quickly and on time. The purpose of this study was to inspect authority delegation in health centers of Boyerahmad district through using model to combine suggestions (to identify process and Delphi method (expert`s opinions . Methods: This cross-sectional study was implemented in two stages at first stage, research community was authorities of Boyerahmad health centers (58 persons, their suggestions about requested processes to delegate were gathered by total count through open questionnaires and in second stage, which was Delphi, suggestions gathered from previous stage judged by 30 experts. Data of both stages analyzed by help of Chi-square, correlation coefficient tests. Results: Findings showed that 73.85% of suggestions were able to be delegated, based on expert`s opinion. 40% of suggestions were in domain of official, 36.92% financial and 23.08% hygienic. 88% less than 6 years management background. 20.69% had no academic studies and only 27% were general physicians. Conclusion: By participation of environmental management levels, several processes may be specified and identify cases which are possible to delegate them executively using Delphi (expert`s opinion and this model can be used as a trust worthy method to delegate authority for decentralization. Key words: Participation Management, Health centers, Authority delegation

  10. Mentoring in Gifted Student’s Education and a Model Suggestion

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    Lutfu Cakir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the mentoring process in the education of gifted students and to develop a model applicable for the Turkish Educational System. The data of the study were collected through a literature review and focus group interviews. The study was conducted on one public and one private education institution for gifted students in Istanbul, Turkey. Purposeful sampling method was used in this study. A total of nine group interviews were carried out on 43 shareholders, the administrators, teachers, parents and student sub-groups, of the institutions in the sample group. The interviews were recorded and the recordings transcribed and analyzed through content analysis. As a result of the study, the establishment of a mentoring model was suggested under the Ministry of National Education, General Directorate of Special Education Guidance and Counseling Services, Department of Special Talents Development and issues such as model development, mentor and service area selection, matching, system operation and feedback were examined in detail.

  11. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oikonomakis

    2018-02-01

    (where both NOx and VOC emissions are increased leads to a better model performance. Although increasing only the traffic NOx emissions by a factor of 4 gave very similar results to the doubling of all NOx emissions, the first scenario is more consistent with the uncertainties reported by other studies than the latter, suggesting that high uncertainties in NOx emissions might originate mainly from the road-transport sector rather than from other sectors. The impact of meteorology was examined with three sensitivity tests: (i increased surface temperature by 4 °C, (ii reduced wind speed by 50 % and (iii doubled wind speed. The first two scenarios led to a consistent increase in all surface ozone mixing ratios, thus improving the model performance for the high ozone values but significantly degrading it for the low ozone values, while the third scenario had exactly the opposite effects. Overall, the modeled ozone is predicted to be more sensitive to its precursor emissions (especially traffic NOx and therefore their uncertainties, which seem to be responsible for the model underestimation of the observed high ozone mixing ratios and ozone production.

  12. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx) in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomakis, Emmanouil; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry

    2018-02-01

    High surface ozone concentrations, which usually occur when photochemical ozone production takes place, pose a great risk to human health and vegetation. Air quality models are often used by policy makers as tools for the development of ozone mitigation strategies. However, the modeled ozone production is often not or not enough evaluated in many ozone modeling studies. The focus of this work is to evaluate the modeled ozone production in Europe indirectly, with the use of the ozone-temperature correlation for the summer of 2010 and to analyze its sensitivity to precursor emissions and meteorology by using the regional air quality model, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). The results show that the model significantly underestimates the observed high afternoon surface ozone mixing ratios (≥ 60 ppb) by 10-20 ppb and overestimates the lower ones (emissions, four scenarios were tested: (i) increased volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by a factor of 1.5 and 2 for the anthropogenic and biogenic VOC emissions, respectively, (ii) increased nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by a factor of 2, (iii) a combination of the first two scenarios and (iv) increased traffic-only NOx emissions by a factor of 4. For southern, eastern, and central (except the Benelux area) Europe, doubling NOx emissions seems to be the most efficient scenario to reduce the underestimation of the observed high ozone mixing ratios without significant degradation of the model performance for the lower ozone mixing ratios. The model performance for ozone-temperature correlation is also better when NOx emissions are doubled. In the Benelux area, however, the third scenario (where both NOx and VOC emissions are increased) leads to a better model performance. Although increasing only the traffic NOx emissions by a factor of 4 gave very similar results to the doubling of all NOx emissions, the first scenario is more consistent with the uncertainties reported by other studies than

  13. Mentoring for junior medical faculty: Existing models and suggestions for low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vikas; Muraleedharan, Aparna; Bhat, Ballambhattu Vishnu

    2016-02-01

    Globally, there is increasing recognition about the positive benefits and impact of mentoring on faculty retention rates, career satisfaction and scholarly output. However, emphasis on research and practice of mentoring is comparatively meagre in low and middle income countries. In this commentary, we critically examine two existing models of mentorship for medical faculty and offer few suggestions for an integrated hybrid model that can be adapted for use in low resource settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence suggests rigid aortic grafts increase systolic blood pressure: results of a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T; Morris, L; McGloughlin, T

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a serious complication of the aorta and is treated using vascular bypass grafts. Two main classes of graft are available to treat AAA; grafts implanted by open surgery and stent-grafts implanted using minimally invasive endovascular techniques. Both classes of graft consist of an aortic section which bifurcates into two iliac sections. It has been hypothesized that implantation of aortic grafts and stent-grafts serve to significantly increase abdominal aortic pressures. In this study, an open-loop computer-controlled pumping system was built to produce physiologically realistic pressure and flow-rates. Models of a compliant abdominal aortic aneurysm, a compliant walled graft and a tapered graft were manufactured using an injection moulding technique and fused deposition modelling was used to create a rigid walled graft. A specific transient flow-rate waveform was then applied at the inlet of each model and the resulting pressure waveforms 30 mm upstream from the bifurcation was recorded. Peak pressure measurements were recorded over the course of the pulse for each model. The compliant aneurysm model was found to have a systolic pressure of 107 mmHg while the complaint graft model was 153 mmHg. The rigid graft model had a peak systolic pressure of 199 mmHg. In the tapered graft, the peak pressure dropped to 142 mmHg. The data suggests that implanting a graft model in place of an aneurysm model in an in vitro flow circuit can increase the pressures recorded upstream from the iliac bifurcation and that tapered grafts may alleviate this problem.

  15. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx) in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Oikonomakis, Emmanouil; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry

    2018-01-01

    High surface ozone concentrations, which usually occur when photochemical ozone production takes place, pose a great risk to human health and vegetation. Air quality models are often used by policy makers as tools for the development of ozone mitigation strategies. However, the modeled ozone production is often not or not enough evaluated in many ozone modeling studies. The focus of this work is to evaluate the modeled ozone production in Europe indirectly, with the use of t...

  16. A trophic model of fringing coral reefs in Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan suggests overfishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Jan, Rong-Quen; Fan, Tung-Yung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Chen, Jen-Ping; Chen, Chung-Chi; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2009-09-01

    Several coral reefs of Nanwan Bay, Taiwan have recently undergone shifts to macroalgal or sea anemone dominance. Thus, a mass-balance trophic model was constructed to analyze the structure and functioning of the food web. The fringing reef model was comprised of 18 compartments, with the highest trophic level of 3.45 for piscivorous fish. Comparative analyses with other reef models demonstrated that Nanwan Bay was similar to reefs with high fishery catches. While coral biomass was not lower, fish biomass was lower than those of reefs with high catches. Consequently, the sums of consumption and respiratory flows and total system throughput were also decreased. The Nanwan Bay model potentially suggests an overfished status in which the mean trophic level of the catch, matter cycling, and trophic transfer efficiency are extremely reduced.

  17. Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Tamara; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Darzi, Andrea; Hajjar, Rayan; El Rahyel, Ahmed; El Eid, Jamale; Itani, Mira; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie

    2016-08-03

    Our objective was to identify published models of coordination between entities funding or delivering health services in humanitarian crises, whether the coordination took place during or after the crises. We included reports describing models of coordination in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. We also included reports describing implementation of identified models, as case studies. We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library. We also searched websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology. Our search captured 14,309 citations. The screening process identified 34 eligible papers describing five models of coordination of delivering health services: the "Cluster Approach" (with 16 case studies), the 4Ws "Who is Where, When, doing What" mapping tool (with four case studies), the "Sphere Project" (with two case studies), the "5x5" model (with one case study), and the "model of information coordination" (with one case study). The 4Ws and the 5x5 focus on coordination of services for mental health, the remaining models do not focus on a specific health topic. The Cluster approach appears to be the most widely used. One case study was a mixed implementation of the Cluster approach and the Sphere model. We identified no model of coordination for funding of health service. This systematic review identified five proposed coordination models that have been implemented by entities funding or delivering health service in humanitarian crises. There is a need to compare the effect of these different models on outcomes such as availability of and access to health services.

  18. 'Cape capture': Geologic data and modeling results suggest the holocene loss of a Carolina Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E.R.; Ashton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, the origin and evolution of the set of cuspate forelands known as the Carolina Capes-Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain-off the eastern coast of the United States have been discussed and debated. The consensus conceptual model is not only that these capes existed through much or all of the Holocene transgression, but also that their number has not changed. Here we describe bathymetric, lithologic, seismic, and chronologic data that suggest another cape may have existed between Capes Hatteras and Lookout during the early to middle Holocene. This cape likely formed at the distal end of the Neuse-Tar-Pamlico fiuvial system during the early Holocene transgression, when this portion of the shelf was fiooded ca. 9 cal (calibrated) kyr B.P., and was probably abandoned by ca. 4 cal kyr B.P., when the shoreline attained its present general configuration. Previously proposed mechanisms for cape formation suggest that the large-scale, rhythmic pattern of the Carolina Capes arose from a hydrodynamic template or the preexisting geologic framework. Numerical modeling, however, suggests that the number and spacing of capes can be dynamic, and that a coast can self-organize in response to a high-angle-wave instability in shoreline shape. In shoreline evolution model simulations, smaller cuspate forelands are subsumed by larger neighbors over millennial time scales through a process of 'cape capture.' The suggested former cape in Raleigh Bay represents the first interpreted geological evidence of dynamic abandonment suggested by the self-organization hypothesis. Cape capture may be a widespread process in coastal environments with large-scale rhythmic shoreline features; its preservation in the sedimentary record will vary according to geologic setting, physical processes, and sea-level history. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  19. Rate control management of atrial fibrillation: may a mathematical model suggest an ideal heart rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Anselmino

    Full Text Available Despite the routine prescription of rate control therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF, clinical evidence demonstrating a heart rate target is lacking. Aim of the present study was to run a mathematical model simulating AF episodes with a different heart rate (HR to predict hemodynamic parameters for each situation.The lumped model, representing the pumping heart together with systemic and pulmonary circuits, was run to simulate AF with HR of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 bpm, respectively.Left ventricular pressure increased by 57%, from 33.92±37.56 mmHg to 53.15±47.56 mmHg, and mean systemic arterial pressure increased by 27%, from 82.66±14.04 mmHg to 105.3±7.6 mmHg, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. Stroke volume (from 77.45±8.50 to 39.09±8.08 mL, ejection fraction (from 61.10±4.40 to 39.32±5.42% and stroke work (SW, from 0.88±0.04 to 0.58±0.09 J decreased by 50, 36 and 34%, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. In addition, oxygen consumption indexes (rate pressure product - RPP, tension time index per minute - TTI/min, and pressure volume area per minute - PVA/min increased from the 50 to the 130 bpm simulation, respectively, by 186% (from 5598±1939 to 15995±3219 mmHg/min, 56% (from 2094±265 to 3257±301 mmHg s/min and 102% (from 57.99±17.90 to 117.4±26.0 J/min. In fact, left ventricular efficiency (SW/PVA decreased from 80.91±2.91% at 50 bpm to 66.43±3.72% at the 130 bpm HR simulation.Awaiting compulsory direct clinical evidences, the present mathematical model suggests that lower HRs during permanent AF relates to improved hemodynamic parameters, cardiac efficiency, and lower oxygen consumption.

  20. Rate control management of atrial fibrillation: may a mathematical model suggest an ideal heart rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Scarsoglio, Stefania; Camporeale, Carlo; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Despite the routine prescription of rate control therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF), clinical evidence demonstrating a heart rate target is lacking. Aim of the present study was to run a mathematical model simulating AF episodes with a different heart rate (HR) to predict hemodynamic parameters for each situation. The lumped model, representing the pumping heart together with systemic and pulmonary circuits, was run to simulate AF with HR of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 bpm, respectively. Left ventricular pressure increased by 57%, from 33.92±37.56 mmHg to 53.15±47.56 mmHg, and mean systemic arterial pressure increased by 27%, from 82.66±14.04 mmHg to 105.3±7.6 mmHg, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. Stroke volume (from 77.45±8.50 to 39.09±8.08 mL), ejection fraction (from 61.10±4.40 to 39.32±5.42%) and stroke work (SW, from 0.88±0.04 to 0.58±0.09 J) decreased by 50, 36 and 34%, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. In addition, oxygen consumption indexes (rate pressure product - RPP, tension time index per minute - TTI/min, and pressure volume area per minute - PVA/min) increased from the 50 to the 130 bpm simulation, respectively, by 186% (from 5598±1939 to 15995±3219 mmHg/min), 56% (from 2094±265 to 3257±301 mmHg s/min) and 102% (from 57.99±17.90 to 117.4±26.0 J/min). In fact, left ventricular efficiency (SW/PVA) decreased from 80.91±2.91% at 50 bpm to 66.43±3.72% at the 130 bpm HR simulation. Awaiting compulsory direct clinical evidences, the present mathematical model suggests that lower HRs during permanent AF relates to improved hemodynamic parameters, cardiac efficiency, and lower oxygen consumption.

  1. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Garg

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases, namely Methyltransferase (MET, Chromomethylase (CMT and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM, which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2 subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  2. Mathematical modeling suggests that periodontitis behaves as a non-linear chaotic dynamical process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papantonopoulos, G.H.; Takahashi, K.; Bountis, T.; Loos, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aims to expand on a previously presented cellular automata model and further explore the non-linear dynamics of periodontitis. Additionally the authors investigated whether their mathematical model could predict the two known types of periodontitis, aggressive (AgP) and

  3. A Multi-Scale Energy Demand Model suggests sharing Market Risks with Intelligent Energy Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Methenitis (Georgios); M. Kaisers (Michael); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we propose a multi-scale model of energy demand that is consistent with observations at a macro scale, in our use-case standard load profiles for (residential) electric loads. We employ the model to study incentives to assume the risk of volatile market prices for

  4. Computational modelling suggests good, bad and ugly roles of glycosaminoglycans in arterial wall mechanics and mechanobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccabianca, S.; Bellini, C.; Humphrey, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    The medial layer of large arteries contains aggregates of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan and the proteoglycan versican. It is increasingly thought that these aggregates play important mechanical and mechanobiological roles despite constituting only a small fraction of the normal arterial wall. In this paper, we offer a new hypothesis that normal aggregates of hyaluronan and versican pressurize the intralamellar spaces, and thereby put into tension the radial elastic fibres that connect the smooth muscle cells to the elastic laminae, which would facilitate mechanosensing. This hypothesis is supported by novel computational simulations using two complementary models, a mechanistically based finite-element mixture model and a phenomenologically motivated continuum hyperelastic model. That is, the simulations suggest that normal aggregates of glycosaminoglycans/proteoglycans within the arterial media may play equally important roles in supporting (i.e. a structural role) and sensing (i.e. an instructional role) mechanical loads. Additional simulations suggest further, however, that abnormal increases in these aggregates, either distributed or localized, may over-pressurize the intralamellar units. We submit that these situations could lead to compromised mechanosensing, anoikis and/or reduced structural integrity, each of which represent fundamental aspects of arterial pathologies seen, for example, in hypertension, ageing and thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. PMID:24920112

  5. Atmospheric CO2 observations and models suggest strong carbon uptake by forests in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, Kay; Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E.; Brailsford, Gordon; Smale, Dan; Moore, Stuart; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Baisden, W. Troy; Mukai, Hitoshi; Stephens, Britton B.

    2017-01-01

    A regional atmospheric inversion method has been developed to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of CO2 sinks and sources across New Zealand for 2011-2013. This approach infers net air-sea and air-land CO2 fluxes from measurement records, using back-trajectory simulations from the Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) Lagrangian dispersion model, driven by meteorology from the New Zealand Limited Area Model (NZLAM) weather prediction model. The inversion uses in situ measurements from two fixed sites, Baring Head on the southern tip of New Zealand's North Island (41.408° S, 174.871° E) and Lauder from the central South Island (45.038° S, 169.684° E), and ship board data from monthly cruises between Japan, New Zealand, and Australia. A range of scenarios is used to assess the sensitivity of the inversion method to underlying assumptions and to ensure robustness of the results. The results indicate a strong seasonal cycle in terrestrial land fluxes from the South Island of New Zealand, especially in western regions covered by indigenous forest, suggesting higher photosynthetic and respiratory activity than is evident in the current a priori land process model. On the annual scale, the terrestrial biosphere in New Zealand is estimated to be a net CO2 sink, removing 98 (±37) Tg CO2 yr-1 from the atmosphere on average during 2011-2013. This sink is much larger than the reported 27 Tg CO2 yr-1 from the national inventory for the same time period. The difference can be partially reconciled when factors related to forest and agricultural management and exports, fossil fuel emission estimates, hydrologic fluxes, and soil carbon change are considered, but some differences are likely to remain. Baseline uncertainty, model transport uncertainty, and limited sensitivity to the northern half of the North Island are the main contributors to flux uncertainty.

  6. Modelling psychiatric and cultural possession phenomena with suggestion and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Walsh, Eamonn; Bell, Vaughan; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2014-04-01

    Involuntary movements occur in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders and culturally influenced dissociative states (e.g., delusions of alien control and attributions of spirit possession). However, the underlying brain processes are poorly understood. We combined suggestion and fMRI in 15 highly hypnotically susceptible volunteers to investigate changes in brain activity accompanying different experiences of loss of self-control of movement. Suggestions of external personal control and internal personal control over involuntary movements modelled delusions of control and spirit possession respectively. A suggestion of impersonal control by a malfunctioning machine modelled technical delusions of control, where involuntary movements are attributed to the influence of machines. We found that (i) brain activity and/or connectivity significantly varied with different experiences and attributions of loss of agency; (ii) compared to the impersonal control condition, both external and internal personal alien control were associated with increased connectivity between primary motor cortex (M1) and brain regions involved in attribution of mental states and representing the self in relation to others; (iii) compared to both personal alien control conditions, impersonal control of movement was associated with increased activity in brain regions involved in error detection and object imagery; (iv) there were no significant differences in brain activity, and minor differences in M1 connectivity, between the external and internal personal alien control conditions. Brain networks supporting error detection and object imagery, together with representation of self and others, are differentially recruited to support experiences of impersonal and personal control of involuntary movements. However, similar brain systems underpin attributions and experiences of external and internal alien control of movement. Loss of self-agency for movement can therefore accompany different kinds of

  7. A Latent Growth Model Suggests that Empathy of Medical Students Does Not Decline over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrício; Magalhães, Eunice; Costa, Manuel João

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is a relevant attribute in the context of patient care. However, a decline in empathy throughout medical education has been reported in North-American medical schools, particularly, in the transition to clinical training. The present study aims to longitudinally model empathy during medical school at three time points: at the entrance,…

  8. Mathematical modeling of sustainable synaptogenesis by repetitive stimuli suggests signaling mechanisms in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Takizawa

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of long-term synaptic maintenance are a key component to understanding the mechanism of long-term memory. From biological experiments, a hypothesis arose that repetitive stimuli with appropriate intervals are essential to maintain new synapses for periods of longer than a few days. We successfully reproduce the time-course of relative numbers of synapses with our mathematical model in the same conditions as biological experiments, which used Adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Sp-isomer (Sp-cAMPS as external stimuli. We also reproduce synaptic maintenance responsiveness to intervals of Sp-cAMPS treatment accompanied by PKA activation. The model suggests a possible mechanism of sustainable synaptogenesis which consists of two steps. First, the signal transduction from an external stimulus triggers the synthesis of a new signaling protein. Second, the new signaling protein is required for the next signal transduction with the same stimuli. As a result, the network component is modified from the first network, and a different signal is transferred which triggers the synthesis of another new signaling molecule. We refer to this hypothetical mechanism as network succession. We build our model on the basis of two hypotheses: (1 a multi-step network succession induces downregulation of SSH and COFILIN gene expression, which triggers the production of stable F-actin; (2 the formation of a complex of stable F-actin with Drebrin at PSD is the critical mechanism to achieve long-term synaptic maintenance. Our simulation shows that a three-step network succession is sufficient to reproduce sustainable synapses for a period longer than 14 days. When we change the network structure to a single step network, the model fails to follow the exact condition of repetitive signals to reproduce a sufficient number of synapses. Another advantage of the three-step network succession is that this system indicates a greater tolerance of parameter

  9. Coalescent Modelling Suggests Recent Secondary-Contact of Cryptic Penguin Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Stefanie; Burridge, Christopher P; Peucker, Amanda J; Waters, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic analyses present powerful tools for elucidating demographic and biogeographic histories of taxa. Here we present genetic evidence showing a dynamic history for two cryptic lineages within Eudyptula, the world's smallest penguin. Specifically, we use a suite of genetic markers to reveal that two congeneric taxa ('Australia' and 'New Zealand') co-occur in southern New Zealand, with only low levels of hybridization. Coalescent modelling suggests that the Australian little penguin only recently expanded into southern New Zealand. Analyses conducted under time-dependent molecular evolutionary rates lend support to the hypothesis of recent anthropogenic turnover, consistent with shifts detected in several other New Zealand coastal vertebrate taxa. This apparent turnover event highlights the dynamic nature of the region's coastal ecosystem.

  10. Microarray and bioinformatic analyses suggest models for carbon metabolism in the autotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Appia-ayme; R. Quatrini; Y. Denis; F. Denizot; S. Silver; F. Roberto; F. Veloso; J. Valdes; J. P. Cardenas; M. Esparza; O. Orellana; E. Jedlicki; V. Bonnefoy; D. Holmes

    2006-09-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that uses iron or sulfur as an energy and electron source. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify putative genes and potential metabolic pathways involved in CO2 fixation, 2P-glycolate detoxification, carboxysome formation and glycogen utilization in At. ferrooxidans. Microarray transcript profiling was carried out to compare the relative expression of the predicted genes of these pathways when the microorganism was grown in the presence of iron versus sulfur. Several gene expression patterns were confirmed by real-time PCR. Genes for each of the above predicted pathways were found to be organized into discrete clusters. Clusters exhibited differential gene expression depending on the presence of iron or sulfur in the medium. Concordance of gene expression within each cluster, suggested that they are operons Most notably, clusters of genes predicted to be involved in CO2 fixation, carboxysome formation, 2P-glycolate detoxification and glycogen biosynthesis were up-regulated in sulfur medium, whereas genes involved in glycogen utilization were preferentially expressed in iron medium. These results can be explained in terms of models of gene regulation that suggest how A. ferrooxidans can adjust its central carbon management to respond to changing environmental conditions.

  11. Clinically Isolated Syndromes Suggestive of Multiple Sclerosis: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

    OpenAIRE

    Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Noval, Susana; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Gabaldón, Laura; Manzano, Beatriz; Chamorro, Beatriz; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a simple, high-resolution technique to quantify the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), which provides an indirect measurement of axonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to evaluate RNFL thickness in patients at presentation with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggestive of MS. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study. Twenty-four patients with CIS suggestive of MS (8 optic neuritis [ON], 6 spinal cord s...

  12. A cervid vocal fold model suggests greater glottal efficiency in calling at high frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo R Titze

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni produce loud and high fundamental frequency bugles during the mating season, in contrast to the male European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus who produces loud and low fundamental frequency roaring calls. A critical step in understanding vocal communication is to relate sound complexity to anatomy and physiology in a causal manner. Experimentation at the sound source, often difficult in vivo in mammals, is simulated here by a finite element model of the larynx and a wave propagation model of the vocal tract, both based on the morphology and biomechanics of the elk. The model can produce a wide range of fundamental frequencies. Low fundamental frequencies require low vocal fold strain, but large lung pressure and large glottal flow if sound intensity level is to exceed 70 dB at 10 m distance. A high-frequency bugle requires both large muscular effort (to strain the vocal ligament and high lung pressure (to overcome phonation threshold pressure, but at least 10 dB more intensity level can be achieved. Glottal efficiency, the ration of radiated sound power to aerodynamic power at the glottis, is higher in elk, suggesting an advantage of high-pitched signaling. This advantage is based on two aspects; first, the lower airflow required for aerodynamic power and, second, an acoustic radiation advantage at higher frequencies. Both signal types are used by the respective males during the mating season and probably serve as honest signals. The two signal types relate differently to physical qualities of the sender. The low-frequency sound (Red Deer call relates to overall body size via a strong relationship between acoustic parameters and the size of vocal organs and body size. The high-frequency bugle may signal muscular strength and endurance, via a 'vocalizing at the edge' mechanism, for which efficiency is critical.

  13. Responding to symptoms suggestive of lung cancer: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Linda; Hall, Nicky; Emery, Jon; Banks, Jon; Mills, Katie; Johnson, Margaret; Hamilton, Willie; Walter, Fiona M

    2014-01-01

    Late diagnosis of lung cancer can impact on survival rates. Patients delay seeking help for a number of reasons. This study explored symptom appraisal and help-seeking decisions among patients referred to specialist respiratory services with symptoms suggestive of lung cancer. In-depth qualitative interviews with patients as soon as possible after referral, ideally before diagnosis and mainly within 10 weeks, explored factors impacting on their pathways prior to referral. Framework analysis, underpinned by the Model of Pathways to Treatment, was used to explore the data with particular focus on patients' beliefs and experiences, disease factors and healthcare professional influences. 35 patients were interviewed (aged 41-88 years, 15 women, 17 with lung cancer). All described similar presenting symptoms and triggers to seek help. Appraisal of symptoms was influenced by whether they had a lung comorbidity; seriousness of symptoms was interpreted within the context of previous illness experiences. Help-seeking was triggered when: symptoms failed to respond as expected; there was an increased awareness of symptoms of lung cancer; the public nature of a cough meant others were able to endorse help-seeking. Almost half visited the general practitioner (GP) two or more times before referral; during this period they reinterpreted initial symptoms and appraised new symptoms. The meaning given to symptoms changed over time and many became increasingly concerned they may have lung cancer. The GP played a role in ensuring timely further help-seeking but often there was little guidance on how to monitor symptoms or when to reconsult. Patients diagnosed with and without lung cancer had similar symptom pathways. Findings provide guidance for lung cancer awareness campaigns on the importance of social networks in endorsing patient help-seeking. The importance of appropriate advice, monitoring and safety-netting procedures by GPs for people presenting with symptoms suggestive

  14. Responding to symptoms suggestive of lung cancer: a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Linda; Hall, Nicky; Emery, Jon; Banks, Jon; Mills, Katie; Johnson, Margaret; Hamilton, Willie; Walter, Fiona M

    2014-01-01

    Background Late diagnosis of lung cancer can impact on survival rates. Patients delay seeking help for a number of reasons. This study explored symptom appraisal and help-seeking decisions among patients referred to specialist respiratory services with symptoms suggestive of lung cancer. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews with patients as soon as possible after referral, ideally before diagnosis and mainly within 10 weeks, explored factors impacting on their pathways prior to referral. Framework analysis, underpinned by the Model of Pathways to Treatment, was used to explore the data with particular focus on patients’ beliefs and experiences, disease factors and healthcare professional influences. Results 35 patients were interviewed (aged 41–88 years, 15 women, 17 with lung cancer). All described similar presenting symptoms and triggers to seek help. Appraisal of symptoms was influenced by whether they had a lung comorbidity; seriousness of symptoms was interpreted within the context of previous illness experiences. Help-seeking was triggered when: symptoms failed to respond as expected; there was an increased awareness of symptoms of lung cancer; the public nature of a cough meant others were able to endorse help-seeking. Almost half visited the general practitioner (GP) two or more times before referral; during this period they reinterpreted initial symptoms and appraised new symptoms. The meaning given to symptoms changed over time and many became increasingly concerned they may have lung cancer. The GP played a role in ensuring timely further help-seeking but often there was little guidance on how to monitor symptoms or when to reconsult. Conclusions Patients diagnosed with and without lung cancer had similar symptom pathways. Findings provide guidance for lung cancer awareness campaigns on the importance of social networks in endorsing patient help-seeking. The importance of appropriate advice, monitoring and safety-netting procedures by GPs for

  15. Discrete Dynamical Modeling of Influenza Virus Infection Suggests Age-Dependent Differences in Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keef, Ericka; Zhang, Li Ang; Swigon, David; Urbano, Alisa; Ermentrout, G Bard; Matuszewski, Michael; Toapanta, Franklin R; Ross, Ted M; Parker, Robert S; Clermont, Gilles

    2017-12-01

    Immunosenescence, an age-related decline in immune function, is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Older hosts exhibit a delayed onset of immunity and prolonged inflammation after an infection, leading to excess damage and a greater likelihood of death. Our study applies a rule-based model to infer which components of the immune response are most changed in an aged host. Two groups of BALB/c mice (aged 12 to 16 weeks and 72 to 76 weeks) were infected with 2 inocula: a survivable dose of 50 PFU and a lethal dose of 500 PFU. Data were measured at 10 points over 19 days in the sublethal case and at 6 points over 7 days in the lethal case, after which all mice had died. Data varied primarily in the onset of immunity, particularly the inflammatory response, which led to a 2-day delay in the clearance of the virus from older hosts in the sublethal cohort. We developed a Boolean model to describe the interactions between the virus and 21 immune components, including cells, chemokines, and cytokines, of innate and adaptive immunity. The model identifies distinct sets of rules for each age group by using Boolean operators to describe the complex series of interactions that activate and deactivate immune components. Our model accurately simulates the immune responses of mice of both ages and with both inocula included in the data (95% accurate for younger mice and 94% accurate for older mice) and shows distinct rule choices for the innate immunity arm of the model between younger and aging mice in response to influenza A virus infection. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus infection causes high morbidity and mortality rates every year, especially in the elderly. The elderly tend to have a delayed onset of many immune responses as well as prolonged inflammatory responses, leading to an overall weakened response to infection. Many of the details of immune mechanisms that change with age are currently not well understood. We present a rule-based model of the

  16. A suggested model for physical examination and conservative treatment of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Eric J; Stern, Ben; Reiman, Michael P; Tarara, Dan; Wright, Alexis A

    2013-02-01

    Athletic pubalgia (AP) is a chronic debilitating syndrome that affects many athletes. As a syndrome, AP is difficult to diagnose both with clinical examination and imaging. AP is also a challenge for conservative intervention with randomized controlled trials showing mixed success rates. In other syndromes where clinical diagnosis and conservative treatment have been less than clear, a paradigm has been suggested as a framework for clinical decision making. To propose a new clinical diagnostic and treatment paradigm for the conservative management of AP. Relevant studies were viewed with regard to diagnosis and intervention and where a gap in evidence existed, clinical expertise was used to fill that gap and duly noted. A new paradigm is proposed to assist with clinical diagnosis and non-surgical intervention in patients suffering with AP. The level of evidence supporting this paradigm, according to the SORT taxonomy, is primarily level 2B. Further testing is warranted but following the suggested paradigm should lead to a clearer diagnosis of AP and allow more meaningful research into homogeneous patient populations within the AP diagnostic cluster. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): 2B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Active tension network model suggests an exotic mechanical state realized in epithelial tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Nicholas; Mani, Madhav; Heemskerk, Idse; Streichan, Sebastian J.; Shraiman, Boris I.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical interactions play a crucial role in epithelial morphogenesis, yet understanding the complex mechanisms through which stress and deformation affect cell behaviour remains an open problem. Here we formulate and analyse the active tension network (ATN) model, which assumes that the mechanical balance of cells within a tissue is dominated by cortical tension and introduces tension-dependent active remodelling of the cortex. We find that ATNs exhibit unusual mechanical properties. Specifically, an ATN behaves as a fluid at short times, but at long times supports external tension like a solid. Furthermore, an ATN has an extensively degenerate equilibrium mechanical state associated with a discrete conformal--`isogonal'--deformation of cells. The ATN model predicts a constraint on equilibrium cell geometries, which we demonstrate to approximately hold in certain epithelial tissues. We further show that isogonal modes are observed in the fruit fly embryo, accounting for the striking variability of apical areas of ventral cells and helping understand the early phase of gastrulation. Living matter realizes new and exotic mechanical states, the study of which helps to understand biological phenomena.

  18. Hypothalamus transcriptome profile suggests an anorexia-cachexia syndrome in the anx/anx mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Josep Maria; Lozano, Juan José; Sumoy, Lauro; Dierssen, Mara; Visa, Joana; Gratacòs, Mònica; Estivill, Xavier

    2008-11-12

    The anx/anx mouse displays poor appetite and lean appearance and is considered a good model for the study of anorexia nervosa. To identify new genes involved in feeding behavior and body weight regulation we performed an expression profiling in the hypothalamus of the anx/anx mice. Using commercial microarrays we detected 156 differentially expressed genes and validated 92 of those using TaqMan low-density arrays. The expression of a set of 87 candidate genes selected based on literature evidences was also quantified by TaqMan low-density arrays. Our results showed enrichment in deregulated genes involved in cell death, cell morphology, and cancer, as well as an alteration of several signaling circuits involved in energy balance including neuropeptide Y and melanocortin signaling. The expression profile along with the phenotype led us to conclude that anx/anx mice resemble the anorexia-cachexia syndrome typically observed in cancer, infection with human immunodeficiency virus or chronic diseases, rather than starvation, and that anx/anx mice could be considered a good model for the treatment and investigation of this condition.

  19. What, Me Study?--Some Suggestions to Make a Hard Job Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Ronald M.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests unorthodox methods that may help to make studying more agreeable to students. Discussed are organizing complex cheat notes, use of chalkboard on pretending to give lectures on the subject to be mastered, developing an appreciation ("psyching out") for the professor's philosophy, and using flash cards for vocabulary mastery. (CS)

  20. Preclinical Studies Suggest Complex Nutraceutical Strategies May Have Potential for Preventing and Managing Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of signaling mechanisms triggered by toll receptor 4 (TLR4) in macrophages, as well as of pertinent cell-culture and rodent studies, suggests that various nutraceuticals may have clinical potential for preventing and treating Gram-negative sepsis. Endotoxin activation of TLR4 results in induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2); tissue factor (TF); and a range of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), and interleukin 6 (IL-6), that collaborate to generate the clinical picture of sepsis. Upstream activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase contributes importantly to those effects by inducing superoxide production that promotes activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear factor (NF) κΒ. Bilirubin generated intracellularly by activation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) functions to provide feedback inhibition of NAPDH-oxidase complexes. Exogenous bilirubin, or its precursor, biliverdin, is protective in rodent models of sepsis. One nutraceutical, phycocyanobilin (PhyCB), is a biliverdin derivative that functions as a light-gathering chromophore in cyanobacteria such as spirulina and can be converted intracellularly to a compound structurally homologous to bilirubin that likewise inhibits NADPH-oxidase complexes. In rodent studies, administration of phycocyanin, to which PhyCB is covalently attached, has likewise been shown to be protective in rodent models of sepsis. Other nutraceuticals provide benefits in counteracting the effects of TLR4. Phase 2-inductive nutraceuticals, such as lipoic acid, have the potential to induce HO-1 activity in macrophages, promoting bilirubin production. They may also antagonize the upregulatory impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on macrophage signaling by boosting glutathione synthesis. Another nutraceutical, glycine, helps counter the TLR4-triggered calcium influx that occurs through

  1. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Sockolow, Paulina

    2016-02-24

    Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one's choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other disciplines.

  2. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. Objectives The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. Methods A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. Results The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one’s choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Conclusions Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other

  3. A multi-scale distribution model for non-equilibrium populations suggests resource limitation in an endangered rodent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T Bean

    Full Text Available Species distributions are known to be limited by biotic and abiotic factors at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Species distribution models, however, frequently assume a population at equilibrium in both time and space. Studies of habitat selection have repeatedly shown the difficulty of estimating resource selection if the scale or extent of analysis is incorrect. Here, we present a multi-step approach to estimate the realized and potential distribution of the endangered giant kangaroo rat. First, we estimate the potential distribution by modeling suitability at a range-wide scale using static bioclimatic variables. We then examine annual changes in extent at a population-level. We define "available" habitat based on the total suitable potential distribution at the range-wide scale. Then, within the available habitat, model changes in population extent driven by multiple measures of resource availability. By modeling distributions for a population with robust estimates of population extent through time, and ecologically relevant predictor variables, we improved the predictive ability of SDMs, as well as revealed an unanticipated relationship between population extent and precipitation at multiple scales. At a range-wide scale, the best model indicated the giant kangaroo rat was limited to areas that received little to no precipitation in the summer months. In contrast, the best model for shorter time scales showed a positive relation with resource abundance, driven by precipitation, in the current and previous year. These results suggest that the distribution of the giant kangaroo rat was limited to the wettest parts of the drier areas within the study region. This multi-step approach reinforces the differing relationship species may have with environmental variables at different scales, provides a novel method for defining "available" habitat in habitat selection studies, and suggests a way to create distribution models at spatial and

  4. Toward an Integrative Model of Creativity and Personality: Theoretical Suggestions and Preliminary Empirical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fü rst, Guillaume; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lubart, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The present work proposes an integrative model of creativity that includes personality traits and cognitive processes. This model hypothesizes that three high-order personality factors predict two main process factors, which in turn predict intensity and achievement of creative activities. The personality factors are: "Plasticity" (high…

  5. The Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition (SAMR) Model: A Critical Review and Suggestions for Its Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erica R.; Rosenberg, Joshua M.; Akcaoglu, Mete

    2016-01-01

    The Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition (SAMR) model is a four-level, taxonomy-based approach for selecting, using, and evaluating technology in K-12 settings (Puentedura 2006). Despite its increasing popularity among practitioners, the SAMR model is not currently represented in the extant literature. To focus the ongoing…

  6. Evidence Suggesting a Role of Iron in a Mouse Model of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhanda Bose

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is associated with gadolinium contrast exposure in patients with reduced kidney function and carries high morbidity and mortality. We have previously demonstrated that gadolinium contrast agents induce in vivo systemic iron mobilization and in vitro differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells into ferroportin (iron exporter-expressing fibrocytic cells. In the present study we examined the role of iron in a mouse model of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Chronic kidney disease was induced in 8-week-old male Balb/C mice with a two-step 5/6 nephrectomy surgery. Five groups of mice were studied: control (n = 5, sham surgery control (n = 5, chronic kidney disease control (n = 4, chronic kidney disease injected with 0.5 mmol/kg body weight of Omniscan 3 days per week, for a total of 10 injections (n = 8, and chronic kidney disease with Omniscan plus deferiprone, 125 mg/kg, in drinking water (n = 9. Deferiprone was continued for 16 weeks until the end of the experiment. Mice with chronic kidney disease injected with Omniscan developed skin changes characteristic of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis including hair loss, reddening, ulceration, and skin tightening by 10 to 16 weeks. Histopathological sections demonstrated dermal fibrosis with increased skin thickness (0.25±0.06 mm, sham; 0.34±+0.3 mm, Omniscan-injected. Additionally, we observed an increase in tissue infiltration of ferroportin-expressing, fibrocyte-like cells accompanied by tissue iron accumulation in the skin of the Omniscan-treated mice. The deferiprone-treated group had significantly decreased skin thickness (p<0.05 and significantly decreased dermal fibrosis compared to the Omniscan-only group. In addition, iron chelation prevented tissue infiltration of ferroportin-expressing, fibrocyte-like cells. Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that exposure to Omniscan resulted in the release of catalytic iron and this was prevented by the iron chelator

  7. Studies suggest alternatives to amalgam as a retrograde filling material for apicectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Toru

    2004-01-01

    Sources were Medline and the Cochrane Library. Studies included were in vivo with human subjects, had experimental and control groups, and gave quantitative results in English, German or French. Success and failure rates were derived from randomised controlled trials (RCT), clinical controlled trials (CCT), cohort studies (CS) and case-controlled studies (CCS). Qualitative synthesis of results was performed. Two RCT, six CCT and 14 CCS were identified. The two RCT suggest that glass ionomer may be more effective than amalgam, conversely one CCT showed amalgam to be more effective. CCTs also suggest that EBA (reinforced zinc oxide eugenol) cement, composite with GLUMA (Bayer AG., Leverkusen, Germany) and gold leaf retrograde filling may be more effective than amalgam. A further CCT suggested that gutta-percha used as a retrograde filing is less effective than when used following an orthograde approach. Based on the outcome of two RCT, glass ionomer appears as effective as amalgam. EBA cement, composite with GLUMA and gold leaf and orthograde gutta-percha may also be as effective as amalgam. Evidence is limited, however, and further research is needed.

  8. Modelling soil organic carbon in Danish agricultural soils suggests low potential for future carbon sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is in active exchange with the atmosphere. The amount of organic carbon (OC) input into the soil and SOC turnover rate are important for predicting the carbon (C) sequestration potential of soils subject to changes in land-use and climate. The C-TOOL model was developed...

  9. DNA databanks and consent: a suggested policy option involving an authorization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; Upshur, Ross E G; Daar, Abdallah

    2003-01-03

    Genetic databases are becoming increasingly common as a means of determining the relationship between lifestyle, environmental exposures and genetic diseases. These databases rely on large numbers of research subjects contributing their genetic material to successfully explore the genetic basis of disease. However, as all possible research questions that can be posed of the data are unknown, an unresolved ethical issue is the status of informed consent for future research uses of genetic material. In this paper, we discuss the difficulties of an informed consent model for future ineffable uses of genetic data. We argue that variations on consent, such as presumed consent, blanket consent or constructed consent fail to meet the standards required by current informed consent doctrine and are distortions of the original concept. In this paper, we propose the concept of an authorization model whereby participants in genetic data banks are able to exercise a certain amount of control over future uses of genetic data. We argue this preserves the autonomy of individuals at the same time as allowing them to give permission and discretion to researchers for certain types of research. The authorization model represents a step forward in the debate about informed consent in genetic databases. The move towards an authorization model would require changes in the regulatory and legislative environments. Additionally, empirical support of the utility and acceptability of authorization is required.

  10. DNA databanks and consent: A suggested policy option involving an authorization model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic databases are becoming increasingly common as a means of determining the relationship between lifestyle, environmental exposures and genetic diseases. These databases rely on large numbers of research subjects contributing their genetic material to successfully explore the genetic basis of disease. However, as all possible research questions that can be posed of the data are unknown, an unresolved ethical issue is the status of informed consent for future research uses of genetic material. Discussion In this paper, we discuss the difficulties of an informed consent model for future ineffable uses of genetic data. We argue that variations on consent, such as presumed consent, blanket consent or constructed consent fail to meet the standards required by current informed consent doctrine and are distortions of the original concept. In this paper, we propose the concept of an authorization model whereby participants in genetic data banks are able to exercise a certain amount of control over future uses of genetic data. We argue this preserves the autonomy of individuals at the same time as allowing them to give permission and discretion to researchers for certain types of research. Summary The authorization model represents a step forward in the debate about informed consent in genetic databases. The move towards an authorization model would require changes in the regulatory and legislative environments. Additionally, empirical support of the utility and acceptability of authorization is required.

  11. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C.; Shinneman, Douglas; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2018-01-01

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  12. The Nature of Scatter at the DARHT Facility and Suggestions for Improved Modeling of DARHT Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morneau, Rachel Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Klasky, Marc Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-09

    The U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program [1] is designed to sustain and evaluate the nuclear weapons stockpile while foregoing underground nuclear tests. The maintenance of a smaller, aging U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without underground testing requires complex computer calculations [14]. These calculations in turn need to be verified and benchmarked [14]. A wide range of research facilities have been used to test and evaluate nuclear weapons while respecting the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) [2]. Some of these facilities include the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories, and the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This research will focus largely on DARHT (although some information from Cygnus and the Los Alamos Microtron may be used in this research) by modeling it and comparing to experimental data. DARHT is an electron accelerator that employs high-energy flash x-ray sources for imaging hydro-tests. This research proposes to address some of the issues crucial to understanding DARHT Axis II and the analysis of the radiographic images produced. Primarily, the nature of scatter at DARHT will be modeled and verified with experimental data. It will then be shown that certain design decisions can be made to optimize the scatter field for hydrotest experiments. Spectral effects will be briefly explored to determine if there is any considerable effect on the density reconstruction caused by changes in the energy spectrum caused by target changes. Finally, a generalized scatter model will be made using results from MCNP that can be convolved with the direct transmission of an object to simulate the scatter of that object at the detector plane. The region in which with this scatter model is appropriate will be explored.

  13. A suggestion for quality assessment in systematic reviews of observational studies in nutritional epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myon Bae

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is important to control the quality level of the observational studies in conducting meta-analyses. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS is a representative tool used for this purpose. We investigated the relationship between high-quality (HQ defined using NOS and the results of subgroup analysis according to study design. METHODS: We selected systematic review studies with meta-analysis which performed a quality evaluation on observational studies of diet and cancer by NOS. HQ determinations and the distribution of study designs were examined. Subgroup analyses according to quality level as defined by the NOS were also extracted. Equivalence was evaluated based on the summary effect size (sES and 95% confidence intervals computed in the subgroup analysis. RESULTS: The meta-analysis results of the HQ and cohort groups were identical. The overall sES, which was obtained by combining the sES when equivalence was observed between the cohort and case-control groups, also showed equivalence. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that it is more reasonable to control for quality level by performing subgroup analysis according to study design rather than by using HQ based on the NOS quality assessment tool.

  14. A Grammar-based Approach for Modeling User Interactions and Generating Suggestions During the Data Exploration Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabek, Filip; Caban, Jesus J

    2017-01-01

    Despite the recent popularity of visual analytics focusing on big data, little is known about how to support users that use visualization techniques to explore multi-dimensional datasets and accomplish specific tasks. Our lack of models that can assist end-users during the data exploration process has made it challenging to learn from the user's interactive and analytical process. The ability to model how a user interacts with a specific visualization technique and what difficulties they face are paramount in supporting individuals with discovering new patterns within their complex datasets. This paper introduces the notion of visualization systems understanding and modeling user interactions with the intent of guiding a user through a task thereby enhancing visual data exploration. The challenges faced and the necessary future steps to take are discussed; and to provide a working example, a grammar-based model is presented that can learn from user interactions, determine the common patterns among a number of subjects using a K-Reversible algorithm, build a set of rules, and apply those rules in the form of suggestions to new users with the goal of guiding them along their visual analytic process. A formal evaluation study with 300 subjects was performed showing that our grammar-based model is effective at capturing the interactive process followed by users and that further research in this area has the potential to positively impact how users interact with a visualization system.

  15. Research Spotlight: Model suggests path to ending the ongoing Haitian cholera epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-05-01

    Since early November 2010 a deadly cholera epidemic has been spreading across the Caribbean nation of Haiti, killing thousands of people and infecting hundreds of thousands. While infection rates are being actively monitored, health organizations have been left without a clear understanding of exactly how the disease has spread across Haiti. Cholera can spread through exposure to contaminated water, and the disease travels over long distances if an infected individual moves around the country. Using representations of these two predominant dispersion mechanisms, along with information on the size of the susceptible population, the number of infected individuals, and the aquatic concentration of the cholera-causing bacteria for more than 500 communities, Bertuzzo et al. designed a model that was able to accurately reproduce the progression of the Haitian cholera epidemic. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL046823, 2011)

  16. New susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis suggested by a genome-wide linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornélis, François; Fauré, Sabine; Martinez, Maria; Prud’homme, Jean-François; Fritz, Pierre; Dib, Colette; Alves, Helena; Barrera, Pilar; de Vries, Niek; Balsa, Alejandro; Pascual-Salcedo, Dora; Maenaut, Kristin; Westhovens, René; Migliorini, Paola; Tran, Tuyet-Hoa; Delaye, Arnaud; Prince, Nathalie; Lefevre, Caroline; Thomas, Gaëlle; Poirier, Murielle; Soubigou, Stéphane; Alibert, Olivier; Lasbleiz, Sandra; Fouix, Sylvaine; Bouchier, Christiane; Lioté, Frédéric; Loste, Marie-Noëlle; Lepage, Virginia; Charron, Dominique; Gyapay, Gabor; Lopes-Vaz, Antonio; Kuntz, Daniel; Bardin, Thomas; Weissenbach, Jean

    1998-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common autoimmune disease, is associated in families with other autoimmune diseases, including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Its genetic component has been suggested by familial aggregation (λs = 5), twin studies, and segregation analysis. HLA, which is the only susceptibility locus known, has been estimated to account for one-third of this component. The aim of this paper was to identify new RA loci. A genome scan was performed with 114 European Caucasian RA sib pairs from 97 nuclear families. Linkage was significant only for HLA (P < 2.5⋅10−5) and nominal for 19 markers in 14 other regions (P < 0.05). Four of the loci implicated in IDDM potentially overlap with these regions: the putative IDDM6, IDDM9, IDDM13, and DXS998 loci. The first two of these candidate regions, defined in the RA genome scan by the markers D18S68-D18S61-D18S469 (18q22–23) and D3S1267 (3q13), respectively, were studied in 194 additional RA sib pairs from 164 nuclear families. Support for linkage to chromosome 3 only was extended significantly (P = 0.002). The analysis of all 261 families provided a linkage evidence of P = 0.001 and suggested an interaction between this putative RA locus and HLA. This locus could account for 16% of the genetic component of RA. Candidate genes include those coding for CD80 and CD86, molecules involved in antigen-specific T cell recognition. In conclusion, this first genome scan in RA Caucasian families revealed 14 candidate regions, one of which was supported further by the study of a second set of families. PMID:9724775

  17. Study of graduate curriculum in the radiological science: problems and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seong Jin; Kim, Hwa Gon; Kang, Se Sik; Park, Byeong Rae; Kim, Chang Soo

    2006-01-01

    Currently, Educational program of radiological science is developed in enormous growth, our educational environments leading allied health science education program in the number of super high speed medical industry. Radiological science may be the fastest growing technologies in our medical department today. In this way, Medical industry fields converged in the daily quick, the fact that department of radiological science didn't discharged ones duties on current educational environments. The curriculum of radiological technologists that play an important part between skill and occupation's education as major and personality didn't performed one's part most effectively on current medical environments and digital radiological equipment interface. We expect improvement and suggestion to grow natural disposition as studies in the graduate of radiological science. Therefore, in this paper, current curriculum of radiological science are catched hold of trend and problems on digital radiology environments, on fact the present state of problems, for Graduate program of radiological science, graduate courses of MS and ph.D. are suggested a reform measure of major education curriculum introduction

  18. Using Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups in Genetic Association Studies and Suggested Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzurumluoglu, A Mesut; Baird, Denis; Richardson, Tom G; Timpson, Nicholas J; Rodriguez, Santiago

    2018-01-22

    Y-chromosomal (Y-DNA) haplogroups are more widely used in population genetics than in genetic epidemiology, although associations between Y-DNA haplogroups and several traits, including cardiometabolic traits, have been reported. In apparently homogeneous populations defined by principal component analyses, there is still Y-DNA haplogroup variation which will result from population history. Therefore, hidden stratification and/or differential phenotypic effects by Y-DNA haplogroups could exist. To test this, we hypothesised that stratifying individuals according to their Y-DNA haplogroups before testing for associations between autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypes will yield difference in association. For proof of concept, we derived Y-DNA haplogroups from 6537 males from two epidemiological cohorts, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) ( n = 5080; 816 Y-DNA SNPs) and the 1958 Birth Cohort ( n = 1457; 1849 Y-DNA SNPs), and studied the robust associations between 32 SNPs and body mass index (BMI), including SNPs in or near Fat Mass and Obesity-associated protein ( FTO ) which yield the strongest effects. Overall, no association was replicated in both cohorts when Y-DNA haplogroups were considered and this suggests that, for BMI at least, there is little evidence of differences in phenotype or SNP association by Y-DNA structure. Further studies using other traits, phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS), other haplogroups and/or autosomal SNPs are required to test the generalisability and utility of this approach.

  19. High-resolution mutational profiling suggests the genetic validity of glioblastoma patient-derived pre-clinical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn E Yost

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the ability to efficiently characterize tumor genomes is enabling targeted drug development, which requires rigorous biomarker-based patient selection to increase effectiveness. Consequently, representative DNA biomarkers become equally important in pre-clinical studies. However, it is still unclear how well these markers are maintained between the primary tumor and the patient-derived tumor models. Here, we report the comprehensive identification of somatic coding mutations and copy number aberrations in four glioblastoma (GBM primary tumors and their matched pre-clinical models: serum-free neurospheres, adherent cell cultures, and mouse xenografts. We developed innovative methods to improve the data quality and allow a strict comparison of matched tumor samples. Our analysis identifies known GBM mutations altering PTEN and TP53 genes, and new actionable mutations such as the loss of PIK3R1, and reveals clear patient-to-patient differences. In contrast, for each patient, we do not observe any significant remodeling of the mutational profile between primary to model tumors and the few discrepancies can be attributed to stochastic errors or differences in sample purity. Similarly, we observe ∼96% primary-to-model concordance in copy number calls in the high-cellularity samples. In contrast to previous reports based on gene expression profiles, we do not observe significant differences at the DNA level between in vitro compared to in vivo models. This study suggests, at a remarkable resolution, the genome-wide conservation of a patient's tumor genetics in various pre-clinical models, and therefore supports their use for the development and testing of personalized targeted therapies.

  20. An integrated disease/pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model suggests improved interleukin-21 regimens validated prospectively for mouse solid cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Elishmereni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-21 is an attractive antitumor agent with potent immunomodulatory functions. Yet thus far, the cytokine has yielded only partial responses in solid cancer patients, and conditions for beneficial IL-21 immunotherapy remain elusive. The current work aims to identify clinically-relevant IL-21 regimens with enhanced efficacy, based on mathematical modeling of long-term antitumor responses. For this purpose, pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD data were acquired from a preclinical study applying systemic IL-21 therapy in murine solid cancers. We developed an integrated disease/PK/PD model for the IL-21 anticancer response, and calibrated it using selected "training" data. The accuracy of the model was verified retrospectively under diverse IL-21 treatment settings, by comparing its predictions to independent "validation" data in melanoma and renal cell carcinoma-challenged mice (R(2>0.90. Simulations of the verified model surfaced important therapeutic insights: (1 Fractionating the standard daily regimen (50 µg/dose into a twice daily schedule (25 µg/dose is advantageous, yielding a significantly lower tumor mass (45% decrease; (2 A low-dose (12 µg/day regimen exerts a response similar to that obtained under the 50 µg/day treatment, suggestive of an equally efficacious dose with potentially reduced toxicity. Subsequent experiments in melanoma-bearing mice corroborated both of these predictions with high precision (R(2>0.89, thus validating the model also prospectively in vivo. Thus, the confirmed PK/PD model rationalizes IL-21 therapy, and pinpoints improved clinically-feasible treatment schedules. Our analysis demonstrates the value of employing mathematical modeling and in silico-guided design of solid tumor immunotherapy in the clinic.

  1. Primate study suggests pentobarbital may help protect the brain during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation therapy, an often indispensable treatment for a wide range of brain tumors, is a double-edged sword, especially when used to treat children. Research reported at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Atlanta, Ga., now suggests that pentobarbital and perhaps other barbiturates may help protect the brain from radiation-induced damage, especially to the pituitary and hypothalmus, where such damage can lead to serious, life-long problems for children. Jeffrey J. Olson, MD, now assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, reported the results of a study of the radioprotective effects of pentobarbital on the brain of a primate, which he and colleagues at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recently completed

  2. Molecular Characterization of Peripheral Extracellular Vesicles in Clinically Isolated Syndrome: Preliminary Suggestions from a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Nuzziello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs, nanoparticles originated from different cell types, seem to be implicated in several cellular activities. In the Central Nervous System (CNS, glia and neurons secrete EVs and recent studies have demonstrated that the intercellular communication mediated by EVs has versatile functional impact in the cerebral homeostasis. This essential role may be due to their proteins and RNAs cargo that possibly modify the phenotypes of the targeted cells. Despite the increasing importance of EVs, little is known about their fluctuations in physiological as well as in pathological conditions. Furthermore, only few studies have investigated the contents of contemporary EVs subgroups (microvesicles, MVs and exosomes, EXOs with the purpose of discriminating between their features and functional roles. In order to possibly shed light on these issues, we performed a pilot study in which MVs and EXOs extracted from serum samples of a little cohort of subjects (patients with the first clinical evidence of CNS demyelination, also known as Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Healthy Controls were submitted to deep small-RNA sequencing. Data were analysed by an in-home bioinformatics platform. In line with previous reports, distinct classes of non-coding RNAs have been detected in both the EVs subsets, offering interesting suggestions on their origins and functions. We also verified the feasibility of this extensive molecular approach, thus supporting its valuable use for the analysis of circulating biomarkers (e.g., microRNAs in order to investigate and monitor specific diseases.

  3. Homocysteine as a potential biomarker in bipolar disorders: a critical review and suggestions for improved studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Singh, Ajeet B; Berk, Michael; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Homocysteine levels have been associated with major depression, but associations with bipolar disorder remain less clear. Some data suggest homocysteine levels have potential as a biomarker of treatment response; however the literature is mixed. Oxidized forms of homocysteine can be potentially neurotoxic leading to glutamate toxicity, apoptotic transformation and neurodegenerative processes. High homocysteine may be a risk biomarker for bipolar disorders, but the empirical base remains too weak for firm conclusions. This review discusses the current literature for homocysteine levels as a biomarker. It is premature to foreclose the utility of homocysteine levels as a biomarker for bipolar disorder due the methodological inadequacies in the existing literature. These methodological design issues include lack of control for the confounding variables of concurrent medication, phase of bipolar disorder, gender, age, nutritional status, thyroid, liver and renal function, smoking or lean body mass. Well-powered association studies with confounder control could help shed more light on the important clinical question of homocysteine's utility as a biomarker in bipolar disorder. Future experiments are needed to examine the outcome of interventions modulating homocysteine for treating bipolar disorder. Only prospective randomized control trials will provide definitive evidence of the utility of homocysteine as a biomarker or therapeutic target.

  4. Symptom appraisal and healthcare-seeking for symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, N; Birt, L; Banks, J; Emery, J; Mills, K; Johnson, M; Rubin, G P; Hamilton, W; Walter, F M

    2015-10-09

    Timely diagnosis of colorectal cancer is important to improve survival. This study explored symptom appraisal and help-seeking among patients referred to specialist services with symptoms of colorectal cancer. Qualitative in-depth interview study. Participants were recruited on referral to gastroenterology clinics (North East and East of England); interviews were conducted soon after referral. We purposively sampled participants to ensure a range of accounts in terms of age, sex, diagnosis and geographical location. Data collection and analysis were underpinned by the Model of Pathways to Treatment. Framework analysis was used to explore the data within and across cases, focusing on patient beliefs and experiences, disease factors and healthcare influences. 40 participants were interviewed (aged 43-87 years, 17 women, 18 diagnosed with colorectal cancer). Patients diagnosed with and without colorectal cancer had similar symptom pathways. We found a range of interacting and often competing biopsychosocial, contextual and cultural influences on the way in which people recognised, interpreted and acted on their symptoms. People attempted to 'maintain normality' through finding benign explanations for their symptoms. Bodily changes were appraised within the context of usual bowel patterns, comorbidities and life events, and decisions to seek help were made in relation to expectations about the course of symptoms. The 'private nature' of colorectal cancer symptoms could affect both their identification and discussions with others including healthcare professionals. Within the context of the National Health Service, people needed to legitimise appropriate use of healthcare services and avoid being thought of as wasting doctors' time. Findings provide guidance for awareness campaigns on reducing stigma around appraising and discussing bowel movements, and the importance of intermittent and non-specific symptoms. Altering perceptions about the appropriate use of health

  5. Visual modelling suggests a weak relationship between the evolution of ultraviolet vision and plumage coloration in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, O; Delhey, K

    2015-03-01

    Birds have sophisticated colour vision mediated by four cone types that cover a wide visual spectrum including ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Many birds have modest UV sensitivity provided by violet-sensitive (VS) cones with sensitivity maxima between 400 and 425 nm. However, some birds have evolved higher UV sensitivity and a larger visual spectrum given by UV-sensitive (UVS) cones maximally sensitive at 360-370 nm. The reasons for VS-UVS transitions and their relationship to visual ecology remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that the evolution of UVS-cone vision is linked to plumage colours so that visual sensitivity and feather coloration are 'matched'. This leads to the specific prediction that UVS-cone vision enhances the discrimination of plumage colours of UVS birds while such an advantage is absent or less pronounced for VS-bird coloration. We test this hypothesis using knowledge of the complex distribution of UVS cones among birds combined with mathematical modelling of colour discrimination during different viewing conditions. We find no support for the hypothesis, which, combined with previous studies, suggests only a weak relationship between UVS-cone vision and plumage colour evolution. Instead, we suggest that UVS-cone vision generally favours colour discrimination, which creates a nonspecific selection pressure for the evolution of UVS cones. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Mental health inpatients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C; Rouse, L; Rae, S; Kar Ray, M

    2018-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Restraint has negative psychological, physical and relational consequences for mental health patients and staff. Restraint reduction interventions have been developed (e.g., "Safewards"). Limited qualitative research has explored suggestions on how to reduce physical restraint (and feasibility issues with implementing interventions) from those directly involved. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper explores mental health patients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint, whilst addressing barriers to implementing these. Findings centred on four themes: improving communication and relationships; staffing factors; environment and space; and activities and distraction. Not all suggestions are addressed by currently available interventions. Barriers to implementation were identified, centring on a lack of time and/or resources; with the provision of more time for staff to spend with patients and implement interventions seen as essential to reducing physical restraint. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Improving communication and relationships between staff/patients, making staffing-related changes, improving ward environments and providing patient activities are central to restraint reduction in mental healthcare. Fundamental issues related to understaffing, high staff turnover, and lack of time and resources need addressing in order for suggestions to be successfully implemented. Introduction Physical restraint has negative consequences for all involved, and international calls for its reduction have emerged. Some restraint reduction interventions have been developed, but limited qualitative research explores suggestions on how to reduce physical restraint (and feasibility issues with implementation) from those directly involved. Aims To explore mental health patients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint. Methods Interviews were conducted with 13 inpatients

  7. Genetic studies of Australian Trichomya hirsuta (Bivalvia: Mytilidae suggest antitropical divergence of this species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Colgan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The hairy mussel Trichomya hirsuta (Lamarck, 1819 has disjunct known ranges in northeast Asia and Australia. There are substantial DNA sequence divergences for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA between specimens from these ranges showing that neither is likely to derive from a recent colonization. The most recent common ancestor of the observed haplotypes may have lived as long ago as the early Pliocene. It is, however, suggested here that the mussels from the two regions continue to be regarded, tentatively, as conspecific because intraspecific divergence of mitochondrial DNA sequences can be very high in Mytilidae. The present knowledge of fossil history suggests that the direction of colonization in Trichomya may have been from the Southern to the Northern Hemisphere in contrast with migrations of other genera of Mytilidae.

  8. Comparing to Prepare: Suggesting Ways to Study Social Media Today—and Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Olof Larsson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While the two currently most popular social media services – Twitter and Facebook – are different in terms of technical and end-user details, this paper suggests that a series of similarities can also be found regarding different modes of communication offered by both services. These modes are labeled as Broadcasting, Redistributing, Interacting and Acknowledging. The argument is put forward that such synthesis of communication modes across platform could prove useful for longitudinal and comparative research efforts.

  9. Low modeled ozone production suggests underestimation of precursor emissions (especially NOx) in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    E. Oikonomakis; S. Aksoyoglu; G. Ciarelli; U. Baltensperger; A. S. H. Prévôt

    2018-01-01

    High surface ozone concentrations, which usually occur when photochemical ozone production takes place, pose a great risk to human health and vegetation. Air quality models are often used by policy makers as tools for the development of ozone mitigation strategies. However, the modeled ozone production is often not or not enough evaluated in many ozone modeling studies. The focus of this work is to evaluate the modeled ozone production in Europe indirectly, with the use of t...

  10. The Views and Suggestions of Social Studies Teachers about the Implementation of Drama Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikkaya, Tekin

    2014-01-01

    Associating knowledge with daily life leads to permanent knowledge, which increases students' success in school. Drama is viewed to be one of the most effective methods that serves a purpose, and many researchers have determined that this method must be included at all levels of education. There are not much studies on social studies teachers'…

  11. Genome-wide study of association and interaction with maternal cytomegalovirus infection suggests new schizophrenia loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Børglum; D. Demontis; J. Grove (Jakob); J. Pallesen (J.); M.V. Hollegaard (Mads V); C.B. Pedersen (C.); A. Hedemand (A.); M. Mattheisen (Manuel); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Nyegaard (M.); T.F. Orntoft (Torben); C. Wiuf (Carsten); M. Didriksen (Michael); M. Nordentoft (M.); M.M. Nö then (M.); M. Rietschel (Marcella); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); S. Cichon (Sven); R.H. Yolken (Robert); D.M. Hougaard (David); P.B. Mortensen; O. Mors

    2014-01-01

    textabstractGenetic and environmental components as well as their interaction contribute to the risk of schizophrenia, making it highly relevant to include environmental factors in genetic studies of schizophrenia. This study comprises genome-wide association (GWA) and follow-up analyses of all

  12. Reason for Cautious Optimism? Two Studies Suggesting Reduced Stigma Against Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Tracy K.; Smith, April R.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    We present data from two studies that aimed to investigate stigma against suicide. In Study 1, we employed Milgram et al.'s (1965) “lost letter” technique. We predicted that fewer letters addressed to a fictitious organization with the word “suicide” in its name would be returned than letters addressed to fictitious heart disease or diabetes organizations, presumably due to stigma. Contrary to expectation, there were no differences in the percentage of letters returned for each condition, despite power to detect small effects. In Study 2 we compared scores on the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ; Domino, Gibson, Poling, & Westlake, 1980) from a study published in 1988 (Domino, MacGregor, & Hannah, 1988) to scores from a study conducted 19 years later. Results demonstrated reduced stigma toward suicide, with the belief that suicide is morally bad exhibiting the largest change. PMID:20455251

  13. Maternal phenylketonuria syndrome: studies in mice suggest a potential approach to a continuing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeile, William L; McCune, Helen C; Musson, Donald G; O'Donnell, Brian; O'Neill, Charles A; Tsuruda, Laurie S; Zori, Roberto T; Laipis, Philip J

    2018-01-31

    BackgroundUntreated phenylketonuria (PKU), one of the most common human genetic disorders, usually results in mental retardation. Although a protein-restricted artificial diet can prevent retardation, dietary compliance in adults is often poor. In pregnant PKU women, noncompliance can result in maternal PKU syndrome, where high phenylalanine (Phe) levels cause severe fetal complications. Enzyme substitution therapy using Phe ammonia lyase (PAL) corrects PKU in BTBR Phe hydroxylase (Pah enu2 ) mutant mice, suggesting a potential for maternal PKU syndrome treatment in humans.MethodsWe reviewed clinical data to assess maternal PKU syndrome incidence in pregnant PKU women. We treated female PKU mice (on normal diet) with PAL, stabilizing Phe at physiological levels, and mated them to assess pregnancy outcomes.ResultsPatient records show that, unfortunately, the efficacy of diet to prevent maternal PKU syndrome has not significantly improved since the problem was first noted 40 years ago. PAL treatment of pregnant PKU mice shows that offspring of PAL-treated dams survive to adulthood, in contrast to the complete lethality seen in untreated mice, or limited survival seen in mice on a PKU diet.ConclusionPAL treatment reduced maternal PKU syndrome severity in mice and may have potential for human PKU therapy.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 31 January 2018; doi:10.1038/pr.2017.323.

  14. Nonhomologous recombination between defective poliovirus and coxsackievirus genomes suggests a new model of genetic plasticity for picornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmblat, Barbara; Jégouic, Sophie; Muslin, Claire; Blondel, Bruno; Joffret, Marie-Line; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2014-08-05

    Most of the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have been shown to be recombinants between the type 2 poliovirus (PV) strain of the oral polio vaccine (Sabin 2) and another species C human enterovirus (HEV-C), such as type 17 coxsackie A virus (CA17) in particular. We studied intertypic genetic exchanges between PV and non-PV HEV-C by developing a recombination model, making it possible to rescue defective type 2 PV RNA genomes with a short deletion at the 3' end by the cotransfection of cells with defective or infectious CA17 RNAs. We isolated over 200 different PV/CA17 recombinants, using murine cells expressing the human PV receptor (PVR) and selecting viruses with PV capsids. We found some homologous (H) recombinants and, mostly, nonhomologous (NH) recombinants presenting duplications of parental sequences preferentially located in the regions encoding proteins 2A, 2B, and 3A. Short duplications appeared to be stable, whereas longer duplications were excised during passaging in cultured cells or after multiplication in PVR-transgenic mice, generating H recombinants with diverse sites of recombination. This suggests that NH recombination events may be a transient, intermediate step in the generation and selection of the fittest H recombinants. In addition to the classical copy-choice mechanism of recombination thought to generate mostly H recombinants, there may also be a modular mechanism of recombination, involving NH recombinant precursors, shaping the genomes of recombinant enteroviruses and other picornaviruses. Importance: The multiplication of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in poorly immunized human populations can render these viruses pathogenic, causing poliomyelitis outbreaks. Most cVDPVs are intertypic recombinants between a poliovirus (PV) strain and another human enterovirus, such as type 17 coxsackie A viruses (CA17). For further studies of the genetic exchanges

  15. Genome-wide study of association and interaction with maternal cytomegalovirus infection suggests new schizophrenia loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, A D; Demontis, D; Grove, J

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and environmental components as well as their interaction contribute to the risk of schizophrenia, making it highly relevant to include environmental factors in genetic studies of schizophrenia. This study comprises genome-wide association (GWA) and follow-up analyses of all individuals...... was found for rs7902091 (P(SNP × CMV)=7.3 × 10(-7)) in CTNNA3, a gene not previously implicated in schizophrenia, stressing the importance of including environmental factors in genetic studies....... born in Denmark since 1981 and diagnosed with schizophrenia as well as controls from the same birth cohort. Furthermore, we present the first genome-wide interaction survey of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The GWA analysis included 888 cases...

  16. In-silico interaction studies suggest RND efflux pump mediates polymyxin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Privita; Maurya, Pramila; Tiwari, Monalisa; Tiwari, Vishvanath

    2017-12-29

    Bacterial efflux pumps have emerged as antibiotic resistance determinants and confers multi-drug resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials as well as non-antibiotic substances. A study about translocation of antibiotic molecules through the efflux transporter, will contribute in determining substrate specificity. In the present study, we have explored RND family efflux pump extensively found in Acinetobacter baumannii i.e. AdeABC. Besides, another well studied RND efflux pump, AcrAB-TolC together with a non-RND efflux pump, NorM was investigated for comparative analysis. We employed a series of computational techniques ranging from molecular docking to binding free energy estimation and molecular dynamics simulations to determine the binding affinity for different classes of drugs, namely aminoglycosides, polymyxins, β-lactams, tetracyclines, glycylcyclines, quinolones and metronidazole with AdeB, AcrB, and NorM efflux proteins. Our results revealed that class polymyxins has the highest binding affinity with the RND efflux pumps i.e. AcrAB-TolC and AdeABC as well as non-RND efflux pump, NorM. The experimental validation study demonstrated bigger zone of inhibition in presence of efflux pump inhibitor than polymyxin alone thus unveiling its specificity toward efflux pump. The reported experimental data comprising of minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics toward these efflux pumps also support our finding based on in silico approach. To recapitulate the outcome, polymyxins shows maximum specificity toward RND as well as non-RND efflux pump and may unlatch the way to rationally develop new potential antibacterial agents as well as efflux pump inhibitors in order to combat resistance.

  17. Population pharmacokinetic study of benznidazole in pediatric Chagas disease suggests efficacy despite lower plasma concentrations than in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Altcheh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to long term cardiac morbidity. Treatment of children with benznidazole is effective, but no pediatric pharmacokinetics data are available and clinical pharmacology information on the drug is scarce.Prospective population pharmacokinetic (PK cohort study in children 2-12 years old with Chagas disease treated with oral benznidazole 5-8 mg/kg/day BID for 60 days. (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00699387.Forty children were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 7.3 years. A total of 117 samples were obtained from 38 patients for PK analysis. A one compartment model best fit the data. Weight-corrected clearance rate (CL/F showed a good correlation with age, with younger patients having a significantly higher CL/F than older children and adults. Simulated median steady-state benznidazole concentrations, based on model parameters, were lower for children in our study than for adults and lowest for children under 7 years of age. Treatment was efficacious in the 37 patients who completed the treatment course, and well tolerated, with few, and mild, adverse drug reactions (ADRs.Observed benznidazole plasma concentrations in children were markedly lower than those previously reported in adults (treated with comparable mg/kg doses, possibly due to a higher CL/F in smaller children. These lower blood concentrations were nevertheless associated to a high therapeutic response in our cohort. Unlike adults, children have few adverse reactions to the drug, suggesting that there may be a direct correlation between drug concentrations and incidence of ADRs. Our results suggest that studies with lower doses in adults may be warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00699387.

  18. ‘Cape capture’: Geologic data and modeling results suggest the Holocene loss of a Carolina Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Ashton, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, the origin and evolution of the set of cuspate forelands known as the Carolina Capes—Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain—off the eastern coast of the United States have been discussed and debated. The consensus conceptual model is not only that these capes existed through much or all of the Holocene transgression, but also that their number has not changed. Here we describe bathymetric, lithologic, seismic, and chronologic data that suggest another cape may have existed between Capes Hatteras and Lookout during the early to middle Holocene. This cape likely formed at the distal end of the Neuse-Tar-Pamlico fluvial system during the early Holocene transgression, when this portion of the shelf was flooded ca. 9 cal (calibrated) kyr B.P., and was probably abandoned by ca. 4 cal kyr B.P., when the shoreline attained its present general configuration. Previously proposed mechanisms for cape formation suggest that the large-scale, rhythmic pattern of the Carolina Capes arose from a hydrodynamic template or the preexisting geologic framework. Numerical modeling, however, suggests that the number and spacing of capes can be dynamic, and that a coast can self-organize in response to a high-angle-wave instability in shoreline shape. In shoreline evolution model simulations, smaller cuspate forelands are subsumed by larger neighbors over millennial time scales through a process of ‘cape capture.’ The suggested former cape in Raleigh Bay represents the first interpreted geological evidence of dynamic abandonment suggested by the self-organization hypothesis. Cape capture may be a widespread process in coastal environments with large-scale rhythmic shoreline features; its preservation in the sedimentary record will vary according to geologic setting, physical processes, and sea-level history.

  19. Genome-wide study of association and interaction with maternal cytomegalovirus infection suggests new schizophrenia loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børglum, A D; Demontis, D; Grove, J; Pallesen, J; Hollegaard, M V; Pedersen, C B; Hedemand, A; Mattheisen, M; Uitterlinden, A; Nyegaard, M; Ørntoft, T; Wiuf, C; Didriksen, M; Nordentoft, M; Nöthen, M M; Rietschel, M; Ophoff, R A; Cichon, S; Yolken, R H; Hougaard, D M; Mortensen, P B; Mors, O

    2014-03-01

    Genetic and environmental components as well as their interaction contribute to the risk of schizophrenia, making it highly relevant to include environmental factors in genetic studies of schizophrenia. This study comprises genome-wide association (GWA) and follow-up analyses of all individuals born in Denmark since 1981 and diagnosed with schizophrenia as well as controls from the same birth cohort. Furthermore, we present the first genome-wide interaction survey of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The GWA analysis included 888 cases and 882 controls, and the follow-up investigation of the top GWA results was performed in independent Danish (1396 cases and 1803 controls) and German-Dutch (1169 cases, 3714 controls) samples. The SNPs most strongly associated in the single-marker analysis of the combined Danish samples were rs4757144 in ARNTL (P=3.78 × 10(-6)) and rs8057927 in CDH13 (P=1.39 × 10(-5)). Both genes have previously been linked to schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorders. The strongest associated SNP in the combined analysis, including Danish and German-Dutch samples, was rs12922317 in RUNDC2A (P=9.04 × 10(-7)). A region-based analysis summarizing independent signals in segments of 100 kb identified a new region-based genome-wide significant locus overlapping the gene ZEB1 (P=7.0 × 10(-7)). This signal was replicated in the follow-up analysis (P=2.3 × 10(-2)). Significant interaction with maternal CMV infection was found for rs7902091 (P(SNP × CMV)=7.3 × 10(-7)) in CTNNA3, a gene not previously implicated in schizophrenia, stressing the importance of including environmental factors in genetic studies.

  20. Study of the integration of public and school libraries: a methodological strategy as a suggestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Marisol Rodríguez González

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a theoretical foundation from the philosophical, social and pedagogic perspectives it is offered the theoretical budgets that sustain the integration between the Systems of Public Libraries and School Libraries. The recognition of inadequacies -by means of a previous diagnosis - in the relationships of these two systems it directed the study of this problem and it took to the proposal of a methodological strategy that facilitates the integration among the Systems of Public and School Libraries. Their application demonstrated to be effective and pertinent starting from the transformations that were achieved in those subjects of experimentation.

  1. Models for leprosy. An appraisal of graphic representations of the "spectrum" concept as models and a suggestion for a catastrophe theory model for leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, H

    1984-09-01

    Graphic representations of the spectrum concept of leprosy are examined in some detail as models for this disease. This reveals that this concept is somewhat inadequate and that the spectrum metaphor may itself be inappropriate because, by its very linearity of logic, it may not be able to depict the nonlinear behavior of leprosy properly. The assumptions underlying this concept and their logical consequences, brought out by the graphic representations, include an invariable relation between CMI and BI, identity of one type of leprosy with one specific level of CMI, a fixed sequence of types, and the consequent impossibility of skipping the sequence. However, our experience with leprosy does not bear out these assumptions. Further, development and progress of leprosy from a normal (nonleprous) state cannot be represented in these models. A search for alternative conceptual models therefore appears reasonable and even necessary. The catastrophe theory (a branch of topology in mathematics) describes a number of models for explaining how continuous causes could produce sudden or discontinuous changes. Of the various catastrophe theory models available, the relatively simple "cusp" model appears capable of application to leprosy. This model, as applied here, requires two control factors (identified tentatively as the amount of dead bacilli and the amount of living bacilli or their indicators) and one pattern of behavior, identified as progress towards limited or extensive disease. This model suggests under what conditions leprosy will change from one type to another and whether that will happen gradually or suddenly. It also suggests that for certain values of control factors the disease may manifest in one of two forms of borderline leprosy, and that lesions very similar to start with can progress to quite different states under similar conditions of change. The behavior of leprosy agrees more or less with that suggested by this model. The cusp model thus seems to: a

  2. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya V Ivanov

    Full Text Available Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP, lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision, which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST.Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental and reading (control training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group. To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS, the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field.In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training

  3. Applying Bayesian statistics to the study of psychological trauma: A suggestion for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M

    2016-03-01

    Several contemporary researchers have noted the virtues of Bayesian methods of data analysis. Although debates continue about whether conventional or Bayesian statistics is the "better" approach for researchers in general, there are reasons why Bayesian methods may be well suited to the study of psychological trauma in particular. This article describes how Bayesian statistics offers practical solutions to the problems of data non-normality, small sample size, and missing data common in research on psychological trauma. After a discussion of these problems and the effects they have on trauma research, this article explains the basic philosophical and statistical foundations of Bayesian statistics and how it provides solutions to these problems using an applied example. Results of the literature review and the accompanying example indicates the utility of Bayesian statistics in addressing problems common in trauma research. Bayesian statistics provides a set of methodological tools and a broader philosophical framework that is useful for trauma researchers. Methodological resources are also provided so that interested readers can learn more. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Nonhomologous Recombination between Defective Poliovirus and Coxsackievirus Genomes Suggests a New Model of Genetic Plasticity for Picornaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmblat, Barbara; Jégouic, Sophie; Muslin, Claire; Blondel, Bruno; Joffret, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have been shown to be recombinants between the type 2 poliovirus (PV) strain of the oral polio vaccine (Sabin 2) and another species C human enterovirus (HEV-C), such as type 17 coxsackie A virus (CA17) in particular. We studied intertypic genetic exchanges between PV and non-PV HEV-C by developing a recombination model, making it possible to rescue defective type 2 PV RNA genomes with a short deletion at the 3′ end by the cotransfection of cells with defective or infectious CA17 RNAs. We isolated over 200 different PV/CA17 recombinants, using murine cells expressing the human PV receptor (PVR) and selecting viruses with PV capsids. We found some homologous (H) recombinants and, mostly, nonhomologous (NH) recombinants presenting duplications of parental sequences preferentially located in the regions encoding proteins 2A, 2B, and 3A. Short duplications appeared to be stable, whereas longer duplications were excised during passaging in cultured cells or after multiplication in PVR-transgenic mice, generating H recombinants with diverse sites of recombination. This suggests that NH recombination events may be a transient, intermediate step in the generation and selection of the fittest H recombinants. In addition to the classical copy-choice mechanism of recombination thought to generate mostly H recombinants, there may also be a modular mechanism of recombination, involving NH recombinant precursors, shaping the genomes of recombinant enteroviruses and other picornaviruses. PMID:25096874

  5. Model suggests potential for Porites coral population recovery after removal of anthropogenic disturbance (Luhuitou, Hainan, South China Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meixia; Riegl, Bernhard; Yu, Kefu; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Qiaomin; Liu, Guohui; Yang, Hongqiang; Yan, Hongqiang

    2016-09-01

    Population models are important for resource management and can inform about potential trajectories useful for planning purposes, even with incomplete monitoring data. From size frequency data on Luhuitou fringing reef, Hainan, South China Sea, a matrix population model of massive corals (Porites lutea) was developed and trajectories over 100 years under no disturbance and random disturbances were projected. The model reflects a largely open population of Porites lutea, with low local recruitment and preponderance of imported recruitment. Under no further disturbance, the population of Porites lutea will grow and its size structure will change from predominance of small size classes to large size classes. Therewith, total Porites cover will increase. Even under random disturbances every 10 to 20 years, the Porites population could remain viable, albeit at lower space cover. The models suggest recovery at Luhuitou following the removal of chronic anthropogenic disturbance. Extending the area of coral reef reserves to protect the open coral community and the path of connectivity is advisable and imperative for the conservation of Hainan’s coral reefs.

  6. Modelling Virus and Antibody Dynamics during Dengue Virus Infection Suggests a Role for Antibody in Virus Clearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E Clapham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an infection of increasing global importance, yet uncertainty remains regarding critical aspects of its virology, immunology and epidemiology. One unanswered question is how infection is controlled and cleared during a dengue infection. Antibody is thought to play a role, but little past work has examined the kinetics of both virus and antibody during natural infections. We present data on multiple virus and antibody titres measurements recorded sequentially during infection from 53 Vietnamese dengue patients. We fit mechanistic mathematical models of the dynamics of viral replication and the host immune response to these data. These models fit the data well. The model with antibody removing virus fits the data best, but with a role suggested for ADCC or other infected cell clearance mechanisms. Our analysis therefore shows that the observed viral and antibody kinetics are consistent with antibody playing a key role in controlling viral replication. This work gives quantitative insight into the relationship between antibody levels and the efficiency of viral clearance. It will inform the future development of mechanistic models of how vaccines and antivirals might modify the course of natural dengue infection.

  7. Organizational suggestion system in the era of holding by developing an innovative model : the case of bonyade ta avon holding in Iran(an applied model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the popular ways of taking advantage of personnel creativity is through suggestionsystems. Our main question is how to implement suggestion system in holding with conglomeratestructure. The paper presents an innovative model that were named ITFSK Model with accordanceof Bonayade Taavone (a holding that has many companies and institutions with conglomeratestructure. ITFSK is a model that explains how participation management and suggestion system isimplemented effectively in huge Enterprises (holding and this approach brings continuousimprovement (kaizen and it impacts the productivity of these enterprises.The paper is based on field research and the research in Bonyade Tavan that has 22 companies and2 institutions that activity fields of the subholdings is very varied.Our model consists of five main parts such as ideas bank, think-tank, feedback, sharing ofknowledge and kaizen that was named ITFSK.Implementation of “Suggestion system” rules has immediate and significant effects on theproductivity of activities in the jobs, thus influencing the performance of processes in the analyzedorganization. Suggestion system can result in kaizen and innovation in environment oforganization.The model was used to implement and evaluate a suggestion system of holding with conglomeratedstructure. The application of the model to evaluate the suggestion system provided some goodinsights and highlighted some areas of improvement.

  8. [A study of the suggestibility effect on eyewitness testimony: discussion on the integration and the coexist hypothesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuno, H

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not the eyewitness suggestibility effect might be obtained with a recognition memory and a source-monitoring test, when an original event consisted of many pictures. In this source-monitoring test subjects identified the source of their memories. Results showed that the suggestibility effect was obtained in the recognition memory but not in the source-monitoring test, suggesting that misleading postevent information did not impair memory of the original event. The results also indicated that the eyewitness suggestibility effect might be caused by misled subjects' decision rather than their integrated memory representation.

  9. The mathematical model for total pubertal growth in idiopathic growth hormone (GH) deficiency suggests a moderate role of GH dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranke, Michael B; Lindberg, Anders; Martin, David D; Bakker, Bert; Wilton, Patrick; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin; Cowell, Chris T; Price, David A; Reiter, Edward O

    2003-10-01

    The role of GH treatment during total pubertal growth (TPG) is still unclear. We developed a prediction model for TPG (centimeters) through a multiple regression analysis of various prepubertal parameters in 303 adolescents with idiopathic GH deficiency from the KIGS database. Prepubertal catch-up growth and near-adult height were achieved, and GH dose was kept constant at approximately 30 micro g/kg.d. The model was validated on a cohort of 36 patients from one center. Four TPG predictors explained 70% of the variability with an error SD of 4.2 cm: gender (TPG in males was >11.3 cm vs. that in females), age at onset of puberty (negative), height SD score minus midparental height SD score at puberty onset (negative), and mean GH dose during puberty (positive). Our analysis suggests that TPG in idiopathic GH deficiency is only moderately dependent on GH dose. The use of a higher GH dosage at the onset of puberty should thus depend on the individual's height development. The TPG model aids in the planning of individually optimized and cost-effective GH treatment.

  10. Models of text mining to measure improvements to doctoral courses suggested by “STELLA” phd survey respondents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Pavone

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present Text Mining models to thematically categorise and measure the suggestions of  PhD holders on improving PhD programmes in the STELLA survey (Statistiche in TEma di Laureati e LAvoro. The coded responses questionnaire, designed to evaluate the employment opportunities of students and assess their learning experience, included open-ended questions on how to improve PhD programmes. The Corpus analysed was taken from the data of Italian PhD holders between 2005 and 2009 in eight universities (Bergamo, Brescia, Milano Statale, Milano Bicocca, Pisa, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Palermo and Pavia. The usual methodological approach to text analysis allowed us to categorize open-ended proposals of PhD courses improvements in 8 Italian Universities.

  11. An international observational study suggests that artificial intelligence for clinical decision support optimizes anemia management in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Carlo; Molina, Manuel; Ponce, Pedro; Tothova, Monika; Cattinelli, Isabella; Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Mari, Flavio; Amato, Claudia; Leipold, Frank; Wehmeyer, Wolfgang; Stuard, Stefano; Stopper, Andrea; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    Managing anemia in hemodialysis patients can be challenging because of competing therapeutic targets and individual variability. Because therapy recommendations provided by a decision support system can benefit both patients and doctors, we evaluated the impact of an artificial intelligence decision support system, the Anemia Control Model (ACM), on anemia outcomes. Based on patient profiles, the ACM was built to recommend suitable erythropoietic-stimulating agent doses. Our retrospective study consisted of a 12-month control phase (standard anemia care), followed by a 12-month observation phase (ACM-guided care) encompassing 752 patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy in 3 NephroCare clinics located in separate countries. The percentage of hemoglobin values on target, the median darbepoetin dose, and individual hemoglobin fluctuation (estimated from the intrapatient hemoglobin standard deviation) were deemed primary outcomes. In the observation phase, median darbepoetin consumption significantly decreased from 0.63 to 0.46 μg/kg/month, whereas on-target hemoglobin values significantly increased from 70.6% to 76.6%, reaching 83.2% when the ACM suggestions were implemented. Moreover, ACM introduction led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin fluctuation (intrapatient standard deviation decreased from 0.95 g/dl to 0.83 g/dl). Thus, ACM support helped improve anemia outcomes of hemodialysis patients, minimizing erythropoietic-stimulating agent use with the potential to reduce the cost of treatment. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis and modeling of heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli suggests a novel space with insights into receptor preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Raja, M; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Vino, S; Sajitha Lulu, S

    2015-01-01

    Features of heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli which make them fit to use as novel receptors for antidiarrheals are not completely explored. Data-set of 14 different serovars of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli producing heat-labile toxins were taken from NCBI Genbank database and used in the study. Sequence analysis showed mutations in different subunits and also at their interface residues. As these toxins lack crystallography structures, homology modeling using Modeller 9.11 led to the structural approximation for the E. coli producing heat-labile toxins. Interaction of modeled toxin subunits with proanthocyanidin, an antidiarrheal showed several strong hydrogen bonding interactions at the cost of minimized energy. The hits were subsequently characterized by molecular dynamics simulation studies to monitor their binding stabilities. This study looks into novel space where the ligand can choose the receptor preference not as a whole but as an individual subunit. Mutation at interface residues and interaction among subunits along with the binding of ligand to individual subunits would help to design a non-toxic labile toxin and also to improve the therapeutics.

  13. A Case Study on the Problems and Suggestions in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning at Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Menderes; Ilhan, Elif

    2017-01-01

    This study explores and identifies some reasons for the problems of foreign language learning (English) and teaching from the perspective of instructors and learners using the case study model. The data of the study was gathered by a semi-structured interview form, and the study group of the research was composed of English language instructors…

  14. Antibiotics involved in the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria: a nationwide multilevel study suggests differences within antibiotic classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Dumartin, Catherine; L'Hériteau, François; Péfau, Muriel; Hocquet, Didier; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Bertrand, Xavier

    2013-02-01

    To identify the antibiotics potentially the most involved in the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from an ecological perspective in French healthcare facilities (HCFs). This study was based on data from the French antimicrobial surveillance network (ATB-RAISIN, 2007-09). Antibiotics were expressed in defined daily doses per 1000 patient-days. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were considered as count data adjusted for patient-days. These were third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli, cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacter cloacae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ceftazidime-, imipenem- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three-level negative binomial regression models were built to take into account the hierarchical structure of data: level 1, repeated measures each year (count outcome, time, antibiotics); level 2, HCFs (type and size); and level 3, regions (geographical area). A total of 701 HCFs from 20 French regions and up to 1339 HCF-years were analysed. The use of ceftriaxone, but not of cefotaxime, was positively correlated with incidence rates of 3GC- and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. In contrast, both 3GCs were positively correlated with the incidence rate of cefotaxime-resistant E. cloacae. Higher levels of use of ciprofloxacin and/or ofloxacin, but not of levofloxacin, were associated with higher incidence rates of 3GC- and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, cefotaxime-resistant E. cloacae, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and ceftazidime- and ciprofloxacin-resistant P. aeruginosa. Our study suggests differences within antibiotic classes in promoting antibiotic resistance. We identified ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin as priority targets in public health strategies designed to reduce antibiotic use and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in French HCFs.

  15. Genomic, RNAseq, and Molecular Modeling Evidence Suggests That the Major Allergen Domain in Insects Evolved from a Homodimeric Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas A.; Perera, Lalith; London, Robert E.; Mueller, Geoffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The major allergen domain (MA) is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. This suggested that the evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence. Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: 1) within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, 2) within one genus Drosophila, and 3) within one species Aedes aegypti. Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. aegypti shows a common evolutionary origin for its monomer and several closely related MAs. Molecular modeling of the A. aegypti monomer with the unique Bla g 1 fold confirms the distant evolutionary relationship and supports the feasibility of homodimer formation from a single monomer. RNAseq data for A. aegypti confirms that the monomer is expressed in the mosquito similar to other A. aegypti MAs after a blood meal. Together, these data support the contention that the detected monomer shares similar functional characteristics to related MAs in other insects. An extensive search for this domain outside of Insecta confirms that the MAs are restricted to insects. PMID:24253356

  16. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  17. Comparative modeling and molecular dynamics suggest high carboxylase activity of the Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 RbcL protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Andrei Santos; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo Teixeira; de Azevedo, Juliana Simão Nina; da Silva Gonçalves Vianez, João Lídio; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa

    2016-03-01

    Rubisco catalyzes the first step reaction in the carbon fixation pathway, bonding atmospheric CO2/O2 to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate; it is therefore considered one of the most important enzymes in the biosphere. Genetic modifications to increase the carboxylase activity of rubisco are a subject of great interest to agronomy and biotechnology, since this could increase the productivity of biomass in plants, algae and cyanobacteria and give better yields in crops and biofuel production. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize in silico the catalytic domain of the rubisco large subunit (rbcL gene) of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14, and identify target sites to improve enzyme affinity for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. A three-dimensional model was built using MODELLER 9.14, molecular dynamics was used to generate a 100 ns trajectory by AMBER12, and the binding free energy was calculated using MM-PBSA, MM-GBSA and SIE methods with alanine scanning. The model obtained showed characteristics of form-I rubisco, with 15 beta sheets and 19 alpha helices, and maintained the highly conserved catalytic site encompassing residues Lys175, Lys177, Lys201, Asp203, and Glu204. The binding free energy of the enzyme-substrate complexation of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 showed values around -10 kcal mol(-1) using the SIE method. The most important residues for the interaction with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate were Arg295 followed by Lys334. The generated model was successfully validated, remaining stable during the whole simulation, and demonstrated characteristics of enzymes with high carboxylase activity. The binding analysis revealed candidates for directed mutagenesis sites to improve rubisco's affinity.

  18. Cross-cultural management and language studies within international business research: past and present paradigms and suggestions for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Pudelko, Markus; Tenzer, Helene; Harzing, Anne-Wil

    2015-01-01

    Our contribution seeks to (1) outline how cross-cultural management and, more recently, language studies developed as two interrelated subareas within international business research; (2) discuss the changing paradigms and orthodoxies under which empirical research in cross-cultural management and language studies has been executed, focusing in particular on what we consider shortcomings in past and present research; and (3) formulate our suggestions how research should develop in the future....

  19. Low Level Evidence Suggests That Librarian-Led Instruction in Evidence Based Practice is Effective Regardless of Instructional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. Alcock

    2017-06-01

    studies which included descriptive statistics and many also included inferential statistics intended to show significance. Differences between groups were assessed with parametric measures in 9 studies and non-parametric measures in 15 studies. Good to high statistical significance on at least 1 measurement was achieved in 23 studies. Given the absence of effect sizes, the level of differences between study groups could not be determined. Conclusion – Numerous pedagogical methods are used in librarian-led instruction in evidence based practice. However, there is a paucity of high level evidence and the literature suggests that no instructional method is demonstrated to be more effective than another.

  20. Expression of venom gene homologs in diverse python tissues suggests a new model for the evolution of snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Card, Daren C; Andrew, Audra L; Shaney, Kyle J; Adams, Richard H; Schield, Drew R; Casewell, Nicholas R; Mackessy, Stephen P; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Snake venom gene evolution has been studied intensively over the past several decades, yet most previous studies have lacked the context of complete snake genomes and the full context of gene expression across diverse snake tissues. We took a novel approach to studying snake venom evolution by leveraging the complete genome of the Burmese python, including information from tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. We identified the orthologs of snake venom genes in the python genome, and conducted detailed analysis of gene expression of these venom homologs to identify patterns that differ between snake venom gene families and all other genes. We found that venom gene homologs in the python are expressed in many different tissues outside of oral glands, which illustrates the pitfalls of using transcriptomic data alone to define "venom toxins." We hypothesize that the python may represent an ancestral state prior to major venom development, which is supported by our finding that the expansion of venom gene families is largely restricted to highly venomous caenophidian snakes. Therefore, the python provides insight into biases in which genes were recruited for snake venom systems. Python venom homologs are generally expressed at lower levels, have higher variance among tissues, and are expressed in fewer organs compared with all other python genes. We propose a model for the evolution of snake venoms in which venom genes are recruited preferentially from genes with particular expression profile characteristics, which facilitate a nearly neutral transition toward specialized venom system expression. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Comparative analysis of epidermal differentiation genes of crocodilians suggests new models for the evolutionary origin of avian feather proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthaus, Karin Brigit; Strasser, Bettina; Lachner, Julia; Sukseree, Supawadee; Sipos, Wolfgang; Weissenbacher, Anton; Tschachler, Erwin; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Eckhart, Leopold

    2018-02-12

    The epidermis of amniotes forms a protective barrier against the environment and the differentiation program of keratinocytes, the main cell type in the epidermis, has undergone specific alterations in the course of adaptation of amniotes to a broad variety of environments and lifestyles. The epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) is a cluster of genes expressed at late stages of keratinocyte differentiation in both sauropsids and mammals. In the present study we identified and analyzed the crocodilian equivalent of the EDC. The gene complement of the EDC of both the American alligator and the saltwater crocodile were determined by comparative genomics, de novo gene prediction and identification of EDC transcripts in published transcriptome data. We found that crocodilians have an organization of the EDC similar to that of their closest living relatives, the birds, with which they form the clade Archosauria. Notable differences include the specific expansion of a subfamily of EDC genes in crocodilians and the loss of distinct ancestral EDC genes in birds. Identification and comparative analysis of crocodilian orthologs of avian feather proteins suggest that the latter evolved by cooption and sequence modification of ancestral EDC genes, and that the amplification of an internal highly cysteine-enriched amino acid sequence motif gave rise to the feather component Epidermal Differentiation Cysteine Rich Protein (EDCRP) in the avian lineage. Thus, sequence diversification of EDC genes contributed to the evolutionary divergence of the crocodilian and avian integuments. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Low apparent quantum yield in Arctic plants suggests that terrestrial biosphere models will over estimate carbon assimilation at high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Ely, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) by terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) rely on accurate model representation of photosynthesis. In the Arctic, TBM uncertainty over GPP is the dominant driver of an uncertain Arctic carbon cycle. Previously we have shown that TBMs underestimate light saturated photosynthesis due to poor model representation of maximum carboxylation capacity and maximum electron transport. Here we extend this work to investigate model representation of the response of photosynthesis to irradiance. TBMs use an empirical relationship, typically a non-rectangular hyperbola, to estimate potential electron transport rate from incident irradiance. The key model inputs used to parameterize this formulation are; absorptance, quantum yield, and a curvature factor. TBMs show a high divergence in the response of photosynthesis to irradiance driven in part by variation in these parameters. In addition, most existing measurements used to parameterize TBMs have been made within a narrow temperature range (20-30°C) and the scarcity of data collected at low temperature has been highlighted as an important driver of model uncertainty at high latitudes. To address this issue we measured photosynthetic light response curves at 5 and 15°C and the leaf optical properties of six species growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, Alaska. We determined leaf absorbtance, the convexity term, and apparent quantum yield. Our key finding was that measured apparent quantum yield was lower than model estimates, particularly at 5°C. Our results show that TBMs that rely on relatively high theoretical estimates of apparent quantum yield will likely overestimate carbon assimilation at low temperature and low irradiance.

  3. The role of emotions in time to presentation for symptoms suggestive of cancer: a systematic literature review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasooriya-Smeekens, Chantal; Walter, Fiona M; Scott, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Emotions may be important in patients' decisions to seek medical help for symptoms suggestive of cancer. The aim of this systematic literature review was to examine quantitative literature on the influence of emotion on patients' help-seeking for symptoms suggestive of cancer. The objectives were to identify the following: (a) which types of emotions influence help-seeking behaviour, (b) whether these form a barrier or trigger for seeking medical help and (c) how the role of emotions varies between different cancers and populations. We searched four electronic databases and conducted a narrative synthesis. Inclusion criteria were studies that reported primary, quantitative research that examined any emotion specific to symptom appraisal or help-seeking for symptoms suggestive of cancer. Thirty-three papers were included. The studies were heterogeneous in their methods and quality, and very few had emotion as the main focus of the research. Studies reported a limited range of emotions, mainly related to fear and worry. The impact of emotions appears mixed, sometimes acting as a barrier to consultation whilst at other times being a trigger or being unrelated to time to presentation. It is plausible that different emotions play different roles at different times prior to presentation. This systematic review provides some quantitative evidence for the role of emotions in help-seeking behaviour. However, it also highlighted widespread methodological, definition and design issues among the existing literature. The conflicting results around the role of emotions on time to presentation may be due to the lack of definition of each specific emotion. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Low Energy Atomic Models Suggesting a Pilus Structure that could Account for Electrical Conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens Pili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Shu, Chuanjun; Martz, Eric; Lovley, Derek R; Sun, Xiao

    2016-03-22

    The metallic-like electrical conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili has been documented with multiple lines of experimental evidence, but there is only a rudimentary understanding of the structural features which contribute to this novel mode of biological electron transport. In order to determine if it was feasible for the pilin monomers of G. sulfurreducens to assemble into a conductive filament, theoretical energy-minimized models of Geobacter pili were constructed with a previously described approach, in which pilin monomers are assembled using randomized structural parameters and distance constraints. The lowest energy models from a specific group of predicted structures lacked a central channel, in contrast to previously existing pili models. In half of the no-channel models the three N-terminal aromatic residues of the pilin monomer are arranged in a potentially electrically conductive geometry, sufficiently close to account for the experimentally observed metallic like conductivity of the pili that has been attributed to overlapping pi-pi orbitals of aromatic amino acids. These atomic resolution models capable of explaining the observed conductive properties of Geobacter pili are a valuable tool to guide further investigation of the metallic-like conductivity of the pili, their role in biogeochemical cycling, and applications in bioenergy and bioelectronics.

  5. Didactical suggestion for a Dynamic Hybrid Intelligent e-Learning Environment (DHILE) applying the PENTHA ID Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    dall'Acqua, Luisa

    2011-08-01

    The teleology of our research is to propose a solution to the request of "innovative, creative teaching", proposing a methodology to educate creative Students in a society characterized by multiple reference points and hyper dynamic knowledge, continuously subject to reviews and discussions. We apply a multi-prospective Instructional Design Model (PENTHA ID Model), defined and developed by our research group, which adopts a hybrid pedagogical approach, consisting of elements of didactical connectivism intertwined with aspects of social constructivism and enactivism. The contribution proposes an e-course structure and approach, applying the theoretical design principles of the above mentioned ID Model, describing methods, techniques, technologies and assessment criteria for the definition of lesson modes in an e-course.

  6. Bifurcation Analysis of an Existing Mathematical Model Reveals Novel Treatment Strategies and Suggests Potential Cure for Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kenneth Hagde Mandrup; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Pociot, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a disease with serious personal and socioeconomic consequences that has attracted the attention of modellers recently. But as models of this disease tend to be complicated, there has been only limited mathematical analysis to date. Here we address this problem by providing...... a bifurcation analysis of a previously published mathematical model for the early stages of type 1 diabetes in diabetes-prone NOD mice, which is based on the data available in the literature. We also show positivity and the existence of a family of attracting trapping regions in the positive 5D cone, converging...... towards a smaller trapping region, which is the intersection over the family. All these trapping regions are compact sets, and thus, practical weak persistence is guaranteed. We conclude our analysis by proposing 4 novel treatment strategies: increasing the phagocytic ability of resting macrophages...

  7. Synthetic biology between challenges and risks: suggestions for a model of governance and a regulatory framework, based on fundamental rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, Ilaria Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the emerging synthetic biology, its challenges and risks, and tries to design a model for the governance and regulation of the field. The model is called of "prudent vigilance" (inspired by the report about synthetic biology, drafted by the U.S. Presidential Commission on Bioethics, 2010), and it entails (a) an ongoing and periodically revised process of assessment and management of all the risks and concerns, and (b) the adoption of policies - taken through "hard law" and "soft law" sources - that are based on the principle of proportionality (among benefits and risks), on a reasonable balancing between different interests and rights at stake, and are oriented by a constitutional frame, which is represented by the protection of fundamental human rights emerging in the field of synthetic biology (right to life, right to health, dignity, freedom of scientific research, right to environment). After the theoretical explanation of the model, its operability is "checked", by considering its application with reference to only one specific risk brought up by synthetic biology - biosecurity risk, i.e. the risk of bioterrorism.

  8. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  9. Genome-environment association study suggests local adaptation to climate at the regional scale in Fagus sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Andrea R; Frank, Aline; Heiri, Caroline; Lalagüe, Hadrien; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionary potential of long-lived species, such as forest trees, is fundamental for their local persistence under climate change (CC). Genome-environment association (GEA) analyses reveal if species in heterogeneous environments at the regional scale are under differential selection resulting in populations with potential preadaptation to CC within this area. In 79 natural Fagus sylvatica populations, neutral genetic patterns were characterized using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and genomic variation (144 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) out of 52 candidate genes) was related to 87 environmental predictors in the latent factor mixed model, logistic regressions and isolation by distance/environmental (IBD/IBE) tests. SSR diversity revealed relatedness at up to 150 m intertree distance but an absence of large-scale spatial genetic structure and IBE. In the GEA analyses, 16 SNPs in 10 genes responded to one or several environmental predictors and IBE, corrected for IBD, was confirmed. The GEA often reflected the proposed gene functions, including indications for adaptation to water availability and temperature. Genomic divergence and the lack of large-scale neutral genetic patterns suggest that gene flow allows the spread of advantageous alleles in adaptive genes. Thereby, adaptation processes are likely to take place in species occurring in heterogeneous environments, which might reduce their regional extinction risk under CC. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Bioinformatic analysis and molecular modelling of human ameloblastin suggest a two-domain intrinsically unstructured calcium-binding protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vymětal, Jiří; Slabý, I.; Spahr, A.; Vondrášek, Jiří; Lyngstadaas, S. P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 2 (2008), s. 124-134 ISSN 0909-8836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0009; GA ČR GA203/06/1727; GA MŠk LC512 Grant - others:EU(XE) QLK3-CT-2001-00090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ameloblastin * bioinformatic modelling * calcium * intrinsically unstructured protein Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.957, year: 2008

  11. Global models of ant diversity suggest regions where new discoveries are most likely are under disproportionate deforestation threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénard, Benoit; Weiser, Michael D; Dunn, Robert R

    2012-05-08

    Most of the described and probably undescribed species on Earth are insects. Global models of species diversity rarely focus on insects and none attempt to address unknown, undescribed diversity. We assembled a database representing about 13,000 records for ant generic distribution from over 350 regions that cover much of the globe. Based on two models of diversity and endemicity, we identified regions where our knowledge of ant diversity is most limited, regions we have called "hotspots of discovery." A priori, such regions might be expected to be remote and untouched. Instead, we found that the hotspots of discovery are also the regions in which biodiversity is the most threatened by habitat destruction. Our results not only highlight the immediate need for conservation of the remaining natural habitats in these regions, but also the extent to which, by focusing on well-known groups such as vertebrates, we may fail to conserve the far greater diversity of the smaller species yet to be found.

  12. Paired octamer rings of retinoschisin suggest a junctional model for cell–cell adhesion in the retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolun, Gökhan; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Huang, Rick; Zeng, Yong; Li, Yan; Steven, Alasdair C.; Sieving, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Retinoschisin (RS1) is involved in cell–cell junctions in the retina, but is unique among known cell-adhesion proteins in that it is a soluble secreted protein. Loss-of-function mutations in RS1 lead to early vision impairment in young males, called X-linked retinoschisis. The disease is characterized by separation of inner retinal layers and disruption of synaptic signaling. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we report the structure at 4.1 Å, revealing double octamer rings not observed before. Each subunit is composed of a discoidin domain and a small N-terminal (RS1) domain. The RS1 domains occupy the centers of the rings, but are not required for ring formation and are less clearly defined, suggesting mobility. We determined the structure of the discoidin rings, consistent with known intramolecular and intermolecular disulfides. The interfaces internal to and between rings feature residues implicated in X-linked retinoschisis, indicating the importance of correct assembly. Based on this structure, we propose that RS1 couples neighboring membranes together through octamer–octamer contacts, perhaps modulated by interactions with other membrane components. PMID:27114531

  13. Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, María Blanca; Decorosi, Francesca; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Martínez, José Luis; Hernández, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Biocides are used without restriction for several purposes. As a consequence, large amounts of biocides are released without any control in the environment, a situation that can challenge the microbial population dynamics, including selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Previous work has shown that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF and induces expression of this pump triggering transient low-level resistance. In the present work we analyze if two other common biocides, benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene, trigger antibiotic resistance in S. maltophilia. Bioinformatic and biochemical methods showed that benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene bind the repressor of smeDEF, SmeT. Only benzalkonium chloride triggers expression of smeD and its effect in transient antibiotic resistance is minor. None of the hexachlorophene-selected mutants was antibiotic resistant. Two benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presented reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and were impaired in growth. Metabolic profiling showed they were more proficient than their parental strain in the use of some dipeptides. We can then conclude that although bioinformatic predictions and biochemical studies suggest that both hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride should induce smeDEF expression leading to transient S. maltophilia resistance to antibiotics, phenotypic assays showed this not to be true. The facts that hexachlorophene resistant mutants are not antibiotic resistant and that the benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presenting altered susceptibility to antibiotics were impaired in growth suggests that the risk for the selection (and fixation) of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants by these biocides is likely low, at least in the absence of constant selection pressure.

  14. Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Blanca Sánchez

    Full Text Available Biocides are used without restriction for several purposes. As a consequence, large amounts of biocides are released without any control in the environment, a situation that can challenge the microbial population dynamics, including selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Previous work has shown that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF and induces expression of this pump triggering transient low-level resistance. In the present work we analyze if two other common biocides, benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene, trigger antibiotic resistance in S. maltophilia. Bioinformatic and biochemical methods showed that benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene bind the repressor of smeDEF, SmeT. Only benzalkonium chloride triggers expression of smeD and its effect in transient antibiotic resistance is minor. None of the hexachlorophene-selected mutants was antibiotic resistant. Two benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presented reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and were impaired in growth. Metabolic profiling showed they were more proficient than their parental strain in the use of some dipeptides. We can then conclude that although bioinformatic predictions and biochemical studies suggest that both hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride should induce smeDEF expression leading to transient S. maltophilia resistance to antibiotics, phenotypic assays showed this not to be true. The facts that hexachlorophene resistant mutants are not antibiotic resistant and that the benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presenting altered susceptibility to antibiotics were impaired in growth suggests that the risk for the selection (and fixation of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants by these biocides is likely low, at least in the absence of constant selection pressure.

  15. Platypus globin genes and flanking loci suggest a new insertional model for beta-globin evolution in birds and mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Wesley C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrate alpha (α- and beta (β-globin gene families exemplify the way in which genomes evolve to produce functional complexity. From tandem duplication of a single globin locus, the α- and β-globin clusters expanded, and then were separated onto different chromosomes. The previous finding of a fossil β-globin gene (ω in the marsupial α-cluster, however, suggested that duplication of the α-β cluster onto two chromosomes, followed by lineage-specific gene loss and duplication, produced paralogous α- and β-globin clusters in birds and mammals. Here we analyse genomic data from an egg-laying monotreme mammal, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus, to explore haemoglobin evolution at the stem of the mammalian radiation. Results The platypus α-globin cluster (chromosome 21 contains embryonic and adult α- globin genes, a β-like ω-globin gene, and the GBY globin gene with homology to cytoglobin, arranged as 5'-ζ-ζ'-αD-α3-α2-α1-ω-GBY-3'. The platypus β-globin cluster (chromosome 2 contains single embryonic and adult globin genes arranged as 5'-ε-β-3'. Surprisingly, all of these globin genes were expressed in some adult tissues. Comparison of flanking sequences revealed that all jawed vertebrate α-globin clusters are flanked by MPG-C16orf35 and LUC7L, whereas all bird and mammal β-globin clusters are embedded in olfactory genes. Thus, the mammalian α- and β-globin clusters are orthologous to the bird α- and β-globin clusters respectively. Conclusion We propose that α- and β-globin clusters evolved from an ancient MPG-C16orf35-α-β-GBY-LUC7L arrangement 410 million years ago. A copy of the original β (represented by ω in marsupials and monotremes was inserted into an array of olfactory genes before the amniote radiation (>315 million years ago, then duplicated and diverged to form orthologous clusters of β-globin genes with different expression profiles in different lineages.

  16. Platypus globin genes and flanking loci suggest a new insertional model for beta-globin evolution in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vidushi S; Cooper, Steven J B; Deakin, Janine E; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Graves, Jennifer A M

    2008-07-25

    Vertebrate alpha (alpha)- and beta (beta)-globin gene families exemplify the way in which genomes evolve to produce functional complexity. From tandem duplication of a single globin locus, the alpha- and beta-globin clusters expanded, and then were separated onto different chromosomes. The previous finding of a fossil beta-globin gene (omega) in the marsupial alpha-cluster, however, suggested that duplication of the alpha-beta cluster onto two chromosomes, followed by lineage-specific gene loss and duplication, produced paralogous alpha- and beta-globin clusters in birds and mammals. Here we analyse genomic data from an egg-laying monotreme mammal, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), to explore haemoglobin evolution at the stem of the mammalian radiation. The platypus alpha-globin cluster (chromosome 21) contains embryonic and adult alpha- globin genes, a beta-like omega-globin gene, and the GBY globin gene with homology to cytoglobin, arranged as 5'-zeta-zeta'-alphaD-alpha3-alpha2-alpha1-omega-GBY-3'. The platypus beta-globin cluster (chromosome 2) contains single embryonic and adult globin genes arranged as 5'-epsilon-beta-3'. Surprisingly, all of these globin genes were expressed in some adult tissues. Comparison of flanking sequences revealed that all jawed vertebrate alpha-globin clusters are flanked by MPG-C16orf35 and LUC7L, whereas all bird and mammal beta-globin clusters are embedded in olfactory genes. Thus, the mammalian alpha- and beta-globin clusters are orthologous to the bird alpha- and beta-globin clusters respectively. We propose that alpha- and beta-globin clusters evolved from an ancient MPG-C16orf35-alpha-beta-GBY-LUC7L arrangement 410 million years ago. A copy of the original beta (represented by omega in marsupials and monotremes) was inserted into an array of olfactory genes before the amniote radiation (>315 million years ago), then duplicated and diverged to form orthologous clusters of beta-globin genes with different expression

  17. Genetic and functional analyses of SHANK2 mutations suggest a multiple hit model of autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire S Leblond

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n = 396 patients and n = 659 controls. We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4% patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5% controls (P = 0.004, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.23-4.70. In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P = 0.0013. Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11-q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the "multiple hit model" for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD.

  18. Computational Model for Tumor Oxygenation Applied to Clinical Data on Breast Tumor Hemoglobin Concentrations Suggests Vascular Dilatation and Compression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Welter

    Full Text Available We present a computational model for trans-vascular oxygen transport in synthetic tumor and host tissue blood vessel networks, aiming at qualitatively explaining published data of optical mammography, which were obtained from 87 breast cancer patients. The data generally show average hemoglobin concentration to be higher in tumors versus host tissue whereas average oxy-to total hemoglobin concentration (vascular segment RBC-volume-weighted blood oxygenation can be above or below normal. Starting from a synthetic arterio-venous initial network the tumor vasculature was generated by processes involving cooption, angiogenesis, and vessel regression. Calculations of spatially resolved blood flow, hematocrit, oxy- and total hemoglobin concentrations, blood and tissue oxygenation were carried out for ninety tumor and associated normal vessel networks starting from various assumed geometries of feeding arteries and draining veins. Spatial heterogeneity in the extra-vascular partial oxygen pressure distribution can be related to various tumor compartments characterized by varying capillary densities and blood flow characteristics. The reported higher average hemoglobin concentration of tumors is explained by growth and dilatation of tumor blood vessels. Even assuming sixfold metabolic rate of oxygen consumption in tumorous versus host tissue, the predicted oxygen hemoglobin concentrations are above normal. Such tumors are likely associated with high tumor blood flow caused by high-caliber blood vessels crossing the tumor volume and hence oxygen supply exceeding oxygen demand. Tumor oxy- to total hemoglobin concentration below normal could only be achieved by reducing tumor vessel radii during growth by a randomly selected factor, simulating compression caused by intra-tumoral solid stress due to proliferation of cells and extracellular matrix. Since compression of blood vessels will impede chemotherapy we conclude that tumors with oxy- to total

  19. A Qualitative Study of the Status of Children's Play From the Viewpoints of Experts and Suggestions for Promotion Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Maryam; Hajnaghizadeh, Fatemeh; Damari, Behzad

    2015-08-01

    The latest national census reports the population of Iranian children (1 - 8 years old) about 11 millions. On the other hand, the latest population policies approved by supreme cultural revolution council (SCRC) will make this population increase faster. Childhood development is one of the social determinants of health, of which "child's play" is a part. This study is an effort to identify difficulties and challenges of the plays influential on Iranian children's health nationwide, in order to present enhancive strategies by utilizing the views of stakeholders and national studies. Analyzing children's play stakeholders, main organizations were identified and views of 13 informed people involved in the field were investigated through deep semi-structured interview. A denaturalized approach was employed in analyzing the data. In addition to descriptions of the state, interventions development, and designing the conceptual model, national reports and studies, and other countries' experiences were also reviewed. Society's little knowledge of "children's plays", absence of administrators for children's play, shortage of public facilities for children's play and improper geographical and demographic availability, absence of policies for Iranian "toy", and little attention of media to the issue are the five major problems as stated by interviewees. The proposed interventions are presented as "promoting the educational levels of parents and selected administrators for children's play", "approving the play and toy policy for Iran 2025", and "increasing public facilities for children's play with defined distribution and availability".

  20. Mathematics Pedagogical Standards: A Suggested Model of Instruction in Enhancing the Mathematics Teacher’s Quality of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, N. S.; Jemali, M.; Zakaria, Z. Hj; Yusof, Q.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims at identifying the standards for teaching and learning of mathematics based on National Council of Teacher of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000), The Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers (AAMT, 2006) and Training and Development Agency for School (TDA, 2007). These known standards were used as a guide in identifying the constructs of the mathematics teacher’s instruction in the classroom. The survey method used in which a questionnaire instrument encompassed on the four identified constructs on the standards for teaching and learning of mathematics, namely professional practices, professional attributes, professional knowledge, and professional instructional processes. The instrument was tested during a pilot study and a Cronbach’s Alpha reliability index of greater than 0.85 was obtained. The actual research was carried out in Peninsular Malaysia involving 224 secondary schools with 1.120 mathematics teachers and 108 primary schools with 540 mathematics teachers. From the selected schools, only 820 secondary mathematics teachers (73.2%) and 361 primary teachers (66.9%) gave a response to the mailed questionnaires. The findings of the study revealed that the secondary and primary mathematics teachers strongly agreed on three constructs; professional practices, professional attributes and professional instructional processes.

  1. Studies on inhibition of respiratory cytochrome bc1 complex by the fungicide pyrimorph suggest a novel inhibitory mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Xiao

    Full Text Available The respiratory chain cytochrome bc1 complex (cyt bc1 is a major target of numerous antibiotics and fungicides. All cyt bc1 inhibitors act on either the ubiquinol oxidation (QP or ubiquinone reduction (QN site. The primary cause of resistance to bc1 inhibitors is target site mutations, creating a need for novel agents that act on alternative sites within the cyt bc1 to overcome resistance. Pyrimorph, a synthetic fungicide, inhibits the growth of a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi, though little is known concerning its mechanism of action. In this study, using isolated mitochondria from pathogenic fungus Phytophthora capsici, we show that pyrimorph blocks mitochondrial electron transport by affecting the function of cyt bc1. Indeed, pyrimorph inhibits the activities of both purified 11-subunit mitochondrial and 4-subunit bacterial bc1 with IC50 values of 85.0 μM and 69.2 μM, respectively, indicating that it targets the essential subunits of cyt bc1 complexes. Using an array of biochemical and spectral methods, we show that pyrimorph acts on an area near the QP site and falls into the category of a mixed-type, noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate ubiquinol. In silico molecular docking of pyrimorph to cyt b from mammalian and bacterial sources also suggests that pyrimorph binds in the vicinity of the quinol oxidation site.

  2. High mortality of blue, humpback and fin whales from modeling of vessel collisions on the U.S. West Coast suggests population impacts and insufficient protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Cotton Rockwood

    Full Text Available Mortality from collisions with vessels is one of the main human causes of death for large whales. Ship strikes are rarely witnessed and the distribution of strike risk and estimates of mortality remain uncertain at best. We estimated ship strike mortality for blue humpback and fin whales in U.S. West Coast waters using a novel application of a naval encounter model. Mortality estimates from the model were far higher than current minimum estimates derived from stranding records and are closer to extrapolations adjusted for detection probabilities of dead whales. Our most conservative model estimated mortality to be 7.8x, 2.0x and 2.7x the U.S. recommended limit for blue, humpback and fin whales, respectively, suggesting that death from vessel collisions may be a significant impediment to population growth and recovery. Comparing across the study area, the majority of strike mortality occurs in waters off California, from Bodega Bay south and tends to be concentrated in a band approximately 24 Nm (44.5 km offshore and in designated shipping lanes leading to and from major ports. While some mortality risk exists across nearly all West Coast waters, 74%, 82% and 65% of blue, humpback and fin whale mortality, respectively, occurs in just 10% of the study area, suggesting conservation efforts can be very effective if focused in these waters. Risk is highest in the shipping lanes off San Francisco and Long Beach, but only a fraction of total estimated mortality occurs in these proportionally small areas, making any conservation efforts exclusively within these areas insufficient to address overall strike mortality. We recommend combining shipping lane modifications and re-locations, ship speed reductions and creation of 'Areas to be Avoided' by vessels in ecologically important locations to address this significant source of whale mortality.

  3. High mortality of blue, humpback and fin whales from modeling of vessel collisions on the U.S. West Coast suggests population impacts and insufficient protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwood, R Cotton; Calambokidis, John; Jahncke, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Mortality from collisions with vessels is one of the main human causes of death for large whales. Ship strikes are rarely witnessed and the distribution of strike risk and estimates of mortality remain uncertain at best. We estimated ship strike mortality for blue humpback and fin whales in U.S. West Coast waters using a novel application of a naval encounter model. Mortality estimates from the model were far higher than current minimum estimates derived from stranding records and are closer to extrapolations adjusted for detection probabilities of dead whales. Our most conservative model estimated mortality to be 7.8x, 2.0x and 2.7x the U.S. recommended limit for blue, humpback and fin whales, respectively, suggesting that death from vessel collisions may be a significant impediment to population growth and recovery. Comparing across the study area, the majority of strike mortality occurs in waters off California, from Bodega Bay south and tends to be concentrated in a band approximately 24 Nm (44.5 km) offshore and in designated shipping lanes leading to and from major ports. While some mortality risk exists across nearly all West Coast waters, 74%, 82% and 65% of blue, humpback and fin whale mortality, respectively, occurs in just 10% of the study area, suggesting conservation efforts can be very effective if focused in these waters. Risk is highest in the shipping lanes off San Francisco and Long Beach, but only a fraction of total estimated mortality occurs in these proportionally small areas, making any conservation efforts exclusively within these areas insufficient to address overall strike mortality. We recommend combining shipping lane modifications and re-locations, ship speed reductions and creation of 'Areas to be Avoided' by vessels in ecologically important locations to address this significant source of whale mortality.

  4. Metagenomic Study Suggests That the Gut Microbiota of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca May Not Be Specialized for Fiber Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo-eating giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca is an enigmatic species, which possesses a carnivore-like short and simple gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Despite the remarkable studies on giant panda, its diet adaptability status continues to be a matter of debate. To resolve this puzzle, we investigated the functional potential of the giant panda gut microbiome using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples. We also compared our data with similar data from other animal species representing herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores from current and earlier studies. We found that the giant panda hosts a bear-like gut microbiota distinct from those of herbivores indicated by the metabolic potential of the microbiome in the gut of giant pandas and other mammals. Furthermore, the relative abundance of genes involved in cellulose- and hemicellulose-digestion, and enrichment of enzymes associated with pathways of amino acid degradation and biosynthetic reactions in giant pandas echoed a carnivore-like microbiome. Most significantly, the enzyme assay of the giant panda's feces indicated the lowest cellulase and xylanase activity among major herbivores, shown by an in-vitro experimental assay of enzyme activity for cellulose and hemicellulose-degradation. All of our results consistently indicate that the giant panda is not specialized to digest cellulose and hemicellulose from its bamboo diet, making the giant panda a good mammalian model to study the unusual link between the gut microbiome and diet. The increased food intake of the giant pandas might be a strategy to compensate for the gut microbiome functions, highlighting a strong need of conservation of the native bamboo forest both in high- and low-altitude ranges to meet the great demand of bamboo diet of giant pandas.

  5. Metagenomic Study Suggests That the Gut Microbiota of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) May Not Be Specialized for Fiber Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Mishra, Sudhanshu; Zhao, Jiangchao; Tang, Jingsi; Zeng, Bo; Kong, Fanli; Ning, Ruihong; Li, Miao; Zhang, Hengzhi; Zeng, Yutian; Tian, Yuanliangzi; Zhong, Yihang; Luo, Hongdi; Liu, Yunhan; Yang, Jiandong; Yang, Mingyao; Zhang, Mingwang; Li, Yan; Ni, Qingyong; Li, Caiwu; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Hemin; Zuo, Zhili; Li, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Bamboo-eating giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) is an enigmatic species, which possesses a carnivore-like short and simple gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Despite the remarkable studies on giant panda, its diet adaptability status continues to be a matter of debate. To resolve this puzzle, we investigated the functional potential of the giant panda gut microbiome using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples. We also compared our data with similar data from other animal species representing herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores from current and earlier studies. We found that the giant panda hosts a bear-like gut microbiota distinct from those of herbivores indicated by the metabolic potential of the microbiome in the gut of giant pandas and other mammals. Furthermore, the relative abundance of genes involved in cellulose- and hemicellulose-digestion, and enrichment of enzymes associated with pathways of amino acid degradation and biosynthetic reactions in giant pandas echoed a carnivore-like microbiome. Most significantly, the enzyme assay of the giant panda's feces indicated the lowest cellulase and xylanase activity among major herbivores, shown by an in-vitro experimental assay of enzyme activity for cellulose and hemicellulose-degradation. All of our results consistently indicate that the giant panda is not specialized to digest cellulose and hemicellulose from its bamboo diet, making the giant panda a good mammalian model to study the unusual link between the gut microbiome and diet. The increased food intake of the giant pandas might be a strategy to compensate for the gut microbiome functions, highlighting a strong need of conservation of the native bamboo forest both in high- and low-altitude ranges to meet the great demand of bamboo diet of giant pandas.

  6. Nationwide French Study of RET Variants Detected from 2003 to 2013 Suggests a Possible Influence of Polymorphisms as Modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeault, Maylis; Pinson, Stéphane; Guillaud-Bataille, Marine; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Carrie, Alain; Barbu, Véronique; Pigny, Pascal; Bezieau, Stéphane; Rey, Jean-Marc; Delvincourt, Chantal; Giraud, Sophie; Veyrat-Durebex, Charlotte; Saulnier, Patrick; Bouzamondo, Nathalie; Chabbert, Marie; Blin, Julien; Mohamed, Amira; Romanet, Pauline; Borson-Chazot, Francoise; Rohmer, Vincent; Barlier, Anne; Mirebeau-Prunier, Delphine

    2017-12-01

    The presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the REarranged during Transfection (RET) gene has been investigated with regard to their potential role in the development or progression of medullary thyroid cancer or pheochromocytomas (PHEO) in patients with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spectrum of RET variants in France between 2003 and 2013, and to evaluate the impact of SNPs on the MEN2 A phenotype. In this retrospective cohort study, RET variants were screened in 5109 index cases, and RET pathogenic variants were screened in 2214 relatives. Exons 5, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, and 16 were characterized by Sanger sequencing. RET pathogenic variants, RET variants with unknown functional significance (VUS), and four RET SNP variants-G691S (rs1799939), L769L (rs1800861), S836S (rs1800862), and S904S (rs1800863)-were characterized and are reported in index cases. In silico analysis and classification following the recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics was performed for RET VUS. Each patient's age at the time of diagnosis, sex, and the endocrine neoplasias present at molecular diagnosis were recorded. Twenty-six single VUS in RET without any well-defined risk profiles were found in 33 patients. Nine of these were considered probably pathogenic, 11 of uncertain significance, and six as probably benign. Three double pathogenic variants found in three patients were classified as pathogenic. A study of the entire cohort showed that patients carrying pathogenic variants or VUS in RET together with PHEO were diagnosed earlier than the others. The presence of the G691S SNP, or a combination of SNPs, increased the risk of developing PHEO but did not modify the date of the diagnosis. No association was found between SNPs and medullary thyroid cancer or hyperparathyroidism. The findings propose a classification of 15 of the 26 VUS in RET without any well-defined risk

  7. Are reviewers suggested by authors as good as those chosen by editors? Results of a rater-blinded, retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Elizabeth; Parkin, Emma C; Tamber, Pritpal S

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background BioMed Central (BMC) requires authors to suggest four reviewers when making a submission. Editors searching for reviewers use these suggestions as a source. The review process of the medical journals in the BMC series is open – authors and reviewers know each other's identity – although reviewers can make confidential comments to the editor. Reviews are published alongside accepted articles so readers may see the reviewers' names and recommendations. Our objective was to c...

  8. Meta-analysis of breast cancer microarray studies in conjunction with conserved cis-elements suggest patterns for coordinate regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundberg Cathryn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression measurements from breast cancer (BrCa tumors are established clinical predictive tools to identify tumor subtypes, identify patients showing poor/good prognosis, and identify patients likely to have disease recurrence. However, diverse breast cancer datasets in conjunction with diagnostic clinical arrays show little overlap in the sets of genes identified. One approach to identify a set of consistently dysregulated candidate genes in these tumors is to employ meta-analysis of multiple independent microarray datasets. This allows one to compare expression data from a diverse collection of breast tumor array datasets generated on either cDNA or oligonucleotide arrays. Results We gathered expression data from 9 published microarray studies examining estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and estrogen receptor negative (ER- BrCa tumor cases from the Oncomine database. We performed a meta-analysis and identified genes that were universally up or down regulated with respect to ER+ versus ER- tumor status. We surveyed both the proximal promoter and 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR of our top-ranking genes in each expression group to test whether common sequence elements may contribute to the observed expression patterns. Utilizing a combination of known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS, evolutionarily conserved mammalian promoter and 3'UTR motifs, and microRNA (miRNA seed sequences, we identified numerous motifs that were disproportionately represented between the two gene classes suggesting a common regulatory network for the observed gene expression patterns. Conclusion Some of the genes we identified distinguish key transcripts previously seen in array studies, while others are newly defined. Many of the genes identified as overexpressed in ER- tumors were previously identified as expression markers for neoplastic transformation in multiple human cancers. Moreover, our motif analysis identified a collection of

  9. Expertly validated models and phylogenetically-controlled analysis suggests responses to climate change are related to species traits in the order lagomorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Leach

    Full Text Available Climate change during the past five decades has impacted significantly on natural ecosystems, and the rate of current climate change is of great concern among conservation biologists. Species Distribution Models (SDMs have been used widely to project changes in species' bioclimatic envelopes under future climate scenarios. Here, we aimed to advance this technique by assessing future changes in the bioclimatic envelopes of an entire mammalian order, the Lagomorpha, using a novel framework for model validation based jointly on subjective expert evaluation and objective model evaluation statistics. SDMs were built using climatic, topographical, and habitat variables for all 87 lagomorph species under past and current climate scenarios. Expert evaluation and Kappa values were used to validate past and current models and only those deemed 'modellable' within our framework were projected under future climate scenarios (58 species. Phylogenetically-controlled regressions were used to test whether species traits correlated with predicted responses to climate change. Climate change is likely to impact more than two-thirds of lagomorph species, with leporids (rabbits, hares, and jackrabbits likely to undertake poleward shifts with little overall change in range extent, whilst pikas are likely to show extreme shifts to higher altitudes associated with marked range declines, including the likely extinction of Kozlov's Pika (Ochotona koslowi. Smaller-bodied species were more likely to exhibit range contractions and elevational increases, but showing little poleward movement, and fecund species were more likely to shift latitudinally and elevationally. Our results suggest that species traits may be important indicators of future climate change and we believe multi-species approaches, as demonstrated here, are likely to lead to more effective mitigation measures and conservation management. We strongly advocate studies minimising data gaps in our knowledge of

  10. Simulated Models Suggest That Price per Calorie Is the Dominant Price Metric That Low-Income Individuals Use for Food Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Igusa, Takeru; Jones-Smith, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    The price of food has long been considered one of the major factors that affects food choices. However, the price metric (e.g., the price of food per calorie or the price of food per gram) that individuals predominantly use when making food choices is unclear. Understanding which price metric is used is especially important for studying individuals with severe budget constraints because food price then becomes even more important in food choice. We assessed which price metric is used by low-income individuals in deciding what to eat. With the use of data from NHANES and the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, we created an agent-based model that simulated an environment representing the US population, wherein individuals were modeled as agents with a specific weight, age, and income. In our model, agents made dietary food choices while meeting their budget limits with the use of 1 of 3 different metrics for decision making: energy cost (price per calorie), unit price (price per gram), and serving price (price per serving). The food consumption patterns generated by our model were compared to 3 independent data sets. The food choice behaviors observed in 2 of the data sets were found to be closest to the simulated dietary patterns generated by the price per calorie metric. The behaviors observed in the third data set were equidistant from the patterns generated by price per calorie and price per serving metrics, whereas results generated by the price per gram metric were further away. Our simulations suggest that dietary food choice based on price per calorie best matches actual consumption patterns and may therefore be the most salient price metric for low-income populations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. The modeled structure of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase of GBV-C Virus suggests a role for motif E in Flaviviridae RNA polymerases

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    Dutartre Hélène

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Flaviviridae virus family includes major human and animal pathogens. The RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp plays a central role in the replication process, and thus is a validated target for antiviral drugs. Despite the increasing structural and enzymatic characterization of viral RdRps, detailed molecular replication mechanisms remain unclear. The hepatitis C virus (HCV is a major human pathogen difficult to study in cultured cells. The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is often used as a surrogate model to screen antiviral drugs against HCV. The structure of BVDV RdRp has been recently published. It presents several differences relative to HCV RdRp. These differences raise questions about the relevance of BVDV as a surrogate model, and cast novel interest on the "GB" virus C (GBV-C. Indeed, GBV-C is genetically closer to HCV than BVDV, and can lead to productive infection of cultured cells. There is no structural data for the GBV-C RdRp yet. Results We show in this study that the GBV-C RdRp is closest to the HCV RdRp. We report a 3D model of the GBV-C RdRp, developed using sequence-to-structure threading and comparative modeling based on the atomic coordinates of the HCV RdRp structure. Analysis of the predicted structural features in the phylogenetic context of the RNA polymerase family allows rationalizing most of the experimental data available. Both available structures and our model are explored to examine the catalytic cleft, allosteric and substrate binding sites. Conclusion Computational methods were used to infer evolutionary relationships and to predict the structure of a viral RNA polymerase. Docking a GTP molecule into the structure allows defining a GTP binding pocket in the GBV-C RdRp, such as that of BVDV. The resulting model suggests a new proposition for the mechanism of RNA synthesis, and may prove useful to design new experiments to implement our knowledge on the initiation mechanism of RNA

  12. Mixed modeling of meta-analysis P-values (MixMAP suggests multiple novel gene loci for low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

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    Andrea S Foulkes

    Full Text Available Informing missing heritability for complex disease will likely require leveraging information across multiple SNPs within a gene region simultaneously to characterize gene and locus-level contributions to disease phenotypes. To this aim, we introduce a novel strategy, termed Mixed modeling of Meta-Analysis P-values (MixMAP, that draws on a principled statistical modeling framework and the vast array of summary data now available from genetic association studies, to test formally for locus level association. The primary inputs to this approach are: (a single SNP level p-values for tests of association; and (b the mapping of SNPs to genomic regions. The output of MixMAP is comprised of locus level estimates and tests of association. In application of MixMAP to summary data from the Global Lipids Gene Consortium, we suggest twelve new loci (PKN, FN1, UGT1A1, PPARG, DMDGH, PPARD, CDK6, VPS13B, GAD2, GAB2, APOH and NPC1 for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease and we also demonstrate the potential utility of MixMAP in small data settings. Overall, MixMAP offers novel and complementary information as compared to SNP-based analysis approaches and is straightforward to implement with existing open-source statistical software tools.

  13. Nature of Science Progression in School Year 1-9: a Case Study of Teachers' Suggestions and Rationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leden, Lotta; Hansson, Lena

    2017-07-01

    The inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in science education has for a long time been regarded as crucial. There is, however, a lack of research on appropriate NOS aspects for different educational levels. An even more neglected area of research is that focusing on teachers' perspectives on NOS teaching at different levels. The aim of this article is to examine NOS progression in the light of teachers' suggestions and rationales. In order to obtain teachers' informed perspectives, we chose to involve six teachers (teaching grades 1-9) in a 3-year research project. They took part in focus group discussions about NOS and NOS teaching as well as implemented jointly planned NOS teaching sessions. Data that this article builds on was collected at the end of the project. The teachers' suggestions for NOS progression often relied on adding more NOS issues at every stage, thereby creating the foundations of a broader but not necessarily deeper understanding of NOS. Five rationales, for if/when specific NOS issues are appropriate to introduce, emerged from the analysis of the teacher discussions. Some of these rationales, including practice makes perfect and increasing levels of depth can potentially accommodate room for many NOS issues in the science classroom, while maturity and experience instead has a restricting effect on NOS teaching. Also, choice of context and teaching approaches play an important role in teachers' rationales for whether specific NOS issues should be included or not at different stages. The article discusses the implications for teacher education and professional development.

  14. A Physical Model Suggests That Hip-Localized Balance Sense in Birds Improves State Estimation in Perching: Implications for Bipedal Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Urbina-Meléndez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to a vestibular system, birds uniquely have a balance-sensing organ within the pelvis, called the lumbosacral organ (LSO. The LSO is well developed in terrestrial birds, possibly to facilitate balance control in perching and terrestrial locomotion. No previous studies have quantified the functional benefits of the LSO for balance. We suggest two main benefits of hip-localized balance sense: reduced sensorimotor delay and improved estimation of foot-ground acceleration. We used system identification to test the hypothesis that hip-localized balance sense improves estimates of foot acceleration compared to a head-localized sense, due to closer proximity to the feet. We built a physical model of a standing guinea fowl perched on a platform, and used 3D accelerometers at the hip and head to replicate balance sense by the LSO and vestibular systems. The horizontal platform was attached to the end effector of a 6 DOF robotic arm, allowing us to apply perturbations to the platform analogous to motions of a compliant branch. We also compared state estimation between models with low and high neck stiffness. Cross-correlations revealed that foot-to-hip sensing delays were shorter than foot-to-head, as expected. We used multi-variable output error state-space (MOESP system identification to estimate foot-ground acceleration as a function of hip- and head-localized sensing, individually and combined. Hip-localized sensors alone provided the best state estimates, which were not improved when fused with head-localized sensors. However, estimates from head-localized sensors improved with higher neck stiffness. Our findings support the hypothesis that hip-localized balance sense improves the speed and accuracy of foot state estimation compared to head-localized sense. The findings also suggest a role of neck muscles for active sensing for balance control: increased neck stiffness through muscle co-contraction can improve the utility of vestibular

  15. A spatially explicit metapopulation model and cattle trade analysis suggests key determinants for the recurrent circulation of rift valley Fever virus in a pilot area of madagascar highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Gaëlle; Chevalier, Véronique; Tantely, Luciano Michaël; Fontenille, Didier; Durand, Benoît

    2014-12-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that causes high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. In 2008-2009, a RVF outbreak affected the whole Madagascar island, including the Anjozorobe district located in Madagascar highlands. An entomological survey showed the absence of Aedes among the potential RVF virus (RVFV) vector species identified in this area, and an overall low abundance of mosquitoes due to unfavorable climatic conditions during winter. No serological nor virological sign of infection was observed in wild terrestrial mammals of the area, suggesting an absence of wild RVF virus (RVFV) reservoir. However, a three years serological and virological follow-up in cattle showed a recurrent RVFV circulation. The objective of this study was to understand the key determinants of this unexpected recurrent transmission. To achieve this goal, a spatial deterministic discrete-time metapopulation model combined with cattle trade network was designed and parameterized to reproduce the local conditions using observational data collected in the area. Three scenarios that could explain the RVFV recurrent circulation in the area were analyzed: (i) RVFV overwintering thanks to a direct transmission between cattle when viraemic cows calve, vectors being absent during the winter, (ii) a low level vector-based circulation during winter thanks to a residual vector population, without direct transmission between cattle, (iii) combination of both above mentioned mechanisms. Multi-model inference methods resulted in a model incorporating both a low level RVFV winter vector-borne transmission and a direct transmission between animals when viraemic cows calve. Predictions satisfactorily reproduced field observations, 84% of cattle infections being attributed to vector-borne transmission, and 16% to direct transmission. These results appeared robust according to the sensitivity analysis. Interweaving between agricultural works in rice fields, seasonality of

  16. A spatially explicit metapopulation model and cattle trade analysis suggests key determinants for the recurrent circulation of rift valley Fever virus in a pilot area of madagascar highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that causes high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. In 2008-2009, a RVF outbreak affected the whole Madagascar island, including the Anjozorobe district located in Madagascar highlands. An entomological survey showed the absence of Aedes among the potential RVF virus (RVFV vector species identified in this area, and an overall low abundance of mosquitoes due to unfavorable climatic conditions during winter. No serological nor virological sign of infection was observed in wild terrestrial mammals of the area, suggesting an absence of wild RVF virus (RVFV reservoir. However, a three years serological and virological follow-up in cattle showed a recurrent RVFV circulation. The objective of this study was to understand the key determinants of this unexpected recurrent transmission. To achieve this goal, a spatial deterministic discrete-time metapopulation model combined with cattle trade network was designed and parameterized to reproduce the local conditions using observational data collected in the area. Three scenarios that could explain the RVFV recurrent circulation in the area were analyzed: (i RVFV overwintering thanks to a direct transmission between cattle when viraemic cows calve, vectors being absent during the winter, (ii a low level vector-based circulation during winter thanks to a residual vector population, without direct transmission between cattle, (iii combination of both above mentioned mechanisms. Multi-model inference methods resulted in a model incorporating both a low level RVFV winter vector-borne transmission and a direct transmission between animals when viraemic cows calve. Predictions satisfactorily reproduced field observations, 84% of cattle infections being attributed to vector-borne transmission, and 16% to direct transmission. These results appeared robust according to the sensitivity analysis. Interweaving between agricultural works in rice fields

  17. Phylogenomic study indicates widespread lateral gene transfer in Entamoeba and suggests a past intimate relationship with parabasalids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jessica R; Katz, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) has impacted the evolutionary history of eukaryotes, though to a lesser extent than in bacteria and archaea. Detecting LGT and distinguishing it from single gene tree artifacts is difficult, particularly when considering very ancient events (i.e., over hundreds of millions of years). Here, we use two independent lines of evidence--a taxon-rich phylogenetic approach and an assessment of the patterns of gene presence/absence--to evaluate the extent of LGT in the parasitic amoebozoan genus Entamoeba. Previous work has suggested that a number of genes in the genome of Entamoeba spp. were acquired by LGT. Our approach, using an automated phylogenomic pipeline to build taxon-rich gene trees, suggests that LGT is more extensive than previously thought. Our analyses reveal that genes have frequently entered the Entamoeba genome via nonvertical events, including at least 116 genes acquired directly from bacteria or archaea, plus an additional 22 genes in which Entamoeba plus one other eukaryote are nested among bacteria and/or archaea. These genes may make good candidates for novel therapeutics, as drugs targeting these genes are less likely to impact the human host. Although we recognize the challenges of inferring intradomain transfers given systematic errors in gene trees, we find 109 genes supporting LGT from a eukaryote to Entamoeba spp., and 178 genes unique to Entamoeba spp. and one other eukaryotic taxon (i.e., presence/absence data). Inspection of these intradomain LGTs provide evidence of a common sister relationship between genes of Entamoeba (Amoebozoa) and parabasalids (Excavata). We speculate that this indicates a past close relationship (e.g., symbiosis) between ancestors of these extant lineages. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Are reviewers suggested by authors as good as those chosen by editors? Results of a rater-blinded, retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkin Emma C

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BioMed Central (BMC requires authors to suggest four reviewers when making a submission. Editors searching for reviewers use these suggestions as a source. The review process of the medical journals in the BMC series is open – authors and reviewers know each other's identity – although reviewers can make confidential comments to the editor. Reviews are published alongside accepted articles so readers may see the reviewers' names and recommendations. Our objective was to compare the performance of author-nominated reviewers (ANR with that of editor-chosen reviewers (ECR in terms of review quality and recommendations about submissions in an online-only medical journal. Methods Pairs of reviews from 100 consecutive submissions to medical journals in the BMC series (with one author-nominated and one editor-chosen reviewer and a final decision were assessed by two raters, blinded to reviewer type, using a validated review quality instrument (RQI which rates 7 items on 5-point Likert scales. The raters discussed their ratings after the first 20 pairs (keeping reviewer type masked and resolved major discrepancies in scoring and interpretation to improve inter-rater reliability. Reviewers' recommendations were also compared. Results Reviewer source had no impact on review quality (mean RQI score (± SD 2.24 ± 0.55 for ANR, 2.34 ± 0.54 for ECR or tone (mean scores on additional question 2.72 ANR vs 2.82 ECR (maximum score = 5 in both cases. However author-nominated reviewers were significantly more likely to recommend acceptance (47 vs 35 and less likely to recommend rejection (10 vs 23 than editor-chosen reviewers after initial review (p Conclusion Author-nominated reviewers produced reviews of similar quality to editor-chosen reviewers but were more likely to recommend acceptance during the initial stages of peer review.

  19. A simplified study of public perception in the nuclear field: suggestions for educational campaign for different segments of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Renata Araujo de

    2011-01-01

    During the last years the need for the increase in the electricity energy production as much as in Brazil as in the rest of the world, has raised the tone o the debate about the environmental impacts as a result of these debates, the government and the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) have requested several opinion researches aiming at measuring and evaluating the knowledge and perception of the public in relation to the best non-polluting energy sources. Prior to 2001 these researches would not make any sense in Brazil as the majority of its power grid is made of hydroelectric plants, a renewable energy source. However, when in that year it occurred a drought, the competent authorities have faced the necessity of developing a plan, the National Energy Plan (PNE2030) which recommends, among other objectives, finalizing the construction of the Angra 3 plant and the implementation Df new nuclear plants in places still to be determined. Even considering the complexity of the subject, this paper presents a field research realized from September 28th, 2010 to October 28th, 2010 of the current level of perception of the Brazilian population, specifically the residents of three cities of Rio de Janeiro, about the nuclear area. As a result of this work, it is suggested how the competent authorities should proceed to reach in an efficient manner, by means of communication campaigns both informative and educational, a greater understanding of the population about the proposed subject. (author)

  20. Intratumor heterogeneous distribution of 10B-compounds suggested by the radiobiological findings from in vivo mouse studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, S.; Ono, K.; Sakurai, Y.; Takagaki, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Kinashi, Y.; Akaboshi, M.; Akuta, K.

    2000-01-01

    After continuous labeling with or without 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), SCC VII tumor-bearing mice received one of the following treatments in vivo; 1) Tumor excision right after thermal neutron irradiation following sodium borocaptate- 10 B (BSH) or p-boronophenylalanine- 10 B (BPA) administration. 2) Tumor excision 5 min through 72 h after thermal neutron or γ-ray irradiation. 3) Determination of hypoxic fraction (HF) of implanted tumors by γ-ray test irradiation 5 min through 72 h after thermal neutron or γ-ray irradiation. 4) Determination of the tumor sensitivity to γ-rays 0-24 h after thermal neutron or γ-ray irradiation. The following results were obtained; 1) BSH and BPA sensitized quiescent (Q) and total (proliferating (P) + Q) tumor cells, respectively, and the use of 10 B-compound, especially BPA, widened the sensitivity difference between Q and total cells. 2) The use of 10 B-compound, especially BPA, increased the repair capacity from potentially lethal damage (PLDR) and induced PLDR pattern like post-γ-ray irradiation. 3) Reoxygenation after thermal neutron irradiation following 10 B-compound, especially BPA, administration occurred slowly, compared with after neutron irradiation only and looked like after γ-ray irradiation. 4) The use of 10 B-compound, especially BPA, promoted sublethal damage repair (SLDR) in total cells and the recruitment from Q to P state, compared with after thermal neutron irradiation alone. All these findings suggested the difficulty in distribution of 10 B-compound, especially BPA, in Q cells and the heterogeneity in intratumor distribution of 10 B-compound. (author)

  1. Structural models of zebrafish (Danio rerio NOD1 and NOD2 NACHT domains suggest differential ATP binding orientations: insights from computational modeling, docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Maharana

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1 and NOD2 are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors playing pivotal roles in innate immune signaling. NOD1 and NOD2 recognize bacterial peptidoglycan derivatives iE-DAP and MDP, respectively and undergoes conformational alternation and ATP-dependent self-oligomerization of NACHT domain followed by downstream signaling. Lack of structural adequacy of NACHT domain confines our understanding about the NOD-mediated signaling mechanism. Here, we predicted the structure of NACHT domain of both NOD1 and NOD2 from model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio using computational methods. Our study highlighted the differential ATP binding modes in NOD1 and NOD2. In NOD1, γ-phosphate of ATP faced toward the central nucleotide binding cavity like NLRC4, whereas in NOD2 the cavity was occupied by adenine moiety. The conserved 'Lysine' at Walker A formed hydrogen bonds (H-bonds and Aspartic acid (Walker B formed electrostatic interaction with ATP. At Sensor 1, Arg328 of NOD1 exhibited an H-bond with ATP, whereas corresponding Arg404 of NOD2 did not. 'Proline' of GxP motif (Pro386 of NOD1 and Pro464 of NOD2 interacted with adenine moiety and His511 at Sensor 2 of NOD1 interacted with γ-phosphate group of ATP. In contrast, His579 of NOD2 interacted with the adenine moiety having a relatively inverted orientation. Our findings are well supplemented with the molecular interaction of ATP with NLRC4, and consistent with mutagenesis data reported for human, which indicates evolutionary shared NOD signaling mechanism. Together, this study provides novel insights into ATP binding mechanism, and highlights the differential ATP binding modes in zebrafish NOD1 and NOD2.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Studies Suggest Limited Immune Gene Enrichment in Schizophrenia Compared to 5 Autoimmune Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouget, Jennie G; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Spain, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    in immune genes contributes to schizophrenia. We show that there is no enrichment of immune loci outside of the MHC region in the largest genetic study of schizophrenia conducted to date, in contrast to 5 diseases of known immune origin. Among 108 regions of the genome previously associated...

  3. A genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa suggests a risk locus implicated in dysregulated leptin signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Dong; Chang, Xiao; Connolly, John J.; Tian, Lifeng; Liu, Yichuan; Bhoj, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, Nora; Abrams, Debra; Li, Yun R.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kim, Cecilia E.; Li, Jin; Wang, Fengxiang; Snyder, James; Lemma, Maria; Hou, Cuiping; Wei, Zhi; Guo, Yiran; Qiu, Haijun; Mentch, Frank D.; Thomas, Kelly A.; Chiavacci, Rosetta M.; Cone, Roger; Li, Bingshan; Sleiman, Patrick A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Perica, Vesna Boraska; Franklin, Christopher S.; Floyd, James A.B.; Thornton, Laura M.; Huckins, Laura M.; Southam, Lorraine; Rayner, William N; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Schmidt, Ulrike; Tozzi, Federica; Kiezebrink, Kirsty; Hebebrand, Johannes; Gorwood, Philip; Adan, Roger A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/096757191; Kas, Martien J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185967019; Favaro, Angela; Santonastaso, Paolo; Fernánde-Aranda, Fernando; Gratacos, Monica; Rybakowski, Filip; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Raevuori-Helkamaa, Anu; Furth, Eric F.Van; Slof-Opt Landt, Margarita C.T.; Hudson, James I.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun Peggy S.; Monteleone, Palmiero; Karwautz, Andreas; Berrettini, Wade H.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Ando, Tetsuya; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Esko, Toñu; Fischer, Krista; Männik, Katrin; Metspalu, Andres; Baker, Jessica H.; DeSocio, Janiece E.; Hilliard, Christopher E.; O'Toole, Julie K.; Pantel, Jacques; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Zerwas, Stephanie; Davis, Oliver S P; Helder, Sietske; Bühren, Katharina; Burghardt, Roland; De Zwaan, Martina; Egberts, Karin; Ehrlich, Stefan; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Herzog, Wolfgang; Imgart, Hartmut; Scherag, André; Zipfel, Stephan; Boni, Claudette; Ramoz, Nicolas; Versini, Audrey; Danner, Unna N.; Hendriks, Judith; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157197468; Ophoff, Roel A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/16237299X; Strengman, Eric|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815195; van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Bruson, Alice; Clementi, Maurizio; Degortes, Daniela; Forzan, Monica; Tenconi, Elena; Docampo, Elisa; Escaramís, Geòrgia; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rajewski, Andrzej; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Slopien, Agnieszka; Hauser, Joanna; Karhunen, Leila; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Slagboom, P. Eline; Tortorella, Alfonso; Maj, Mario; Dedoussis, George; DIkeos, DImitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Tziouvas, Konstantinos; Tsitsika, Artemis; Papezova, Hana; Slachtova, Lenka; Martaskova, Debora; Kennedy, James L.; Levitan, Robert D.; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Huemer, Julia; Koubek, Doris; Merl, Elisabeth; Wagner, Gudrun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Breen, Gerome; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Cichon, Sven; Giegling, Ina; Herms, Stefan; Rujescu, Dan; Schreiber, Stefan; Wichmann, H-Erich; Dina, Christian; Sladek, Rob; Gambaro, Giovanni; Soranzo, Nicole; Julia, Antonio; Marsal, Sara; Rabionet, Raquel; Gaborieau, Valerie; DIck, Danielle M.; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Widén, Elisabeth; Andreassen, Ole A.; Espeseth, Thomas; Lundervold, Astri J; Reinvang, Ivar; Steen, Vidar M.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Mattingsdal, Morten; Ntalla, Ioanna; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Gallinger, Steven; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W.; Aschauer, Harald; Carlberg, Laura; Schosser, Alexandra; Alfredsson, Lars; Ding, Bo; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Finan, Chris; Kalsi, Gursharan; Roberts, Marion; Barrett, Jeff C.; Estivill, Xavier; Hinney, Anke; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; La Via, Maria C.; Mitchell, James R.; Strober, Michael; Rotondo, Alessandro; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Keel, Pamela K.; Klump, Kelly L.; Lilenfeld, Lisa; Bergen, Andrew W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345481240; Kaye, Walter; Magistretti, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of anorexia nervosa (AN) using a stringently defined phenotype. Analysis of phenotypic variability led to the identification of a specific genetic risk factor that approached genome-wide significance (rs929626 in EBF1 (Early B-Cell Factor 1); P =

  4. Monitoring of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography – case study and suggestion of method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Michoński

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back and pelvic pain is one of the most frequently reported disorders in pregnancy, however etiology and pathology of this problem have not been fully determined. The relationship between back pain experienced during pregnancy and posture remains unclear. It is challenging to measure reliably postural and spinal changes at the time of pregnancy, since most imaging studies cannot be used due to the radiation burden. 3D shape measurement, or surface topography (ST, systems designed for posture evaluation could potentially fill this void. A pilot study was conducted to test the potential of monitoring the change of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography. A single case was studied to test the methodology and preliminarily assess the usefulness of the procedure before performing a randomized trial. The apparatus used in this study was metrologically tested and utilized earlier in scoliosis screening. Case presentation The subject was measured using a custom-made structured light illumination scanner with accuracy of 0.2 mm. Measurement was taken every 2 weeks, between 17th and 37th week of pregnancy, 11 measurements in total. From the measurement the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles, and vertical balance angle were extracted automatically. Custom-written software was used for analysis. Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI was done with every measurement. The values were correctly extracted from the measurement. The results were: 50.9 ± 2.4° for kyphosis angle, 58.1 ± 2.1° for lordosis angle and 4.7 ± 1.7° for vertical balance angle. The registered change was 7.4° in kyphosis angle, 8.4° in lordosis angle and 5.5° in vertical balance angle. The calculated ODI values were between moderate disability and severe disability (22 to 58 %. Conclusions This case study presents that surface topography may be suitable for monitoring of spinal curvature

  5. Monitoring of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography - case study and suggestion of method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoński, Jakub; Walesiak, Katarzyna; Pakuła, Anna; Glinkowski, Wojciech; Sitnik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Low back and pelvic pain is one of the most frequently reported disorders in pregnancy, however etiology and pathology of this problem have not been fully determined. The relationship between back pain experienced during pregnancy and posture remains unclear. It is challenging to measure reliably postural and spinal changes at the time of pregnancy, since most imaging studies cannot be used due to the radiation burden. 3D shape measurement, or surface topography (ST), systems designed for posture evaluation could potentially fill this void. A pilot study was conducted to test the potential of monitoring the change of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography. A single case was studied to test the methodology and preliminarily assess the usefulness of the procedure before performing a randomized trial. The apparatus used in this study was metrologically tested and utilized earlier in scoliosis screening. The subject was measured using a custom-made structured light illumination scanner with accuracy of 0.2 mm. Measurement was taken every 2 weeks, between 17th and 37th week of pregnancy, 11 measurements in total. From the measurement the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles, and vertical balance angle were extracted automatically. Custom-written software was used for analysis. Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI) was done with every measurement. The values were correctly extracted from the measurement. The results were: 50.9 ± 2.4° for kyphosis angle, 58.1 ± 2.1° for lordosis angle and 4.7 ± 1.7° for vertical balance angle. The registered change was 7.4° in kyphosis angle, 8.4° in lordosis angle and 5.5° in vertical balance angle. The calculated ODI values were between moderate disability and severe disability (22 to 58 %). This case study presents that surface topography may be suitable for monitoring of spinal curvature and posture change in pregnant women. The ionizing radiation studies

  6. Habitat suitability index model for brook trout in streams of the Southern Blue Ridge Province: surrogate variables, model evaluation, and suggested improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoper J. Schmitt; A. Dennis Lemly; Parley V. Winger

    1993-01-01

    Data from several sources were collated and analyzed by correlation, regression, and principal components analysis to define surrrogate variables for use in the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) habitat suitability index (HSI) model, and to evaluate the applicability of the model for assessing habitat in high elevation streams of the southern Blue Ridge Province (...

  7. A genome-wide study of panic disorder suggests the amiloride-sensitive cation channel 1 as a candidate gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Noomi; Dahl, Hans A.; Buttenschön, Henriette N.

    2012-01-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is a mental disorder with recurrent panic attacks that occur spontaneously and are not associated to any particular object or situation. There is no consensus on what causes PD. However, it is recognized that PD is influenced by environmental factors, as well as genetic factors....... Despite a significant hereditary component, genetic studies have only been modestly successful in identifying genes of importance for the development of PD. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide scan using microsatellite markers and PD patients and control individuals from the isolated population...... of the Faroe Islands. Subsequently, we conducted a fine mapping, which revealed the amiloride-sensitive cation channel 1 (ACCN1) located on chromosome 17q11.2-q12 as a potential candidate gene for PD. The further analyses of the ACCN1 gene using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed significant...

  8. Inaccuracy of INR measurements and suggestions for improved WHO guidelines for calibration of reference preparations – a statistical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attermann, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies show that the accuracy of international normalized ratio (INR) measurements is unsatisfactory and worse than generally expected. We demonstrate that a plausible reason for this large inaccuracy is a conventional calibration procedure of reference preparations with (i) a...... impact of lower true accuracy and overestimated reported accuracy on oral anticoagulant therapy and to allow for an unambiguous definition of true INR values....

  9. CAM Use and Suggestions for Medical Care of Senior Citizens: A Qualitative Study Using the World Café Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stöckigt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little data exists concerning the reasons for using complementary and alternative (CAM therapies by seniors. Therefore, the aim of this study is to learn about motives of German seniors for using CAM therapies and their wishes for health care in general. Methods. One focus group and one “World Café” following a semistructured interview guide were conducted. All discussions were recorded digitally, transcribed, and analyzed according to Qualitative Content Analysis using the software MAXQDA. Results. In total 21 seniors participated (eighteen female, three male, mean age 72.5 ± 4.3 years. Most of the participants had lifelong experiences with medicinal herbs and home remedies due to unavailable conventional care during childhood. Also important for them were nutrition and exercise. These methods were often used as self-care to enhance wellbeing, to prevent and to cure illnesses. The participants would welcome an integration of CAM in health care services. They asked especially for more empathic physicians who are better trained in CAM and respect their experiences. Conclusion. The importance of life experience in regard to health care by senior can be seen as a resource. Qualitative studies investigating physician-patient relationships and intergenerational aspects in CAM use could be of interest for further studies.

  10. A Genome-Wide Association Study Suggests Novel Loci Associated with a Schizophrenia-Related Brain-Based Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Hass

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia and their siblings typically show subtle changes of brain structures, such as a reduction of hippocampal volume. Hippocampal volume is heritable, may explain a variety of cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and is thus considered an intermediate phenotype for this mental illness. The aim of our analyses was to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP related to hippocampal volume without making prior assumptions about possible candidate genes. In this study, we combined genetics, imaging and neuropsychological data obtained from the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium study of schizophrenia (n = 328. A total of 743,591 SNPs were tested for association with hippocampal volume in a genome-wide association study. Gene expression profiles of human hippocampal tissue were investigated for gene regions of significantly associated SNPs. None of the genetic markers reached genome-wide significance. However, six highly correlated SNPs (rs4808611, rs35686037, rs12982178, rs1042178, rs10406920, rs8170 on chromosome 19p13.11, located within or in close proximity to the genes NR2F6, USHBP1, and BABAM1, as well as four SNPs in three other genomic regions (chromosome 1, 2 and 10 had p-values between 6.75×10(-6 and 8.3×10(-7. Using existing data of a very recently published GWAS of hippocampal volume and additional data of a multicentre study in a large cohort of adolescents of European ancestry, we found supporting evidence for our results. Furthermore, allelic differences in rs4808611 and rs8170 were highly associated with differential mRNA expression in the cis-acting region. Associations with memory functioning indicate a possible functional importance of the identified risk variants. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of a brain structure closely linked to schizophrenia. In silico replication, mRNA expression and cognitive data provide additional support for the relevance of our findings

  11. Global transcriptomic analysis suggests carbon dioxide as an environmental stressor in spaceflight: A systems biology GeneLab case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Afshin; Cekanaviciute, Egle; Smith, David J; Costes, Sylvain V

    2018-03-08

    Spaceflight introduces a combination of environmental stressors, including microgravity, ionizing radiation, changes in diet and altered atmospheric gas composition. In order to understand the impact of each environmental component on astronauts it is important to investigate potential influences in isolation. Rodent spaceflight experiments involve both standard vivarium cages and animal enclosure modules (AEMs), which are cages used to house rodents in spaceflight. Ground control AEMs are engineered to match the spaceflight environment. There are limited studies examining the biological response invariably due to the configuration of AEM and vivarium housing. To investigate the innate global transcriptomic patterns of rodents housed in spaceflight-matched AEM compared to standard vivarium cages we utilized publicly available data from the NASA GeneLab repository. Using a systems biology approach, we observed that AEM housing was associated with significant transcriptomic differences, including reduced metabolism, altered immune responses, and activation of possible tumorigenic pathways. Although we did not perform any functional studies, our findings revealed a mild hypoxic phenotype in AEM, possibly due to atmospheric carbon dioxide that was increased to match conditions in spaceflight. Our investigation illustrates the process of generating new hypotheses and informing future experimental research by repurposing multiple space-flown datasets.

  12. Investigation of soil potentially contaminated by monazite processing by-products: case study and suggestion for protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briquet, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This work describes a characterization of soil potentially contaminated by monazite chemical processing residues. For case study it was selected a country area of Sao Paulo State, containing a monazite processing by-product depository. The main objective was to evaluate the soil contamination in an area of approximately 18,000 m 2 and esteem the total effective dose equivalent. During the development of this work, it was verified necessity of an investigation protocol, in order to standardize actions of regulatory authorities. A survey of the applicable legislation was carried out, as a tool to support decision making process. The methodology was based on the 'Manual de Gerenciamento de Areas Contaminadas' of CETESB (2001 a), a national document to guide studies of contaminated areas. It was also considered the 'Multi Agency Radiation Survey and Site Manual Investigation - MARSSIM' (2000), a U.S. government document that provides a nationally consensus approach to conduct investigations at potentially contaminated sites. The developed activities had been divided in three general stages: data-collecting and information on the place, identification of soil contamination and its distribution until the depth of 3 meters and evaluation of the associated dose. The evaluation of the radiological impact was carried out considering the worst-case use scenario (most restrictive future use), standing out that the final decision fits to the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN. CNEN's scope of responsibility includes determining the site release criteria and the cleanup necessity. (author)

  13. Stand-alone Inverter: Reviews, Models and Tests the exist system in Term of the Power Quality, and Suggestions to Design it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Algaddafi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Developments in power electronics have enabled the widespread application of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM inverters, notably for obtaining electricity from renewable systems. This paper critical review the previous studies in designing stand-alone inverter and modelling the inverter with two control loops to improve and provide a high-quality power of a stand-alone inverter. Multi-loop control techniques for a stand-alone inverter are utilised as the first loop is a capacitor current control to provide active damping and improve transient and steady state inverter performance. The capacitor current control is cheaper than inductor current control, where a small current sensing resistor is used. The second loop is the output voltage control that is used to improve the system performance and also control the output voltage. The power quality of the off-grid system is measured experimentally and compared with the grid power, showing power quality of off-grid system to be better than that of the grid. The suggestions and key findings to design the stand-alone inverter are given based in the reviewing of previous publications and from the literature’s point of view.

  14. How information systems should support the information needs of general dentists in clinical settings: suggestions from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wali Teena

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in designing useful clinical information systems in dentistry is to incorporate clinical evidence based on dentists' information needs and then integrate the system seamlessly into the complex clinical workflow. However, little is known about the actual information needs of dentists during treatment sessions. The purpose of this study is to identify general dentists' information needs and the information sources they use to meet those needs in clinical settings so as to inform the design of dental information systems. Methods A semi-structured interview was conducted with a convenience sample of 18 general dentists in the Pittsburgh area during clinical hours. One hundred and five patient cases were reported by these dentists. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed using thematic analysis with a constant comparative method to identify categories and themes regarding information needs and information source use patterns. Results Two top-level categories of information needs were identified: foreground and background information needs. To meet these needs, dentists used four types of information sources: clinical information/tasks, administrative tasks, patient education and professional development. Major themes of dentists' unmet information needs include: (1 timely access to information on various subjects; (2 better visual representations of dental problems; (3 access to patient-specific evidence-based information; and (4 accurate, complete and consistent documentation of patient records. Resource use patterns include: (1 dentists' information needs matched information source use; (2 little use of electronic sources took place during treatment; (3 source use depended on the nature and complexity of the dental problems; and (4 dentists routinely practiced cross-referencing to verify patient information. Conclusions Dentists have various information needs at the point of care. Among them, the needs

  15. Esophageal involvement is frequent in lichen planus: study in 32 patients with suggestion of clinicopathologic diagnostic criteria and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Johannes S; Technau-Hafsi, Kristin; Schwacha, Henning; Kuhlmann, Jan; Hirsch, Gunther; Brass, Volker; Deibert, Peter; Schmitt-Graeff, Anette; Kreisel, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a classic skin disease that can involve the skin, hair, and nails, as well as the oral and genital mucosa. Histopathology is characterized by a T-lymphocytic, lichenoid, and interface dermatitis. Multiple case reports and small case series have shown that LP can involve the esophagus. However, the diagnostic criteria, incidence, and best treatment options remain uncertain. This study aimed to refine the diagnostic criteria, estimate prevalence, and present an outlook on treatment options to prevent long-term sequelae. Thirty-two consecutive patients with LP of the skin, hair, nails, oral mucosa, and/or genital mucosa underwent a comprehensive clinicopathologic assessment. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed, and biopsies were evaluated histologically, immunohistochemically, and by direct immunofluorescence. Patients diagnosed with esophageal lichen planus (ELP) were followed up prospectively where possible. In total, 20 of 32 patients had ELP. Ten of these 20 patients were classified as having proven ELP, with clear-cut endoscopically visible lesions; the other 10 were classified as having probable ELP. Eight of 10 patients with proven ELP were started on new or additional therapy because of esophageal findings. Treatment with a topical budesonide formulation or systemic corticosteroids was successful in most patients with proven ELP and reversed functional esophageal stenosis. ELP can be found in more than 50% of patients with proven mucocutaneous LP when clinical and pathologic findings are correlated carefully. Topical or systemic corticosteroids are the first-line therapy for ELP. Timely medical therapy seems to prevent scarring stenosis of the esophagus.

  16. Analysis of educational research at a medical faculty in Germany and suggestions for strategic development – a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Sarah; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based medical education is playing an increasingly important role in the choice of didactic methods and the development of medical curricula and assessments. In Germany, a growing number of educational research projects has accompanied an ongoing change in the medical education process. The aim of this project was to assess medical education research activities at one medical faculty to develop procedural recommendations for the support and development of best evidence medical education. Methods: Using a newly developed online questionnaire, the 65 institutes and departments of the medical faculty of Hamburg University at Hamburg University Medical-Center (UKE) were asked to report their medical education research and service projects, medical education publications, medical education theses, financial support for educational projects, and supportive structures that they would consider helpful in the future. The data were grouped, and a SWOT analysis was performed. Results: In total, 60 scientists who were involved in 112 medical education research publications between 1998 and 2014 were identified at the UKE. Twenty-five of them had published at least one manuscript as first or last author. Thirty-three UKE institutions were involved in educational service or research projects at the time of the study, and 75.8% of them received internal or external funding. Regular educational research meetings and the acquisition of co-operation partners were mentioned most frequently as beneficial supportive structures for the future. Conclusion: An analysis to define the status quo of medical education research at a medical faculty seems to be a helpful first step for the development of a strategy and structure to further support researchers in medical education. PMID:27990467

  17. Analysis of educational research at a medical faculty in Germany and suggestions for strategic development - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Sarah; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based medical education is playing an increasingly important role in the choice of didactic methods and the development of medical curricula and assessments. In Germany, a growing number of educational research projects has accompanied an ongoing change in the medical education process. The aim of this project was to assess medical education research activities at one medical faculty to develop procedural recommendations for the support and development of best evidence medical education. Methods: Using a newly developed online questionnaire, the 65 institutes and departments of the medical faculty of Hamburg University at Hamburg University Medical-Center (UKE) were asked to report their medical education research and service projects, medical education publications, medical education theses, financial support for educational projects, and supportive structures that they would consider helpful in the future. The data were grouped, and a SWOT analysis was performed. Results: In total, 60 scientists who were involved in 112 medical education research publications between 1998 and 2014 were identified at the UKE. Twenty-five of them had published at least one manuscript as first or last author. Thirty-three UKE institutions were involved in educational service or research projects at the time of the study, and 75.8% of them received internal or external funding. Regular educational research meetings and the acquisition of co-operation partners were mentioned most frequently as beneficial supportive structures for the future. Conclusion: An analysis to define the status quo of medical education research at a medical faculty seems to be a helpful first step for the development of a strategy and structure to further support researchers in medical education.

  18. Dynamic Rupture Models Suggest High Fluid Pressures and Low Differential Stresses for the M 9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Elizabeth; van Zelst, Iris; Ulrich, Thomas; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes

    2017-04-01

    A major challenge in understanding the physics of megathrust earthquakes is constraining the initial stress field. The close relationship between initial stress and friction and any variations in fault geometry make unique determination of these parameters difficult. In addition, evidence for low effective stresses (e.g. Hardebeck, 2015; Husen and Kissling, 2001) seem incompatible with the occurrence of large megathrust events. Here, we present a series of 3D dynamic ruptures along the plate interface that hosted the 2004 M 9.1-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. The dynamic rupture models are performed with SeisSol, which solves for dynamic fault rupture and seismic wave propagation. Use of an unstructured tetrahedral mesh allows for a realistic representation of both the non-planar slab interface and the bathymetry. First, we compare earthquake models under conditions of high versus low fluid pressure. The model with a low fluid pressure (hydrostatic) produces rupture velocities and slip magnitudes that are much too high. The model with a high fluid pressure (near lithostatic) produces the observed average 2.5 km/s rupture speed and slip magnitudes that match the observed GPS surface displacements. This suggests that earthquakes along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone operate under the conditions of low effective principal and differential stresses that result from high fluid pressures. For a third model, we use conditions from a 2D seismo-thermo-mechanical earthquake cycle model representing long term deformation at the latitude of the 2004 earthquake's hypocenter. Slip instabilities that approximate earthquakes arise spontaneously along the subduction zone interface in this model. We use the stress and material properties at the time of nucleation for a single earthquake as initial conditions for the dynamic rupture model. In order to produce a reasonable earthquake, fluid pressure must exceed lithostatic near the hypocenter. Because the effective principal

  19. Immunotoxicity of nanoparticles: a computational study suggests that CNTs and C60 fullerenes might be recognized as pathogens by Toll-like receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabekova, M.; Rasulev, B.; Theodore, M.; Jackman, J.; Leszczynska, D.; Leszczynski, J.

    2014-03-01

    Over the last decade, a great deal of attention has been devoted to study the inflammatory response upon exposure to multi/single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and different fullerene derivatives. In particular, carbon nanoparticles are reported to provoke substantial inflammation in alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells, epidermal keratinocytes, cultured monocyte-macrophage cells, etc. We suggest a hypothetical model providing the potential mechanistic explanation for immune and inflammatory responses observed upon exposure to carbon nanoparticles. Specifically, we performed a theoretical study to analyze CNT and C60 fullerene interactions with the available X-ray structures of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) homo- and hetero-dimer extracellular domains. This assumption was based on the fact that similar to the known TLR ligands both CNTs and fullerenes induce, in cells, the secretion of certain inflammatory protein mediators, such as interleukins and chemokines. These proteins are observed within inflammation downstream processes resulted from the ligand molecule dependent inhibition or activation of TLR-induced signal transduction. Our computational studies have shown that the internal hydrophobic pockets of some TLRs might be capable of binding small-sized carbon nanostructures (5,5 armchair SWCNTs containing 11 carbon atom layers and C60 fullerene). High binding scores and minor structural alterations induced in TLR ectodomains upon binding C60 and CNTs further supported our hypothesis. Additionally, the proposed hypothesis is strengthened by the indirect experimental findings indicating that CNTs and fullerenes induce an excessive expression of specific cytokines and chemokines (i.e. IL-8 and MCP1).Over the last decade, a great deal of attention has been devoted to study the inflammatory response upon exposure to multi/single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and different fullerene derivatives. In particular, carbon nanoparticles are reported to provoke

  20. Offspring of parents with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy have higher C-reactive protein levels suggestive of inflammatory processes: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolova Svetla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the characteristic extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is usually considered a non-inflammatory disease. Methods We examined a marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP, in the offspring of patients with BEN, a population at risk for BEN, prior to development of established disease to determine if an inflammatory process could be identified in the early stages of the disease. In 2003/04, 102 adult offspring whose parents had BEN and a control group of 99 adult offspring of non-BEN patients were enrolled in this prospective study. This cohort was re-examined yearly for four consecutive years. Levels of serum CRP were measured in years 3 and 4 and compared between groups. The data were analyzed with mixed models. Results Compared to controls, offspring of BEN parents had statistically higher CRP levels in two consecutive years, suggestive of early inflammatory reactivity. Whenever the mother was affected by BEN (both parents, or mother only, serum CRP was significantly increased, but not if only the father had BEN. CRP was inversely related to kidney cortex width but not to markers or renal function. Conclusion Early stages of BEN may involve inflammatory processes. The observation of a maternal involvement supports the concept of fetal programming, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other chronic kidney diseases.

  1. When the rule becomes the exception. no evidence of gene flow between two Zerynthia cryptic butterflies suggests the emergence of a new model group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinetti, Francesca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Vovlas, Alessio; Chelazzi, Guido; Bonelli, Simona; Balletto, Emilio; Ciofi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that most parapatric cryptic/sister taxa are reproductively compatible across their areas of contact. Consequently, the biological species concept, which assumes absence of interbreeding, is becoming a not so effective criterion in evolutionary ecology. Nevertheless, the few parapatric sister taxa showing complete reproductive barriers represent interesting models to study speciation processes and the evolution of reproductive isolation. In this study, we examined contact populations in northwestern Italy of two butterfly species, Zerynthia polyxena and Z. cassandra, characterized by different genitalic morphotypes. We studied levels of divergence among 21 populations distributed from Sicily to France using three genetic markers (the mitochondrial COI and ND1 genes and the nuclear wingless gene) and genitalic geometric morphometrics. Moreover, we performed species distribution modelling to estimate different climatic requirements of Z. polyxena and Z. cassandra. We projected climatic data into glacial maximum scenarios in order to verify if and to which extent glacial cycles could have contributed to speciation processes. Genetic and morphometric analyses identified two main groups. All specimens showed a concordant pattern of diversification, including those individuals sampled in the contact area. Haplotype distribution and climatic models showed that during glacial maxima both species experienced a strong range contraction and presumably remained separated into different microrefugia in southern France, in the Italian Peninsula and on the islands of Elba and Sicily. Long term separation was probably favoured by reduced dispersal ability and high phylopatry, while genitalic diversification probably favoured interbreeding avoidance. Conversely, the aposematic wing pattern remained almost identical. We compared our results with those obtained in other species and concluded that Z. polyxena and Z. cassandra represent a valuable model in

  2. A suggested syllabus model for a course in developing reading skills with special reference to the ELT Department at Gazi University

    OpenAIRE

    Tikence, Mevlüt

    1991-01-01

    Ankara : The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1991. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1991. Includes bibliographical references leaves 63-64. The focus of this study is the development of a model syllabus for an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) reading course taught to first year students of the Gazi University ELT Department. First, the general background of ESP, problems of the reading course at Gazi and the limitations of the st...

  3. Transport and metabolic degradation of hydrogen peroxide in Chara corallina: model calculations and measurements with the pressure probe suggest transport of H(2)O(2) across water channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzler, T; Steudle, E

    2000-12-01

    A mathematical model is presented that describes permeation of hydrogen peroxide across a cell membrane and the implications of solute decomposition by catalase inside the cell. The model was checked and analysed by means of a numerical calculation that raised predictions for measured osmotic pressure relaxation curves. Predictions were tested with isolated internodal cells of CHARA: corallina, a model system for investigating interactions between water and solute transport in plant cells. Series of biphasic osmotic pressure relaxation curves with different concentrations of H(2)O(2) of up to 350 mol m(-3) are presented. A detailed description of determination of permeability (P(s)) and reflection coefficients (sigma(s)) for H(2)O(2) is given in the presence of the chemical reaction in the cell. Mean values were P(s)=(3.6+/-1.0) 10(-6) m s(-1) and sigma(s)=(0.33+/-0.12) (+/-SD, N=6 cells). Besides transport properties, coefficients for the catalase reaction following a Michaelis-Menten type of kinetics were determined. Mean values of the Michaelis constant (k(M)) and the maximum rate of decompositon (v(max)) were k(M)=(85+/-55) mol m(-3) and v(max)=(49+/-40) nmol (s cell)(-1), respectively. The absolute values of P:(s) and sigma(s) of H(2)O(2) indicated that hydrogen peroxide, a molecule with chemical properties close to that of water, uses water channels (aquaporins) to cross the cell membrane rapidly. When water channels were inhibited with the blocker mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)), the permeabilities of both water and H(2)O(2) were substantially reduced. In fact, for the latter, it was not measurable. It is suggested that some of the water channels in CHARA: (and, perhaps, in other species) serve as 'peroxoporins' rather than as 'aquaporins'.

  4. Literature-Informed Analysis of a Genome-Wide Association Study of Gestational Age in Norwegian Women and Children Suggests Involvement of Inflammatory Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacelis, Jonas; Juodakis, Julius; Sengpiel, Verena; Zhang, Ge; Myhre, Ronny; Muglia, Louis J.; Nilsson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Five-to-eighteen percent of pregnancies worldwide end in preterm birth, which is the major cause of neonatal death and morbidity. Approximately 30% of the variation in gestational age at birth can be attributed to genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not shown robust evidence of association with genomic loci yet. Methods We separately investigated 1921 Norwegian mothers and 1199 children from pregnancies with spontaneous onset of delivery. Individuals were further divided based on the onset of delivery: initiated by labor or prelabor rupture of membranes. Genetic association with ultrasound-dated gestational age was evaluated using three genetic models and adaptive permutations. The top-ranked loci were tested for enrichment in 12 candidate gene-sets generated by text-mining PubMed abstracts containing pregnancy-related keywords. Results The six GWAS did not reveal significant associations, with the most extreme empirical p = 5.1 × 10−7. The top loci from maternal GWAS with deliveries initiated by labor showed significant enrichment in 10 PubMed gene-sets, e.g., p = 0.001 and 0.005 for keywords "uterus" and "preterm" respectively. Enrichment signals were mainly caused by infection/inflammation-related genes TLR4, NFKB1, ABCA1, MMP9. Literature-informed analysis of top loci revealed further immunity genes: IL1A, IL1B, CAMP, TREM1, TFRC, NFKBIA, MEFV, IRF8, WNT5A. Conclusion Our analyses support the role of inflammatory pathways in determining pregnancy duration and provide a list of 32 candidate genes for a follow-up work. We observed that the top regions from GWAS in mothers with labor-initiated deliveries significantly more often overlap with pregnancy-related genes than would be expected by chance, suggesting that increased sample size would benefit similar studies. PMID:27490719

  5. Endometriosis education in schools: A New Zealand model examining the impact of an education program in schools on early recognition of symptoms suggesting endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Deborah; Brick, Emily; East, Michael C; Johnson, Neil

    2017-08-01

    Menstrual morbidity plays a significant role in adolescent females' lives. There are no studies to date reporting such data from menstrual health education programs in schools. The aim of our study was to report results from an audit of a menstrual health and endometriosis education program in secondary schools and observe age patterns of young women presenting for menstrual morbidity care. Audit data from education in secondary schools and audit data of patients from an Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain Coaching clinic operating in a private endometriosis specialised centre are reported. In a region of consistent delivery of the education program, student awareness of endometriosis was 32% in 2015. Overall in 2015, 13% of students experienced distressing menstrual symptoms and 27% of students sometimes or always missed school due to menstrual symptoms. Further, in one region of consistent delivery of the menstrual health education program, data show an increase in younger patients attending for specialised endometriosis care. There is strong suggestive evidence that consistent delivery of a menstrual health education program in schools increases adolescent student awareness of endometriosis. In addition, there is suggestive evidence that in a geographical area of consistent delivery of the program, a shift in earlier presentation of young women to a specialised health service is observed. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Determinants of delayed care seeking for TB suggestive symptoms in Seru district, Oromiya region, Ethiopia: a community based unmatched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirgu, Robel; Lemessa, Firaol; Hirpa, Selamawit; Alemayehu, Abraham; Klinkenberg, Eveline

    2017-04-20

    Early tuberculosis (TB) case finding and adequate chemotherapy are essential for interrupting disease transmission and preventing complications due to delayed care seeking. This study was undertaken in order to provide insights into the magnitude and determinants of patient delay. The study was conducted in rural Seru district, employing a population based unmatched case-control study design. The WHO standardized TB screening tool was used to identify presumptive TB cases among the district population ages > 15 years. Presumptive TB cases who sought care in a health facility more than 14 days after the onset of symptoms were considered cases while those who sought care within the first 14 days were classified as controls. A structured interview questionnaire was used to capture socio demographic characteristics and health care service utilization related data from the study participants. A multiple binary logistic regression model was used to identify any factor associated with patient care seeking delay. A total of 9,782 individuals were screened, of which 980 (10%, 95% CI; 9.4-10.5%) presumptive TB cases were identified. From these cases 358 (76%, 95% CI; 75.6%-76.4%) sought care within the first 14 days of the onset of symptoms with a median patient delay of 15 days, IQR (5-30 days). The most common TB suggestive symptom mentioned by the participants was night sweat 754 (76.4%) while the least common was a history of contact with a confirmed TB case in the past one year 207 (21.1%). Individuals in the 45-54 age range had lower odds of delay (AOR 0.31, 95%CI 0.15, 0.61) as compared to those 15-24 years old. First TB treatment episode (AOR16.2, 95% CI 9.94, 26.26) and limited access to either traditional or modern modes of transportation (AOR 2.62, 95% CI 1.25, 5.49) were independently associated with patient care delay. Increasing community awareness about the risks of delayed care seeking and the importance of accessing health services close to the community can

  7. Studies on DANESS Code Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon

    2009-09-01

    The DANESS code modeling study has been performed. DANESS code is widely used in a dynamic fuel cycle analysis. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has used the DANESS code for the Korean national nuclear fuel cycle scenario analysis. In this report, the important models such as Energy-demand scenario model, New Reactor Capacity Decision Model, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Facility History Model, and Fuel Cycle Model are investigated. And, some models in the interface module are refined and inserted for Korean nuclear fuel cycle model. Some application studies have also been performed for GNEP cases and for US fast reactor scenarios with various conversion ratios

  8. Metabolic profiling of synovial fluid in a unilateral ovine model of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee suggests biomarkers for early osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickiewicz, Beata; Heard, Bryan J; Chau, Johnny K; Chung, May; Hart, David A; Shrive, Nigel G; Frank, Cyril B; Vogel, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    Joint injuries and subsequent osteoarthritis (OA) are the leading causes of chronic joint disease. In this work, we explore the possibility of applying magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolomics to detect host responses to an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction injury in synovial fluid in an ovine model. Using multivariate statistical analysis, we were able to distinguish post-injury joint samples (ACL and sham surgery) from the uninjured control samples, and as well the ACL surgical samples from sham surgery. In all samples there were 65 metabolites quantified, of which six could be suggested as biomarkers for early post-injury degenerative changes in the knee joints: isobutyrate, glucose, hydroxyproline, asparagine, serine, and uridine. Our results raise a cautionary note indicating that surgical interventions into the knee can result in metabolic alterations that need to be distinguished from those caused by the early onset of OA. Our findings illustrate the potential application of metabolomics as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for detection of injuries to the knee joint. The ability to detect a unique pattern of metabolic changes in the synovial fluid of sheep offers the possibility of extending the approach to precision medicine protocols in patient populations in the future. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mnemonic Discrimination Deficits in First-Episode Psychosis and a Ketamine Model Suggests Dentate Gyrus Pathology Linked to N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraguljac, Nina Vanessa; Carle, Matthew; Frölich, Michael A; Tran, Steve; Yassa, Michael A; White, David Matthew; Reddy, Abhishek; Lahti, Adrienne Carol

    2018-03-01

    Converging evidence from neuroimaging and postmortem studies suggests that hippocampal subfields are differentially affected in schizophrenia. Recent studies report dentate gyrus dysfunction in chronic schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we sought to examine if this deficit is already present in first-episode psychosis, and if N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction, a putative central pathophysiological mechanism in schizophrenia, experimentally induced by ketamine, would result in a similar abnormality. We applied a mnemonic discrimination task selectively taxing pattern separation in two experiments: 1) a group of 23 first-episode psychosis patients and 23 matched healthy volunteers and 2) a group of 19 healthy volunteers before and during a ketamine challenge (0.27 mg/kg over 10 minutes, then 0.25 mg/kg/hour for 50 minutes, 0.01 mL/s). We calculated response bias-corrected pattern separation and recognition scores. We also examined the relationships between task performance and symptom severity as well as ketamine levels. We report a deficit in pattern separation but not recognition performance in first-episode psychosis patients compared with healthy volunteers (p = .04) and in volunteers during the ketamine challenge compared with baseline (p = .003). Exploratory analyses revealed no correlation between task performance and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status total scores or positive symptoms in first-episode psychosis patients, or with ketamine serum levels. We observed a mnemonic discrimination deficit but intact recognition in both datasets. Our findings suggest a tentative mechanistic link between dentate gyrus dysfunction in first-episode psychosis and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inter- and intra-firm learning synergy through integrating absorptive capacity and employee suggestion processes: The case study of Frauenthal Automotive Toruń company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Lis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study relationships between the processes of absorptive capacity (inter-firm learning and learning lessons through employee suggestions (intra-firm learning and identify potential synergies between them. The research interest is focused on investigating the following problems: (1 How do organizations apply external knowledge to support intra-organizational learning processes? (2 How should the employee suggestion system be organized to increase (or build absorptive capacity? The exploratory case study analysis is applied to answer research questions and achieve the aim of the study. The unit of analysis is constituted by inter-firm and intra-firm learning processes observed in the firm Frauenthal Automotive Toruń (FTO.

  11. Crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ClpP1P2 suggests a model for peptidase activation by AAA+ partner binding and substrate delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Karl R; Carney, Daniel W; Sello, Jason K; Sauer, Robert T

    2014-10-28

    Caseinolytic peptidase P (ClpP), a double-ring peptidase with 14 subunits, collaborates with ATPases associated with diverse activities (AAA+) partners to execute ATP-dependent protein degradation. Although many ClpP enzymes self-assemble into catalytically active homo-tetradecamers able to cleave small peptides, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme consists of discrete ClpP1 and ClpP2 heptamers that require a AAA+ partner and protein-substrate delivery or a peptide agonist to stabilize assembly of the active tetradecamer. Here, we show that cyclic acyldepsipeptides (ADEPs) and agonist peptides synergistically activate ClpP1P2 by mimicking AAA+ partners and substrates, respectively, and determine the structure of the activated complex. Our studies establish the basis of heteromeric ClpP1P2 assembly and function, reveal tight coupling between the conformations of each ring, show that ADEPs bind only to one ring but appear to open the axial pores of both rings, provide a foundation for rational drug development, and suggest strategies for studying the roles of individual ClpP1 and ClpP2 rings in Clp-family proteolysis.

  12. Electrical conductivity of old oceanic mantle in the northwestern Pacific I: 1-D profiles suggesting differences in thermal structure not predictable from a plate cooling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kiyoshi; Tada, Noriko; Matsuno, Tetsuo; Liang, Pengfei; Li, Ruibai; Zhang, Luolei; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Abe, Natsue; Hirano, Naoto; Ichiki, Masahiro; Utada, Hisashi

    2017-08-01

    Seafloor magnetotelluric (MT) experiments were recently conducted in two areas of the northwestern Pacific to investigate the nature of the old oceanic upper mantle. The areas are far from any tectonic activity, and "normal" mantle structure is therefore expected. The data were carefully analyzed to reduce the effects of coastlines and seafloor topographic changes, which are significant boundaries in electrical conductivity and thus distort seafloor MT data. An isotropic, one-dimensional electrical conductivity profile was estimated for each area. The profiles were compared with those obtained from two previous study areas in the northwestern Pacific. Between the four profiles, significant differences were observed in the thickness of the resistive layer beyond expectations based on cooling of homogeneous oceanic lithosphere over time. This surprising feature is now further clarified from what was suggested in a previous study. To explain the observed spatial variation, dynamic processes must be introduced, such as influence of the plume associated with the formation of the Shatsky Rise, or spatially non-uniform, small-scale convection in the asthenosphere. There is significant room of further investigation to determine a reasonable and comprehensive interpretation of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath the northwestern Pacific. The present results demonstrate that electrical conductivity provides key information for such investigation.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Legal Education Reform: Modest Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…

  14. Auditory function in the Tc1 mouse model of down syndrome suggests a limited region of human chromosome 21 involved in otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Stephanie; Ingham, Neil; Pearson, Selina; Gribble, Susan M; Clayton, Stephen; Steel, Karen P; Marcotti, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome is one of the most common congenital disorders leading to a wide range of health problems in humans, including frequent otitis media. The Tc1 mouse carries a significant part of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) in addition to the full set of mouse chromosomes and shares many phenotypes observed in humans affected by Down syndrome with trisomy of chromosome 21. However, it is unknown whether Tc1 mice exhibit a hearing phenotype and might thus represent a good model for understanding the hearing loss that is common in Down syndrome. In this study we carried out a structural and functional assessment of hearing in Tc1 mice. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements in Tc1 mice showed normal thresholds compared to littermate controls and ABR waveform latencies and amplitudes were equivalent to controls. The gross anatomy of the middle and inner ears was also similar between Tc1 and control mice. The physiological properties of cochlear sensory receptors (inner and outer hair cells: IHCs and OHCs) were investigated using single-cell patch clamp recordings from the acutely dissected cochleae. Adult Tc1 IHCs exhibited normal resting membrane potentials and expressed all K(+) currents characteristic of control hair cells. However, the size of the large conductance (BK) Ca(2+) activated K(+) current (I(K,f)), which enables rapid voltage responses essential for accurate sound encoding, was increased in Tc1 IHCs. All physiological properties investigated in OHCs were indistinguishable between the two genotypes. The normal functional hearing and the gross structural anatomy of the middle and inner ears in the Tc1 mouse contrast to that observed in the Ts65Dn model of Down syndrome which shows otitis media. Genes that are trisomic in Ts65Dn but disomic in Tc1 may predispose to otitis media when an additional copy is active.

  15. Primordial germ cell development in the marmoset monkey as revealed by pluripotency factor expression: suggestion of a novel model of embryonic germ cell translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeckerle, N; Drummer, C; Debowski, K; Viebahn, C; Behr, R

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic progenitors of sperm and egg cells. Mammalian PGCs are thought to actively migrate from the yolk sac endoderm over long distances across the embryo to reach the somatic genital ridges. The general principles of mammalian PGC development were discovered in mice. In contrast, little is known about PGC development in primates due to extremely limited access to primate embryos. Here, we analyzed 12 well preserved marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) embryos covering the phase from PGC emergence in the endoderm to the formation of the sexually differentiated gonad (embryonic day (E) 50 to E95). We show using immunohistochemistry that the pluripotency factors OCT4A and NANOG specifically mark PGCs throughout the period studied. In contrast, SALL4 and LIN28 were first expressed ubiquitously and only later down-regulated in somatic tissues. We further show, for the first time, that PGCs are located in the endoderm in E50 embryos in close spatial proximity to the prospective genital ridge, making a long-range migration of PGCs dispensable. At E65, PGCs are already present in the primitive gonad, while significantly later embryonic stages still exhibit PGCs at their original endodermal site, revealing a wide spatio-temporal window of PGC distribution. Our findings challenge the 'dogma' of active long-range PGC migration from the endoderm to the gonads. We therefore favor an alternative model based primarily on passive translocation of PGCs from the mesenchyme that surrounds the gut to the prospective gonad through the intercalar expansion of mesenchymal tissue which contains the PGCs. In summary, we (i) show differential pluripotency factor expression during primate embryo development and (ii) provide a schematic model for embryonic PGC translocation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

  16. Auditory function in the Tc1 mouse model of down syndrome suggests a limited region of human chromosome 21 involved in otitis media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kuhn

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is one of the most common congenital disorders leading to a wide range of health problems in humans, including frequent otitis media. The Tc1 mouse carries a significant part of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21 in addition to the full set of mouse chromosomes and shares many phenotypes observed in humans affected by Down syndrome with trisomy of chromosome 21. However, it is unknown whether Tc1 mice exhibit a hearing phenotype and might thus represent a good model for understanding the hearing loss that is common in Down syndrome. In this study we carried out a structural and functional assessment of hearing in Tc1 mice. Auditory brainstem response (ABR measurements in Tc1 mice showed normal thresholds compared to littermate controls and ABR waveform latencies and amplitudes were equivalent to controls. The gross anatomy of the middle and inner ears was also similar between Tc1 and control mice. The physiological properties of cochlear sensory receptors (inner and outer hair cells: IHCs and OHCs were investigated using single-cell patch clamp recordings from the acutely dissected cochleae. Adult Tc1 IHCs exhibited normal resting membrane potentials and expressed all K(+ currents characteristic of control hair cells. However, the size of the large conductance (BK Ca(2+ activated K(+ current (I(K,f, which enables rapid voltage responses essential for accurate sound encoding, was increased in Tc1 IHCs. All physiological properties investigated in OHCs were indistinguishable between the two genotypes. The normal functional hearing and the gross structural anatomy of the middle and inner ears in the Tc1 mouse contrast to that observed in the Ts65Dn model of Down syndrome which shows otitis media. Genes that are trisomic in Ts65Dn but disomic in Tc1 may predispose to otitis media when an additional copy is active.

  17. Intimate partner violence against women in west Ethiopia: a qualitative study on attitudes, woman’s response, and suggested measures as perceived by community members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeya Sileshi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Intimate partner violence against women is more prevalent in Ethiopia and among the highest in the world. This study was aimed to explore the attitudes of the community on intimate partner violence against women, the strategies women are using after the violence act, and suggested measures to stop or reduce the act in East Wollega Zone. Methods A total of 12 focus group discussions involving 55 men and 60 women were conducted from December, 2011 to January, 2012. Discussants were purposefully selected from urban and rural settings of the study area. The analyses followed the procedure for qualitative thematic analysis. Results Three themes (attitudes, coping strategies, and suggested measures were emerged. Most discussants perceived, intimate partner violence is accepted in the community in circumstances of practicing extra marital sex and suspected infidelity. The majority of women are keeping silent and very few defend themselves from the violent husbands/partners. The suggested measures by the community to stop or reduce women’s violence were targeting actions at the level of individual, family, community, and society. Conclusion In the study community, the attitude of people and traditional norms influence the acceptability for the act of intimate partner violence against women. Most victims are tolerating the incident while very few are defending themselves from the violent partners. The suggested measures for stopping or reducing women’s violence focused on provision of education for raising awareness at all levels using a variety of approaches targeting different stakeholders. It is recommended that more efforts are needed to dispel myths, misconceptions and traditional norms and beliefs of the community. There is a need for amending and enforcing the existing laws as well as formulating the new laws concerning women violence including rape. Moreover, providing professional help at all levels is essential.

  18. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies suggest that the effects of thapsigargin on human platelets are mediated by changes in intracellular calcium but not by intracellular histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, S P; McNicol, A; Becker, A B

    1992-01-01

    -fluoromethyl histidine (alpha-FMH) failed to inhibit Tg-induced aggregation. The intracellular histamine receptor antagonist, N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy] ethanamine. HCl (DPPE), inhibited Tg-induced aggregation but with IC50 values dependent on the concentration of agonist used. The inhibitory effects...... of DPPE on Tg-induced aggregation were not reversed by the addition of histamine to saponin-permeabilized platelets suggesting non-histamine mediated effects of DPPE on Tg-induced aggregation. Tg stimulated an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration which was unaffected by DPPE indicating...... that the effects of DPPE are also not due to the inhibition of mobilization of cytosolic calcium. The ultrastructural studies suggest that the major Tg-induced changes (pseudopod formation and granule centralization) are consistent with a primary role for Tg to mobilize calcium; DPPE had very little effect...

  19. The comparison of the farmers' fertilizer application with the suggestions of extension organization in the indeterminate tomatoes farming. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizilaslan, N.; Akca, H.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, whether farmers' fertilizer application is in harmony with fertilizer application suggested by farmers education and extension unit (FEEU) has been investigated. In addition, situation of contact of indeterminate tomatoes growers with extension staff has been examined. It has been determined that farmers have harmonized the suggestions of FEEU related to time of fertilization and application of fertilizer but not harmonized related to amount of fertilizer to be used. According to chi-square test, the relationship between educational level of farmers and the level of fertilizer use is not statistically significant. In addition, indeterminate tomatoes farmers have not had enough contact with extension staff. To use resources efficiently extension services should be directed to farmers more actively. Refs. 8 (author)

  20. A Review of Methodology for Evaluating the Performance of Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Models and Suggested Protocol for Providing More Informative Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Herring

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many models exist for predicting the atmospheric transport and dispersion of material following its release into the atmosphere. The purpose of these models may be to support air quality assessments and/or to predict the hazard resulting from releases of harmful materials to inform emergency response actions. In either case it is essential that the user understands the level of predictive accuracy that might be expected. However, contrary to expectation, this is not easily determined from published comparisons of model predictions against data from dispersion experiments. The paper presents and reviews the methods adopted and issues involved in comparing the predictive performance of atmospheric transport and dispersion models to experimental data, by reference to a number of experimental data sets and comparison results. It then presents an approach which is designed to make the performance of atmospheric dispersion models more transparent, through clearly defining the basis on which the comparison is made, and comparing the performance of the chosen model to that of a reference model. Such an approach establishes a clear baseline against which the accuracy of models can be evaluated and the performance benefits of more sophisticated approaches quantified. The use of a simple analytic reference model applicable to continuous ground level releases in open terrain and urban areas is shown as a proof-of-principle.

  1. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  2. Suggested Guidelines for Reporting Keratoprosthesis Results: Consensus Opinion of the Cornea Society, Asia Cornea Society, EuCornea, PanCornea, and the KPRO Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, Michael W; Güell, Jose L; Grabner, Günther

    2016-02-01

    To propose a series of standardized guidelines for reporting keratoprosthesis (KPRO) results. At the most recent KPRO Study Group Meeting (Barcelona, 2015), representatives of the 4 multinational corneal societies (Cornea Society, Asia Cornea Society, EuCornea, and PanCornea) and the KPRO Study Group agreed to propose consistent terminology for reporting KPRO results, especially in describing the length of follow-up and in the description of the KPRO itself. Consensus was reached for minimal reporting guidelines. The 4 multinational corneal societies and the KPRO Study Group agreed to standardized terminology for reporting the length of follow-up, preoperative diagnosis grouping, and data stratification based on the KPRO type used. Guidelines suggesting minimal reporting standards will assist in both data collection and reporting and will allow for better comparative analysis and pooling of the available data.

  3. How to keep up with the war for talent? : A comparative study between talent management in Company X and literature suggestions for identification of talent

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnlund, Josefin

    2009-01-01

    Datum: 2009-06-30 Författare: Rönnlund Josefin Nivå/utbildning: Master Thesis, Management Handledare: Owe R. Hedström Titel: How to keep with the War for talent? A comparative study between talent management in Company X and literature suggestions for identification of talent Problem: The need for talent management and a company's assets in form of Human Capital creates the demand of consultant firms and their services. The problem for companies today is to keep their up with the war for tal...

  4. Integrative modeling of eQTLs and cis-regulatory elements suggests mechanisms underlying cell type specificity of eQTLs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Brown

    Full Text Available Genetic variants in cis-regulatory elements or trans-acting regulators frequently influence the quantity and spatiotemporal distribution of gene transcription. Recent interest in expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL mapping has paralleled the adoption of genome-wide association studies (GWAS for the analysis of complex traits and disease in humans. Under the hypothesis that many GWAS associations tag non-coding SNPs with small effects, and that these SNPs exert phenotypic control by modifying gene expression, it has become common to interpret GWAS associations using eQTL data. To fully exploit the mechanistic interpretability of eQTL-GWAS comparisons, an improved understanding of the genetic architecture and causal mechanisms of cell type specificity of eQTLs is required. We address this need by performing an eQTL analysis in three parts: first we identified eQTLs from eleven studies on seven cell types; then we integrated eQTL data with cis-regulatory element (CRE data from the ENCODE project; finally we built a set of classifiers to predict the cell type specificity of eQTLs. The cell type specificity of eQTLs is associated with eQTL SNP overlap with hundreds of cell type specific CRE classes, including enhancer, promoter, and repressive chromatin marks, regions of open chromatin, and many classes of DNA binding proteins. These associations provide insight into the molecular mechanisms generating the cell type specificity of eQTLs and the mode of regulation of corresponding eQTLs. Using a random forest classifier with cell specific CRE-SNP overlap as features, we demonstrate the feasibility of predicting the cell type specificity of eQTLs. We then demonstrate that CREs from a trait-associated cell type can be used to annotate GWAS associations in the absence of eQTL data for that cell type. We anticipate that such integrative, predictive modeling of cell specificity will improve our ability to understand the mechanistic basis of human

  5. A Novel In Vitro CypD-Mediated p53 Aggregation Assay Suggests a Model for Mitochondrial Permeability Transition by Chaperone Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Ivan; Nemajerova, Alice; Foda, Zachariah H; Kornaj, Maja; Tong, Michael; Moll, Ute M; Seeliger, Markus A

    2016-10-09

    Tissue necrosis as a consequence of ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxidative damage is a leading cause of permanent disability and death worldwide. The complete mechanism by which cells undergo necrosis upon oxidative stress is not understood. In response to an oxidative insult, wild-type p53 has been implicated as a central regulatory component of the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT), triggering necrosis. This process is associated with cellular stabilization and translocation of p53 into the mitochondrial matrix. Here, we probe the mechanism by which p53 activates the key mPT regulator cyclophilin D (CypD). We explore the involvement of Trap1, an Hsp90-related mitochondrial matrix protein and a member of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, and its ability to suppress mPT in a p53-dependent manner. Our study finds that catalytically active CypD causes strong aggregation of wild-type p53 protein (both full-length and isolated DNA-binding domain) into amyloid-type fibrils in vitro. The responsible CypD residues for this activity were mapped by NMR to the active site amino acids R55, F60, F113, and W121. The data also present a new proline isomerization assay for CypD by monitoring the aggregation of p53 as an indicator of CypD activity. Moreover, we find that the inhibition of Trap1 by the mitochondria-specific HSP90 ATPase antagonist Gamitrinib strongly sensitizes primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts to mPT and permeability transition pore opening in a p53- and CypD-dependent manner. We propose a mechanism by which the influx of unfolded p53 into the mitochondrial matrix in response to oxidative stress indirectly activates the normally inhibited CypD by displacing it from Trap1 complexes. This activates CypD's isomerase activity. Liberated CypD then isomerizes multiple proteins including p53 (causing p53 aggregation) and the structural components of the mPTP pore, inducing pore opening. This working model can now be tested in the future

  6. Statistical Modeling Suggests that Antiandrogens in Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works Contribute to Widespread Sexual Disruption in Fish Living in English Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, Susan; Burn, Robert. W.; Thorpe, Karen; Williams, Richard; Tyler, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Background The widespread occurrence of feminized male fish downstream of some wastewater treatment works has led to substantial interest from ecologists and public health professionals. This concern stems from the view that the effects observed have a parallel in humans, and that both phenomena are caused by exposure to mixtures of contaminants that interfere with reproductive development. The evidence for a “wildlife–human connection” is, however, weak: Testicular dysgenesis syndrome, seen in human males, is most easily reproduced in rodent models by exposure to mixtures of antiandrogenic chemicals. In contrast, the accepted explanation for feminization of wild male fish is that it results mainly from exposure to steroidal estrogens originating primarily from human excretion. Objectives We sought to further explore the hypothesis that endocrine disruption in fish is multicausal, resulting from exposure to mixtures of chemicals with both estrogenic and antiandrogenic properties. Methods We used hierarchical generalized linear and generalized additive statistical modeling to explore the associations between modeled concentrations and activities of estrogenic and antiandrogenic chemicals in 30 U.K. rivers and feminized responses seen in wild fish living in these rivers. Results In addition to the estrogenic substances, antiandrogenic activity was prevalent in almost all treated sewage effluents tested. Further, the results of the modeling demonstrated that feminizing effects in wild fish could be best modeled as a function of their predicted exposure to both antiandrogens and estrogens or to antiandrogens alone. Conclusion The results provide a strong argument for a multicausal etiology of widespread feminization of wild fish in U.K. rivers involving contributions from both steroidal estrogens and xenoestrogens and from other (as yet unknown) contaminants with antiandrogenic properties. These results may add further credence to the hypothesis that endocrine

  7. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tanya B; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K

    2015-11-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study's qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants' narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention.

  8. Study on workloads of human care worker with the introduction of IT system - the characteristics of work loads by observational research and the suggestions for KAIZEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Matsuda, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Motegi, Nobuyuki; Ikegami, Thor; Sakai, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristic of workloads on human care worker with the introduction of IT system, and suggested the support measures for KAIZEN in Japan. The investigation method is workflow line and hearing with a focus on work observation. The objects were 8 human care workers of the acute hospital that introduced an electronic system. By the introduction of the electronic chart, the nurse station sojourn time decreased, sickroom sojourn time increased, and time about direct nursing care to a patient increased. In addition, access to patient information became easy, and the offer of the health care service based on correct information came to be possible in real time. By The point of workflow line, it was effect that moving lengths decreased in order to install the electronic chart in patients' rooms. Though, it was a problem that it hasn't formed where to place the instruments such as sphygmomanometer, clinical thermometer and others.

  9. Skin care products can aggravate epidermal function: studies in a murine model suggest a pathogenic role in sensitive skin

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Z; Hu, L; Elias, PM; Man, M-Q

    2018-01-01

    Sensitive skin is defined as a spectrum of unpleasant sensations in response to a variety of stimuli. However, only some skin care products provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. Hence, it would be useful to identify products that could provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin.To assess whether vehicles, as well as certain branded skin care products, can alter epidermal function following topical applications to normal mouse skin.Following topical ...

  10. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  11. A genome-wide association study for equine recurrent airway obstruction in European Warmblood horses reveals a suggestive new quantitative trait locus on chromosome 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnider, D; Rieder, S; Leeb, T; Gerber, V; Neuditschko, M

    2017-12-01

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), also known as heaves, is an asthma-like respiratory disease. Its development is strongly influenced by environmental risk factors such as sensitization and exposure to moldy hay, straw bedding and stabling indoors. A hereditary component has been documented in previous studies; however, so far no causative genetic variant that influences the risk of developing RAO has been identified. In this study, we revised an existing dataset and selected 384 horses for genotyping on the Affymetrix high-density equine SNP array. We performed an allelic case-control genome-wide association study, which revealed a suggestively significant association on equine chromosome 13 at 32 843 309 bp. This SNP is located in the protein-coding gene TXNDC11, which is possibly involved in the folding process of the multiprotein complexes DUOX1 and DUOX2. In humans, these proteins are known to take part in regulating the production of H 2 O 2 in the respiratory tract epithelium as well as in MUC5AC mucin expression. Therefore, TXNDC11 may be considered a functional candidate gene, and further research is needed to explore its potential role in RAO-affected horses. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. Cryo-EM structure of Mcm2-7 double hexamer on DNA suggests a lagging-strand DNA extrusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Yasunori; Yuan, Zuanning; Bai, Lin; Schneider, Sarah; Zhao, Gongpu; Li, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    During replication initiation, the core component of the helicase—the Mcm2-7 hexamer—is loaded on origin DNA as a double hexamer (DH). The two ring-shaped hexamers are staggered, leading to a kinked axial channel. How the origin DNA interacts with the axial channel is not understood, but the interaction could provide key insights into Mcm2-7 function and regulation. Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of the Mcm2-7 DH on dsDNA and show that the DNA is zigzagged inside the central channel. Several of the Mcm subunit DNA-binding loops, such as the oligosaccharide–oligonucleotide loops, helix 2 insertion loops, and presensor 1 (PS1) loops, are well defined, and many of them interact extensively with the DNA. The PS1 loops of Mcm 3, 4, 6, and 7, but not 2 and 5, engage the lagging strand with an approximate step size of one base per subunit. Staggered coupling of the two opposing hexamers positions the DNA right in front of the two Mcm2–Mcm5 gates, with each strand being pressed against one gate. The architecture suggests that lagging-strand extrusion initiates in the middle of the DH that is composed of the zinc finger domains of both hexamers. To convert the Mcm2-7 DH structure into the Mcm2-7 hexamer structure found in the active helicase, the N-tier ring of the Mcm2-7 hexamer in the DH-dsDNA needs to tilt and shift laterally. We suggest that these N-tier ring movements cause the DNA strand separation and lagging-strand extrusion. PMID:29078375

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation studies suggests unconventional roles of non-secretary laccases from enteropathogenic gut bacteria and Cryptococcus neoformans serotype D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant; Singh, Deepti; Rawat, Surender

    2018-02-03

    Laccase in Cryptococcus neoformans is covalently linked to the carbohydrate moiety of the cell wall, which allows it to get access to the different substrates for catalyzing their oxidation and therefore plays a vital role in the virulence. The laccase gene (3.0 kb) from C. neoformans serotype D was amplified, cloned and sequenced for protein modeling, docking and simulation studies. The three dimensional homology models of laccase protein from C. neoformans and other pathogenic gut bacteria were docked with selected biomolecules like prostaglandins (PG), membrane phospholipids, neurotransmitters (serotonin) using GOLD software. The GOLDscore values of laccase from C. neoformans docked with prostaglandinH 2 (59.76), prostaglandinG 2 (59.45), prostaglandinE 2 (60.99), phosphatidylinositol (54.95), phosphatidylcholine (46.26), phosphatidylserine (55.26), arachidonic acid (53.08) and serotonin (46.22) were similar to the laccase from enteropathogenic bacteria but showed a better binding affinity as compared to that of the non-pathogenic bacteria (e.g. Bacillus safensis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis). The RMSD of MD simulation study done for 25 ns using laccase protein from C. neoformans complexed with phosphatidylcholine was found to be highly stable, followed by the laccase-PGE 2 and laccase-serotonin complexes. Furthermore, the binding free energy results were found to support the docking and MD simulation results. The present study implies that few candidate ligands can be intermediate substrate in the catalysis of microbial laccases, which can further play some crucial role in the cell signaling and pathogenesis of enteropathogenic gut micro flora and C. neoformans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypnotic suggestion and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W

    2009-06-01

    The growing acceptance of consciousness as a legitimate field of enquiry and the availability of functional imaging has rekindled research interest in the use of hypnosis and suggestion to manipulate subjective experience and to gain insights into healthy and pathological cognitive functioning. Current research forms two strands. The first comprises studies exploring the cognitive and neural nature of hypnosis itself. The second employs hypnosis to explore known psychological processes using specifically targeted suggestions. An extension of this second approach involves using hypnotic suggestion to create clinically informed analogues of established structural and functional neuropsychological disorders. With functional imaging, this type of experimental neuropsychopathology offers a productive means of investigating brain activity involved in many symptom-based disorders and their related phenomenology.

  15. A New Perspective on Sustainable Soil Remediation—Case Study Suggests Novel Fungal Genera Could Facilitate in situ Biodegradation of Hazardous Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicki, L.M.; Cooper, E.; Ferguson, P.L.; Stapleton, H.M.; Vilgalys, R.; Gunsch, C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Deciding upon a cost effective and sustainable method to address soil pollution is a challenge for many remedial project managers. High pressure to quickly achieve cleanup goals pushes for energy-intensive remedies that rapidly address the contaminants of concern with established technologies, often leaving little room for research and development especially for slower treatment technologies, such as bioremediation, for the more heavily polluted sites. In the present case study, new genomic approaches have been leveraged to assess fungal biostimulation potential in soils polluted with particularly persistent hydrophobic contaminants. This new approach provides insights into the genetic functions available at a given site in a way never before possible. In particular, this article presents a case study where next generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to categorize fungi in soils from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund site in Portsmouth, Virginia. Data suggest that original attempts to harness fungi for bioremediation may have focused on fungal genera poorly suited to survive under heavily polluted site conditions, and that more targeted approaches relying on native indigenous fungi which are better equipped to survive under site specific conditions may be more appropriate. PMID:27917031

  16. Complete mtDNA sequences of two millipedes suggest a new model for mitochondrial gene rearrangements: Duplication and non-random loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Brown, Wesley M.

    2001-11-08

    We determined the complete mtDNA sequences of the millipedes Narceus annularus and Thyropygus sp. (Arthropoda: Diplopoda) and identified in both genomes all 37 genes typical for metazoan mtDNA. The arrangement of these genes is identical in the two millipedes, but differs from that inferred to be ancestral for arthropods by the location of four genes/gene clusters. This novel gene arrangement is unusual for animal mtDNA, in that genes with opposite transcriptional polarities are clustered in the genome and the two clusters are separated by two non-coding regions. The only exception to this pattern is the gene for cysteine tRNA, which is located in the part of the genome that otherwise contains all genes with the opposite transcriptional polarity. We suggest that a mechanism involving complete mtDNA duplication followed by the loss of genes, predetermined by their transcriptional polarity and location in the genome, could generate this gene arrangement from the one ancestral for arthropods. The proposed mechanism has important implications for phylogenetic inferences that are drawn on the basis of gene arrangement comparisons.

  17. Modeling of arylamide helix mimetics in the p53 peptide binding site of hDM2 suggests parallel and anti-parallel conformations are both stable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Fuller

    Full Text Available The design of novel α-helix mimetic inhibitors of protein-protein interactions is of interest to pharmaceuticals and chemical genetics researchers as these inhibitors provide a chemical scaffold presenting side chains in the same geometry as an α-helix. This conformational arrangement allows the design of high affinity inhibitors mimicking known peptide sequences binding specific protein substrates. We show that GAFF and AutoDock potentials do not properly capture the conformational preferences of α-helix mimetics based on arylamide oligomers and identify alternate parameters matching solution NMR data and suitable for molecular dynamics simulation of arylamide compounds. Results from both docking and molecular dynamics simulations are consistent with the arylamides binding in the p53 peptide binding pocket. Simulations of arylamides in the p53 binding pocket of hDM2 are consistent with binding, exhibiting similar structural dynamics in the pocket as simulations of known hDM2 binders Nutlin-2 and a benzodiazepinedione compound. Arylamide conformations converge towards the same region of the binding pocket on the 20 ns time scale, and most, though not all dihedrals in the binding pocket are well sampled on this timescale. We show that there are two putative classes of binding modes for arylamide compounds supported equally by the modeling evidence. In the first, the arylamide compound lies parallel to the observed p53 helix. In the second class, not previously identified or proposed, the arylamide compound lies anti-parallel to the p53 helix.

  18. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs: a literature review suggests that it is time to shift the focus from 'financial incentives' to 'reciprocity'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida

    2013-04-01

    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly higher one for deceased donation (DD); and a general preference for alternative forms, such as removal of disincentives or expressions of social reciprocity. Across different national and methodological settings we observed a considerable preference of noncommercial forms. This does not preclude the opportunity to consider various types of acknowledgement of economic value given in return for the organ. This provides reason to shift the focus from incentives to reciprocity. © 2013 The Authors Transplant International © 2013 European Society for Organ Transplantation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Clinical and neurophysiological study of peroneal nerve mononeuropathy after substantial weight loss in patients suffering from major depressive and schizophrenic disorder: Suggestions on patients' management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koulouris George C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroneal nerve is susceptible to injuries due to its anatomical course. Excessive weight loss, which reduces the fatty cushion protecting the nerve, is considered a common underlying cause of peroneal palsy. Other predisposing factors, such as prolonged postures, traumas of the region or concomitant pathologies (for example diabetes mellitus contribute to the nerve damage. This study aims to reveal the multiple predisposing factors of peroneal nerve mononeuropathy after substantial weight loss that coexist in psychiatric patients and to make suggestions on their management. Methods Nine psychiatric inpatients, major depressive or schizophrenic, with foot drop underwent a complete clinical neurological and neurophysiological examination. All had excessive weight loss, which was completed in a short period of time and had not resulted from a well-balanced low-calorie diet, but was due to their psychiatric illness. Data regarding predisposing factors to peroneal nerve mononeuropathy were gathered, such as habitual leg crossing, squatting or other prolonged postures. Results The clinical examination and the neurophysiological evaluation in all patients were indicative of a focal lesion of the peroneal nerve at the fibular head. Conclusion Patients with major depressive and schizophrenic disorders gather multiple predisposing factors to peroneal palsy, adequate to classify them at a high risk group. The better focus of the attendant medical and nursing staff on this condition, the early clinical and neurophysiologic evaluation and surgical interventions may enable an improved management and prognosis of these patients.

  20. Empirically based Suggested Insights into the Concept of False-Self Defense: Contributions From a Study on Normalization of Children With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichengreen, Adva; Hoofien, Dan; Bachar, Eytan

    2016-02-01

    The concept of the false self has been used widely in psychoanalytic theory and practice but seldom in empirical research. In this empirically based study, elevated features of false-self defense were hypothetically associated with risk factors attendant on processes of rehabilitation and integration of children with disabilities, processes that encourage adaptation of the child to the able-bodied environment. Self-report questionnaires and in-depth interviews were conducted with 88 deaf and hard-of-hearing students and a comparison group of 88 hearing counterparts. Results demonstrate that despite the important contribution of rehabilitation and integration to the well-being of these children, these efforts may put the child at risk of increased use of the false-self defense. The empirical findings suggest two general theoretical conclusions: (1) The Winnicottian concept of the environment, usually confined to the parent-child relationship, can be understood more broadly as including cultural, social, and rehabilitational variables that both influence the parent-child relationship and operate independently of it. (2) The monolithic conceptualization of the false self may be more accurately unpacked to reveal two distinct subtypes: the compliant and the split false self. © 2016 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  1. Suggestion of optimal radiation fields in rectal cancer patients after surgical resection for the development of the patterns of care study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hoon; Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Dae Yong [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2003-06-01

    To suggest the optimal radiation fields after a surgical resection based on a nationwide survey on the principles of radiotherapy for rectal cancer in the Korean Patterns of Care Study. A consensus committee, composed of radiation oncologists from 18 hospitals in Seoul Metropolitan area, developed a survey format to analyze radiation oncologist's treatment principles for rectal cancer after a surgical resection. The survey format included 19 questions on the principles of defining field margins, and was sent to the radiation oncologists in charge of gastrointestinal malignancies in all Korean hospitals (48 hospitals). Thirty three (69%) oncologists replied. On the basis of the replies and literature review, the committee developed guidelines for the optimal radiation fields for rectal cancer. The following guidelines were developed: superior border between the lower tip of the L5 vertebral body and upper sacroiliac joint; inferior border 2-3 cm distal to the anastomosis in patient whose sphincter was saved, and 2-3 cm distal to the perineal scar in patients whose anal sphincter was sacrificed; anterior margin at the posterior tip of the symphysis pubis or 2-3 cm anterior to the vertebral body, to include the internal iliac lymph node and posterior margin 1.5-2 cm posterior to the anterior surface of the sacrum, to include the presacral space with enough margin. Comparison with the guidelines, the replies on the superior margin coincided in 23 cases (70%), the inferior margin after sphincter saving surgery in 13 (39%), the inferior margin after abdominoperineal resection in 32 (97%), the lateral margin in 32 (97%), the posterior margins in 32 (97%) and the anterior margin in 16 (45%). These recommendations should be tailored to each patient according to the clinical characteristics such as tumor location, pathological and operative findings, for the optimal treatment. The adequacy of these guidelines should be proved by following the Korean Patterns of Care

  2. Human leptospirosis in Seychelles: A prospective study confirms the heavy burden of the disease but suggests that rats are not the main reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Biscornet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira for which rats are considered as the main reservoir. Disease incidence is higher in tropical countries, especially in insular ecosystems. Our objectives were to determine the current burden of leptospirosis in Seychelles, a country ranking first worldwide according to historical data, to establish epidemiological links between animal reservoirs and human disease, and to identify drivers of transmission.A total of 223 patients with acute febrile symptoms of unknown origin were enrolled in a 12-months prospective study and tested for leptospirosis through real-time PCR, IgM ELISA and MAT. In addition, 739 rats trapped throughout the main island were investigated for Leptospira renal carriage. All molecularly confirmed positive samples were further genotyped.A total of 51 patients fulfilled the biological criteria of acute leptospirosis, corresponding to an annual incidence of 54.6 (95% CI 40.7-71.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. Leptospira carriage in Rattus spp. was overall low (7.7% but dramatically higher in Rattus norvegicus (52.9% than in Rattus rattus (4.4%. Leptospira interrogans was the only detected species in both humans and rats, and was represented by three distinct Sequence Types (STs. Two were novel STs identified in two thirds of acute human cases while noteworthily absent from rats.This study shows that human leptospirosis still represents a heavy disease burden in Seychelles. Genotype data suggests that rats are actually not the main reservoir for human disease. We highlight a rather limited efficacy of preventive measures so far implemented in Seychelles. This could result from ineffective control measures of excreting animal populations, possibly due to a misidentification of the main contaminating reservoir(s. Altogether, presented data stimulate the exploration of alternative reservoir animal hosts.

  3. Clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis: methodological suggestions for assessing radiographs arising from the GRISAR Study. Gruppo Reumatologi Italiani Studio Artrite Reumatoide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, R; Priolo, F; Cammisa, M; Bacarini, L; Cerase, A; Pasero, G; Ferraccioli, G F; Alberighi, O D; Antonellini, A; Marubini, E

    1997-10-01

    The three x ray assessors of the GRISAR study (blinded to treatment) gave consensual erosion and damage scores to the baseline and 12 month radiographs of 284 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using three different methods: single readings (blinded as to patient and chronological sequence of the x rays), paired readings (blinded as to sequence), and chronologically ordered paired readings. The aim was to evaluate which of these reading procedures is the most appropriate for clinical trials. The progression of the scores obtained using each procedure was compared by means of descriptive statistics, principal components analysis, and intra-patient correlation coefficients of pairs of methods. Bootstrap estimates of the variance of the difference in the means of two equally sized random samples were calculated to evaluate the power of the statistical analysis performed to assess the possible treatment effect for both paired and chronological reading methods. (a) The standard deviations of the paired and chronological readings were similar, but that of the single readings was higher. (b) The knowledge that two x rays were of the same patient accounted for a sizeable proportion of the between method variability. (c) Agreement was satisfactory between the paired and chronological methods for both scores but, between them and the single readings, it was modest for erosions and poor for damage. (d) The bootstrap estimate of the variance of the difference was smaller for the paired than the chronological method, possibly giving it greater power to test treatment effect. These results suggested that paired readings were the most suitable for evaluating the progression of joint damage in the GRISAR study.

  4. Global food insecurity. treatment of major food crops with elevated carbon dioxide or ozone under large-scale fully open-air conditions suggests recent models may have overestimated future yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Stephen P; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Leakey, Andrew D B; Morgan, Patrick B

    2005-11-29

    Predictions of yield for the globe's major grain and legume arable crops suggest that, with a moderate temperature increase, production may increase in the temperate zone, but decline in the tropics. In total, global food supply may show little change. This security comes from inclusion of the direct effect of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, [CO2], which significantly stimulates yield by decreasing photorespiration in C3 crops and transpiration in all crops. Evidence for a large response to [CO2] is largely based on studies made within chambers at small scales, which would be considered unacceptable for standard agronomic trials of new cultivars or agrochemicals. Yet, predictions of the globe's future food security are based on such inadequate information. Free-Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE) technology now allows investigation of the effects of rising [CO2] and ozone on field crops under fully open-air conditions at an agronomic scale. Experiments with rice, wheat, maize and soybean show smaller increases in yield than anticipated from studies in chambers. Experiments with increased ozone show large yield losses (20%), which are not accounted for in projections of global food security. These findings suggest that current projections of global food security are overoptimistic. The fertilization effect of CO2 is less than that used in many models, while rising ozone will cause large yield losses in the Northern Hemisphere. Unfortunately, FACE studies have been limited in geographical extent and interactive effects of CO2, ozone and temperature have yet to be studied. Without more extensive study of the effects of these changes at an agronomic scale in the open air, our ever-more sophisticated models will continue to have feet of clay.

  5. Genome-wide linkage study suggests a susceptibility locus for isolated bilateral microtia on 4p15.32-4p16.2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    Full Text Available Microtia is a congenital deformity where the external ear is underdeveloped. Genetic investigations have identified many susceptibility genes of microtia-related syndromes. However, no causal genes were reported for isolated microtia, the main form of microtia. We conducted a genome-wide linkage analysis on a 5-generation Chinese pedigree with isolated bilateral microtia. We identified a suggestive linkage locus on 4p15.32-4p16.2 with parametric LOD score of 2.70 and nonparametric linkage score (Zmean of 12.28 (simulated occurrence per genome scan equal to 0.46 and 0.47, respectively. Haplotype reconstruction analysis of the 4p15.32-4p16.2 region further confined the linkage signal to a 10-Mb segment located between rs12505562 and rs12649803 (9.65-30.24 cM; 5.54-15.58 Mb. Various human organ developmental genes reside in this 10-Mb susceptibility region, such as EVC, EVC2, SLC2A9, NKX3-2, and HMX1. The coding regions of three genes, EVC known for cartilage development and NKX3-2, HMX1 involved in microtia, were selected for sequencing with 5 individuals from the pedigree. Of the 38 identified sequence variants, none segregates along with the disease phenotype. Other genes or DNA sequences of the 10-Mb region warrant for further investigation. In conclusion, we report a susceptibility locus of isolated microtia, and this finding will encourage future studies on the genetic basis of ear deformity.

  6. Comprehensive Immunolocalization Studies of a Putative Serotonin Receptor from the Alimentary Canal of Aedes aegypti Larvae Suggest Its Diverse Roles in Digestion and Homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Petrova

    Full Text Available Serotonin regulates key processes including digestion and homeostasis in insects. Serotonin effects are mediated by serotonin receptors that transduce information through initiation of second messenger signaling pathways. Lack of information on serotonin receptors associated with the alimentary canal impedes the understanding of the serotonergic role in insect physiology. To address this void, the present study has cloned and identified a putative serotonin receptor (hereafter AaSeR-1 from the alimentary canal of Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito larvae. In addition to in-silico analyses of AaSeR-1 primary sequence, immunohistochemical investigations were carried out to elucidate receptor expression patterns. Specific AaSeR-1 immunofluorescence was detected in the caeca, the mid- and hindgut, including the Malpighian tubules. These findings point out not only receptor ubiquitous nature but also its involvement in regulation of different stages of nutrient processing and homeostasis. Furthermore, AaSeR-1 may mediate an array of effects through its differential expression at various cell compartments. While AaSeR-1 specific immunofluorescence was depicted in the nucleus and nucleolus of principal cells of the anterior midgut, in the posterior, analyses suggest receptor association with the plasma membrane of both principal and regenerative cells. In addition, AaSeR-1 immunofluorescence was also found in some enteroendocrine cells and in both circular and longitudinal muscles that innervate the alimentary canal. Overall, immunohistochemical analyses of AaSeR-1 expression indicate that this receptor exercises multiple roles in digestion- and homeostasis-related mechanisms.

  7. A population-based cohort study suggests an increased risk of multiple sclerosis incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsuan Hou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To prospectively investigate the incidence and relative risks of multiple sclerosis (MS in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Materials and methods: Patients with T2DM (n = 614,623 and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 614,021 were followed from 2000 to 2008 to identify cases of newly diagnosed MS (ICD-9-CM: 340. The person-year approach with Poisson assumption was used to evaluate the incidence density. We estimated the covariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR of MS incidence in relation to T2DM diabetes using a multiple Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: Over 9 years of follow-up, 175 T2DM patients were newly diagnosed with MS, and 114 matched controls had the same first-ever diagnosis, representing a covariate-adjusted HR of 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08–1.94. The sex-specific adjusted HR for both men and women with T2DM was also elevated at 1.34 (95% CI, 0.81–2.23 and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.05–2.19, respectively. Women aged ≤50 years had the greatest risk of MS (HR 2.16; 95% CI, 1.02–4.59. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a moderate but significant association of T2DM with MS incidence, and the association was not confounded by socio-demographic characteristics or certain MS-related comorbidities.

  8. Campus network security model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-ku; Song, Li-ren

    2011-12-01

    Campus network security is growing importance, Design a very effective defense hacker attacks, viruses, data theft, and internal defense system, is the focus of the study in this paper. This paper compared the firewall; IDS based on the integrated, then design of a campus network security model, and detail the specific implementation principle.

  9. Urban Studies: A Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Terry L.; Sundeen, Richard

    1979-01-01

    The urban studies learning model described in this article was found to increase students' self-esteem, imbue a more flexible and open perspective, contribute to the capacity for self-direction, produce increases on the feeling reactivity, spontaneity, and acceptance of aggression scales, and expand interpersonal competence. (Author/WI)

  10. The Influence of Coping-oriented Hypnotic Suggestions on Chronic Pain in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): A Randomized Controlled Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lone; Kjøgx, Heidi; Kasch, Helge

    Background and aims: Coping-oriented hypnotic suggestions aimed at reducing pain catastrophizing have been shown to reduce pain in people with chronic tension-type headache and experimental pain in healthy volunteers during hypnosis (Kjøgx et al., 2016). However, the effect on pain post-hypnosis...... is unknown. The aim is to investigate the effect of coping-oriented hypnotic suggestions on chronic pain post-hypnosis. Methods: Seventy-five SCI-patients with chronic pain (>3, NRS 0-10) are randomized into one of three conditions; 1) coping-oriented hypnosis plus current treatment, 2) neutral hypnosis plus...... Strategies Questionnaire), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Patients’ global impression of change and side effects of the hypnosis are also assessed for 14 days post-intervention. Results: Preliminary results will be presented...

  11. Reduction of pollutants in painting operation and suggestion of an optimal technique for extracting titanium dioxide from paint sludge in car manufacturing industries--case study (SAIPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezri, Seyed Mostafa; Shariat, Seyed Mahmood; Tabibian, Sahar

    2012-06-01

    Paint sludge of car manufacturing industries are not disposed in landfills, since they contain hazardous materials with a high concentration of chromium, aluminum, titanium, barium, copper, Iron, magnesium, strontium, and so on. Thus, it is essential to find solutions in order to neutralize them or suggest cost-effective techniques, which are also environmentally acceptable. Because, this sludge contains considerable amounts of Ti pigments and unbaked resins, recycling these pigments--which could be used in a variety of industries such as paint factories--is an appropriate subject for further research. In this article, with the aim of identification of main pollutants in order to eliminate them and suggest a cost-effective solution to recover the sludge, a large number of tests including X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X ray diffraction spectroscopy, and diffusion thermal analysis are conducted to determine types and concentration of elements, and combinations of paint sludge in car manufacturing industries. As titanium dioxide (TiO₂) is widely used as the main pigment of automobile paints, an optimal technique is suggested for extracting TiO₂ with high purity percentage through adopting scientific methods such as membrane and electrolysis.

  12. Kuala Kemaman hydraulic model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2005-01-01

    There The problems facing the area of Kuala Kemaman are siltation and erosion at shoreline. The objectives of study are to assess the best alignment of the groyne alignment, to ascertain the most stable shoreline regime and to investigate structural measures to overcome the erosion. The scope of study are data collection, wave analysis, hydrodynamic simulation and sediment transport simulation. Numerical models MIKE 21 are used - MIKE 21 NSW, for wind-wave model, which describes the growth, decay and transformation of wind-generated waves and swell in nearshore areas. The study takes into account effects of refraction and shoaling due to varying depth, energy dissipation due to bottom friction and wave breaking, MIKE 21 HD - modelling system for 2D free-surface flow which to stimulate the hydraulics phenomena in estuaries, coastal areas and seas. Predicted tidal elevation and waves (radiation stresses) are considered into study while wind is not considered. MIKE 21 ST - the system that calculates the rates of non-cohesive (sand) sediment transport for both pure content and combined waves and current situation

  13. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin‐converting enzyme expression: crosstalk between cellular and endocrine metabolic regulators suggested by RNA interference and genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen‐Bjergaard, Ulrik; Brull, David J.; Gohlke, Peter; Payne, John R.; World, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Humphries, Steve E.; Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin–angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole‐body metabolism and mitochondrial function (partly through altering mitochondrial UCP expression). We show that ACE expression also appears to be regulated by mitochondrial UCPs. In genetic analysis of two unrelated populations (healthy young UK men and Scandinavian diabetic patients) serum ACE (sACE) activity was significantly higher amongst UCP3‐55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P < 0·01) whilst increasing ACE expression within a physiological range (<1·8‐fold at 48 h; P < 0·01). Our findings suggest novel hypotheses. Firstly, cellular feedback regulation may occur between UCPs and ACE. Secondly, cellular UCP regulation of sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome with RAS antagonists and offer insight into the origins of cardiovascular disease in which UCPs and ACE both play a role. PMID:27347560

  15. Syllabus Development Studies in Turkey and in the World for Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language - Some Suggestion for Teaching Arabic in Primary Schools in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZCAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Arabic in Turkey and in the world is rising in the last years because of some developments in Middle East. Beside this, Arabic is the language o f Holy Quran and hadiths. As it is known the non - Arab, Muslims need to learn this language in order to understand their religion. After all, of these needs, some countries opened some courses for teaching Arabic. In addition , people started to write some new materials for teaching Arabic in these courses as a foreign language. In Turkey, there are Arabic lessons in intermediate, middle and high school periods. The Education Ministry is publishing syllabus for these lessons. A s Turkey, some countries are teaching Arabic as a foreign language in their schools. In this paper, we tried to analyze the similarities and differences between the syllabuses of these countries and Turkey for teaching Arabic as a foreign language. At the end of the analyze we suggested some suggestions for teaching Arabic in primary schools in Turkey.

  16. Occupancy models to study wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Larissa; Adams, Michael John

    2005-01-01

    Many wildlife studies seek to understand changes or differences in the proportion of sites occupied by a species of interest. These studies are hampered by imperfect detection of these species, which can result in some sites appearing to be unoccupied that are actually occupied. Occupancy models solve this problem and produce unbiased estimates of occupancy and related parameters. Required data (detection/non-detection information) are relatively simple and inexpensive to collect. Software is available free of charge to aid investigators in occupancy estimation.

  17. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies suggest that the effects of thapsigargin on human platelets are mediated by changes in intracellular calcium but not by intracellular histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, S P; McNicol, A; Becker, A B

    1992-01-01

    was observed at 1 microM Tg. Preincubation of platelets with inhibitors of histamine metabolizing enzymes had little effect on intracellular histamine levels in platelets stimulated by 0.5 microM Tg. In addition, the inhibitors of histidine decarboxylase (HDC), alpha-methyl histidine (alpha-MH) and alpha......-fluoromethyl histidine (alpha-FMH) failed to inhibit Tg-induced aggregation. The intracellular histamine receptor antagonist, N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy] ethanamine. HCl (DPPE), inhibited Tg-induced aggregation but with IC50 values dependent on the concentration of agonist used. The inhibitory effects...... of DPPE on Tg-induced aggregation were not reversed by the addition of histamine to saponin-permeabilized platelets suggesting non-histamine mediated effects of DPPE on Tg-induced aggregation. Tg stimulated an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration which was unaffected by DPPE indicating...

  18. Environmental issues during excavation of underground developed galleries by opencast method operating under the constraint of fire - suggestions with case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.V.K.; Ghosh, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    There are several factors responsible for polluting the environment of which mine files is one. Fire in mines also causes direct loss of equipment, damage to surface structure and loss of a country's precious coal reserves. In addition, it affects normal production, releases noxious gases, heat, smoke and dust and poses a serious health hazard. At present many underground mines are being converted into opencast to augment production. But several fires in such mines are causing pollution and becoming a hindrance to production. In this paper the case Ghugus opencast project in Wardha coalfield is discussed. This paper assesses the environmental impacts of fires in opencast workings of developed pillars and suggests measures for controlling and combating the intensity of the existing fires with a view to extract coal within a reasonable period of time so as to minimize environmental problems. 4 refs

  19. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tanya B.; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J.; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study’s qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants’ narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention. PMID:26554330

  20. Three-dimensional models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins Rv1555, Rv1554 and their docking analyses with sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil drugs, suggest interference with quinol binding likely to affect protein's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Pallabini; Bala Divya, M; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Guruprasad, Kunchur

    2018-04-18

    Earlier based on bioinformatics analyses, we had predicted the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) proteins; Rv1555 and Rv1554, among the potential new tuberculosis drug targets. According to the 'TB-drugome' the Rv1555 protein is 'druggable' with sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra) drugs. In the present work, we intended to understand via computer modeling studies, how the above drugs are likely to inhibit the M.tb protein's function. The three-dimensional computer models for M.tb proteins; Rv1555 and Rv1554 constructed on the template of equivalent membrane anchor subunits of the homologous E.coli quinol fumarate reductase respiratory protein complex, followed by drug docking analyses, suggested that the binding of above drugs interferes with quinol binding sites. Also, we experimentally observed the in-vitro growth inhibition of E.coli bacteria containing the homologous M.tb protein sequences with sildenafil and tadalafil drugs. The predicted binding sites of the drugs is likely to affect the above M.tb proteins function as quinol binding is known to be essential for electron transfer function during anaerobic respiration in the homologous E.coli protein complex. Therefore, sildenafil and related drugs currently used in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction targeting the human phosphodiesterase 5 enzyme may be evaluated for their plausible role as repurposed drugs to treat human tuberculosis.

  1. Rodent models for studying empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Sehoon; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2016-11-01

    Empathy is the important capacity to recognize and share emotions with others. Recent evidence shows that rodents possess a remarkable affective sensitivity to the emotional state of others and that primitive forms of empathy exist in social lives of rodents. However, due to the ambiguous definitional boundaries between empathy, emotional contagion and other related terms, distinct components of empathic behaviors in rodents need to be clarified. Hence, we review recent experimental studies demonstrating that rodents are able to share emotions with others. Specifically, we highlight several behavioral models that examine different aspects of rodent empathic behaviors in response to the various distress of conspecifics. Experimental approaches using rodent behavioral models will help elucidate the neural circuitry of empathy and its neurochemical association. Integrating these findings with corresponding experiments in humans will ultimately provide novel insights into therapeutic interventions for mental disorders associated with empathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J; Schlarb, Angelika A; Rasch, Björn

    2014-06-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" extends the amount of SWS. Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to "sleep deeper" subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations.

  3. Study of secondhand smoke exposure in St. Louis City and County suggests need for comprehensive smoke-free Missouri law adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Cyr, Julianne; Benson, Peter; Colditz, Graham; Pulley, Deren; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study provides information about secondhand smoke exposure across the St. Louis metro area and perceptions and attitudes about tobacco and health within the local hospitality industry. Results from this study support the need for passage and implementation of comprehensive smoke-free laws throughout Missouri, particularly in St. Louis City and County where efforts to pass comprehensive smoke-free laws have been unsuccessful.

  4. An exploratory intervention study suggests clinical benefits of training in chronic stroke to be paralleled by changes in brain activity using repeated fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsmann, Barbara; Pinter, Daniela; Pirker, Eva; Pichler, Gerald; Schippinger, Walter; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Mathie, Gabriel; Gattringer, Thomas; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated changes in sensorimotor network activation over time after stroke that have been interpreted as partly compensatory. Locomotor and balance trainings may improve both mobility and cognition even in chronic stroke and thereby impact on cerebral activation patterns. We here aimed at testing these assumptions in an exploratory study to inform subsequent larger intervention studies. Eight patients (73.3±4.4 years) with a chronic lacunar stroke (mean interval 3.7 years after the acute event with a range from 2 to 4 years) and residual leg paresis leading to gait disturbance received a guided 5-week training focusing on mobility, endurance, and coordination. Before and afterward, they underwent clinical, neuropsychological, and gait assessments and brain MRI at 3 T including a functional ankle movement paradigm. Sixteen healthy controls (HCs; 68.8±5.4 years) followed the same protocol without intervention. After training, patients had improved in mobility, memory, and delayed recall of memory. While cerebral activations in HC remained completely unaltered, patients showed increased activations in the right precentral gyrus, the right and left superior frontal gyri, and the right frontal lobe, with bipedal ankle movements after training. In this exploratory study of chronic stroke, we found not only significant effects of physical training on mobility but also distinct aspects of cognition already with a small number of highly selected patients. These improvements were paralleled by alterations in cerebral activity possibly reflecting neuronal plasticity. Larger studies including randomization are needed.

  5. Using Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island Accident as a Case Study to Analyze Newspaper Coverage: A Diary of Events and Suggestions for Teaching Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Jacob L.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for studying the coverage of the same current news story in several newspapers are outlined. Secondary school students critically examine news reporting, detect false or propagandistic reports, and learn to weigh and judge evidence. An example using the Three Mile Island nuclear accident is provided. (KC)

  6. Results of a multinational study suggest the need for rapid diagnosis and early antiviral treatment at the onset of herpetic meningoencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Cag, Yasemin; Ozturk-Engin, Derya

    2015-01-01

    Data in the literature regarding the factors that predict unfavorable outcomes in adult herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME) cases are scarce. We conducted a multicenter study in order to provide insights into the predictors of HME outcomes, with special emphasis on the use and timing of antiviral ...

  7. Use of carboxymethyl cellulose and collagen carrier with equine bone lyophilisate suggests late onset bone regenerative effect in a humerus drill defect - a pilot study in six sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Jakobsen, Thomas Vestergaard

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the use of a filler compound together with the osteoinductive demineralized bone matrix (DBM), Colloss E. The filler was comprised of carboxymethyl-cellulose and collagen type 1. The purpose of the study was to see if the filler compound would enhance the bone formation and distribute...

  8. A large candidate-gene association study suggests genetic variants at IRF5 and PRDM1 to be associated with aggressive periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Arne S.; Jochens, Arne; Dommisch, Henrik; Graetz, Christian; Jockel-Schneider, Yvonne; Harks, Inga; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Meyle, Joerg; Eickholz, Peter; Folwaczny, Mathias; Laine, Marja; Noack, Barbara; Wijmenga, Cisca; Lieb, Wolfgang; Bruckmann, Corinna; Schreiber, Stefan; Jepsen, Soren; Loos, Bruno G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Epidemiological and clinical studies indicated a relationship of periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to identify shared genetic susceptibility loci of RA and periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty-seven risk genes of genome-wide significance of RA and SLE were genotyped

  9. A large candidate-gene association study suggests genetic variants at IRF5 and PRDM1 to be associated with aggressive periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, A.S.; Jochens, A.; Dommisch, H.; Graetz, C.; Jockel-Schneider, Y.; Harks, I.; Staufenbiel, I.; Meyle, J.; Eickholz, P.; Folwaczny, M.; Laine, M.; Noack, B.; Wijmenga, C.; Lieb, W.; Bruckmann, C.; Schreiber, S.; Jepsen, S.; Loos, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Epidemiological and clinical studies indicated a relationship of periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to identify shared genetic susceptibility loci of RA and periodontitis. Materials and Methods Forty-seven risk genes of genome-wide significance of RA and SLE were genotyped in

  10. A genome-wide association study suggests that a locus within the ataxin 2 binding protein 1 gene is associated with hand osteoarthritis: The Treat-OA consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Zhai (Guangju); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); G. Livshits; I. Meulenbelt (Ingrid); A.M. Valdes; N. Soranzo (Nicole); D.J. Hart; F. Zhang (Feng); B.S. Kato; J.B. Richards (Brent); F.M.K. Williams; M. Inouye; M. Kloppenburg (Margreet); S. Demissie (Serkalem); E. Slagboom (Eline); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); T.D. Spector (Timothy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTo identify the susceptibility gene in hand osteoarthritis (OA) the authors used a two-stage approach genomewide association study using two discovery samples (the TwinsUK cohort and the Rotterdam discovery subset; a total of 1804 subjects) and four replication samples (the Chingford

  11. Consumer attitudes towards irradiation of food (a pilot study in the Netherlands) and some suggestions on how to achieve acceptance of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defesche, F.; Van Asperen de Boer

    1983-01-01

    A pilot study on the reactions and opinions of consumers in the matter of irradiated food and on the underlying attitudes was carried out in the Netherlands by Young and Rubicam-Koster, b.v. in 1981. The method used was of a qualitative, small-scale nature using focus groups and in-depth interviews among Dutch housewives

  12. Studies of Catalytic Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holse, Christian

    of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles is highly relevant to industrial methanol synthesis for which the direct interaction of Cu and ZnO nanocrystals synergistically boost the catalytic activity. The dynamical behavior of the nanoparticles under reducing and oxidizing environments were studied by means of ex situ X...... as the nanoparticles are reduced. The Cu/ZnO nanoparticles are tested on a  µ-reactor platform and prove to be active towards methanol synthesis, making it an excellent model system for further investigations into activity depended morphology changes....

  13. NURE uranium deposit model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program has sponsored uranium deposit model studies by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and numerous subcontractors. This paper deals only with models from the following six reports prepared by Samuel S. Adams and Associates: GJBX-1(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Roll-Type Uranium Deposits in Continental Sandstones; GJBX-2(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uraniferous Humate Deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico; GJBX-3(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uranium Deposits of the Quartz-Pebble Conglomerate Type; GJBX-4(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits in Mixed Fluvial-Shallow Marine Sedimentary Sequences, South Texas; GJBX-5(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Veinlike Uranium Deposits of the Lower to Middle Proterozoic Unconformity and Strata-Related Types; GJBX-6(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits of the Salt Wash Type, Colorado Plateau Province. A unique feature of these models is the development of recognition criteria in a systematic fashion, with a method for quantifying the various items. The recognition-criteria networks are used in this paper to illustrate the various types of deposits

  14. An exploratory intervention study suggests clinical benefits of training in chronic stroke to be paralleled by changes in brain activity using repeated fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landsmann B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Landsmann,1,2 Daniela Pinter,2 Eva Pirker,1,2 Gerald Pichler,3 Walter Schippinger,3 Elisabeth M Weiss,1 Gabriel Mathie,2 Thomas Gattringer,2 Franz Fazekas,2 Christian Enzinger2,4 1Institute of Psychology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria; 2Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; 3Albert Schweitzer Clinic Graz, Graz, Austria; 4Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria Purpose: Previous studies demonstrated changes in sensorimotor network activation over time after stroke that have been interpreted as partly compensatory. Locomotor and balance trainings may improve both mobility and cognition even in chronic stroke and thereby impact on cerebral activation patterns. We here aimed at testing these assumptions in an exploratory study to inform subsequent larger intervention studies. Patients and methods: Eight patients (73.3±4.4 years with a chronic lacunar stroke (mean interval 3.7 years after the acute event with a range from 2 to 4 years and residual leg paresis leading to gait disturbance received a guided 5-week training focusing on mobility, endurance, and coordination. Before and afterward, they underwent clinical, neuropsychological, and gait assessments and brain MRI at 3 T including a functional ankle movement paradigm. Sixteen healthy controls (HCs; 68.8±5.4 years followed the same protocol without intervention. Results: After training, patients had improved in mobility, memory, and delayed recall of memory. While cerebral activations in HC remained completely unaltered, patients showed increased activations in the right precentral gyrus, the right and left superior frontal gyri, and the right frontal lobe, with bipedal ankle movements after training. Conclusion: In this exploratory study of chronic stroke, we found not only significant effects of physical training on mobility but also distinct aspects of cognition already with a small number of

  15. Genetic association study suggests a role for SP110 variants in lymph node tuberculosis but not pulmonary tuberculosis in north Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhimanyu; Jha, Pankaj; Jain, Ashima; Arora, Komal; Bose, Mridula

    2011-07-01

    Ethnic specificity is a key determinant in understanding the association of genetic variants with outcome of disease susceptibility. SP110, a component of the nuclear body, has been subjected to association studies with conflicting results. In this study we probed SP110 variants in pulmonary (PTB) and lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB) cases to explore their role in controlling susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in north Indians. We genotyped 24 SP110 variants in over 140 north Indian tuberculosis cases and 78 ethnicity-matched controls. The SP110 gene variants were available from public databases. The cases and controls were free of any population stratification when subjected to Eigenstrat principal component analysis. Genotyping was carried out using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Applying exclusion criteria, 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the LNTB panel and 13 SNPs of the PTB panel passed all filters and were analyzed further. No significant association was observed between SP110 variants and PTB. Surprisingly, we discovered evidence of an association of SP110 variants with LNTB, a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, at 3 loci, namely, rs6436915, rs1427294, and rs1346311. When permutations analysis (n = 10,000) of allelic p values was undertaken, only rs1427294 passed the test with its p value remaining statistically significant. The C allele of rs1427294 exhibited a 5-fold risk of developing LNTB. No significant haplotypes were observed. In the pilot study presented here, our results provide evidence for the first time that SP110 may be a risk determinant locus in LNTB while confirming a doubtful role of SP110 in PTB in north Indians. In general, the results might indicate a role of SP110 variants in extrapulmonary tuberculosis rather than PTB. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Carcinoembryonic antigen level is related to tumor invasion into the serosa of the stomach: study on 166 cases and suggestion for new therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Hua; Li, Yan; Chen, Chuang; Peng, Chun-Wei

    2009-01-01

    The present study aim is to study the significance of serum tumor markers in predicting tumor progression and clinical outcomes in gastric cancer (GC). Preoperative serum tumor markers were determined in 166 GC patients, who were followed after curative gastrectomy. The associations between tumor marker status and tumor invasion depth, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and survival were analyzed. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was significantly correlated with serosal invasion of the stomach and clinical stage, and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) related to the clinical stage (p markers positive had a shorter survival, 19.0, 11.0 and 3.0 months median survival time for one, two and three markers positive, respectively (p cancer antigen 125 (CA125) were more sensitive and specific in predicting worse prognosis than diagnosis. Multivariate analysis showed that CA19-9 and clinical stage were independent prognostic factors (p tumor invasion into the serosa of the stomach, which may call for new therapies. CA19-9 is an independent negative prognostic factor.

  17. How to deal with missing longitudinal data in cost of illness analysis in Alzheimer's disease-suggestions from the GERAS observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belger, Mark; Haro, Josep Maria; Reed, Catherine; Happich, Michael; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Argimon, Josep Maria; Bruno, Giuseppe; Dodel, Richard; Jones, Roy W; Vellas, Bruno; Wimo, Anders

    2016-07-18

    Missing data are a common problem in prospective studies with a long follow-up, and the volume, pattern and reasons for missing data may be relevant when estimating the cost of illness. We aimed to evaluate the effects of different methods for dealing with missing longitudinal cost data and for costing caregiver time on total societal costs in Alzheimer's disease (AD). GERAS is an 18-month observational study of costs associated with AD. Total societal costs included patient health and social care costs, and caregiver health and informal care costs. Missing data were classified as missing completely at random (MCAR), missing at random (MAR) or missing not at random (MNAR). Simulation datasets were generated from baseline data with 10-40 % missing total cost data for each missing data mechanism. Datasets were also simulated to reflect the missing cost data pattern at 18 months using MAR and MNAR assumptions. Naïve and multiple imputation (MI) methods were applied to each dataset and results compared with complete GERAS 18-month cost data. Opportunity and replacement cost approaches were used for caregiver time, which was costed with and without supervision included and with time for working caregivers only being costed. Total costs were available for 99.4 % of 1497 patients at baseline. For MCAR datasets, naïve methods performed as well as MI methods. For MAR, MI methods performed better than naïve methods. All imputation approaches were poor for MNAR data. For all approaches, percentage bias increased with missing data volume. For datasets reflecting 18-month patterns, a combination of imputation methods provided more accurate cost estimates (e.g. bias: -1 % vs -6 % for single MI method), although different approaches to costing caregiver time had a greater impact on estimated costs (29-43 % increase over base case estimate). Methods used to impute missing cost data in AD will impact on accuracy of cost estimates although varying approaches to costing

  18. Infant Care Suggestions for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bones, that are in various stages of healing. Handling Suggestions • All movements should be slow, methodical and ... holding, lifting, diapering, and general infant care. The return demonstration will ensure that the parents are comfortable ...

  19. Saltstone SDU6 Modeling Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Si Y.; Hyun, Sinjae

    2013-01-01

    A new disposal unit, designated as Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System Plan. The unit is a cylindrical disposal cell of 375 ft in diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has a minimum 30 million gallons of capacity. SRNL was requested to evaluate the impact of an increased grout placement height on the flow patterns radially spread on the floor and to determine whether grout quality is impacted by the height. The primary goals of the work are to develop the baseline Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as a function of elevation of grout discharge port and grout rheology. Two transient grout models have been developed by taking a three-dimensional multiphase CFD approach to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor and to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation height of the discharge port and fresh grout properties. For the CFD modeling calculations, air-grout Volume of Fluid (VOF) method combined with Bingham plastic and time-dependent grout models were used for examining the impact of fluid spread performance for the initial baseline configurations and to evaluate the impact of grout pouring height on grout quality. The grout quality was estimated in terms of the air volume fraction for the grout layer formed on the SDU6 floor, resulting in the change of grout density. The study results should be considered as preliminary scoping analyses since benchmarking analysis is not included in this task scope. Transient analyses with the Bingham plastic model were performed with the FLUENTTM code on the high performance parallel computing platform in SRNL. The analysis coupled with a transient grout aging model was performed by using ANSYS-CFX code

  20. Crystal study and econometric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An econometric model was developed that can be used to predict demand and supply figures for crystals over a time horizon roughly concurrent with that of NASA's Space Shuttle Program - that is, 1975 through 1990. The model includes an equation to predict the impact on investment in the crystal-growing industry. Actually, two models are presented. The first is a theoretical model which follows rather strictly the standard theoretical economic concepts involved in supply and demand analysis, and a modified version of the model was developed which, though not quite as theoretically sound, was testable utilizing existing data sources.

  1. Model quality and safety studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    evaluation group (MEG) is a European initiative on evaluation of technical models used within the major industrial hazard area and is supported by the EC DGXII, Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development. Closely related to MEG is REDIPHEM, which is the acronym of a research project supported...... by the EC Environment Research Programme focusing on assessment of the quality of experimental data and models for dense gas dispersion created within the EC funded research programmes. Technical models are used in a number of areas of industrial hazards assessment. It is becoming more and more apparent...... of ensuring that model development is of a standard that is commensurate with the importance of model use. The aim of MEG is to improve the culture in which models are developed and used and so ensure that technical models used in all aspects of major hazard evaluation are up to date with technical...

  2. Battlescale Forecast Model Sensitivity Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauter, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    .... Changes to the surface observations used in the Battlescale Forecast Model initialization led to no significant changes in the resulting forecast values of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, or wind direction...

  3. Radionuclides in fruit systems: Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States)]. E-mail: linkov@cambridgeenvironmental.com; Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN)/Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling - LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  4. Radionuclides in fruit systems. Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States); Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety IPSN, Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  5. BIOMOVS: an international model validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, C.; Johansson, G.

    1988-01-01

    BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) is an international study where models used for describing the distribution of radioactive and nonradioactive trace substances in terrestrial and aquatic environments are compared and tested. The main objectives of the study are to compare and test the accuracy of predictions between such models, explain differences in these predictions, recommend priorities for future research concerning the improvement of the accuracy of model predictions and act as a forum for the exchange of ideas, experience and information. (author)

  6. BIOMOVS: An international model validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, C.; Johansson, G.

    1987-01-01

    BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) is an international study where models used for describing the distribution of radioactive and nonradioactive trace substances in terrestrial and aquatic environments are compared and tested. The main objectives of the study are to compare and test the accuracy of predictions between such models, explain differences in these predictions, recommend priorities for future research concerning the improvement of the accuracy of model predictions and act as a forum for the exchange of ideas, experience and information. (orig.)

  7. Imitation Modeling and Institutional Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Y. Barbashin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of imitation modeling in the conduct of institutional research. The institutional approach is based on the observation of social behavior. To understand a social process means to determine the key rules that individuals use, undertaking social actions associated with this process or phenomenon. This does not mean that institutions determine behavioral reactions, although there are a number of social situations where the majority of individuals follow the dominant rules. If the main laws of development of the institutional patterns are known, one can describe most of the social processes accurately. The author believes that the main difficulty with the analysis of institutional processes is their recursive nature: from the standards of behavior one may find the proposed actions of social agents who follow, obey or violate institutions, but the possibility of reconstructive analysis is not obvious. The author demonstrates how the institutional approach is applied to the analysis of social behavior. The article describes the basic principles and methodology of imitation modeling. Imitation modeling reveals the importance of institutions in structuring social transactions. The article concludes that in the long term institutional processes are not determined by initial conditions.

  8. Hypnotic suggestion: opportunities for cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-08-01

    Hypnosis uses the powerful effects of attention and suggestion to produce, modify and enhance a broad range of subjectively compelling experiences and behaviours. For more than a century, hypnotic suggestion has been used successfully as an adjunctive procedure to treat a wide range of clinical conditions. More recently, hypnosis has attracted a growing interest from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Recent studies using hypnotic suggestion show how manipulating subjective awareness in the laboratory can provide insights into brain mechanisms involved in attention, motor control, pain perception, beliefs and volition. Moreover, they indicate that hypnotic suggestion can create informative analogues of clinical conditions that may be useful for understanding these conditions and their treatments.

  9. The study of prescriptive and descriptive models of decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok A Divekar; Sunita Bangal; Sumangala D.

    2012-01-01

    The field of decision making can be loosely divided into two parts: the study of prescriptive models and the study of descriptive models. Prescriptive decision scientists are concerned with prescribing methods for making optimal decisions. Descriptive decision researchers are concerned with the bounded way in which the decisions are actually made. The statistics courses treat risk from a prescriptive, by suggesting rational methods. This paper brings out the work done by many researchers by e...

  10. Rumor Propagation Model: An Equilibrium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto C. Piqueira

    2010-01-01

    information is analogous phenomena. Here, in an analogy with the SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed epidemiological model, the ISS (Ignorant-Spreader-Stifler rumor spreading model is studied. By using concepts from the Dynamical Systems Theory, stability of equilibrium points is established, according to propagation parameters and initial conditions. Some numerical experiments are conducted in order to validate the model.

  11. QCD and Standard Model Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Carl A [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Our group has focused on using jets in STAR to investigate the longitudinal and transverse spin structure of the proton. We performed measurements of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet production that provide the strongest evidence to date that the gluons in the proton with x>0.05 are polarized. We also made the first observation of the Collins effect in pp collisions, thereby providing an important test of the universality of the Collins fragmentation function and opening a new tool to probe quark transversity in the proton. Our studies of forward rapidity electromagnetic jet-like events raise serious question whether the large transverse spin asymmetries that have been seen for forward inclusive hadron production arise from conventional 2 → 2 parton scattering. This is the final technical report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-93ER40765. It covers activities during the period January 1, 2015 through November 30, 2016.

  12. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies.......Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... impact at different geographical areas, as well as driving and charging patterns. Electric circuit model is deployed in this work to represent the electrical properties of a lithium-ion battery. This paper reports the preliminary modeling and validation work based on manufacturer data sheet and realistic...

  13. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  14. A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF SOFTWARE QUALITY MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Vilas. M. Thakare; Ashwin B. Tomar

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a basis for software quality model research, through a systematic study ofpapers. It identifies nearly seventy software quality research papers from journals and classifies paper asper research topic, estimation approach, study context and data set. The paper results combined withother knowledge provides support for recommendations in future software quality model research, toincrease the area of search for relevant studies, carefully select the papers within a set ...

  15. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...... and points the way for further research....

  16. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    In this paper two simple methods for cabinet edge diffraction are examined. Calculations with both models are compared with more sophisticated theoretical models and with measured data. The parameters involved are studied and their importance for normal loudspeaker box designs is examined....

  17. An Ionospheric Metric Study Using Operational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Thompson, D. C.; Scherliess, L.; Harris, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    One of the outstanding challenges in upgrading ionospheric operational models is quantifying their improvement. This challenge is not necessarily an absolute accuracy one, but rather answering the question, "Is the newest operational model an improvement over its predecessor under operational scenarios?" There are few documented cases where ionospheric models are compared either with each other or against "ground truth". For example a CEDAR workshop team, PRIMO, spent almost a decade carrying out a models comparison with ionosonde and incoherent scatter radar measurements from the Millstone Hill, Massachusetts location [Anderson et al.,1998]. The result of this study was that all models were different and specific conditions could be found when each was the "best" model. Similarly, a National Space Weather Metrics ionospheric challenge was held and results were presented at a National Space Weather meeting. The results were again found to be open to interpretation, and issues with the value of the specific metrics were raised (Fuller-Rowell, private communication, 2003). Hence, unlike the tropospheric weather community, who have established metrics and exercised them on new models over many decades to quantify improvement, the ionospheric community has not yet settled on a metric of both scientific and operational value. We report on a study in which metrics were used to compare various forms of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), the Ionospheric Forecast Model (IFM), and the Utah State University Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements Model (USU-GAIM) models. The ground truth for this study was a group of 11 ionosonde data sets taken between 20 March and 19 April 2004. The metric parameter was the ionosphere's critical frequency. The metric was referenced to the IRI. Hence, the study addressed the specific question what improvement does IFM and USU-GAIM have over IRI. Both strengths (improvements) and weaknesses of these models are discussed

  18. Case studies of computer model applications in consulting practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebein, Gary; Paek, Hyun; Lorang, Mark; McGuinnes, Courtney

    2002-05-01

    Six case studies of computer model applications in a consulting practice will be presented to present the range of issues that can be studied with computer models as well as to understand the limitations of the technique at the present time. Case studies of elliptical conference rooms demonstrate basic acoustic ray principles and suggest remediation strategies. Models of a large themed entertainment venue with multiple amplified sound sources show how visualization of the acoustic ray paths can assist a consultant and client in value engineering locations and amounts of acoustic materials. The acoustic problems with an angled ceiling and large rear wall were studied when an historic church was converted to a music performance hall. The computer model of an historic hall did not present enough detailed information and was supplemented with physical model studies and full size mock-up tests of the insertion of an elevator door that would open directly into the concert room. Studies to demonstrate the amount of room model detail to obtain realistic auralizations were also conducted. The integration of architectural acoustic design and audio system design were studied in computer models of a large church sanctuary.

  19. Synthetic Study on the Geological and Hydrogeological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the site specific properties of a study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the several geological investigations such as surface geological surveys and borehole drillings were carried out since 1997. Especially, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to understand the further study of geological environments in 2006. As a result, the first geological model of a study area was constructed by using the results of geological investigation. The objective of this research is to construct a hydrogeological model around KURT area on the basis of the geological model. Hydrogeological data which were obtained from in-situ hydraulic tests in the 9 boreholes were estimated to accomplish the objective. And, the hydrogeological properties of the 4 geological elements in the geological model, which were the subsurface weathering zone, the log angle fracture zone, the fracture zones and the bedrock were suggested. The hydrogeological model suggested in this study will be used as input parameters to carry out the groundwater flow modeling as a next step of the site characterization around KURT area

  20. Does neuroimaging of suggestion elucidate hypnotic trance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Amir

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary studies in the cognitive neuroscience of attention and suggestion shed new light on the underlying neural mechanisms that operationalize these effects. Without adhering to important caveats inherent to imaging of the living human brain, however, findings from brain imaging studies may enthrall more than explain. Scholars, practitioners, professionals, and consumers must realize that the influence words exert on focal brain activity is measurable but that these measurements are often difficult to interpret. While recent brain imaging research increasingly incorporates variations of suggestion and hypnosis, correlating overarching hypnotic experiences with specific brain substrates remains tenuous. This article elucidates the mounting role of cognitive neuroscience, including the relative merits and intrinsic limitations of neuroimaging, in better contextualizing trance-like concepts.

  1. Comparative Study of Bancruptcy Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isye Arieshanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early indication of bancruptcy is important for a company. If companies aware of  potency of their bancruptcy, they can take a preventive action to anticipate the bancruptcy. In order to detect the potency of a bancruptcy, a company can utilize a a model of bancruptcy prediction. The prediction model can be built using a machine learning methods. However, the choice of machine learning methods should be performed carefully. Because the suitability of a model depends on the problem specifically. Therefore, in this paper we perform a comparative study of several machine leaning methods for bancruptcy prediction. According to the comparative study, the performance of several models that based on machine learning methods (k-NN, fuzzy k-NN, SVM, Bagging Nearest Neighbour SVM, Multilayer Perceptron(MLP, Hybrid of MLP + Multiple Linear Regression, it can be showed that fuzzy k-NN method achieve the best performance with accuracy 77.5%

  2. Atopic Dermatitis Studies through In Vitro Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne De Vuyst

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a complex inflammatory skin condition that is not fully understood. Epidermal barrier defects and Th2 immune response dysregulations are thought to play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. A vicious circle takes place between these alterations, and it can further be complicated by additional genetic and environmental factors. Studies investigating in more depth the etiology of the disease are thus needed in order to develop functional treatments. In recent years, there have been significant advances regarding in vitro models reproducing important features of AD. However, since a lot of models have been developed, finding the appropriate experimental setting can be difficult. Therefore, herein, we review the different types of in vitro models mimicking features of AD. The simplest models are two-dimensional culture systems composed of immune cells or keratinocytes, whereas three-dimensional skin or epidermal equivalents reconstitute more complex stratified tissues exhibiting barrier properties. In those models, hallmarks of AD are obtained, either by challenging tissues with interleukin cocktails overexpressed in AD epidermis or by silencing expression of pivotal genes encoding epidermal barrier proteins. Tissue equivalents cocultured with lymphocytes or containing AD patient cells are also described. Furthermore, each model is placed in its study context with a brief summary of the main results obtained. In conclusion, the described in vitro models are useful tools to better understand AD pathogenesis, but also to screen new compounds in the field of AD, which probably will open the way to new preventive or therapeutic strategies.

  3. Modeling and Study of the Cerenkov Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Angelov, I; Makovicka, L; Mishev, A; Stamenov, J N

    2003-01-01

    The studies realized in INRNE (Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy) particulary in cosmic rays detection and construction of Muonic Cerenkov Telescope in University of Blagoevgrad [1] shows the need to develop a theoretical model based on observed phenomenon and to refine it for the detection system optimisation. The effect was introduced in EGS4 code system. The first simulations were consecrated to different geometry of water tank in total reflection. The model was compared with experimental data realised with gamma source using the telescope. A simple atmospheric model is introduced in EGS4. The comparison between CORSIKA and EGS4 codes was realised.

  4. Differential Equations Models to Study Quorum Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Velázquez, Judith; Hense, Burkhard A

    2018-01-01

    Mathematical models to study quorum sensing (QS) have become an important tool to explore all aspects of this type of bacterial communication. A wide spectrum of mathematical tools and methods such as dynamical systems, stochastics, and spatial models can be employed. In this chapter, we focus on giving an overview of models consisting of differential equations (DE), which can be used to describe changing quantities, for example, the dynamics of one or more signaling molecule in time and space, often in conjunction with bacterial growth dynamics. The chapter is divided into two sections: ordinary differential equations (ODE) and partial differential equations (PDE) models of QS. Rates of change are represented mathematically by derivatives, i.e., in terms of DE. ODE models allow describing changes in one independent variable, for example, time. PDE models can be used to follow changes in more than one independent variable, for example, time and space. Both types of models often consist of systems (i.e., more than one equation) of equations, such as equations for bacterial growth and autoinducer concentration dynamics. Almost from the onset, mathematical modeling of QS using differential equations has been an interdisciplinary endeavor and many of the works we revised here will be placed into their biological context.

  5. Studi Model Penerimaan Tehnologi (Technology Acceptance Model) Novice Accountant

    OpenAIRE

    Rustiana, Rustiana

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates adoption or application of behavior information technologyacceptance. Davis' Technology Acceptance Model is employed to explain perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and intention to use in information systems. The respondents were 228 accounting students in management information system. Data was collected by questionnaire and then analyzed by using linear regression analysis and independent t-test. The results are in line with most of the hypotheses, only hypo...

  6. Example of emergency response model evaluation of studies using the Mathew/Adpic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Lange, R.

    1986-04-01

    This report summarizes model evaluation studies conducted for the MATHEW/ADPIC transport and diffusion models during the past ten years. These models support the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability, an emergency response service for atmospheric releases of nuclear material. Field studies involving tracer releases used in these studies cover a broad range of meteorology, terrain and tracer release heights, the three most important aspects of estimating air concentration values resulting from airborne releases of toxic material. Results of these studies show that these models can estimate air concentration values within a factor of 2 20% to 50% of the time and a factor of 5 40% to 80% of the time. As the meterology and terrain become more complex and the release height of the tracer is increased, the accuracy of the model calculations degrades. This band of uncertainty appears to correctly represent the capability of these models at this time. A method for estimating angular uncertainty in the model calculations is described and used to suggest alternative methods for evaluating emergency response models

  7. Limits of quantitation — Yet another suggestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Jill; Wysoczanski, Artur; Voigtman, Edward, E-mail: voigtman@chem.umass.edu

    2014-06-01

    The work presented herein suggests that the limit of quantitation concept may be rendered substantially less ambiguous and ultimately more useful as a figure of merit by basing it upon the significant figure and relative measurement error ideas due to Coleman, Auses and Gram, coupled with the correct instantiation of Currie's detection limit methodology. Simple theoretical results are presented for a linear, univariate chemical measurement system with homoscedastic Gaussian noise, and these are tested against both Monte Carlo computer simulations and laser-excited molecular fluorescence experimental results. Good agreement among experiment, theory and simulation is obtained and an easy extension to linearly heteroscedastic Gaussian noise is also outlined. - Highlights: • True Currie detection limits are estimated. • Experimental results validate previous 2008 theory. • Linearly heteroscedastic system is correctly modeled.

  8. Mixed models in cerebral ischemia study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Dal Molin Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data modeling from longitudinal studies stands out in the current scientific scenario, especially in the areas of health and biological sciences, which induces a correlation between measurements for the same observed unit. Thus, the modeling of the intra-individual dependency is required through the choice of a covariance structure that is able to receive and accommodate the sample variability. However, the lack of methodology for correlated data analysis may result in an increased occurrence of type I or type II errors and underestimate/overestimate the standard errors of the model estimates. In the present study, a Gaussian mixed model was adopted for the variable response latency of an experiment investigating the memory deficits in animals subjected to cerebral ischemia when treated with fish oil (FO. The model parameters estimation was based on maximum likelihood methods. Based on the restricted likelihood ratio test and information criteria, the autoregressive covariance matrix was adopted for errors. The diagnostic analyses for the model were satisfactory, since basic assumptions and results obtained corroborate with biological evidence; that is, the effectiveness of the FO treatment to alleviate the cognitive effects caused by cerebral ischemia was found.

  9. MinD directly interacting with FtsZ at the H10 helix suggests a model for robust activation of MinC to destabilize FtsZ polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviti, Ashoka Chary; Beuria, Tushar Kant

    2017-09-07

    Cell division in bacteria is a highly controlled and regulated process. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeletal protein, forms a ring-like structure known as the Z-ring and recruits more than a dozen other cell division proteins. The Min system oscillates between the poles and inhibits the Z-ring formation at the poles by perturbing FtsZ assembly. This leads to an increase in the FtsZ concentration at the mid-cell and helps in Z-ring positioning. MinC, the effector protein, interferes with Z-ring formation through two different mechanisms mediated by its two domains with the help of MinD. However, the mechanism by which MinD triggers MinC activity is not yet known. We showed that MinD directly interacts with FtsZ with an affinity stronger than the reported MinC-FtsZ interaction. We determined the MinD-binding site of FtsZ using computational, mutational and biochemical analyses. Our study showed that MinD binds to the H10 helix of FtsZ. Single-point mutations at the charged residues in the H10 helix resulted in a decrease in the FtsZ affinity towards MinD. Based on our findings, we propose a novel model for MinCD-FtsZ interaction, where MinD through its direct interaction with FtsZ would trigger MinC activity to inhibit FtsZ functions. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Parametric study of a thorium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, M.C.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Szwarcwald, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Models for radionuclides distribution in the human body and dosimetry involve assumptions on the biokinetic behavior of the material among compartments representing organs and tissues in the body. One of the most important problem in biokinetic modeling is the assignment of transfer coefficients and biological half-lives to body compartments. In Brazil there are many areas of high natural radioactivity, where the population is chronically exposed to radionuclides of the thorium series. The uncertainties of the thorium biokinetic model are a major cause of uncertainty in the estimates of the committed dose equivalent of the population living in high background areas. The purpose of this study is to discuss the variability in the thorium activities accumulated in the body compartments in relation to the variations in the transfer coefficients and compartments biological half-lives of a thorium-recycling model for continuous exposure. Multiple regression analysis methods were applied to analyze the results. (author)

  11. Process modeling study of the CIF incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to begin operating the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) in 1996. The CIF will treat liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous wastes generated at SRS. In addition to experimental test programs, process modeling was applied to provide guidance in areas of safety, environmental regulation compliances, process improvement and optimization. A steady-state flowsheet model was used to calculate material/energy balances and to track key chemical constituents throughout the process units. Dynamic models were developed to predict the CIF transient characteristics in normal and abnormal operation scenarios. Predictions include the rotary kiln heat transfer, dynamic responses of the CIF to fluctuations in the solid waste feed or upsets in the system equipments, performance of the control system, air inleakage in the kiln, etc. This paper reviews the modeling study performed to assist in the deflagration risk assessment

  12. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  13. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D San Antonio

    Full Text Available Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  14. A Case Study Application Of Time Study Model In Paint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a case study in the development and application of a time study model in a paint manufacturing company. The organization specializes in the production of different grades of paint and paint containers. The paint production activities include; weighing of raw materials, drying of raw materials, dissolving ...

  15. A Trade Study of Thermosphere Empirical Neutral Density Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. S.; Cable, S. B.; Sutton, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate orbit prediction of space objects critically relies on modeling of thermospheric neutral density that determines drag force. In a trade study we have investigated a methodology to assess performances of neutral density models in predicting orbit against a baseline orbit trajectory. We use a metric defined as along-track error in a day a satellite is predicted to have for a given neutral density model when compared to its GPS positions. A set of ground truth data including Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) accelerometer and GPS data, solar radio F10.7 proxy and magnetic activity measurements are used to calculate the baseline orbit. This approach is applied to compare the daily along-track errors among HASDM, JB08, MSISE-00 and DTM-2012 neutral density models. The dynamically calibrated HASDM model yields a daily along-track error close to the baseline error and lower than the other empirical models. Among the three empirical models (JB08, MSISE-00 and DTM-2012) the MSISE-00 model has produced the smallest daily along-track error. The results suggest that the developed metric and methodology could be used to assess overall errors in orbit prediction expected from empirical density models. They have also been adapted in an analysis tool Satellite Orbital Drag Error Estimator (SODEE) to estimate orbit prediction errors.

  16. The use of suggestion in sports practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelyanenko V.I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to provide a comprehensive, integrated modified technique of personal psycho-physiological regulation based on a system of Raja Yoga. The study involved candidates and masters of sports of freestyle skiing in the amount of 21 people aged 17 to 23 years. Found that athletes co 2 and stage 3 of the hypnotic state successfully acquired by dhyana and can apply it in preparation for a competition. The proposed method includes a high quality optimal fighting condition, modeling and programming training and competitive processes using deferred units, the correction of motor skills. Athletes in their imagination run program of the second day of competition. Then, the third day of competition modeled, programmed overall health. Are told that in the day of the event will have a good mood, great feeling, a surge of strength, vigor, vitality, desire to show all of their sporting qualities.

  17. preliminary multidomain modelling and simulation study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    PRELIMINARY MULTIDOMAIN MODELLING AND SIMULATION STUDY OF A. HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT) TOWER VIBRATION. I. lliyasu1, I. Iliyasu2, I. K. Tanimu3 and D. O Obada4. 1,4 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA, KADUNA STATE. NIGERIA.

  18. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  19. Studying and Modeling Vibration Transducers and Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Ágoston

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents types and operating mode of vibration sensors. Piezoelectric sensing elements are often used in accelerometers. It will be investigate the structure and transfer function of the seismic mass type sensing element. The article presents how the piezoelectric sensing element works and how can be modeled with an electronic circuit. The transfer functions of the electronic circuit models are studied in Matlab and the results are presented. It will be presented the influence of the seismic mass on the accelerometer’s working frequency domain.

  20. Experimental and modelling studies of infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes a study of infiltration in the unsaturated soil with the objective of estimating the recharge to a phreatic aquifer. The study area is at the border of the city of Milan (Northern Italy), which draws water for both domestic and industrial purposes from ground water resources located beneath the urban area. The rate of water pumping from the aquifer system has been varying during the XX century, depending upon the number of inhabitants and the development of industrial activities. This caused variations with time of the depth of the water table below the ground surface and in turn some emergencies: the two most prominent episodes correspond to the middle '70s, when the water table in the city centre was about 30 m below the undisturbed natural conditions, and to the last decade, when the water table has raised at a rate of approximately 1 m/year and caused infiltrations in deep constructions (garages and building foundations, the underground railways, etc.). We have developed four ground water flow models at different scales, which share some characteristics: they are based on quasi-3D approximation (horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow in the aquitards), conservative finite-differences schemes for regular grid with square cells in the horizontal plane and are implemented with proprietary computer codes. Among the problems that were studied for the development of these models, I recall some numerical problems, related to the behaviour of the phreatic aquifer under conditions of strong exploitation. Model calibration and validation for ModMil has been performed with a two-stage process, i.e., using some of the available data for model calibration and the remaining data for model validation. The application of geophysical exploration techniques, in particular seismic and geo-electrical prospecting, has been very useful to complete the data and information on the hydro-geological structure obtained from stratigraphic logs

  1. How valuable are model organisms for transposable element studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, M G; Evgen'ev, M B

    1999-01-01

    Model organisms have proved to be highly informative for many types of genetic studies involving 'conventional' genes. The results have often been successfully generalized to other closely related organisms and also, perhaps surprisingly frequently, to more distantly related organisms. Because of the wealth of previous knowledge and their availability and convenience, model organisms were often the species of choice for many of the earlier studies of transposable elements. The question arises whether the results of genetic studies of transposable elements in model organisms can be extrapolated in the same ways as those of conventional genes? A number of observations suggest that special care needs to be taken in generalizing the results from model organisms to other species. A hallmark of many transposable elements is their ability to amplify rapidly in species genomes. Rapid spread of a newly invaded element throughout a species range has also been demonstrated. The types and genomic copy numbers of transposable elements have been shown to differ greatly between some closely related species. Horizontal transfer of transposable elements appears to be more frequent than for nonmobile genes. Furthermore, the population structure of some model organisms has been subject to drastic recent changes that may have some bearing on their transposable element genomic complements. In order to initiate discussion of this question, several case studies of transposable elements in well-studied Drosophila species are presented.

  2. Molecular modeling of protein materials: case study of elastin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakanova, Anna; Buehler, Markus J.

    2013-09-01

    Molecular modeling of protein materials is a quickly growing area of research that has produced numerous contributions in fields ranging from structural engineering to medicine and biology. We review here the history and methods commonly employed in molecular modeling of protein materials, emphasizing the advantages for using modeling as a complement to experimental work. We then consider a case study of the protein elastin, a critically important ‘mechanical protein’ to exemplify the approach in an area where molecular modeling has made a significant impact. We outline the progression of computational modeling studies that have considerably enhanced our understanding of this important protein which endows elasticity and recoil to the tissues it is found in, including the skin, lungs, arteries and the heart. A vast collection of literature has been directed at studying the structure and function of this protein for over half a century, the first molecular dynamics study of elastin being reported in the 1980s. We review the pivotal computational works that have considerably enhanced our fundamental understanding of elastin's atomistic structure and its extraordinary qualities—focusing on two in particular: elastin's superb elasticity and the inverse temperature transition—the remarkable ability of elastin to take on a more structured conformation at higher temperatures, suggesting its effectiveness as a biomolecular switch. Our hope is to showcase these methods as both complementary and enriching to experimental approaches that have thus far dominated the study of most protein-based materials.

  3. Analytical study of anisotropic compact star models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, B. V.

    2017-11-01

    A simple classification is given of the anisotropic relativistic star models, resembling the one of charged isotropic solutions. On the ground of this database, and taking into account the conditions for physically realistic star models, a method is proposed for generating all such solutions. It is based on the energy density and the radial pressure as seeding functions. Numerous relations between the realistic conditions are found and the need for a graphic proof is reduced just to one pair of inequalities. This general formalism is illustrated with an example of a class of solutions with linear equation of state and simple energy density. It is found that the solutions depend on three free constants and concrete examples are given. Some other popular models are studied with the same method.

  4. Analytical study of anisotropic compact star models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, B.V. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2017-11-15

    A simple classification is given of the anisotropic relativistic star models, resembling the one of charged isotropic solutions. On the ground of this database, and taking into account the conditions for physically realistic star models, a method is proposed for generating all such solutions. It is based on the energy density and the radial pressure as seeding functions. Numerous relations between the realistic conditions are found and the need for a graphic proof is reduced just to one pair of inequalities. This general formalism is illustrated with an example of a class of solutions with linear equation of state and simple energy density. It is found that the solutions depend on three free constants and concrete examples are given. Some other popular models are studied with the same method. (orig.)

  5. PEER SUGGESTIVE FEEDBACK IN ENGLISH SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Widyaningrum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Students learn English in Speaking Class should get enjoyable learning atmosphere in order to help them improve their speaking skill. Teacher‘s role as facilitator contributes in reducing students‘ anxiety when they have chance to speak. Nunan (1995 and Richards (2008 argue that speaking is an important skill in language learning whether it is as EFL or ESL that enable language learners to communicate not only in expressing view point but also in giving responses in their communication. This classroom study supports the idea to give positive suggestion as students‘ feedback given by their peers. Each student has their own chance to review and to be reviewed so that they can perform better in speaking class. This study is conducted in order to improve students‘ speaking skill in speaking class.

  6. Integrated core-edge-divertor modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated calculation model for simulating the interaction of physics phenomena taking place in the plasma core, in the plasma edge and in the SOL and divertor of tokamaks has been developed and applied to study such interactions. The model synthesises a combination of numerical calculations (1) the power and particle balances for the core plasma, using empirical confinement scaling laws and taking into account radiation losses (2), the particle, momentum and power balances in the SOL and divertor, taking into account the effects of radiation and recycling neutrals, (3) the transport of feeling and recycling neutrals, explicitly representing divertor and pumping geometry, and (4) edge pedestal gradient scale lengths and widths, evaluation of theoretical predictions (5) confinement degradation due to thermal instabilities in the edge pedestals, (6) detachment and divertor MARFE onset, (7) core MARFE onsets leading to a H-L transition, and (8) radiative collapse leading to a disruption and evaluation of empirical fits (9) power thresholds for the L-H and H-L transitions and (10) the width of the edge pedestals. The various components of the calculation model are coupled and must be iterated to a self-consistent convergence. The model was developed over several years for the purpose of interpreting various edge phenomena observed in DIII-D experiments and thereby, to some extent, has been benchmarked against experiment. Because the model treats the interactions of various phenomena in the core, edge and divertor, yet is computationally efficient, it lends itself to the investigation of the effects of different choices of various edge plasma operating conditions on overall divertor and core plasma performance. Studies of the effect of feeling location and rate, divertor geometry, plasma shape, pumping and over 'edge parameters' on core plasma properties (line average density, confinement, density limit, etc.) have been performed for DIII-D model problems. A

  7. Expression profiling and intracellular localization studies of the novel Proline-, Histidine-, and Glycine-rich protein 1 suggest an essential role in gastro-intestinal epithelium and a potential clinical application in colorectal cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltedal, Satu; Skaland, Ivar; Maple-Grødem, Jodi; Tjensvoll, Kjersti; Janssen, Emiel A M; Gilje, Bjørnar; Smaaland, Rune; Heikkilä, Reino; Nordgård, Oddmund

    2018-02-07

    The primary function of the intestines is the absorption of water and nutrients. Although our knowledge about these processes on the cellular level is extensive, a number of important intracellular elements remain unknown. Here, we characterize the novel proline-, histidine-, glycine-rich 1 (PHGR1) mRNA and protein on the molecular level and propose a functional role of the PHGR1 protein in the intestinal and gastric epithelium. PHGR1 mRNA and protein expression in human tissues and cell lines were characterized by quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, Northern blotting, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Glycosylation was assessed by a chemical deglycosylation assay, whereas intracellular localization was studied by immunofluorescent staining of cell line cells. PHGR1 mRNA levels in HT29 cells was reduced by RNA interference and the resulting global changes in gene expression assessed by microarray hybridization. PHGR1 mRNA and protein were found to be expressed specifically in epithelial cells of intestinal mucosa, with the highest expression in the most mature and differentiated cells. PHGR1 protein was found to be glycosylated and to localize to both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Transcript profiling and gene ontology analysis of HT29 cells subjected to PHGR1 knockdown suggested a functional relationship with transport and metabolic processes. Examination of PHGR1 mRNA and protein levels in lymph nodes with known colorectal cancer metastases indicated that they may serve as biomarkers for detection of such metastases. Functional analyses of the novel PHGR1 mRNA and protein suggest an essential role in gastrointestinal epithelium and a clinical application in detection of colorectal cancer lymph node metastases.

  8. Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of delta f particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future

  9. Visualization study of operators' plant knowledge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Tarou; Furuta, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Shinji

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear plants are typically very complicated systems and are required extremely high level safety on the operations. Since it is never possible to include all the possible anomaly scenarios in education/training curriculum, plant knowledge formation is desired for operators to enable thein to act against unexpected anomalies based on knowledge base decision making. The authors have been conducted a study on operators' plant knowledge model for the purpose of supporting operators' effort in forming this kind of plant knowledge. In this report, an integrated plant knowledge model consisting of configuration space, causality space, goal space and status space is proposed. The authors examined appropriateness of this model and developed a prototype system to support knowledge formation by visualizing the operators' knowledge model and decision making process in knowledge-based actions with this model on a software system. Finally the feasibility of this prototype as a supportive method in operator education/training to enhance operators' ability in knowledge-based performance has been evaluated. (author)

  10. Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y. [and others

    2000-01-19

    The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of delta f particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future.

  11. The Genetics Panel of the NAS BEAR I Committee (1956): epistolary evidence suggests self-interest may have prompted an exaggeration of radiation risks that led to the adoption of the LNT cancer risk assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2014-09-01

    This paper extends a series of historical papers which demonstrated that the linear-no-threshold (LNT) model for cancer risk assessment was founded on ideological-based scientific deceptions by key radiation genetics leaders. Based on an assessment of recently uncovered personal correspondence, it is shown that some members of the United States (US) National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation I (BEAR I) Genetics Panel were motivated by self-interest to exaggerate risks to promote their science and personal/professional agenda. Such activities have profound implications for public policy and may have had a significant impact on the adoption of the LNT model for cancer risk assessment.

  12. Model study radioecology Biblis. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The second part of the study deals with questions concerning the release of radioactive substances into the environment via the air pathway and their diffusion. On the basis of an introductory lecture on basic principles the interrelations within the whole complex to be considered are discussed. For the release itself, the fundamental issues concerning type and quantity of radioactive substances and their time behaviour are established. With regard to diffusion, calculation models and their parameters are reviewed. Much the same as the first colloquium, this one too aims at compiling existing models and data, determining the known facts and the questions still open and formulating tasks for the further activities. Thirteen questions emerged. They are concerned, above all, with the existing conditions for release and diffusion at the site. These questions will be dealt with in the forms of partial studies by individual participants or by task groups. Results will be reported on at further colloquia. (orig.) [de

  13. Modeling measurement error in tumor characterization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoram Paul

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Etiologic studies of cancer increasingly use molecular features such as gene expression, DNA methylation and sequence mutation to subclassify the cancer type. In large population-based studies, the tumor tissues available for study are archival specimens that provide variable amounts of amplifiable DNA for molecular analysis. As molecular features measured from small amounts of tumor DNA are inherently noisy, we propose a novel approach to improve statistical efficiency when comparing groups of samples. We illustrate the phenomenon using the MethyLight technology, applying our proposed analysis to compare MLH1 DNA methylation levels in males and females studied in the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Results We introduce two methods for computing empirical weights to model heteroscedasticity that is caused by sampling variable quantities of DNA for molecular analysis. In a simulation study, we show that using these weights in a linear regression model is more powerful for identifying differentially methylated loci than standard regression analysis. The increase in power depends on the underlying relationship between variation in outcome measure and input DNA quantity in the study samples. Conclusions Tumor characteristics measured from small amounts of tumor DNA are inherently noisy. We propose a statistical analysis that accounts for the measurement error due to sampling variation of the molecular feature and show how it can improve the power to detect differential characteristics between patient groups.

  14. Screening design for model sensitivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, James P.; Koenig, George G.; Bruce, Dorothy

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes a different approach to sensitivity studies for environmental, including atmospheric, physics models. The sensitivity studies were performed on a multispectral environmental data and scene generation capability. The capability includes environmental physics models that are used to generate data and scenes for simulation of environmental materials, features, and conditions, such as trees, clouds, soils, and snow. These studies were performed because it is difficult to obtain input data for many of the environmental variables. The problem to solve is to determine which of the 100 or so input variables, used by the generation capability, are the most important. These sensitivity studies focused on the generation capabilities needed to predict and evaluate the performance of sensor systems operating in the infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The sensitivity study approach described uses a screening design. Screening designs are analytical techniques that use a fraction of all of the combinations of the potential input variables and conditions to determine which are the most important. Specifically a 20-run Plackett-Burman screening design was used to study the sensitivity of eight data and scene generation capability computed response variables to 11 selected input variables. This is a two-level design, meaning that the range of conditions is represented by two different values for each of the 11 selected variables. The eight response variables used were maximum, minimum, range, and mode of the model-generated temperature and radiance values. The result is that six of the 11 input variables (soil moisture, solar loading, roughness length, relative humidity, surface albedo, and surface emissivity) had a statistically significant effect on the response variables.

  15. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  16. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  17. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  18. Models to study gravitational biology of Mammalian reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet; Ronca, April; Grindeland, Richard; Wade, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Mammalian reproduction evolved within Earth's 1-g gravitational field. As we move closer to the reality of space habitation, there is growing scientific interest in how different gravitational states influence reproduction in mammals. Habitation of space and extended spaceflight missions require prolonged exposure to decreased gravity (hypogravity, i.e., weightlessness). Lift-off and re-entry of the spacecraft are associated with exposure to increased gravity (hypergravity). Existing data suggest that spaceflight is associated with a constellation of changes in reproductive physiology and function. However, limited spaceflight opportunities and confounding effects of various nongravitational factors associated with spaceflight (i.e., radiation, stress) have led to the development of ground-based models for studying the effects of altered gravity on biological systems. Human bed rest and rodent hindlimb unloading paradigms are used to study exposure to hypogravity. Centrifugation is used to study hypergravity. Here, we review the results of spaceflight and ground-based models of altered gravity on reproductive physiology. Studies utilizing ground-based models that simulate hyper- and hypogravity have produced reproductive results similar to those obtained from spaceflight and are contributing new information on biological responses across the gravity continuum, thereby confirming the appropriateness of these models for studying reproductive responses to altered gravity and the underlying mechanisms of these responses. Together, these unique tools are yielding new insights into the gravitational biology of reproduction in mammals.

  19. Light aircraft sound transmission studies - Noise reduction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, Mahabir S.; Heitman, Karen E.; Crocker, Malcolm J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental tests conducted on the fuselage of a single-engine Piper Cherokee light aircraft suggest that the cabin interior noise can be reduced by increasing the transmission loss of the dominant sound transmission paths and/or by increasing the cabin interior sound absorption. The validity of using a simple room equation model to predict the cabin interior sound-pressure level for different fuselage and exterior sound field conditions is also presented. The room equation model is based on the sound power flow balance for the cabin space and utilizes the measured transmitted sound intensity data. The room equation model predictions were considered good enough to be used for preliminary acoustical design studies.

  20. Studying autism in rodent models: reconciling endophenotypes with comorbidities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eArgyropoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients commonly exhibit a variety of comorbid traits including seizures, anxiety, aggressive behavior, gastrointestinal problems, motor deficits, abnormal sensory processing and sleep disturbances for which the cause is unknown. These features impact negatively on daily life and can exaggerate the effects of the core diagnostic traits (social communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. Studying endophenotypes relevant to both core and comorbid features of ASD in rodent models can provide insight into biological mechanisms underlying these disorders. Here we review the characterization of endophenotypes in a selection of environmental, genetic and behavioural rodent models of ASD. In addition to exhibiting core ASD-like behaviours, each of these animal models display one or more endophenotypes relevant to comorbid features including altered sensory processing, seizure susceptibility, anxiety-like behaviour and disturbed motor functions, suggesting that these traits are indicators of altered biological pathways in ASD. However, the study of behaviours paralleling comorbid traits in animal models of ASD is an emerging field and further research is needed to assess altered gastrointestinal function, aggression and disorders of sleep onset across models. Future studies should include investigation of these endophenotypes in order to advance our understanding of the etiology of this complex disorder.

  1. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  2. Resource Tracking Model Updates and Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Moore, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Tracking Model has been updated to capture system manager and project manager inputs. Both the Trick/General Use Nodal Network Solver Resource Tracking Model (RTM) simulator and the RTM mass balance spreadsheet have been revised to address inputs from system managers and to refine the way mass balance is illustrated. The revisions to the RTM included the addition of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to recover hydrogen from Sabatier Reactor methane, which was vented in the prior version of the RTM. The effect of the PPA on the overall balance of resources in an exploration vehicle is illustrated in the increased recycle of vehicle oxygen. Case studies have been run to show the relative effect of performance changes on vehicle resources.

  3. Treatment satisfaction with tadalafil or tamsulosin vs placebo in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): results from a randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Matthias; Giuliano, François; Baygani, Simin K; Melby, Thomas; Sontag, Angelina

    2014-10-01

    To assess treatment satisfaction with tadalafil or tamsulosin vs placebo in a 12-week, randomised, double-blind study of men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). After a 4-week placebo lead-in period, men aged ≥45 years with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of ≥13 and a maximum urinary flow rate of ≥4 to ≤15 mL/s received placebo (172 men), tadalafil 5 mg (171), or tamsulosin 0.4 mg (168) once daily for 12 weeks. Treatment Satisfaction Scale-BPH (TSS-BPH) responses were assessed based on median treatment differences using the van Elteren test. Overall treatment satisfaction was greater for tadalafil vs placebo (P = 0.005), based on greater satisfaction with efficacy (P = 0.003); neither overall treatment satisfaction nor satisfaction with efficacy was greater for tamsulosin vs placebo (P ≥ 0.409). For individual questions, 66.5% of men rated tadalafil treatment as 'effective/very effective' (Question 1, Q1) vs placebo (P = 0.011), 72.6% would 'definitely/probably recommend their treatment' (Q3; P = 0.043), 71.8% were generally 'very satisfied/satisfied with their medication' (Q8; P tamsulosin, differences vs placebo were not statistically significant. Subgroup analyses of overall TSS-BPH by baseline age (≤65/>65 years), history of erectile dysfunction (yes/no), LUTS/BPH severity (IPSStamsulosin and placebo. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  4. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  5. Relapse Model among Iranian Drug Users: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Amir; Seyedfatemi, Naiemeh; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Relapse is a common problem in drug user's rehabilitation program and reported in all over the country. An in-depth study on patients' experiences can be used for exploring the relapse process among drug users. Therefore, this study suggests a model for relapse process among Iranian drug users. In this qualitative study with grounded theory approach, 22 participants with rich information about the phenomenon under the study were selected using purposive, snowball and theoretical sampling methods. After obtaining the informed consent, data were collected based on face-to-face, in-depth, semi-structured interviews. All interviews were analyzed in three stages of axial, selective and open coding methods. Nine main categories emerged, including avoiding of drugs, concerns about being accepted, family atmosphere, social conditions, mental challenge, self-management, self-deception, use and remorse and a main category, feeling of loss as the core variable. Mental challenge has two subcategories, evoking pleasure and craving. Relapse model is a dynamic and systematic process including from cycles of drug avoidance to remorse with a core variable as feeling of loss.  Relapse process is a dynamic and systematic process that needs an effective control. Determining a relapse model as a clear process could be helpful in clinical sessions. RESULTS of this research have depicted relapse process among Iranian drugs user by conceptual model.

  6. Decision making about healthcare-related tests and diagnostic test strategies. Paper 5: a qualitative study with experts suggests that test accuracy data alone is rarely sufficient for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Reem A; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Ventresca, Matthew; Brozek, Jan; Schünemann, Holger J

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the critical factors that determine recommendations and other decisions about healthcare-related tests and diagnostic strategies (HCTDS). We used a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 24 international experts (informants) in evidence and decisions about HCTDS. Although test accuracy (TA) was the factor most commonly considered by organizations when developing recommendations about HCTDS, informants agreed that TA is necessary but rarely, if ever, sufficient and may be misleading when solely considered. The informants identified factors that are important for developing recommendations about HCTDS. Informants largely agreed that laying out the potential care pathways based on the test result is an essential early step but is rarely done in developing recommendations about HCTDS. Most informants also agreed that decision analysis could be useful for organizing the clinical, cost, and preference data relevant to the use of tests in the absence of direct evidence. However, they noted that using models is limited by the lack of resources and expertise required. Developing guidelines about HCTDS requires consideration of factors beyond TA, but implementing this may be challenging. Further development and testing of "frameworks" that can guide this process is a priority for decision makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Simple Model to Study Tau Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Houck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tau proteins play a role in the stabilization of microtubules, but in pathological conditions, tauopathies, tau is modified by phosphorylation and can aggregate into aberrant aggregates. These aggregates could be toxic to cells, and different cell models have been used to test for compounds that might prevent these tau modifications. Here, we have used a cell model involving the overexpression of human tau in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing tau in a stable manner, we have been able to replicate the phosphorylation of intracellular tau. This intracellular tau increases its own level of phosphorylation and aggregates, likely due to the regulatory effect of some growth factors on specific tau kinases such as GSK3. In these conditions, a change in secreted tau was observed. Reversal of phosphorylation and aggregation of tau was found by the use of lithium, a GSK3 inhibitor. Thus, we propose this as a simple cell model to study tau pathology in nonneuronal cells due to their viability and ease to work with.

  8. Using an experimental model for the study of therapeutic touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daniella Soares; Marta, Ilda Estéfani Ribeiro; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari; de Quadros, Andreza Urba; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2013-02-01

    to verify whether the Paw Edema Model can be used in investigations about the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation by measuring the variables pain, edema and neutrophil migration. this is a pilot and experimental study, involving ten male mice of the same genetic strain and divided into experimental and control group, submitted to the chemical induction of local inflammation in the right back paw. The experimental group received a daily administration of Therapeutic Touch for 15 minutes during three days. the data showed statistically significant differences in the nociceptive threshold and in the paw circumference of the animals from the experimental group on the second day of the experiment. the experiment model involving animals can contribute to study the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation, and adjustments are suggested in the treatment duration, number of sessions and experiment duration.

  9. Paradigms of knowledge management with systems modelling case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Krishna Nath

    2016-01-01

    This book has been written by studying the knowledge management implementation at POWERGRID India, one of the largest power distribution companies in the world. The patterns which have led to models, both hypothesized and data-enabled, have been provided. The book suggests ways and means to follow for knowledge management implementation, especially for organizations with multiple business verticals to follow. The book underlines that knowledge is both an entity and organizational asset which can be managed. A holistic view of knowledge management implementation has been provided. It also emphasizes the phenomenological importance of human resource parameters as compared to that of technological parameters. Various hypotheses have been tested to validate the significant models hypothesized. This work will prove useful to corporations, researchers, and independent professionals working to study or implement knowledge management paradigms.

  10. Surface science studies of model fuel cell electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, N. M.; Ross, P. N.

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss progress in the understanding of electrocatalytic reactions through the study of model systems with surface spectroscopies. Pure metal single crystals and well-characterized bulk alloys have been used quite successfully as models for real (commercial) electrocatalysts. Given the sheer volume of all work in electrocatalysis that is on fuel cell reactions, we will focus on electrocatalysts for fuel cells. Since Pt is the model fuel cell electrocatalyst, we will focus entirely on studies of pure Pt and Pt bimetallic alloys. The electrode reactions discussed include hydrogen oxidation/evolution, oxygen reduction, and the electrooxidation of carbon monoxide, formic acid, and methanol. Surface spectroscopies emphasized are FTIR, STM/AFM and surface X-ray scattering (SXS). The discussion focuses on the relation between the energetics of adsorption of intermediates and the reaction pathway and kinetics, and how the energetics and kinetics relate to the extrinsic properties of the model system, e.g. surface structure and/or composition. Finally, we conclude by discussing the limitations that are reached by using pure metal single crystals and well-characterized bulk alloys as models for real catalysts, and suggest some directions for developing more realistic systems.

  11. Model study radioecology Biblis. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The first part of the study deals with questions concerning radiation on account of the release of radioactive substances into the environment via the aquatic pathway. The discussion is preceded by a lecture on the basis for the calculations, and on a lecture on the results of primary radiological model calculations. The colloquium aims at establishing existing knowledge, at coordinating deviating opinions, and at elaborating questions still open and the possibility to deal with these. On the whole, ten questions have emerged. They are mainly concerned with site conditions. These questions will be dealt with in the form of partial studies by individual participants or by task groups. The results will be discussed at further colloquia. (orig.) [de

  12. Mechanical krill models for studying coordinated swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Alice; Lai, Hong Kuan; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    The global biomass of Homo sapiens is about a third of the biomass of Euphausia superba, commonly known as the Antarctic krill. Krill participate in organized social behavior. Propulsive jets generated by individual krill in a school have been suggested to be important in providing hydrodynamic sensory cues. The importance of body positions and body angles on the wakes generated is challenging to study in free swimming krill. Our solution to study the flow fields of multiple krill was to develop mechanical krill robots. We designed krillbots using mostly 3D printed parts that are actuated by stepper motors. The krillbot limb lengths, angles, inter-limb spacing and pleopod stroke frequency were dynamically scaled using published data on free-swimming krill kinematics. The vertical and horizontal spacing between krillbots, as well as the body angle, are adjustable. In this study, we conducted particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements with two tethered krillbots in a flow tank with no background flow. One krillbot was placed above and behind the other. Both krillbots were at a zero-degree body angle. Wake-body interactions visualized from PIV data will be presented.

  13. In Vivo Studies Suggest that Induction of VanS-Dependent Vancomycin Resistance Requires Binding of the Drug to d-Ala-d-Ala Termini in the Peptidoglycan Cell Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, Min Jung; Novotna, Gabriela; Hesketh, Andrew R.; Hill, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    VanRS two-component regulatory systems are key elements required for the transcriptional activation of inducible vancomycin resistance genes in bacteria, but the precise nature of the ligand signal that activates these systems has remained undefined. Using the resistance system in Streptomyces coelicolor as a model, we have undertaken a series of in vivo studies which indicate that the VanS sensor kinase in VanB-type resistance systems is activated by vancomycin in complex with the d-alanyl-d-alanine (d-Ala-d-Ala) termini of cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) precursors. Complementation of an essential d-Ala-d-Ala ligase activity by constitutive expression of vanA encoding a bifunctional d-Ala-d-Ala and d-alanyl-d-lactate (d-Ala-d-Lac) ligase activity allowed construction of strains that synthesized variable amounts of PG precursors containing d-Ala-d-Ala. Assays quantifying the expression of genes under VanRS control showed that the response to vancomycin in these strains correlated with the abundance of d-Ala-d-Ala-containing PG precursors; strains producing a lower proportion of PG precursors terminating in d-Ala-d-Ala consistently exhibited a lower response to vancomycin. Pretreatment of wild-type cells with vancomycin or teicoplanin to saturate and mask the d-Ala-d-Ala binding sites in nascent PG also blocked the transcriptional response to subsequent vancomycin exposure, and desleucyl vancomycin, a vancomycin analogue incapable of interacting with d-Ala-d-Ala residues, failed to induce van gene expression. Activation of resistance by a vancomycin–d-Ala-d-Ala PG complex predicts a limit to the proportion of PG that can be derived from precursors terminating in d-Ala-d-Lac, a restriction also enforced by the bifunctional activity of the VanA ligase. PMID:23836175

  14. Generalized Linear Models in Family Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    Generalized linear models (GLMs), as defined by J. A. Nelder and R. W. M. Wedderburn (1972), unify a class of regression models for categorical, discrete, and continuous response variables. As an extension of classical linear models, GLMs provide a common body of theory and methodology for some seemingly unrelated models and procedures, such as…

  15. Model refinement for offshore platforms: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Zongli; Wu, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    Offshore jacket platforms are widely used in offshore oil and gas exploitation. Finite element models of such structures need to have many degrees of freedom (DOFs) to represent the geometrical detail of complex structures, thereby leading to incompatibility in the number of DOFs of experimental models. To bring them both to the same order while ensuring that the essential eigen- properties of the refined model match those of experimental models, an extended model refinement procedure is presented in this paper. Vibration testing of an offshore jacket platform model is performed to validate the applicability of the proposed approach. A full-order finite element model of the platform is established and then tuned to meet the measured modal properties identified from the acceleration signals. Both model reduction and modal expansion methods are investigated, as well as various scenarios of sensor arrangements. Upon completion of the refinement, the updated jacket platform model matches the natural frequencies of the measured model well.

  16. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    develop fulminant hepatitis, acute hepatitis, or chronic liver disease after adoptive transfer, and others spontaneously develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Among HCV transgenic mice, most develop no disease, but acute hepatitis has been observed in one model, and HCC in another. Although mice are not susceptible to HBV and HCV, their ability to replicate these viruses and to develop liver diseases characteristic of human infections provides opportunities to study pathogenesis and develop novel therapeutics In the search for the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in hepatitis viral infection, two viral proteins, the core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV and the HBx protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV, have been shown to possess oncogenic potential through transgenic mouse studies, indicating the direct involvement of the hepatitis viruses in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    This may explain the very high frequency of HCC in patients with HCV or HBV infection.

    Chimpanzees remain the only recognized animal model for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV. Studies performed in chimpanzees played a critical role in the discovery of HCV and are continuing to play an essential role in defining the natural history of this important human pathogen. In the absence of a reproducible cell culture system, the infectivity titer of HCV challenge pools can be determined only in chimpanzees.

    Recent studies in chimpanzees have provided new insight into the nature of host immune responses-particularly the intrahepatic responses-following primary and secondary experimental HCV infections. The immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates against HCV can be tested only in chimpanzees. Finally, it would not have been possible to demonstrate

  17. Measuring the performance of business model configurations: A field study from the medico tech industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter Poulsen; Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten

    This study suggests applying the lenses of Activity Systems Theory and Representation Theory in relation to the study of business models. It examines the link between the 71 business model configurations identified by Taran et al. (2016) and performance measures through the mechanisms of value...

  18. Results of the eruptive column model inter-comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio; Suzuki, Yujiro; Cerminara, M.; Devenish, Ben J.; Esposti Ongaro, T.; Herzog, Michael; Van Eaton, Alexa; Denby, L.C.; Bursik, Marcus; de' Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Engwell, S.; Neri, Augusto; Barsotti, Sara; Folch, Arnau; Macedonio, Giovanni; Girault, F.; Carazzo, G.; Tait, S.; Kaminski, E.; Mastin, Larry G.; Woodhouse, Mark J.; Phillips, Jeremy C.; Hogg, Andrew J.; Degruyter, Wim; Bonadonna, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    This study compares and evaluates one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) numerical models of volcanic eruption columns in a set of different inter-comparison exercises. The exercises were designed as a blind test in which a set of common input parameters was given for two reference eruptions, representing a strong and a weak eruption column under different meteorological conditions. Comparing the results of the different models allows us to evaluate their capabilities and target areas for future improvement. Despite their different formulations, the 1D and 3D models provide reasonably consistent predictions of some of the key global descriptors of the volcanic plumes. Variability in plume height, estimated from the standard deviation of model predictions, is within ~ 20% for the weak plume and ~ 10% for the strong plume. Predictions of neutral buoyancy level are also in reasonably good agreement among the different models, with a standard deviation ranging from 9 to 19% (the latter for the weak plume in a windy atmosphere). Overall, these discrepancies are in the range of observational uncertainty of column height. However, there are important differences amongst models in terms of local properties along the plume axis, particularly for the strong plume. Our analysis suggests that the simplified treatment of entrainment in 1D models is adequate to resolve the general behaviour of the weak plume. However, it is inadequate to capture complex features of the strong plume, such as large vortices, partial column collapse, or gravitational fountaining that strongly enhance entrainment in the lower atmosphere. We conclude that there is a need to more accurately quantify entrainment rates, improve the representation of plume radius, and incorporate the effects of column instability in future versions of 1D volcanic plume models.

  19. An animal model to study regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Corr, Robert; Buhrley, Matthew; Wright, Kenneth; Shabahang, Shahrokh

    2011-02-01

    A growing body of evidence is demonstrating the possibility for regeneration of tissues within the pulp space and continued root development in teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. There are areas of research related to regenerative endodontics that need to be investigated in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to investigate ferret cuspid teeth as a model to investigate factors involved in regenerative endodontics. Six young male ferrets between the ages of 36-133 days were used in this investigation. Each animal was anesthetized and perfused with 10% buffered formalin. Block sections including the mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth and their surrounding periapical tissues were obtained, radiographed, decalcified, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to determine various stages of apical closure in these teeth. The permanent mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth with open apices erupted approximately 50 days after birth. Initial signs of closure of the apical foramen in these teeth were observed between 90-110 days. Complete apical closure was observed in the cuspid teeth when the animals were 133 days old. Based on the experiment, ferret cuspid teeth can be used to investigate various factors involved in regenerative endodontics that cannot be tested in human subjects. The most appropriate time to conduct the experiments would be when the ferrets are between the ages of 50 and 90 days. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a transmural anterior myocardial infarction with resultant left ventricular aneurysm formation were found in a 22-year-old man who had sustained a ballistic missile injury to his chest.

  1. Study of three-dimensional morphology of the proximal femur in developmental adult dysplasia of the hip suggests that the on-shelf modular prosthesis may not be an ideal choice for patients with Crowe type IV hips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuanglu; Zuo, Jianlin; Li, Zhizhou; Yang, Yuhui; Liu, Tong; Xiao, Jianlin; Gao, Zhongli

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the three-dimensional morphological features of the proximal femur of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). From January 2012 to December 2014, 38 patients (47 hips) of DDH were admitted and 30 normal hips were selected as controls. All hips from both groups were examined by CT scan. CT data were imported into Mimics 17.0. Three-dimensional models of the proximal femur were then reconstructed, and the following parameters were measured: neck-shaft angle, neck length, offset, height of the centre of femoral head, level of isthmus, height of the tip of greater trochanter, the medullary canal diameter of isthmus(Di), the medullary canal diameter 10 mm above the apex of the lesser trochanter(DT + 10), the medullary canal diameter 20 mm below the apex of the lesser trochanter(DT-20), and then DT + 10/Di, DT-20/Di and DT + 10/DT-20 were calculated. There was no significant difference in neck-shaft angle between Crowe I, Crowe II-III DDH and the control group, while the neck-shaft angle was much smaller in Crowe IV DDH. The neck length of Crowe IV DDH was also much smaller than those of Crowe I and Crowe II-III DDH. Height of the tip greater trochanter in Crowe IV was greater than that in Crowe I, Crowe II-III DDH and the control group. The centre of femoral head in Crowe IV DDH was lower than those in Crowe I, Crowe II-III DDH and the control group. The level of isthmus in Crowe IV was much higher than those in Crowe I, Crowe II-III DDH and the control group. DT + 10, DT-20, DT + 10/Di and DT-20/Di were much smaller in Crowe IV DDH than those in Crowe I, Crowe II-III and the control group. Neck-shaft angle in the DDH groups was not larger than that in the control group. Comparing to Crowe I, Crowe II-III DDH and the control group, Crowe IV DDH had a dramatic change in the intramedullary and extramedullary parameters, especially the dramatic narrowing of medullary canal around the level of the lesser

  2. Model Studies of the Dynamics of Bacterial Flagellar Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Lo, Chien-Jung; Berry, Richard M.; Xing, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary molecular machine that rotates the helical filaments that propel swimming bacteria. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies exist on the structure, assembly, energy input, power generation, and switching mechanism of the motor. In a previous article, we explained the general physics underneath the observed torque-speed curves with a simple two-state Fokker-Planck model. Here, we further analyze that model, showing that 1), the model predicts that the two components of the ion motive force can affect the motor dynamics differently, in agreement with latest experiments; 2), with explicit consideration of the stator spring, the model also explains the lack of dependence of the zero-load speed on stator number in the proton motor, as recently observed; and 3), the model reproduces the stepping behavior of the motor even with the existence of the stator springs and predicts the dwell-time distribution. The predicted stepping behavior of motors with two stators is discussed, and we suggest future experimental procedures for verification. PMID:19383460

  3. Model Studies of the Dynamics of Bacterial Flagellar Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, F; Lo, C; Berry, R; Xing, J

    2009-03-19

    The Bacterial Flagellar Motor is a rotary molecular machine that rotates the helical filaments which propel swimming bacteria. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies exist on the structure, assembly, energy input, power generation and switching mechanism of the motor. In our previous paper, we explained the general physics underneath the observed torque-speed curves with a simple two-state Fokker-Planck model. Here we further analyze this model. In this paper we show (1) the model predicts that the two components of the ion motive force can affect the motor dynamics differently, in agreement with the latest experiment by Lo et al.; (2) with explicit consideration of the stator spring, the model also explains the lack of dependence of the zero-load speed on stator number in the proton motor, recently observed by Yuan and Berg; (3) the model reproduces the stepping behavior of the motor even with the existence of the stator springs and predicts the dwelling time distribution. Predicted stepping behavior of motors with two stators is discussed, and we suggest future experimental verification.

  4. Model Studies of the Dynamics of Bacterial Flagellar Motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, F.; Lo, C.; Berry, R.; Xing, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Bacterial Flagellar Motor is a rotary molecular machine that rotates the helical filaments which propel swimming bacteria. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies exist on the structure, assembly, energy input, power generation and switching mechanism of the motor. In our previous paper, we explained the general physics underneath the observed torque-speed curves with a simple two-state Fokker-Planck model. Here we further analyze this model. In this paper we show (1) the model predicts that the two components of the ion motive force can affect the motor dynamics differently, in agreement with the latest experiment by Lo et al.; (2) with explicit consideration of the stator spring, the model also explains the lack of dependence of the zero-load speed on stator number in the proton motor, recently observed by Yuan and Berg; (3) the model reproduces the stepping behavior of the motor even with the existence of the stator springs and predicts the dwelling time distribution. Predicted stepping behavior of motors with two stators is discussed, and we suggest future experimental verification.

  5. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released an external review draft entitled, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios(External Review Draft). The public comment period and the external peer-review workshop are separate processes that provide opportunities for all interested parties to comment on the document. In addition to consideration by EPA, all public comments submitted in accordance with this notice will also be forwarded to EPA’s contractor for the external peer-review panel prior to the workshop. EPA has realeased this draft document solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. This document has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agency policy or determination. The purpose of this report is to describe an exploratory investigation of potential dioxin exposures to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products.

  6. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-11-25

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with 125 I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  8. Patch test study of 90 patients with tattoo reactions: negative outcome of allergy patch test to baseline batteries and culprit inks suggests allergen(s) are generated in the skin through haptenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen; Hutton Carlsen, Katrina

    2014-11-01

    Tattoo reactions, especially in red tattoos, are often suggested as allergic in nature, however, systematic evaluation by patch testing has not performed in the past. To report the results of patch testing in 90 patients with non-infectious chronic tattoo reactions. From 2009 to 2013 at the 'Tattoo Clinic', Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg University Hospital, 90 patients were patch tested with batteries of baseline allergens, disperse dyes/textile allergens, and a selection of tattoo ink stock products, which, according to case observations, were problematic, supplemented with individual culprit inks when accessible. Patients with reactions to the tattoo colour red, the most predominant colour associated with skin reactions, showed negative patch test results with common allergens. Outcomes were also negative in patients who had experienced concomitant reactions in another hitherto tolerated tattoo of the same colour as the problematic tattoo. The allergen or allergens responsible for tattoo reactions are not present directly in tattoo ink stock products. This is despite the fact that clinical histories suggest that the vast majority of clinical reactions, especially reactions to red and red nuances, are likely to be allergic events caused by the injected inks. We suggest that the responsible allergen results from a complicated and slow process of haptenization, which may even include photochemical cleavage of red azo pigment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Understanding the Experiences of Women in Jazz: A Suggested Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has long been recognized as a male-dominated field, with females traditionally having only limited acceptance, often in the roles of singer and pianist. Researchers have explored sources of the gender imbalance in the field of jazz and jazz education, but there is no theory or framework to organize such findings. This directed content…

  10. Modeled forest inventory data suggest climate benefits from fuels management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Fried; Theresa B. Jain; Jonathan. Sandquist

    2013-01-01

    As part of a recent synthesis addressing fuel management in dry, mixed-conifer forests we analyzed more than 5,000 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots, a probability sample that represents 33 million acres of these forests throughout Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and extreme northern California. We relied on the BioSum analysis framework that...

  11. Modelling Psychological Needs for User-dependent Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    gallery, bakery, bar, book store, bowling alley, cafe, casino, church, city hall, department store, food, library , mosque, movie theater, museum...district, place of worship, library as another group, and park, zoo, aquarium, natural reserve as yet another group. We have manually dis- tributed...Sacramento, Anchorage, Honolulu and Lawton. And for Erie, Lancaster , Kalamazoo, Homosassa Springs, Toledo, Albuquerque and Kansas City, our system per

  12. A Model Suggestion to Predict Leverage Ratio for Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Tüz; Şafak Ebesek

    2013-01-01

    Due to the nature, construction is an industry with high uncertainty and risk. Construction industry carries high leverage ratios. Firms with low equities work in big projects through progress payment system, but in this case, even a small negative in the planned cash flows constitute a major risk for the company.The use of leverage, with a small investment to achieve profit targets large-scale, high-profit, but also brings a high risk with it. Investors may lose all or the portion of th...

  13. Study on Uncertainty and Contextual Modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2007), s. 12-15 ISSN 1998-0140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Knowledge * contextual modelling * temporal modelling * uncertainty * knowledge management Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  14. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria

    2013-01-31

    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events.

  15. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  16. Interpersonal social responsibility model of service learning: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orit; Daniely, Noa; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira

    2018-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is commonly used in Occupational Therapy (OT) programs worldwide as a community placement educational strategy. However, most SL models are not clearly defined in terms of both methodology and learning outcomes. This longitudinal study explores a structured model of Service-Learning (Interpersonal Social Responsibility-Service Learning: ISR-SL) aimed towards the development of professional identity among OT students. Based on OT students experiences from the end of the course through later stages as mature students and professionals. A qualitative research design was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of 150 first, second, and third-year OT students and graduates who have participated in ISR-SL during their first academic year. Our findings suggest that the structured, long-term relationship with a person with a disability in the natural environment, which is the core of the ISR-SL, allowed students to develop a professional identity based on seeing the person as a whole and recognizing his/her centrality in the therapeutic relationship. This study suggests ISR-SL as future direction or next step for implementing SL in OT and other healthcare disciplines programs.

  17. Women's Suggestions for Improving Midwifery Care in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Carien I; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Wiegers, Therese A; de Cock, T Paul; Hutton, Eileen K

    2015-12-01

    The experience of the care a woman receives during pregnancy and childbirth has an immediate and long-lasting effect on her well being. The involvement of patients and clients in health care has increased over the last decades. The Dutch maternity care system offers an excellent opportunity to explore and involve women's suggestions for the improvement of midwifery care in the current maternity care model. This qualitative study is part of the "DELIVER" study. Clients were recruited from 20 midwifery practices. Purposive sampling was used to select the practices. The clients received up to three questionnaires, in which they could respond to the question; "Do you have any suggestions on how your midwife could improve his/her provision of care?" The answers were analyzed with a qualitative thematic content analysis, using the software program MAXQDA. Altogether, 3,499 answers were provided. One overarching concept emerged: clients' desire for individualized care. Within this concept, suggestions could be clustered around 1) provider characteristics: interpersonal skills, communication, and competence, and 2) service characteristics: content and quantity of care, guidance and support, continuity of care provider, continuity of care, information, and coordination of care. Informed by the suggestions of women, care to women and their families could be improved by the following: 1) more continuity of the care provider during the prenatal, natal, and postnatal periods, 2) more information and information specifically tailored for the person, 3) client-centered communication, and 4) a personal approach with 5) enough time spent per client. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...... and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  19. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  20. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  1. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  2. IRIT at TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    both criteria users preferences and geographical location criteria. 1 Introduction TREC3 2014 Contextual Suggestion track examines search techniques...Contextual Retrieval Framework We address here the contextual retrieval problem as a multi-criteria decision making ( MCDM ) problem. The difficulty here

  3. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  4. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbockel, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Various models were constructed which will allow for the variation of system components. Computer studies were then performed using the models constructed in order to study the effects of various system changes. In particular, GaAs and Si flat plate solar power arrays were studied and compared. Series and shunt resistance models were constructed. Models for the chemical kinetics of the annealing process were prepared. For all models constructed, various parametric studies were performed.

  5. Mathematical modelling with case studies using Maple and Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Mathematical ModelingMathematical models An overview of the book Some modeling approaches Modeling for decision makingCompartmental Models Introduction Exponential decay and radioactivity Case study: detecting art forgeries Case study: Pacific rats colonize New Zealand Lake pollution models Case study: Lake Burley Griffin Drug assimilation into the blood Case study: dull, dizzy, or dead? Cascades of compartments First-order linear DEs Equilibrium points and stability Case study: money, money, money makes the world go aroundModels of Single PopulationsExponential growth Density-

  6. MODEL OPTIMASI LOKASI POS PEMADAM KEBAKARAN (Studi Kasus: Kota Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Bagir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire is one of the hazards that often occur in urban areas. Many Indonesian cities usually lack of adequatepublic facilities and infrastructures, including facilities of fire hazard. It is important to reduce the risk of firehazard by optimizing the location of fire stations as facility of emergency around the city, so that the impact oflosses can be reduced. For this, defining the location and distribution of fire station should be well considered.This paper aims to discuss the development of an optimization model for fire stations’ location, developed basedon the actual quantity of flammable material, building density, accessibility and the road classes, as a networkanalysis model of Geographic Information System (GIS. In order to observe whether the developed model canwork well, Semarang City is selected as the case study.The application shows that the developed model is satisfy and is able to represent 77.29% of the real conditionof the road network. It is also revealed that the fire stations of Semarang City just presently cover 34.32% of itsarea. Therefore, it is suggested to add six new fire stations, located in Kecamatan Ngadirejo, Tlogo Mulyo,Sambiroto, Pudak Payung, Jatingaleh, and Gunungpati.

  7. Comparative study of void fraction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, R.C.; Freitas, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Some models for the calculation of void fraction in water in sub-cooled boiling and saturated vertical upward flow with forced convection have been selected and compared with experimental results in the pressure range of 1 to 150 bar. In order to know the void fraction axial distribution it is necessary to determine the net generation of vapour and the fluid temperature distribution in the slightly sub-cooled boiling region. It was verified that the net generation of vapour was well represented by the Saha-Zuber model. The selected models for the void fraction calculation present adequate results but with a tendency to super-estimate the experimental results, in particular the homogeneous models. The drift flux model is recommended, followed by the Armand and Smith models. (F.E.) [pt

  8. Study of dissolution process and its modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Beltran-Prieto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mathematical concepts and language aiming to describe and represent the interactions and dynamics of a system is known as a mathematical model. Mathematical modelling finds a huge number of successful applications in a vast amount of science, social and engineering fields, including biology, chemistry, physics, computer sciences, artificial intelligence, bioengineering, finance, economy and others. In this research, we aim to propose a mathematical model that predicts the dissolution of a solid material immersed in a fluid. The developed model can be used to evaluate the rate of mass transfer and the mass transfer coefficient. Further research is expected to be carried out to use the model as a base to develop useful models for the pharmaceutical industry to gain information about the dissolution of medicaments in the body stream and this could play a key role in formulation of medicaments.

  9. Studies in Learning Monotonic Models from Data

    OpenAIRE

    Barile, N.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes a number of new data mining algorithms which were the result of our research into the enforcement of monotony restrictions when learning (mostly non-parametric) models from data. Not only can judicious use of domain knowledge improve the predictive accuracy of data mining algorithms but also, crucially, models that are consistent with the knowledge of domain experts will be accepted and adopted much earlier than models that are not. Unfortunately, domain knowledge that i...

  10. Model boiler studies on deposition and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; McVey, E.G.

    1977-09-01

    Deposit formation was studied in a model boiler, with sea-water injections to simulate the in-leakage which could occur from sea-water cooled condensers. When All Volatile Treatment (AVT) was used for chemistry control the deposits consisted of the sea-water salts and corrosion products. With sodium phosphate added to the boiler water, the deposits also contained the phosphates derived from the sea-water salts. The deposits were formed in layers of differing compositions. There was no significant corrosion of the Fe-Ni-Cr alloy boiler tube under deposits, either on the open area of the tube or in crevices. However, carbon steel that formed a crevice around the tube was corroded severely when the boiler water did not contain phosphate. The observed corrosion of carbon steel was caused by the presence of acidic, highly concentrated chloride solution produced from the sea-water within the crevice. Results of theoretical calculations of the composition of the concentrated solution are presented. (author)

  11. Hydra, a model system for environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brian; Gagné, François; Blaise, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Hydra have been extensively used for studying the teratogenic and toxic potential of numerous toxins throughout the years and are more recently growing in popularity to assess the impacts of environmental pollutants. Hydra are an appropriate bioindicator species for use in environmental assessment owing to their easily measurable physical (morphology), biochemical (xenobiotic biotransformation; oxidative stress), behavioural (feeding) and reproductive (sexual and asexual) endpoints. Hydra also possess an unparalleled ability to regenerate, allowing the assessment of teratogenic compounds and the impact of contaminants on stem cells. Importantly, Hydra are ubiquitous throughout freshwater environments and relatively easy to culture making them appropriate for use in small scale bioassay systems. Hydra have been used to assess the environmental impacts of numerous environmental pollutants including metals, organic toxicants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds), nanomaterials and industrial and municipal effluents. They have been found to be among the most sensitive animals tested for metals and certain effluents, comparing favourably with more standardised toxicity tests. Despite their lack of use in formalised monitoring programmes, Hydra have been extensively used and are regarded as a model organism in aquatic toxicology.

  12. Personalized and not general suggestion produces false autobiographical memories and suggestion-consistent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Jarry, Josée L; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Suggesting false childhood events produces false autobiographical beliefs, memories and suggestion-consistent behavior. The mechanisms by which suggestion affects behavior are not understood, and whether false beliefs and memories are necessary for suggestions to impact behavior remains unexplored. We examined the relative effects of providing a personalized suggestion (suggesting that an event occurred to the person in the past), and/or a general suggestion (suggesting that an event happened to others in the past). Participants (N=122) received a personalized suggestion, a general suggestion, both or neither, about childhood illness due to spoiled peach yogurt. The personalized suggestion resulted in false beliefs, false memories, and suggestion-consistent behavioral intentions immediately after the suggestion. One week or one month later participants completed a taste test that involved eating varieties of crackers and yogurts. The personalized suggestion led to reduced consumption of only peach yogurt, and those who reported a false memory showed the most eating suppression. This effect on behavior was equally strong after one week and one month, showing a long lived influence of the personalized suggestion. The general suggestion showed no effects. Suggestions that convey personal information about a past event produce false autobiographical memories, which in turn impact behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bayesian graphical models for genomewide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzilli, Claudio J; Stallard, Nigel; Whittaker, John C

    2006-07-01

    As the extent of human genetic variation becomes more fully characterized, the research community is faced with the challenging task of using this information to dissect the heritable components of complex traits. Genomewide association studies offer great promise in this respect, but their analysis poses formidable difficulties. In this article, we describe a computationally efficient approach to mining genotype-phenotype associations that scales to the size of the data sets currently being collected in such studies. We use discrete graphical models as a data-mining tool, searching for single- or multilocus patterns of association around a causative site. The approach is fully Bayesian, allowing us to incorporate prior knowledge on the spatial dependencies around each marker due to linkage disequilibrium, which reduces considerably the number of possible graphical structures. A Markov chain-Monte Carlo scheme is developed that yields samples from the posterior distribution of graphs conditional on the data from which probabilistic statements about the strength of any genotype-phenotype association can be made. Using data simulated under scenarios that vary in marker density, genotype relative risk of a causative allele, and mode of inheritance, we show that the proposed approach has better localization properties and leads to lower false-positive rates than do single-locus analyses. Finally, we present an application of our method to a quasi-synthetic data set in which data from the CYP2D6 region are embedded within simulated data on 100K single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Analysis is quick (<5 min), and we are able to localize the causative site to a very short interval.

  14. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Rashed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed. Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  15. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, M. G.; Moklof, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed). Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  16. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  17. Policy Implications and Suggestions on Administrative Measures of Urban Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. V.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, C.; Yoon, J. H.; Chae, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency and intensity of floods are increasing worldwide as recent climate change progresses gradually. Flood management should be policy-oriented in urban municipalities due to the characteristics of urban areas with a lot of damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to prepare a flood susceptibility map by using data mining model and make a policy suggestion on administrative measures of urban flood. Therefore, we constructed a spatial database by collecting relevant factors including the topography, geology, soil and land use data of the representative city, Seoul, the capital city of Korea. Flood susceptibility map was constructed by applying the data mining models of random forest and boosted tree model to input data and existing flooded area data in 2010. The susceptibility map has been validated using the 2011 flood area data which was not used for training. The predictor importance value of each factor to the results was calculated in this process. The distance from the water, DEM and geology showed a high predictor importance value which means to be a high priority for flood preparation policy. As a result of receiver operating characteristic (ROC), random forest model showed 78.78% and 79.18% accuracy of regression and classification and boosted tree model showed 77.55% and 77.26% accuracy of regression and classification, respectively. The results show that the flood susceptibility maps can be applied to flood prevention and management, and it also can help determine the priority areas for flood mitigation policy by providing useful information to policy makers.

  18. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  19. Ontology Learning - Suggesting Associations from Text

    OpenAIRE

    Kvarv, Gøran Sveia

    2007-01-01

    In many applications, large-scale ontologies have to be constructed and maintained. A manual construction of an ontology is a time consuming and resource demanding process, often involving some domain experts. It would therefore be beneficial to support this process with tools that automates the construction of an ontology. This master thesis has examined the use of association rules for suggesting associations between words in text. In ontology learning, concepts are often extracted from d...

  20. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  1. Theoretical study on optical model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Hung Gi.

    1984-08-01

    The optical model potential of non-local effect on the rounded edge of the potential is derived. On the basis of this potential the functional form of the optical model potential, the energy dependence and relationship of its parameters, and the dependency of the values of the parameters on energy change are shown in this paper. (author)

  2. Amorphous track models: A numerical comparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greilich, Steffen; Grzanka, L.; Bassler, N.

    2010-01-01

    We present an open-source code library for amorphous track modelling which is suppose to faciliate the application and numerical comparability as well as serve as a frame-work for the implementation of new models. We show an example of using the library indicating the choice of submodels has a si...

  3. EUROCODE — Wind Action. Suggestions for modernisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Bawiec

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Standard EN 1991-1-4 2005 Part 1-4 Wind Actions should be modernized. It should be the computer program not the book. The maps of the anticipated wind speed should be replaced by the probable maximal speed of the wind blast calculated by meteorology institutes. The results of flow calculation should be converted into the spline approximated function or generalized Fourier series. The Standard should disclose physical relations wind-structure-pressure. The safety coefficients should not be included in a model of wind action at a being built object. We expect discussion.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, wind pressure, load modelling in engineering

  4. Identification of the target DNA sequence and characterization of DNA binding features of HlyU, and suggestion of a redox switch for hlyA expression in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae from in silico studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Debadrita; Pal, Aritrika; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2015-02-18

    HlyU, a transcriptional regulator common in many Vibrio species, activates the hemolysin gene hlyA in Vibrio cholerae, the rtxA1 operon in Vibrio vulnificus and the genes of plp-vah1 and rtxACHBDE gene clusters in Vibrio anguillarum. The protein is also proposed to be a potential global virulence regulator for V. cholerae and V. vulnificus. Mechanisms of gene control by HlyU in V. vulnificus and V. anguillarum are reported. However, detailed elucidation of the interaction of HlyU in V. cholerae with its target DNA at the molecular level is not available. Here we report a 17-bp imperfect palindrome sequence, 5'-TAATTCAGACTAAATTA-3', 173 bp upstream of hlyA promoter, as the binding site of HlyU. This winged helix-turn-helix protein binds necessarily as a dimer with the recognition helices contacting the major grooves and the β-sheet wings, the minor grooves. Such interactions enhance hlyA promoter activity in vivo. Mutations affecting dimerization as well as those in the DNA-protein interface hamper DNA binding and transcription regulation. Molecular dynamic simulations show hydrogen bonding patterns involving residues at the mutation sites and confirmed their importance in DNA binding. On binding to HlyU, DNA deviates by ∼68º from linearity. Dynamics also suggest a possible redox control in HlyU. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. A simplified study of public perception in the nuclear field: suggestions for educational campaign for different segments of society; Um estudo simplificado sobre a percepcao publica na area nuclear: sugestoes para campanhas educativas para os diferentes segmentos da sociedade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Renata Araujo de

    2011-07-01

    During the last years the need for the increase in the electricity energy production as much as in Brazil as in the rest of the world, has raised the tone o the debate about the environmental impacts as a result of these debates, the government and the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) have requested several opinion researches aiming at measuring and evaluating the knowledge and perception of the public in relation to the best non-polluting energy sources. Prior to 2001 these researches would not make any sense in Brazil as the majority of its power grid is made of hydroelectric plants, a renewable energy source. However, when in that year it occurred a drought, the competent authorities have faced the necessity of developing a plan, the National Energy Plan (PNE2030) which recommends, among other objectives, finalizing the construction of the Angra 3 plant and the implementation Df new nuclear plants in places still to be determined. Even considering the complexity of the subject, this paper presents a field research realized from September 28th, 2010 to October 28th, 2010 of the current level of perception of the Brazilian population, specifically the residents of three cities of Rio de Janeiro, about the nuclear area. As a result of this work, it is suggested how the competent authorities should proceed to reach in an efficient manner, by means of communication campaigns both informative and educational, a greater understanding of the population about the proposed subject. (author)

  6. Comparative Studies of Population Synthesis Models in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Comparative Studies of Population Synthesis Models in the Framework of Modified Strömgren Filters ... The study conveys a good agreement of GALEV models with modified Strömgren colours but with poor UV model predictions and observed globular cluster data, while the spectroscopic models perform badly because of ...

  7. Genetic polymorphism of human cytochrome P-450 (S)-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase. Studies with human autoantibodies suggest a functionally altered cytochrome P-450 isozyme as cause of the genetic deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, U.T.; Meyer, U.A.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of the anticonvulsant mephenytoin is subject to a genetic polymorphism. In 2-5% of Caucasians and 18-23% of Japanese subjects a specific cytochrome P-450 isozyme, P-450 meph, is functionally deficient or missing. The authors have accumulated evidence that autoimmune antibodies observed in sera of patients with tienilic acid induced hepatitis (anti-liver kidney microsome 2 or anti-LKM2 antibodies) specifically recognize the cytochrome P-450 involved in the mephrenytoin hydroxylation polymorphism. This is demonstrated by immunoinhibition and immunoprecipitation of microsomal (S)-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation activity and by the recognition by anti-LKM2 antibodies of a single [ 125 I]-protein band on immunoblots of human liver microsomes after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or isoelectric focusing. The cytochrome P-450 recognized by anti-LKM2 antibodies was immunopurified from microsomes derived from livers of extensive (EM) or poor metabolizers (PM) of (S)-mephenytoin. Comparison of the EM-type cytochrome P-450 to that isolated from PM livers revealed no difference in regard to immuno-cross-reactivity, molecular weight, isoelectric point, relative content in microsomes, two-dimensional tryptic peptide maps, one-dimensional peptide maps with three proteases, amino acid composition, and amino-terminal protein sequence. Finally, the same protein was precipitated from microsomes prepared from the liver biopsy of a subject phenotyped in vivo as a poor metabolizer of mephenytoin. These data strongly suggest that the mephenytoin hydroxylation deficiency is caused by a minor structural change leading to a functionally altered cytochrome P-450 isozyme

  8. An observational study suggesting clinical benefit for adjuvant postoperative chemoradiation in a population of over 500 cases after gastric resection with D2 nodal dissection for adenocarcinoma of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung; Lim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jeeyun; Kang, Won Ki; MacDonald, John S.; Park, Chan Hyung; Park, Se Hoon; Lee, Se-Hoon; Kim, Kihyun; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Won Seog; Jung, Chul Won; Park, Young Suk; Im, Young-Hyuck; Sohn, Tae Sung; Noh, Jae Hyung; Heo, Jin Seok; Kim, Yong Il; Park, Chul Keun; Park, Keunchil

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The role of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in D2-resected gastric-cancer patients has not been defined yet. We investigated the effect of postoperative chemoradiotherapy on the relapse rate and survival rate of patients with D2-resected gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: From August 1995 to April 2001, 544 patients received postoperative CRT after curative D2 resection. During the same period of time, 446 patients received surgery without further adjuvant treatment. The adjuvant CRT consisted of 400 mg/m 2 of fluorouracil plus 20 mg/m 2 of leucovorin for 5 days, followed by 4,500 cGy of radiotherapy for 5 weeks, with fluorouracil and leucovorin on the first 4 and the last 3 days of radiotherapy. Two 5-day cycles of fluorouracil and leucovorin were given 4 weeks after the completion of radiotherapy. Results: The median duration of overall survival was significantly longer in the CRT group than in the comparison group (95.3 months vs. 62.6 months), which corresponds to a hazard ratio for death of 0.80 (p = 0.0200) or a reduction of 20% in the risk of death in the CRT group. The 5-year survival rates were consistently longer in the CRT group at Stages II, IIIA, IIIB, and IV than those in the comparison group. The CRT was associated with increases in the median duration of relapse-free survival (75.6 months vs. 52.7 months; hazard ratio for relapse, 0.80, p = 0.0160). Conclusion: Our results highly suggest that the postoperative chemoradiotherapy in D2-resected gastric-cancer patients can prolong survival and decrease recurrence

  9. Reconstructing the life of an unknown (ca. 500 years-old South American Inca) mummy--multidisciplinary study of a Peruvian Inca mummy suggests severe Chagas disease and ritual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Peschel, Oliver; Haas-Gebhard, Brigitte; Bachmeier, Beatrice E; Pusch, Carsten M; Nerlich, Andreas G

    2014-01-01

    The paleopathological, paleoradiological, histological, molecular and forensic investigation of a female mummy (radiocarbon dated 1451-1642 AD) provides circumstantial evidence for massive skull trauma affecting a young adult female individual shortly before death along with chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). The mummy (initially assumed to be a German bog body) was localized by stable isotope analysis to South America at/near the Peruvian/Northern Chilean coast line. This is further supported by New World camelid fibers attached to her plaits, typical Inca-type skull deformation and the type of Wormian bone at her occiput. Despite an only small transverse wound of the supraorbital region computed tomography scans show an almost complete destruction of face and frontal skull bones with terrace-like margins, but without evidence for tissue reaction. The type of destruction indicates massive blunt force applied to the center of the face. Stable isotope analysis indicates South American origin: Nitrogen and hydrogen isotope patterns indicate an extraordinarily high marine diet along with C4-plant alimentation which fits best to the coastal area of Pacific South America. A hair strand over the last ten months of her life indicates a shift to a more "terrestric" nutrition pattern suggesting either a move from the coast or a change in her nutrition. Paleoradiology further shows extensive hypertrophy of the heart muscle and a distended large bowel/rectum. Histologically, in the rectum wall massive fibrosis alternates with residual smooth muscle. The latter contains multiple inclusions of small intracellular parasites as confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular ancient DNA analysis to represent a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This case shows a unique paleopathological setting with massive blunt force trauma to the skull nurturing the hypothesis of a ritual homicide as previously described in South American mummies in an individual that

  10. Reconstructing the Life of an Unknown (ca. 500 Years-Old South American Inca) Mummy – Multidisciplinary Study of a Peruvian Inca Mummy Suggests Severe Chagas Disease and Ritual Homicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Peschel, Oliver; Haas-Gebhard, Brigitte; Bachmeier, Beatrice E.; Pusch, Carsten M.; Nerlich, Andreas G.

    2014-01-01

    The paleopathological, paleoradiological, histological, molecular and forensic investigation of a female mummy (radiocarbon dated 1451–1642 AD) provides circumstantial evidence for massive skull trauma affecting a young adult female individual shortly before death along with chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). The mummy (initially assumed to be a German bog body) was localized by stable isotope analysis to South America at/near the Peruvian/Northern Chilean coast line. This is further supported by New World camelid fibers attached to her plaits, typical Inca-type skull deformation and the type of Wormian bone at her occiput. Despite an only small transverse wound of the supraorbital region computed tomography scans show an almost complete destruction of face and frontal skull bones with terrace-like margins, but without evidence for tissue reaction. The type of destruction indicates massive blunt force applied to the center of the face. Stable isotope analysis indicates South American origin: Nitrogen and hydrogen isotope patterns indicate an extraordinarily high marine diet along with C4-plant alimentation which fits best to the coastal area of Pacific South America. A hair strand over the last ten months of her life indicates a shift to a more “terrestric” nutrition pattern suggesting either a move from the coast or a change in her nutrition. Paleoradiology further shows extensive hypertrophy of the heart muscle and a distended large bowel/rectum. Histologically, in the rectum wall massive fibrosis alternates with residual smooth muscle. The latter contains multiple inclusions of small intracellular parasites as confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular ancient DNA analysis to represent a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This case shows a unique paleopathological setting with massive blunt force trauma to the skull nurturing the hypothesis of a ritual homicide as previously described in South American mummies in an individual

  11. Elimination of HIV in South Africa through expanded access to antiretroviral therapy: a model comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontelez, J.A.; Lurie, M.N.; Barnighausen, T.; Bakker, R.; Baltussen, R.; Tanser, F.; Hallett, T.B.; Newell, M.L.; Vlas, S.J. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) using universal test and treat (UTT) has been suggested as a strategy to eliminate HIV in South Africa within 7 y based on an influential mathematical modeling study. However, the underlying deterministic model was criticized widely, and

  12. Elimination of HIV in South Africa through Expanded Access to Antiretroviral Therapy : A Model Comparison Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Hontelez (Jan); M.N. Lurie (Mark N.); T. Bärnighausen (Till); R. Bakker (Roel); R.M.P.M. Baltussen (Rob); F. Tanser (Frank); T.B. Hallett (Timothy); M.L. Newell (Marie Louise); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) using universal test and treat (UTT) has been suggested as a strategy to eliminate HIV in South Africa within 7 y based on an influential mathematical modeling study. However, the underlying deterministic model was criticized

  13. Elimination of HIV in South Africa through Expanded Access to Antiretroviral Therapy: A Model Comparison Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Hontelez (Jan); M.N. Lurie (Mark N.); T. Bärnighausen (Till); R. Bakker (Roel); R.M.P.M. Baltussen (Rob); F. Tanser (Frank); T.B. Hallett (Timothy); M.-L. Newell (Marie-Louise); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) using universal test and treat (UTT) has been suggested as a strategy to eliminate HIV in South Africa within 7 y based on an influential mathematical modeling study. However, the underlying deterministic model was criticized

  14. Study on Standard Fatigue Vehicle Load Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. P.; Li, Y. H.

    2018-02-01

    Based on the measured data of truck from three artery expressways in Guangdong Province, the statistical analysis of truck weight was conducted according to axle number. The standard fatigue vehicle model applied to industrial areas in the middle and late was obtained, which adopted equivalence damage principle, Miner linear accumulation law, water discharge method and damage ratio theory. Compared with the fatigue vehicle model Specified by the current bridge design code, the proposed model has better applicability. It is of certain reference value for the fatigue design of bridge in China.

  15. Preventing motor training through nocebo suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Antonella; Carlino, Elisa; Vase, Lene; Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2012-11-01

    Although placebos have repeatedly been shown to increase physical performance and endurance, much less is known about the effect of their negative counterpart, nocebos. Here, we employ negative suggestions and a sham electrical stimulation as a nocebo conditioning procedure in healthy subjects performing a leg extension exercise to total exhaustion. Using two different protocols, we analyze the contribution of expectation alone or the combination of conditioning and expectation to the nocebo effect evaluated as the change of work performed and rate of perceived exertion. We find that it is possible to negatively modulate the physical performance in both cases, and we argue that this effect can effectively offset the outcome of training programs.

  16. Pulse radiolysis studies of model membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijman, M.G.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the influence of the structure of membranes on the processes in cell membranes were examined. Different models of the membranes were evaluated. Pulse radiolysis was used as the technique to examine the membranes. (R.B.)

  17. Neuronal Models for Studying Tau Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Koechling

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most frequent neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia in the aged human population. It is characterized by the presence of two main pathological hallmarks in the brain: senile plaques containing -amyloid peptide and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, consisting of fibrillar polymers of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein. Both of these histological characteristics of the disease have been simulated in genetically modified animals, which today include numerous mouse, fish, worm, and fly models of AD. The objective of this review is to present some of the main animal models that exist for reproducing symptoms of the disorder and their advantages and shortcomings as suitable models of the pathological processes. Moreover, we will discuss the results and conclusions which have been drawn from the use of these models so far and their contribution to the development of therapeutic applications for AD.

  18. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  19. A comparative study of explicit and implicit modelling of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Further, for both speaker identification and verification tasks the explicit modelling provides relatively more complimentary information to the state-of-the-art vocal tract features. The contribution of the explicit features is relatively more robust against noise. We suggest that the explicit approach can be used to model the ...

  20. In vitro study of uptake and synthesis of creatine and its precursors by cerebellar granule cells and astrocytes suggests some hypotheses on the physiopathology of the inherited disorders of creatine metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carducci Claudia

    2012-04-01

    results confirm that both neurons and astrocytes have the capability to synthesize and uptake Cr, and suggest that at least in vitro intracellular Cr can increase to a much greater extent through uptake than through de novo synthesis. Our results are compatible with the clinical observations that when the Cr transporter is defective, intracellular Cr is absent despite the brain should be able to synthesize it. Further research is needed to fully understand to what extent our results reflect the in vivo situation.

  1. Metabolic model of inhaled plutonium for radiation protection purposes: experimental animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Data from experimental animal studies and from accidental exposures to humans were used in the formulation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1966 Task Group Lung Model (TGLM). Data from experimental animal studies and from human studies of Pu fallout and accidental exposures suggested 239 PuO 2 should be a Class Y compound. More recent changes in the model reclassifying 241 AmO 2 and 244 CmO 2 lung retention from Class Y (years) to Class W (weeks) (IC79) were based on animal studies. Animal studies provided information that supports and verifies the model, that suggests changes in the model and identifies new parameters that could be incorporated in the model. The metabolic differences observed in various animal species and differences related to deposition and age suggest that caution must be exercised in extrapolating quantitative data from animals to humans. The animal data suggest many parameters that could be considered in improving the model; however, we must be concerned that these improvements do not make the model unnecessarily complex for radiation protection purposes

  2. Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alganami, Fatimah; Varese, Filippo; Wagstaff, Graham F; Bentall, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Auditory hallucinations are associated with signal detection biases. We examine the extent to which suggestions influence performance on a signal detection task (SDT) in highly hallucination-prone and low hallucination-prone students. We also explore the relationship between trait suggestibility, dissociation and hallucination proneness. In two experiments, students completed on-line measures of hallucination proneness (the revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale; LSHS-R), trait suggestibility (Inventory of Suggestibility) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-II). Students in the upper and lower tertiles of the LSHS-R performed an auditory SDT. Prior to the task, suggestions were made pertaining to the number of expected targets (Experiment 1, N = 60: high vs. low suggestions; Experiment 2, N = 62, no suggestion vs. high suggestion vs. no voice suggestion). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that trait suggestibility and dissociation predicted hallucination proneness. Highly hallucination-prone students showed a higher SDT bias in both studies. In Experiment 1, both bias scores were significantly affected by suggestions to the same degree. In Experiment 2, highly hallucination-prone students were more reactive to the high suggestion condition than the controls. Suggestions may affect source-monitoring judgments, and this effect may be greater in those who have a predisposition towards hallucinatory experiences.

  3. Spectroscopic studies of molybdenum complexes as models for nitrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.P.

    1981-05-01

    Because biological nitrogen fixation requires Mo, there is an interest in inorganic Mo complexes which mimic the reactions of nitrogen-fixing enzymes. Two such complexes are the dimer Mo 2 O 4 (cysteine) 2 2- and trans-Mo(N 2 ) 2 (dppe) 2 (dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane). The H 1 and C 13 NMR of solutions of Mo 2 O 4 (cys) 2 2- are described. It is shown that in aqueous solution the cysteine ligands assume at least three distinct configurations. A step-wise dissociation of the cysteine ligand is proposed to explain the data. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) of trans-Mo(N 2 ) 2 (dppe) 2 is described and compared to the EXAFS of MoH 4 (dppe) 2 . The spectra are fitted to amplitude and phase parameters developed at Bell Laboratories. On the basis of this analysis, one can determine (1) that the dinitrogen complex contains nitrogen and the hydride complex does not and (2) the correct Mo-N distance. This is significant because the Mo inn both complexes is coordinated by four P atoms which dominate the EXAFS. A similar sort of interference is present in nitrogenase due to S coordination of the Mo in the enzyme. This model experiment indicates that, given adequate signal to noise ratios, the presence or absence of dinitrogen coordination to Mo in the enzyme may be determined by EXAFS using existing data analysis techniques. A new reaction between Mo 2 O 4 (cys) 2 2- and acetylene is described to the extent it is presently understood. A strong EPR signal is observed, suggesting the production of stable Mo(V) monomers. EXAFS studies support this suggestion. The Mo K-edge is described. The edge data suggests Mo(VI) is also produced in the reaction. Ultraviolet spectra suggest that cysteine is released in the course of the reaction

  4. Suggestive evidence for association between L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNA1C) gene haplotypes and bipolar disorder in Latinos: a family-based association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Suzanne; Xu, Chun; Ramirez, Mercedes; Zavala, Juan; Armas, Regina; Contreras, Salvador A; Contreras, Javier; Dassori, Albana; Leach, Robin J; Flores, Deborah; Jerez, Alvaro; Raventós, Henriette; Ontiveros, Alfonso; Nicolini, Humberto; Escamilla, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Through recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS), several groups have reported significant association between variants in the alpha 1C subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNA1C) and bipolar disorder (BP) in European and European-American cohorts. We performed a family-based association study to determine whether CACNA1C is associated with BP in the Latino population. Methods This study consisted of 913 individuals from 215 Latino pedigrees recruited from the United States, Mexico, Guatemala, and Costa Rica. The Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping Assay was used to genotype 58 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that spanned a 602.9 kb region encompassing the CACNA1C gene including two SNPs (rs7297582 and rs1006737) previously shown to associate with BP. Individual SNP and haplotype association analyses were performed using Family-Based Association Test (version 2.0.3) and Haploview (version 4.2) software. Results An eight-locus haplotype block that included these two markers showed significant association with BP (global marker permuted p = 0.0018) in the Latino population. For individual SNPs, this sample had insufficient power (10%) to detect associations with SNPs with minor effect (odds ratio = 1.15). Conclusions Although we were not able to replicate findings of association between individual CACNA1C SNPs rs7297582 and rs1006737 and BP, we were able to replicate the GWAS signal reported for CACNA1C through a haplotype analysis that encompassed these previously reported significant SNPs. These results provide additional evidence that CACNA1C is associated with BP and provides the first evidence that variations in this gene might play a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder in the Latino population. PMID:23437964

  5. Multidimensional Big Spatial Data Modeling Through A Case Study: Lte Rf Subsystem Power Consumption Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Musiige, Deogratius; Mioc, Darka

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study for comparing different multidimensional mathematical modeling methodologies used in multidimensional spatial big data modeling and proposing a new technique. An analysis of multidimensional modeling approaches (neural networks, polynomial interpolation and homoto...

  6. Modeling the geographical studies with GeoGebra-software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mathematical modeling in geography is one of the most important strategies in order to establish the evolution and the prevision of geographical phenomena. Models must have a simplified structure, to reflect essential components and must be selective, structured, and suggestive and approximate the reality. Models could be static or dynamic, developed in a theoretical, symbolic, conceptual or mental way, mathematically modeled. The present paper is focused on the virtual model which uses GeoGebra software, free and available at www.geogebra.org, in order to establish new methods of geographical analysis in a dynamic, didactic way.

  7. Alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, and phytotherapic compounds in men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction: A systematic review and meta-analysis of urodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Ferdinando; Creta, Massimiliano; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Gacci, Mauro; Li Marzi, Vincenzo; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

    2018-03-31

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the urodynamic outcomes of alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists (ABs), 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5is), and phytotherapic compounds in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic obstruction (LUTS/BPO). A systematic review of PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases was performed in June 2017. We included full papers that met the following criteria: original research; English language; human studies; enrolling LUTS/BPO patients; reporting maximum urinary flow (Qmax), and detrusor pressure at maximum urinary flow (PdetQmax). The primary endpoint was variation in bladder outlet obstruction index (BOOI). Secondary endpoints were variations in Qmax and PdetQmax. Twenty-three studies involving 1044 patients were included in the final analysis. Eighteen, three, two, and one study evaluated the urodynamic outcomes of ABs, 5-ARIs, PDE5is, and phytotherapic compounds, respectively. BOOI, PdetQmax, and Qmax improved in a statistically significant manner in patients receiving ABs and in those receiving 5-ARIs. The overall pooled data showed a mean BOOI change of -15.40 (P < 0.00001) and of -10.55 (P = 0,004) for ABs and 5-ARIs, respectively. Mean PdetQmax and Qmax changes were:12.30 cm H 2 O (P < 0.00001) and +2.27 ml/s (P < 0.00001) for ABs and -9.63 cm H 2 O (P = 0.05), and +1.18 mL/s (P = 0.04) for 5-ARIs. PDE5is and phytotherapic compounds had no significant effects on urodynamic parameters. ABs and 5-ARIs efficiently improve BOOI in men with LUTS/BPO. Both treatments are associated with a clinically significant decrease in PdetQmax but only marginal improvements in Qmax. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Simulating lightning into the RAMS model: two case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Stefano; Avolio, Elenio; Petracca, Marco; Panegrossi, Giulia; Dietrich, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we show the results of the implementation of a tailored version of a methodology already presented in the bibliography to simulate flashes into the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The method gives the flash rate for each thundercloud, which is detected by a labelling algorithm applied to the output of RAMS. The flash rate is computed by assuming a plane capacitor model, which is charged by the non-inductive graupel-ice charge separation mechanism and is discharged by lightning. The method explicitly considers the charging zone and uses the geometry of the graupel field to redistribute the flashes. An important feature of the method is that it gives the position and time of occurrence of each flash, allowing for a detailed and comprehensive display of the lightning activity during the simulation period. The method is applied to two case studies occurred over the Lazio Region, in central Italy. Simulations are compared with the lightning detected by the LINET network. The cases refer to a thunderstorm characterized by an intense lightning activity (up to 2800 flashes per hour over the Lazio Region), and a moderate thunderstorm (up to 1600 flashes per hour over the same domain). The results show that the model is able to catch the main features of both storms and their relative differences. This feature is promising because the method is computationally fast and gives a tool to the forecaster to predict the lightning threat. Nevertheless there are errors in timing (O(3h)) and positioning (O(100km)) of the convection, which mirrors in timing and position errors of the lightning distribution. These model shortcomings presently limit the use of the lightning forecast; nevertheless the method can take advantages of future development of the model physics, initialization techniques, and ensemble forecast. A useful application of the method in an ensemble forecast is already suggested.

  9. Elastic wave scattering methods: assessments and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The author was asked by the meeting organizers to review and assess the developments over the past ten or so years in elastic wave scattering methods and to suggest areas of future research opportunities. He highlights the developments, focusing on what he feels were distinct steps forward in our theoretical understanding of how elastic waves interact with flaws. For references and illustrative figures, he decided to use as his principal source the proceedings of the various annual Reviews of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). These meetings have been the main forum not only for presenting results of theoretical research but also for demonstrating the relevance of the theoretical research for the design and interpretation of experiment. In his opinion a quantitative NDE is possible only if this relevance exists, and his major objective is to discuss and illustrate the degree to which relevance has developed

  10. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  11. Two new animal models for actinide toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Gardner, P.A.; Jones, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Two small rodent species, the grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) have tenacious retention in the liver and skeleton of plutonium and americium. The retention following intraperitoneal injection of Pu and Am in citrate solution ranged from 20 to 47% (liver) and 19 to 42% (skeleton), relatively independent of post-injection times, varying from 30 to 125 days. Based on observations extended to 125 days post-injection, the biological half-times appeared to be long. Both of these rodents are relatively long-lived (median lifespans of approximately 1400 days), breed well in captivity, and adapt suitably to laboratory conditions. It is suggested that these two species of mice, in which plutonium is partitioned between the skeleton and liver in a manner similar to that of man, may be useful animal models for actinide toxicity studies

  12. Two new rodent models for actinide toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Jones, C.W.; Gardner, P.A.; Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.; Charrier, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    Two small rodent species, the grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), have tenacious and high retention in the liver and skeleton of plutonium and americium following intraperitoneal injection of Pu and Am in citrate solution. Liver retention of Pu and Am in the grasshopper mouse is higher than liver retention in the deer mouse. Both of these rodents are relatively long-lived, breed well in captivity, and adapt suitably to laboratory conditions. It is suggested that these two species of mice, in which plutonium retention is high and prolonged in both the skeleton and liver, as it is in man, may be useful animal models for actinide toxicity studies

  13. Model Servqual Dengan Pendekatan Structural Equation Modeling (Studi Pada Mahasiswa Sistem Informasi)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurfaizal, Yusmedi

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini berjudul “MODEL SERVQUAL DENGAN PENDEKATAN STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING (Studi Pada Mahasiswa Sistem Informasi)”. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui model Servqual dengan pendekatan Structural Equation Modeling pada mahasiswa sistem informasi. Peneliti memutuskan untuk mengambil sampel sebanyak 100 responden. Untuk menguji model digunakan analisis SEM. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tangibility, reliability responsiveness, assurance dan emphaty mempunyai pengaruh...

  14. A pilot study of a non-invasive oral nitrate stable isotopic method suggests that arginine and citrulline supplementation increases whole-body NO production in Tanzanian children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marealle, Alphonce I; Siervo, Mario; Wassel, Sara; Bluck, Les; Prentice, Andrew M; Minzi, Omary; Sasi, Philip; Kamuhabwa, Appolinary; Soka, Deogratias; Makani, Julie; Cox, Sharon E

    2018-04-01

    Low bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). We designed a nested pilot study to be conducted within a clinical trial testing the effects of a daily ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) fortified with arginine (Arg) and citrulline (Citr) vs. non-fortified RUSF in children with SCD. The pilot study evaluated 1) the feasibility of a non-invasive stable isotope method to measure whole-body NO production and 2) whether Arg+Citr supplementation was associated with increased whole-body NO production. Twenty-nine children (70% male, 9-11years, weight 16.3-31.3 kg) with SCD. Sixteen children received RUSF+Arg/Citr (Arg, 0.2  g/kg/day; Citr, 0.1  g/kg/day) in combination with daily chloroquine (50 mg) and thirteen received the base RUSF in combination with weekly chloroquine (150 mg). Plasma amino acids were assessed using ion-exchange elution (Biochrom-30, Biochrom, UK) and whole-body NO production was measured using a non-invasive stable isotopic method. The RUSF+Arg/Citr intervention increased plasma arginine (P = .02) and ornithine (P = .003) and decreased the ratio of asymmetric dimethylarginine to arginine (P = .01), compared to the base RUSF. A significant increase in whole-body NO production was observed in the RUSF-Arg/Citr group compared to baseline (weight-adjusted systemic NO synthesis 3.38 ± 2.29 μmol/kg/hr vs 2.35 ± 1.13 μmol/kg/hr, P = .04). No significant changes were detected in the base RUSF group (weight-adjusted systemic NO synthesis 2.64 ± 1.14 μmol/kg/hr vs 2.53 ± 1.12 μmol/kg/hr, P = .80). The non-invasive stable isotopic method was acceptable and the results provided supporting evidence that Arg/Citr supplementation may increase systemic NO synthesis in children with SCD. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in species richness and spatial distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) inferred from museum specimen records and a recent inventory: a case study from Belgium suggests recent expanded distribution of arbovirus and malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoninck, W; Hendrickx, F; Versteirt, V; Coosemans, M; De Clercq, E M; Hendrickx, G; Hance, T; Grootaert, P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) distribution data from a recent inventory of native and invading mosquito species in Belgium were compared with historical data from the period 1900-1960 that were retrieved from a revision of the Belgian Culicidae collection at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. Both data sets were used to investigate trends in mosquito species richness in several regions in Belgium. The relative change in distribution area of mosquito species was particularly important for species that use waste waters and used tires as larval habitats and species that recently shifted their larval habitat to artificial larval habitats. More importantly, several of these species are known as vectors of arboviruses and Plasmodium sp. and the apparent habitat shift of some of them brought these species in proximity to humans. Similar studies comparing current mosquito richness with former distribution data retrieved from voucher specimens from collections is therefore encouraged because they can generate important information concerning health risk assessment at both regional and national scale.

  16. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Three different models for calculating edge diffraction are examined. The methods of Vanderkooy, Terai and Biot & Tolstoy are compared with measurements. Although a good agreement is obtained, the measurements also show that none of the methods work completely satisfactorily. The desired properties...

  17. Studies in Learning Monotonic Models from Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barile, N.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes a number of new data mining algorithms which were the result of our research into the enforcement of monotony restrictions when learning (mostly non-parametric) models from data. Not only can judicious use of domain knowledge improve the predictive accuracy of data mining

  18. Study on geo-information modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2006), s. 1108-1113 ISSN 1109-2777 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : control GIS * geo- information modelling * uncertainty * spatial temporal approach Web Services Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  19. Alcohol e-Help: study protocol for a web-based self-help program to reduce alcohol use in adults with drinking patterns considered harmful, hazardous or suggestive of dependence in middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael P; Tiburcio, Marcela; Martinez, Nora; Ambekar, Atul; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Wenger, Andreas; Monezi Andrade, André Luiz; Padruchny, Dzianis; Osipchik, Sergey; Gehring, Elise; Poznyak, Vladimir; Rekve, Dag; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Given the scarcity of alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatments in many low and middle-income countries, the World Health Organization launched an e-health portal on alcohol and health that includes a Web-based self-help program. This paper presents the protocol for a multicentre randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy of the internet-based self-help intervention to reduce alcohol use. Two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) with follow-up 6 months after randomization. Community samples in middle-income countries. People aged 18+, with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores of 8+ indicating hazardous alcohol consumption. Offer of an internet-based self-help intervention, 'Alcohol e-Health', compared with a 'waiting list' control group. The intervention, adapted from a previous program with evidence of effectiveness in a high-income country, consists of modules to reduce or entirely stop drinking. The primary outcome measure is change in the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score assessed at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include self-reported the numbers of standard drinks and alcohol-free days in a typical week during the past 6 months, and cessation of harmful or hazardous drinking (AUDIT average causal effect and baseline observations carried forward will be used in sensitivity analyses. If the Alcohol e-Health program is found to be effective, the potential public health impact of its expansion into countries with underdeveloped alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatment systems world-wide is considerable. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. [Further study of the model of a human skull as a cupola with a plane base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherneĭkin, V A; Sholpo, L N

    1976-01-01

    An experimental study of the base deformation of isolated human scull under conditions of scull collision with an obstacle has been carried out. The findings are compared with human cerebrospinal traums phenomena. An earlier suggested continuous scull model is modified on the basis of the data obtained. It is shown that the modified model (a part of spherical shell with the flat base) resembles scull behaviour in statics and dynamics better than the scull model in the form of spherical shell.

  1. Suggested use of vaccines in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as a disease of major public health importance in India affecting the rich and the poor alike. Conventionally, comprehensive diabetes management is aimed at preventing micro and macro vascular complications. However, morbidity and mortality due to infections are also significant. In developing countries like India, the concept of adult immunization is far from reality. Recently the H1N1 pandemic has triggered the necessity for considering immunization in all age groups for the prevention of vaccine-preventable fatal infectious diseases. Considering the economics of immunization in a developing country, providing free vaccines to all adults may not be a practical solution, although the free universal immunization program for children is in existence for several decades. There is no consensus on the use of vaccines in diabetes subjects in India. However, there are some clinics offering routine pneumococcal, influenza and other vaccinations. Patients with diabetes have a deranged immune system making them more prone for infections. Hospitalization and death due to pneumococcal disease and influenza are higher in diabetes patients. They, like other healthy individuals, have a normal humoral response to vaccination with clinically significant benefits. The American Diabetes Association, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, United Kingdom Guidelines and a number of other scientific organizations have well defined guidelines for vaccination in diabetes. In this article we make some suggestions for clinicians in India, regarding use of vaccines in subjects with diabetes.

  2. Advanced language modeling approaches, case study: Expert search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a clear and detailed overview of advanced language modeling approaches and tools, including the use of document priors, translation models, relevance models, parsimonious models and expectation maximization training. Expert search will be used as a case study to explain the

  3. Study on modeling of operator's learning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seichi; Hasegawa, Naoko

    1998-01-01

    One effective method to analyze the causes of human errors is to model the behavior of human and to simulate it. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has developed an operator team behavior simulation system called SYBORG (Simulation System for the Behavior of an Operating Group) to analyze the human errors and to establish the countermeasures for them. As an operator behavior model which composes SYBORG has no learning mechanism and the knowledge of a plant is fixed, it cannot take suitable actions when unknown situations occur nor learn anything from the experience. However, considering actual operators, learning is an essential human factor to enhance their abilities to diagnose plant anomalies. In this paper, Q learning with 1/f fluctuation was proposed as a learning mechanism of an operator and simulation using the mechanism was conducted. The results showed the effectiveness of the learning mechanism. (author)

  4. Modelling approach for photochemical pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silibello, C.; Catenacci, G.; Calori, G.; Crapanzano, G.; Pirovano, G.

    1996-01-01

    The comprehension of the relationships between primary pollutants emissions and secondary pollutants concentration and deposition is necessary to design policies and strategies for the maintenance of a healthy environment. The use of mathematical models is a powerful tool to assess the effect of the emissions and of physical and chemical transformations of pollutants on air quality. A photochemical model, Calgrid, developed by CARB (California Air Resources Board), has been used to test the effect of different meteorological and air quality, scenarios on the ozone concentration levels. This way we can evaluate the influence of these conditions to determine the most important chemical species and reactions in atmosphere. The ozone levels are strongly related to the reactive hydrocarbons concentrations and to the solar radiation flux

  5. LEARNING MODEL IN SCHOOL OF VOCATIONAL STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Pervin; Yıldırım, Osman

    2008-01-01

    In this research, it is aimed to determine which individual and environmental characteristics affecting training. Instead of both types of evaluation models, to be proactive, the evaluation of training mentioned in this research is focused on how training affects individuals. To this end, in this thesis the factors affecting to the training effectiveness were examined in regard of trainee perspectives. According to the research results, it is revealed that mostly related to the training effec...

  6. Contaminant transport modeling studies of Russian sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) established mechanisms that promoted cooperation between U.S. and Russian scientists in scientific research as well as environmental technology transfer. Using Russian experience and U.S technology, LBL developed approaches for field investigations, site evaluation, waste disposal, and remediation at Russian contaminated sites. LBL assessed a comprehensive database as well as an actual, large-scale contaminated site to evaluate existing knowledge of and test mathematical models used for the assessment of U.S. contaminated sites

  7. Study on Chinese Low Carbon Economic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Huifeng Li; Xiaofang Wang

    2010-01-01

    Global warming, which is caused by over consumption of fossil energy during economic development in human society, threatens global ecological balance, tampers social and economic development, imperils energy security, ecological safety, water and food safety, and endangers the entire human race. Low carbon economy is a new economic development model based on low energy consumption, low pollution, and low-emission-based. This paper analyzes the Status quo and Limits of the Chinese Low Carbon ...

  8. Overview of the TREC 2013 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    once if in the area! I really enjoyed it. URL http://www.elfrethsalley.org • ID 65 Title Red Mango Description Red Mango is committed to providing the...venue categorization, for example “landmark” or “amusement park”, then the system creates a language model for each category. The category-specific... language models are used to perform the retrieval for each individual category mentioned in a user’s profile. Suggestions are personalized by making

  9. Suggested Bibliography for Outdoor Education and Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey State School of Conservation, Branchville.

    Seventy-seven books and articles published between 1939 and 1964 are listed in this bibliography for students and teachers of outdoor education. The entries are listed alphabetically under the following subject headings: outdoor education, conservation, administration, aquatics, archery, arts and crafts, Indian lore, nature study, riding, rifle,…

  10. Alveolocapillary model system to study alveolar re-epithelialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, Coen H.M.P.; Zimmermann, Luc J.I.; Sanders, Patricia J.L.T.; Wagendorp, Margot; Kloosterboer, Nico [Department of Paediatrics, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology (GROW), Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem [Division of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Duimel, Hans J.Q.; Verheyen, Fons K.C.P. [Electron Microscopy Unit, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Iwaarden, J. Freek van, E-mail: f.vaniwaarden@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Paediatrics, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology (GROW), Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an in vitro bilayer model system of the pulmonary alveolocapillary barrier was established to investigate the role of the microvascular endothelium on re-epithelialization. The model system, confluent monolayer cultures on opposing sides of a porous membrane, consisted of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1.6R) and an alveolar type II like cell line (A549), stably expressing EGFP and mCherry, respectively. These fluorescent proteins allowed the real time assessment of the integrity of the monolayers and the automated analysis of the wound healing process after a scratch injury. The HPMECs significantly attenuated the speed of re-epithelialization, which was associated with the proximity to the A549 layer. Examination of cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of the model system revealed protrusions through the membrane pores and close contact between the A549 cells and the HPMECs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that these close contacts consisted of heterocellular gap-, tight- and adherens-junctions. Additional analysis, using a fluorescent probe to assess gap-junctional communication, revealed that the HPMECs and A549 cells were able to exchange the fluorophore, which could be abrogated by disrupting the gap junctions using connexin mimetic peptides. These data suggest that the pulmonary microvascular endothelium may impact the re-epithelialization process. -- Highlights: ► Model system for vital imaging and high throughput screening. ► Microvascular endothelium influences re-epithelialization. ► A549 cells form protrusions through membrane to contact HPMEC. ► A549 cells and HPMECs form heterocellular tight-, gap- and adherens-junctions.

  11. Computerised modelling for developmental biology : an exploration with case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertens, Laura M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies in developmental biology rely on the construction and analysis of models. This research presents a broad view of modelling approaches for developmental biology, with a focus on computational methods. An overview of modelling techniques is given, followed by several case studies. Using

  12. Validation of Suggestion-Induced Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    hypnotizability. c. Checklist of Subjective Hypnotic Experiences (Peter B. Field, Ph. D. , Morton Prince Center for Hypnotherapy , New York City), to provide a...the right lobe of the brain, while the left lobe deals more with logical, mathematical and similar cognitive functions. Studies of brain function late...Experimental l~ypnosis, 1969 , 17~1), 50-61. Folkins, C.11. Temporal factors and the cognitive mediators of stress reaction. Journal of Personality

  13. Neutron scattering studies of biological molecules suggest that ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: zaccai@ill.fr. Abstract. The short review concentrates on recent work performed at the neutrons in biology laboratories of the Institut Laue Langevin and Institut de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble. Extremophile organisms have been discovered that require extreme condi- tions of temperature, pressure or solvent ...

  14. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposed to long before diagnosis is a major advantage.” The method of using baby teeth to measure ... Feed Connect with Us Contact Us Twitter Facebook Instagram YouTube Flickr More Social Media from NIH Footer ...

  15. Studies since 2005 on South African primary schoolchildren suggest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-06

    Dec 6, 2012 ... Available from: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/nutrition/vitamina.htm. 9. Labadarios D. The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS): children aged 1-9 years,. South Africa, 1999. SA Health Info [homepage on the Internet]. 2006. c2012. Available from: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/nutrition/foodconsumption.

  16. Tattoos Can Harm Perceptions: A Study and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resenhoeft, Annette; Villa, Julie; Wiseman, David

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Health researchers have claimed that perceptions toward a person with a tattoo are more negative than are perceptions toward nontattooed persons. However, support for this has been obtained almost completely by nonexperimental research. Participants: In 2 experiments with 158 community college student participants, the authors found…

  17. Studies since 2005 on South African primary schoolchildren suggest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet searches were conducted for cross-sectional and randomised controlled trials that reported on the iron status of South African primary schoolchildren, published after the NFCS-FB of 2005. Search engines that were used included Science Direct, Sabinet, PubMed, EBSCOhost (Academic Search Premier, Health ...

  18. Suggested guidelines for anti-islanding screening.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Ropp, Michael

    2012-02-01

    As increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are connected to utility systems, distribution engineers are becoming increasingly concerned about the risk of formation of unintentional islands. Utilities desire to keep their systems secure, while not imposing unreasonable burdens on users wishing to connect PV. However, utility experience with these systems is still relatively sparse, so distribution engineers often are uncertain as to when additional protective measures, such as direct transfer trip, are needed to avoid unintentional island formation. In the absence of such certainty, utilities must err on the side of caution, which in some cases may lead to the unnecessary requirement of additional protection. The purpose of this document is to provide distribution engineers and decision makers with guidance on when additional measures or additional study may be prudent, and also on certain cases in which utilities may allow PV installations to proceed without additional study because the risk of an unintentional island is extremely low. The goal is to reduce the number of cases of unnecessary application of additional protection, while giving utilities a basis on which to request additional study in cases where it is warranted.

  19. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Sergey S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ 13 C, δ 18 O and Δ 17 O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated 13 CO/ 12 CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in 13 C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH 4 ) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH 4 to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in 13 C, were found significant when explicitly simulated. The

  20. Sensitivity Study of Stochastic Walking Load Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2010-01-01

    is to employ a stochastic load model accounting for mean values and standard deviations for the walking load parameters, and to use this as a basis for estimation of structural response. This, however, requires decisions to be made in terms of statistical istributions and their parameters, and the paper...... investigates whether statistical distributions of bridge response are sensitive to some of the decisions made by the engineer doing the analyses. For the paper a selected part of potential influences are examined and footbridge responses are extracted using Monte-Carlo simulations and focus is on estimating...

  1. Therapeutic suggestion has no effect on postoperative morphine requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van der Laan (W.); B.L. van Leeuwen (B.); P.S. Sebel (P.); E. Winograd (E.); P. Baumann (P.); B. Bonke (Benno)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting

  2. Critical Success Factors of Suggestions Systems. | Marx | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A literature study approach is followed to establish which factors contribute to the success and failure of various suggestion systems. It was found ... The value of the paper firstly, shows the importance of creativity and innovation within the organisation's own culture and the framework of a formal suggestion system. Secondly ...

  3. Suggestions for future Pu fuel cycle designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfontein, Dawid E.; Mulder, Eben J.; Reitsma, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Recommended follow-up Pu Studies: • Verification of VSOP-A vs. VSOP 99/05, by comparison with MCNP. • DLOFC temperatures with Multi-group Tinte. • Redesign of the reactor: - Replace small concentrated Pu fuel kernels with large (500 μm diameter) diluted kernels to reduce burn-up. - Switch from the direct Brayton cycle to the indirect Rankine steam cycle to reduce fuel temperatures. - Add neutron poisons to the reflectors to suppress power and temperature peaks and to produce negative uniform temperature reactivity coefficients

  4. A simple model for studying interacting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Jolad, Shivakumar; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, R. K. P.

    2011-03-01

    Many specific physical networks (e.g., internet, power grid, interstates), have been characterized in considerable detail, but in isolation from each other. Yet, each of these networks supports the functions of the others, and so far, little is known about how their interactions affect their structure and functionality. To address this issue, we consider two coupled model networks. Each network is relatively simple, with a fixed set of nodes, but dynamically generated set of links which has a preferred degree, κ . In the stationary state, the degree distribution has exponential tails (far from κ), an attribute which we can explain. Next, we consider two such networks with different κ 's, reminiscent of two social groups, e.g., extroverts and introverts. Finally, we let these networks interact by establishing a controllable fraction of cross links. The resulting distribution of links, both within and across the two model networks, is investigated and discussed, along with some potential consequences for real networks. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-0705152 and 1005417.

  5. Tsunami propagation modelling – a sensitivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tkalich

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indian Ocean (2004 Tsunami and following tragic consequences demonstrated lack of relevant experience and preparedness among involved coastal nations. After the event, scientific and forecasting circles of affected countries have started a capacity building to tackle similar problems in the future. Different approaches have been used for tsunami propagation, such as Boussinesq and Nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (NSWE. These approximations were obtained assuming different relevant importance of nonlinear, dispersion and spatial gradient variation phenomena and terms. The paper describes further development of original TUNAMI-N2 model to take into account additional phenomena: astronomic tide, sea bottom friction, dispersion, Coriolis force, and spherical curvature. The code is modified to be suitable for operational forecasting, and the resulting version (TUNAMI-N2-NUS is verified using test cases, results of other models, and real case scenarios. Using the 2004 Tsunami event as one of the scenarios, the paper examines sensitivity of numerical solutions to variation of different phenomena and parameters, and the results are analyzed and ranked accordingly.

  6. Comparison of conventional study model measurements and 3D digital study model measurements from laser scanned dental impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugrahani, F.; Jazaldi, F.; Noerhadi, N. A. I.

    2017-08-01

    The field of orthodontics is always evolving,and this includes the use of innovative technology. One type of orthodontic technology is the development of three-dimensional (3D) digital study models that replace conventional study models made by stone. This study aims to compare the mesio-distal teeth width, intercanine width, and intermolar width measurements between a 3D digital study model and a conventional study model. Twelve sets of upper arch dental impressions were taken from subjects with non-crowding teeth. The impressions were taken twice, once with alginate and once with polivinylsiloxane. The alginate impressions used in the conventional study model and the polivinylsiloxane impressions were scanned to obtain the 3D digital study model. Scanning was performed using a laser triangulation scanner device assembled by the School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics at the Institut Teknologi Bandung and David Laser Scan software. For the conventional model, themesio-distal width, intercanine width, and intermolar width were measured using digital calipers; in the 3D digital study model they were measured using software. There were no significant differences between the mesio-distal width, intercanine width, and intermolar width measurments between the conventional and 3D digital study models (p>0.05). Thus, measurements using 3D digital study models are as accurate as those obtained from conventional study models

  7. Model sensitivity studies of the decrease in atmospheric carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Chipperfield

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (74 % of total, but a reported 10 % uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere, where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9 % of total is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (17 % of total has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large lifetime uncertainty range (147 to 241 years. With an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg year−1, the reference simulation with the best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay over the past 2 decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to around 47 Gg year−1. Further progress in constraining the CCl4 budget is partly limited by

  8. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect in a non-hypnotic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated how the magnitude the word blindness suggestion effect on Stroop interference depended on hypnotic suggestibility when given as an imaginative suggestion (i.e. not post-hypnotic suggestion) and under conditions in which hypnosis was not mentioned. Hypnotic suggestibility is shown to be a significant predictor of the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect under these conditions. This is therefore the first study to show a linear relationship between the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect and hypnotic suggestibility across the whole hypnotizability spectrum. The results replicate previous findings showing that highs respond to the word blindness suggestion to a greater extent than lows but extend previous work by showing that the advantage for those higher on the hypnotizability spectrum occurs even in a non-hypnotic context. Negative attitudes about hypnosis may not explain the failure to observe similar effects of the word blindness suggestion in less hypnotizable individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Digital Forensic Investigation Models, an Evolution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Mushtaque

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In business today, one of the most important segments that enable any business to get competitive advantage over others is appropriate, effective adaptation of Information Technology into business and then managing and governing it on their will. To govern IT organizations need to identify value of acquiring services of forensic firms to compete cyber criminals. Digital forensic firms follow different mechanisms to perform investigation. Time by time forensic firms are facilitated with different models for investigation containing phases for different purposes of the entire process. Along with forensic firms, enterprises also need to build a secure and supportive platform to make successful investigation process possible. We have underlined different elements of organizations in Pakistan; need to be addressed to provide support to forensic firms.

  10. Modeling study of the ABS relay valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Lin, Min; Guo, Bin; Luo, Zai; Xu, Weidong

    2011-05-01

    The ABS (anti-lock braking system) relay valve is the key component of anti-lock braking system in most commercial vehicles such as trucks, tractor-trailers, etc. In this paper, structure of ABS relay valve and its work theory were analyzed. Then a mathematical model of ABS relay valve, which was investigated by dividing into electronic part, magnetic part, pneumatic part and mechanical part, was set up. The displacement of spools and the response of pressure increasing, holding, releasing of ABS relay valve were simulated and analyzed under conditions of control pressure 500 KPa, braking pressure 600 KPa, atmospheric pressure 100 KPa and air temperature 310 K. Thisarticle provides reliable theory for improving the performance and efficiency of anti-lock braking system of vehicles.

  11. A Study of Prisoner’s Dilemma Game Model with Incomplete Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqin Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prisoners’ dilemma is a typical game theory issue. In our study, it is regarded as an incomplete information game with unpublicized game strategies. We solve our problem by establishing a machine learning model using Bayes formula. The model established is referred to as the Bayes model. Based on the Bayesian model, we can make the prediction of players’ choices to better complete the unknown information in the game. And we suggest the hash table to make improvement in space and time complexity. We build a game system with several types of game strategy for testing. In double- or multiplayer games, the Bayes model is more superior to other strategy models; the total income using Bayes model is higher than that of other models. Moreover, from the result of the games on the natural model with Bayes model, as well as the natural model with TFT model, it is found that Bayes model accrued more benefits than TFT model on average. This demonstrates that the Bayes model introduced in this study is feasible and effective. Therefore, it provides a novel method of solving incomplete information game problem.

  12. The impact of hypnotic suggestibility in clinical care settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility has been described as a powerful predictor of outcomes associated with hypnotic interventions. However, there have been no systematic approaches to quantifying this effect across the literature. The present meta-analysis evaluates the magnitude of the effect of hypnotic suggestibility on hypnotic outcomes in clinical settings. PsycINFO and PubMed were searched from their inception through July 2009. Thirty-four effects from ten studies and 283 participants are reported. Results revealed a statistically significant overall effect size in the small to medium range (r = 0.24; 95% Confidence Interval = −0.28 to 0.75), indicating that greater hypnotic suggestibility led to greater effects of hypnosis interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility accounted for 6% of the variance in outcomes. Smaller sample size studies, use of the SHCS, and pediatric samples tended to result in larger effect sizes. Results question the usefulness of assessing hypnotic suggestibility in clinical contexts. PMID:21644122

  13. Studies and modeling of cold neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campioni, G.

    2004-11-01

    With the purpose of updating knowledge in the fields of cold neutron sources, the work of this thesis has been run according to the 3 following axes. First, the gathering of specific information forming the materials of this work. This set of knowledge covers the following fields: cold neutron, cross-sections for the different cold moderators, flux slowing down, different measurements of the cold flux and finally, issues in the thermal analysis of the problem. Secondly, the study and development of suitable computation tools. After an analysis of the problem, several tools have been planed, implemented and tested in the 3-dimensional radiation transport code Tripoli-4. In particular, a module of uncoupling, integrated in the official version of Tripoli-4, can perform Monte-Carlo parametric studies with a spare factor of Cpu time fetching 50 times. A module of coupling, simulating neutron guides, has also been developed and implemented in the Monte-Carlo code McStas. Thirdly, achieving a complete study for the validation of the installed calculation chain. These studies focus on 3 cold sources currently functioning: SP1 from Orphee reactor and 2 other sources (SFH and SFV) from the HFR at the Laue Langevin Institute. These studies give examples of problems and methods for the design of future cold sources

  14. Theory, modeling, and integrated studies in the Arase (ERG) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kanako; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Ebihara, Yusuke; Katoh, Yuto; Amano, Takanobu; Saito, Shinji; Shoji, Masafumi; Nakamizo, Aoi; Keika, Kunihiro; Hori, Tomoaki; Nakano, Shin'ya; Watanabe, Shigeto; Kamiya, Kei; Takahashi, Naoko; Omura, Yoshiharu; Nose, Masahito; Fok, Mei-Ching; Tanaka, Takashi; Ieda, Akimasa; Yoshikawa, Akimasa

    2018-02-01

    Understanding of underlying mechanisms of drastic variations of the near-Earth space (geospace) is one of the current focuses of the magnetospheric physics. The science target of the geospace research project Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) is to understand the geospace variations with a focus on the relativistic electron acceleration and loss processes. In order to achieve the goal, the ERG project consists of the three parts: the Arase (ERG) satellite, ground-based observations, and theory/modeling/integrated studies. The role of theory/modeling/integrated studies part is to promote relevant theoretical and simulation studies as well as integrated data analysis to combine different kinds of observations and modeling. Here we provide technical reports on simulation and empirical models related to the ERG project together with their roles in the integrated studies of dynamic geospace variations. The simulation and empirical models covered include the radial diffusion model of the radiation belt electrons, GEMSIS-RB and RBW models, CIMI model with global MHD simulation REPPU, GEMSIS-RC model, plasmasphere thermosphere model, self-consistent wave-particle interaction simulations (electron hybrid code and ion hybrid code), the ionospheric electric potential (GEMSIS-POT) model, and SuperDARN electric field models with data assimilation. ERG (Arase) science center tools to support integrated studies with various kinds of data are also briefly introduced.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Progress in studying scintillator proportionality: Phenomenological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Cherepy, Nerine; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Moses, William; Payne, Sephen; Singh, Jai; Valentine, John; Vasilev, Andrey; Williams, Richard

    2009-04-30

    We present a model to describe the origin of non-proportional dependence of scintillator light yield on the energy of an ionizing particle. The non-proportionality is discussed in terms of energy relaxation channels and their linear and non-linear dependences on the deposited energy. In this approach, the scintillation response is described as a function of the deposited energy deposition and the kinetic rates of each relaxation channel. This mathematical framework allows both a qualitative interpretation and a quantitative fitting representation of scintillation non-proportionality response as function of kinetic rates. This method was successfully applied to thallium doped sodium iodide measured with SLYNCI, a new facility using the Compton coincidence technique. Finally, attention is given to the physical meaning of the dominant relaxation channels, and to the potential causes responsible for the scintillation non-proportionality. We find that thallium doped sodium iodide behaves as if non-proportionality is due to competition between radiative recombinations and non-radiative Auger processes.

  16. Hydra, a powerful model for aging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Szymon; Fischer, Kathleen; Austad, Steven; Galliot, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarian Hydra polyps escape senescence, most likely due to the robust activity of their three stem cell populations. These stem cells continuously self-renew in the body column and differentiate at the extremities following a tightly coordinated spatial pattern. Paul Brien showed in 1953 that in one particular species, Hydra oligactis, cold-dependent sexual differentiation leads to rapid aging and death. Here, we review the features of this inducible aging phenotype. These cellular alterations, detected several weeks after aging was induced, are characterized by a decreasing density of somatic interstitial cell derivatives, a disorganization of the apical nervous system, and a disorganization of myofibers of the epithelial cells. Consequently, tissue replacement required to maintain homeostasis, feeding behavior, and contractility of the animal are dramatically affected. Interestingly, this aging phenotype is not observed in all H. oligactis strains, thus providing a powerful experimental model for investigations of the genetic control of aging. Given the presence in the cnidarian genome of a large number of human orthologs that have been lost in ecdysozoans, such approaches might help uncover novel regulators of aging in vertebrates. PMID:26120246

  17. A model system for DNA repair studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, C.S.; Perlmutter, E.

    1984-01-01

    The search for the ''lethal lesion:'' which would yield a molecular explanation of biological survival curves led to attempts to correlate unrepaired DNA lesions with loss of reproductive integrity. Such studies have shown the crucial importance of DNA repair systems. The unrepaired DSB has been sought for such correlation, but in such study the DNA was too large, polydisperse, and/or structurally complex to permit precise measurement of break induction and repair. Therefore, an analog of higher order systems but with a genome of readily measurable size, is needed. Bacteriophage T4 is such an analog. Both its biological (PFU) and molecular (DNA) survival curves are exponentials. Its aerobic /sub PFU/D/sub 37///sub DNA/D/sub 37/ ratio, (410 +- 4.5Gy/540 +- 25 Gy) indicates that 76 +- 4% of lethality at low multiplicity infection (moi 1) the survival is greater than can be explained if the assumption of no parental DSB repair were valid. Both T4 and its host have DSB repair systems which can be studied by the infectious center method. Results of such studies are discussed

  18. A modelling study of long term green roof retention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovin, Virginia; Poë, Simon; Berretta, Christian

    2013-12-15

    This paper outlines the development of a conceptual hydrological flux model for the long term continuous simulation of runoff and drought risk for green roof systems. A green roof's retention capacity depends upon its physical configuration, but it is also strongly influenced by local climatic controls, including the rainfall characteristics and the restoration of retention capacity associated with evapotranspiration during dry weather periods. The model includes a function that links evapotranspiration rates to substrate moisture content, and is validated against observed runoff data. The model's application to typical extensive green roof configurations is demonstrated with reference to four UK locations characterised by contrasting climatic regimes, using 30-year rainfall time-series inputs at hourly simulation time steps. It is shown that retention performance is dependent upon local climatic conditions. Volumetric retention ranges from 0.19 (cool, wet climate) to 0.59 (warm, dry climate). Per event retention is also considered, and it is demonstrated that retention performance decreases significantly when high return period events are considered in isolation. For example, in Sheffield the median per-event retention is 1.00 (many small events), but the median retention for events exceeding a 1 in 1 yr return period threshold is only 0.10. The simulation tool also provides useful information about the likelihood of drought periods, for which irrigation may be required. A sensitivity study suggests that green roofs with reduced moisture-holding capacity and/or low evapotranspiration rates will tend to offer reduced levels of retention, whilst high moisture-holding capacity and low evapotranspiration rates offer the strongest drought resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mathematical Modelling Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, H. Coskun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mathematical modelling studies done between 2004 and 2015 in Turkey and to reveal their tendencies. Forty-nine studies were selected using purposeful sampling based on the term, "mathematical modelling" with Higher Education Academic Search Engine. They were analyzed with content analysis.…

  20. Bayesian Graphical Models for Genomewide Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Verzilli, Claudio J.; Stallard, Nigel; Whittaker, John C.

    2006-01-01

    As the extent of human genetic variation becomes more fully characterized, the research community is faced with the challenging task of using this information to dissect the heritable components of complex traits. Genomewide association studies offer great promise in this respect, but their analysis poses formidable difficulties. In this article, we describe a computationally efficient approach to mining genotype-phenotype associations that scales to the size of the data sets currently being ...

  1. A comparative study of explicit and implicit modelling of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion to the state-of-the-art vocal tract features. The contribution of the explicit features is relatively more robust against noise. We suggest that the explicit approach can be used to model the subsegmental excitation information for speaker recognition. Keywords. Speaker-specific excitation source information; subsegmental; ...

  2. An Instructional Method Suggestion: Conveying Stories through Origami (Storigami)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how to convey stories through origami and suggest its use in education with the help of pre-service elementary teachers' opinions. The participants of the study were 103 elementary teacher candidates from a state university in the 2014-2015 academic year. In this qualitative study, the data were collected…

  3. Contemporary European Studies: A Model for Interdisciplinary Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannerbeck, Francis J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the University of South Carolina's (Columbia) Contemporary European Studies program, which drew on current course offerings and existing financial resources to provide study about post-French Revolution European languages, cultures, politics, history, geography, and economics. Options exist at many other institutions to create broadly…

  4. Physical Model Method for Seismic Study of Concrete Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Roşca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the dynamic behaviour of concrete dams by means of the physical model method is very useful to understand the failure mechanism of these structures to action of the strong earthquakes. Physical model method consists in two main processes. Firstly, a study model must be designed by a physical modeling process using the dynamic modeling theory. The result is a equations system of dimensioning the physical model. After the construction and instrumentation of the scale physical model a structural analysis based on experimental means is performed. The experimental results are gathered and are available to be analysed. Depending on the aim of the research may be designed an elastic or a failure physical model. The requirements for the elastic model construction are easier to accomplish in contrast with those required for a failure model, but the obtained results provide narrow information. In order to study the behaviour of concrete dams to strong seismic action is required the employment of failure physical models able to simulate accurately the possible opening of joint, sliding between concrete blocks and the cracking of concrete. The design relations for both elastic and failure physical models are based on dimensional analysis and consist of similitude relations among the physical quantities involved in the phenomenon. The using of physical models of great or medium dimensions as well as its instrumentation creates great advantages, but this operation involves a large amount of financial, logistic and time resources.

  5. Dispersion modelling studies: the 1984 experiment in Angra dos Reis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martano, P.; Paschoa, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The results of a numerical modelling of an atmospheric dispersion in Angra dos Reis (RJ, Brazil) are considered. A comparison between model results and monitored field concentrations is discussed from the point of view of its statistical as well as physical significance. Particular attention has been paid to the effects of the lack of homogeneity in the spatial scale (horizontal and vertical) and in the time scale (stationarity in the local meteorology), as they can be critical in coastal areas. Some suggestions are made about a real time modelling of the atmospheric dispersion on the considered site. (author)

  6. Performance Estimation of Networked Business Models: Case Study on a Finnish eHealth Service Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marikka Heikkilä

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to propose and demonstrate a framework for estimating performance in a networked business model. Design/methodology/approach: Our approach is design science, utilising action research in studying a case of four independent firms in Health & Wellbeing sector aiming to jointly provide a new service for business and private customers. The duration of the research study is 3 years. Findings: We propose that a balanced set of performance indicators can be defined by paying attention to all main components of the business model, enriched with of network collaboration. The results highlight the importance of measuring all main components of the business model and also the business network partners’ view on trust, contracts and fairness. Research implications: This article contributes to the business model literature by combining business modelling with performance evaluation. The article points out that it is essential to create metrics that can be applied to evaluate and improve the business model blueprints, but it is also important to measure business collaboration aspects. Practical implications: Companies have already adopted Business model canvas or similar business model tools to innovate new business models. We suggest that companies continue their business model innovation work by agreeing on a set of performance metrics, building on the business model components model enriched with measures of network collaboration. Originality/value: This article contributes to the business model literature and praxis by combining business modelling with performance evaluation.

  7. Kinetic models and parameters estimation study of biomass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth kinetics and modeling of ethanol production from inulin by Pichia caribbica (KC977491) were studied in a batch system. Unstructured models were proposed using the logistic equation for growth, the Luedeking-Piret equation for ethanol production and modified Leudeking-Piret model for substrate consumption.

  8. Kinetic models and parameters estimation study of biomass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compaq

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... The growth kinetics and modeling of ethanol production from inulin by Pichia caribbica (KC977491) were studied in a batch system. Unstructured models were proposed using the logistic equation for growth, the Luedeking-Piret equation for ethanol production and modified Leudeking-Piret model for.

  9. A CASE STUDY OF MODELING A TORUS IN DIFFERENT MODELING SOFTWARES

    OpenAIRE

    VELJKOVIĆ Milica; KRASIĆ Sonja; PEJIĆ Petar; TOŠIĆ Zlata

    2017-01-01

    Modeling of the complex geometric shapes requires the use of appropriate softwares. This study analyzes the process of modeling with two different computer softwares, AutoCAD and Rhinoceros. The aim is to demonstrate the similarities and differences between these softwares when used for modeling torus, a double curved geometric surface. The two modeling processes are compared in order to investigate the potentials of these softwares in the modeling of an architectural structure comprising a s...

  10. System Dynamic Modelling for a Balanced Scorecard: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    and the number of measures. Originality/value - A large number of case studies and surveys are now present in the literature of BSC. However, there is a lack of more theoretical and analytical modelling of the BSC. Our paper just throws a little light to this modelling approach....... variables: skills, customer base and work in process. We are able to show that only minimal changes may create large effects on profit. Research limitations/implications - Our analytical model is based on both assumed but also on case documented assumptions of a concrete model. In every such kind of model......Purpose - The purpose of this research is to make an analytical model of the BSC foundation by using a dynamic simulation approach for a 'hypothetical case' model, based on only part of an actual case study of BSC. Design/methodology/approach - The model includes five perspectives and a number...

  11. Diatom centromeres suggest a mechanism for nuclear DNA acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, Rachel E; Noddings, Chari M; Lian, Nathan C; Kang, Anthony K; McQuaid, Jeffrey B; Jablanovic, Jelena; Espinoza, Josh L; Nguyen, Ngocquynh A; Anzelmatti, Miguel A; Jansson, Jakob; Bielinski, Vincent A; Karas, Bogumil J; Dupont, Christopher L; Allen, Andrew E; Weyman, Philip D

    2017-07-18

    Centromeres are essential for cell division and growth in all eukaryotes, and knowledge of their sequence and structure guides the development of artificial chromosomes for functional cellular biology studies. Centromeric proteins are conserved among eukaryotes; however, centromeric DNA sequences are highly variable. We combined forward and reverse genetic approaches with chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify centromeres of the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum We observed 25 unique centromere sequences typically occurring once per chromosome, a finding that helps to resolve nuclear genome organization and indicates monocentric regional centromeres. Diatom centromere sequences contain low-GC content regions but lack repeats or other conserved sequence features. Native and foreign sequences with similar GC content to P. tricornutum centromeres can maintain episomes and recruit the diatom centromeric histone protein CENH3, suggesting nonnative sequences can also function as diatom centromeres. Thus, simple sequence requirements may enable DNA from foreign sources to persist in the nucleus as extrachromosomal episomes, revealing a potential mechanism for organellar and foreign DNA acquisition.

  12. Wheat yield vulnerability: relation to rainfall and suggestions for adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Tafoughalti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production is of paramount importance in the region of Meknes, which is mainly produced under rainfed conditions. It is the dominant cereal, the greater proportion being the soft type. During the past few decades, rainfall flaws have caused a number of cases of droughts. These flaws have seriously affecting wheat production. The main objective of this study is the assessment of rainfall variability at monthly, seasonal and annual scales and to determine their impact on wheat yields. To reduce this impact we suggested some mechanisms of adaptation. We used monthly rainfall records for three decades and wheat yields records of fifteen years. Rainfall variability is assessed utilizing the precipitation concentration index and the variation coefficient. The association between wheat yields and cumulative rainfall amounts of different scales was calculated based on a regression model to evaluate the impact of rainfall on wheat yields. Data analysis shown moderate seasonal and irregular annual rainfall distribution. Yields fluctuated from 210 to 4500 Kg/ha with 52% of coefficient of variation. The correlation results shows that soft wheat and hard wheat are strongly correlated with the period of January to March than with the whole growing-season. While they are adversely correlated with the mid-spring. This investigation concluded that synchronizing appropriate adaptation with the period of January to March was crucial to achieving success yield of wheat.

  13. The influence of model structure on groundwater recharge rates in climate-change impact studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Brunner, Philip; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Numerous modeling approaches are available to provide insight into the relationship between climate change and groundwater recharge. However, several aspects of how hydrological model choice and structure affect recharge predictions have not been fully explored, unlike the well-established variability of climate model chains—combination of global climate models (GCM) and regional climate models (RCM). Furthermore, the influence on predictions related to subsoil parameterization and the variability of observation data employed during calibration remain unclear. This paper compares and quantifies these different sources of uncertainty in a systematic way. The described numerical experiment is based on a heterogeneous two-dimensional reference model. Four simpler models were calibrated against the output of the reference model, and recharge predictions of both reference and simpler models were compared to evaluate the effect of model structure on climate-change impact studies. The results highlight that model simplification leads to different recharge rates under climate change, especially under extreme conditions, although the different models performed similarly under historical climate conditions. Extreme weather conditions lead to model bias in the predictions and therefore must be considered. Consequently, the chosen calibration strategy is important and, if possible, the calibration data set should include climatic extremes in order to minimise model bias introduced by the calibration. The results strongly suggest that ensembles of climate projections should be coupled with ensembles of hydrogeological models to produce credible predictions of future recharge and with the associated uncertainties.

  14. Pulse radiolysis studies in model lipid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, L.K.; Hasegawa, K.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetic and spectral behavior of radicals formed by hydroxyl radical attack on linoleate anions has been studied by pulse radiolysis. Reactivity of OH toward this surfactant is an order of magnitude greater in monomeric form (kOH + linoleate = 8.0 x 10 9 M -1 sec -1 ) than in mecellar form (kOH + lin(micelle) = 1.0 x 10 9 M -1 sec -1 ). Abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the doubly allylic position gives rise to an intense absorption in the UV region (lambda max = 282-286 nm, epsilon approximately 3 x 10 4 M -1 cm -1 ) which may be used as a probe of radical activity at that site. This abstraction may occur, to a small extent, directly via OH attack. However, greater than 90% of initial attack occurs at other sites. Subsequent secondary abstraction of doubly allylic H atoms appears to occur predominantly by: (1) intramolecular processes in monomers, (2) intermolecular processes in micelles. Disappearance of radicals by secondary processes is slower in the micellar pseudo phase than in monomeric solution. (orig.) 891 HK 892 KR [de

  15. A case study of an enhanced eutrophication model with stoichiometric zooplankton growth sub-model calibrated by Bayesian method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Likun; Peng, Sen; Sun, Jingmei; Zhao, Xinhua; Li, Xia

    2016-05-01

    Urban lakes in China have suffered from severe eutrophication over the past several years, particularly those with relatively small areas and closed watersheds. Many efforts have been made to improve the understanding of eutrophication physiology with advanced mathematical models. However, several eutrophication models ignore zooplankton behavior and treat zooplankton as particles, which lead to the systematic errors. In this study, an eutrophication model was enhanced with a stoichiometric zooplankton growth sub-model that simulated the zooplankton predation process and the interplay among nitrogen, phosphorus, and oxygen cycles. A case study in which the Bayesian method was used to calibrate the enhanced eutrophication model parameters and to calculate the model simulation results was carried out in an urban lake in Tianjin, China. Finally, a water quality assessment was also conducted for eutrophication management. Our result suggests that (1) integration of the Bayesian method and the enhanced eutrophication model with a zooplankton feeding behavior sub-model can effectively depict the change in water quality and (2) the nutrients resulting from rainwater runoff laid the foundation for phytoplankton bloom.

  16. Process modeling for the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.W.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study. This study was performed to supplement the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study and comprises five conceptual treatment systems that treat DOE contract-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) at temperatures of less than 350{degrees}F. ASPEN PLUS, a chemical process simulator, was used to model the systems. Nonthermal treatment systems were developed as part of the INTS study and include sufficient processing steps to treat the entire inventory of MLLW. The final result of the modeling is a process flowsheet with a detailed mass and energy balance. In contrast to the ITTS study, which modeled only the main treatment system, the INTS study modeled each of the various processing steps with ASPEN PLUS, release 9.1-1. Trace constituents, such as radionuclides and minor pollutant species, were not included in the calculations.

  17. Learning Gene Expression through Modelling and Argumentation: A Case Study Exploring the Connections between the Worlds of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Blanca; Ageitos, Noa; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    There is emerging interest on the interactions between modelling and argumentation in specific contexts, such as genetics learning. It has been suggested that modelling might help students understand and argue on genetics. We propose modelling gene expression as a way to learn molecular genetics and diseases with a genetic component. The study is…

  18. An Integrated Modeling Study of the Miho Catchment in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, J.; Tian, Y.; Zhang, A.; Zheng, C.

    2016-12-01

    Natural hazards such as flooding and drought have been causing increasingly severe damages to our society. This has brought more attention to the importance of understanding hydrological systems. Hydrological models are generally employed to quantify the hydrological processes involved in natural hazards. Many previous hydrological modeling studies in Korea have generally focused on either surface or groundwater, respectively, and integrated surface and groundwater modeling studies are limited. This study presents the development, calibration and verification of a physically based surface water and groundwater integrated model for the Miho catchment in Korea. The integrated model employed in this study is GSFLOW developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, which couples the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW). The integrated model for the Miho catchment was calibrated and verified for the period from 2004 to 2013 using both surface and subsurface observations, including streamflow, groundwater heads, and wetland and spring locations. The modeling results show that the calibrated model can reproduce the temporal variation of streamflow and groundwater head fluctuation and capture the dynamics of the hydrologic system. This study provides an invaluable framework for understanding the water cycle in the Miho catchment and for development of effective water management strategies in the future.

  19. Model studies of methanol synthesis on copper catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, J.; Nakamura, I.; Uchijima, T. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for Earth, Kyoto (Japan); Fujitani, T. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The synthesis of methanol by the hydrogenation of CO{sub 2} over Zn-deposited and Zn-free copper surfaces has been studied using an XPS apparatus combined with a high-pressure flow reactor (18 atm). It was shown that the Zn deposited on Cu(111) and poly-Cu acted as a promoter for methanol synthesis, while the Zn on Cu(110) and Cu(100) had no such a promotional effect. The turnover frequency (TOF) for Zn/Cu(111) linearly increased with Zn coverage below {Theta}Zn--0.19, and then decreased above {Theta}Zn=0.20. The optimum TOF obtained at {Theta}Zn--0-19 was thirteen-fold larger than TOF for the Zn-free Cu(111) surface. On the other hand, no promotional effect of Zn was observed for the reverse water-gas shift reaction on all the surfaces. The results indicate the formation of special sites for methanol synthesis on Zn/Cu(111). The Zn-deposited Cu(111) can be regarded as a model of Cu/ZnO catalysts because the TOF and the activation energy for methanol formation over the Zn-deposited Cu(111) were in fairly good agreement with those for the Cu/ZnO powder catalysts. The post-reaction surface analysis by XPS showed the formation of formate species (HCOOa). The formate coverage was proportional to the activity for methanol formation below {Theta}Zn=0.20, suggesting that the hydrogenation of the formate species is the rate-determining step of methanol formation. The formate species was stabilized by Zn species on Cu(111) in the absence of ZnO species. STM results on the Zn-deposited Cu(111) suggested the formation of a Cu-Zn surface alloy. The presence of special sites for methanol synthesis was also indicated in the results of powder catalysts.

  20. Case study modelling for an ettringite treatment process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process modelled in this study includes the formation of ettringite and the recovery of gibbsite through the decomposition of recycled ettringite. The modelling of this process was done using PHREEQC and the results presented in this paper are based on the outcome of different case studies that investigated how the ...

  1. Modeling the effects of study abroad programs on college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin H. Yu; Garry E. Chick; Duarte B. Morais; Chung-Hsien Lin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of modeling the effects of a study abroad program on students from a university in the northeastern United States. A program effect model was proposed after conducting an extensive literature review and empirically examining a sample of 265 participants in 2005. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA),...

  2. An Integrated Approach to Mathematical Modeling: A Classroom Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Helen M.

    Modeling, simulation, and discrete mathematics have all been identified by professional mathematics education organizations as important areas for secondary school study. This classroom study focused on the components and tools for modeling and how students use these tools to construct their understanding of contextual problems in the content area…

  3. Comparing exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: A study on the five-factor model of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Borkenau, Peter; Ostendorf, Fritz

    1990-01-01

    Several authors claim that widespread support exists for a 5-factor model of personality ratings. In the present study, structural equation modeling was used to investigate this issue. The subjects (128 males and 128 females) were administered Costa and McCrae's NEO Personality Inventory, and they rated themselves, and were rated by three acquaintances, on the 20 adjective scales suggested by Norman as marker variables for the Big Five. Coefficients of factor comparability indicated that a 5-...

  4. Customer orientation on online newspaper business models with paid content strategies: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Goyanes, Manuel; Sylvie, George

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the transformations that trigger business models with paid content strategies on news organizations under the theoretical framework of market orientation. The results show three main factors: those related to competence, to the organization culture and to understanding of needs and wants of the audience. The findings also suggest that online newspapers business models with paid content strategies are more like experiments or forays rather than definitive methods that monet...

  5. Integrating technology readiness into the expectation-confirmation model: an empirical study of mobile services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chih; Liu, Ming-Ling; Lin, Chieh-Peng

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to integrate technology readiness into the expectation-confirmation model (ECM) for explaining individuals' continuance of mobile data service usage. After reviewing the ECM and technology readiness, an integrated model was demonstrated via empirical data. Compared with the original ECM, the findings of this study show that the integrated model may offer an ameliorated way to clarify what factors and how they influence the continuous intention toward mobile services. Finally, the major findings are summarized, and future research directions are suggested.

  6. Evaluating EML Modeling Tools for Insurance Purposes: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Gustavsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As with any situation that involves economical risk refineries may share their risk with insurers. The decision process generally includes modelling to determine to which extent the process area can be damaged. On the extreme end of modelling the so-called Estimated Maximum Loss (EML scenarios are found. These scenarios predict the maximum loss a particular installation can sustain. Unfortunately no standard model for this exists. Thus the insurers reach different results due to applying different models and different assumptions. Therefore, a study has been conducted on a case in a Swedish refinery where several scenarios previously had been modelled by two different insurance brokers using two different softwares, ExTool and SLAM. This study reviews the concept of EML and analyses the used models to see which parameters are most uncertain. Also a third model, EFFECTS, was employed in an attempt to reach a conclusion with higher reliability.

  7. Comparative Study of Smeared Cracking Models for Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Silva Penna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows how the constitutive modeling of concrete has evolved since the initial attempts to characterize the medium cracked as continuous, moving from smeared cracking, damage and microplane models, until the current tendency to design different models according to a single theoretical framework. A generic formulation for smeared cracking models, including fixed and rotational models, as well as degradation in tension and in compression, is provided. Using this formulation, three models are generated by specifying the laws of degradation. A comparative study of models, based on computer simulations of a beam subjected to shear at four points, is presented. The results are compared, between themselves and with experimental results, providing a critical analysis of the models.

  8. [Study on temperature correctional models of quantitative analysis with near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Chen, Hua-cai; Chen, Xing-dan

    2005-06-01

    Effect of enviroment temperature on near infrared spectroscopic quantitative analysis was studied. The temperature correction model was calibrated with 45 wheat samples at different environment temperaturs and with the temperature as an external variable. The constant temperature model was calibated with 45 wheat samples at the same temperature. The predicted results of two models for the protein contents of wheat samples at different temperatures were compared. The results showed that the mean standard error of prediction (SEP) of the temperature correction model was 0.333, but the SEP of constant temperature (22 degrees C) model increased as the temperature difference enlarged, and the SEP is up to 0.602 when using this model at 4 degrees C. It was suggested that the temperature correctional model improves the analysis precision.

  9. Multi-model comparison of CO2 emissions peaking in China: Lessons from CEMF01 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Lugovoy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes results of the China Energy Modeling Forum's (CEMF first study. Carbon emissions peaking scenarios, consistent with China's Paris commitment, have been simulated with seven national and industry-level energy models and compared. The CO2 emission trends in the considered scenarios peak from 2015 to 2030 at the level of 9–11 Gt. Sector-level analysis suggests that total emissions pathways before 2030 will be determined mainly by dynamics of emissions in the electric power industry and transportation sector. Both sectors will experience significant increase in demand, but have low-carbon alternative options for development. Based on a side-by-side comparison of modeling input and results, conclusions have been drawn regarding the sources of emissions projections differences, which include data, views on economic perspectives, or models' structure and theoretical framework. Some suggestions have been made regarding energy models' development priorities for further research. Keywords: Carbon emissions projections, Climate change, CO2 emissions peak, China's Paris commitment, Top-Down energy models, Bottom-Up energy models, Multi model comparative study, China Energy Modeling Forum (CEMF

  10. Pilot Study of a Patient-Centered Radiology Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, J Shannon; Furtado, Vanessa F; Keller, Lisa A; Lotti, Judith Borsody; Saltalamacchia, Catherine A; Lennes, Inga T; Salazar, Gloria M

    2017-02-01

    The Radiology Process Model (RPM) was previously described in terms of its conceptual basis and proposed survey items. The current study describes the first pilot application of the RPM in the field and the results of initial psychometric analysis. We used an Institutional Review Board-approved pilot RPM survey in 100 patients having outpatient interventional radiology procedures. The 24 survey items had 4 or 5 levels of severity. We assessed for missing data, items that patients found confusing, any suggestions by patients for additional items and clarity of items from patient feedback. Factor analysis was performed and internal consistency measured. Construct validity was assessed by correlation of patient responses to the items as a summated scale with a visual analog scale (VAS) they completed indicating their interventional radiology experience. The visual analog scale and the RPM summated scale were strongly correlated (r = 0.7). Factor analysis showed four factors: interactions with facility and doctors/staff, time-sensitive aspects, pain, and anxiety. The items showed high internal consistency (alpha: 0.86) as a group and approximately 0.7 to 0.9 by the factors. Analysis shows that two items could be deleted (cost and communication between radiologist and referrers). Revision of two items and potential addition of others are discussed. The RPM shows initial evidence of psychometric validity and internal consistency reliability. Minor changes are anticipated before wider use. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of interaction in silica glass via model potential approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Sarita; Rani, Pooja

    2016-05-01

    Silica is one of the most commonly encountered substances in daily life and in electronics industry. Crystalline SiO2 (in several forms: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite) is an important constituent of many minerals and gemstones, both in pure form and mixed with related oxides. Cohesive energy of amorphous SiO2 has been investigated via intermolecular potentials i.e weak Van der Waals interaction and Morse type short-range interaction. We suggest a simple atom-atom based Van der Waals as well as Morse potential to find cohesive energy of glass. It has been found that the study of silica structure using two different model potentials is significantly different. Van der Waals potential is too weak (P.E =0.142eV/molecule) to describe the interaction between silica molecules. Morse potential is a strong potential, earlier given for intramolecular bonding, but if applied for intermolecular bonding, it gives a value of P.E (=-21.92eV/molecule) to appropriately describe the structure of silica.

  12. Study of interaction in silica glass via model potential approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Sarita, E-mail: saritaiitr2003@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Rani, Pooja [D.A.V. College, Sec-10, Chandigarh-160010 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Silica is one of the most commonly encountered substances in daily life and in electronics industry. Crystalline SiO{sub 2} (in several forms: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite) is an important constituent of many minerals and gemstones, both in pure form and mixed with related oxides. Cohesive energy of amorphous SiO{sub 2} has been investigated via intermolecular potentials i.e weak Van der Waals interaction and Morse type short-range interaction. We suggest a simple atom-atom based Van der Waals as well as Morse potential to find cohesive energy of glass. It has been found that the study of silica structure using two different model potentials is significantly different. Van der Waals potential is too weak (P.E =0.142eV/molecule) to describe the interaction between silica molecules. Morse potential is a strong potential, earlier given for intramolecular bonding, but if applied for intermolecular bonding, it gives a value of P.E (=−21.92eV/molecule) to appropriately describe the structure of silica.

  13. Complete wind farm electromagnetic transient modelling for grid integration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubia, I.; Ostolaza, X.; Susperregui, A.; Tapia, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a modelling methodology to analyse the impact of wind farms in surrounding networks. Based on the transient modelling of the asynchronous generator, the multi-machine model of a wind farm composed of N generators is developed. The model incorporates step-up power transformers, distribution lines and surrounding loads up to their connection to the power network. This model allows the simulation of symmetric and asymmetric short-circuits located in the distribution network and the analysis of transient stability of wind farms. It can be also used to study the islanding operation of wind farms

  14. Evaluation of solar irradiance models for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, William; Yeo, Kok-Leng; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami; Unruh, Yvonne; Morrill, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    Instruments on satellites have been observing both Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI), mainly in the ultraviolet (UV), since 1978. Models were developed to reproduce the observed variability and to compute the variability at wavelengths that were not observed or had an uncertainty too high to determine an accurate rotational or solar cycle variability. However, various models and measurements show different solar cycle SSI variability that lead to different modelled responses of ozone and temperature in the stratosphere, mainly due to the different UV variability in each model, and the global energy balance. The NRLSSI and SATIRE-S models are the most comprehensive reconstructions of solar irradiance variability for the period from 1978 to the present day. But while NRLSSI and SATIRE-S show similar solar cycle variability below 250 nm, between 250 and 400 nm SATIRE-S typically displays 50% larger variability, which is however, still significantly less then suggested by recent SORCE data. Due to large uncertainties and inconsistencies in some observational datasets, it is difficult to determine in a simple way which model is likely to be closer to the true solar variability. We review solar irradiance variability measurements and modelling and employ new analysis that sheds light on the causes of the discrepancies between the two models and with the observations.

  15. The Study of Role of Transactional Model Constructs in Yazd Teachers of Primary School by Using of Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: By considering, transactional model is one of the most comprehensive model for reduction of stress, this study was determined the role of Transactional Model constructs in Yazd teachers of Primary school by using of Structural Equation Model. Methods: This research was a descriptive- analytical. Categorized approach was applied for sampling. A standard questionnaire and the questionnaire planned based on Transactional Model were applied for data collection. Validity (CVR=0.85 and reliability (α=0.87 of instrument confirmed by experts. SPSS15 and LISREL8.8 software were used for data analysis. Results: In this research 200 Yazd teachers of primary schools (average age of 41.70±5.69 were participated. The results of this study showed the effect of stress on secondary appraisal and primary appraisal was -0.87 and 0.84, respectively. Our results also showed an inverse relationship between perceived stress and secondary appraisal also between primary appraisal and coping effort. Also, the results were confirmed validity and good fitness of model, because of the RMSEA=0.0329 and index χ2/df were less than 3. Conclusion: Since the constructs of this model had a significant effect on the stress, it suggests the policies and plans for improvement of these factors.

  16. using explanatory models to derive simple tools for Avanced Life Support system studies - Crop Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzoni, J.

    System-level analyses for Advanced Life Support (ALS) require mathematical models for various processes, such as biomass production and waste management, which would ideally be integrated into overall system models. Explanatory models (also referred to as mechanistic or process models) would provide the basis for a more robust system model, as these would be based on an understanding of processes specific to ALS studies. However, integrating such models may not always be practicable because of their complexity, especially for initial system-level analyses where simple sub-models may be satisfactory. One way to address this is to capture important features of explanatory models in simple models that may be readily integrated for system-level analyses. In this paper, explanatory crop models were used to generate parameters and multi-variable polynomial equations for basic models that are suitable for estimating the direction and magnitude of daily changes in canopy gas-exchange, harvest index, and production scheduling due to off- nominal conditions for ALS system studies. The simplest variant of these models consists of only a few equations, and has been integrated into a top-level SIMULINK model for the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex), a large-scale human-rated test facility under development at NASA Johnson Space Center. When included in systems studies, the simple crop models may help identify issues that need to be addressed using more detailed modeling studies and specific experiments. Similar modeling simplifications may also prove useful for other ALS sub-systems, as well as for Earth system applications.

  17. A Critical Review of Model-Based Economic Studies of Depression: Modelling Techniques, Model Structure and Data Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Haji Ali Afzali; Jonathan Karnon; Jodi Gray

    2012-01-01

    Depression is the most common mental health disorder and is recognized as a chronic disease characterized by multiple acute episodes/relapses. Although modelling techniques play an increasingly important role in the economic evaluation of depression interventions, comparatively little attention has been paid to issues around modelling studies with a focus on potential biases. This, however, is important as different modelling approaches, variations in model structure and input parameters may ...

  18. Air Pollution Exposure Modeling for Health Studies | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Michael Breen is leading the development of air pollution exposure models, integrated with novel personal sensor technologies, to improve exposure and risk assessments for individuals in health studies. He is co-investigator for multiple health studies assessing the exposure and effects of air pollutants. These health studies include participants with asthma, diabetes, and coronary artery disease living in various U.S. cities. He has developed, evaluated, and applied novel exposure modeling and time-activity tools, which includes the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI), GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) and Exposure Tracker models. At this seminar, Dr. Breen will present the development and application of these models to predict individual-level personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) for two health studies in central North Carolina. These health studies examine the association between PM and adverse health outcomes for susceptible individuals. During Dr. Breen’s visit, he will also have the opportunity to establish additional collaborations with researchers at Harvard University that may benefit from the use of exposure models for cohort health studies. These research projects that link air pollution exposure with adverse health outcomes benefit EPA by developing model-predicted exposure-dose metrics for individuals in health studies to improve the understanding of exposure-response behavior of air pollutants, and to reduce participant

  19. A cautionary note on the use of Ornstein Uhlenbeck models in macroevolutionary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Natalie; Thomas, Gavin H; Venditti, Chris; Meade, Andrew; Freckleton, Rob P

    2016-05-01

    Phylogenetic comparative methods are increasingly used to give new insights into the dynamics of trait evolution in deep time. For continuous traits the core of these methods is a suite of models that attempt to capture evolutionary patterns by extending the Brownian constant variance model. However, the properties of these models are often poorly understood, which can lead to the misinterpretation of results. Here we focus on one of these models - the Ornstein Uhlenbeck (OU) model. We show that the OU model is frequently incorrectly favoured over simpler models when using Likelihood ratio tests, and that many studies fitting this model use datasets that are small and prone to this problem. We also show that very small amounts of error in datasets can have profound effects on the inferences derived from OU models. Our results suggest that simulating fitted models and comparing with empirical results is critical when fitting OU and other extensions of the Brownian model. We conclude by making recommendations for best practice in fitting OU models in phylogenetic comparative analyses, and for interpreting the parameters of the OU model.

  20. Studying cancer metastasis: Existing models, challenges and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marion, Denise M S; Domanska, Urszula M; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metastasis causes most cancer-related deaths. Several model systems to study the complex and multi step process of metastasis exist, including in vitro systems, ex-vivo organ slices, Drosophila Melanogaster and zebrafish models and the use of the chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) of fertilized chicken eggs. These models are relatively easy and cheap but often lack the opportunity to study the complete metastasis cascade. More complex but also more expensive is the use of animal models including the more recently developed patient derived tumor xenografts (PDTX). In this review, we give an overview of the existing metastatic models, discuss the challenges of improving current models to enhance translation from the preclinical to the clinical setting and consider future perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.