Full Text Available The introduction of virtual learning environments (VLEs has been regarded by some as a panacea for many of the problems in today's mass numbers modular higher education system. This paper demonstrates that VLEs can help or hinder student engagement and performance, and that they should be adapted to the different types of learner. A project is described that aimed to investigate whether the introduction of a VLE can assist ‘disengaged' students, drawing on click count tracking data and student performance. The project took place in the context of two very large undergraduate modules (850 and 567 students in a Business School of a new university in the UK. In an adaptation of a model of learner engagement in Web-enhanced environments, four distinct learner types have emerged: model, traditionalist, geek and disengaged. There was evidence that use of the VLE exacerbated, rather than moderated, the differences between these learner types.
How do violent videogames, as entertainment products, communicate violence in the context of warfare and in other settings? Also, why do users enjoy virtual violence? The present article introduces the Moral Disengagement in Violent Videogames model to tackle these important questions. The model
Virtanen, V.; Taina, J.; Pyhältö, K.
This study explored the causes of student disengagement from their doctoral studies in the biological and environmental sciences. The data came from interviews of 40 doctoral students (male = 15, female = 25) and underwent qualitative analysis for content. Our results showed that doctoral studies provide multiple contexts for disengagement, such…
Brint, Steven; Cantwell, Alison M.
We theorize 5 dimensions of academic disengagement based on students' values, motivations, study behaviors, academic interactions, and competing involvements. Using 2010 survey data from the University of California, we find support for this conceptualization. The size of disengaged populations varied between 5% and 25%, depending on the measure…
Cory, Suzanne N.
Cases of unethical business practices and technical failures have been extensively reported. It seems that actions are often taken by individuals with little apparent concern for those affected by their negative outcomes, which can be described as moral disengagement. This study investigates levels of moral disengagement demonstrated by business…
Salamonson, Yenna; Andrew, Sharon; Everett, Bronwyn
Connecting students with learning activities to promote academic engagement has been a focus of higher education over the past decade, partly driven by an increasing rate of student participation in part-time employment, and a growing concern about the quality of the student experience. Using a prospective survey design, this study selected three elements of academic engagement (homework completion, lecture attendance, and study hours) and academic disengagement (part-time work), to identify predictors of academic performance in a pathophysiology subject in 126 second year nursing students. Homework completion emerged as the strongest positive predictor of academic performance, followed by lecture attendance; however, time spent studying was not a significant predictor of academic performance. Of concern was the finding that the amount of part-time work had a significant and negative impact on academic performance. Combining all elements of academic engagement and disengagement, and controlling for age and ethnicity, the multiple regression model accounted for 34% of the variance in the academic performance of second year nursing students studying pathophysiology. Results from these findings indicate the importance of active learning engagement in influencing academic success, and provide some direction for nursing academics to design effective learning approaches to promote academic engagement of nursing students.
This paper uses John Furlong's analysis of student disaffection written over 20 years ago as a basis for building new analyses in changing contexts for schooling. Specifically, Furlong's observation of the dominance of psychological based explanations for student disruption and disengagement in education policy making holds--albeit an…
Fida, Roberta; Tramontano, Carlo; Paciello, Marinella; Kangasniemi, Mari; Sili, Alessandro; Bobbio, Andrea; Barbaranelli, Claudio
Ethics is a founding component of the nursing profession; however, nurses sometimes find it difficult to constantly adhere to the required ethical standards. There is limited knowledge about the factors that cause a committed nurse to violate standards; moral disengagement, originally developed by Bandura, is an essential variable to consider. This study aimed at developing and validating a nursing moral disengagement scale and investigated how moral disengagement is associated with counterproductive and citizenship behaviour at work. The research comprised a qualitative study and a quantitative study, combining a cross-validation approach and a structural equation model. A total of 60 Italian nurses (63% female) involved in clinical work and enrolled as students in a postgraduate master's programme took part in the qualitative study. In 2012, the researchers recruited 434 nurses (76% female) from different Italian hospitals using a convenience sampling method to take part in the quantitative study. All the organisations involved and the university gave ethical approval; all respondents participated on a voluntary basis and did not receive any form of compensation. The nursing moral disengagement scale comprised a total of 22 items. Results attested the mono-dimensionality of the scale and its good psychometric properties. In addition, results highlighted a significant association between moral disengagement and both counterproductive and citizenship behaviours. Results showed that nurses sometimes resort to moral disengagement in their daily practice, bypassing moral and ethical codes that would normally prevent them from enacting behaviours that violate their norms and protocols. The nursing moral disengagement scale can complement personnel monitoring and assessment procedures already in place and provide additional information to nursing management for designing interventions aimed at increasing compliance with ethical codes by improving the quality of the
Lubker, John R.; Etzel, Edward F.
The freshman year of college is usually acknowledged as a stressful time of social and academic adjustment. During this period, first-year students face many social and intellectual challenges. For high school athletes, the combined impact of college transition plus disengagement from sport can further complicate first-semester adjustment and may…
Marshman, Margaret; Brown, Raymond
This case study explored how students disaffected with their school experience were scaffolded during their participation in a middle-school mathematics classroom. Of particular interest were the level of student engagement in discussion about the mathematics being presented by the teacher and the approach to doing mathematics being displayed by…
Full Text Available As internet-based technologies increasingly colonize learning environments in higher education, they allow purposes contrary to learning to have direct access to students. The internet as a governing metaphor for transparent connectivity and equal access is a red herring because the power relations across the connections are unequal. The internet also functions as a mechanism for the operant conditioning of students by commercial interests and for surveillance and control by political authorities, purposes which can, if not restrained, undermine the intentions of teachers using technology.Teachers should resist fully automating their course management, especially grading and assessment because too much mechanization can only produce reductive thinking.A related trend is the gradual replacement of liberal studies by vocational courses that feature technology as the subject. This cooperates with the aforementioned trend to effectively censor the creative and critical thinking that instructors strive to teach.
Beaton, Ann M; Tougas, Francine; Rinfret, Natalie; Monger, Tanya
Psychological responses to personal relative deprivation based on self/outgroup comparisons (named self/outgroup PRD) were explored among women in science, engineering, and technology according to the Psychological Disengagement Model. Three studies revealed that the experience of self/outgroup PRD increased women's likelihood of discounting the feedback they received at work. In turn, discounting led them to devalue their profession. Each study further documented the damaging effect of both psychological disengagement mechanisms. Study 1 (N = 93) revealed that discounting and devaluing were associated with decreased self-esteem. These results were replicated in Studies 2 and 3. Study 2 (N = 163) demonstrated that discounting and devaluing were also associated with reduced self-esteem stability. Study 3 (N = 187) further showed that psychological disengagement was also associated with women's occupational commitment. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are considered. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Higher education is attracting more participation from an increasingly diverse student body. This diversity invites concerns on effective instructional delivery as the extent of students’ engagement in learning now varies widely. Anecdotes on students’ “undesirable” dispositions in course participation are not uncommon in higher education settings. This project set out to develop a questionnaire, developed for higher education in the Japanese context, on a range of student dispositions. The scale was a five-point Likert instrument designed to interpret learners’ disengagement as an attitudinal disposition. The paper discusses the conceptual contours of disengagement as a student disposition that provided the basis for the context-specific scale items. It reports the procedures taken to obtain the factor structures of the dataset. The questionnaire was administered to 145 engineering students in Japan. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a five-factor solution – lack of commitment, distractedness, lack of preparedness, anti-social orientation, and lack of focus. Avenues for further research are suggested, and implications for practice are discussed.
Full Text Available The recent rapid increase in divorce, along with its distinctive cultural and welfare environments for single-parent families, makes Korea an interesting case for examining effects of single parenthood on children's education. Using data from Korean 9th and 12th graders, I compare the levels of educational aspiration and student disengagement between students with two parents and those with a single parent, distinguishing divorced single fathers, widowed single fathers, divorced single mothers, and widowed single mothers. Logistic regression analyses show that students with a divorced single parent, regardless of gender of the parent, are much less likely to aspire to four-year university education and more likely to be disengaged than their counterparts with two parents. The effects of widowhood disappear once control variables are held constant. Lower household income among single-parent families explains in part the poorer educational outcomes of their children. Parent-child interaction is another important mediating factor for the effect of single fatherhood but not for single motherhood. The relevance of the extended family system and distinctive features of post-divorce living arrangements in Korea is discussed to understand the effects of single parenthood.
Portman Daley, Joannah
(Re)Writing Civics in the Digital Age: The Role of Social Media in Student (Dis)Engagement addresses an important gap in the knowledge of civic rhetoric available in Rhetoric and Composition by using qualitative methods to explore the parameters of civic engagement through social media-based digital writing. With funding from URI's Office of…
Galand, Benoît; Lecocq, Catherine; Philippot, Pierre
Most studies of school violence have focused on students. Consequently, precursors and consequences of violence experienced by teachers are less well documented. Previous research indicates that (a) verbal victimization, student misbehaviour and perceived violence at school impair teacher emotional well-being, (b) support from principal and colleagues reduces these difficulties and fosters well-being, (c) well-being impacts on professional involvement. However, it is still not clear how those variables relate to each other. To test and compare - through structural equation modelling - two models of the relationships between perceived school support, exposure to school violence, subjective well-being and professional disengagement. To test - through multigroup analysis - the buffering effect of school support between school violence and well-being. Participants in this study were 487 French-speaking teachers (57% female) randomly selected from 24 secondary schools in Belgium. Participants completed a questionnaire on school leadership, relationships with colleagues, verbal victimization, students' misbehaviour, perceived violence, depression, somatization, anxiety and professional disengagement. The results support a model in which perceived school support has a direct effect on exposure to school violence, subjective well-being and professional disengagement, while the effect of school violence on disengagement is totally mediated by well-being. No evidence of a moderating effect of school support was found. The results of this study suggest that the negative emotional impact of some forms of school violence could be an important factor in a teacher's intention to leave, and that school support could be even more important for both teacher emotional well-being and professional disengagement.
Zapolski, Tamika C B; Banks, Devin E; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C
Although many juvenile offenders report experiencing police injustice, few studies have examined how this source of strain may impact youths' behavioral outcomes, including risk for future recidivism. This study begins to address that gap in the literature. We applied the general strain theory as our theoretical framework to examine the interactive effect of perceived police injustice and moral disengagement on juvenile aggressive behavior. Our sample included 95 juvenile offenders who completed questionnaires on measures of perceived police injustice and moral disengagement. Results supported our hypothesis, such that moral disengagement predicted past month aggression among juvenile offenders, but only by youth who reported mean and high levels of perceived police injustice. While more research is needed in this area, this study's findings underscore the need to address both perceived police engagement and moral disengagement among youth at-risk of engaging in delinquent behaviors. Implications for intervention programs are also presented.
Briere, John; Runtz, Marsha; Eadie, Erin; Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha
Based on attachment theory, we hypothesized that self-reported childhood experiences of disengaged parenting (DP) would predict adults' psychological symptoms even more than, on average, childhood sexual, physical, or psychological abuse. In a large (N=640) university sample, bootstrapped multiple regression analyses indicated that although various forms of child maltreatment were correlated with symptomatology at the univariate level, DP was the primary multivariate predictor. Structural equation modeling indicated significant direct paths from (a) DP to both nonsexual child maltreatment and sexual abuse, (b) DP and nonsexual child maltreatment to insecure attachment, and (c) sexual abuse and insecure attachment to symptomatology. There were significant indirect effects of DP on psychological symptoms through sexual and nonsexual abuse, as well as through attachment. These results suggest that although child abuse has direct and indirect impacts on psychological symptoms, exposure to DP may be especially detrimental, both by increasing the risk of child abuse and by virtue of its impacts on attachment insecurity. They also support the potential use of attachment-oriented intervention in the treatment of adults maltreated as children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walters, Glenn D
Research has shown that procedural justice reliably predicts future offending behavior, although there is some indication that this may be more a function of legitimacy beliefs than of procedural justice per se. The current study sought to explain continuity and desistance in the moral model of criminal lifestyle development by comparing legitimacy beliefs, procedural justice, and moral disengagement as initiators and mediators of pathways leading to early adult offending. It was hypothesized that low legitimacy beliefs but not perceived procedural (in)justice or moral disengagement would initiate, and that moral disengagement but not low legitimacy beliefs or procedural injustice would mediate, the effect of low legitimacy beliefs on subsequent offending behavior. This hypothesis was tested in a group of 1,142 young adult males (age range = 18 to 20) from the Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2012). Results showed that as predicted, the target pathway (legitimacy → moral disengagement → offending) but none of the control pathways achieved a significant indirect effect. Hence, 1 way legitimacy beliefs reduce future offending and lead to desistance is by inhibiting moral disengagement. Besides the theoretical implications of these results, there is also the suggestion that legitimacy beliefs and moral disengagement should be considered for inclusion in secondary prevention and criminal justice intervention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Lyken-Segosebe, D. E.
International graduate students meet TOEFL, GPA, and other admissions criteria to gain entry into US colleges and universities. During their stay in the USA, they provide educational and economic contributions for their host country. In contrast to their educational and economic potential, international students often demonstrate poor academic and…
Gairín, Joaquín; Triado, Xavier M.; Feixas, Mònica; Figuera, Pilar; Aparicio-Chueca, Pilar; Torrado, Mercedes
Data from over 21,600 students who left Catalan higher education institutions during the academic years 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 have been analysed in order to describe the academic and personal profiles of university dropouts. Additionally, a telephone survey and face-to-face interviews with a pilot group of leavers were conducted to gather…
van Deurzen, P.A.; Roelofs, J.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Rinck, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Speckens, A.E.M.
Prior research has shown that depressive symptoms are associated with an enhanced attention toward negative stimuli and difficulty of disengaging attention from negative stimuli. The current study was an extension of a 2005 study by Koster and colleagues. A different stimulus presentation time and
Deurzen, P.A.M. van; Roelofs, J.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Rinck, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Speckens, A.E.M.
Prior research has shown that depressive symptoms are associated with an enhanced attention toward negative stimuli and difficulty of disengaging attention from negative stimuli. The current study was an extension of a 2005 study by Koster and colleagues. A different stimulus presentation time and
McMahon, Samantha; Harwood, Valerie; Hickey-Moody, Anna
This paper contributes to a growing body of literature on widening university participation and brings a focus on the classed and embodied nature of young people's imagination to existing discussions. We interviewed 250 young people living in disadvantaged communities across five Australian states who had experienced disengagement from compulsory…
Wang, Cixin; Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Swearer, Susan M; Turner, Rhonda; Goldberg, Taryn S
Moral disengagement is a series of cognitive processes used to disengage moral standards to achieve absolved guilt and permit immoral conduct and has been found to be an important connection to bullying and aggressive behaviors among adolescents. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between moral disengagement and bullying behavior among a group of adolescents from fifth grade to ninth grade (n = 1180, mean age = 12.2, SD = 1.29, 46.5 % female, 80.2 % Caucasian/White, 7.1 % Black/African American, 5.4 % Latino/Hispanic, 2.4 % Asian American, and 1.7 % other) over three semesters. The objectives were to investigate (a) whether moral disengagement was a precursor to bullying behavior, vice versa, or whether the relationship was reciprocal and (b) whether gender and grade predicted moral disengagement and bullying behavior. The results showed that moral disengagement predicted bullying perpetration 6 months later. Also, older students and males utilized more moral disengagement than younger students and females and younger students and males engaged in greater bullying perpetration. Indirect paths linking gender and grade to bullying via moral disengagement at previous time points were identified and implications for bullying prevention are discussed. The findings underscore the importance of examining moral disengagement when studying bullying and across gender and development.
Andries De Smet
Full Text Available The characterisation of anthropogenic climate change as a violation of basic human rights is gaining wide recognition. Many people believe that tackling this problem is exclusively the job of governments and supranational institutions (especially the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This argument can be traced back to the delegated authority model, according to which the legitimacy of political institutions depends on their ability to solve problems that are difficult to address at the individual level. Since the institutions created to tackle climate change fail to do so, their legitimacy is under great pressure and can only be saved by considerations of feasibility. We argue that democratically elected representatives are able to claim that a more robust climate policy is unfeasible, but only because the mandate we as citizens grant them is very restrictive. Instead of shifting responsibility for the thoroughly inadequate response to climate change fully to political representatives, we should highlight the failure of the political community as a whole to fulfil its responsibility at the input-side of the delegation of authority. When individual voters fail to fulfil the minimal obligation to at least vote for parties that explicitly advocate robust climate policies, they cannot hide behind the delegated authority argument, but should accept their complicity in the massive violations of basic human rights caused by the failure to successfully tackle climate change.
Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D
The present study examined everyday attentional disengagements in educational contexts. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday mind-wandering and distraction in a diary over the course of a week. Participants reported mind-wandering and being distracted both in class and while studying and there were a number of different subtypes of attentional disengagements. Individual differences in cognitive abilities were related to some, but not all, everyday attentional disengagements and motivation and interest in classes were related to specific subtypes of disengagements. Finally, academic performance was related to fluid intelligence and motivation, but not to everyday disengagements. These results provide importance evidence on the different types of attentional disengagements that are prevalent in undergraduate students and for whom disengagements are most likely.
Campaert, Kristel; Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia
Teachers respond differently to bullying and victimization. Socio-cognitive and moral domain theory suggest that students process teachers' behavior cognitively and that teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization could affect students' level of moral disengagement. We examined the mediating effect of students' moral disengagement between types of teachers' responses to situations of bullying and victimization and individual bullying using multilevel mediation modelling. Participants were 609 students (50% boys, age M = 11.47, SD = 1.14) of central Italy, nested in 34 classes. Students rated the frequency of self-reported bullying and of teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization on a 5-point Likert scale. Teachers' responses to bullying included non-intervention, mediation, group discussion, and sanctions. Teachers' responses to victimization included non-intervention, mediation, group discussion, and victim support. Results indicated that in the teachers' responses to incidents of bullying model, a significant indirect effect of non-intervention (β = .03; 95%CI [.01, .05]) and of sanctions (β = -.02; 95%CI [-.04, -.01]) on bullying through moral disengagement was found at the individual level. Similarly, in the model on teachers' responses toward victims there was a significant indirect effect through moral disengagement of non-intervention (β = .03; 95%CI [.02, .04]) and victim support (β = -.01; 95%CI [-.02, -.001]). At the class level there were no significant indirect effects. In sum, results indicated that moral disengagement is an important mediator at the individual level and suggest including teachers in anti-bullying interventions with a specific focus on their role for moral development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kearney, Sean P.; Perkins, Tim
In 2011 the authors created a model of self- and peer-assessment known as Authentic Self and Peer Assessment for Learning (ASPAL) in an attempt to better engage seemingly disengaged students in their undergraduate coursework. The model focuses on authentic assessment tasks and engages students by involving them in every step of the process from…
Mazzone, Angela; Camodeca, Marina; Salmivalli, Christina
We examined the moderating effect of guilt on the associations between moral disengagement and bullying, defending and outsider behaviors in a sample of 404 students (203 boys; M[subscript age] = 11.09 years; SD = 1.48). Bullying, defending and outsider behavior were assessed through peer nominations, whereas guilt and moral disengagement were…
Corrion, K; Scoffier, S; Gernigon, C; Cury, F; d'Arripe-Longueville, F
According to Bandura, individuals are able to violate their personal standards, without self-sanction, by using the psychological operations of moral disengagement. For Bandura et al., moral disengagement is characterized by eight mechanisms belonging to one of the following four groups: (a) reconstructing conduct; (b) reconsideration of negative effects; (c) disqualification of the victim; and (d) obscuring of personal causal agency. Other researchers have measured moral disengagement in various contexts of everyday life using Bandura et al.'s scale and suggested that moral disengagement mechanisms would fall into two or three groups according to context. One context in which moral issues have a major role is sport. Three complementary studies were carried out on a total of 1305 young French adult athletes to develop and validate a Short French Questionnaire of Moral Disengagement in Sport (SFQMDS) and to test its invariance according to gender. STUDY 1: With reference to the existing literature, an initial French version of the SFQDMS was developed. French university students (n=220) then voluntarily completed the questionnaire. The validity of this preliminary version and the clarity of the items were examined and ascertained, and factorial analyses identified 10 items that loaded onto two factors (i.e., projecting fault onto others or sharing of responsibility; minimization of transgression and their consequences). Each factor displayed good internal consistency. STUDY 2: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted using AMOS 7.0 software. The sample included 1021 French university students (M(age)=21.52; SD=2.34). The first analysis of the data from 298 French students suggested that four items should be eliminated. The six-item model was then tested with a CFA of the data from 723 other participants (M(age)=21.51; SD=2.34) and exhibited acceptable fit indices: (χ² [8, 723]=1.54; p>0.09; GFI=0.97; TLI=0.97; CFI=0.97; RMSEA=0.03; RMSEA LO/HI=0
Orue, Izaskun; Calvete, Esther
The aim of this study was to test a model in which psychopathic traits (callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible) and moral disengagement individually and interactively predict two types of bullying (traditional and cyberbullying) in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 765 adolescents (464 girls and 301 boys) completed measures of moral disengagement and psychopathic traits at Time 1, and measures of bullying and cyberbullying at Time 1 and 1 year later, at Time 2. The results showed that callous-unemotional traits predicted both traditional bullying and cyberbullying, grandiose-manipulative and impulsive-irresponsible traits only predicted traditional bullying, and moral disengagement only predicted cyberbullying. Callous-Unemotional Traits × Moral Disengagement and Grandiose-Manipulative × Moral Disengagement were significantly correlated with the residual change in cyberbullying. Callous-unemotional traits were positively related to cyberbullying at high levels of moral disengagement but not when moral disengagement was low. In contrast, grandiose-manipulative traits were positively related to cyberbullying at low levels of moral disengagement but not when moral disengagement was high. These findings have implications for both prevention and intervention. Integrative approaches that promote moral growth are needed, including a deeper understanding of why bullying is morally wrong and ways to stimulate personality traits that counteract psychopathic traits.
Runions, Kevin C; Bak, Michal
The study of moral disengagement has greatly informed research on aggression and bullying. There has been some debate on whether cyberbullies and other cyber-aggressors show more or less of a tendency for moral disengagement than traditional aggressors and bullies. However, according to the triadic model of reciprocal determinism, an individual's behavior influences and is influenced by both personal factors and his/her social environment. This article reviews the literature to propose a new conceptual framework addressing how features of the online context may enable specific mechanisms that facilitate moral disengagement. Specific affordances for moral disengagement proposed here include the paucity of social-emotional cues, the ease of disseminating communication via social networks, and the media attention on cyberbullying, which may elicit moral justification, euphemistic labeling, palliative comparison, diffusion and displacement of responsibility, minimizing and disregarding the consequences for others, dehumanization, and attribution of blame. These ideas suggest that by providing affordances for these mechanisms of moral disengagement, online settings may facilitate cyber-aggression and cyberbullying.
Robson, Claire; Witenberg, Rivka T.
The current study investigated moral disengagement, morally based self-esteem, age, and gender as predictors of traditional bullying and cyberbullying. The participants were 210 Australian school students aged 12 to 15, evenly split between males and females. Salient predictors of traditional bullying were overall moral disengagement, and the…
Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.
The present study examined everyday attentional disengagements in educational contexts. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday mind-wandering and distraction in a diary over the course of a week. Participants reported mind-wandering and being distracted both in class and while studying and there were a number of different subtypes of attentional disengagements. Individual differences in cognitive abilities were related to so...
This study examined the use of moral disengagement among children indirectly involved in bullying (bystanders). A sample of Danish adolescents (N = 660, M age 12.6 years) were divided into four groups depending on their bystander status: (a) outsiders, who did not experience bullying among...... their peers; (b) defenders, who were likely to help the victims in bullying episodes; (c) guilty bystanders, who did nothing to help bullied peers but felt guilty about it; and (d) unconcerned bystanders, who witnessed peers being bullied, without feeling responsible. Results indicated that, besides from...... active personal involvement in bullying others, being an unconcerned bystander to bullying also associates with moral disengagement. Unconcerned bystanders had significantly higher moral disengagement than guilty bystanders and defenders. Outsiders also showed significant higher disengagement than...
Samantha R Kaplan
Full Text Available Retention in care is an essential component of meeting the UNAIDS "90-90-90" HIV treatment targets. In Khayelitsha township (population ~500,000 in Cape Town, South Africa, more than 50,000 patients have received antiretroviral therapy (ART since the inception of this public-sector program in 2001. Disengagement from care remains an important challenge. We sought to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with disengagement from care during 2013-2014 and outcomes for those who disengaged.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients ≥10 years of age who visited 1 of the 13 Khayelitsha ART clinics from 2013-2014 regardless of the date they initiated ART. We described the cumulative incidence of first disengagement (>180 days not attending clinic between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014 using competing risks methods, enabling us to estimate disengagement incidence up to 10 years after ART initiation. We also described risk factors for disengagement based on a Cox proportional hazards model, using multiple imputation for missing data. We ascertained outcomes (death, return to care, hospital admission, other hospital contact, alive but not in care, no information after disengagement until 30 June 2015 using province-wide health databases and the National Death Registry. Of 39,884 patients meeting our eligibility criteria, the median time on ART to 31 December 2014 was 33.6 months (IQR 12.4-63.2. Of the total study cohort, 592 (1.5% died in the study period, 1,231 (3.1% formally transferred out, 987 (2.5% were silent transfers and visited another Western Cape province clinic within 180 days, 9,005 (22.6% disengaged, and 28,069 (70.4% remained in care. Cumulative incidence of disengagement from care was estimated to be 25.1% by 2 years and 50.3% by 5 years on ART. Key factors associated with disengagement (age, male sex, pregnancy at ART start [HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.47-1.69], most recent CD4 count and retention (ART club
Kaplan, Samantha R; Oosthuizen, Christa; Stinson, Kathryn; Little, Francesca; Euvrard, Jonathan; Schomaker, Michael; Osler, Meg; Hilderbrand, Katherine; Boulle, Andrew; Meintjes, Graeme
Retention in care is an essential component of meeting the UNAIDS "90-90-90" HIV treatment targets. In Khayelitsha township (population ~500,000) in Cape Town, South Africa, more than 50,000 patients have received antiretroviral therapy (ART) since the inception of this public-sector program in 2001. Disengagement from care remains an important challenge. We sought to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with disengagement from care during 2013-2014 and outcomes for those who disengaged. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients ≥10 years of age who visited 1 of the 13 Khayelitsha ART clinics from 2013-2014 regardless of the date they initiated ART. We described the cumulative incidence of first disengagement (>180 days not attending clinic) between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014 using competing risks methods, enabling us to estimate disengagement incidence up to 10 years after ART initiation. We also described risk factors for disengagement based on a Cox proportional hazards model, using multiple imputation for missing data. We ascertained outcomes (death, return to care, hospital admission, other hospital contact, alive but not in care, no information) after disengagement until 30 June 2015 using province-wide health databases and the National Death Registry. Of 39,884 patients meeting our eligibility criteria, the median time on ART to 31 December 2014 was 33.6 months (IQR 12.4-63.2). Of the total study cohort, 592 (1.5%) died in the study period, 1,231 (3.1%) formally transferred out, 987 (2.5%) were silent transfers and visited another Western Cape province clinic within 180 days, 9,005 (22.6%) disengaged, and 28,069 (70.4%) remained in care. Cumulative incidence of disengagement from care was estimated to be 25.1% by 2 years and 50.3% by 5 years on ART. Key factors associated with disengagement (age, male sex, pregnancy at ART start [HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.47-1.69], most recent CD4 count) and retention (ART club membership
Moriya, Jun; Sugiura, Yoshinori
Although many cognitive models in anxiety propose that an impaired top-down control enhances the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli, few studies have paid attention to task-irrelevant stimuli under a cognitive load task. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the working memory load on attention to task-irrelevant stimuli in trait social anxiety. The results showed that as trait social anxiety increased, participants were unable to disengage from task-irrelevant stimuli identical to the memory cue under low and high working memory loads. Impaired attentional disengagement was positively correlated with trait social anxiety. This impaired attentional disengagement was related to trait social anxiety, but not state anxiety. Our findings suggest that socially anxious people have difficulty in disengaging attention from a task-irrelevant memory cue owing to an impaired top-down control under a working memory load. PMID:23071765
Full Text Available Although many cognitive models in anxiety propose that an impaired top-down control enhances the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli, few studies have paid attention to task-irrelevant stimuli under a cognitive load task. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the working memory load on attention to task-irrelevant stimuli in trait social anxiety. The results showed that as trait social anxiety increased, participants were unable to disengage from task-irrelevant stimuli identical to the memory cue under low and high working memory loads. Impaired attentional disengagement was positively correlated with trait social anxiety. This impaired attentional disengagement was related to trait social anxiety, but not state anxiety. Our findings suggest that socially anxious people have difficulty in disengaging attention from a task-irrelevant memory cue owing to an impaired top-down control under a working memory load.
Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher
In this study, we integrated elements of social cognitive theory of moral thought and action and the social cognitive model of moral identity to better understand doping likelihood in athletes. Participants (N = 398) recruited from a variety of team sports completed measures of moral identity, moral disengagement, anticipated guilt, and doping likelihood. Moral identity predicted doping likelihood indirectly via moral disengagement and anticipated guilt. Anticipated guilt about potential doping mediated the relationship between moral disengagement and doping likelihood. Our findings provide novel evidence to suggest that athletes, who feel that being a moral person is central to their self-concept, are less likely to use banned substances due to their lower tendency to morally disengage and the more intense feelings of guilt they expect to experience for using banned substances.
Quinn, Catherine A; Bussey, Kay
Moral disengagement is a social cognitive process that has been extensively applied to transgressive behaviors, including delinquency, aggression and illicit substance use. However, there has been limited research on moral disengagement as it relates to underage drinking. The current study aimed to examine moral disengagement contextualized to underage drinking and its longitudinal relationship to alcohol use. Moreover, the social context in which adolescent alcohol use typically occurs was also considered, with a specific emphasis on the social sanctions, or social outcomes, that adolescents anticipate receiving from friends for their alcohol use. Adolescents were assessed across three time-points, 8 months apart. The longitudinal sample consisted of 382 (46% female) underage drinkers (12-16 years at T1). Parallel latent growth curve analysis was used to examine the bi-directional influence of initial moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes, and alcohol use on subsequent growth in moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes and alcohol use. The interrelation of initial scores and growth curves was also assessed. The findings revealed that, in the binary parallel analyses, initial moral disengagement and anticipated social outcomes both significantly predicted changes in alcohol use across time. Moreover, initial anticipated social outcomes predicted changes in moral disengagement. These findings were not consistently found when all three process analyses were included in a single model. The results emphasize the impact of social context on moral disengagement and suggest that by targeting adolescents' propensity to justify or excuse their drinking, as well as the social outcomes adolescents anticipate for being drunk, it may be possible to reduce their underage drinking.
Dixit, Vinayak V; Chand, Sai; Nair, Divya J
Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.
Vinayak V Dixit
Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.
Kavussanu, Maria; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Elbe, Anne-Marie
Statement of Problem The use of banned substances to enhance performance occurs in sport. Therefore, developing valid and reliable instruments that can predict likelihood to use banned substances is important. Method We conducted three studies. In Study 1, football players (N = 506) and athletes...... from a variety of team sports (N = 398) completed the Moral Disengagement in Doping Scale (MDDS). In Study 2, team sport athletes (N = 232) completed the MDDS and questionnaires measuring moral disengagement in sport, doping attitudes, moral identity, antisocial sport behavior, situational doping......, as well as test-rest reliability, of the scale. In Study 3, doping moral disengagement was positively related with reported likelihood and temptation to use a banned substance. The scale exhibited very good internal consistency across the three studies. Conclusions In conclusion, the MDDS can be used...
Strauss, Gregory P.; Llerena, Katiah; Gold, James M.
Previous research indicates that abnormal attention-emotion interactions are related to symptom presentation in individuals with schizophrenia. However, the individual components of attention responsible for this dysfunction are unclear. In the current study we examined the possibility that schizophrenia patients with higher levels of negative symptoms (HI-NEG: n = 14) have greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli than patients with low negative symptoms (LOW-NEG: n = 18) or controls (CN: n = 27). Participants completed an exogenous emotional cueing task that required them to focus on an initial emotional or neutral cue and subsequently shift attention to a separate location outside of foveal vision to detect a target stimulus (letter). Results indicated that HI-NEG patients had greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli than CN or LOW-NEG patients; however, behavioral performance did not differ among the groups for pleasant stimuli. Higher self-reported trait negative affect was also associated with greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli. Abnormalities in disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli may thus play a critical role in the formation and maintenance of both negative symptoms and trait negative affect in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:21703824
Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara
Several studies have repeatedly shown that violent/action video games increase aggressive tendencies. The present study provides preliminary evidence that exposure to these games also affects the process of moral disengagement. High school students (N = 385) were recruited, and the impact of both recency and frequency of their exposure to the…
Creed, Peter A.; Hood, Michelle
Participants were 181 university students who completed measures of career development (self-efficacy, perceived barriers, distress, planning, and exploration) and goal adjustment capacity (disengagement and reengagement). We expected (a) that when contemplating unachievable goals, those with a higher capacity to adjust their goals (i.e., to…
Hui, David; Weinstein, Zoe M; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily; Kim, Hyunjoong; Labelle, Colleen; Samet, Jeffrey H
Patients with opioid use disorder often require multiple treatment attempts before achieving stable recovery. Rates of disengagement from buprenorphine are highest in the first month of treatment and termination of buprenorphine therapy results in return to use rates as high as 90%. To better characterize these at-risk patients, this study aims to describe: 1) the frequency and characteristics of patients with very early disengagement (≤1month) from Office Based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) with buprenorphine and 2) the frequency and characteristics of patients who re-engage in care at this same OBOT clinic within 2years, among the subset of very early disengagers. This is a retrospective cohort study of adult patients enrolled in a large urban OBOT program. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and the proportion of patients with very early (≤1month) disengagement and their re-engagement. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify patient characteristics associated with the outcomes of very early disengagement and re-engagement. Potential predictors included: sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, employment, opioid use history, prior substance use treatments, urine drug testing, and psychiatric diagnoses. Overall, very early disengagement was unusual, with only 8.4% (104/1234) of patients disengaging within the first month. Among the subset of very early disengagers with 2years of follow-up, the proportion who re-engaged with this OBOT program in the subsequent 2years was 11.9% (10/84). Urine drug test positive for opiates within the first month (AOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.02-3.93) was associated with increased odds of very early disengagement. Transferring from another buprenorphine prescriber (AOR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.01-0.70) was associated with decreased odds of very early disengagement. No characteristics were significantly associated with re-engagement. Early disengagement is uncommon; however, continued opioid use appeared to
Khalifian, Chandra E; Barry, Robin A
Discussions of relationship transgressions-violations of relationship norms-are often difficult for couples to successfully navigate. Nevertheless, engaging in and resolving these discussions should promote intimacy. Drawing on the risk regulation model, individuals' experiences of disengagement and intimacy during transgression discussions should depend on their trust in their partner regarding the transgression and how they regulate distress related to lower trust. Attachment style represents individual differences in emotion regulation in close relationship contexts and is indicated by the risk regulation model. In contrast, mindfulness also improves interpersonal emotion regulation but is not reflected in the model. The present study proposed that the effect of trust on the experience of intimacy and disengagement during transgression discussions would depend on individuals' attachment style or mindfulness. Hypotheses were tested in a sample of 81 heterosexual newlywed couples. Trust was positively associated with intimacy for individuals with higher attachment avoidance, but not for individuals with lower attachment avoidance. Trust was negatively associated with disengagement for individuals with either lower mindfulness or higher attachment avoidance. Trust was not associated with disengagement for individuals with higher mindfulness or lower attachment avoidance. Implications for theory and clinical interventions focused on increasing intimacy and decreasing disengagement in couple relationships are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H; Compas, Bruce E
The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms. A total of 135 undergraduate students from 2 universities. Interpersonal stress, coping strategies, depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed via self-report. Students reporting more interpersonal stress reported more depression, anxiety, and somatization, and they reported less use of engagement coping strategies and greater use of disengagement coping strategies. Engagement coping strategies accounted for a significant portion of the association between interpersonal stress and mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, coping strategies did not moderate the association between stress and mental health symptoms. Interventions designed to improve students' coping strategies may be an effective way to reduce mental health problems on college campuses.
Zhao, Huanhuan; Zhang, Heyun; Xu, Yan
The present study attempts to examine the effect of perceived descriptive norms on corrupt intention (e.g., bribe-taking intention) and then further explore the psychological mechanism underlying this effect. Based on social cognitive theory, we established a mediation model in which moral disengagement partially mediated the link between perceived descriptive norms and corrupt intention. In Study 1, participants (N = 690) completed a series of questionnaires, and the results demonstrated that, while perceived descriptive norms were positively associated with corrupt intention, it was partially mediated by moral disengagement. In Study 2, we conducted a priming experiment (N = 161) to test the causal relationship and psychological mechanism between perceived descriptive norms and corrupt intention. The results revealed that perceived descriptive norms triggered the propensity of individuals to morally disengage, which in turn, partially increased their corrupt intention. This study not only extends previous research by providing evidence that moral disengagement may be one of the reasons why perceived descriptive norms facilitate corrupt intention, but also suggests that reshaping normative beliefs and preventing the moral disengagement of individuals may be the effective ways to curb corrupt behaviours. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.
Smith, Thomas E; Easter, Alison; Pollock, Michele; Pope, Leah Gogel; Wisdom, Jennifer P
This study sought to describe reasons for disengagement from services and practical guidelines to enhance engagement among individuals with serious mental illness and high need for treatment. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 56 individuals with serious mental illness and 25 providers recruited from a larger project that used administrative data to identify individuals with serious mental illness who had disengaged from care. Individuals with serious mental illness and providers described reasons for disengagement and effective provider engagement strategies. Individuals with serious mental illness and providers differed in reported reasons for disengagement. Reasons reported by individuals with serious mental illness included services that were not relevant to their needs, inability to trust providers, and a belief that they were not ill. Providers cited lack of insight, stigma, and language and cultural barriers as common reasons for disengagement. Strategies for increasing engagement were grouped into a framework of acceptable, accessible, and available services. Acceptable services reflect a partnership model that fosters support and instills hope; accessible services minimize barriers related to transportation and intake procedures; and available services address recovery needs in addition to treatment of general medical and psychiatric problems. Individuals with serious mental illness and providers often do not agree on reasons for seeking care. The framework of acceptable, accessible, and available services identifies opportunities for providers to adjust practices and maximize engagement in services among individuals with serious mental illness who are in high need of treatment.
Full Text Available Recently, a number of studies have looked at the disengagement/de-radicalisation of terrorist groups and individuals. This article critically assesses part of this literature in relation to the process of voluntary collective disengagement, using the case of the Palestinian Fatah organization as an example. It questions the specific focus of most de-radicalisation studies upon solely ending the use of the terrorist tactic, arguing that the disengagement process should be studied in conjunction with groups ceasing to use other forms of political violence as well. Although the article favours an objective definition of terrorism, it also recognises the salience of the term's normative power and argues that both perspectives can play a role in the disengagement process. This process can be divided into a number of stages: (i declarative disengagement, (ii behavioural disengagement, (iii organisational disengagement, and (iv de-radicalisation. Fatah's disengagement process demonstrates that the process can be conditional, reversible, and selective. Consequently, a number of problems arise in terms of defining when an organisation has actually ceased to use terrorism and other forms of political violence. The article argues that Fatah represents a case of mixed disengagement; it was selective, conditional and mostly only behavioural. However, despite the disengagement process only being partially successful during the Oslo period - and reversed considerably during the al-Aqsa Intifada - it has had some lasting effects on the organisation, making it less likely to re-engage in terrorism.
Weinstein, Zoe M; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily; Hui, David; Kim, Hyunjoong; Gryczynski, Gabriela; Samet, Jeffrey H
The prevalence of psychoactive medications (PAMs) use in patients enrolled in Office Based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) and its association with engagement in this care is largely unknown. To describe the use of PAMs, including those medications with emerging evidence of misuse ("emerging PAMs" - gabapentin, clonidine and promethazine) among patients on buprenorphine, and its association with disengagement from OBOT. This is a retrospective cohort study of adults on buprenorphine from January 2002 to February 2014. The association between use of PAMs and 6-month disengagement from OBOT was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. A secondary analysis exploring time-to-disengagement was conducted using Cox regression models. At OBOT entry, 43% of patients (562/1308) were prescribed any PAM; including 17% (223/1308) on an emerging PAM. In separate adjusted analyses, neither the presence of any PAM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.07, 95% CI [0.78, 1.46]) nor an emerging PAM (AOR 1.28 [0.95, 1.74]) was significantly associated with 6-month disengagement. The results were similar for the Cox model (any PAM (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.16, 95% CI [1.00, 1.36]), emerging PAM (AHR 1.18 [0.98, 1.41])). Exploratory analyses suggested gabapentin (AHR 1.30 [1.05-1.62]) and clonidine (AHR 1.33 [1.01-1.73]) specifically, may be associated with an overall shorter time to disengagement. Psychoactive medication use is common among patients in buprenorphine treatment. No significant association was found between the presence of any psychoactive medications, including medications with emerging evidence of misuse, and 6-month disengagement from buprenorphine treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
recommendations for a framework for a United States-sponsored de-radicalization/disengagement program, domestically and with partner nations overseas . 15...sponsored de-radicalization/disengagement program, domestically and with partner nations overseas . vi (INTENTIONALLY BLANK...8 Defining Success 9 Case Selection Rationale 12 Limitations of Case Studies 14 Chapter 3 – Case #1: Saudi Arabian Counseling
Student workload is a contributing factor to students deciding to withdraw from their study before completion of the course, at significant cost to students, institutions and society. The aim of this paper is to create a basic workload model for a group of undergraduate students studying business law units at Curtin University in Western…
Oosthuizen, Christa; Stinson, Kathryn; Little, Francesca; Osler, Meg; Hilderbrand, Katherine; Boulle, Andrew
Background Retention in care is an essential component of meeting the UNAIDS “90-90-90” HIV treatment targets. In Khayelitsha township (population ~500,000) in Cape Town, South Africa, more than 50,000 patients have received antiretroviral therapy (ART) since the inception of this public-sector program in 2001. Disengagement from care remains an important challenge. We sought to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with disengagement from care during 2013–2014 and outcomes for those who disengaged. Methods and findings We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients ≥10 years of age who visited 1 of the 13 Khayelitsha ART clinics from 2013–2014 regardless of the date they initiated ART. We described the cumulative incidence of first disengagement (>180 days not attending clinic) between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014 using competing risks methods, enabling us to estimate disengagement incidence up to 10 years after ART initiation. We also described risk factors for disengagement based on a Cox proportional hazards model, using multiple imputation for missing data. We ascertained outcomes (death, return to care, hospital admission, other hospital contact, alive but not in care, no information) after disengagement until 30 June 2015 using province-wide health databases and the National Death Registry. Of 39,884 patients meeting our eligibility criteria, the median time on ART to 31 December 2014 was 33.6 months (IQR 12.4–63.2). Of the total study cohort, 592 (1.5%) died in the study period, 1,231 (3.1%) formally transferred out, 987 (2.5%) were silent transfers and visited another Western Cape province clinic within 180 days, 9,005 (22.6%) disengaged, and 28,069 (70.4%) remained in care. Cumulative incidence of disengagement from care was estimated to be 25.1% by 2 years and 50.3% by 5 years on ART. Key factors associated with disengagement (age, male sex, pregnancy at ART start [HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.47–1.69], most recent
Huang, Guo-Hua; Wellman, Ned; Ashford, Susan J; Lee, Cynthia; Wang, Li
This study examines why and when employees might respond to job insecurity by engaging in workplace deviance and developing intentions to leave-2 activities that are costly for organizations. Drawing on social exchange theory and the theory of moral disengagement, we propose that job insecurity increases workplace deviance and intentions to leave by encouraging employees to morally disengage. We further propose that the strength of the positive association between job insecurity, moral disengagement, and these outcomes is contingent upon 2 aspects of the situation-employees' perceived employment opportunities outside the organization and the quality of the exchange relationship they have developed with their supervisors (leader-member exchange, or LMX). Two time-lagged studies of Chinese workers provide support for the hypothesized 1st-stage moderated mediation model. Specifically, the indirect effect of job insecurity on organizational and interpersonal deviance and intentions to leave via moral disengagement was positive and significant when individuals had more employment opportunities or when LMX was lower but not when they had fewer employment opportunities or when LMX was higher. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Shaw, Daniel S.; Moilanen, Kristin L.
The purpose of the study was to advance our understanding of the developmental precursors of Moral Disengagement (MD) and the role of MD in the development of antisocial behavior from early risk among an ethnically diverse sample of 187 low-income boys followed prospectively from ages 1.5 to 17. Results indicated associations between early rejecting parenting, neighborhood impoverishment, and child empathy and later MD. The link between some of these early constructs and later antisocial behavior was mediated by MD. Finally, in an exploratory path model both MD and biases in social information processing were found to mediate separate paths from early risk factors to later antisocial behavior. Results were partially consistent with the notion that adolescent MD was predicted by a combination of early family, neighborhood, and child risk factors, and that MD may be a mechanism underlying some boys' risk of antisocial behavior. PMID:19777337
Weeks, Christopher; Delalonde, Charles; Preist, Chris
How can we take householders from being disengaged passive energy consumers towards being highly motivated retrofitting energy saving masters? In this paper the “Power law of engagement model for energy saving” is introduced, which breaks down the process of engaging householders into 8 defined stages. The model is based on the householder’s level of engagement and commitment, but applies Fogg’s behaviour model at key stages to help evaluate the decision process of the householder. The focus ...
Leah P. Hollis
Full Text Available Workplace bullying has a detrimental effect on employees, yet few studies have examined its impact on personnel in American higher education administration. Therefore, two central research questions guided this study: (a What is the extent of workplace bullying in higher education administration? and (b What is the cost of workplace bullying specifically to higher education administration? Participants from 175 four-year colleges and universities were surveyed to reveal that 62% of higher education administrators had experienced or witnessed workplace bullying in the 18 months prior to the study. Race and gender were not parameters considered in the sample. A total of 401 (n = 401 higher education respondents completed the instrument from various departments on a campus: academic affairs, student affairs, athletics, development/advancement, admissions/financial aid, information technology, arts faculty, sciences faculty, and executives. Employment disengagement served as the theoretical lens to analyze the financial cost to higher education when employees mentally disengage from organizational missions and objectives. With this lens, the study examined staff hours lost through employee disengagement and the associated costs.
Vălenaş, Sergiu P; Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora; Grafton, Ben; Notebaert, Lies; Miu, Andrei C; MacLeod, Colin
Rumination is a maladaptive form of repetitive thinking that enhances stress responses, and heightened disposition to engage in rumination may contribute to the onset and persistence of stress-related symptoms. However, the cognitive mechanisms through which ruminative disposition influences stress reactivity are not yet fully understood. This study investigated the hypothesis that the impact of ruminative disposition on stress reactivity is carried by an attentional bias reflecting impaired attentional disengagement from negative information. We examined the capacity of a measure of ruminative disposition to predict both attentional biases to negative exam-related information, and state anxiety, in students approaching a mid-term exam. As expected, ruminative disposition predicted state anxiety, over and above the level predicted by trait anxiety. Ruminative disposition also predicted biased attentional disengagement from, but not biased attentional engagement with, negative information. Importantly, biased attentional disengagement from negative information mediated the relation between ruminative disposition and state anxiety. These findings confirm that dispositional rumination is associated with difficulty disengaging attention from negative information, and suggest that this attentional bias may be one of the mechanisms through which ruminative disposition influences stress reactivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thornberg, Robert; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gianluca, Gini; Jungert, Tomas
The first aim of the present study was to examine in a single model how moral disengagement and moral emotions were related to bullying and defending behavior among schoolchildren. The second aim was to test whether the two moral dimensions interacted with each other to explain behavior in bullying situations. Data were collected from 561 Swedish…
The Models and Modeling Perspectives (MMP) has evolved out of research that began 26 years ago. MMP researchers use Model Eliciting Activities (MEAs) to elicit students' mental models. In this study MMP was used as the conceptual framework to investigate the nature of students' models of curve fitting in a problem-solving environment consisting of…
Leitner, Jordan B; Hehman, Eric; Deegan, Matthew P; Jones, James M
The degree to which self-esteem hinges on feedback in a domain is known as a contingency of self-worth, or engagement. Although previous research has conceptualized engagement as stable, it would be advantageous for individuals to dynamically regulate engagement. The current research examined whether the tendency to disengage from negative feedback accounts for variability in self-esteem. We created the Adaptive Disengagement Scale (ADS) to capture individual differences in the tendency to disengage self-esteem from negative outcomes. Results demonstrated that the ADS is reliable and valid (Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, in response to negative social feedback, higher scores on the ADS predicted greater state self-esteem (Study 3), and this relationship was mediated by disengagement (Study 4). These findings demonstrate that adaptive disengagement protects self-esteem from negative outcomes and that the ADS is a valid measure of individual differences in the implementation of this process. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Favarò, Francesca; Eurich, Sky; Nader, Nazanin
Autonomous Vehicle (AV) technology is quickly becoming a reality on US roads. Testing on public roads is currently undergoing, with many AV makers located and testing in Silicon Valley, California. The California Department of Motor Vehicles (CA DMV) currently mandates that any vehicle tested on California public roads be retrofitted to account for a back-up human driver, and that data related to disengagements of the AV technology be publicly available. Disengagements data is analyzed in this work, given the safety-critical role of AV disengagements, which require the control of the vehicle to be handed back to the human driver in a safe and timely manner. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the fragmented data obtained from AV manufacturers testing on California public roads from 2014 to 2017. Trends of disengagement reporting, associated frequencies, average mileage driven before failure, and an analysis of triggers and contributory factors are here presented. The analysis of the disengagements data also highlights several shortcomings of the current regulations. The results presented thus constitute an important starting point for improvements on the current drafts of the testing and deployment regulations for autonomous vehicles on public roads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oosterwijk, Suzanne; van der Leij, Andries R; Rotteveel, Mark
With a series of three studies, using an adapted dot-probe paradigm, we investigated the elicitation of spontaneous affective meaning. Although it is well established that humans show delays in disengaging their attention from conventional affective stimuli, it is unknown whether contextually acquired affective meaning similarly impacts attention. We examined attentional disengagement following pairs of neutral or slightly ambiguous words that in combination could evoke sex, violence or neutral associations. Study 1 demonstrated slower disengagement following words that conveyed sex or violence associations compared to words that conveyed neutral associations. This pattern was only present for participants who were aware of sex or violence associations. Study 2 replicated these results in a large sample, but only for sex associations. Study 3 replicated the effect while instructing participants explicitly to expect sex and violence associations. Finally, two control studies countered reasonable alternative explanations for our findings. Together, these studies show that contextually driven affective associations can arise quickly with the potential to influence attentional processes. These findings are consistent with theoretical models of emotion and language that highlight the importance of context in the generation of affective meaning.
Kollerová, Lenka; Soukup, P.; Gini, G.
Roč. 15, č. 2 (2018), s. 184-191 ISSN 1740-5629 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00682S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : aggressive behavior * bullying * defending * moral disengagement * victimization Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 1.302, year: 2016
Kollerová, Lenka; Soukup, P.; Gini, G.
Roč. 15, č. 2 ( 2018 ), s. 184-191 ISSN 1740-5629 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00682S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : aggressive behavior * bullying * defending * moral disengagement * victimization Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 1.302, year: 2016
In this article, I suggest that postdivorce paternal disengagement may be rooted in the father's tendency to link his children and ex-wife as a single entity in consequence of his failure to adequately mourn the loss of his ex-wife and to redefine his paternal role and identity in distinction from his spousal role and identity. I also suggest that…
Lewthwaite, Brian; Wilson, Kimberley; Wallace, Valda; McGinty, Sue; Swain, Luke
This paper explores the experiences of 12 young people, all teenagers, who have chosen to attend alternative schools known as flexible learning options within the Australian context. Using a phenomenological approach, the study seeks to understand their experiences outside the normalised public discourse that they had "disengaged" from…
Sherman, Jane Ehlinger
A model is described in which student nurses' preceptors are the joint-appointee nurse practitioners, with physicians providing consultation and serving as team participants. Key points that are examined are program development at the University of Illinois, how the program actually operated, and some of the problems encountered. (CT)
Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini
College student burnout has been assessed mainly with the Maslach burnout inventory (MBI). However, the construct's definition and measurement with MBI has drawn several criticisms and new inventories have been suggested for the evaluation of the syndrome. A redefinition of the construct of student burnout is proposed by means of a structural equation model, reflecting burnout as a second order factor defined by factors from the MBI-student survey (MBI-SS); the Copenhagen burnout inventory-student survey (CBI-SS) and the Oldenburg burnout inventory-student survey (OLBI-SS). Standardized regression weights from Burnout to Exhaustion and Cynicism from the MBI-SS scale, personal burnout and studies related burnout from the CBI, and exhaustion and disengagement from OLBI, show that these factors are strong manifestations of students' burnout. For college students, the burnout construct is best defined by two dimensions described as "physical and psychological exhaustion" and "cynicism and disengagement".
Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Moilanen, Kristin L.
The purpose of the study was to advance our understanding of the developmental precursors of Moral Disengagement (MD) and the role of MD in the development of antisocial behavior from early risk among an ethnically diverse sample of 187 low-income boys followed prospectively from ages 1.5 to 17. Results indicated associations between early…
This study examined the relation between moral disengagement and different self-reported and peer-nominated positions in school bullying. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate moral disengagement among children for whom self-reported and peernominated bully status diverged and (2) compare...... levels of disengagement among self-reported and peer-nominated pure bullies, pure victims, bully–victims, and children not involved in bullying. A sample of 739 Danish sixth grade and seventh grade children (mean age 12.6) was included in the study. Moral disengagement was measured using a Danish version...... of the Moral Disengagement Scale and bullying was measured using both self-reports and peer nominations. Results revealed that both selfreported and peer-nominated bullying were related to moral disengagement, and that both pure bullies and bully–victims displayed higher moral disengagement than outsiders...
Renati, Roberta; Berrone, Carlo; Zanetti, Maria Assunta
In recent years, the phenomenon of cyberbullying has been gaining scholars' growing interest under various aspects, including its overlap with face-to-face bullying. Nevertheless, its relationships with cognitive and affective empathy, proactive and reactive aggression, and moral disengagement, constructs that proved to be crucial in distinguishing aggressive subjects from their targets and nonaggressive peers in traditional bullying, still represent, to some extent, an unexplored domain. The main purpose of the present exploratory study was to investigate the associations between cyberbullying and the mentioned constructs among Italian adolescents. 819 high-school students (mean age 16.08) were administered a battery of standardized tools, along with Cyberties, a new instrument created to assess the prevalence of (and the type of involvement in) different forms of electronic assaults. Analyses of variance were conducted to compare four roles ("pure" bullies, "pure" victims, bully victims, and noninvolved subjects). Participants who identified themselves as cyberbullies or cyberbully victims showed significantly higher levels of overall moral disengagement and of both types of aggression. Cyberbullies also displayed a lack of affective empathy. Our findings are in line with the ones in extant literature about correlates of traditional and electronic forms of bullying. Implications for prevention strategies are discussed.
Beasley, Christopher R; Jason, Leonard A
This study tested an affective events theory (AET) model in the Oxford House network of recovery homes. Residents' congruence with their home (P-E fit) was hypothesized to directly influence behavior that supported the house and other residents-citizenship behavior. We further hypothesized P-E fit would be related to member intentions to leave, with attitudes toward the home mediating that relationship. To assess this, we administered a cross-sectional national survey to 296 residents of 83 randomly selected Oxford Houses. Although the AET model demonstrated good fit with the data, an alternative model fit better. This alternative model suggested an additional indirect relationship between P-E fit and citizenship mediated by attitudes. Results suggested affective experiences such as feeling like one fits with a community may influence engagement and disengagement. There appears to be a direct influence of fit on citizenship behavior and an indirect influence of fit through recovery home attitudes on both citizenship and intentions to leave the home. We conclude affective experiences could be important for community engagement and disengagement but AET may need to integrate cognitive dissonance theory.
Mafimisebi, Oluwasoye Patrick; Thorne, Sara
The controversial issues of terrorism and militancy have generated contemporary interests and different interpretations have emerged on how to combat and manage these dangerous events. This study widens understanding of moral disengagement mechanism application in the perpetuation of inhumanities within the context of oil terrorist and militant behaviors. The research findings and model are explicit on how people form moral evaluations of agents who are forced to make morally relevant decisions over times in context of crisis situations. Quite crucially, understanding the context of terrorism and militancy provides policymakers, emergency and crisis managers better analysis and response to such events. The research fundamental purpose was to investigate the mediating role of moral disengagement on delinquency of oil terrorism and militancy; and considered implications for emergency and crisis management practices. The study found that situational-induced crises such as oil terrorism and militancy were sufficient to account for an individual's misdeeds and unethical or inhumane decisions made under frustration and agitation may be perceived as less indicative of one's fundamental character. Findings suggest that more repugnant delinquencies could have been committed in the name of justice than in the name of injustice, avenues for future research. In context, the result of the moral disengagement scale shows that morality of delinquency (oil terrorism and militancy) is accomplished by cognitively redefining the morality of such acts. The main finding is that people in resistance movements are rational actors making rational choices. The authors argue that theorists, policymakers, and practitioners must give meaningful attention to understanding the multidimensional nature of emergency, crisis and disaster management for better strength of synthesis between theory and practice. The research is concluded by thorough examination of the implication and limitations for
Rasmussen, Hannah F; Borelli, Jessica L; Decoste, Cindy; Suchman, Nancy E
As a group, substance-abusing parents are at risk for maladaptive parenting. The association between substance abuse and parenting may result, in part, from parents' emotional disengagement from the parent-child relationship, which makes perceiving and responding to children's cues more challenging. In this study, we examined whether substance-abusing mothers' levels of disengagement from their relationship with their children (ages 2-44 months), operationalized in two different ways using parenting narratives (representational and linguistic disengagement), prospectively predicted children's engagement and disengagement cues during a structured mother-child interaction. Within a sample of 29 mothers, we tested the hypotheses that greater maternal disengagement at Time 1 would predict a decrease in children's engagement and an increase in children's disengagement at Time 2. Results indicated that representational disengagement predicted a decrease in children's engagement cues whereas linguistic disengagement predicted an increase in children's disengagement cues. Results provide partial support for a reciprocal, iterative process in which mothers and children mutually adjust their emotional and behavioral disengagement with one another. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis; Wang, Lu
Mental modeling, which is a theory about knowledge organization, has been recently studied by science educators to examine students' understanding of scientific concepts. This qualitative study investigates undergraduate students' mental models of atomic spectra. Nine second-year physics students, who have already taken the basic chemistry and…
O'Connor, Rory C
There is growing interest in models of adaptive self-regulation. Recent research suggests that goal disengagement and goal reengagement (i.e., goal adjustment) are implicated in the self-regulation of emotion. This study extends the self-regulation research to investigate the utility of goal adjustment in understanding suicidal risk. To this end, two hundred adults hospitalised following a suicidal episode completed a range of clinical and psychological measures in hospital and were followed up approximately 2.5 months after discharge (Time 2). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that goal reengagement predicted suicidal ideation at Time 2. In addition, the lack of goal reengagement was especially pernicious when reported concomitantly with high disengagement. These predictive effects were independent of baseline mood, attempt status and suicidal intent. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
People can disengage from their internalized moral standards and self-regulation in order to perform immoral behaviour by using different Moral Disengagement mechanisms. These mechanisms within media have a positive effect on immoral behaviour. However, Moral Identity activation is said to counter arguments of Moral Disengagement. In this study, both concepts are applied to the context of war. An additional assumption took into account in how far participants’ internalized moral standards con...
Mother–daughter centriole disengagement, the necessary first step in centriole duplication, involves Plk1 activity in early mitosis and separase activity after APC/C activity mediates securin degradation. Plk1 activity is thought to be essential and sufficient for centriole disengagement with separase activity playing a supporting but non-essential role. In separase null cells, however, centriole disengagement is substantially delayed. The ability of APC/C activity alone to mediate centriole disengagement has not been directly tested. We investigate the interrelationship between Plk1 and APC/C activities in disengaging centrioles in S or G2 HeLa and RPE1 cells, cell types that do not reduplicate centrioles when arrested in S phase. Knockdown of the interphase APC/C inhibitor Emi1 leads to centriole disengagement and reduplication of the mother centrioles, though this is slow. Strong inhibition of Plk1 activity, if any, during S does not block centriole disengagement and mother centriole reduplication in Emi1 depleted cells. Centriole disengagement depends on APC/C–Cdh1 activity, not APC/C–Cdc20 activity. Also, Plk1 and APC/C–Cdh1 activities can independently promote centriole disengagement in G2 arrested cells. Thus, Plk1 and APC/C–Cdh1 activities are independent but slow pathways for centriole disengagement. By having two slow mechanisms for disengagement working together, the cell ensures that centrioles will not prematurely separate in late G2 or early mitosis, thereby risking multipolar spindle assembly, but rather disengage in a timely fashion only late in mitosis.
Gordon, Barrie; Jacobs, Jenn M.; Wright, Paul M.
This study examined a long-term afterschool leadership program situated in a Midwestern university town in the US. The activity-based program for boys considered to be disengaged with school and at risk for dropping out of education, was based on the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model. The program curriculum was strongly…
Full Text Available Aims: Previous research on the Oculomotor Capture Task (OCT found that older adults make a greater percentage of reflexive saccades to a distractor than younger adults. This finding may be due to a decrease in ability to disengage attention. This study is aimed at determining whether performance on a Posner attentional disengagement task, and a Flanker interference task can predict error rates on the OCT in older adults. It is hypothesised that participants' performance on the Posner and Flanker tasks will positively correlate with their performance on the OCT. Method: Participants (n = 27 completed three tasks. The OCT involved participants looking at six grey dots on a computer. After 1000ms the colour of the five dots changed to red. Simultaneously, an extra dot (distractor appeared. Participants had to look at the remaining grey dot. The Flanker task required participants to respond to the identity of a letter, H or E, flanked by either congruent or incongruent letters. The Posner task comprised a red cue, followed by a square that had a gap on the top or bottom of it. Participants had to indicate which it was. Results: Results showed that there was a moderate correlation between percentage captures and the difference in RT on the Posner task, r = .35, p = .067. There was a significant correlation between age and percentage capture on the OCT, r = .53, p = .004. Conclusions: The results showed that percentage captures increased with age, supporting previous research. The moderate correlation between percentage captures and performance on the Posner task suggests that time taken to disengage attention from a distractor may predict performance on the OCT.
Technological optimism and the technological development within nearly all sectors in the industrial world the last 20 years shows that technology use in the workplace is here to stay and involves most workplaces. More specifically research within the health care sector dealing within how new...... with technologies. This paper adds to the research on how working practices that are sustained and stabilised through technological efficacy and smoothness can be challenged by invisible work (e.g. Star 1991). It takes the perspective that certain types of disengagements are not necessarily caused by alienation...
Shipstead, Zach; Harrison, Tyler L; Engle, Randall W
Working memory capacity and fluid intelligence have been demonstrated to be strongly correlated traits. Typically, high working memory capacity is believed to facilitate reasoning through accurate maintenance of relevant information. In this article, we present a proposal reframing this issue, such that tests of working memory capacity and fluid intelligence are seen as measuring complementary processes that facilitate complex cognition. Respectively, these are the ability to maintain access to critical information and the ability to disengage from or block outdated information. In the realm of problem solving, high working memory capacity allows a person to represent and maintain a problem accurately and stably, so that hypothesis testing can be conducted. However, as hypotheses are disproven or become untenable, disengaging from outdated problem solving attempts becomes important so that new hypotheses can be generated and tested. From this perspective, the strong correlation between working memory capacity and fluid intelligence is due not to one ability having a causal influence on the other but to separate attention-demanding mental functions that can be contrary to one another but are organized around top-down processing goals. © The Author(s) 2016.
Venker, Courtney E.
Deficits in visual disengagement are one of the earliest emerging differences in infants who are later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Although researchers have speculated that deficits in visual disengagement could have negative effects on the development of children with autism spectrum disorder, we do not know which skills are…
Camodeca, Marina; Taraschi, Emanuela
This work considers a still uninvestigated research issue-namely, whether parents' moral disengagement affected preschool children's externalizing behavior. Participants were 245 children (126 girls and 119 boys) aged 3-6 years. Parents' moral disengagement was assessed in terms of their externalization of blame and their indifference in reactions…
Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Ladd, Gary W.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky
The construct of moral disengagement has increasingly been used by researchers to account for the asymmetry between children's moral reasoning and their moral behavior. According to this theory, moral disengagement occurs most aptly when children are motivated to violate their moral beliefs, such as when they hold antisocial goals during social…
Bussey, Kay; Fitzpatrick, Sally; Raman, Amrutha
This study examines the association between moral disengagement and cyberbullying using a measure of moral disengagement tailored to cyberbullying. It also examines adolescents' self-beliefs in their competence to engage in cyberbullying (cyberbullying self-efficacy beliefs) and how these beliefs may moderate the relation between moral…
Meter, Diana J.; Bauman, Sheri
The indirect effects of moral disengagement about cyberbullying and parental monitoring on traditional victimization and bullying via cyberbullying involvement were examined in a diverse sample of 800 youth in Grades 3 to 8. After controlling for grade and gender, moral disengagement about cyberbullying and parental monitoring had an indirect…
This study examined the relation between moral disengagement and different self-reported and peer-nominated positions in school bullying. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate moral disengagement among children for whom self-reported and peer-nominated bully status diverged and (2) compare levels of disengagement among self-reported and peer-nominated pure bullies, pure victims, bully-victims, and children not involved in bullying. A sample of 739 Danish sixth grade and seventh grade children (mean age 12.6) was included in the study. Moral disengagement was measured using a Danish version of the Moral Disengagement Scale and bullying was measured using both self-reports and peer nominations. Results revealed that both self-reported and peer-nominated bullying were related to moral disengagement, and that both pure bullies and bully-victims displayed higher moral disengagement than outsiders. Discrepancies between self-reported and peer-nominated bullying involvement indicates that a person's social reputation has a stronger association with moral disengagement than so far expected. Implications are discussed, highlighting the importance of further research and theory development. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Hartmann, T.; Krakowiak, M.; Tsay-Vogel, M.
Mechanisms of moral disengagement in violent video game play have recently received considerable attention among communication scholars. To date, however, no study has analyzed the prevalence of moral disengagement factors in violent video games. To fill this research gap, the present approach
The identification of disengaged early school leavers as young people "at risk" can lead to a deficit-based framing of how educational institutions respond to them. A rural secondary school in Victoria, Australia established an alternative education programme to cater for local disengaged young people. A critical ethnographic study was…
Prins, R.G.; Kamphuis, C.B.M.; Empelen, P. van; Beenackers, M.A.; Brug, J.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Oenema, A.
Purpose: The purpose of this longitudinal study is to identify risk groups for disengagement from sports during adolescence. In addition, it will be explored whether cognitive and environmental factors can explain socio-demographic differences in disengagement from sports. METHODS: Data were
This qualitative study examines first-year college students' online search habits in order to identify patterns in millennials' mental models of information retrieval. The study employed a combination of modified contextual inquiry and concept mapping methodologies to elicit students' mental models. The researcher confirmed previously observed…
DesJardins, S. L.; Ahlburg, D. A.; McCall, B. P.
Employs event-history modeling to examine temporal dimensions of student departure from a large research university. Asian students are less likely to depart in year 1 than Whites. African-Americans are more likely to leave during junior and senior years. Dynamic models may presage sound dropout-intervention strategies. (54 references) (MLH)
da Silva, Ketia Kellen A.; Behar, Patricia A.
This article presents the development of a digital competency model of Distance Learning (DL) students in Brazil called CompDigAl_EAD. The following topics were addressed in this study: Educational Competences, Digital Competences, and Distance Learning students. The model was developed between 2015 and 2016 and is being validated in 2017. It was…
Amante, Daniel J; Thompson, Michael J
To discuss recent research on the use of telecommunication technologies to improve care for disengaged patients with diabetes. It is established that patients who are disengaged with their healthcare have worse health outcomes. Reasons for disengagement vary but could be because of difficulties accessing or affording care or not possessing the skills or tools required to manage their disease. New patient-facing technologies are being used to improve communication and coordination of care for patients with diabetes. Early results show improvements in health outcomes. Utilizing these technologies to reach patient groups susceptible for disengagement has begun to demonstrate improvement. Research over the past year has continued to demonstrate the promise of using telecommunication tools to assist patients in the management of diabetes. Although a few studies looked specifically at disengaged patients, efforts to utilize appropriate technological interventions targeting specific groups of patients are needed.
Technological optimism and the technological development within nearly all sectors in the industrial world the last 20 years shows that technology use in the workplace is here to stay and involves most workplaces. More specifically research within the health care sector dealing within how new...... technologies change practices and professions (e.g. Berg; Mol; Orlikowski; Vikkelsø) and research on technological literacy (Dakers; Garmire; Dupret & Hasse) focusing on what it takes to learn and master new technologies suggest that professionals perform creative invisible ‘work-arounds’ when dealing...... with technologies. This paper adds to the research on how working practices that are sustained and stabilised through technological efficacy and smoothness can be challenged by invisible work (e.g. Star 1991). It takes the perspective that certain types of disengagements are not necessarily caused by alienation...
Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela
Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
An important question for mathematics teachers is this: "How can we help students learn mathematics to solve everyday problems, rather than teaching them only to memorize rules and practice mathematical procedures?" Teaching students using modeling activities can help them learn mathematics in real-world problem-solving situations that…
Students of African ancestry often share an experience of being a racialized minority in the context of the educational institution. Late Professor of Anthropology John Ogbu's Cultural-ecological Theory of Academic Disengagement is employed to describe the negative responses encountered by peers in the name of academic achievement. The late Nigerian-American anthropologist John Ogbu described that it is often socially disadvantageous for black youth to prosper academically in formal education. Black students are often seen as betraying their cultural identities by aspiring to academic success and scholastic achievement and are met with repugnance by black peers. The notion of "acting white" is unnecessary, impertinent should be abandoned outright as achievement should have no color. Copyright © 2017 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Page, Thomas E; Pina, Afroditi; Giner-Sorolla, Roger
Sexual harassment represents aggressive behavior that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity. To date, however, theoretical attention to the social cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. This article presents the development and preliminary validation of the Moral Disengagement in Sexual Harassment Scale (MDiSH); a self-report measure of moral disengagement in the context of hostile work environment harassment. Three studies (total n = 797) document the excellent psychometric properties of this new scale. Male U.K. university students (Study 1: n = 322) and U.S. working males (Studies 2 and 3: n = 475) completed the MDiSH and an array of measures for construct validation. The MDiSH exhibited positive correlations with sexual harassment myth acceptance, male gender identification, and hostile sexism. In Study 3, participants were exposed to a fictitious case of hostile work environment harassment. The MDiSH attenuated moral judgment, negative emotions (guilt, shame, and anger), sympathy, and endorsement of prosocial behavioral intentions (support for restitution) associated with the harassment case. Conversely, the MDiSH increased positive affect (happiness) about the harassment and attribution of blame to the female complainant. Implications for practice and future research avenues are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This study investigates Loyalty Model of Private University Student by using STIKOM London School of Public Relation as a study case. This study examined the model from service quality, college image, price, trust and satisfaction perspective. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine and analyze the effect of service quality, college image, tuition fee, trust and satisfaction towards students’ loyalty; the effect of service quality, college image, price and satisfaction towards trust; and the effect of service quality, college image and price towards satisfaction. This study used survey methodology with causal design. The samples of the study are 320 college students. The gathering of data is conducted by using questionnaire in likert scale. The analysis of the data used a Structural Equation Model (SEM approach. The implication of this study is portraying a full contextual description of loyalty model in private university by giving an integrated and innovated contribution to Student Loyalty Model in private university..
Full Text Available This study investigates Loyalty Model of Private University Student by using STIKOM London School of Public Relation as a study case. This study examined the model from service quality, college image, price, trust and satisfaction perspective. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine and analyze the effect of service quality, college image, tuition fee, trust and satisfaction towards students’ loyalty; the effect of service quality, college image, price and satisfaction towards trust; and the effect of service quality, college image and price towards satisfaction. This study used survey methodology with causal design. The samples of the study are 320 college students. The gathering of data is conducted by using questionnaire in likert scale. The analysis of the data used a Structural Equation Model (SEM approach. The implication of this study is portraying a full contextual description of loyalty model in private university by giving an integrated and innovated contribution to Student Loyalty Model in private university.
Full Text Available Research on disengagement from violent extremism is an emerging field of inquiry. As compared to the related field of radicalization, there have been fewer studies of disengagement. Further, little effort has been made to conduct a large scale, systematic review of what is currently known about disengagement from violent extremism. This type of meta-literature assessment can play an important role in terms of informing strategies and programs designed to facilitate exit. To help fill this gap, our project systematically examines the disengagement literature to determine the range and frequency of various exit factors identified in previous studies. We also rely on parallel literatures such as exit from street gangs, mainstream religious groups, cults, and nonviolent social movements to build a robust sample of studies that assess the extent to which group exit factors may generalize across different populations.
Luciene Tognetta; José María Avilés; Pedro Rosário; Natividad Alonso
This article discusses the relationship between bullying and moral disengagements. In a research study conducted with 2,600 adolescents, between 14 and 16 years old, an attempt to verify their involvement in bullying, their self-efficacy beliefs regarding their academic performance and their possible moral disengagements was undertaken. A correlation between being bullying by others and the "dehumanization of the victim" was found. The participation in the bullying situation as authors, victi...
Elsabbagh, Mayada; Fernandes, Janice; Jane Webb, Sara; Dawson, Geraldine; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.
Background: Early emerging characteristics of visual orienting have been associated with a wide range of typical and atypical developmental outcomes. In the current study, we examined the development of visual disengagement in infants at risk for autism.\\ud \\ud Methods: We measured the efficiency of disengaging from a central visual stimulus to orient to a peripheral one in a cohort of 104 infants with and without familial risk for autism by virtue of having an older sibling with autism.\\ud \\...
Full Text Available The important question here is, is there real evaluation in educational advance? In other words, if a student has been successful in mathematics or has been unsuccessful in mathematics, is it possible to find the reasons behind his advance or, is it possible to find the reasons behind his advance or weakness? If we want to respond to this significant question, it should be said that factors of educational advance must be divided into 5 main groups. 1-family, 2-teacher, 3- students 4-school and 5-manager of 3 schools It can then be said that a student's score does not just depend on a factor that people have imaged From this, it can be concluded that by using the DEA and SBM models, each student's efficiency must be researched and the factors of the student's strengths and weaknesses must be analyzed.
Destarianto, P.; Etikasari, B.; Agustianto, K.
Achievement motivation is one of the internal factors in encouraging a person to perform the best activity in achieving its goals. The importance of achievement motivation must be possessed as an incentive to compete so that the person will always strive to achieve success and avoid failure. Based on this, the system is developed to determine the achievement motivation of students, so that students can do self-reflection in improving achievement motivation. The test results of the system using Naïve Bayes Classifier showed an average rate of accuracy of 91,667% in assessing student achievement motivation. By modeling the students ‘motivation generated by the system, students’ achievement motivation level can be known. This class of motivation will be used to determine appropriate counseling decisions, and ultimately is expected to improve student achievement motivation.
Covell, Katherine; McNeil, Justin K.; Howe, R. Brian
Teacher burnout has long been understood to have significant negative effects on teaching efficacy. Research has indicated that student misbehaviour, often a result of disengagement, is a major predictor of teacher burnout. In part to address student disengagement, Hampshire County in England has undertaken a whole-school rights-based reform…
Koponen, Ismo T.; Nousiainen, Maija
Learning scientific knowledge is largely based on understanding what are its key concepts and how they are related. The relational structure of concepts also affects how concepts are introduced in teaching scientific knowledge. We model here how students organise their knowledge when they represent their understanding of how physics concepts are related. The model is based on assumptions that students use simple basic linking-motifs in introducing new concepts and mostly relate them to concepts that were introduced a few steps earlier, i.e. following a genealogical ordering. The resulting genealogical networks have relatively high local clustering coefficients of nodes but otherwise resemble networks obtained with an identical degree distribution of nodes but with random linking between them (i.e. the configuration-model). However, a few key nodes having a special structural role emerge and these nodes have a higher than average communicability betweenness centralities. These features agree with the empirically found properties of students' concept networks.
Wang, Xingchao; Lei, Li; Yang, Jiping; Gao, Ling; Zhao, Fengqing
The link between empathy and aggression is well documented; yet, studies examining potential mechanisms that explain this association are limited. In the present study, we tested the relation between empathy and aggression and examined both the mediating and moderating effects of moral disengagement on this relation among Chinese male juvenile delinquents. Three hundred and fifty-seven male juvenile delinquents from one Chinese juvenile correctional facility completed the interpersonal reactivity index, the moral disengagement scale and the aggression questionnaire. The results indicated that moral disengagement partially mediated the influence of empathy on aggression. Moreover, moral disengagement moderated the relation between empathy and aggression. Specifically, there was a significant negative relation between empathy and aggression at low levels of moral disengagement. However, at high levels of moral disengagement, the relation between empathy and aggression was non-significant. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.
Aim The promotion of a distributed leadership model in health care means there is an expectation that undergraduate training should contribute to the development of nursing students' leadership capabilities. However, there is concern that the nursing degree programme is not sufficiently preparing students. This study explored nursing students' perceptions of leadership before qualifying, and how prepared they felt to take on leadership roles. Method Data were collected from 20 undergraduate nursing students, using a Straussian grounded theory approach, through three focus groups and six semi-structured interviews. Findings These suggest students are disengaged from the learning of leadership, and preparation for leadership in clinical areas is problematic, as students are exposed to flawed role modelling. Conclusion Discrepancies between nurse education and the realities of clinical practice mean that successfully preparing nursing students for leadership roles will be challenging within current provision.
DNA damage can induce centrosome overduplication in a manner that requires G2-to-M checkpoint function, suggesting that genotoxic stress can decouple the centrosome and chromosome cycles. How this happens is unclear. Using live-cell imaging of cells that express fluorescently tagged NEDD1\\/GCP-WD and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, we found that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced centrosome amplification can occur outside S phase. Analysis of synchronized populations showed that significantly more centrosome amplification occurred after irradiation of G2-enriched populations compared with G1-enriched or asynchronous cells, consistent with G2 phase centrosome amplification. Irradiated and control populations of G2 cells were then fused to test whether centrosome overduplication is allowed through a diffusible stimulatory signal, or the loss of a duplication-inhibiting signal. Irradiated G2\\/irradiated G2 cell fusions showed significantly higher centrosome amplification levels than irradiated G2\\/unirradiated G2 fusions. Chicken-human cell fusions demonstrated that centrosome amplification was limited to the irradiated partner. Our finding that only the irradiated centrosome can duplicate supports a model where a centrosome-autonomous inhibitory signal is lost upon irradiation of G2 cells. We observed centriole disengagement after irradiation. Although overexpression of dominant-negative securin did not affect IR-induced centrosome amplification, Plk1 inhibition reduced radiation-induced amplification. Together, our data support centriole disengagement as a licensing signal for DNA damage-induced centrosome amplification.
Disengagement beliefs function to reduce cognitive dissonance and a number of predictions with regard to disengagement beliefs have been tested and verified. However, the influence of disengagement beliefs on persuasion has not been studied yet. In a field-experiment, 254 smokers were randomly assigned to a persuasive message condition or a no-information control condition. First, it was assessed to what extent disengagement beliefs influenced persuasion. In smokers with low adherence to disengagement beliefs, quitting activity (attempting to quit) in the control condition was high, but this was not further increased by persuasive information on the negative outcomes of smoking. In contrast, smokers who strongly adhered to disengagement beliefs showed low quitting activity in the control condition, but significantly more quitting activity when they received the persuasive message. Second, it was studied what smokers do when they experience negative affect caused by the persuasive message. The results show that in smokers who strongly adhered to disengagement beliefs, negative affect was associated with less quitting activity. Although these results show that quitting activity as assessed at 2 and 8 months follow-ups was influenced by disengagement beliefs, point prevalence seven-day quitting was not. This study shows that adherence to disengagement beliefs is a relevant individual difference in understanding effects of smoking cessation interventions.
Teksoz, Gaye; Sahin, Elvan; Tekkaya-Oztekin, Ceren
The present study proposed an Environmental Literacy Components Model to explain how environmental attitudes, environmental responsibility, environmental concern, and environmental knowledge as well as outdoor activities related to each other. A total of 1,345 university students responded to an environmental literacy survey (Kaplowitz and Levine…
Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena
Many classroom teachers are still using the traditional teaching methods. The traditional teaching methods are one-way learning process, where teachers would introduce subject contents such as language arts, English, mathematics, science, and reading separately. However, the school improvement model takes into account that all students have…
Mathematical modeling allows flexibility for a project-based experience. We share details of our regular capstone course, successful for virtually 100% of our math majors for almost two decades. Our research-like approach in this course accommodates a variety of student backgrounds and interests, and has produced some award-winning student…
Bowie, Christopher R; Milanovic, Melissa; Tran, Tanya; Cassidy, Sarah
Depression is associated with impairment in cognition and everyday functioning. Mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction in depression and the factors that influence strategic deployment of cognitive abilities in complex environments remain elusive. In this study we investigated whether depression symptom severity is associated with disengagement from a working memory task (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task; PASAT) with parametric adjustment of task difficulty. 235 participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory, low and high cognitive load conditions of the PASAT, and quality of life. Cognitive disengagement was the sum of consecutive items in which participants did not proffer a response to the trial. Individuals with higher depression severity showed more cognitive disengagement on the high but not low cognitive load trial of the PASAT; they did not differ in number of correct responses. Increased disengagement from the low to high cognitive load was associated with more impaired quality of life. Depression severity is associated with increased disengagement from tasks as difficulty increases. These findings suggest the importance of measuring how cognitive skills are avoided in complex environments in addition to considering performance accuracy. Individuals with depressive symptoms might preferentially avoid cognitive tasks that are perceived as more complex in spite of intact ability.
Sarawan, Supawadee; Yuenyong, Chokchai
This Research was finding the viewing about concept of chemical bonding is fundamental to subsequent learning of various other topics related to this concept in chemistry. Any conceptions about atomic structures that students have will be shown their further learning. The purpose of this study is to interviews conceptions held by high school chemistry students about metallic bonding and to reveal mental model of atomic structures show according to the educational level. With this aim, the questionnaire prepared making use of the literature and administered for analysis about mental model of chemical bonding. It was determined from the analysis of answers of questionnaire the 10th grade, 11th grade and 12th grade students. Finally, each was shown prompts in the form of focus cards derived from curriculum material that showed ways in which the bonding in specific metallic substances had been depicted. Students' responses revealed that learners across all three levels prefer simple, realistic mental models for metallic bonding and reveal to chemical bonding.
Baffes, Paul; Mooney, Raymond
Discussion of student modeling and intelligent tutoring systems focuses on the development of the ASSERT algorithm (Acquiring Stereotypical Student Errors by Refining Theories). Topics include overlay modeling; bug libraries (databases of student misconceptions); dynamic modeling; refinement-based modeling; and experimental results from tests at…
Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.
The primary purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of amine size and structure on phase disengagement. Nine commercial tertiary amines were tested together with four laboratory-quality amines for uranium extraction and both organic-continuous (OC) and aqueous-continuous (AC) phase disengagement under Amex-type conditions. Synthetic acid sulfate solutions with and without added colloidal silica and actual ore leach solutions were used as the aqueous phases. Phase disengagement results were correlated with amine size and branching and solution wetting behavior on a silicate (glass) surface. The results suggest that the performance of some Amex systems may be improved by using branched chain tertiary amine extractants of higher molecular weight than are now normally used
Baik, Seung Yeon; Jeong, Minkyung; Kim, Hyang Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan
Previous studies suggest the presence of attentional bias towards suicide-relevant information in suicidal individuals. However, the findings are limited by their reliance on behavioral measures. This study investigates the role of difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli using the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs). Forty-four adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were administered the spatial cueing task using suicide-relevant and negatively-valenced words as cue stimuli. Disengagement difficulty was measured using reaction time and P300 during invalid trials. P300 amplitudes at Pz were higher in suicide-relevant compared to negatively-valenced word condition on invalid trials for participants with low rates of suicidal behavior. However, no such difference was found among participants with high rates of suicidal behavior. P300 amplitudes for suicide-relevant word condition were negatively correlated with "lifetime suicide ideation and attempt" at Pz. No significant results were found for the reaction time data, indicating that the ERP may be more sensitive in capturing the attentional disengagement effect. The groups were divided according to Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) total score. Neutral stimulus was not included as cue stimuli. Most participants were under medication during the experiment. Our results indicate that patients with MDD and low rates of suicidal behavior show difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli. We suggest that suicide-specific disengagement difficulties may be related to recentness of suicide attempt and that acquired capability for suicide may contribute to reduced disengagement difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Dynamic models of a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV equipped with automated mechanical transmission (AMT were described in different working stages during a gear shifting process without disengaging clutch. Parameters affecting the gear shifting time, components life, and gear shifting jerk in different transient states during a gear shifting process were deeply analyzed. The mathematical models considering the detailed synchronizer working process which can explain the gear shifting failure, long time gear shifting, and frequent synchronizer failure phenomenon in HEV were derived. Dynamic coordinated control strategy of the engine, motor, and actuators in different transient states considering the detailed working stages of synchronizer in a gear shifting process of a HEV is for the first time innovatively proposed according to the state of art references. Bench test and real road test results show that the proposed control strategy can improve the gear shifting quality in all its evaluation indexes significantly.
This chapter takes stock of what we do and do not know from primary sources about individuals’ disengagement from violent extremism. It points to three broad patterns: doubts related to the binary nature of the extremist world view, disappointment with peers or leaders, and changing personal...... priorities. The chapter shows how, for example, first-hand exposure to extremist violence or being condemned by mainstream society can either reinforce radicalization or expedite disengagement and argues that one-size-fits-all counterterrorism measures should be supplanted by a differentiated approach...
Ben-Zur, Hasida; Gilbar, Ora
Resilience and distress in Israeli society were assessed at three points in time: before and after the Israeli disengagement from Gaza, and after the second Lebanese war. A random sample of 366 Israelis was assessed for nation-related anxiety and hostility, personal resources and post-traumatic symptoms. The lowest levels of anxiety were observed at the second time point, after the disengagement. Respondents with high-resilience profiles showed lower levels of post-traumatic symptoms and higher levels of personal resources. The findings underscore Israelis' resilience and the importance of personal resources in ongoing nationally stressful situations.
Dahl, Hanne-Sofie Johnsen; Høglend, Per; Ulberg, Randi; Amlo, Svein; Gabbard, Glen O; Perry, John Christopher; Christoph, Paul Crits
Exploration of the patient-therapist relationship (transference work) is considered a core active ingredient in dynamic psychotherapy. However, there are contradictory findings as for whom and under what circumstances these interventions are beneficial. This study investigates long-term effects of transference work in the context of patients' quality of object relations (QOR) and therapists' self-reported disengaged feelings. Therapists' disengaged feelings may negatively influence the therapeutic process, especially while working explicitly with the transference since discussing feelings that are present in the session is an essential aspect of transference work. One hundred outpatients seeking psychotherapy for depression, anxiety and personality disorders were randomly assigned to one year of dynamic psychotherapy with transference work or to the same type and duration of treatment, but without transference work. Patients' QOR-lifelong pattern was evaluated before treatment and therapists' feelings were assessed using the Feeling Word Checklist-58 after each session. Outcome was measured with self-reports and interviews at pre-treatment, mid-treatment, post-treatment, one year and three years after treatment termination. A significant interaction of treatment group (transference work versus no transference work) by QOR by disengaged therapist feelings was present, indicating that disengaged feelings, even small amounts, were associated with negative long-term effects of transference work, depending on QOR Scale scores. The strengths of the negative association increased significantly with lower levels of QOR. The negative association between even a small increase in disengaged therapist feelings and long-term effects of transference interpretation was substantial for patients with poor QOR, but small among patients with good QOR. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Therapists' emotional reactions to their patients (countertransference) seem to have a
O'Connor, Henrietta; Bodicoat, Maxine
Internships are now widely promoted as a valuable means of enhancing graduate employability. However, little is known about student perceptions of internships. Drawing on data from a pre-1992 university, two types of graduate are identified: engagers and disengagers. The engagers valued internship opportunities while the disengagers perceived…
A new fuzzy student modeling method with two intelligent agents, a diagnosis agent and a learning agent, are suggested by this article for several aspects of student modeling in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Also integrated are fuzzy theories and Fuzzy-Hasse diagrams for student modeling. (Author/AEF)
Shepardson, Daniel P.; Choi, Soyoung; Niyogi, Dev; Charusombat, Umarporn
This constructivist study investigates 225 student drawings and explanations from three different schools in the midwest in the US, to identify seventh grade students' mental models of the greenhouse effect. Five distinct mental models were derived from an inductive analysis of the content of the students' drawings and explanations: Model 1, a…
Howard C. Woodard
Full Text Available The teaching of information technology in an ever-changing world at universities presents a challenge. Are courses taught as concepts, while ignoring hands-on courses, leaving the hands-on classes to the technical colleges or trade schools? Does this produce the best employees for industry or give students the knowledge and skills necessary to function in a high-tech world? At GeorgiaCollege & StateUniversity (GC&SU a model was developed that combines both concepts and practical hands-on skill to meet this challenge. Using this model, a program was developed that consists of classroom lecture of concepts as well as practical hands-on exercises for mastering the knowledge and developing the skills necessary to succeed in the high-tech world of electronic commerce. The students become productive day one of a new job assignment. This solves the problem of students having the "book knowledge" but not knowing how to apply what has been learned.
Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Antonio, Mapuana C K; Ing, Claire K Townsend; Hermosura, Andrea; Hall, Kimberly E; Knight, Rebecca; Wills, Thomas A
Studies have linked perceived racism to psychological distress via certain coping strategies in several different racial and ethnic groups, but few of these studies included indigenous populations. Elucidating modifiable factors for intervention to reduce the adverse effects of racism on psychological well-being is another avenue to addressing health inequities. We examined the potential mediating effects of 14 distinct coping strategies on the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress in a community-based sample of 145 Native Hawaiians using structural equation modeling. Perceived racism had a significant indirect effect on psychological distress, mediated through venting and behavioral disengagement coping strategies, with control for age, gender, educational level, and marital status. The findings suggest that certain coping strategies may exacerbate the deleterious effects of racism on a person's psychological well-being. Our study adds Native Hawaiians to the list of U.S. racial and ethnic minorities whose psychological well-being is adversely affected by racism.
Shamuganathan, Sheila; Karpudewan, Mageswary
In this study attempt was made to model the environmental literacy of Malaysian pre-university students enrolled in a matriculation college. Students enrolled in the matriculation colleges in Malaysia are the top notch students in the country. Environmental literacy of this group is perceived important because in the future these students will be…
Gabbiadini, A.; Riva, P.; Andrighetto, L.; Volpato, C.; Bushman, B.J.
Violent video games glorify and reward immoral behaviors (e.g., murder, assault, rape, robbery, arson, motor vehicle theft). Based on the moral disengagement theory, we predicted that violent games would increase multiple immoral behaviors (i.e., lack of self-control, cheating, aggression),
van Noorden, Tirza H J; Haselager, Gerbert J T; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Bukowski, William M
The current study explored subtle dehumanization-the denial of full humanness-in children, using distinctions of forms (i.e., animalistic vs. mechanistic) and social targets (i.e., friends vs. non-friends). In addition, the link between dehumanization and moral disengagement in bullying and victimization was investigated. Participants were 800 children (7-12 years old) from third to fifth grade classrooms. Subtle animalistic and mechanistic dehumanization toward friends and non-friends were measured with the new Juvenile Dehumanization Measure. Results showed that animalistic dehumanization was more common than mechanistic dehumanization and that non-friends were dehumanized more than friends. The highest levels of dehumanization were found in animalistic form toward non-friends and the lowest levels in mechanistic form toward friends. Both moral disengagement and animalistic dehumanization toward friends were positively associated with bullying. However, moral disengagement was negatively associated with victimization, whereas both animalistic and mechanistic dehumanization toward non-friends were positively associated with victimization. The current findings indicate that children are able to distinguish different forms and targets of dehumanization and that dehumanization plays a distinct role from moral disengagement in bullying and victimization. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Caravita, Simona C S; Gini, Gianluca
The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young adolescents. Via longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), it was tested whether similarity between friends in bullying and defending developed over time due to friends' influence, while controlling for friendship selection processes, and whether there were differences in these processes between children (age 9-10 years; n = 133; 42.9% girls) and young adolescents (age 11-14 years; n = 236; 40.6% girls). Results showed that individuals selected peers as friends who were similar in bullying and became more similar to friends in bullying over time, but only in early adolescence. Moreover, there was marginal support that friends' influence was stronger in young adolescents with higher moral disengagement. In early adolescence, bullying was also indirectly influenced through friends' moral disengagement, with different effects for boys and girls. With regard to defending, young adolescents maintained friendships with peers who were similar in defending, and became more similar to friends in terms of defending over time. These findings suggest important differences between late childhood and early adolescence in socialization processes and indicate that in early adolescence, friends' influence on the development of bullying is partially affected by moral disengagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Voulgaridou, Ioanna; Mandrali, Marianna; Parousidou, Chrysoula
The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactive links between theory of mind (ToM), moral disengagement and relational aggression, using a moderated mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator, in a sample of 120 Greek preadolescents. Results indicated that relational aggression was significantly positively associated with moral…
Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Caravita, Simona C S; Gini, Gianluca
The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young
Sijtsema, J.J.; Rambaran, J.A.; Caravita, S.C.S.; Gini, G.
The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends’ influence and individual and friends’ moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young
Gini, Gianluca; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Hymel, Shelley
A growing body of research has demonstrated consistent links between Bandura's theory of moral disengagement and aggressive behavior in adults. The present meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the existing literature on the relation between moral disengagement and different types of aggressive behavior among school-age children and adolescents. Twenty-seven independent samples with a total of 17,776 participants (aged 8-18 years) were included in the meta-analysis. Results indicated a positive overall effect (r = .28, 95% CI [.23, .32]), supporting the hypothesis that moral disengagement is a significant correlate of aggressive behavior among children and youth. Analyses of a priori moderators revealed that effect sizes were larger for adolescents as compared to children, for studies that used a revised version of the original Bandura scale, and for studies with shared method variance. Effect sizes did not vary as a function of type of aggressive behavior, gender, or publication status. Results are discussed within the extant literature on moral disengagement and future directions are proposed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hartmann, T.; Vorderer, P.A.
What makes virtual violence enjoyable rather than aversive? Two 2×2 experiments tested the assumption that moral disengagement cues provided by a violent video game's narrative and game play lessen users' guilt and negative affect, which would otherwise undermine players' enjoyment of the game.
Elsabbagh, Mayada; Fernandes, Janice; Jane Webb, Sara; Dawson, Geraldine; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.
Background Early emerging characteristics of visual orienting have been associated with a wide range of typical and atypical developmental outcomes. In the current study, we examined the development of visual disengagement in infants at risk for autism. Methods We measured the efficiency of disengaging from a central visual stimulus to orient to a peripheral one in a cohort of 104 infants with and without familial risk for autism by virtue of having an older sibling with autism. Results At 7 months of age, disengagement was not robustly associated with later diagnostic outcomes. However, by 14 months, longer latencies to disengage in the subset of the risk group later diagnosed with autism was observed relative to other infants at risk and the low-risk control group. Moreover, between 7 months and 14 months, infants who were later diagnosed with autism at 36 months showed no consistent increases in the speed and flexibility of visual orienting. However, the latter developmental effect also characterized those infants who exhibited some form of developmental concerns (but not meeting criteria for autism) at 36 months. Conclusions Infants who develop autism or other developmental concerns show atypicality in the development of visual attention skills from the first year of life. PMID:23374640
Maine, Margo D.
Although the mental health field tends to underestimate the father's role in the psychological development of the child, eating disordered women reveal a consistent pattern of paternal distance and disengagement that is fundamental to their developmental problems. To examine how the father's emotional and/or physical absence contributed to the…
Rohatinsky, Noelle; Chachula, Kathryn; Compton, Roslyn M; Sedgwick, Monique; Press, Madeline M; Lane, Brenda
Clinical experiences are essential in undergraduate nursing student education to develop professionalism and integrate theory into practice. However, little evidence is available to guide curricular planners in determining the appropriate and effective use of different clinical models in nursing education. Nursing students and four schools of nursing in two western Canadian provinces participated in this descriptive exploratory study examining student preference for clinical models. Thematic analysis of qualitative data addressed two research questions: What type of clinical model is preferred by nursing students? and How does clinical structure influence nursing students' perceived learning? Nonblock clinical practice is preferred by students with respect to a balanced lifestyle, concurrent integration of theory and practice, and critical reflection, whereas the block model is preferred for assimilation, consolidation, and socialization. Integration of both clinical models is recommended within undergraduate nursing curricula, as each model can facilitate student learning. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(3):152-157.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Graff, Paige Valderrama
The Expedition Earth and Beyond Student Scientist Guidebook is designed to help student researchers model the process of science and conduct a research investigation. The Table of Contents listed outlines the steps included in this guidebook
Full Text Available Introduction: Loyalty of nursing student is an important factor that nursing education should pay attention in order to compete with other nursing educations; involved by perceived value, expectation, and quality assurance in nursing higher education. The purpose of this study was to develop a loyalty model of nursing student in nursing higher education. Methods: This study was an explanatory research with cross sectional approach. Population were nursing student in Poltekkes Banjarmasin, with 112 samples which is selected by proportional random sampling. Data was collected by giving questionnaire and analyzed by partial least square. Result: Result of this study indicates that was an effect of costumer expectation on quality assurance in nursing higher education, there was effect of costumer expectation on perceived value in nursing student, there was an effect of customer expectation on student satisfaction (4 there was effect of quality assurance in nursing higher education, there wasn’t any affect of quality assurance in nursing higher education on student satisfaction, there was effect of perceived value in nursing student on student satisfaction, there was effect of student satisfaction on student loyalty. Discussion: Overall result of this research were, student loyalty in nursing higher education developed by student satisfaction. Student satisfaction formed by perceived value. Perceived value developed from two aspects quality assurance, and student expectation, quality assurance of higher education wasn’t directly effect to student sasfaction. However, indirectly effect through student perceived value. Student satisfaction in nursing higher education was stronger effect than any other variable in this loyalty model. Loyalty model in this research can be use for improvement student loyalty on health education that focused on improvement student satisfaction without deny the other aspect. Further research is needed to analyze word of
This paper presents the results of an experiment which investigated the effects of the using science fiction stories in physics lessons. A questionnaire form containing 2 open-ended questions related to Jules Vernes story From the Earth to the Moon was used with 353, 9th and 10th grade students to determine their pre-conceptions about gravity and weightlessness. Mental models explaining students scientific and alternative views were constructed, according to students replies. After these studies, 6 students were interviewed. In this interview, researches were done about whether science fiction stories had an effect on bringing students pre-conceptions related to physics subjects out, on students inquiring their own concepts and on increasing students interest and motivation towards physics subjects. Studies in this research show that science fiction stories have an effect on arousing students interest and curiosity, have a role encouraging students to inquire their own concepts and are effective in making students alternative views come out
Langer, Arthur; Knefelkamp, L. Lee
This article introduces the Student Technology Arc, a model that evaluates college students 'technology literacy, or how they operate within an education system influenced by new technologies. Student progress is monitored through the Arc's 5 interdependent stages, which reflect growing technological maturity through levels of increasing cognitive…
Leidner, Bernhard; Castano, Emanuele; Zaiser, Erica; Giner-Sorolla, Roger
What aspects of ingroup identification can lead people to resist justice for the victims of their ingroup's mistreatment? In three studies carried out in the United States and United Kingdom, in which participants read reports of mistreatment of prisoners and civilians by coalition troops in the Iraq war, ingroup glorification, but not ingroup attachment or other individual-difference variables, was a key predictor of lesser demands for justice, but only when the perpetrators belonged to the ingroup. This effect of glorification was mediated by two moral disengagement mechanisms focusing on the outgroup: minimization of the emotional suffering of the victims' families and explicit dehumanization of the victim group. These findings further reinforce the difference between glorification and other forms of ingroup identification, demonstrating that glorification is problematic in maintaining and fostering intergroup relations because of its connection to moral disengagement.
Burns, Maureen; Medvecky, Fabien
In this article, we suggest that three concepts from cultural and media studies might be useful for analysing the ways audiences are constructed in science communication: that media are immanent to society, media are multiple and various, and audiences are active. This article uses those concepts, along with insights from Science and Technology Studies (STS), to examine the category of 'the disengaged' within science communication. This article deals with the contrast between 'common sense' and scholarly ideas of media and audiences in the field of cultural and media studies. It compares the 'common sense' with scholarly ideas of science publics from STS. We conclude that it may be time to reconsider the ontology of publics and the disengaged for science communication.
Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between bullying and moral disengagements. In a research study conducted with 2,600 adolescents, between 14 and 16 years old, an attempt to verify their involvement in bullying, their self-efficacy beliefs regarding their academic performance and their possible moral disengagements was undertaken. A correlation between being bullying by others and the "dehumanization of the victim" was found. The participation in the bullying situation as authors, victims and spectators was also associated with "victim-blaming", showing the fragile profile of bullying victims and their diminished value. The results of this study allows for the understanding of the psychological mechanisms present in bullying, so that the school may re-think interventions and preventative measures that can be taken such that life is valued.
Stahlke Wall, Sarah
Employee engagement is of growing interest in healthcare organizations. Engaged employees give an extra measure of effort to contribute to organization goals, whereas disengaged employees withdraw, have lower performance and are more likely to leave their jobs. The aim of this ethnographic study was, in part, to explore the reasons why high-calibre nurses became disengaged from their work and opted to leave their hospital-based employment in favour of independent practice, as well as to consider the organizational conditions that influenced their desire to leave. The findings revealed that nurses left their hospital-based jobs because of health system change, job characteristics, working conditions and lack of respect, which relate closely to the antecedents of employee engagement. Employee engagement can be fostered through organizational support, trust-building management behaviour and transformational leadership. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.
Gray, Kyle; Steer, David; McConnell, David; Owens, Katharine
Despite years of formal education, approximately one-third of all undergraduate students still cannot explain the causes of the seasons. Student manipulation of a handheld model is one approach to teaching this concept; however, the large number of students in many introductory classes can dissuade instructors from utilizing this teaching…
Nelson, Judith A.; Rose, Nancy L.; Lutz, Danielle
The purpose of this case study was to examine random student drug testing in one school district relevant to: (a) the perceptions of students participating in competitive extracurricular activities regarding drug use and abuse; (b) the attitudes and perceptions of parents, school staff, and community members regarding student drug involvement; (c)…
Evans, Travis C; Walukevich, Katherine A; Britton, Jennifer C
Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) often exhibit preferential attention for social threat, demonstrating abnormal orientation to threat (i.e., vigilance-avoidance) and/or difficulty disengaging from threat. However, no research has compared the relationship between attention indices (i.e., vigilance-avoidance, difficulty disengaging from threat) and characteristic features of the disorder such as fear during social situations (social fear) and avoidant behaviors (social avoidance). To address this issue, seventy adults (19.29±1.47 years, 33 females) were separated into low (n=37) or high (n=33) socially anxious groups using clinical cutoff scores on the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Participants in both groups completed a dot-probe task with congruent, incongruent, and neutral trials to obtain measures of vigilance-avoidance and difficulty disengaging. Using linear regression, we examined the associations each attention index shared with self-reported social fear and social avoidance. Exclusively in the high anxious group, greater vigilance towards threat was associated with higher self-reported social fear, but not with social avoidance. However, difficulty disengaging was not associated with either social measure. In the low anxiety group, no relationships between attention indices and either social measure emerged. Future research with clinical samples is necessary to replicate and extend these findings. The small sample size studied may have limited our ability to detect other smaller effects. Indices of attention bias may contribute differently to the etiology and maintenance of SAD, which offers important implications for novel treatments that target attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schvarzstein, Mara; Pattabiraman, Divya; Bembenek, Joshua N; Villeneuve, Anne M
In many species where oocytes lack centrosomes, sperm contribute both genetic material and centriole(s) to the zygote. Correct centriole organization during male meiosis is critical to guarantee a normal bipolar mitotic spindle in the zygote. During Caenorhabditis elegans male meiosis, centrioles normally undergo two rounds of duplication, resulting in haploid sperm each containing a single tightly engaged centriole pair. Here we identify an unanticipated role for C. elegans HORMA (Hop1/Rev7/Mad2) domain proteins HTP-1/2 and HIM-3 in regulating centriole disengagement during spermatocyte meiosis. In him-3 and htp-1 htp-2 mutants, centrioles separate inappropriately during meiosis II, resulting in spermatids with disengaged centrioles. Moreover, extra centrosomes are detected in a subset of zygotes. Together, these data implicate HIM-3 and HTP-1/2 in preventing centriole disengagement during meiosis II. We showed previously that HTP-1/2 prevents premature loss of sister chromatid cohesion during the meiotic divisions by inhibiting removal of meiotic cohesin complexes containing the REC-8 subunit. Worms lacking REC-8, or expressing a mutant separase protein with elevated local concentration at centrosomes and in sperm, likewise exhibit inappropriate centriole separation during spermatocyte meiosis. These observations are consistent with HIM-3 and HTP-1/2 preventing centriole disengagement by inhibiting separase-dependent cohesin removal. Our data suggest that the same specialized meiotic mechanisms that function to prevent premature release of sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis I in C. elegans also function to inhibit centriole separation at meiosis II, thereby ensuring that the zygote inherits the appropriate complement of chromosomes and centrioles.
Page, Thomas Edward
Sexual harassment against women represents aggressive behaviour that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity (cf. Maass & Cadinu, 2006). To date, however, empirical and theoretical attention to the social-cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. Drawing on Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986), the current thesis utilises the theoretical concept of moral disengagement in order to address this important gap i...
Zhang, Peng; Ni, Wenjin; Xie, Ruibo; Xu, Jiahua; Liu, Xiangping
There is some research showing that social anxiety is related with attentional bias to threat. However, others fail to find this relationship and propose that gender differences may play a role. The aim of this study was to investigate the gender differences in the subcomponents of attentional bias to threat (hypervigilance and difficulty in disengaging) among children and adolescents with social anxiety. Overall, 181 youngsters aged between 10 and 14 participated in the current study. Images...
Hartmann, T.; Vorderer, P.A.
What makes virtual violence enjoyable rather than aversive? Two 2×2 experiments tested the assumption that moral disengagement cues provided by a violent video game's narrative and game play lessen users' guilt and negative affect, which would otherwise undermine players' enjoyment of the game. Experiment 1 found that users' familiarity with the violent game reduced guilt and negative affect, and enhanced enjoyment, whereas opponents' nonhuman outer appearance and blameworthiness had no effec...
Doyle, Frances Lee; Bussey, Kay
This study investigated the relationship between children's proneness to endorse moral disengagement mechanisms and their anticipated antisocial lie telling. Participants were 107 predominantly white Australian children in Grade 1 (27 boys, 27 girls; M[subscript age] = 6.69 years) and Grade 4 (24 boys, 29 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.69 years).…
Romero, Maria Lopez; Kyriacou, Chris
The role of bystander involvement in bullying has been widely researched and documented. Nevertheless, bystanders who stop the bullying and/or aid the victim are still the exception rather than the norm. Two factors that seem to be closely related with the decision by bystanders regarding whether to support the victim, are their levels of self-efficacy and moral disengagement. This study seeks to explore students’ perception of their own power to make a difference in bullying situations and t...
Rastelli, Federica; Funes, Maria-Jesus; Lupiáñez, Juan; Duret, Christophe; Bartolomeo, Paolo
Attention can be directed to spatial locations or to objects in space. Patients with left unilateral spatial neglect are slow to respond to a left-sided target when it is preceded by a right-sided "invalid" cue, particularly at short cue-target intervals, suggesting an impairment in disengaging attention from the right side in order to orient it leftward. We wondered whether this deficit is purely spatial, or it is influenced by the presence of a right-sided visual object. To answer this question, we tested 10 right brain-damaged patients with chronic left-neglect and 41 control participants on a cued response time (RT) detection task in which targets could appear in either of two lateral boxes. In different conditions, non-informative peripheral cues either consisted in the brightening of the contour of one lateral box (onset cue condition), or in the complete disappearance of one lateral box (offset cue condition). The target followed the cue at different stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs). If the disengagement deficit (DD) is purely space-based, then it should not vary across the two cueing conditions. With onset cues, patients showed a typical DD at short SOAs. With offset cues, however, the DD disappeared. Thus, patients did not show any DD when there was no object from which attention must be disengaged. These findings indicate that the attentional bias in left-neglect does not concern spatial locations per se, but visual objects in space.
Mayer, Kristin Elizabeth
The National Research Council (2012) recently published A Framework for K-12 Science Education that describes a vision for science classrooms where students engage in three dimensions--scientific and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas--to explain phenomena or observations they can make about the universe around them. This vision of science instruction is a significant shift from current classroom instruction. This dissertation provides detailed examples of how students developed and used models to build causal explanations of phenomena. I co-taught classes that focused on having students develop and revise models of electric fields and atomic structure using a curriculum that was designed to align with the three-dimensional vision of learning. I developed case studies of eleven students from these classes. I analyzed the students' responses and interviewed the students throughout the school year. By comparing and contrasting the analysis across the analysis of students' interviews, I identified four themes: 1) students could apply their ideas to explain novel and abstract phenomena; 2) students struggled to connect changes in their atomic models to evidence, but ended up with dynamic models of atomic structure that they could apply to explain phenomena; 3) students developed models of atomic structure that they applied to explain phenomena, but they did not use models of electric fields in this way; and 4) too much focus on details interfered with students' ability to apply their models to explain new phenomena. This dissertation highlights the importance of focusing on phenomena in classrooms that aim at aligning with three-dimensional learning. Students struggled to focus on specific content and apply their ideas to explain phenomena at the same time. In order to apply ideas to new context, students had to shift their focus from recalling ideas to applying the ideas they do have. A focus on phenomena allowed students to show
Chiel, Hillel J; McManus, Jeffrey M; Shaw, Kendrick M
We describe the development of a course to teach modeling and mathematical analysis skills to students of biology and to teach biology to students with strong backgrounds in mathematics, physics, or engineering. The two groups of students have different ways of learning material and often have strong negative feelings toward the area of knowledge that they find difficult. To give students a sense of mastery in each area, several complementary approaches are used in the course: 1) a "live" textbook that allows students to explore models and mathematical processes interactively; 2) benchmark problems providing key skills on which students make continuous progress; 3) assignment of students to teams of two throughout the semester; 4) regular one-on-one interactions with instructors throughout the semester; and 5) a term project in which students reconstruct, analyze, extend, and then write in detail about a recently published biological model. Based on student evaluations and comments, an attitude survey, and the quality of the students' term papers, the course has significantly increased the ability and willingness of biology students to use mathematical concepts and modeling tools to understand biological systems, and it has significantly enhanced engineering students' appreciation of biology.
Rodrigues, R.; Carvalho, P. Simeão
In this paper we show an example of how to use a computational simulation to obtain visual feedback for students' mental models, and compare their predictions with the simulated system's behaviour. Additionally, we use the computational simulation to incrementally modify the students' mental models in order to accommodate new data,…
Tasman, Fridgo; den Hertog, Jaap; Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf
Usually, multiplication is introduced to students to represent quantities that come in groups. However there is also rectangular array model which is also related to multiplication. Barmby et al. (2009) has shown that the rectangular model such as array representations encourage students to develop their thinking about multiplication as a binary…
Sunyono; Yuanita, L.; Ibrahim, M.
The aim of this research is identify the effectiveness of a multiple representation-based learning model, which builds a mental model within the concept of atomic structure. The research sample of 108 students in 3 classes is obtained randomly from among students of Mathematics and Science Education Studies using a stratified random sampling…
Jaafar, Fauziah Md.; Hashim, Rosna Awang; Ariffin, Tengku Faekah Tengku
Purpose: In western countries, a model to explain student engagement in college or university has long been established. However, there is a lack of research to develop and validate a model which may help to better understand student engagement in the local university context. There is currently no established instrument to measure student…
Drew W. R. Halliday
logistic regression models examined the risk of being classified as a-MCI or AD as a function of increased dispersion, (disengaged lifestyle, and their interaction. Greater dispersion was associated with an increased likelihood of being classified with AD, with protective engaged-lifestyle benefits apparent for a-MCI individuals only. Conclusion: As a measure of IIV, dispersion across neuropsychological profiles holds promise for the detection of cognitive impairment.
Keem, Sejin; Shalley, Christina E; Kim, Eugene; Jeong, Inseong
Research has been inconsistent in its quest to discover whether dispositional creativity is associated with more or less unethical behavior. Drawing on social cognitive theory, we propose that moral disengagement and moral imagination are 2 parallel mechanisms that encourage or inhibit unethical behavior, and that which of these mediation processes occur depends on moral identity. Study 1, a 3-wave study of a food service organization, shows that employees high on both dispositional creativity and moral identity are less likely to be morally disengaged and behave less unethically. The results of Study 2 replicate Study 1's findings in a scenario-based study of college students, and further show that individuals who are high on both dispositional creativity and moral identity are more likely to be morally imaginative and to behave less unethically. Theoretical and practical implications of our model are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Xu, Jianzhong; Yuan, Ruiping; Xu, Brian; Xu, Melinda
The authors examine the factors influencing mathematics homework interest for Chinese students and compare the findings with a recent study involving U.S. students. The findings from multilevel analyses revealed that some predictors for homework interest functioned similarly (e.g., affective attitude toward homework, learning-oriented reasons,…
D. I. Popov
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the student model for use in an intelligent tutoring system (ITS designed for the evaluation of students’ competencies in different Higher Education Facilities. There are classification and examples of the various student models, the most suitable for the evaluation of competencies is selected and finalized. The dynamic overlay fuzzy student model builded on the domain model based on the concept of didactic units is described in this work. The formulas, chart and diagrams are provided.
Rogala, Anna; Shoji, Kotaro; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Kuna, Anna; Yeager, Carolyn; Benight, Charles C; Cieslak, Roman
This longitudinal research examined the relationship direction between burnout components (exhaustion and disengagement) within the context of personal resources measured by self-efficacy and social support. In line with the conservation of resources theory we hypothesized that exhaustion may trigger a spiral loss of personal resources where self-efficacy declines and subsequently, social support also declines and in turn predict disengagement. Participants in Study 1 were mental healthcare providers (N = 135) working with U.S. military personnel suffering from trauma. Participants in Study 2 were healthcare providers, social workers, and other human services professionals (N = 193) providing various types of services for civilian trauma survivors in Poland. Baseline and 6-month follow-up measurements included burnout components, burnout self-efficacy and perceived social support. The path analysis showed consistent results for both longitudinal studies; exhaustion measured at Time 1 led to disengagement at Time 2, after controlling for baseline disengagement levels. Across Study 1 and Study 2 these associations were mediated by self-efficacy change: Higher exhaustion led to greater decline in self-efficacy which in turn explained higher disengagement at the follow-up. Social support, however, did not mediate between self-efficacy and disengagement. These mediating effects were invariant across Studies 1 and 2, although the mean levels of burnout and personal resources differed significantly. The results contribute to a discussion on the internal structure of job burnout and a broader understanding of the associations between exhaustion and disengagement that may be explained by the underlying mechanism of change in self-efficacy.
Full Text Available This longitudinal research examined the relationship direction between burnout components (exhaustion and disengagement within the context of personal resources measured by self-efficacy and social support. In line with the conservation of resources theory we hypothesized that exhaustion may trigger a spiral loss of personal resources where self-efficacy declines and subsequently, social support also declines and in turn predict disengagement. Participants in Study 1 were mental healthcare providers (N = 135 working with U.S. military personnel suffering from trauma. Participants in Study 2 were healthcare providers, social workers, and other human services professions (N = 194 providing various types of services for civilian trauma survivors in Poland. Baseline and 6-month follow-up measurements included burnout components, burnout self-efficacy and perceived social support. The path analysis showed consistent results for both longitudinal studies; exhaustion measured at Time 1 led to disengagement at Time 2, after controlling for baseline disengagement levels. Across Study 1 and Study 2 these associations were mediated by self-efficacy change: Higher exhaustion led to greater decline in self-efficacy which in turn explained higher disengagement at the follow-up. Social support, however, did not mediate between self-efficacy and disengagement. These mediating effects were invariant across Studies 1 and 2, although the mean levels of burnout and personal resources differed significantly. The results contribute to a discussion on the internal structure of job burnout and a broader understanding of the associations between exhaustion and disengagement that may be explained by the underlying mechanism of change in self-efficacy.
Hamra, Arifuddin; Syatriana, Eny
This study designed a model of teaching reading for university EFL students based on the English curriculum at the Faculty of Languages and Literature and the concept of the team-based learning in order to improve the reading comprehension of the students. What kind of teaching model can help students to improve their reading comprehension? The…
Bilgin, Nevruz; Dalkiran, Oguzhan
The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of sports education model and direct teaching model on the attitudes of the students, and the differences among the attitudes of students. The study group of the research included 29 students from 6th and 7th grade of a secondary school in the 2015-2016 academic years. The experimental group…
This study aimed to (1) integrate relevant language learning models and theories, (2) construct a theoretical model of college students' English learning performance, and (3) assess the model fit between empirically observed data and the theoretical model proposed by the researchers of this study. Subjects of this study were 1,129 Taiwanese EFL…
Abbott, Robert G.
The 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems provides a leading international forum for the dissemination of original results in the design, implementation, and evaluation of intelligent tutoring systems and related areas. The conference draws researchers from a broad spectrum of disciplines ranging from artificial intelligence and cognitive science to pedagogy and educational psychology. The conference explores intelligent tutoring systems increasing real world impact on an increasingly global scale. Improved authoring tools and learning object standards enable fielding systems and curricula in real world settings on an unprecedented scale. Researchers deploy ITS's in ever larger studies and increasingly use data from real students, tasks, and settings to guide new research. With high volumes of student interaction data, data mining, and machine learning, tutoring systems can learn from experience and improve their teaching performance. The increasing number of realistic evaluation studies also broaden researchers knowledge about the educational contexts for which ITS's are best suited. At the same time, researchers explore how to expand and improve ITS/student communications, for example, how to achieve more flexible and responsive discourse with students, help students integrate Web resources into learning, use mobile technologies and games to enhance student motivation and learning, and address multicultural perspectives.
Full Text Available Most e-Learning systems provide web-based learning so that students can access the same online courses via the Internet without adaptation, based on each student's profile and behavior. In an e-Learning system, one size does not fit all. Therefore, it is a challenge to make e-Learning systems that are suitably “adaptive”. The aim of adaptive e-Learning is to provide the students the appropriate content at the right time, means that the system is able to determine the knowledge level, keep track of usage, and arrange content automatically for each student for the best learning result. This study presents a proposed system which includes major adaptive features based on a student model. The proposed system is able to initialize the student model for determining the knowledge level of a student when the student registers for the course. After a student starts learning the lessons and doing many activities, the system can track information of the student until he/she takes a test. The student’s knowledge level, based on the test scores, is updated into the system for use in the adaptation process, which combines the student model with the domain model in order to deliver suitable course contents to the students. In this study, the proposed adaptive e-Learning system is implemented on an “Introduction to Java Programming Language” course, using LearnSquare software. After the system was tested, the results showed positive feedback towards the proposed system, especially in its adaptive capability.
Hammad, Hammad; Nursalam, Nursalam; Kurniawati, Ninuk Dian
Introduction: Loyalty of nursing student is an important factor that nursing education should pay attention in order to compete with other nursing educations; involved by perceived value, expectation, and quality assurance in nursing higher education. The purpose of this study was to develop a loyalty model of nursing student in nursing higher education. Methods: This study was an explanatory research with cross sectional approach. Population were nursing student in Poltekkes Banjarmasin, wit...
Cheng, Maurice M. W.; Gilbert, John K.
This paper proposes a model-based notion of "submicro representations of chemical reactions". Based on three structural models of matter (the simple particle model, the atomic model and the free electron model of metals), we suggest there are two major models of reaction in school chemistry curricula: (a) reactions that are simple…
Calderon-Canales, Elena; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Gallegos-Cazares, Leticia
This research project aimed to identify and analyze Mexican primary school students' ideas about the components of the solar system. In particular, this study focused on conceptions of the solar system and representations of the dynamics of the solar system based on the functional and structural models that students make in school. Using a…
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions and experiences of 33 amotivated students (i.e. students with low levels of motivation) during four consecutive seasons of the Sport Education Model. A qualitative case-study approach was utilized within this study and data was collected using interviews, field notes and reflective journals.…
Parahoo, Sanjai K; Santally, Mohammad Issack; Rajabalee, Yousra; Harvey, Heather Lea
Higher education institutions consider student satisfaction to be one of the major elements in determining the quality of their programs. The objective of the study was to develop a model of student satisfaction to identify the influencers that emerged in online higher education settings. The study adopted a mixed method approach to identify…
A London-based company with an unusual model for helping colleges recruit international students has generated concern among faculty members as it has begun expanding into the United States. Into University Partnerships has formed joint ventures with five British universities, building centers where foreign students who may not have qualified for…
In this study, online learning refers students under the guidance of teachers through the online learning platform for organized learning. Based on the analysis of related research results, considering the existing problems, the main contents of this paper include the following aspects: (1) Analyze and study the current student engagement model.…
Christensen, Tina Wilchen
in investigating the significance of social interaction for former participants in right wing extremist groups, who were in a disengagement process with the help from the organisation Exit in Stockholm, Sweden. As this field involved dealing with people in transition, it also meant dealing with people with very...... complex life stories and ambiguous identities and positions, which made it difficult to find an appropriate method to capture the many aspects involved in the process. As I will describe in the article, it is often necessary to change your methods numerous times as your research progresses....
This article presents findings from 42 interviews with mothers who have physical and/or sensory disabilities in the USA and Canada. While much of the stigma literature emphasizes disempowering forms of coping, findings demonstrate these mothers frequently employ strategies of everyday resistance to challenge stigma, including visibility politics, respectability politics, and disengagement. The author explores how these mothers employ varying combinations of resistance strategies, depending upon the social context and intersecting aspects of their identities. Finally, the author illuminates how stigma demands hidden labor from these mothers, no matter the resistance strategies they choose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available As new technologies become available, they are often embraced in educational innovation to enhance traditional instruction. The flipped teaching model is one of the most recent and popular technology-infused teaching models in which learning new concepts takes place at home while practice is conducted in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to investigate how using the flipped teaching model affects student performance, perceptions, and teacher satisfaction in comparison to the traditional model. Sixteen teachers implemented the flipped teaching model in their classrooms and reported the results of the flipped teaching model for the first time. Pretests and posttests were used to measure and compare student performance while student and teacher surveys facilitated data collection on student perception and teacher satisfaction. The results of the study showed that, in most cases, the flipped classroom model demonstrated higher student learning gains, more positive student perception, and higher teacher satisfaction compared to the traditional model. This study adds evidence to the current literature that, if the conditions are properly set, the flipped classroom should have the potential to be an extremely effective learning style.
Hogan, Kathleen; Thomas, David
This study examined the cognition of five pairs of high school students over time as they built quantitative ecological models using STELLA software. One pair of students emerged as being particularly proficient at learning to model, and was able to use models productively to explore and explain ecological system behaviors. We present detailed contrasts between this and the other pairs of students' cognitive behaviors while modeling, in three areas that were crucial to their modeling productivity: (a) focusing on model output and net interactions versus on model input and individual relationships when building and revising models, (b) exploring the nature and implications of dependencies and feedbacks versus just creating these as properties of complex systems, and (c) using variables versus constants to represent continuous and periodic functions. We then apply theories of the multifaceted nature of cognition to describe object-level, metalevel, and emotional dimensions of cognitive performance that help to explain the observed differences among students' approaches to STELLA modeling. Finally, we suggest pedagogical strategies for supporting all types of students in learning the central scientific practice of model-based quantitative thinking.
Matthews, Jacob H; Morley, Gabriella L; Crossley, Eleanor; Bhanderi, Shivam
All health care professionals in the UK are expected to have the medical leadership and management (MLM) skills necessary for improving patient care, as stipulated by the UK General Medical Council (GMC). Newly graduated doctors reported insufficient knowledge about leadership and quality improvement skills, despite all UK medical schools reporting that MLM is taught within their curriculum. A medical student society organised a series of extracurricular educational events focusing on leadership topics. The society recognised that the events needed to be useful and interesting to attract audiences. Therefore, clinical leaders in exciting fields were invited to talk about their experiences and case studies of personal leadership challenges. The emphasis on personal stories, from respected leaders, was a deliberate strategy to attract students and enhance learning. Evaluation data were collected from the audiences to improve the quality of the events and to support a business case for an intercalated degree in MLM. When leadership and management concepts are taught through personal stories, students find it interesting and are prepared to give up their leisure time to engage with the subject. Students appear to recognise the importance of MLM knowledge to their future careers, and are able to organise their own, and their peers', learning and development. Organising these events and collecting feedback can provide students with opportunities to practise leadership, management and quality improvement skills. These extracurricular events, delivered through a student society, allow for subjects to be discussed in more depth and can complement an already crowded undergraduate curriculum. Newly graduated doctors reported insufficient knowledge about leadership and quality improvement skills. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Cardon, Lauren S.
In this article, Lauren S. Cardon states that what faculty see as student apathy or disengagement in the millennial generation is due to a number of factors, most of which are associated with the technological revolution. Millennial students are generally resistant to highly abstract material if not given the opportunity to reflect on its…
Charnelli, María Emilia; Lanzarini, Laura Cristina; Díaz, Francisco Javier
Educational Data Mining gathers the multiple methods that allow new and useful information extraction from great volumes of data coming from the educational context. The goal of this article is to obtain a model of the students of the Computer Science School of the UNLP from their participation in Facebook. The work describes the process of extraction of latent topics in posts made in public groups related to the School, and the modeling of the students from the topics discovered. Addition...
And Others; Fiel, Nicholas J.
A long-range plan to evaluate medical students' physical examination skills was undertaken at the Ingham Family Medical Clinic at Michigan State University. The development of the psychomotor skills evaluation model to evaluate the skill of blood pressure measurement, tests of the model's reliability, and the use of the model are described. (JMD)
Bouck, Emily C.
This paper analyzed 10 commercially available functional curriculum models designed for secondary students with mild-to-moderate mental impairment. The models were examined with respect to the inclusion of functional curriculum components, the domains and subdomains of adulthood, the materials identified by the model to be used to deliver the…
Johnson, Matthew; Bull, Susan; Masci, Drew
of its strengths and areas of improvement (Section 6). Several key appendices are attached to this report including user manuals for teacher and students (Appendix 3). Fundamentally, all relevant information is included in the report for those wishing to do further development work with the tool...
the society to face new challenges and play roles as productive members of the society. ... To provide students with the basic knowledge in chemistry concepts ... chemistry course. Current research work has shown that teachers mode of presentation of various science concepts affect achievement (Akinsete 2007).
Student misconceptions have been studied for decades from a curricular/instructional perspective and from the assessment/test level perspective. Numerous misconception assessment tools have been developed in order to measure students' misconceptions relative to the correct content. Often, these tools are used to make a variety of educational…
Tanrikulu, Ibrahim; Campbell, Marilyn A
This study investigated bullying among siblings in both traditional and cyber forms, and the associations of gender, grade, peer bullying perpetration, trait anger, and moral disengagement. The participants were 455 children in Grades 5 to 12 (262 girls and 177 boys with 16 unknown gender) who had a sibling. As the number of siblings who only bullied by technology was low, these associations were not able to be calculated. However, the findings showed that the percentage of sibling traditional bullying perpetration (31.6%) was higher than peer bullying perpetration (9.8%). Sibling bullies reported engaging in complex behaviors of perpetration and victimization in both the physical and in cyber settings, although the number was small. Gender, trait anger, moral disengagement, and bullying peers at school (but not grade) were all significantly associated with sibling traditional bullying perpetration. The implications of the findings are discussed for bullying intervention and prevention programs to understand childhood bullying in diverse contexts. © The Author(s) 2014.
Waller, Maureen R
This paper draws on information from the Fragile Families Study (N = 2,695) to examine how different coparenting styles emerge and are related to fathers' involvement with young children in a representative sample of unmarried parents. The results show that the quantity and quality of paternal involvement is significantly higher when unmarried parents establish a cooperative as opposed to a disengaged or conflicted coparenting style. Cooperative coparenting is less likely, however, when unmarried parents have separated after the birth or were never together as a couple, when fathers are unemployed or have other risk factors, when the child has a more difficult temperament, and when parents have fewer children together. This analysis also helps clarify previously equivocal findings concerning the relationship between coparenting conflict and paternal involvement. Regression results show that paternal involvement is not significantly different among parents with cooperative and mixed coparenting styles, indicating that when unmarried parents can work together and support each other's parenting efforts, even if they argue frequently while doing so, fathers remain more involved. At the same time, conflicted coparenting leads to a larger decrease in father involvement than disengaged coparenting. In the context of poorer-quality coparenting relationships, it was conflict that mattered for fathering, not just parents' inability to cooperate. Implications of these findings for parenting education programs are discussed. © FPI, Inc.
Lunk, Brandon Robert
With the growing push to include computational modeling in the physics classroom, we are faced with the need to better understand students' computational modeling practices. While existing research on programming comprehension explores how novices and experts generate programming algorithms, little of this discusses how domain content knowledge, and physics knowledge in particular, can influence students' programming practices. In an effort to better understand this issue, I have developed a framework for modeling these practices based on a resource stance towards student knowledge. A resource framework models knowledge as the activation of vast networks of elements called "resources." Much like neurons in the brain, resources that become active can trigger cascading events of activation throughout the broader network. This model emphasizes the connectivity between knowledge elements and provides a description of students' knowledge base. Together with resources resources, the concepts of "epistemic games" and "frames" provide a means for addressing the interaction between content knowledge and practices. Although this framework has generally been limited to describing conceptual and mathematical understanding, it also provides a means for addressing students' programming practices. In this dissertation, I will demonstrate this facet of a resource framework as well as fill in an important missing piece: a set of epistemic games that can describe students' computational modeling strategies. The development of this theoretical framework emerged from the analysis of video data of students generating computational models during the laboratory component of a Matter & Interactions: Modern Mechanics course. Student participants across two semesters were recorded as they worked in groups to fix pre-written computational models that were initially missing key lines of code. Analysis of this video data showed that the students' programming practices were highly influenced by
Haili, Hasnawati; Maknun, Johar; Siahaan, Parsaoran
Physics is a lessons that related to students' daily experience. Therefore, before the students studying in class formally, actually they have already have a visualization and prior knowledge about natural phenomenon and could wide it themselves. The learning process in class should be aimed to detect, process, construct, and use students' mental model. So, students' mental model agree with and builds in the right concept. The previous study held in MAN 1 Muna informs that in learning process the teacher did not pay attention students' mental model. As a consequence, the learning process has not tried to build students' mental modelling ability (MMA). The purpose of this study is to describe the improvement of students' MMA as a effect of problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach. This study is pre experimental design with one group pre post. It is conducted in XI IPA MAN 1 Muna 2016/2017. Data collection uses problem solving test concept the kinetic theory of gasses and interview to get students' MMA. The result of this study is clarification students' MMA which is categorized in 3 category; High Mental Modelling Ability (H-MMA) for 7MMA) for 3MMA) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 score. The result shows that problem solving based learning model with multiple representations approach can be an alternative to be applied in improving students' MMA.
Deciding on a future career path or choosing a career specialty is an important academic decision for medical students. The purpose of this study is to develop a career coaching model for medical students. This research was carried out in three steps. The first step was systematic review of previous studies. The second step was a need assessment of medical students. The third step was a career coaching model using the results acquired from the researched literature and the survey. The career coaching stages were defined as three big phases: The career coaching stages were defined as the "crystallization" period (Pre-medical year 1 and 2), "specification" period (medical year 1 and 2), and "implementation" period (medical year 3 and 4). The career coaching model for medical students can be used in programming career coaching contents and also in identifying the outcomes of career coaching programs at an institutional level.
Students can become disengaged from marketing material if they cannot see the direct application. Marketing material needs to be applied to a meaningful business task to engage and motivate students. This article introduces the Kickstarter Active Learning Project--an innovative semester-long project in which students create a Kickstarter…
Full Text Available Sexual- reproductive health of youth is one of the most unknown aspects of our community, while the world, including our country is faced with the risk of AIDS spreading. The aim of this study was to describe Health Belief Model (HBM of the students about sexual-reproductive health behaviors and evaluate the ability of the model in predicting related behaviors. By using quota sampling, 1117 male and female students of Qazvin Medical Science and International universities were included in the study in 1991. A self-completed questionnaire was prepared containing close questions based on HBM components including perceived threats (susceptibility and severity of related diseases, perceived reproductive benefits and barriers and self efficacy of youth about reproductive health. A total of 645 of participants were female and 457 were male (Mean age 21.4±2.4 and 22.7±3.5, respectively. The Health Belief Model of the students showed that they perceived a moderate threat for AIDS and venereal diseases and their health outcomes. Most of them perceived the benefits of reproductive health behaviors. They believed that the ability of youth in considering reproductive health is low or moderate. However, they noted to some barriers for spreading of reproductive health in youth including inadequacy of services. Boys felt a higher level of threat for acquiring the AIDS and venereal diseases in compare to girls, but girls had a higher knowledge about these diseases and their complications. The Health Belief Model of the students with premarital intercourse behavior was not significantly different with the students without this behavior (Mann-Withney, P<0.05. Female students and the students without the history of premarital intercourse had significantly more positive attitude towards abstinence, comparing to male students and students with the history of premarital intercourse, respectively (Mann-Withney, P<0.05. Seventy five percent of students believed in
Inquiry learning as an educational method is gaining increasing support among elementary and middle school educators. In inquiry activities at the middle school level, students are typically asked to conduct investigations and infer causal relationships about multivariable causal systems. In these activities, students usually demonstrate significant strategic weaknesses and insufficient metastrategic understanding of task demands. Present work suggests that these weaknesses arise from students' deficient mental models of multivariable causality, in which effects of individual features are neither additive, nor constant. This study is an attempt to develop an intervention aimed at enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality. Three groups of students engaged in a scientific investigation activity over seven weekly sessions. By creating unique combinations of five features potentially involved in earthquake mechanism and observing associated risk meter readings, students had to find out which of the features were causal, and to learn to predict earthquake risk. Additionally, students in the instructional and practice groups engaged in self-directed practice in making scientific predictions. The instructional group also participated in weekly instructional sessions on making predictions based on multivariable causality. Students in the practice and instructional conditions showed small to moderate improvement in their attention to the evidence and in their metastrategic ability to recognize effective investigative strategies in the work of other students. They also demonstrated a trend towards making a greater number of valid inferences than the control group students. Additionally, students in the instructional condition showed significant improvement in their ability to draw inferences based on multiple records. They also developed more accurate knowledge about non-causal features of the system. These gains were maintained
Sport and physical education can play an important role on the development of moral behavior. However, there has been a surge in unethical conducts both in and out of sports fields in recent years. Conducts such as match fixing and incentive payment which fall into the realm of corruption are unacceptable by some fans. For some others, these are…
Gogolin, Sarah; Krüger, Dirk
Students' understanding of models in science has been subject to a number of investigations. The instruments the researchers used are suitable for educational research but, due to their complexity, cannot be employed directly by teachers. This article presents forced choice (FC) tasks, which, assembled as a diagnostic instrument, are supposed to measure students' understanding of the nature of models efficiently, while being sensitive enough to detect differences between individuals. In order to evaluate if the diagnostic instrument is suitable for its intended use, we propose an approach that complies with the demand to integrate students' responses to the tasks into the validation process. Evidence for validity was gathered based on relations to other variables and on students' response processes. Students' understanding of the nature of models was assessed using three methods: FC tasks, open-ended tasks and interviews ( N = 448). Furthermore, concurrent think-aloud protocols ( N = 30) were performed. The results suggest that the method and the age of the students have an effect on their understanding of the nature of models. A good understanding of the FC tasks as well as a convergence in the findings across the three methods was documented for grades eleven and twelve. This indicates that teachers can use the diagnostic instrument for an efficient and, at the same time, valid diagnosis for this group. Finally, the findings of this article may provide a possible explanation for alternative findings from previous studies as a result of specific methods that were used.
Chan, Chun Ming Eric; Ng, Kit Ee Dawn; Widjaja, Wanty; Seto, Cynthia
Mathematical modelling is increasingly becoming part of an instructional approach deemed to develop students with competencies to function as 21st century learners and problem solvers. As mathematical modelling is a relatively new domain in the Singapore primary school mathematics curriculum, many teachers may not be aware of the learning outcomes…
Moutinho, Sara; Moura, Rui; Vasconcelos, Clara
Nowadays, meaningful learning takes a central role in science education and is based in mental models that allow the representation of the real world by individuals. Thus, it is essential to analyse the student's mental models by promoting an easier reconstruction of scientific knowledge, by allowing them to become consistent with the curricular…
Alvin H. Yu; Garry E. Chick; Duarte B. Morais; Chung-Hsien Lin
This study explored the possibility of modeling the effects of a study abroad program on students from a university in the northeastern United States. A program effect model was proposed after conducting an extensive literature review and empirically examining a sample of 265 participants in 2005. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA),...
A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent group control design involving two intact classes were used to determine the effect of constructivist-based instructional model-Generative Learning Model (GLM) on students' conceptual change and knowledge retention in chemistry. Effect of GLM on gender is also monitored.
Hamra, Arifuddin; Syatriana, Eny
This study aimed at designing a model of teaching reading comprehension based on the objectives of teaching reading at the senior high school and the teachers' understanding of the school curriculum and to describe the implementation of the model. The subject consisted of 24 teachers, 167 students of five SMAs (senior high schools) in South…
Full Text Available This article aims to describe the activities developed during the extension project of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC, entitled "Modeling for Deaf Students', carried out from July to December 2006. The project has the support of Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa e Extensão da UFSC (PRPE-UFSC and was executed with the intent to conduct free workshops for deaf students from various institutions of the region of Florianópolis (SC, covering techniques of modeling (on paper and clay to instigate and develop the creativity, manual skills and concentration of the students. Moreover, it was also sought explore these activities as a form of recreation and also of providing a new source of income for the students.
Paciello, Marinella; Muratori, Pietro; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Buonanno, Carlo; Capo, Rosario; Lochman, John E; Barcaccia, Barbara
The pilot study presented in this article investigated the role of moral-cognitive features in understanding aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours in adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD). We collected two samples. The community sample was composed of 85 adolescents, whereas the DBD sample was composed of 30 adolescents. Compared with a community sample, adolescents with DBD are more inclined to use moral disengagement (MD) to legitimize their aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours. Moreover, regression models showed that self-enhancement values and MD foster externalizing behaviours taking into account both gender and the group they belonged to, that is, either clinical or community sample. Instead, self-transcendence values could prevent externalizing problems by inhibiting MD. Implications of these findings for assessment and therapeutic interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Krell, Moritz; Reinisch, Bianca; Krüger, Dirk
In this study, secondary school students' (N?=?617; grades 7 to 10) understanding of models and modeling was assessed using tasks which explicitly refer to the scientific disciplines of biology, chemistry, and physics and, as a control, to no scientific discipline. The students' responses are interpreted as their biology-, chemistry-, and…
Full Text Available The need to educate a competitive workforce is a global problem. In the US, for example, despite billions of dollars spent to improve the educational system, approximately 35% of students never finish high school. The drop rate among some demographic groups is as high as 50–60%. At the college level in the US only 30% of students graduate from 2-year colleges in 3 years or less and approximately 50% graduate from 4-year colleges in 5 years or less. A basic challenge in delivering global education, therefore, is improving student success. By student success we mean improving retention, completion and graduation rates. In this paper we describe a Student Success System (S3 that provides a holistic, analytical view of student academic progress.1 The core of S3 is a flexible predictive modelling engine that uses machine intelligence and statistical techniques to identify at-risk students pre-emptively. S3 also provides a set of advanced data visualisations for reaching diagnostic insights and a case management tool for managing interventions. S3's open modular architecture will also allow integration and plug-ins with both open and proprietary software. Powered by learning analytics, S3 is intended as an end-to-end solution for identifying at-risk students, understanding why they are at risk, designing interventions to mitigate that risk and finally closing the feedback look by tracking the efficacy of the applied intervention.
Empirical research indicates that engagement with public space decreases with age. Why do some older adults withdraw from the public, and which role does the (urban) environment play in spatial (dis-)engagement? Environmental gerontology's model of person-environment (PE) fit suggests an interrelation between agency and belonging and their causal effects on identity and wellbeing in later life. However, there is little research on how these dimensions are actually related. This study sets out to investigate this relationship and how PE can be better adapted for deprived neighborhoods. The study follows a qualitative case studies approach, focusing on a deprived neighborhood in Vienna, Austria. Nonparticipant observations were conducted at this site and complemented by 13 episodic interviews with older residents. The results challenge PE's model of interrelation between agency and belonging and their causal effects on identity, wellbeing, and autonomy in later life. Spatial agency in the deprived neighborhood was intense but so was spatial alienation and distancing oneself from one's neighborhood. Drawing on notions of territorial stigma, this might be a coping strategy to prevent one's self-identity from being "stained". Which strategy is being adopted by whom depends on the position and the trajectory in social and physical space. PE can be complemented with intersubjective measures of environmental conditions (e.g., stigma) and spatial engagement. Gerontology should proceed to consider not only the poor, disadvantaged, disengaged elderly, but also the rebellious, resisting, provocative new generation of older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
McMahon, Shannon A; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Winch, Peter J; Kombe, Miriam; Killewo, Japhet; Kilewo, Charles
Millions of children are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, and the primary mode of these childhood infections is mother-to-child transmission. While existing interventions can virtually eliminate such transmission, in low- and middle-income settings, only 63 % of pregnant women living with HIV accessed medicines necessary to prevent transmission. In Tanzania, HIV prevalence among pregnant women is 3.2 %. Understanding why HIV-positive women disengage from care during and after pregnancy can inform efforts to reduce the impact of HIV on mothers and young children. Informed by the tenets of Grounded Theory, we conducted qualitative interviews with 40 seropositive postpartum women who had disengaged from care to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Nearly all women described antiretroviral treatment (ART) as ultimately beneficial but effectively inaccessible given concerns related to stigma. Many women also described how their feelings of health and vitality coupled with concerns about side effects underscored a desire to forgo ART until they deemed it immediately necessary. Relatively fewer women described not knowing or forgetting that they needed to continue their treatment regimens. We present a theory of PMTCT disengagement outlining primary and ancillary barriers. This study is among the first to examine disengagement by interviewing women who had actually discontinued care. We urge that a combination of intervention approaches such as mother-to-mother support groups, electronic medical records with same-day tracing, task shifting, and mobile technology be adapted, implemented, and evaluated within the Tanzanian setting.
This paper addresses curriculum development for Mathematical Modeling course at Medialogy education. Medialogy as a study line was established in 2002 at Faculty for Engineering and Natural Sciences at Aalborg University, and mathematics curriculum has already been revised three times, Mathematic...... Modeling on 6th semester being the latest addition. Some of the reasoning behind curriculum development, lessons learned and remaining issues are presented and discussed. ...
Klein, Kathleen; Kientz, Mary
This article presents a model developed to assist teachers in selecting, implementing, and assessing student response system (SRS) use in the classroom. Research indicates that SRS technology is effective in achieving desired outcomes in higher education settings. Studies indicate that effective SRS use promotes greater achievement of learning outcomes, increased student attention, improved class participation, and active engagement. The model offered in this article is based on best practices described in the literature and several years of SRS use in a traditional higher education classroom setting. Student feedback indicates increased class participation and engagement with SRS technology. Teacher feedback indicates opportunities for contingent teaching. The model described in this article provides a process to assist teachers in the successful selection, implementation, and assessment of SRS technology in the classroom.
Full Text Available In this article, the author reviews the EPTS Model (Education Programs for Talented Students and discuss how it was developed through multiple stages, the ways it is used to develop programs for gifted students, and then presents research carried out on the effectiveness of this model in the education of gifted students. The EPTS Model has two dimensions: ability and content. The ability dimension has a hierarchical structure composed of three levels of cognitive skills. The content dimension is the extension of the regular curriculum but organized at four levels: data, concept, generalization and theory. Included in the article also is a brief critics of the current state of curricular programs in gifted education.
María Jesús Cala
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to shed light on what makes women decide whether or not to continue with legal proceedings for intimate partner violence once they have commenced. Legal professionals, members of the police force, and women in Spain were interviewed to help draft a questionnaire that was applied to a sample of 345 women who had undertaken legal proceedings against their (expartners. Socio-demographic, emotional, and psychological variables were considered as possible predictor variables and included in a logistic regression analysis. Results show that the best equation for predicting disengagement from legal procedures includes the level of support received by the victim, contact with the aggressor, thoughts about going back with the aggressor, and a feeling of guilt. The essential role of the psychological support during the legal process is emphasized in conclusions
Lumbis, Rachel H; Gregory, Susan P; Baillie, Sarah
Periodontal disease has deleterious effects on an animal's health and potentially serious implications for its welfare. Consequently, veterinarians frequently perform routine periodontal treatment in small-animal practice. One would therefore assume that small-animal dentistry would constitute a core component of a veterinary curriculum. However, most practitioners received little or no formal training in dentistry during their veterinary degrees, and the amount of instruction students currently receive is variable, often with limited opportunities to practice. At the Royal Veterinary College, a prototype dental model was developed to address the lack of practical training; it was made using ceramic tiles, silicone sealant, and grout to emulate teeth, gingiva, and calculus, respectively. A study was conducted with third-year veterinary students to compare the outcomes of learning to perform a professional dental cleaning using a model (group A) or a video (group B). Performance was assessed using an objective structured clinical examination. Students in group A scored significantly better than those in group B (pdentistry-related skills. All students identified a model as a potentially valuable learning tool to supplement existing teaching methods and facilitate the acquisition of small-animal dentistry skills. The dental model has the potential to equip students with useful, practical skills in a safe and risk-free environment.
Maria T.M. Dijkstra
Full Text Available Being able to cope effectively with stress can help people to avoid negative consequences for their psychological well-being. The purpose of this study was to find out why some coping strategies are effective in reducing the negative effect of stressors on well-being and some are not. We argue that the degree to which such coping strategies engage or disengage people from stressful incidents is related to their perceived control of the situation that, in turn, is positively associated with their psychological well-being. We thus propose that the relationship between coping and psychological well-being is mediated by the extent of perceived sense of control. We collected cross-sectional data from a large heterogeneous sample (N = 543 in the Netherlands. We assessed seven different coping strategies, perceived control, and psychological well-being. Our results indeed revealed that strategies reflecting more engaged coping such as active confronting and reassuring thoughts, were associated with more sense of control and therefore to psychological well-being. In contrast, strategies reflecting disengagement coping, such as passive reaction pattern, palliative reaction, and avoidance, were associated with less perceived control, which in turn was negatively associated with psychological well-being. Results regarding the coping strategies expressing emotions and seeking social support were less straightforward, with the former being negatively associated with perceived control and psychological well-being, even though this strategy has stress engaging elements, and the latter only showing a positive indirect effect on psychological well-being via perceived control, but no positive main effect on well-being. These findings are discussed from the perspective of stress being an environment-perception-response process.
Leleu, Vincent; Douilliez, Céline; Rusinek, Stéphane
Recent work suggests that the ability to disengage attention from threatening information is impaired in anxiety. The present study compared the difficulty to disengage from angry, fearful and neutral faces in Low Trait Anxious individuals (LTA) versus High Trait Anxious individuals (HTA) at two stages of facial expression processing (i.e., initial and later face processing). HTA and LTA individuals performed an attentional shifting task to assess attentional disengagement. Participants had to classify a peripheral target letter, appearing 200 or 500 ms after a face was displayed. LTA individuals were quicker when the letter appears after 500 ms compared to 200 ms regardless of the emotion of the face. An impaired disengagement in HTA individuals was observed for fearful and angry faces (i.e., no reaction differences between 200 and 500 ms) but not for neutral faces. These results suggest that it is particularly difficult for anxious individuals to switch attention from one stimulus to another if the engaged stimulus is a threatening face. Generalisation of our results is restricted to trait anxiety and emotional facial expression processing. LTA individuals can benefit from the emotional processing (i.e., from 200 to 500 ms) to make a rapid attentional shift and engagement to the target stimuli whereas HTA individuals did not and continue to process the threatening facial expression. These results also point out the role of top down processes on the regulation of disengagement from threatening information in anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ismail Wilson Taifa
Full Text Available Engineering Students in India like elsewhere worldwide need well designed classrooms furniture which can enable them to attend lectures without negative impact in the long run. Engineering students from India have not yet been involved in suggesting their requirements for improving the mostly out-dated furniture at their colleges. Among the available improvement techniques, Kano Model is one of the most effective improvement approaches. The main objective of the study was to identify and categorise all the main attributes regarding the classrooms furniture for the purpose of increasing student satisfaction in the long run. Kano Model has been well applied to make an exhaustive list of requirements for redesigning classroom furniture. Cronbach Alpha was computed with the help of SPSS 16.0 for validation purpose and it ranged between 0.8 and 0.9 which is a good internal consistency. Further research can be done by integrating Kano Model with Quality Function Deployment.
Hauer, K E; Wachter, R M
At many academic health centers, medical students in internal medicine, family medicine, and pediatrics are working with a new form of attending physician, the hospitalist. Although a growing literature demonstrates the benefits of hospitalists for patients and housestaff, the influence of hospitalists on students has been underemphasized. Advantages of the hospitalist model for students can include hospitalists' expertise in general inpatient medicine, their availability to teach throughout the day, and their role-modelpan>ing of the provision of high-quality and efficient care. However, the change in the ward attending workforce from non-hospitalist generalists, subspecialists, and biomedical researchers to generalist-hospitalists potentially limits students' exposure to the broad range of career opportunities the former group represents. The authors propose a research agenda to investigate the educational impact of the hospitalist model, suggest strategies to mitigate the limitations in students' exposures to subspecialty faculty, and recommend professional development in teaching for hospitalists to ensure that student education thrives in this new environment of inpatient medicine.
Houston, Ken; Mather, Glyn; Wood, Leigh N.; Petocz, Peter; Reid, Anna; Harding, Ansie; Engelbrecht, Johann; Smith, Geoff H.
We have been investigating university student conceptions of mathematics over a number of years, with the goal of enhancing student learning and professional development. We developed an open-ended survey of three questions, on "What is mathematics" and two questions about the role of mathematics in the students' future. This questionnaire was completed by 1,200 undergraduate students of mathematics in Australia, the UK, Canada, South Africa, and Brunei. The sample included students ranging from those majoring in mathematics to those taking only one or two modules in mathematics. Responses were analysed starting from a previously-developed phenomenographic framework that required only minor modification, leading to an outcome space of four levels of conceptions about mathematics. We found that for many students modelling is fundamental to their conception of "What is mathematics?". In a small number of students, we identified a broader conception of mathematics, that we have labelled Life. This describes a view of mathematics as a way of thinking about reality and as an integral part of life, and represents an ideal aim for university mathematics education.
Valdés Aguirre, Benjamín; Ramírez Uresti, Jorge A.; du Boulay, Benedict
Sharing user information between systems is an area of interest for every field involving personalization. Recommender Systems are more advanced in this aspect than Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) and Intelligent Learning Environments (ILEs). A reason for this is that the user models of Intelligent Tutoring Systems and Intelligent Learning…
Dávid Hrabčák; Martin Matis; L’ubomír Doboš; Ján Papaj
In the real world, wireless mobile devices are carried by humans. For this reason, it is useful if mobility models as simulation tools used to test routing protocols and other MANET-DTN features follow the behaviour of humans. In this paper, we propose a new social based mobility model called Students Social Based Mobility Model (SSBMM). This mobility model is inspired by the daily routine of student’s life. Since many current social based mobility models give nodes freedom in terms of moveme...
Hopkins, T Hampton
Due to the shortage of nurses in the health care industry, colleges offering associate-degree nursing programs are beginning to pay more attention to attrition and the factors contributing to success. Alogistic regression model was used to explain the cognitive and noncognitive variables that contribute to success in a nursing fundamentals course. Although much work is necessary to fully understand first-semester nursing students' retention and success, an early identification model is explored to better support students as they enter associate-degree nursing programs.
This paper presents a research project where the aim was to develop a new model for learning support in nursing education that makes it possible for the student to encounter both the theoretical caring science structure and the patient's lived experiences in his/her learning process. A reflective group supervision model was developed and tested. The supervision was lead by a teacher and a nurse and started in patient narratives that the students brought to the supervision sessions. The narratives were analyzed by using caring science concepts with the purpose of creating a unity of theory and lived experiences. Data has been collected and analyzed phenomenologically in order to develop knowledge of the students' reflection and learning when using the supervision model. The result shows that the students have had good use of the theoretical concepts in creating a deeper understanding for the patient. They have learned to reflect more systematically and the learning situation has become more realistic to them as it is now carried out in a patient near context. In order to reach these results, however, demands the necessity of recognizing the students' lifeworld in the supervision process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dvorak, Abbey L; Hernandez-Ruiz, Eugenia; Jang, Sekyung; Kim, Borin; Joseph, Megan; Wells, Kori E
Music therapy students negotiate a complex relationship with music and its use in clinical work throughout their education and training. This distinct, pervasive, and evolving relationship suggests a developmental process unique to music therapy. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to create a theoretical model of music therapy students' developmental process, beginning with a study within one large Midwestern university. Participants (N = 15) were music therapy students who completed one 60-minute intensive interview, followed by a 20-minute member check meeting. Recorded interviews were transcribed, analyzed, and coded using open and axial coding. The theoretical model that emerged was a six-step sequential developmental progression that included the following themes: (a) Personal Connection, (b) Turning Point, (c) Adjusting Relationship with Music, (d) Growth and Development, (e) Evolution, and (f) Empowerment. The first three steps are linear; development continues in a cyclical process among the last three steps. As the cycle continues, music therapy students continue to grow and develop their skills, leading to increased empowerment, and more specifically, increased self-efficacy and competence. Further exploration of the model is needed to inform educators' and other key stakeholders' understanding of student needs and concerns as they progress through music therapy degree programs. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Davis, E. J.; Campbell, A.; Strand, D.
Bowie State University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center have, for the past 10 years, worked diligently together to enhance the science, mathematics, engineering and technology (SMET) domain. Efforts made because of a Model Institutions for Excellence (MIE) Award have changed the landscape of the SMET domain by increasing the retention and graduation rates, the number of students entering graduate and professional schools, and the number of students entering SMET related careers. Several initiatives - a Scholarship program, PRISEM Tutoring Center, Safenet Program, Research Emphasis, Focused Mentoring, a Summer Academy for accepted and enrolled incoming students, a Bridge Program for students needing assistance being admitted to the University, the RISE Program and the Bowie State Satellite Operations and Control Center - provides the nurturing and mentoring focus, and opportunities that have resulted in a retention rate of approximately 80%, a 40% increase in the graduation rate, and an 85% increase in the number of students interested/entering graduate school. Successes that have documented by various assessment activities have led to the institutionalization of the retention model of the MIE Initiative. It is anticipated that University-wide application of the retention model will provide the incentives necessary to obtain similar results as has the MIE Initiative.
Rahmi, Chusnur; Katmiati, Siti; Wiji, Mulyani, Sri
This study aims to obtain some information regarding profile of students' mental models on the solubility and solubility product concept. A descriptive qualitative method was the method employed in the study. The participants of the study were students XI grade of a senior high school in Bandung. To collect the data, diagnostic test on mental model-prediction, observation, explanation (TDM-POE) instrument was employed in the study. The results of the study revealed that on the concept of precipitation formation of a reaction, 30% of students were not able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction either in submicroscopic or symbolic level although the microscopic have been shown; 26% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, but they were not able to explain the interaction of particles that involved in the reaction and to calculate Qsp; 26% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, and determine the particles involved, but they did not have the knowledge about the interactions occured and were uncapable of calculating Qsp; and 18% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, and determine the interactions of the particles involved in the reactions but they were not able to calculate Qsp. On the effect of adding common ions and decreasing pH towards the solubility concept, 96% of students were not able to explain the effect of adding common ions and decreasing pH towards the solubility either in submicroscopic or symbolic level although the microscopic have been shown; while 4% of students were only able to explain the effect of adding common ions towards the solubility based on the chemical equilibrium shifts and predict the effect of decreasing pH towards the solubility. However, they were not able to calculate the solubility before and after
This study concerns the theory and practice of international marketing in higher education with the purpose of exploring a conceptual model for understanding international students' needs in the context of a four-year college in the United States. A transcendental phenomenological design was employed to investigate the essence of international…
Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Dornan, Tim; Koopmans, Raymond
Dealing with emotions is a critical feature of professional behaviour. There are no comprehensive theoretical models, however, explaining how medical students learn about emotions. We aimed to explore factors affecting their emotions and how they learn to deal with emotions in themselves and others.
Alhaddad, Idrus; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sabandar, Jozua; Dahlan, Jarnawi A.
This research aims to investigate, compare, and describe the achievement and enhancement of students' mathematical communication skills (MCS). It based on the prior mathematical knowledge (PMK) category (high, medium and low) by using Treffinger models (TM) and conventional learning (CL). This research is an experimental study with the population…
Malouff, John M.; Sims, Randi L.
A model based on Vroom's expectancy theory of employee motivation posits that instructors can prevent plagiarism by ensuring that students understand the rules of ethical writing, expect assignments to be manageable and have personal benefits, and expect plagiarism to be difficult and have important personal costs. (SK)
Much can be learned from California's Puente Project Model that would help students' success in classrooms as well as in college in general, and in their daily lives. Puente, which means "bridge" in Spanish, began in 1982 at Chabot College in northern California and is now in 38 colleges and 19 high schools statewide. Originally designed…
Introduces an event in which two school teams from Argentina and Vietnam joined those from each Australian state in a race of model cars powered by the sun that provides a challenging and exciting approach for students to apply their scientific and technological knowledge to design and build the most efficient vehicles possible to gain hands-on…
Eisenhauer, Joseph G.
The popularity of distance education has increasingly led universities to consider expanding their online offerings. Remarkably few financial models have been presented for online courses, however, and fewer still have investigated the economic consequences of the migration, or cross-over, of students from traditional classes within the…
Baschera, Gian-Marco; Gross, Markus H.
We present a novel phoneme-based student model for spelling training. Our model is data driven, adapts to the user and provides information for, e.g., optimal word selection. We describe spelling errors using a set of features accounting for phonemic, capitalization, typo, and other error categories. We compute the influence of individual features on the error expectation values based on previous input data using Poisson regression. This enables us to predict error expectation values and to c...
Hsiao, I.-Han; Bakalov, Fedor; Brusilovsky, Peter; König-Ries, Birgitta
The increased volumes of online learning content have produced two problems: how to help students to find the most appropriate resources and how to engage them in using these resources. Personalized and social learning have been suggested as potential ways to address these problems. Our work presented in this paper combines the ideas of personalized and social learning in the context of educational hypermedia. We introduce Progressor, an innovative Web-based tool based on the concepts of social navigation and open student modeling that helps students to find the most relevant resources in a large collection of parameterized self-assessment questions on Java programming. We have evaluated Progressor in a semester-long classroom study, the results of which are presented in this paper. The study confirmed the impact of personalized social navigation support provided by the system in the target context. The interface encouraged students to explore more topics attempting more questions and achieving higher success rates in answering them. A deeper analysis of the social navigation support mechanism revealed that the top students successfully led the way to discovering most relevant resources by creating clear pathways for weaker students.
Casey, Ashley; Hastie, Peter; Jump, Steve
This paper documents how a unit of student-designed games can create a more meaningful version of physical education (PE) for disengaged students, a version that enhances the educational legitimacy of the subject matter by affording it worth in and of itself rather than being justified for other, extrinsic or instrumental reasons. Furthermore, it…
Olsen, Linda S.
This brief examines absences in September and students' attendance over the rest of the year. Attendance should be addressed before it becomes problematic. Chronic absenteeism, missing more than 20 days of a school year, is an early indicator of disengagement. High absence rates have negative consequences not only for individual students, but also…
Wells, Harvey; Jones, Anna; Jones, Sue C.
In formal learning settings, there will always be instances of resistance to learning from students, resulting in either open conflict or withdrawal and consequent disillusionment on the part of both students and teachers. This paper presents a set of principles and associated practices for responding to disengagement from learning in constructive…
Šefer Jasmina P.
Full Text Available The paper outlines theoretical foundations for investigations to be conducted in our education, based on USA (DISCOVERY and Yugoslav (CREATIVITY previous projects that dealt with developing, investigating and evaluating (a abilities of creative problem solving within seven types of intelligence after the Gardner model and (b curriculum that provides and encourages the development of those abilities. Divergent thinking and creativity in all spheres of intellectual behavior in teaching are encouraged by introducing open-type questions, play, exploring activities and multimedia integrative-interdisciplinary thematic approach to problem solving. Multiple intelligence and a dimensional model of problem solving present theoretical foundations for curriculum development and a new qualitative approach to process evaluation of student's various abilities. Investigations should make provisions for comparing the results obtained in various cultures and for integrating best solutions into a common whole. Comparing the results of cultures and testing theoretical models and instruments for the evaluation of students are the outcomes essential to the science of pedagogy. Curriculum development oriented to problem and divergent thinking in different areas, intellectual functioning, and enrichment of the choice of instruments for multiple process evaluation of students can also significantly contribute to the current reform of Yugoslav school, development of student abilities and teacher education and in-service training.
Stohlmann, Micah S.
Internationally mathematical modeling is garnering more attention for the benefits associated with it. Mathematical modeling can develop students' communication skills and the ability to demonstrate understanding through different representations. With the increased attention on mathematical modeling, there is a need for more curricula to be…
Hobbs, N Thompson; Ogle, Kiona
Quantitative training for students of ecology has traditionally emphasized two sets of topics: mathematical modeling and statistical analysis. Until recently, these topics were taught separately, modeling courses emphasizing mathematical techniques for symbolic analysis and statistics courses emphasizing procedures for analyzing data. We advocate the merger of these traditions in ecological education by outlining a curriculum for an introductory course in data-model assimilation. This course replaces the procedural emphasis of traditional introductory material in statistics with an emphasis on principles needed to develop hierarchical models of ecological systems, fusing models of data with models of ecological processes. We sketch nine elements of such a course: (1) models as routes to insight, (2) uncertainty, (3) basic probability theory, (4) hierarchical models, (5) data simulation, (6) likelihood and Bayes, (7) computational methods, (8) research design, and (9) problem solving. The outcome of teaching these combined elements can be the fundamental understanding and quantitative confidence needed by students to create revealing analyses for a broad array of research problems.
Since instructors have started recognizing the potential of Web 2.0 integration in web-based courses, blogs have been used to provide students with means of virtual communication, contribution, collaboration and community building. In this paper we aim to take another step forward by presenting and analyzing the integration of student blogs in an undergraduate computer science course on software architecture and web technologies: we implemented an LMS extension that acted as a course blog portal by collecting and displaying feeds of externally hosted blogs and logging usage data. Data analysis reveals that students who perform better academically also tend to participate more actively in the course blogosphere. Subsequently, we propose a blogging activity model, which aims to reveal and explain relationships between blogging activity variables—including peer visits, commenting and posting—to achieve a better understanding of lively blog communities in courses.
Gaffney, Jonathan David Housley
Students often make errors when trying to solve qualitative or conceptual physics problems, and while many successful instructional interventions have been generated to prevent such errors, the process of deduction that students use when solving physics problems has not been thoroughly studied. In an effort to better understand that reasoning process, I have developed a new framework, which is based on the mental models framework in psychology championed by P. N. Johnson-Laird. My new framework models how students search possibility space when thinking about conceptual physics problems and suggests that errors arise from failing to flesh out all possibilities. It further suggests that instructional interventions should focus on making apparent those possibilities, as well as all physical consequences those possibilities would incur. The possibilities framework emerged from the analysis of data from a unique research project specifically invented for the purpose of understanding how students use deductive reasoning. In the selection task, participants were given a physics problem along with three written possible solutions with the goal of identifying which one of the three possible solutions was correct. Each participant was also asked to identify the errors in the incorrect solutions. For the study presented in this dissertation, participants not only performed the selection task individually on four problems, but they were also placed into groups of two or three and asked to discuss with each other the reasoning they used in making their choices and attempt to reach a consensus about which solution was correct. Finally, those groups were asked to work together to perform the selection task on three new problems. The possibilities framework appropriately models the reasoning that students use, and it makes useful predictions about potentially helpful instructional interventions. The study reported in this dissertation emphasizes the useful insight the
Nila Mareta Murdiyani
Full Text Available Subtraction has two meanings and each meaning leads to the different strategies. The meaning of “taking away something” suggests a direct subtraction, while the meaning of “determining the difference between two numbers” is more likely to be modeled as indirect addition. Many prior researches found that the second meaning and second strategy rarely appeared in the mathematical textbooks and teacher explanations, including in Indonesia. Therefore, this study was conducted to contribute to the development of a local instruction theory for subtraction by designing instructional activities that can facilitate first grade of primary school students to develop a model in solving two digit numbers subtraction. Consequently, design research was chosen as an appropriate approach for achieving the research aim and Realistic Mathematics Education (RME was used as a guide to design the lesson. This study involved 6 students in the pilot experiment, 31 students in the teaching experiment, and a first grade teacher of SDN 179 Palembang. The result of this study shows that the beads string could bridge students from the contextual problems (taking ginger candies and making grains bracelets to the use of the empty number line. It also shows that the empty number line could promote students to use different strategies (direct subtraction, indirect addition, and indirect subtraction in solving subtraction problems. Based on these findings, it is recommended to apply RME in the teaching learning process to make it more meaningful for students. Keywords: Subtraction, Design Research, Realistic Mathematics Education, The Beads String, The Empty Number Line DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.1.567.95-112
Hodge, Ken; Gucciardi, Daniel F
The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether the relationships between contextual factors and basic psychological needs were related to antisocial and prosocial behavior in sport. A two-study project employing Bayesian path analysis was conducted with competitive athletes (Study 1, n = 291; Study 2, n = 272). Coach and teammate autonomy-supportive climates had meaningful direct relations with need satisfaction and prosocial behavior. Coach and teammate controlling climates had meaningful direct relations with antisocial behavior. Need satisfaction was both directly and indirectly related with both prosocial and antisocial behavior, whereas moral disengagement was directly and indirectly related with antisocial behavior. Overall, these findings reflected substantial evidence from the literature on self-determination theory that autonomy-supportive motivational climates are important environmental influences for need satisfaction, and are important correlates of prosocial behavior in sport, whereas controlling coach and teammate climates, along with moral disengagement, were important correlates of antisocial behavior in sport.
Hodge, Ken; Lonsdale, Chris
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the relationships between contextual factors (i.e., autonomy-supportive vs. controlling coaching style) and person factors (i.e., autonomous vs. controlled motivation) outlined in self-determination theory (SDT) were related to prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport. We also investigated moral disengagement as a mediator of these relationships. Athletes' (n = 292, M = 19.53 years) responses largely supported our SDT-derived hypotheses. Results indicated that an autonomy-supportive coaching style was associated with prosocial behavior toward teammates; this relationship was mediated by autonomous motivation. Controlled motivation was associated with antisocial behavior toward teammates and antisocial behavior toward opponents, and these two relationships were mediated by moral disengagement. The results provide support for research investigating the effect of autonomy-supportive coaching interventions on athletes' prosocial and antisocial behavior.
Ring, Christopher; Kavussanu, Maria
Given the concern over doping in sport, researchers have begun to explore the role played by self-regulatory processes in the decision whether to use banned performance-enhancing substances. Grounded on Bandura's (1991) theory of moral thought and action, this study examined the role of self-regulatory efficacy, moral disengagement and anticipated guilt on the likelihood to use a banned substance among college athletes. Doping self-regulatory efficacy was associated with doping likelihood both directly (b = -.16, P social cognitive theory of moral thought and action, in which self-regulatory efficacy influences the likelihood to use banned performance-enhancing substances both directly and indirectly via moral disengagement.
Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Verschuere, Bruno; Van Damme, Stefaan; Wiersema, Jan Roelf
There is a wealth of evidence demonstrating enhanced attention to threat in high trait anxious individuals (HTA) compared with low trait anxious individuals (LTA). In two experiments, we investigated whether this attentional bias is related to facilitated attentional engagement to threat or difficulties dis-engaging attention from threat. HTA and LTA undergraduates performed a modified exogenous cueing task, in which the location of a target was correctly or incorrectly cued by neutral, highly and mildly threatening pictures. Results indicate that at 100 ms picture presentation, HTA individuals more strongly engaged their attention with and showed impaired disengagement from highly threatening pictures than LTA individuals. In addition, HTA individuals showed a stronger tendency to attentional avoidance of threat at the 200 and 500 ms picture presentation. These data provide evidence for differential patterns of anxiety-related biases in attentive processing of threat at early versus later stages of information processing.
Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Dornan, Tim; Koopmans, Raymond
Dealing with emotions is a critical feature of professional behaviour. There are no comprehensive theoretical models, however, explaining how medical students learn about emotions. We aimed to explore factors affecting their emotions and how they learn to deal with emotions in themselves and others. During a first-year nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes, students wrote daily about their most impressive experiences, explicitly reporting what they felt, thought, and did. In a subsequent interview, they discussed those experiences in greater detail. Following a grounded theory approach, we conducted a constant comparative analysis, collecting and then interpreting data, and allowing the interpretation to inform subsequent data collection. Impressive experiences set up tensions, which gave rise to strong emotions. We identified four 'axes' along which tensions were experienced: 'idealism versus reality', 'critical distance versus adaptation', 'involvement versus detachment' and 'feeling versus displaying'. We found many factors, which influenced how respondents relieved those tensions. Their personal attributes and social relationships both inside and outside the medical community were important ones. Respondents' positions along the different dimensions, as determined by the balance between attributes and tensions, shaped their learning outcomes. Medical students' emotional development occurs through active participation in medical practice and having impressive experiences within relationships with patients and others on wards. Tensions along four dimensions give rise to strong emotions. Gaining insight into the many conditions that influence students' learning about emotions might support educators and supervisors in fostering medical students' emotional and professional development.
Dobrowolska, B; McGonagle, I; Jackson, C; Kane, R; Cabrera, E; Cooney-Miner, D; Di Cara, V; Pajnkihar, M; Prlić, N; Sigurdardottir, A K; Kekuš, D; Wells, J; Palese, A
In accordance with the process of nursing globalization, issues related to the increasing national and international mobility of student and qualified nurses are currently being debated. Identifying international differences and comparing similarities for mutual understanding, development and better harmonization of clinical training of undergraduate nursing students is recommended. The aim of the study was to describe and compare the nature of the nursing clinical practice education models adopted in different countries. A qualitative approach involving an expert panel of nurses was adopted. The Nominal Group Technique was employed to develop the initial research instrument for data collection. Eleven members of the UDINE-C network, representing institutions engaged in the process of professional nursing education and research (universities, high schools and clinical institutes), participated. Three data collection rounds were implemented. An analysis of the findings was performed, assuring rigour. Differences and homogeneity are reported and discussed regarding: (a) the clinical learning requirements across countries; (b) the prerequisites and clinical learning process patterns; and (c) the progress and final evaluation of the competencies achieved. A wider discussion is needed regarding nursing student exchange and internalization of clinical education in placements across European and non-European countries. A clear strategy for nursing education accreditation and harmonization of patterns of organization of clinical training at placements, as well as strategies of student assessment during this training, are recommended. There is also a need to develop international ethical guidelines for undergraduate nursing students gaining international experience. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.
Larson, Kathleen G.; Long, George R.; Briggs, Michael W.
The mental models of both novice and advanced chemistry students were observed while the students performed a periodic table activity. The mental model framework seems to be an effective way of analyzing student behavior during learning activities. The analysis suggests that students do not recognize periodic trends through the examination of…
Anderson, R. S.
While we subject our students to math and physics and chemistry courses to complement their geological studies, we rarely allow them to experience the joys of modeling earth systems. Given the degree to which modern earth sciences relies upon models of complex systems, it seems appropriate to allow our students to develop some experience with this activity. In addition, as modeling is an unforgivingly logical exercise, it demands the student absorb the fundamental concepts, the assumptions behind them, and the means of constraining the relevant parameters in a problem. These concepts commonly include conservation of some quantity, the fluxes of that quantity, and careful prescription of the boundary and initial conditions. I have used MATLAB as an entrance to this world, and will illustrate the products of the exercises we have worked. This software is platform-independent, and has a wonderful graphics package (including movies) that is embedded intimately as one-to-several line calls. The exercises should follow a progression from simple to complex, and serve to introduce the many discrete tasks within modeling. I advocate full immersion in the first exercise. Example exercises include: growth of spatter cones (summation of parabolic trajectories of lava bombs); response of thermal profiles in the earth to varying surface temperature (thermal conduction); hillslope or fault scarp evolution (topographic diffusion); growth and subsidence of volcanoes (flexure); and coral growth on a subsiding platform in the face of sealevel fluctuations (coral biology and light extinction). These exercises can be motivated by reading a piece in the classical or modern literature that either describes a model, or better yet serves to describe the system well, but does not present a model. I have found that the generation of movies from even the early simulation exercises serves as an additional motivator for students. We discuss the models in each class meeting, and learn that there
Varni, Susan E.; Miller, Carol T.; McCuin, Tara; Solomon, Sondra E.
The stigma associated with HIV/AIDS poses a psychological challenge to people living with HIV/AIDS. We hypothesized that that the consequences of stigma-related stressors on psychological well-being would depend on how people cope with the stress of HIV/AIDS stigma. Two hundred participants with HIV/AIDS completed a self-report measure of enacted stigma and felt stigma, a measure of how they coped with HIV/AIDS stigma, and measures of depression and anxiety, and self-esteem. In general, increases in felt stigma (concerns with public attitudes, negative self-image, and disclosure concerns) coupled with how participants reported coping with stigma (by disengaging from or engaging with the stigma stressor) predicted self-reported depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. Increases in felt stigma were associated with increases in anxiety and depression among participants who reported relatively high levels of disengagement coping compared to participants who reported relatively low levels of disengagement coping. Increases in felt stigma were associated with decreased self-esteem, but this association was attenuated among participants who reported relatively high levels of engagement control coping. The data also suggested a trend that increases in enacted stigma predicted increases in anxiety, but not depression, among participants who reported using more disengagement coping. Mental health professionals working with people who are HIV positive should consider how their clients cope with HIV/AIDS stigma and consider tailoring current therapies to address the relationship between stigma, coping, and psychological well-being. PMID:22611302
Wagstaff, Christopher; Graham, Hermine; Farrell, Derek; Larkin, Michael; Nettle, Mary
Whilst mental disorders can be disabling they are also treatable, yet engagement with services is often poor and disengagement from treatment is a major concern for mental health nurses. Participants were service users typically perceived as the most disengaged from mental health services, yet they were willing to engage in the research interviews. The seven participants were all male with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, a history of disengagement from mental health services and described their ethnicity as 'black'. Participants were under the care of Assertive Outreach Teams and were recruited after the researcher was introduced to them by clinicians who were working with them. After ethical approval, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to elicit the experiences of participants. Through interpretative phenomenological analysis, themes were developed. Interpretative Phenomenological analysis generated four themes: (i) "People just keep hounding me", (ii) Antipathy to Medication, (iii) Choice and the value of services, (iv) Stigmatisation and identity. By rigorously examining how service users with schizophrenia make sense of their experience of their relationship with mental health services, there is potential to give voice to the experiences of the recipients of mental health services. This study uncovered the complex nature of disengagement and in view of this there may never be a straightforward mechanism developed to engage all people with schizophrenia with mental health services. When the participants' experiences are considered in a broader social context it may be possible to reflect on how services can be adapted to facilitate better engagement. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Full Text Available In the real world, wireless mobile devices are carried by humans. For this reason, it is useful if mobility models as simulation tools used to test routing protocols and other MANET-DTN features follow the behaviour of humans. In this paper, we propose a new social based mobility model called Students Social Based Mobility Model (SSBMM. This mobility model is inspired by the daily routine of student’s life. Since many current social based mobility models give nodes freedom in terms of movement according to social feeling and attractivity to other nodes or places, we focus more on the mandatory part of our life, such as going to work and school. In the case of students, this mandatory part of their life is studying in university according to their schedule. In their free time, they move and behave according to attractivity to other nodes or places of their origin. Finally, proposed SSBMM was tested and verified by Tools for Evaluation of Social Relation in Mobility Models and compared with random based mobility models. At the end, SSBMM was simulated to examine the impact of social relations on routing protocols.
Full Text Available Previous research has been inconsistent on whether violent video games exert positive and/or negative effects on cognition. In particular, attentional bias in facial affect processing after violent video game exposure continues to be controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate attentional bias in facial recognition after short term exposure to violent video games and to characterize the neural correlates of this effect. In order to accomplish this, participants were exposed to either neutral or violent video games for 25 min and then event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded during two emotional search tasks. The first search task assessed attentional facilitation, in which participants were required to identify an emotional face from a crowd of neutral faces. In contrast, the second task measured disengagement, in which participants were required to identify a neutral face from a crowd of emotional faces. Our results found a significant presence of the ERP component, N2pc, during the facilitation task; however, no differences were observed between the two video game groups. This finding does not support a link between attentional facilitation and violent video game exposure. Comparatively, during the disengagement task, N2pc responses were not observed when participants viewed happy faces following violent video game exposure; however, a weak N2pc response was observed after neutral video game exposure. These results provided only inconsistent support for the disengagement hypothesis, suggesting that participants found it difficult to separate a neutral face from a crowd of emotional faces.
Liu, Yanling; Lan, Haiying; Teng, Zhaojun; Guo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong
Previous research has been inconsistent on whether violent video games exert positive and/or negative effects on cognition. In particular, attentional bias in facial affect processing after violent video game exposure continues to be controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate attentional bias in facial recognition after short term exposure to violent video games and to characterize the neural correlates of this effect. In order to accomplish this, participants were exposed to either neutral or violent video games for 25 min and then event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during two emotional search tasks. The first search task assessed attentional facilitation, in which participants were required to identify an emotional face from a crowd of neutral faces. In contrast, the second task measured disengagement, in which participants were required to identify a neutral face from a crowd of emotional faces. Our results found a significant presence of the ERP component, N2pc, during the facilitation task; however, no differences were observed between the two video game groups. This finding does not support a link between attentional facilitation and violent video game exposure. Comparatively, during the disengagement task, N2pc responses were not observed when participants viewed happy faces following violent video game exposure; however, a weak N2pc response was observed after neutral video game exposure. These results provided only inconsistent support for the disengagement hypothesis, suggesting that participants found it difficult to separate a neutral face from a crowd of emotional faces.
Løvschal-Nielsen, P; Clausen, N; Meinert, L
This anthropological study explores children's non-social reactions during the active treatment period, the on-treatment, in a paediatric oncology ward in a Danish university hospital. It is argued that, although some children's non-social reactions is a tactical disengagement to manage the on-treatment situation, such non-social tactics might ultimately prove an undesirable strategy with negative long-term social consequences for social survivorship. Data were generated over 7 months of ethnographic fieldwork between May 2011 and January 2013, using qualitative methods such as participant observation and open-ended interviewing. Fifty children of both sexes between 4 and 15 years, their families and hospital staff participated in the study. These data formed the basis for the study. The findings show that children's response to care challenges, including exhaustion from care management, exposure from being in a public space, and the open-ended duration of treatment, configure in tactic forms that we term social disengagement. It is suggested that such tactical social disengagement might expand into long-term social patterns, and, as such, change from an alleviating tactic to a socially isolating and damaging tactic for survivors of cancer in childhood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cryer, Sarah; Atkinson, Cathy
Research suggests motivational interviewing (MI) techniques are both widely-used by educational psychologists (EPs) and effective in supporting young people of secondary age. To date, there has been no published research investigating the use of MI with primary-aged children. This study details the use of a short MI-based intervention with a primary-aged pupil identified as disengaged. A case-based approach was employed, using pupil and teacher interviews and observational fieldnotes to assess the usefulness of the intervention. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the intervention checked for adherence to the MI spirit and principles. Here the process, structure and outcomes of the intervention are exemplified through an illustrative case study with a nine-year-old boy. Results indicate that the adapted intervention had a significant impact on learning motivation and classroom behaviour. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the use of school-based therapeutic interventions by EPs. PMID:26339113
Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Mali, Luiza V; Duong, Mylien T
Adolescents who have been exposed to violence in the community often experience subsequent difficulties with academic achievement. Because competence in the classroom is a salient developmental task during the adolescent years, outcomes in this critical context can then have broader implications for social and psychological functioning. In the current study, we tested a hypothesized progression in which the association between violence exposure and deficient achievement is presumed to potentiate friendships with academically disengaged peers. We followed 415 urban adolescents (53 % girls; average age of 14.6 years) for a one-year period, with two annual assessment of psychosocial functioning. Exposure to violence in the community and academic engagement were assessed with a self-report inventory; reciprocated friendships were assessed with a peer interview; and achievement was indexed based on a review of school records. Consistent with our hypotheses, neighborhood violence was associated with deficient classroom achievement. Poor achievement, in turn, mediated associations between community violence exposure and low academic engagement among friends. Our findings highlight pathways though which exposure to community violence potentially predicts later dysfunction.
Chen, Jiaqing; Niemeier, Matthias
Body schema is indispensable for sensorimotor control and learning, but whether it is associated with cognitive functions, such as allocation of spatial attention, remains unclear. Observations in patients with unilateral spatial neglect support this view, yet data from neurologically normal participants are inconsistent. Here, we investigated the influence of head-on-trunk positions (30° left or right, straight ahead) on disengagement of attention in healthy participants. Five experiments examined the effects of valid or invalid cues on spatial shifts of attention using the Posner paradigm. Experiment 1 used a forced-choice task. Participants quickly reported the location of a target that appeared left or right of the fixation point, preceded by a cue on the same (valid) or opposite side (invalid). Experiments 2, 3, and 4 also used valid and invalid cues but required participants to simply detect a target appearing on the left or right side. Experiment 5 used a speeded discrimination task, in which participants quickly reported the orientation of a Gabor. We observed expected influences of validity and stimulus onset asynchrony as well as inhibition of return; however, none of the experiments suggested that head-on-trunk position created or changed visual field advantages, contrary to earlier reports. Our results showed that the manipulations of the body schema did not modulate attentional processes in the healthy brain, unlike neuropsychological studies on neglect patients. Our findings suggest that spatial neglect reflects a state of the lesioned brain that is importantly different from that of the normally functioning brain.
Trevor J Crawford
Full Text Available IntroductionEye tracking provides a convenient and promising biological marker of cognitive impairment in patients with neurodegenerative disease. Here we report a longitudinal study of saccadic eye movements in a sample of patients with dementia and elderly control participants who were assessed at start of the study and followed up 12 months later.MethodsEye movements were measured in the standard gap and overlap paradigms, to examine the longitudinal trends in the ability to disengage attention from a visual target.ResultsOverall patients with dementia had slower reaction times than the control group. However, after 12 months, both groups showed faster and comparable reductions in reaction times to the gap, compared to the overlap stimulus. Interestingly, there was a general improvement for both groups with more accurately directed saccades and speeding of reaction times after 12 months.ConclusionsThese findings point to the value of longer-term studies and follow-up assessment to ascertain the effects of dementia on oculomotor control.
Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth/completene....../completeness about vague or imprecise information. This paper tackles the issue of representing fuzzy classes using OWL2 in a dataset describing Performance Assessment Results of Students (PARS)....
Bairaktarova, Diana; Woodcock, Anna
Professional communities are experiencing scandals involving unethical and illegal practices daily. Yet it should not take a national major structure failure to highlight the importance of ethical awareness and behavior, or the need for the development and practice of ethical behavior in engineering students. Development of ethical behavior skills in future engineers is a key competency for engineering schools as ethical behavior is a part of the professional identity and practice of engineers. While engineering educators have somewhat established instructional methods to teach engineering ethics, they still rely heavily on teaching ethical awareness, and pay little attention to how well ethical awareness predicts ethical behavior. However the ability to exercise ethical judgement does not mean that students are ethically educated or likely to behave in an ethical manner. This paper argues measuring ethical judgment is insufficient for evaluating the teaching of engineering ethics, because ethical awareness has not been demonstrated to translate into ethical behavior. The focus of this paper is to propose a model that correlates with both, ethical awareness and ethical behavior. This model integrates the theory of planned behavior, person and thing orientation, and spheres of control. Applying this model will allow educators to build confidence and trust in their students' ability to build a professional identity and be prepared for the engineering profession and practice.
Full Text Available Gender education as an important part of education, affects by the role and attitudes of teachers. Including gender perspective in schools is a prerequisite in alienable of human development, instead insuring gender equality it is considered as respecting human rights. Elimination of the gender stereotypes has a two-fold significance since itemsurest gender equality not only in the school system but even in the society as a whole. Gender stereotype messages, regardless by hidden or displayed form, unilaterally influence the development of the personality in its appearance as well as the formation of the individual. Children learn about gender identity simply by observing what happens in different circumstances around. In education exist gender disparities, which can be assessed by means of measurable indicators. So, the content of the curricula and instructive texts, the interactive relationships teacher-students, the institutional ambiance, etc. play an important role into the preservation and transmission of the gender disparity stereotypes through the messages they convey. The purpose of thestudy is to perform a systematic research in order to show the scale and shape in which gender stereotypes are portrayed and shown in social life, even through the role model of teacher and their affecting the education for a democratic society. To achieve this goal, we use the method of studying the existing literature; a detailed analysis of the questionnaires and interviews content with school directors and teachers of pre-university education in city: Shkodër, Tiranë, Elbasan, Pogradec, Korçë. Parents and teachers attitudes, seems to be a role model and affect the education of students. Therefore it is necessary before to teach students about gender equality, teachers need to be careful in their behavior about gender equality as an integral part of thinking. Need to have successful teacher, to get successful students otherwise should be successful
Phillips, Pamela Prevette
Nationally, "at risk" students make up to 30% of U.S. students in public schools. Many "at risk" students have poor attendance, are disengaged from the learning environment and have low academic achievement. Educational failure occurs when students do not complete the required courses and as a result do not receive a high…
Full Text Available Decades of education research have shown that students can simultaneously possess alternate knowledge frameworks and that the development and use of such knowledge are context dependent. As a result of extensive qualitative research, standardized multiple-choice tests such as Force Concept Inventory and Force-Motion Concept Evaluation tests provide instructors tools to probe their students’ conceptual knowledge of physics. However, many existing quantitative analysis methods often focus on a binary question of whether a student answers a question correctly or not. This greatly limits the capacity of using the standardized multiple-choice tests in assessing students’ alternative knowledge. In addition, the context dependence issue, which suggests that a student may apply the correct knowledge in some situations and revert to use alternative types of knowledge in others, is often treated as random noise in current analyses. In this paper, we present a model analysis, which applies qualitative research to establish a quantitative representation framework. With this method, students’ alternative knowledge and the probabilities for students to use such knowledge in a range of equivalent contexts can be quantitatively assessed. This provides a way to analyze research-based multiple choice questions, which can generate much richer information than what is available from score-based analysis.
Grade 6 (modal age 11) students invented and revised models of the variability generated as each measured the perimeter of a table in their classroom. To construct models, students represented variability as a linear composite of true measure (signal) and multiple sources of random error. Students revised models by developing sampling…
Sosnovsky, Sergey; Dolog, Peter; Henze, Nicola
The effectiveness of an adaptive educational system in many respects depends on the precision of modeling assumptions it makes about a student. One of the well-known challenges in student modeling is to adequately assess the initial level of student's knowledge when s/he starts working with a sys......The effectiveness of an adaptive educational system in many respects depends on the precision of modeling assumptions it makes about a student. One of the well-known challenges in student modeling is to adequately assess the initial level of student's knowledge when s/he starts working...
Parker, Tony C.
CHDS State/Local Prison radicalization has been identified as a potentially significant threat to Americas homeland security. When considering the inmate population currently housed within the Federal Bureau of Prisons with a terrorism nexus and the fact that 95 percent of our inmate population will return to our communities, the need for a proactive posture to prison radicalization becomes evident. Currently, the United States has no prison deradicalization program. This thesis provides a...
Kim, Hak-Seon; Ahn, Joo
The purpose of this research was to investigate how university students' nutrition beliefs influence their health behavioral intention. This study used an online survey engine (Qulatrics.com) to collect data from college students. Out of 253 questionnaires collected, 251 questionnaires (99.2%) were used for the statistical analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) revealed that six dimensions, "Nutrition Confidence," "Susceptibility," "Severity," "Barrier," "Benefit," "Behavioral Intention to Eat Healthy Food," and "Behavioral Intention to do Physical Activity," had construct validity; Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliabilities were tested for item reliability. The results validate that objective nutrition knowledge was a good predictor of college students' nutrition confidence. The results also clearly showed that two direct measures were significant predictors of behavioral intentions as hypothesized. Perceived benefit of eating healthy food and perceived barrier for eat healthy food to had significant effects on Behavioral Intentions and was a valid measurement to use to determine Behavioral Intentions. These findings can enhance the extant literature on the universal applicability of the model and serve as useful references for further investigations of the validity of the model within other health care or foodservice settings and for other health behavioral categories. PMID:23346306
Huffman, L. T.
The C2S2: Climate Change Student Summit project has completed four years of activities plus a year-long longitudinal evaluation with demonstrated positive impacts beyond the life of the project on both students and teachers. This presentation will share the lessons learned about implementing this climate change science education program and suggest that it is a successful model that can be used to scale up from its Midwestern roots to achieve measurable national impact. A NOAA Environmental Literacy grant allowed ANDRILL (ANtarctic geological DRILLing) to grow a 2008 pilot program involving 2 Midwestern sites, to a program 4 years later involving 10 sites. The excellent geographical coverage included 9 of the U.S. National Climate Assessment regions defined by the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Through the delivery of two professional development (PD) workshops, a unique opportunity was provided for both formal and informal educators to engage their classrooms/audiences in understanding the complexities of climate change. For maximum contact hours, the PD experience was extended throughout the school year through the use of an online grouphub. Student teams were involved in a creative investigative science research and presentation experience culminating in a Climate Change Student Summit, an on-site capstone event including a videoconference connecting all sites. The success of this program was based on combining multiple aspects, such as encouraging the active involvement of scientists and early career researchers both in the professional development workshops and in the Student Summit. Another key factor was the close working relationships between informal and formal science entities, including involvement of informal science learning facilities and informal science education leaders. The program also created cutting-edge curriculum materials titled the ELF, (Environmental Literacy Framework with a focus on climate change), providing an earth systems
S. H. Sulistijo
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the differences in learning outcomes of between students that are given the Physics learning models of Inquiry-Student Team Achievement Division (ISTAD and guided inquiry, between students who have high achievement motivation and low achievement motivation. This study was an experimental study with a 2x2x2 factorial design. The study population was the students of class X of SMAN 1 Toroh Grobogan of academic year 2016/2017. Samples were obtained by cluster random sampling technique consists of two classes, class X IPA 3 is used as an experimental class using ISTAD model and class X IPA 4 as the control class using guided inquiry model. Data collection techniques using test techniques for learning outcomes, and technical questionnaire to obtain the data of students' achievement motivation. Analysis of data using two-way ANOVA. The results showed that: (1 there is a difference between the learning outcomes of students with the ISTAD Physics models and with the physics model of guided inquiry. (2 There are differences in learning outcomes between students who have high achievement motivation and low achievement motivation. (3 There is no interaction between ISTAD and guided inquiry Physics models learning and achievement motivation of students.
Anderson-Pence, Katie L.; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Westenskow, Arla; Shumway, Jessica; Jordan, Kerry
The purpose of this study was to deconstruct the relationship between visual static models and students' written solutions to fraction problems using a large sample of students' solutions. Participants in the study included 162 third-grade and 209 fourth-grade students from 17 different classrooms. Students' written responses to open-ended tasks…
Patterson, Freyr; Fleming, Jennifer; Marshall, Kathryn; Ninness, Nadine
Professional practice education is a core and essential component of occupational therapy training. With increasing numbers of education programmes and more students requiring professional practice placements, development of innovative models of professional practice education has emerged, but these require investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate student experiences and perceptions of the Student-Led Groups Program model of professional practice education in an inpatient brain injury rehabilitation unit. A qualitative approach, guided by phenomenological theory was used. Participants were 15 students who had completed a professional practice placement in the Student-Led Groups Program. Data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews and analysed thematically. Three over-arching themes emerged from the data; balance of support and freedom, development of clinical skills and missed opportunities. Students described how the structure of the placement facilitated independent learning and autonomy that was balanced with support from clinicians and student peers. Students perceived that they had developed a breadth of clinical skills and also had missed some learning opportunities in this professional practice placement structure. Overall student perceptions of the Student-Led Groups Program were positive, supporting the continued use of this model of professional practice education in this setting. The results highlight the value of structured and consistent approaches for supervision, including the use of formal approaches to peer supervision in the initial stages of learning. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Dahlia Megawati Pardede
Full Text Available The purposes of the research are: (a to determine differences in learning outcomes of students with Inquiry Training models and conventional models, (b to determine differences in physics learning outcomes of students who have high motivation and low motivation, (c to determine the interaction between learning models with the level of motivation in improving student Physics learning outcomes. The results were found: (a there are differences in physical students learning outcomes are taught by Inquiry Training models and conventional models. (b learning outcomes of students who are taught by Inquiry Learning Model Training better than student learning outcomes are taught with conventional model. (c there is a difference in student's learning outcomes that have high motivation and low motivation. (d Student learning outcomes that have a high motivation better than student learning outcomes than have a low motivation. (e there is interaction between learning and motivation to student learning outcomes. Learning outcomes of students who are taught by the model is influenced also by the motivation, while learning outcomes of students who are taught with conventional models are not affected by motivation.
Pratt, GA; Schofield, C W
Model Answers in Pure Mathematics for A-Level Students provides a set of solutions that indicate what is required and expected in an Advanced Level examination in Pure Mathematics. This book serves as a guide to the length of answer required, layout of the solution, and methods of selecting the best approach to any particular type of math problem. This compilation intends to supplement, not replace, the normal textbook and provides a varied selection of questions for practice in addition to the worked solutions. The subjects covered in this text include algebra, trigonometry, coordinate geomet
Didis, Makbule Gozde; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat; Cetinkaya, Bulent; Cakiroglu, Erdinc; Alacaci, Cengiz
Researchers point out the importance of teachers' knowledge of student thinking and the role of examining student work in various contexts to develop a knowledge base regarding students' ways of thinking. This study investigated prospective secondary mathematics teachers' interpretations of students' thinking as manifested in students' work that…
Full Text Available Abstract Background A potential problem of low-stakes large-scale assessments such as the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC is low test-taking engagement. The present study pursued two goals in order to better understand conditioning factors of test-taking disengagement: First, a model-based approach was used to investigate whether item indicators of disengagement constitute a continuous latent person variable by domain. Second, the effects of person and item characteristics were jointly tested using explanatory item response models. Methods Analyses were based on the Canadian sample of Round 1 of the PIAAC, with N = 26,683 participants completing test items in the domains of literacy, numeracy, and problem solving. Binary item disengagement indicators were created by means of item response time thresholds. Results The results showed that disengagement indicators define a latent dimension by domain. Disengagement increased with lower educational attainment, lower cognitive skills, and when the test language was not the participant’s native language. Gender did not exert any effect on disengagement, while age had a positive effect for problem solving only. An item’s location in the second of two assessment modules was positively related to disengagement, as was item difficulty. The latter effect was negatively moderated by cognitive skill, suggesting that poor test-takers are especially likely to disengage with more difficult items. Conclusions The negative effect of cognitive skill, the positive effect of item difficulty, and their negative interaction effect support the assumption that disengagement is the outcome of individual expectations about success (informed disengagement.
Bhasin, N.; Whittaker, W.
On the surface of the moon and Mars there are hundreds of skylights, which are collapsed holes that are believed to lead to underground caves. This research uses Vision, Inertial, and LIDAR sensors to build a high resolution model of a skylight as a landing vehicle flies overhead. We design and fabricate a pit modeling instrument to accomplish this task, implement software, and demonstrate sensing and modeling capability on a suborbital reusable launch vehicle flying over a simulated pit. Future missions on other planets and moons will explore pits and caves, led by the technology developed by this research. Sensor software utilizes modern graph-based optimization techniques to build 3D models using camera, LIDAR, and inertial data. The modeling performance was validated with a test flyover of a planetary skylight analog structure on the Masten Xombie sRLV. The trajectory profile closely follows that of autonomous planetary powered descent, including translational and rotational dynamics as well as shock and vibration. A hexagonal structure made of shipping containers provides a terrain feature that serves as an appropriate analog for the rim and upper walls of a cylindrical planetary skylight. The skylight analog floor, walls, and rim are modeled in elevation with a 96% coverage rate at 0.25m2 resolution. The inner skylight walls have 5.9cm2 color image resolution and the rims are 6.7cm2 with measurement precision superior to 1m. The multidisciplinary student team included students of all experience levels, with backgrounds in robotics, physics, computer science, systems, mechanical and electrical engineering. The team was commited to authentic scientific experimentation, and defined specific instrument requirements and measurable experiment objectives to verify successful completion.This work was made possible by the NASA Undergraduate Student Instrument Project Educational Flight Opportunity 2013 program. Additional support was provided by the sponsorship of an
Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.; Compton, Jonathan; Wohlgemuth, Darin; Forbes, Greg; Ralston, Ekaterina
Improving student success and degree completion is one of the core principles of strategic enrollment management. To address this principle, institutional data were used to develop a statistical model to identify academically at-risk students. The model employs multiple linear regression techniques to predict students at risk of earning below a…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a quantitative model of problem solving performance of students in the computer-based mathematics learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: Regularized logistic regression was used to create a quantitative model of problem solving performance of students that predicts whether students can…
represents the time that sailors spend in training while in a student status. Sailors in a student status are not part of the Navy’s distributable... students in training and the average total time they spend in training. Because most students in pre-fleet training are new accessions, the main inputs...for determining the number of students are the monthly accession goals for each rating. The total time students spend at school consists of time
Orthner, Dennis K.; Akos, Patrick; Rose, Roderick; Jones-Sanpei, Hinckley; Mercado, Micaela; Woolley, Michael E.
The school dropout rate in America is too high, especially for low-income students and those from nondominant racial or ethnic groups. For many students, the social-psychological and behavioral disengagement from school that leads to dropping out often begins in middle school. Research on early adolescents confirms that increasing the perceived…
Vors, Olivier; Gal-Petitfaux, Nathalie
Background: Since 2010, French secondary schools with a high proportion of students in academic difficulty benefit from a compensatory education policy called "Ecoles Colleges et Lycees pour l'Ambition, l'Innovation et la Reussite" (ECLAIR). These students tend to behave poorly and frequently disengage from learning tasks, and thus one…
Wang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study aimed to investigate the factors accounting for science learning self-efficacy (the specific beliefs that people have in their ability to complete tasks in science learning) from both the teacher and the student levels. We thus propose a multilevel model to delineate its relationships with teacher and student science hardiness (i.e.,…
Wei, Silin; Liu, Xiufeng; Jia, Yuane
Scientific models and modeling play an important role in science, and students' understanding of scientific models is essential for their understanding of scientific concepts. The measurement instrument of "Students' Understanding of Models in Science" (SUMS), developed by Treagust, Chittleborough & Mamiala ("International…
Kinder, Jesse M
Python is a computer programming language that is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the sciences. A Student’s Guide to Python for Physical Modeling aims to help you, the student, teach yourself enough of the Python programming language to get started with physical modeling. You will learn how to install an open-source Python programming environment and use it to accomplish many common scientific computing tasks: importing, exporting, and visualizing data; numerical analysis; and simulation. No prior programming experience is assumed. This tutorial focuses on fundamentals and introduces a wide range of useful techniques, including: Basic Python programming and scripting Numerical arrays Two- and three-dimensional graphics Monte Carlo simulations Numerical methods, including solving ordinary differential equations Image processing Animation Numerous code samples and exercises—with solutions—illustrate new ideas as they are introduced. A website that accompanies this guide provides additional resourc...
Modeling has been promoted by major policy organizations as important for science learning. The purpose of this dissertation is to describe and explore middle school science students' computer-based modeling practices and their changes over time using a scaffolded modeling program. Following a "design-based research" approach, this study was conducted at an independent school. Seventh graders from three classes taught by two experienced teachers participated. Two pairs of target students were chosen from each class for observation. Students created computer-based models after their investigations in a water quality unit and a decomposition unit. The initial modeling cycle for water quality lasted for four days in the fall season, the second cycle for water quality lasted three days in the winter season, and the third cycle for decomposition lasted two days in the spring season. The major data source is video that captured student pairs' computer screen activities and their conversations. Supplementary data include classroom videos of those modeling cycles, replicated students' final models, and models in production. The data were analyzed in terms of the efficiency, meaningfulness, and purposefulness of students' modeling practices. Students' understanding of content, models and modeling, metacognition, and collaboration and their changes were analyzed as secondary learning outcomes. This dissertation shows that with appropriate scaffolding from the modeling program and the teachers, students performed a variety of modeling practices that are valued by science educators, such as planning, analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating, and publicizing. In general, student modeling practices became more efficient, meaningful, and purposeful over time. During their modeling practices, students also made use of and improved content knowledge, understanding of models and modeling, metacognition, and collaboration. Suggestions for improving the modeling program and the learning
Petrovic, Dus?an; Zlatovic´, Mario
A homology modeling laboratory experiment has been developed for an introductory molecular modeling course for upper-division undergraduate chemistry students. With this experiment, students gain practical experience in homology model preparation and assessment as well as in protein visualization using the educational version of PyMOL…
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reflect on the use of the parametric modeling in two didactic experiences. The first experiment involved resources of the Paracloud program and its relation with the Rhinoceros program, that resulted in the production of physical models produced with the aid of the laser cutting. In the second experiment, the students had produced algorithms in the Grasshopper, resulting in families of structures and coverings. The study objects are both the physical models and digital algorithms resultants from this experimentation. For the analysis and synthesis of the results, we adopted four important assumptions: 1. the value of attitudes and environment of work; 2. the importance of experimentation and improvisation; 3. understanding of the design process as a situated act and as a ill-defined problem; 4. the inclusion of creative and critical thought in the disciplines. The results allow us to affirm that the parametric modeling stimulates creativity, therefore allowing combination of different parameters, that result in unexpected discoveries. Keywords: Teach-Learning, Parametric Modeling, Laser Cutter, Grasshopper, Design Process, Creativity.
Guyton, Jane M.; Fielstein, Lynda L.
Describes program in which elementary school students lead parent-teacher conferences, shares authors' experiences with the student-led conferences, and discusses how the process has fostered student responsibility. Describes results of informal study that support the student-led conference. (NB)
Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa
by both lecturers and students will be presented. Findings/results/outcomes/effects: Students point out that the model can be a useful tool to gain an overview of learning activities and the amount of time they are expected to spend in courses. When lecturers introduce courses via the model it deepens...... student's understanding of the learning outcome and how to achieve it Lecturers on the other hand find it difficult to use the model as a mean of dialogue with the students. Conclusion: Students find that the model has potential to develop their understanding of their own learning processes. Though...... at Metropolitan University College. Since 2013 all UCS have worked with a nationally decided study activity model. The model outlines four different types of learning activities. Students are introduced to courses via the model to heighten their understanding of course design and the expectations...
Wesolowski, Brian C.
Student achievement growth data are increasingly used for assessing teacher effectiveness and tracking student achievement in the classroom. Guided by the student learning objective (SLO) framework, music teachers are now responsible for collecting, tracking, and reporting student growth data. Often, the reported data do not accurately reflect the…
Graf, Sabine; Kinshuk; Liu, Tzu-Chien
In learning management systems (LMSs), teachers have more difficulties to notice and know how individual students behave and learn in a course, compared to face-to-face education. Enabling teachers to know their students' learning styles and making students aware of their own learning styles increases teachers' and students' understanding about…
Ella Lady Saura
Full Text Available The purposes of the research are: (1 To determine differences in learning outcomes of students with Inquiry Training models and Direct Instruction teaching models, (2 to determine differences in physics learning outcomes of students who have high critical thinking and low critical thinking, (3 to determine the interaction between learning models with the level of critical thinking in improving student Physics learning outcomes. The sample in this study conducted in a cluster random sampling of two classes, where the first class as a class experiment applied Inquiry Training models as a class and the second class of controls implemented Direct Instruction models. The instrument is used in this study is physics learning outcomes tests in narrative form as many as 7 questions and critical thinking test in narrative form as 7 questions that have been declared valid and reliable. The results were found: (1 there are differences in physical students learning outcomes are taught by Inquiry Training models and Direct Instruction teaching models. Learning outcomes of students who are taught by Inquiry Learning Model Training better than student learning outcomes are taught with Direct Instruction Model Learning. (2 There is a difference in student's learning outcomes that have high critical thinking and low critical thinking. Student learning outcomes that have a high critical thinking better than student learning outcomes that have a low critical thinking. (3 There is interaction between learning and mastery of material Model Physics prerequisite to student learning outcomes. Learning outcomes of students who are taught by the model is influenced also by the Inquiry Training critical thinking, while learning outcomes of students who are taught with Direct Instruction models are not affected by the students' critical thinking.
In many classrooms, teachers are looking for ways to increase student engagement. Disengaged students are not reaching their full potential and experience relatively high levels of anxiety and frustration, which negatively impacts learning. Providing multiple hands-on and problem-solving learning opportunities can increase student engagement. The new curriculum developed for use on the Science on a Sphere provides educators with a resource to create problem-solving learning opportunities in t...
Tyler, Ingrid V; Hau, Monica; Buxton, Jane A; Elliott, Lawrence J; Harvey, Bart J; Hockin, James C; Mowat, David L
To understand the perceptions and attitudes of Canadian medical students toward their undergraduate medical public health curriculum and to identify student suggestions and priorities for curriculum change. Five focus groups of 11 or 12 medical students from all years of medical school were recruited at McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba Faculty of Medicine, and University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine between February and April 2006. A professional facilitator was hired to conduct the focus groups using a unique, computer-based facilitation system. Questions in both the focus group and an accompanying survey sought to determine medical students' understanding and exposure to public health and how this impacted their attitudes and choices toward careers in the public health medical specialty of community medicine. The transcripts were independently reviewed and analyzed by each of the authors to identify themes. Four major themes related to students' desired curriculum change were identified: (1) poor educational experiences in public health courses, (2) lack of positive role models, especially exposure to community medicine specialists, (3) emphasis on statistics and epidemiology, and (4) negative attitudes toward public health topics. Students are disillusioned, disengaged, and disappointed with the public health curriculum currently being provided at the Canadian medical schools studied. Many medical students would prefer a public health curriculum that is more challenging and has more applied field experience and exposure to public health physician role models.
Kirchhoff, Julien; Filippi, Andreas
Self-reliant oral health behavior exert great influence on the oral health of our society. The aim of the present study was to find out whether there is an occupation-related difference in the oral health behavior between dental students, students of other disciplines, and fashion models in German-speaking Switzerland. The survey comprised 19 questions which were asked using a web-based anonymous questionnaire. The investigation particularly inquired about employed auxiliaries and their application for an improvement of oral hygiene. In addition, the satisfaction with the own teeth and smile as well as the influence of the occupation or the study on oral hygiene were examined. Included in this evaluation were 204 dental students, 257 students of other disciplines, and 117 fashion models aged between 21 and 25 years. The evaluation reveals that the state of knowledge and the professional relationship affect the practice of oral hygiene, in particular among dental students. Fashion models, however, are most intensively concerned with body care and oral hygiene. Their attention is directed particularly to means supposed to improve the smile as well as to ensure fresh breath. Dental students and fashion models constitute a selected minority clearly demarcated from students of other disciplines regarding a higher awareness of self-reliant oral hygiene. The comparatively minor rating of oral health in a group of basically well-trained individuals suggests great need of educational work in the general population.
Aburahma, Mona Hassan
Like most of the pharmacy colleges in developing countries with high population growth, public pharmacy colleges in Egypt are experiencing a significant increase in students' enrollment annually due to the large youth population, accompanied with the keenness of students to join pharmacy colleges as a step to a better future career. In this context, large lectures represent a popular approach for teaching the students as economic and logistic constraints prevent splitting them into smaller groups. Nevertheless, the impact of large lectures in relation to student learning has been widely questioned due to their educational limitations, which are related to the passive role the students maintain in lectures. Despite the reported feebleness underlying large lectures and lecturing in general, large lectures will likely continue to be taught in the same format in these countries. Accordingly, to soften the negative impacts of large lectures, this article describes a simple and feasible 5-step paper-based model to transform lectures from a passive information delivery space into an active learning environment. This model mainly suits educational establishments with financial constraints, nevertheless, it can be applied in lectures presented in any educational environment to improve active participation of students. The components and the expected advantages of employing the 5-step paper-based model in large lectures as well as its limitations and ways to overcome them are presented briefly. The impact of applying this model on students' engagement and learning is currently being investigated.
Full Text Available The need for digital literacy is apparent in today’s workplace, driven by strong pressures for constant technological innovation. Previous studies have shown that although older workers make up (and will make up a great proportion of the workforce, there persists an age-based digital divide in the workplace; and the outcome of such divide is quite negative: at the individual level, older workers feel they’re being marginalized and as such, become dissatisfied and disengage from their workplace; at the organizational level, a pool of skills and expertise is lost as a result of the older worker’s disengagement, putting at risk effective knowledge transfer and mentoring process. Hence, the importance of a deeper understanding of the contextual factors that may feed the ‘grey digital divide’ in the workplace. The goal of this paper is to address such factors moving beyond the ageist claim that a worker’s chronological age is the driving force behind the ‘grey digital divide’.
Full Text Available Attentional biases toward threat (ABTs have been described in high anxious individuals and in clinical samples whereas they have been rarely reported in non-clinical samples (Bar-Haim et al., 2007; Cisler and Koster, 2010. Three kinds of ABTs have been identified (facilitation, difficulty of disengagement and avoidance but their mechanisms and time courses are still unclear. This study aimed to understand ABTs mechanisms and timing in low (LTA and high (HTA anxious individuals. In particular, in an exogenous cueing task we used threatening or neutral stimuli as peripheral cues with three presentation times (100, 200 or 500 ms. The main results showed that HTA individuals have an attentional facilitation bias at 100 ms (likely automatic in nature whereas LTA individuals show attentional avoidance and difficulty to disengage from threatening stimuli at 200 ms (likely related to a strategic processing. Such findings demonstrate that threat biases attention with specific mechanisms and time courses, and that anxiety levels modulate attention allocation.
Sagliano, Laura; Trojano, Luigi; Amoriello, Katja; Migliozzi, Michela; D'Olimpio, Francesca
Attentional biases toward threats (ABTs) have been described in high anxious individuals and in clinical samples whereas they have been rarely reported in non-clinical samples (Bar-Haim et al., 2007; Cisler and Koster, 2010). Three kinds of ABTs have been identified (facilitation, difficulty of disengagement, and avoidance) but their mechanisms and time courses are still unclear. This study aimed to understand ABTs mechanisms and timing in low trait anxiety (LTA) and high trait anxiety (HTA) anxious individuals. In particular, in an exogenous cueing task we used threatening or neutral stimuli as peripheral cues with three presentation times (100, 200, or 500 ms). The main results showed that HTA individuals have an attentional facilitation bias at 100 ms (likely automatic in nature) whereas LTA individuals show attentional avoidance and difficulty to disengage from threatening stimuli at 200 ms (likely related to a strategic processing). Such findings demonstrate that threat biases attention with specific mechanisms and time courses, and that anxiety levels modulate attention allocation.
Chavoshi, Saeid; Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Dentakos, Stella; Wright, Lorna
The current study proposes a Developmental Sequence Model to University Adjustment and uses a multifaceted measure, including academic, social and psychological adjustment, to examine factors predictive of undergraduate international student adjustment. A hierarchic regression model is carried out on the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire to examine theoretically pertinent predictors arranged in a developmental sequence in determining adjustment outcomes. This model...
Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Coppens, Marjolijn; Janssen, Fred; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton
The building of models to explain data and make predictions constitutes an important goal in molecular biology research. To give students the opportunity to practice such model building, two digital cases had previously been developed in which students are guided to build a model step by step. In this article, the development and initial…
Zarkadis, Nikolaos; Papageorgiou, George; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios
Science education research has revealed a number of student mental models for atomic structure, among which, the one based on Bohr's model seems to be the most dominant. The aim of the current study is to investigate the coherence of these models when students apply them for the explanation of a variety of situations. For this purpose, a set of…
Although prediction is claimed to be a prime function of mental models, to what extent students can run their mental models to make predictions of physical phenomena remains uncertain. The purpose of this study, therefore, was first to investigate 30 physics students' mental models of heat convection, and then to examine the relationship between…
Park, Jin Hyeong; Lee, Kyeong-Hwa
The purpose of this study is to design a modeling task to facilitate students' inquiries into the chain rule in calculus and to analyze the results after implementation of the task. In this study, we take a modeling approach to the teaching and learning of the chain rule by facilitating the generalization of students' models and modeling…
Nouri, Jamileh Mokhtari; Ebadi, Abbas; Alhani, Fatemeh; Rejeh, Nahid
One of the key strategies in students? learning is being affected by models. Understanding the role-modeling process in education will help to make greater use of this training strategy. The aim of this grounded theory study was to explore Iranian nursing students and instructors? experiences about role modeling process. Data was analyzed by Glaserian?s Grounded Theory methodology through semi-structured interviews with 7 faculty members, 2 nursing students; the three focus group discussions ...
Twyla L. Salm
Full Text Available This paper describes a qualitative case study that explores how twenty-three field advisors, representing three human service professions including education, nursing, and social work, experience the process of assessment with students who are struggling to meet minimum competencies in field placements. Five themes emerged from the analysis of qualitative interviews. The field advisors primary concern was the level of professional competency achieved by practicum students. Related to competency were themes concerned with the field advisor's role in being accountable and protecting the reputation of his/her profession as well as the reputation of the professional program affiliated with the practicum student's professional education. The final theme – teacher-student relationship –emerged from the data, both as a stand-alone and global or umbrella theme. As an umbrella theme, teacher-student relationship permeated each of the other themes as the participants interpreted their experiences of the process of assessment through the mentor relationships. A theoretical model was derived from these findings and the description of the model is presented. Cet article décrit une étude de cas qualitative qui explore comment vingt-trois conseillers de stages, représentant trois professions de services sociaux comprenant l’éducation, les soins infirmiers et le travail social, ont vécu l’expérience du processus d’évaluation avec des étudiants qui ont des difficultés à acquérir les compétences minimales durant les stages. Cinq thèmes ont été identifiés lors de l’analyse des entrevues qualitatives. La préoccupation principale des conseillers de stages était le niveau de compétence professionnelle acquis par les stagiaires. Les thèmes liés à la compétence étaient le rôle des conseillers de stages dans leur responsabilité pour protéger la réputation de leur profession ainsi que la réputation d’un programme professionnel
later career choices.4,5,8 Students evaluate their clinical teachers not only on their practical clinical skills, but also on their soft skills. The aim of this paper is to present medical students' views of role models and their effect on students' personal and professional development, reporting on one of the findings of the Soft Skills ...
This study aimed to investigate the models that co-existed in students' cognitive structure to explain the interactions between electric charges and uniform magnetic fields. The sample consisted of 129 first-year civil engineering, geology and geophysics students from a large state university in western Turkey. The students answered five…
Coxbill, Emmy; Chamberlin, Scott A.; Weatherford, Jennifer
Traditional classroom methods for identifying mathematically creative students have been inadequate. Identifying students who could potentially be mathematically creative is instrumental in the development of students and in meeting their affective and educational needs. One prospective identification tool is the use of model-eliciting activities…
Fearon, Colm; Nachmias, Stefanos; McLaughlin, Heather; Jackson, Stephen
This study investigates the role of personal values as motivational antecedents for understanding higher education (HE) student career decidedness among university business school (UBS) students. We propose a new "protean"-informed HE student career decidedness model for theorizing how both personal values and social capital mediators…
Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet
In this study, the relationship between students' chemistry self-efficacy beliefs and metacognitive awareness was investigated utilizing a path model. There were 268 chemistry high school students (59% 10th grade and 41% 11th grade) participated in the study. The students took two-hour chemistry course in the 9th and 10th grade and three-hour…
Marshall, Jilll A.; Castillo, Adam J.; Cardenas, M. Bayani
We investigated the effect of modeling and visualization resources on upper-division, undergraduate and graduate students' performance on an open-ended assessment of their understanding of physical hydrology. The students were enrolled in one of five sections of a physical hydrology course. In two of the sections, students completed homework…
Das, Bhibha M.; Evans, Ellen M.
Objective: To examine weight management barriers, using the Health Belief Model, in first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students (n = 45), with data collected in April, May, and November 2013. Methods: Nominal group technique sessions (n = 8) were conducted. Results: First-year students recognize benefits to weight…
Despite the plethora of college student identity development research, very little attention has been paid to the identity formation of international students. Rather than adopting existing identity theories in college student development, this exploratory qualitative study proposes a new psychosocial identity development model for international…
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the Sport Education Model ("SEM") on amotivated students affect and needs satisfaction. 78 amotivated students from an original pool of 1,176 students enrolled in one of 32 physical education classes. Classes were randomly assigned to either the "SEM" (N = 16)or traditional class (N = 16).…
DeLamar, Shawna; Brown, Casey Graham
This study examines the issues surrounding middle school students' transitions to high school and the degree to which freshman orientation models can help them. The attendance, discipline, report card grades, and end-of-course exams of 60 students who participated in a freshman orientation were compared to those of 150 students who were invited to…
Blavos, Alexis A.; Glassman, Tavis; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Diehr, Aaron; Deakins, Bethany
This investigation used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to examine perceived barriers and benefits college students hold concerning medical amnesty. Researchers employed a cross-sectional research design with 369 students completing the survey (97% response rate). A path analysis revealed that college students are more likely to seek help during an…
Phase 1 of this study examined student, mentor and clinical manager's perceptions of a 'Hub and Spoke' practice learning model in year 1 of an undergraduate nursing programme. Findings from Phase 1 suggested that the model had significant educational merit in orientating students to clinical learning and emphasising the primacy of the mentor relationship in developing and supporting students. Following the students through year 2 of their programme, wherein they experienced a 'rotational' practice learning model, which provided an opportunity to explore student perceptions of both models. To explore undergraduate nurses' perceptions of two experienced practice learning models: hub and spoke model, and the classical rotational model. In a previous study the hub and spoke model appeared to develop 1st year students' sense of belongingness, continuity and quality of practice learning, there for it was important to understand what students reported about these issues when recounting their 2nd year experience in the clinical setting that was organised according to a classical rotational model. Qualitative approach utilising focus groups. 10 under-graduate student nurses at the end of 2nd year. Focus group interviews. Students responded in ways that indicate they believed the experiences of year 1 had raised their faith in their ability to cope with the practice learning and educational demands of nursing. They saw themselves as being better prepared for year 2 as a result of their exposure to hubs and spokes. The study has identified traits of resilience, continued belongingness and self-confidence in orientation to learning in clinical practice in hub and spoke experienced students. The student nurses found the hub and spoke model valid in 1st year, whilst stating that for 2nd year the rotational model can be valid. This supports earlier findings that student nurses require a structured and supportive 1st year learning environment to enable development of resilience
Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; Jensen, Rodrigo; da Cruz, Diná de Almeida Lopes Monteiro; Matos, Fabiana Gonçalves de Oliveira Azevedo; Silveira, Paulo Sérgio Panse; Ortega, Neli Regina Siqueira
To describe a model for assessing nursing diagnostic accuracy and its application to undergraduate students, comparing students' performance according to the course year. This model, based on the theory of fuzzy sets, guides a student through three steps: (a) the student must parameterize the model by establishing relationship values between defining characteristic/risk factors and nursing diagnoses; (b) presentation of a clinical case; (c) the student must define the presence of each defining characteristic/risk factors for the clinical case. Subsequently, the model computes the most plausible diagnoses by taking into account the values indicated by the student. This gives the student a performance score in comparison with parameters and diagnoses that were previously provided by nursing experts. These nursing experts collaborated with the construction of the model indicating the strength of the relationship between the concepts, meaning, they parameterized the model to compare the student's choice with the expert's choice (gold standard), thus generating performance scores for the student. The model was tested using three clinical cases presented to 38 students in their third and fourth years of the undergraduate nursing course. Third year students showed superior performance in identifying the presence of defining characteristic/risk factors, while fourth year students showed superior performance in the diagnoses by the model. The Model for Evaluation of Diagnostic Accuracy Based on Fuzzy Logic applied in this study is feasible and can be used to evaluate students' performance. In this regard, it will open a broad variety of applications for learning and nursing research. Despite the ease in filling the printed questionnaires out, the number of steps and fields to fill in may explain the considerable number of questionnaires with incorrect or missing data. This was solved in the digital version of the questionnaire. In addition, in more complex cases, it is
Petryk, Taryn; Thompson, Monita C.; Boynton, Trelawny
The growing diversity and changing demographics within the United States increases the importance of students developing skills to engage across identity difference. The purpose of this chapter is to describe how a pre-employment course for student staff members is used as a multicultural intervention training to provide students with the…
Perin, Marcelo Gattermann; Sampaio, Claudio Hoffmann; Simoes, Claudia; de Polvora, Rosiane Polvora
The purpose of this investigation is to understand the antecedents of student loyalty in the Brazilian context. In particular we address the impact of student trust, commitment and quality perception on loyalty. A quantitative study was conducted among business management student majors from two private Brazilian Higher Education Institutions…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyzing the effectiveness of POGIL model learning with ethnomathematics nuance by using student worksheets towards student’s mathematical communication ability in quadraliteral materialand. The population in this research was the students of seventh grade Junior High School 1 Welahan on year 2016/2017. By using simple random sampling, the selected samples were VII-A as control class with PBL model learning and VII-B as experiment class with POGIL model learning with nuance ethnomathematics by using student worksheet. The methods which have been used to collect data were documentation, test, and questionnaire. Data were analyzed using proportion test, independent samples t-test, and linear regression. The result of research showed that (1 Student’s mathematical communication ability which have studied with POGIL model learning with ethnomathematics nuance by using student worksheets reach the minimum score criteria, (2 The average of student’s mathematical communication ability by implementing POGIL model learning with ethnomathematics nuance by using student worksheets better than the average of student’s mathematical communication ability by implementing PBL model learning, (3 Respect to local culture attitude influenced toward mathematical communication ability with the number 55,5%.
Cleaver, David; Riddle, Stewart
"Harmony High" is an alternative school where music functions as an educational magnet to attract marginalised students who have disengaged from the mainstream. Through an investigation of the student perspective, we discover that while acting as a magnet, music also becomes the educational matrix or "heart and soul" that helps…
Nugroho, Didit Budi; Susanto, Bambang
The aim of this study is to empirically investigate the performance of APARCH(1,1) volatility model with the Student-t error distribution on five foreign currency selling rates to Indonesian rupiah (IDR), including the Swiss franc (CHF), the Euro (EUR), the British pound (GBP), Japanese yen (JPY), and the US dollar (USD). Six years daily closing rates over the period of January 2010 to December 2016 for a total number of 1722 observations have analysed. The Bayesian inference using the efficient independence chain Metropolis-Hastings and adaptive random walk Metropolis methods in the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme has been applied to estimate the parameters of model. According to the DIC criterion, this study has found that the APARCH(1,1) model under Student-t distribution is a better fit than the model under normal distribution for any observed rate return series. The 95% highest posterior density interval suggested the APARCH models to model the IDR/JPY and IDR/USD volatilities. In particular, the IDR/JPY and IDR/USD data, respectively, have significant negative and positive leverage effect in the rate returns. Meanwhile, the optimal power coefficient of volatility has been found to be statistically different from 2 in adopting all rate return series, save the IDR/EUR rate return series.
Fincher, Mark E.
A common misperception suggests that a high-achieving student can easily complete a degree with very limited debt, and that students with high levels of debt are thus underachievers. This assumption is supported by memories of previous decades when it was realistically possible for most students to work their way through college. This view,…
Markauskaite, Lina; Kelly, Nick; Jacobson, Michael J.
This paper gives a grounded cognition account of model-based learning of complex scientific knowledge related to socio-scientific issues, such as climate change. It draws on the results from a study of high school students learning about the carbon cycle through computational agent-based models and investigates two questions: First, how do students ground their understanding about the phenomenon when they learn and solve problems with computer models? Second, what are common sources of mistakes in students' reasoning with computer models? Results show that students ground their understanding in computer models in five ways: direct observation, straight abstraction, generalisation, conceptualisation, and extension. Students also incorporate into their reasoning their knowledge and experiences that extend beyond phenomena represented in the models, such as attitudes about unsustainable carbon emission rates, human agency, external events, and the nature of computational models. The most common difficulties of the students relate to seeing the modelled scientific phenomenon and connecting results from the observations with other experiences and understandings about the phenomenon in the outside world. An important contribution of this study is the constructed coding scheme for establishing different ways of grounding, which helps to understand some challenges that students encounter when they learn about complex phenomena with agent-based computer models.
Bamberger, Yael M.; Davis, Elizabeth A.
This paper focuses on students' ability to transfer modelling performances across content areas, taking into consideration their improvement of content knowledge as a result of a model-based instruction. Sixty-five sixth grade students of one science teacher in an urban public school in the Midwestern USA engaged in scientific modelling practices that were incorporated into a curriculum focused on the nature of matter. Concept-process models were embedded in the curriculum, as well as emphasis on meta-modelling knowledge and modelling practices. Pre-post test items that required drawing scientific models of smell, evaporation, and friction were analysed. The level of content understanding was coded and scored, as were the following elements of modelling performance: explanation, comparativeness, abstraction, and labelling. Paired t-tests were conducted to analyse differences in students' pre-post tests scores on content knowledge and on each element of the modelling performances. These are described in terms of the amount of transfer. Students significantly improved in their content knowledge for the smell and the evaporation models, but not for the friction model, which was expected as that topic was not taught during the instruction. However, students significantly improved in some of their modelling performances for all the three models. This improvement serves as evidence that the model-based instruction can help students acquire modelling practices that they can apply in a new content area.
Full Text Available This paper describes an intelligent multimedia tutoring system for the passive voice of the English grammar. The system may be used to present theoretical issues about the passive voice and to provide exercises that the student may solve. The main focus of the tutor is on the student's error diagnosis process, which is performed by the student modelling component. When the student types the solution to an exercise, the system examines the correctness of the answer. If the student's answer has been erroneous it attempts to diagnose the underlying misconception of the mistake. In order to provide individualised help, the system holds a profile for every student, the long term student model. The students progress and his/her usual mistakes are recorded to this long term student model. This kind of information is used for the individualised error diagnosis of the student in subsequent sessions. In addition, the information stored about the student can also be used for the resolution of an arising ambiguity, as to what the underlying cause of a student error has been.
Lewinski, Allison A; Mann, Tara; Flores, Dalmacio; Vance, Ashlee; Bettger, Janet Prvu; Hirschey, Rachel
Formal mentoring relationships socialize Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) students to their current and future roles as nursing scholars. Despite formal mentoring, some students may desire or benefit from additional mentoring in an informal setting. Informal mentoring complements the one-to-one relationship students develop with a primary faculty mentor or dissertation chair. This manuscript describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a student-driven, peer mentorship model, titled Partnership for Development. This small group, peer mentorship model was implemented in a PhD program at a School of Nursing during an academic year. Five student peer facilitators organized a total of 32 PhD students, 2 post-doctoral associates, and invited 5 faculty to participate. Data includes pre- and post-implementation surveys completed by the students and peer facilitator field notes. Student reported post-participation benefits included: getting to know faculty in an informal setting (n=6), socializing with students from other cohorts (n=6), and obtaining a sense of camaraderie with other PhD students (n=5). We recommend peer mentorship for other PhD programs as a way to socialize PhD students into the role of nurse scientist and assist students during their tenure as a PhD student. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anantasook, Sakanan; Yuenyong, Chokchai
The paper examined Thai student existing understanding about the solar system model and the motion of the stars. The participants included 141 Grade 9 students in four different schools of the Surin province, Thailand. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. The tool of interpretation included the Student Celestial Motion Conception Questionnaire (SCMCQ) and informal interview. Given understandings in the SCMCQ were read through and categorized according to students' understandings. Then, students were further probed as informal interview. Students' understandings in each category were counted and percentages computed. Finally, students' understandings across four different schools were compared and contrasted using the percentage of student responses in each category. The findings revealed that most students understand about Sun-Moon-Earth (SME) system and solar system model as well, they can use scientific explanations to explain the celestial objects in solar system and how they orbiting. Unfortunately, most of students (more than 70%) never know about the Polaris, the North Star, and 90.1% of them never know about the ecliptic, and probably also the 12 zodiac constellations. These existing understanding suggested some ideas of teaching and learning about solar system model and the motion of the stars. The paper, then, discussed some learning activities to enhance students to further construct meaning about solar system model and the motion of the stars.
Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Boiché, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine
Relatively little is known about the contribution of students' beliefs regarding the nature of academic ability (i.e. their implicit theories) on strategies used to deal with examinations. This study applied Dweck's socio-cognitive model of achievement motivation to better understand how students cope with examinations. It was expected that students' implicit theories of academic ability would be related to their use of particular coping strategies to deal with exam-related stress. Additionally, it was predicted that perceived control over exams acts as a mediator between implicit theories of ability and coping. Four hundred and ten undergraduate students (263 males, 147 females), aged from 17 to 26 years old (M=19.73, SD=1.46) were volunteers for the present study. Students completed measures of coping, implicit theories of academic ability, and perception of control over academic examinations during regular classes in the first term of the university year. Multiple regression analyses revealed that incremental beliefs of ability significantly and positively predicted active coping, planning, venting of emotions, seeking social support for emotional and instrumental reasons, whereas entity beliefs positively predicted behavioural disengagement and negatively predicted active coping and acceptance. In addition, analyses revealed that entity beliefs of ability were related to coping strategies through students' perception of control over academic examinations. These results confirm that exam-related coping varies as a function of students' beliefs about the nature of academic ability and their perceptions of control when approaching examinations.
Shefali Pandya *
The study seeks to ascertain whether co-operative learning model is equally effective for students with mastery and performance goals. The study uses quasi-experimental and factorial design for conducting the experiment. The experiment was conducted on 153 students of standard IX studying in schools affiliated to the SSC Board and with English as the medium of instruction. It has used two tools, namely, achievement test in mathematics and learning goals inventory both developed by the researc...
Fisher, Dahlia; Yaniawati, Poppy; Kusumah, Yaya Sukjaya
This study aims to analyze the character of students who obtain CORE learning model using metacognitive approach. The method in this study is qualitative research and quantitative research design (Mixed Method Design) with concurrent embedded strategy. The research was conducted on two groups: an experimental group and the control group. An experimental group consists of students who had CORE model learning using metacognitive approach while the control group consists of students taught by conventional learning. The study was conducted the object this research is the seventh grader students in one the public junior high schools in Bandung. Based on this research, it is known that the characters of the students in the CORE model learning through metacognitive approach is: honest, hard work, curious, conscientious, creative and communicative. Overall it can be concluded that CORE model learning is good for developing characters of a junior high school student.
Background Attention disengagement is reportedly influenced by perceiving a fearful facial expression even in the first year of life. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in disengaging from fearful expressions predict temperamental negative affectivity. Method Twenty-six infants were studied longitudinally at 12, 18, 24, and 36 months, using an overlap paradigm and two temperament questionnaires: the Japanese versions of the revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire and Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. Results The infants fixated significantly more frequently to fearful than to happy or neutral faces. The attentional bias to threat (i.e., the number of fixed responses on fearful faces divided by the total number of fixed responses on faces) at 12 months was significantly positively correlated with negative affect at 12 months, and its relations with negative affect measured later in development was in the expected positive direction at each age. In addition, a moderation analysis indicates that the orienting network and not the executive network marginally moderated the relation between early attentional bias and later fear. Conclusions The results suggest that at 12 months, infants with more negative affectivity exhibit greater difficulty in disengaging their attention from fearful faces. We also found evidence that the association between parent-reported fear and disengagement might be modulated in the second year, perhaps because of the differences in temperamental control networks. PMID:22897933
Nakagawa, Atsuko; Sukigara, Masune
Attention disengagement is reportedly influenced by perceiving a fearful facial expression even in the first year of life. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in disengaging from fearful expressions predict temperamental negative affectivity. Twenty-six infants were studied longitudinally at 12, 18, 24, and 36 months, using an overlap paradigm and two temperament questionnaires: the Japanese versions of the revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire and Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The infants fixated significantly more frequently to fearful than to happy or neutral faces. The attentional bias to threat (i.e., the number of fixed responses on fearful faces divided by the total number of fixed responses on faces) at 12 months was significantly positively correlated with negative affect at 12 months, and its relations with negative affect measured later in development was in the expected positive direction at each age. In addition, a moderation analysis indicates that the orienting network and not the executive network marginally moderated the relation between early attentional bias and later fear. The results suggest that at 12 months, infants with more negative affectivity exhibit greater difficulty in disengaging their attention from fearful faces. We also found evidence that the association between parent-reported fear and disengagement might be modulated in the second year, perhaps because of the differences in temperamental control networks.
Rohatinsky, Noelle; Chachula, Kathryn; Sedgwick, Monique; Press, Madeline M; Compton, Roslyn M; Lane, Brenda
Clinical experiences are the hallmark of prelicensure nursing programs and assist students with applying nursing theory into practice. The literature is limited with respect to nursing student and instructor preferences for type of clinical model to facilitate student learning. This article explores these perceptions in the nursing programs of 5 universities located in 4 Western Canadian provinces. Findings support the use of both nonblock and block clinical models throughout nursing education programs.
S. Mohammad M. Hazavehei; Asiyeh Pirzadeh; Mohammad H. Entezari; Akbar Hasanzadeh
Background: Concerning the importance of improving nutrition in teen girls, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of educational program on the nutritional behavior among second-grade middle school female students based on BASNEF model. Materials and Method: This experimental study were done on 72 students who was selected randomly in two equal groups of 36 students (experimental and control groups). The instruments for data collection were the BASNEF model and 24-recall ques...
Aminian, Adel; Dolatabadi, Dariouch; Lefebvre, Pascal; Khalil, Georges; Zimmerman, Robert; Michalakis, Georges; Lalmand, Jacques
To determine the impact of ostial guiding catheter disengagement during measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR) in patients with an isolated proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis. Measurements of FFR were performed in 21 patients with an isolated intermediate lesion of the proximal LAD. Proximal aortic pressure (Pa), distal post stenotic pressure (Pd), and Pd/Pa were recorded at baseline, after at least 90 sec of intravenous (IV) adenosine infusion with the guiding catheter still engaged in the coronary ostium (Pa1 , Pd1 , FFReng ), and after at least 30 sec of guiding catheter disengagement back to the aorta (Pa2 , Pd2 , FFRdis ). The average value of Pd/Pa at baseline was 0.92 ± 0.04. After 110 ± 8 sec of IV adenosine infusion, FFReng was 0.81 ± 0.07, which decreased to 0.77 ± 0.08 (FFRdis ) after 38 ± 6 sec of guiding catheter disengagement. The mean ΔFFR (FFReng - FFRdis ) was 0.05 ± 0.04. As compared to baseline values, the mean change in FFR values was significantly increased after disengagement of the guiding catheter (Pd/Pabaseline - FFRdis vs. Pd/Pabaseline - FFReng , 0.15 ± 0.05 vs. 0.10 ± 0.04, P guiding catheter disengagement, eight patients (38%) had an FFR value ≤ 0.8. Following disengagement of the guiding catheter, the new FFR values decreased below 0.8 in six additional patients (28%), with subsequent change in treatment strategy. During FFR assessment of isolated intermediate proximal LAD lesions, guiding catheter disengagement is associated with a decrease in mean FFR values. In patients with FFR values lying close to the treatment threshold, this can have an impact on treatment strategy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kemp, Steven; Madden, Gary; Simpson, Michael
Isolates factors influencing choice of Australia as a preferred destination for international students in emerging regional markets. Uses data obtained from a survey of students in Indonesia and Taiwan to estimate a U.S./Australia and rest-of-world/Australia discrete destination-choice model. This model identifies key factors determining country…
Chavoshi, Saeid; Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Dentakos, Stella; Wright, Lorna
The current study proposes a Developmental Sequence Model to University Adjustment and uses a multifaceted measure, including academic, social and psychological adjustment, to examine factors predictive of undergraduate international student adjustment. A hierarchic regression model is carried out on the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire…
This was a phenomenologically-oriented inquiry of the lived experiences of counselor education doctoral students in a cohort model. This inquiry sought to explore, describe, and understand students' "everyday" lived experiences in a cohort model in the Executive Doctoral Program in Counselor Education and Supervision (ExCES) at Duquesne…
Chen, Yu; Starobin, Soko S.
This study examined a psychosocial mechanism of how general self-efficacy interacts with other key factors and influences degree aspiration for students enrolled in an urban diverse community college. Using general self-efficacy scales, the authors hypothesized the General Self-efficacy model for Community College students (the GSE-CC model). A…
Zhumasheva, Anara; Zhumabaeva, Zaida; Sakenov, Janat; Vedilina, Yelena; Zhaxylykova, Nuriya; Sekenova, Balkumis
The current study focuses on the research topic of creating a theoretical model of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses. In order to examine specific features of the theoretical model of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses, we performed an analysis of…
Klomegah, Roger Yao
This study utilized the goal-efficacy model to examine a) the extent to which index scores of student self-efficacy, self-set goals, assigned goals, and ability (four variables in the model) could predict academic performance of university students; and b) the best predictor of academic performance. The sample comprised 103 undergraduate students…
This study aims to 1) enable primary school students to develop models that will help them understand and analyze a system, through a learning process based on system dynamics approach, 2) examine and evaluate students' models related to socio-scientific issues using certain criteria. The research method used is a case study. The study sample…
Türk, Cumhur; Kalkan, Hüseyin; Kiroglu, Kasim; Ocak Iskeleli, Nazan
The purpose of this study is to determine the mental models of elementary school students on seasons and to analyze how these models change in terms of grade levels. The study was conducted with 294 students (5th, 6th, 7th and 8th graders) studying in an elementary school of Turkey's Black Sea Region. Qualitative and quantitative data collection…
This study aims to develop and test the validity of a model limited to attitude towards the future and subjective well-being for reducing and preventing the school burnout that high school students can experience. The study is designed as a relational screening model conducted over 389 high school students. The data in this study are analyzed…
Couper, Lisa; Johannes, Kristen; Powers, Jackie; Silberglitt, Matt; Davenport, Jodi
Understanding key concepts in molecular biology requires reasoning about molecular processes that are not directly observable and, as such, presents a challenge to students and teachers. We ask whether novel interactive physical models and activities can help students understand key processes in viral replication. Our 3D tangible models are…
Harris, Sara E.; Gold, Anne U.
We assessed undergraduates' representations of the greenhouse effect, based on student-generated concept sketches, before and after a 30-min constructivist lesson. Principal component analysis of features in student sketches revealed seven distinct and coherent explanatory models including a new "Molecular Details" model. After the…
Voskoglou, Michael Gr.
We represent the main stages of the process of mathematical modelling as fuzzy sets in the set of the linguistic labels of negligible, low intermediate, high and complete success by students in each of these stages and we use the total possibilistic uncertainty as a measure of students' modelling capacities. A classroom experiment is also…
Hamilton, Nancy J.; Gitchel, Dent
Purpose: To apply Slavin's model of effective instruction to teaching research methods to master's-level students. Methods: Barriers to the scientist-practitioner model (student research experience, confidence, and utility value pertaining to research methods as well as faculty research and pedagogical incompetencies) are discussed. Results: The…
Ghilay, Yaron; Ghilay, Ruth
In this study we introduce a new model for primary education called ISMS: Improving Student Motivation and Self-esteem. Following a two-year study undertaken in a primary school (n = 67), the new model was found to be successful. Students who participated in the research, reported that a course based on ISMS principles was very helpful for…
Full Text Available Since the 1980s, educational policies in many countries have aimed at improving the computer literacy and programming competencies of the population. Over the same period, the possibilities that people have seen regarding programming and everyday programming practices have emerged as an area of strong interest within historical scholarship. The paper contributes to these discussions by drawing on techniques of oral history to focus on programming hobbies and practices in Finland. Examining data from a massive survey of computer hobbyists (N = 1,453 and their recollections about personal computer use (largely during the 1980s, the paper gathers new information on what leads to people’s pursuit of or interest in programming and how their programming habits have changed over time. The study links together the gender and age dynamics in programming and shows how the respondents not only engaged with but also could become disengaged from programming for various reasons.
Firdaus, F.; Priatna, N.; Suhendra, S.
One of the affective factors that affect student learning outcomes is student self-esteem in mathematics, learning achievement and self-esteem influence each other. The purpose of this research is to know whether self-esteem students who get 7E learning cycle model is better than students who get conventional learning. This research method is a non-control group design. Based on the results obtained that the normal and homogeneous data so that the t test and from the test results showed there are significant differences in self-esteem students learning with 7E learning cycle model compared with students who get conventional learning. The implications of the results of this study are that students should be required to conduct many discussions, presentations and evaluations on classroom activities as these learning stages can improve students’ self-esteem especially pride in the results achieved.
Lan, Tian-Syung; Chen, Kai-Ling; Chen, Pin-Chang; Ku, Chao-Tai; Chiu, Pei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Hsiang
This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student's personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students' peer interaction. The results of this study showed that students with more adequate health concepts usually have better eating behaviors and consequently have less chance of becoming obese. In addition, this study also verified that educational attainment and socioeconomic status of parents have a positive correlation with students' amounts of physical activity, and nutrition education has a prominent influence on changing students' high-calorie diets.
Full Text Available The analysis of mental models is a part of the identification of students' thoughts on the concept. Mental models analysis is conducted by conditioning the complex problems such as the isomorphic issues. The research objective is to analyze the development of students' mental models on the topic rotational motion dynamics. The study was designed with the mixed method. The design phase of the research was conducted in both quantitative and qualitative approach. The quantitative phase was performed by providing pre-test, learning, and post-test containing isomorphic problems; while qualitative phase was implemented by interview and quiz. The data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results of the study categorizes mental models into three types, i.e. Low Mental Model (LMM, Moderate Mental Model (MMM, and High Mental Model (HMM. Based on the pre-test results, it was proved that all students used Low mental model in resolving the isomorphic problems. Using the Low Mental Model, it was found that students have misconceptions on the moment of force and moment of inertia. Mental models developed gradually from Low mental model to Moderate Mental Model and then reached the High Mental Model Mental. It was observed from the results of pre-test, quizzes, and post-test. The quiz and post-test results showed the students who used Mental Model and High Mental Model.
Paristiowati, Maria; Fitriani, Ella; Aldi, Nurul Hanifah
The aim of this research is to find out the effect of Inquiry-Flipped Classroom Models toward Students' Achievement on Chemical Reaction Rate topic. This study was conducted at SMA Negeri 3 Tangerang in Eleventh Graders. The Quasi Experimental Method with Non-equivalent Control Group design was implemented in this study. 72 students as the sample was selected by purposive sampling. Students in experimental group were learned through inquiry-flipped classroom model. Meanwhile, in control group, students were learned through guided inquiry learning model. Based on the data analysis, it can be seen that there is significant difference in the result of the average achievement of the students. The average achievement of the students in inquiry-flipped classroom model was 83,44 and the average achievement of the students in guided inquiry learning model was 74,06. It can be concluded that the students' achievement with inquiry-flipped classroom better than guided inquiry. The difference of students' achievement were significant through t-test which is tobs 3.056 > ttable 1.994 (α = 0.005).
Palmunen, Lauri-Matti; Pelto, Elina; Paalumäki, Anni; Lainema, Timo
Studies on students' perceptions of learning in business simulations often suggest that students like simulations and view them more positively than both lectures and case discussions. However, research on the actual learning outcomes deriving from participating in business simulations still needs to be pursued. Consequently, the purpose of this…
Sunardi; Waluyo, Herman J.; Suudi, Astini; Wardani, Nugraheni Eko
Teaching and learning speaking skills should be able to engage students in a creative process. Students have to be able to speak in front of the class, create a dialogue, tell a story, and produce the language creatively. The teaching and learning of the speaking skill focusing on story telling ability can work well when supported by the…
Conclusion. Despite failing to build a rapport with their appraisers, students indicated that the chance to discuss academic and personal problems, and their appraisers' advice on study and career matters, had been beneficial. To improve the rapport between students and appraisers a number of suggestions that require ...
The article, "Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes" (Smith and Villarreal, 2015), reports that a substantial proportion of undergraduate students expressed misconceived ideas regarding the motion of particles in…
Adams, David Francis
Prior research has suggested that dental students experience high rates of stress, anxiety, and mood concerns, which have been linked to poor academic performance, health concerns, and substance abuse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an embedded counseling office at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry & Dental Clinics in its first three academic semesters. Data were gathered from students attending appointments, and two inventories were used to monitor students' counseling progress and gather psychological outcomes data: the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-34 (CCAPS-34) and the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS). In the three semesters, 55 students attended 251 counseling appointments, with an average of 4.5 appointments per student. Their presenting psychological concerns included academic concerns, time management, test anxiety, study skills, low self-esteem, self-care, interpersonal conflicts, anxiety, depression, stress management, sexual concerns, substance abuse, eating/body image concerns, work-life balance, and financial issues. The CCAPS-34 data showed that, at initial clinical assessment, students experienced moderate levels of depression, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, academic distress, and overall psychological distress; 45 (82%) showed clinically significant symptoms on at least one CCAPS-34 subscale. The ORS data further showed that the students entered counseling experiencing high levels of psychological distress. A positive relationship was found between number of counseling appointments and increased overall functioning. These results suggest that an embedded counseling office can help dental schools meet the needs of their students.
Kimball, Ezekiel; Vaccaro, Annemarie; Vargas, Nadia
In an action-based grounded theory project, the authors collected data from 31 student affairs professionals. During seven focus groups, practitioners described feeling unknowledgeable about disability law, accommodations, and diagnoses. However, they drew upon their core values and transferrable skills to support individual students. Participants…
The aim of this study is to examine the factors that influenced the use of Facebook among university students. Using an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) with emotional attachment (EA) as an external variable, a sample of 498 students from a public-funded Thailand university were surveyed on their responses to five variables hypothesized…
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The learning model is one of the enabling factors that influence the achievement of students. That students have a good learning outcomes the lecturer must choose appropriate learning models. But in fact not all lecturers choose the most appropriate learning model with the demands of learning outcomes and student characteristics.The study design was descriptive quantitative correlation. Total population of 785 the number of samples are 202 were taken by purposive sampling. Techniques of data collection is done by cross-sectional and then processed through the Spearman test. The results showed no significant relationship between classroom lecture method in the context of blended learning models to study the effectiveness perspective the p value of 0.001. There is a significant relationship between e-learning methods in the context of blended learning models with perspective of activities study of nursing students the p value of 0.028. There is a significant relationship between learning model of blended learning with the perspective of nursing students learning effectiveness p value 0.167. Researchers recommend to future researchers conduct more research on the comparison between the effectiveness of the learning model based on student learning centers with the e-learning models and its impact on student achievement of learning competencies as well as to the implications for other dimensions of learning outcomes and others.
Full Text Available This paper deals with role models of secondary school students in Serbia. In the course of adolescence, there is a gradual separation from parental figures, and other persons become role models for behavior. For that reason, secondary school population is of interest when analyzing this phenomenon, particularly bearing in mind that role models influence not only social, but also other aspects of development. We analyzed role models from students' personal (actual models and public life (symbolic models. The main aim was to determine who their actual and symbolic models are, and why secondary school students look up to them. Based on the data on secondary school students' actual models, it is possible to identify who important persons from their milieu are and why they are important to them. The data about the categories in which symbolic models can be divided, as well as about their occurrence, indicate the young people's system of values in these analyses. The sample comprises 2426 students from 26 schools in 9 Serbian towns. Actual and symbolic models were examined in separate questions, where students were asked to name up to three people from their private life or the world of celebrities that they look up to. 53,9% of students named their actual models, the most common being their mothers. Nearly half the examinees (49,3% stated their symbolic models are public figures. Most symbolic models are from the world of show-business. The results show that parental figures remain the models of behavior throughout adolescence. The data about the categories of symbolic models show the young are drawn to the world of entertainment and indicate a weak role of schools as a potential source of models in the fields of science and culture who would promote cognitive values.
Lahti, Richard Dennis, II
Knowledge of scientific models and their uses is a concept that has become a key benchmark in many of the science standards of the past 30 years, including the proposed Next Generation Science Standards. Knowledge of models is linked to other important nature of science concepts such as theory change which are also rising in prominence in newer standards. Effective methods of instruction will need to be developed to enable students to achieve these standards. The literature reveals an inconsistent history of success with modeling education. These same studies point to a possible cognitive development component which might explain why some students succeeded and others failed. An environmental science course, rich in modeling experiences, was used to test both the extent to which knowledge of models and modeling could be improved over the course of one semester, and more importantly, to identify if cognitive ability was related to this improvement. In addition, nature of science knowledge, particularly related to theories and theory change, was also examined. Pretest and posttest results on modeling (SUMS) and nature of science (SUSSI), as well as data from the modeling activities themselves, was collected. Cognitive ability was measured (CTSR) as a covariate. Students' gain in six of seven categories of modeling knowledge was at least medium (Cohen's d >.5) and moderately correlated to CTSR for two of seven categories. Nature of science gains were smaller, although more strongly correlated with CTSR. Student success at creating a model was related to CTSR, significantly in three of five sub-categories. These results suggest that explicit, reflective experience with models can increase student knowledge of models and modeling (although higher cognitive ability students may have more success), but successfully creating models may depend more heavily on cognitive ability. This finding in particular has implications in the grade placement of modeling standards and
Long, Trisha Wies
Adolescents are often disengaged in the learning process, being more focused on social media and self-interest than classroom content. Full circling is a process that can be used to help students collaboratively engage in learning and actively reflect on historical events--especially those that are under reported in history books. In the present…
Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin
There seems to be limited work addressing how depression is linked to elements of student functioning in the school setting other than academic achievement. This study investigated possible correlates of depressive symptoms with school engagement and disengagement. We examined four specific school variables (school motivation, intentions to quit,…
Pang, Bonnie; Macdonald, Doune
Background: School Health and Physical Education (HPE) and sport has increasingly become a complex cultural contact zone. With global population shifts, schools need policies and strategies to attend to the interests and needs of diverse student populations. School HPE and sport is a particularly significant site as it is a touchpoint for a range…
Rencher, Charles L.
This Capstone project intended to create a greater awareness and develop an understanding of the impact of attendance on academic performance. Schools are faced with the tasks of ensuring students attend school and keeping them engaged while they are at school. This project encourages the reader to look past school attendance as a mere student…
Menesini, Ersilia; Palladino, Benedetta Emanuela; Nocentini, Annalaura
Using an individual-by-environment framework, this study evaluated the role of individual- and group-level moral indices and their interaction in predicting student reports of bullying. The sample included 1,009 Italian adolescents (36% girls) from 56 classrooms (mean age = 15.02 years, SD = 0.71). Individual-level predictors included gender and…
Atomic orbital theory is a difficult subject for many high school and beginning undergraduate students, as it includes mathematical concepts not yet covered in the school curriculum. Moreover, it requires certain ability for abstraction and imagination. A new atomic orbital model "the chocolate shop" created "by" students…
Construction Grammar (CxG) is a well-established linguistic theory that takes the notion of a construction as the basic unit of language. Yet, because the potential of this theory for language teaching or SLA has largely remained ignored, this paper demonstrates the benefits of adopting the CxG approach for modelling a student's linguistic…
MacLellan, Christopher J.; Liu, Ran; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
Additive Factors Model (AFM) and Performance Factors Analysis (PFA) are two popular models of student learning that employ logistic regression to estimate parameters and predict performance. This is in contrast to Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT) which uses a Hidden Markov Model formalism. While all three models tend to make similar predictions,…
Astunnisyah, Budiyono, Slamet, Isnandar
The aim of this research is to find out the effect of learning model, cognitive style and the interaction between learning model and cognitive style toward mathematics achievement. This research was quasi experimental research with factorial design 2 x 2. The population of research was all students of the eight grader of junior high school in Karanganyar Regency in academic year 2016/2017. The sample of research consist of 279 students. The data in the research was two ways analysis of variance with unequal cells, with the 5% level of significance. The results of the research were as follow:. (1) TTW Learning model gave better mathematics achievement than direct instruction model:. (2) Students who have field independent cognitive style have better mathematics achievement than student who have the field dependent cognitive style:. (3) In each type of learning model, students who have field independent cognitive style have better mathematics achievement than students who have the field dependent cognitive style:, (4) In each category of cognitive style, students whom taught using learning model TTW gave better mathematics achievement than direct instruction model.
Cheney, Marshall; Gowin, Mary; Clawson, Ashley H
Objective The Ecological Model was used to examine the social and environmental influences of the college environment on e-cigarette use (vaping) among college students. Participants Undergraduate college student e-cigarette users (vapers) across three large college campuses in the southwest US from Jan 2015- Aug 2016. Methods Thirty-three interviews were conducted. Transcribed interviews were coded then analyzed for themes. Results College student vapers report multiple levels of influence on their vaping beyond personal beliefs and peer influences, including parents, explicit campus and community messaging, community member requests, and respect for others. College student vapers also describe constant associations with smokers in allowable public places to vape. Conclusions Parents, community members, campus policy, and the physical environment all influence where and when college students vape. Health communication messages to prevent college student vaping should incorporate alternative messages that are important to college students, such as respect for others and social image.
Redfors, Andreas; Ryder, Jim
Examines third year university physics students' use of models when explaining familiar phenomena involving interaction between metals and electromagnetic radiation. Concludes that few students use a single model consistently. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)
Cheng, Maurice M. W.
This paper reports on an interview study of 18 Grade 10-12 students' model-based reasoning of a chemical reaction: the reaction of magnesium and oxygen at the submicro level. It has been proposed that chemical reactions can be conceptualised using two models: (i) the "particle model," in which a reaction is regarded as the simple…
TAKCI, Hidayet; GURKAHRAMAN, Kali; Ünsal, Emre; YELKUVAN, Ahmet Fırat
Abstract: In the case, that student is able to determine themost suitable profession for him/her success in education and career that arerelated to this profession will be higher. Studies done up to this day havebeen focused on finding out the factors affecting the career choice of thestudent, but they have not suggested any method for determining the most suitableprocession. It is not possible to obtain satisfying results from a system thatdoes not lead students to appropriate higher educati...
Full Text Available It is analyze the main elements of the structural-functional model of the formation of values of a healthy lifestyle of students. It is revealed some elements of educational technology, teaching requirements for the organization of educational work on the formation of values of a healthy lifestyle of students. It is noted that the improvement of the formation of values of a healthy lifestyle of students increased, subject to the enrichment of its assessment criteria.
Full Text Available Abstract The implementation of Student t mixed models in animal breeding has been suggested as a useful statistical tool to effectively mute the impact of preferential treatment or other sources of outliers in field data. Nevertheless, these additional sources of variation are undeclared and we do not know whether a Student t mixed model is required or if a standard, and less parameterized, Gaussian mixed model would be sufficient to serve the intended purpose. Within this context, our aim was to develop the Bayes factor between two nested models that only differed in a bounded variable in order to easily compare a Student t and a Gaussian mixed model. It is important to highlight that the Student t density converges to a Gaussian process when degrees of freedom tend to infinity. The twomodels can then be viewed as nested models that differ in terms of degrees of freedom. The Bayes factor can be easily calculated from the output of a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling of the complex model (Student t mixed model. The performance of this Bayes factor was tested under simulation and on a real dataset, using the deviation information criterion (DIC as the standard reference criterion. The two statistical tools showed similar trends along the parameter space, although the Bayes factor appeared to be the more conservative. There was considerable evidence favoring the Student t mixed model for data sets simulated under Student t processes with limited degrees of freedom, and moderate advantages associated with using the Gaussian mixed model when working with datasets simulated with 50 or more degrees of freedom. For the analysis of real data (weight of Pietrain pigs at six months, both the Bayes factor and DIC slightly favored the Student t mixed model, with there being a reduced incidence of outlier individuals in this population.
Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars
concerning STEM students and attending university. The regular self-to-prototype matching process was shown in real-life role-models meetings to be extended to a more complex three-way matching process between students’ self-perceptions, prototype images and situation-specific conceptions of role models......Previous research has found that young people’s prototypes of science students and scientists affect their inclination to choose tertiary STEM programs. Consequently, many recruitment initiatives include role models to challenge these prototypes. The present study followed 15 STEM-oriented upper......-secondary school students from university-distant backgrounds during and after their participation in an 18-months long university-based recruitment and outreach project involving tertiary STEM students as role models. The analysis focusses on how the students’ meetings with the role models affected their thoughts...
Sien, Ven Yu
Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is not an easy subject to learn. There are many challenges confronting students when studying OOAD. Students have particular difficulty abstracting real-world problems within the context of OOAD. They are unable to effectively build object-oriented (OO) models from the problem domain because they essentially do not know "what" to model. This article investigates the difficulties and misconceptions undergraduate students have with analysing systems using unified modelling language analysis class and sequence diagrams. These models were chosen because they represent important static and dynamic aspects of the software system under development. The results of this study will help students produce effective OO models, and facilitate software engineering lecturers design learning materials and approaches for introductory OOAD courses.
Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Ximenes, Lorena Barbosa
The objective of this study was to describe the everyday physical activity habits of students and analyze the practice of physical activity and its determinants, based on the first component of Pender's health promotion model. This cross-sectional study was performed from 2004 to 2005 with 79 students in a public school in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Data collection was performed by interviews and physical examinations. The data were analyzed according to the referred theoretical model. Most students (n=60) were physically active. Proportionally, adolescents were the most active (80.4%). Those with a sedentary lifestyle had higher rates for overweight and obesity (21.1%). Many students practiced outdoor physical activities, which did not require any physical structure and good financial conditions. The results show that it is possible to associate the first component of Pender's health promotion model with the everyday lives of students in terms of the physical activity practice.
Tesoro, Mary Gay
This quasi-experimental study tested the effectiveness of an educational model, Developing Nurses' Thinking (DNT), on nursing students' clinical reasoning to achieve patient safety. Teaching nursing students to develop effective thinking habits that promote positive patient outcomes and patient safety is a challenging endeavor. Positive patient outcomes and safety are achieved when nurses accurately interpret data and subsequently implement appropriate plans of care. This study's pretest-posttest design determined whether use of the DNT model during 2 weeks of clinical postconferences improved nursing students' (N = 83) diagnostic accuracy. The DNT model helps students to integrate four constructs-patient safety, domain knowledge, critical thinking processes, and repeated practice-to guide their thinking when interpreting patient data and developing effective plans of care. The posttest scores of students from the intervention group showed statistically significant improvement in accuracy. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Sahara, Rifki; Mardiyana, S., Dewi Retno Sari
deCharon, A.; Repa, J. T.; Companion, C. J.; Taylor, L.
First piloted in Fall 2014, "Broaden the Impacts of Your Research" is a fully asynchronous (i.e., no live or scheduled sessions) online graduate course. This two-credit offering was designed in response to evaluation data from 73 graduate students who participated in four National Science Foundation-funded workshops (deCharon et al., 2013). As a community of practice, students from various scientific disciplines learn about communication and collaboration skills, practice these skills by developing a portfolio of products, and provide feedback on their classmates' products. The course is organized into four sections during the 14-week semester, each with its own set of objectives including: assessing and reducing jargon; engaging in interdisciplinary collaboration; understanding non-scientist audiences' needs; and deconstructing science and connecting to society. The course's quality was assessed through a review of its design by an external evaluator who also gauged its overall efficacy by comparing students' weekly blog posts with the course's goals and objectives. Effectiveness was also evaluated based on students' data from post-semester surveys. Based on these analyses, it has been determined that the course is most appropriate for students who have conducted their initial research and are preparing to communicate it to others and seek additional funding. It exposes students to communications experts through video guest lectures, and it fosters interdisciplinary online collaboration. Participants benefit from employing a variety of online tools to examine and clarify thinking about their own research. Given that the course is online and 100% asynchronous, it is highly flexible and could potentially serve students worldwide. This presentation will focus on the design of "Broaden the Impacts of Your Research," provide evaluation results from both cohorts (i.e., Fall 2014, Fall 2015), and discuss its transferability to other universities or professional societies.
Vita, Aida Carvalho; Kataoka, Verônica Yumi
The objective of this paper is to discuss how blind students learn basic concepts of probability using the tactile model proposed by Vita (2012). Among the activities were part of the teaching sequence "Jefferson's Random Walk", in which students built a tree diagram (using plastic trays, foam cards, and toys), and pictograms in 3D…
Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Devecioglu, Yasemin
This study was conducted to determine the level of student teachers' understandings of Newton's laws of motion and relating these levels to identify student teachers' models of understanding. An achievement test composed of two parts comprising 12 open ended questions was constructed and given to 45 pre-service classroom teachers. The first part…
Dammann, Matthew Walter
This research study examined the use of student achievement on reading and math state assessments to predict success on the science state assessment. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to test the prediction for all students in grades 5 and 8 in a mid-Atlantic state. The prediction model developed from the analysis explored the combined…
James, Kai'Iah A.
This dissertation study examines the impact of traditional and non-cognitive variables on the academic prediction model for a sample of collegiate student-athletes. Three hundred and fifty-nine NCAA Division IA male and female student-athletes, representing 13 sports, including football and Men's and Women's Basketball provided demographic…
Brown, Chanda Denea
This study explored whether a predictive model of student loan default could be developed with data from an institution's three-year cohort default rate report. The study used borrower data provided by a large two-year community college. Independent variables under investigation included total undergraduate Stafford student loan debt, total number…
Borghese, Peter; Lacey, Sandi
As part of a retention and academic support program, data was collected to develop a predictive model of student performances in core classes in a Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMS) program. The research goal was to identify students likely to have difficulty with coursework and provide supplemental tutorial support. The focus was on the…
Didis, Nilüfer; Eryilmaz, Ali; Erkoç, Sakir
This paper is the first part of a multiphase study examining students' mental models about the quantization of physical observables--light, energy, and angular momentum. Thirty-one second-year physics and physics education college students who were taking a modern physics course participated in the study. The qualitative analysis of data revealed…
Johnson, Robert L.; Liu, Jin; Burgess, Yin
In this mixed-methods study we investigated the development of a generalized ethics decision-making model that can be applied in considering ethical dilemmas related to student assessment. For the study, we developed five scenarios that describe ethical dilemmas associated with student assessment. Survey participants (i.e., educators) completed an…
Hackett, Paul M. W.
The purpose of this article is to use a facet theory research approach to provide a clear, coherent, and integrated model of international students' experiences based upon the findings of psychological research into students when studying abroad. In research that employs a facet theory approach events are classified in terms of their constituent…
Vaccaro, Annemarie; Kimball, Ezekiel W.; Moore, Adam; Newman, Barbara M.; Troiano, Peter F.
This article presents findings and a model from a constructivist grounded theory study about purpose development for college students with disabilities. The 59 participants, drawn from 4 different higher education institutions, self-identified as having 1 or more of a variety of disabilities. Students engaged in imagination, exploration, and…
Raju, Dheeraj; Schumacker, Randall
The study used earliest available student data from a flagship university in the southeast United States to build data mining models like logistic regression with different variable selection methods, decision trees, and neural networks to explore important student characteristics associated with retention leading to graduation. The decision tree…
Barnett, Michael; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa; Keating, Tom; Barab, Sasha A.; Hay, Kenneth E.
The purpose of this study was to examine how 3-dimensional (3-D) models of the Solar System supported student development of conceptual understandings of various astronomical phenomena that required a change in frame of reference. In the course described in this study, students worked in teams to design and construct 3-D virtual reality computer…
Rowell, P. Clay; Mobley, A. Keith; Kemer, Gulsah; Giordano, Amanda
The authors examined the effectiveness of a group career counseling model (Pyle, K. R., 2007) on college students' career decision-making abilities. They used a Solomon 4-group design and found that students who participated in the career counseling groups had significantly greater increases in career decision-making abilities than those who…
Xiong, Shanying; Li, Xianxiong; Tao, Kun; Zeng, Nan; Ayyub, Mohammad; Peng, Qingwen; Yan, Xiaoni; Wang, Junli; Wu, Yizhong; Lei, Mingzhi
Guided by the Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1982), this study investigated the differences of physical activity levels and correlates (i.e., self-efficacy, decisional balance, process of change) across different stages of change levels among Chinese college students. The relationships between students' physical activity…
Seal, Kala Chand; Przasnyski, Zbigniew H.; Leon, Linda A.
Do students learn to model OR/MS problems better by using computer-based interactive tutorials and, if so, does increased interactivity in the tutorials lead to better learning? In order to determine the effect of different levels of interactivity on student learning, we used screen capture technology to design interactive support materials for…
Grünkorn, Juliane; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette; Krüger, Dirk
Research in the field of students' understandings of models and their use in science describes different frameworks concerning these understandings. Currently, there is no conjoint framework that combines these structures and so far, no investigation has focused on whether it reflects students' understandings sufficiently (empirical evaluation).…
Can, Gulfidan; Walker, Andrew
The purpose of this study is to investigate social science doctoral students' perceptions and attitudes toward written feedback about their academic writing and towards those who provide it. The study culminates in an explanatory model to describe the relationships between students' perceptions and attitudes, their revision decisions, and other…
Briggs, Peter; Ammigan, Ravichandran
Increasing international student enrollment has been a key priority for many institutions of higher education in the United States. Such recruitment efforts, however, are often carried out without much consideration for providing sufficient support services to these students once they arrive to campus. This article proposes a model for structuring…
Olakanmi, Eunice Eyitayo
This study establishes the effects of a flipped classroom model of instruction on academic performance and attitudes of 66 first-year secondary school students towards chemistry. A pre-test and post-test experimental design was employed to assign students randomly into either the experimental or control group. In order to assess the suitability of…
Ahmad, Samah Zakareya
The present study aimed at investigating the effect of the flipped classroom model on Egyptian EFL students' listening comprehension. A one-group pre-posttest design was adopted. Thirty-four 3rd-year EFL students at the Faculty of Education, Suez University, were pretested on listening comprehension before the experiment and then posttested after…
Empathy is considered a significant factor in the physician-patient relationship. The current study examined the impact of a Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship (LIC) model on empathy and patient-centered attitude in medical students. Archival data were examined from 186 medical students at a medical college in the mid-Atlantic region of the United…
Gil, Einat; Gibbs, Alison L.
In this study, we follow students' modeling and covariational reasoning in the context of learning about big data. A three-week unit was designed to allow 12th grade students in a mathematics course to explore big and mid-size data using concepts such as trend and scatter to describe the relationships between variables in multivariate settings.…
Turgut, Umit; Colak, Alp; Salar, Riza
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the course materials developed in accordance with 7E model in the unit of electromagnetism in high school physics class on students' conceptual success. The present study was conducted with a total of 52 11th grade students in two separate classrooms at a high school. The action research…
Parkes, Kelly A.; Jones, Brett D.; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of using a motivation inventory with music students in upper-elementary, middle, and high school. We used the middle/high school version of the MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation Inventory to survey 93 students in the 5th to 12th grades in one school. Our analysis revealed…
Subramaniam, Maithreyi; Hanafi, Jaffri; Putih, Abu Talib
This study adopted 30 first year graphic design students' artwork, with critical analysis using Feldman's model of art criticism. Data were analyzed quantitatively; descriptive statistical techniques were employed. The scores were viewed in the form of mean score and frequencies to determine students' performances in their critical ability.…
Cerrah Ozsevgec, Lale; Artun, Huseyin; Unal, Melike
This study was designed to examine the effect of Swedish Knife Model on students' understanding of digestive system. A simple experimental design (pretest-treatment-posttest) was used in the study and internal comparison of the results of the one group was made. The sample consisted of 40 7th grade Turkish students whose ages range from 13 to 15.…
Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H.; Compas, Bruce E.
Objective: The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms.…
The present study aims at deriving correlational models of students' perceptions of assessment tasks, motivational orientations, and learning strategies using canonical analyses. Data were collected from 198 Omani tenth grade students. Results showed that high degrees of authenticity and transparency in assessment were associated with positive…
de Guzman, Allan B.; Jimenez, Benito Christian B.; Jocson, Kathlyn P.; Junio, Aileen R.; Junio, Drazen E.; Jurado, Jasper Benjamin N.; Justiniano, Angela Bianca F.
Anchored on the key constucts of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (1985), this paper seeks to test a model that explores the influence of knowledge, attitude, and caring behavior on nursing students' behavioral intention toward geriatric care. A five-part survey-questionnaire was administered to 839 third and fourth year nursing students from a…
Effectively teaching the concepts of osmosis to college-level students is a major obstacle in biological education. Therefore, a novel computer model is presented that allows students to observe the random nature of particle motion simultaneously with the seemingly directed net flow of water across a semipermeable membrane during osmotic…
Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, Elvis
The purpose of this research was to develop student-centered learning model aiming to improve high order mathematical thinking ability of junior high school students of based on curriculum 2013 in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The special purpose of this research was to analyze and to formulate the purpose of mathematics lesson in high order…
The Sport Education Model (SEM) was designed by Siedentop to provide students with a holistic sport-based experience. As research on the SEM continues, an aspect that has gained interest is the influence on (a) students with low levels of motivation and (b) opportunities to engage in health-enhancing levels of physical activity. The purpose of…
The purpose of this study is to develop and assess a model aimed at teaching astronomy to deaf students. Thus, a 7 day-long project of indoor and outdoor activities was developed. Since the purpose of our study was to teach astronomy to deaf students, our sample was determined by using purposeful sampling technique. The sample of this study…
Musah, Mohammed Borhandden; Ali, Hairuddin Bin Mohd; Al-Hudawi, Shafeeq Hussain Vazhathodi; Tahir, Lokman Mohd; Daud, Khadijah Binti; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim
The vibrant demand for academic excellence in the twenty-first century has brought diverse determinants of students' outcome into play. However, few studies have validated the instruments and examined the mediating effect between exogenous and endogenous variables of the student outcome model. This study, therefore, investigates the psychometric…
Jabot, Michael; Henry, David
Written assessment items were developed to probe students' understanding of a variety of direct current (DC) resistive electric circuit concepts. The items were used to explore the mental models that grade 3-8 students use in explaining the direction of electric current and how electric current is affected by different configurations of simple…
Calvert, Carol Elaine
This case study relates to distance learning students on open access courses. It demonstrates the use of predictive analytics to generate a model of the probabilities of success and retention at different points, or milestones, in a student journey. A core set of explanatory variables has been established and their varying relative importance at…
Ruby, Carl A.
Demonstrates how the use of SERVQUAL, a market-driven assessment model adapted from business, can be used to study student satisfaction with four areas of support services hypothetically related to enrollment management. The sample included 748 students enrolled in general education courses at ten different private institutions. (Contains 27…
Sutiani, Ani; Silitonga, Mei Y.
This research focused on the effect of learning models and emotional intelligence in students' chemistry learning outcomes on reaction rate teaching topic. In order to achieve the objectives of the research, with 2x2 factorial research design was used. There were two factors tested, namely: the learning models (factor A), and emotional intelligence (factor B) factors. Then, two learning models were used; problem-based learning/PBL (A1), and project-based learning/PjBL (A2). While, the emotional intelligence was divided into higher and lower types. The number of population was six classes containing 243 grade X students of SMAN 10 Medan, Indonesia. There were 15 students of each class were chosen as the sample of the research by applying purposive sampling technique. The data were analyzed by applying two-ways analysis of variance (2X2) at the level of significant α = 0.05. Based on hypothesis testing, there was the interaction between learning models and emotional intelligence in students' chemistry learning outcomes. Then, the finding of the research showed that students' learning outcomes in reaction rate taught by using PBL with higher emotional intelligence is higher than those who were taught by using PjBL. There was no significant effect between students with lower emotional intelligence taught by using both PBL and PjBL in reaction rate topic. Based on the finding, the students with lower emotional intelligence were quite hard to get in touch with other students in group discussion.
Dorça, Fabiano Azevedo; Lima, Luciano Vieira; Fernandes, Márcia Aparecida; Lopes, Carlos Roberto
Considering learning and how to improve students' performances, an adaptive educational system must know how an individual learns best. In this context, this work presents an innovative approach for student modeling through probabilistic learning styles combination. Experiments have shown that our approach is able to automatically detect and…
Full Text Available This study is the initial part of a doctoral dissertation research conducted with the aim at designing a learning model in teaching speaking according to the needs of faculty and students. The learning model is designed based on curriculum of Indonesian Language Education and Literature study program, IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban, and UnisdaLamongan, East Java, Indonesia. The development of this model is done to improve the students speaking skills. Research and development are the steps consist of a needs analysis, document analysis, design models, development models and experimental models. Needs analysis was conducted by researchers to the students of the first semester and three teachers’ and the head of study program of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban and Unisdalamongan to get information related to the needs of students and faculty to model of learning speaking. Needs analysis and documents analysis were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and discussions with students and academics. Document and needs analysis in this study a syllabus, lesson plan (RPP and the model used for this study. This research was carried out by following the nature of the procedures of research and development covering the steps of (1 an exploratory study, (2 the stage of development, (3 the testing phase models, (4 dissemination (Borg and Gall (1983 and Sukmadinata (2008. The results of the analysis of questionnaires, and interviews revealed that lecturers need guidelines for the implementation of learning speaking. Learning model strategies wite that foster self-confidence in speaking is needed by students’.
Kohli, Nidhi; Sullivan, Amanda L; Sadeh, Shanna; Zopluoglu, Cengiz
Effective instructional planning and intervening rely heavily on accurate understanding of students' growth, but relatively few researchers have examined mathematics achievement trajectories, particularly for students with special needs. We applied linear, quadratic, and piecewise linear mixed-effects models to identify the best-fitting model for mathematics development over elementary and middle school and to ascertain differences in growth trajectories of children with learning disabilities relative to their typically developing peers. The analytic sample of 2150 students was drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort, a nationally representative sample of United States children who entered kindergarten in 1998. We first modeled students' mathematics growth via multiple mixed-effects models to determine the best fitting model of 9-year growth and then compared the trajectories of students with and without learning disabilities. Results indicate that the piecewise linear mixed-effects model captured best the functional form of students' mathematics trajectories. In addition, there were substantial achievement gaps between students with learning disabilities and students with no disabilities, and their trajectories differed such that students without disabilities progressed at a higher rate than their peers who had learning disabilities. The results underscore the need for further research to understand how to appropriately model students' mathematics trajectories and the need for attention to mathematics achievement gaps in policy. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jenicke, Lawrence O.; Holmes, Monica C.; Pisani, Michael J.
Student retention in higher education is a major issue as academic institutions compete for fewer students and face declining enrollments. A conceptual model of applying the quality improvement methodology of Six Sigma to the problem of undergraduate student retention in a college of business is presented. Improvement techniques such as cause and…
Full Text Available The objectives for this research are to 1 build a development English language learning management strategies model to enhance communicative competence for high school students 2 study the results of using the model. A target group is seven English teachers in Pibulwittayalai School and the sample for studying the results of model to students are ten English club students in Pibulwittayalai School.The research tools are focus group discussion forms, communication plans, English skills evaluation forms, communicative competence test, communicative competence evaluation forms and 21st century skills evaluation forms. This model is examined by connoisseurship.The statistics for analyzing data are frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Wilcoxon test. The results of the research were as follows: 1. The development English language learning management strategies model to enhance communicative competence for high school students had4components ; 1 SWOT–Analysis, 2 strategy development, 3 strategy assessment and 4 strategy adjustment.This model had 6 strategies such as 1 genius academic strategy 2 English through AEC 3 English through World Class 4 enhancing for genius academic in communication with foreigners 5 enhancing English through world class standard and 6 enhancing for potential in English skills learning through world class standard. These were merged as only one strategy as “ Development of students’ potential for communication”. 2. The results of using the model comprised of 2.1 The results to teachers were teachers could analyze SWOT- analysis for determining strength, weakness,opportunity and threat about English language learning management, received guideline and could appropriately and efficiently construct strategies of English language learning management to enhance communicative competence. 2.2 The results to students: The students had 4 English skills, such as listening,speaking, reading and writing. It was
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the engagement as a mediating variable of the relationship between personality and communication with satisfaction. This study was conducted at business school in Indonesia with 307 students who are still active as a respondent. Survey research was conducted over four months by questionnaire that has been well-established that was taken and modified from previous studies. The results of this study indicate that student engagement mediates the relationship between personality and communication as independent variables and satisfaction as the dependent variable. Extroversion personality and communication significantly positive effect on student engagement in all three dimensions (vigor, dedication, and absorption. In addition, this study also showed that engagement and satisfaction are two different variables, but correlated, and there was no difference in terms of gender differences involvement.
Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa
Introduction: The project presented is "The Study Activity Model as a mean of development in IPE", which explores the potential of a model of study activity as means of pedagogical development and collaboration. Background: Students from 14 different professions have IPE as part of their curriculum...... at Metropolitan University College. Since 2013 all UCS have worked with a nationally decided study activity model. The model outlines four different types of learning activities. Students are introduced to courses via the model to heighten their understanding of course design and the expectations...
Gates, A. E.; Kalczynski, M. J.
Undergraduate minority students retained enthusiasm for majoring in the geosciences by a combination of working with advanced minority mentors and role models as well as serving as role models for middle and high school students in Geoscience Education programs in Newark, NJ. An academic year program to interest 8-10th grade students from the Newark Public schools in the Geosciences employs minority undergraduate students from Rutgers University and Essex Community College as assistants. There is an academic year program (Geoexplorers) and a science festival (Dinosaur Day) at the Newark Museum that employs Rutgers University students and a summer program that employs Rutgers and Essex Community College students. All students are members of the Garden State LSAMP and receive any needed academic support from that program. The students receive mentoring from minority graduate students, project personnel and participating Newark Public School teachers, many of whom are from minority groups. The main factor in success and retention, however, is their role as authorities and role models for the K-12 students. The assistants are respected and consulted by the K-12 students for their knowledge and authority in the geosciences. This positive feedback shows them that they can be regarded as geoscientists and reinforces their self-image and enthusiasm. It further reinforces their knowledge of Geoscience concepts. It also binds the assistants together into a self-supporting community that even extends to the non-participating minority students in the Rutgers program. Although the drop-out rate among minority Geoscience majors was high (up to 100%) prior to the initiation of the program, it has dropped to 0% over the past 3 years with 2 participants now in PhD programs and 2 others completing MS degrees this year. Current students are seriously considering graduate education. Prior to this program, only one minority graduate from the program continued to graduate school in the
Varela, Begoña; Sesto, Vanessa; García-Rodeja, Isabel
There are several studies dealing with students' conceptions on climate change, but most of them refer to understanding before instruction. In contrast, this study investigates students' conceptions and describes the levels of sophistication of their mental models on climate change and the greenhouse effect. The participants were 40 secondary students (grade 7) in Spain. As a method of data collection, a questionnaire was designed with open-ended questions focusing on the mechanism, causes, and actions that could be useful in reducing climate change. Students completed the same questionnaire before and after instruction. The students' conceptions and mental models were identified by an inductive and iterative analysis of the participants' explanations. With regard to the students' conceptions, the results show that they usually link climate change to an increase in temperature, and they tend to mention, even after instruction, generic actions to mitigate climate change, such as not polluting. With regard to the students' mental models, the results show an evolution of models with little consistency and coherence, such as the models on level 1, towards higher levels of sophistication. The paper concludes with educational implications proposed for solving learning difficulties regarding the greenhouse effect and climate change.
Full Text Available Sogo F Matlala Department of Public Health, University of Limpopo, Sovenga, South Africa Abstract: Pregnancy among secondary school students remains a public health problem and is associated with school dropout as well as poor maternal and child health outcomes. Schools in South Africa no longer expel pregnant students as was the case before 2000. Instead, the government encourages them to remain in class to complete their education, but pregnant students often face stigma, and some drop out of school as a result. To remain in class and access antenatal care, pregnant students require social support from teachers, parents and professional nurses. Unfortunately, teachers, parents and professional nurses support pregnant students on an ad hoc basis, and this calls for a model to facilitate collaborative social support. The purpose of this paper is to present and describe a model to facilitate collaborative social support for pregnant students attending secondary schools in South Africa, using the model description steps of Chinn and Kramer. The model is designed as a tool to enable pregnant students to remain in school, attend antenatal care and in the end, deliver healthy babies. The professional nurse, as a member and leader of the school health team which visits secondary schools to provide a package of school health services, is the agent or facilitator of the model. Keywords: communication, health team, learner pregnancy, maternal and child health, school health services, social network
Mokhtari Nouri, Jamileh; Ebadi, Abbas; Alhani, Fatemeh; Rejeh, Nahid
One of the key strategies in students' learning is being affected by models. Understanding the role-modelpan>ing process in education will help to make greater use of this training strategy. The aim of this grounded theory study was to explore Iranian nursing students and instructors' experiences about role modeling process. Data was analyzed by Glaserian's Grounded Theory methodology through semi-structured interviews with 7 faculty members, 2 nursing students; the three focus group discussions with 20 nursing students based on purposive and theoretical sampling was done for explaining role modeling process from four nursing faculties in Tehran. Through basic coding, an effort to comprehensive growth and excellence was made with the basic social process consisting the core category and through selective coding three phases were identified as: realizing and exposure to inadequate human and professional growth, facilitating human and professional growth and evolution. The role modeling process is taking place unconscious, involuntary, dynamic and with positive progressive process in order to facilitate overall growth in nursing student. Accordingly, the design and implementation of the designed model can be used to make this unconscious to conscious, active and voluntarily processes a process to help education administrators of nursing colleges and supra organization to prevent threats to human and professional in nursing students' education and promote nursing students' growth.
Nasiri, Ebrahim; Pour-Safar, Ali; Taheri, Mahdokht; Sedighi Pashaky, Abdullah; Asadi Louyeh, Ataollah
Several factors play a role in academic achievement, individual's excellence and capability to do actions and tasks that the learner is in charge of in learning areas. The main goal of this study was to present academic achievement causal model based on the dimensions of goal orientation and learning approaches among the students of Medical Science and Dentistry courses in Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. This study is based on a cross-sectional model. The participants included 175 first and second students of the Medical and Dentistry schools in Guilan University of Medical Sciences selected by random cluster sampling [121 persons (69%) Medical Basic Science students and 54 (30.9%) Dentistry students]. The measurement tool included the Goal Orientation Scale of Bouffard and Study Process Questionnaire of Biggs) and the students' Grade Point Average. The study data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equations modeling. SPSS 14 and Amos were used to analyze the data. The results indicated a significant relationship between goal orientation and learning strategies (P<0.05). In addition, the results revealed that a significant relationship exists between learning strategies[Deep Learning (r=0.37, P<0.05), Surface Learning (r=-0.21,P<0.05)], and academic achievement.The suggested model of research is fitted to the data of the research. Results showed that the students' academic achievement model fits with experimental data, so it can be used in learning principles which lead to students' achievement in learning.
Baldwin, A; Mills, J; Birks, M; Budden, L
Role modelling by experienced nurses, including nurse academics, is a key factor in the process of preparing undergraduate nursing students for practice, and may contribute to longevity in the workforce. A grounded theory study was undertaken to investigate the phenomenon of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students. The study sought to answer the research question: how do nurse academics role model positive professional behaviours for undergraduate students? The aims of this study were to: theorise a process of nurse academic role modelling for undergraduate students; describe the elements that support positive role modelling by nurse academics; and explain the factors that influence the implementation of academic role modelling. The study sample included five second year nursing students and sixteen nurse academics from Australia and the United Kingdom. Data was collected from observation, focus groups and individual interviews. This study found that in order for nurse academics to role model professional behaviours for nursing students, they must reconcile their own professional identity. This paper introduces the theory of reconciling professional identity and discusses the three categories that comprise the theory, creating a context for learning, creating a context for authentic rehearsal and mirroring identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burgess, Annette; Goulston, Kerry; Oates, Kim
Role modelling by clinicians assists in development of medical students' professional competencies, values and attitudes. Three core characteristics of a positive role model include 1) clinical attributes, 2) teaching skills, and 3) personal qualities. This study was designed to explore medical students' perceptions of their bedside clinical tutors as role models during the first year of a medical program. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed Year 1 of the Sydney Medical Program in 2013. A total of nine focus groups (n = 59) were conducted with medical students following completion of Year 1. Data were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to code and categorise data into themes. Students identified both positive and negative characteristics and behaviour displayed by their clinical tutors. Characteristics and behaviour that students would like to emulate as medical practitioners in the future included: 1) Clinical attributes: a good knowledge base; articulate history taking skills; the ability to explain and demonstrate skills at the appropriate level for students; and empathy, respect and genuine compassion for patients. 2) Teaching skills: development of a rapport with students; provision of time towards the growth of students academically and professionally; provision of a positive learning environment; an understanding of the student curriculum and assessment requirements; immediate and useful feedback; and provision of patient interaction. 3) Personal qualities: respectful interprofessional staff interactions; preparedness for tutorials; demonstration of a passion for teaching; and demonstration of a passion for their career choice. Excellence in role modelling entails demonstration of excellent clinical care, teaching skills and personal characteristics. Our findings reinforce the important function of clinical bedside tutors as role models, which has implications for faculty development and
Shernof, David J.; Ruzek, Erik A.; Sannella, Alexander J.; Schorr, Roberta Y.; Sanchez-Wall, Lina; Bressler, Denise M.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a model for considering general and specific elements of student experience in a gateway course in undergraduate Financial Accounting in a large university on the East Coast, USA. Specifically, the study evaluated a bifactor analytic strategy including a general factor of student classroom experience, conceptualized as student engagement as rooted in flow theory, as well as factors representing specific dimensions of experience. The study further evaluated the association between these general and specific factors and both student classroom practices and educational outcomes. The sample of students (N = 407) in two cohorts of the undergraduate financial accounting course participated in the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) measuring students' classroom practices, perceptions, engagement, and perceived learning throughout the one-semester course. Course grade information was also collected. Results showed that a two-level bifactor model fit the data better than two traditional (i.e., non-bifactor) models and also avoided significant multicollinearity of the traditional models. In addition to student engagement (general factor), specific dimensions of classroom experience in the bifactor model at the within-student level included intrinsic motivation, academic intensity, salience, and classroom self-esteem. At the between-student level, specific aspects included work orientation, learning orientation, classroom self-esteem, and disengagement. Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling (MSEM) demonstrated that sitting in the front of the classroom (compared to the sitting in the back), taking notes, active listening, and working on problems during class had a positive effect on within-student variation in student engagement and attention. Engagement, in turn, predicted perceived learning. With respect to between-student effects, the tendency to sit in front seats had a significant effect on student engagement, which in turn had a
Shernof, David J; Ruzek, Erik A; Sannella, Alexander J; Schorr, Roberta Y; Sanchez-Wall, Lina; Bressler, Denise M
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a model for considering general and specific elements of student experience in a gateway course in undergraduate Financial Accounting in a large university on the East Coast, USA. Specifically, the study evaluated a bifactor analytic strategy including a general factor of student classroom experience, conceptualized as student engagement as rooted in flow theory, as well as factors representing specific dimensions of experience. The study further evaluated the association between these general and specific factors and both student classroom practices and educational outcomes. The sample of students ( N = 407) in two cohorts of the undergraduate financial accounting course participated in the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) measuring students' classroom practices, perceptions, engagement, and perceived learning throughout the one-semester course. Course grade information was also collected. Results showed that a two-level bifactor model fit the data better than two traditional (i.e., non-bifactor) models and also avoided significant multicollinearity of the traditional models. In addition to student engagement (general factor), specific dimensions of classroom experience in the bifactor model at the within-student level included intrinsic motivation, academic intensity, salience, and classroom self-esteem. At the between-student level, specific aspects included work orientation, learning orientation, classroom self-esteem, and disengagement. Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling (MSEM) demonstrated that sitting in the front of the classroom (compared to the sitting in the back), taking notes, active listening, and working on problems during class had a positive effect on within-student variation in student engagement and attention. Engagement, in turn, predicted perceived learning. With respect to between-student effects, the tendency to sit in front seats had a significant effect on student engagement, which in turn had
David J. Shernof
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate a model for considering general and specific elements of student experience in a gateway course in undergraduate Financial Accounting in a large university on the East Coast, USA. Specifically, the study evaluated a bifactor analytic strategy including a general factor of student classroom experience, conceptualized as student engagement as rooted in flow theory, as well as factors representing specific dimensions of experience. The study further evaluated the association between these general and specific factors and both student classroom practices and educational outcomes. The sample of students (N = 407 in two cohorts of the undergraduate financial accounting course participated in the Experience Sampling Method (ESM measuring students' classroom practices, perceptions, engagement, and perceived learning throughout the one-semester course. Course grade information was also collected. Results showed that a two-level bifactor model fit the data better than two traditional (i.e., non-bifactor models and also avoided significant multicollinearity of the traditional models. In addition to student engagement (general factor, specific dimensions of classroom experience in the bifactor model at the within-student level included intrinsic motivation, academic intensity, salience, and classroom self-esteem. At the between-student level, specific aspects included work orientation, learning orientation, classroom self-esteem, and disengagement. Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling (MSEM demonstrated that sitting in the front of the classroom (compared to the sitting in the back, taking notes, active listening, and working on problems during class had a positive effect on within-student variation in student engagement and attention. Engagement, in turn, predicted perceived learning. With respect to between-student effects, the tendency to sit in front seats had a significant effect on student engagement, which
Beck-Winchatz, Bernhard; Ostro, Steven J.
A major obstacle confronting blind and visually impaired students in their science education is the inaccessibility to graphical materials that are critically instructive and abundantly available to sighted students. The use of three-dimensional models can effectively address this problem. Specifically, this article discusses how scale models of near-Earth asteroids can be used to teach space science to blind and visually impaired students. The models, published in the peer-reviewed literature and in almost every case based on radar observations, are developed with a rapid prototyping process. With these models, many of the recent exciting discoveries about near-Earth asteroids suddenly are directly accessible to blind and visually impaired people. Recent research has shown that many sighted students also learn better when their haptic sense is engaged.
Koulaidis, Vasilis; Christidou, Vasilia
Primary school students (n=40) ages 11 and 12 years were interviewed concerning their conceptions of the greenhouse effect. Analysis of the data led to the formation of seven distinct models of thinking regarding this phenomenon. (Author/CCM)
Oktavia, Rini; Arif, Salmawaty; Ferdhiana, Ridha; Yuni, Syarifah Meurah; Ihsan, Mahyus
This research, in general, aims to identify incoming students' understanding and misconceptions of several basic concepts in mathematics. The participants of this study are the 2015 incoming students of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science of Syiah Kuala University, Indonesia. Using an instrument that were developed based on some anecdotal and empirical evidences on students' misconceptions, a survey involving 325 participants was administered and several quantitative and qualitative analysis of the survey data were conducted. In this article, we discuss the confirmatory factor analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) on factors that determine the new students' overall understanding of basic mathematics. The results showed that students' understanding on algebra, arithmetic, and geometry were significant predictors for their overall understanding of basic mathematics. This result supported that arithmetic and algebra are not the only predictors of students' understanding of basic mathematics.
Huang, Jie; Liang, Pei; Shen, Wei-min; Ye, Youxiang
In practical course teaching based on project object method, the traditional evaluation methods include class attendance, assignments and exams fails to give incentives to undergraduate students to learn innovatively and autonomously. In this paper, the element such as creative innovation, teamwork, document and reporting were put into process evaluation methods, and a process evaluation model was set up. Educational practice shows that the evaluation model makes process evaluation of students' learning more comprehensive, accurate, and fairly.
Sumit Tulshidas Patil; Nazia Quadir; Rashmi Deopujari; Vivekanand Gajbhiye
Background: In learning of anatomy, bones and viscera are very important. Now days, artificial bones are replacing the original bones for study purpose due to unavailability. Original viscera are available for students only at dissection hours. So we have tried to find out perception of medical students towards artificial bones and POP models of viscera. Materials and Methods: We had prepared a questionnaire consisting of 20 questions, 10 related to bones and 10 related to the POP models o...
Mackay, Bev; Harding, Thomas; Jurlina, Lou; Scobie, Norma; Khan, Ruelle
The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the socio-cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with Maori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents 'awareness', with the other four digits signifying 'connection" 'communication', 'negotiation' and 'advocacy' respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of the Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn.
Chen, Judy T.; LaLopa, Joseph
Objective To determine the impact of the Patient Empathy Modeling pedagogy on students' empathy towards caring for the underserved during an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Design Pharmacy students completing an APPE at 2 primary care clinics participated in a Patient Empathy Modeling assignment for 10 days. Each student “became the patient,” simulating the life of an actual patient with multiple chronic diseases who was coping with an economic, cultural, or communication barrier to optimal healthcare. Students completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) before and after completing the assignment, and wrote daily journal entries and a reflection paper. Assessment Twenty-six students completed the PEM exercises from 2005-2006. Scores on the JSPE improved. Students' comments in journals and reflection papers revealed 3 major themes: greater appreciation of the difficulty patients have with adherence to medication and treatment regimens, increased empathy for patients from different backgrounds and patients with medical and psychosocial challenges, and improved ability to apply the lessons learned in the course to their patient care roles. Conclusion A Patient Empathy Modeling assignment improved pharmacy students' empathy toward underserved populations. Integrating the assignment within an APPE allowed students to immediately begin applying the knowledge and insight gained from the exercise. PMID:18483606
A. V. Gabalin
Full Text Available Mathematical modelling is one of the most effective means to study the complex systems and processes. One of the most convenient means of mathematical modelling used in the analysis of functioning of systems of this class are simulation models that describe the structure and behavior of the system in the form of a program for the PC and allow conducting computer experiments with the aim of obtaining the necessary data on the functioning of the elements and the system as a whole during certain time intervals. Currently, the simulation tools market presents a large number of different simulation systems. However, the selection of suitable tools is very important. Specialized programs in particular are GPSS World, MATLAB/ Simulink, and AnyLogic. Distributed information and control systems (ICS are dispersed in space multifunctional coherent set of stationary and moving elements with developed technical means of reception, transmission and processing of information. The task is to determine a rational structure of ICS, system-planned indicators of quality of development and functioning of which meet specified requirements under given structural constraints, characteristics of information flows, and parameters of technical tools. For experimental research of functioning processes of the described system a simulation model was developed. This model allows obtaining and evaluating such functional characteristics as the degree of technical means utilization, waiting time of information in queues for service, the level of efficiency of transmission and processing of information, the time of forming a single media and etc. The model also allows evaluating the performance of the system depending on the flight schedule, flight paths, characteristics of technical means, the system structure, failure of individual elements and depending on other parameters. The developed simulation model in GPSS allows students to master the subject area deeply enough – the
Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul
In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…
Love, Keisha M.; Murdock, Tamera B.
In an attempt to understand the cognitive mechanisms by which parental attachments predict depression among African American college students, the authors examined a mediational path model containing parental attachment, cognitive working models, and depression. The model demonstrated a close fit to the data, and several significant paths emerged.…
Chaiyadejkamjorn, Natsuchawirang; Soonthonrojana, Wimonrat; Sangkhaphanthanon, Thanya
The research aimed to construct an instructional model for creative writing for Mattayomsueksa Three students (Grade 9), to develop the model according to a criterion of 80/80, and to examine the results of the model in use. The research methodology consisted of three phases: phase one studied the current states, problems and needs for teaching…
Fede, Jacquelyn H.; Gorman, Kathleen S.; Cimini, Maria E.
Background: Evidence suggests experiential learning promotes the development of a range of transferrable skills including communication, responsibility, and social skills. However, many students are unable to participate in internships or other common forms of experiential education because they need to work for pay. University employment has been…
Korpershoek, Hanke; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje
In this study, we investigated the school motivation of 7,257 9th grade students in 80 secondary schools across the Netherlands. Using a multiple goal perspective, four motivation dimensions were included: performance, mastery, extrinsic, and social motivation. Our first aim was to identify distinct motivation profiles within our sample, using the…
Salm, Twyla L.; Johner, Randy; Luhanga, Florence
This paper describes a qualitative case study that explores how twenty-three field advisors, representing three human service professions including education, nursing, and social work, experience the process of assessment with students who are struggling to meet minimum competencies in field placements. Five themes emerged from the analysis of…
Dente, Bruno; Piraino, Nadia
For both efficiency and equity reasons, student loans schemes have been introduced by several countries. Empirical work has been carried out in order to measure the effectiveness of these policies, but, with few exceptions, their results are not comparable because of their concentration on specific aspects. The present work suggests a…
Dresser, Rocío; Asato, Jolynn
The debate on the role of oral corrective feedback or "repair" in English instruction settings has been going on for over 30 years. Some educators believe that oral grammar correction is effective because they have noticed that students who learned a set of grammar rules were more likely to use them in real life communication (Krashen,…
Korpershoek, Hanke; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje
In this study, we investigated the school motivation of 7,257 9th grade students in 80 secondary schools across the Netherlands. Using a multiple goal perspective, four motivation dimensions were included: performance, mastery, extrinsic, and social motivation. Our first aim was to identify distinct
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the identification and assessment procedure to identify high ability secondary school students in the Spanish region of Murcia. In the screening process questionaires addressed to parents, teachers, and pupils nad based on the Multiple Intelligences Theory were used. In the identification process two other instruments were used: a the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT aimed to assess the following areas: reasoning, verbal abilities, numerical and abstract reasoning, spatial aptitude, mechanical reasoning, attention and perceptive aptitudes, and b the TTCT (Torrance Test of Creative Thinking in order to assess the main abilities of creativity (fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. These two assessment tools will allow us to distinguish gifted from talented (Castelló and Batlle, 1998. In a third stage, the socio-emotional characteristics of the identified students are analysed using: c the BFQ-NA whose aim is to assess the personality dimensions (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion; agreeableness and neuroticism, and d emotional intelligence questionnaires (EQ-i:YV and EQ-i:YV-O Barón and Parker, 2000. 565 took part in this research. The students were aged 11-18 (M= 14.6 and SD= 1.08 and attended high schools of Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO of the Murcia Region. The results showed different profiles of gifted and talented stduents. The cognitive-emotional complexity of these exceptional students is discussed.
Bukoye, Oyegoke Teslim; Shegunshi, Anjali
Non-attendance in Higher Education is not a new concept. In recent years with the exponential growth in digital learning, physical attendance has become a more complex issue. Educators are continually advocating an engaging teaching approach for students as a means of enhancing learning. This on-going study focuses on exploring the existing issues…
Forbes, Cory; Vo, Tina; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina
The water cycle is a large, complex system that encompasses ideas across the K-12 science curriculum. By the time students leave fifth grade, they should understand "that a system is a group of related parts that make up a whole and can carry out functions its individual parts cannot" and be able to describe both components and processes…
Oh Young Kwon
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. Methods: A questionnaire survey of Year 4 medical students (n=110 in July 2015 was administered. We evaluated the personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness by using the Korean version of Big Five Inventory. Questions about general characteristics, medical specialties most preferred as a career, motivational factors in determining specialty choice were included. Data between five personality traits and general characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Results: Of the 110 eligible medical students, 105 (95.4% response rate completed the questionnaire. More Agreeableness students preferred clinical medicine to basic medicine (p=0.010 and more Openness students preferred medical departments to others (p=0.031. Personal interest was the significant motivational factors in more Openness students (p=0.003 and Conscientiousness students (p=0.003. Conclusion: Medical students with more Agreeableness were more likely to prefer clinical medicine and those with more Openness preferred medical departments. Personal interest was a significant influential factor determining specialty choice in more Openness and Conscientiousness students. These findings may be helpful to medical educators or career counselors in the specialty choice process.
Kwon, Oh Young; Park, So Youn
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits, using the Five-Factor Model, and characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice in Korean medical students. A questionnaire survey of Year 4 medical students (n=110) in July 2015 was administered. We evaluated the personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness by using the Korean version of Big Five Inventory. Questions about general characteristics, medical specialties most preferred as a career, motivational factors in determining specialty choice were included. Data between five personality traits and general characteristics and motivational factors affecting specialty choice were analyzed using Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variance. Of the 110 eligible medical students, 105 (95.4% response rate) completed the questionnaire. More Agreeableness students preferred clinical medicine to basic medicine (p=0.010) and more Openness students preferred medical departments to others (p=0.031). Personal interest was the significant motivational factors in more Openness students (p=0.003) and Conscientiousness students (p=0.003). Medical students with more Agreeableness were more likely to prefer clinical medicine and those with more Openness preferred medical departments. Personal interest was a significant influential factor determining specialty choice in more Openness and Conscientiousness students. These findings may be helpful to medical educators or career counselors in the specialty choice process.
Tune, Johnathan D; Sturek, Michael; Basile, David P
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a traditional lecture-based curriculum versus a modified "flipped classroom" curriculum of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal physiology delivered to first-year graduate students. Students in both courses were provided the same notes and recorded lectures. Students in the modified flipped classroom were required to watch the prerecorded lectures before class and then attend class, where they received a quiz or homework covering material in each lecture (valued at 25% of the final grade) followed by a question and answer/problem-solving period. In the traditional curriculum, attending lectures was optional and there were no quizzes. Evaluation of effectiveness and student performance was achieved by having students in both courses take the same multiple-choice exams. Within a comparable group of graduate students, participants in the flipped course scored significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and weighted cumulative sections by an average of >12 percentage points. Exam averages for students in the flipped course also tended to be higher on the renal section by ∼11 percentage points (P = 0.06). Based on our experience and responses obtained in blinded student surveys, we propose that the use of homework and in-class quizzes were critical motivating factors that likely contributed to the increase in student exam performance. Taken together, our findings support that the flipped classroom model is a highly effective means in which to disseminate key physiological concepts to graduate students.
Petroni, N. Cufaro; De Martino, S.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.
We describe the transverse beam distribution in particle accelerators within the controlled, stochastic dynamical scheme of the stochastic mechanics which produces time reversal invariant diffusion processes. In this paper we analyze the consequences of introducing the generalized Student laws, namely non-Gaussian, Levy infinitely divisible (but not stable) distributions. We will analyze this idea from two different standpoints: (a) first by supposing that the stationary distribution of our (Wiener powered) stochastic model is a Student distribution; (b) by supposing that our model is based on a (non-Gaussian) Levy process whose increments are Student distributed. In the case (a) the longer tails of the power decay of the Student laws, and in the case (b) the discontinuities of the Levy-Student process can well account for the rare escape of particles from the beam core, and hence for the formation of a halo in intense beams
Martinelli, A M
College students can establish healthy lifestyle practices that can have lifelong implications. Many students, however, continue to engage in risky behaviors such as active and passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to test an explanatory model of variables which can influence health promotion behaviors in smoking and nonsmoking college students. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the framework for the study. Health promotion behaviors were found to be most effective when students: had an increased self-efficacy, avoided environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), perceived themselves as healthy, were female, and had a powerful external and internal health locus of control. College students may benefit from health promotion interventions designed to influence the avoidance of ETS and alter perceptions of self-efficacy, control of health, and health status. Such interventions may result in a decrease in both active and passive smoking.
Häfner, Isabelle; Flunger, Barbara; Dicke, Anna-Lena; Gaspard, Hanna; Brisson, Brigitte M; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich
Using data from 1,571 ninth-grade students (M age = 14.62) from 82 academic track schools in Germany and their predominantly Caucasian middle-class parents, configurations of different family characteristics reported by parents were investigated. Latent profile analyses considering academic involvement, family interest, parents' self-concept, child's need for support, and parents' time and energy identified average, indifferent, motivated and engaged, motivated and disengaged, and involved families. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with students' motivational (self-concept, effort, and interest) and achievement outcomes (achievement test and grades) in math were analyzed. Students from families classified as motivated and disengaged showed higher initial levels motivation and achievement. Over 5 months, these students also showed an increase in self-concept and higher achievement than students from other family types. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Full Text Available The study aims to test the effectiveness of Islamic counseling model for helping the students to tight their religious commitment. The religious commitment is covered in three major Islamic teachings: Iman (faith, Islam (surrender to Allah, and lhsan (state of being observed by Allah. The model of Islamic counseling aims to tight students' religious commitment must to be applied immediately because the preface study reveals some students' religious commitment were not strong enough, their behavior and thinking symptoms tend to not appropriate yet with Islam norm among their association and conception toward the truth of God. To achieve the aim, the study was carried out with three steps: (1 designing a model of counseling; (2 trying out field study, using pretest-post test control group experimental design with 140 students of Islamic Religion Education, the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching, State Islamic University, Sunan Gunung Djati, Bandung. Of 140 students, 70 students are from the classes: A (32 people, B (38 people, involved in control group and the test; 37 people from class C, and 33 students from class D involved in the experiment group, and; (3 designing a final model by revising the model tried-out. The variable involved three major Islamic dimensions: the iman, Islam, and ihsan of the students. The model was designed based on the theory put forward by Musfir bin Said Az-Zalmmi, that is, an integrated counseling model. The model combines and employs the ideas from other concepts into a tightly united concept, called Islamic concept. Upon completing analysis, it was found that the new concept is significantly effective to enhance students' religious commitment. A Model of Islamic Counseling (MIC is an alternative-counseling model that can be employed for teenagers/ students to enhance their religious commitment. The study recommends that: (1 MIC can be applied to fifth semester students in the Faculty of Tarbiyah State Islamic
Sung, Ji Young; Oh, Phil Seok
Recent science education reform initiatives suggest that learning in science should be organized on the basis of scientists' actual practices including the development and use of models. In line with this, the current study adapted three types of modeling practices to teach two Korean 6th grade science classes the causes of the Earth's seasons. Specifically, the study aimed to identify the students' content-specific competencies and challenges based on fine-grained descriptions and analyses of two target groups' cases. Data included digital recordings of modeling-based science lessons in the two classes, the teacher's and students' artifacts, and interviews with the students. These multiple types of data were analyzed complementarily and qualitatively. It was revealed that the students had a competency in constructing models to generate the desired phenomenon (i.e., seasons). They had difficulty, however, in considering the tilt of the Earth's rotation axis as a cause of the seasons and in finding a proper way of representing the Sun's meridian altitude on a globe. But, when the students were helped and guided by the teacher and peers' interventions, they were able to revise their models in alignment with the scientific understanding of the seasons. Based on these findings, the teacher's pedagogical roles, which include using student competencies as resources, asking physical questions, and explicit guidance on experimentation skills, were recommended to support successful incorporations of modeling practices in the science classroom.
Abriam-Yago, K; Yoder, M; Kataoka-Yahiro, M
The health care system requires nurses with the language ability and the cultural knowledge to meet the health care needs of ethnic minority immigrants. The recruitment, admission, retention, and graduation of English as a Second Language (ESL) students are essential to provide the workforce to meet the demands of the multicultural community. Yet, ESL students possess language difficulties that affect their academic achievement in nursing programs. The application of the Cummins Model of language proficiency is discussed. The Cummins Model provides a framework for nursing faculty to develop educational support that meets the learning needs of ESL students.
Delunas, Linda R; Rooda, Linda A
As the nursing faculty shortage worsens nationwide, schools of nursing must be creative in developing models of clinical instruction for undergraduate students that ensure both quality instruction and quality patient care. Partnerships with clinical agencies can be creatively designed to allow full-time faculty greater access to students and agency nurses recognition for clinical expertise. The model for clinical instruction proposed here is also useful for introducing staff nurses to the role of faculty. The program described here was piloted for one semester; proposed advantages and disadvantages are described, and feedback from students is presented.
This dissertation explores the Knowledge in Pieces (KiP) theory to account for how students learn to coordinate knowledge of mathematical and physical models in biology education. The KiP approach characterizes student knowledge as a fragmented collection of knowledge elements as opposed to stable and theory-like knowledge. This dissertation sought to use this theoretical lens to account for how students understand and learn with mathematical models and representations, such as equations. Cellular physiology provides a quantified discipline that leverages concepts from mathematics, physics, and chemistry to understand cellular functioning. Therefore, this discipline provides an exemplary context for assessing how biology students think and learn with mathematical models. In particular, the resting membrane potential provides an exemplary concept well defined by models of dynamic equilibrium borrowed from physics and chemistry. In brief, membrane potentials, or voltages, "rest" when the electrical and chemical driving forces for permeable ionic species are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. To assess students' understandings of this concept, this dissertation employed three studies: the first study employed the cognitive clinical interview to assess student thinking in the absence and presence of equations. The second study employed an intervention to assess student learning and the affordances of an innovative assessment. The third student employed a human-computer-interaction paradigm to assess how students learn with a novel multi-representational technology. Study 1 revealed that students saw only one influence--the chemical gradient--and that students coordinated knowledge of only this gradient with the related equations. Study 2 revealed that students benefited from learning with the multi-representational technology and that the assessment detected performance gains across both calculation and explanation tasks. Last, Study 3 revealed how students
Lala, Vishal; Priluck, Randi
This article explores the factors that influence students' intention to complain following a bad classroom experience using a customer service framework from the marketing literature. An online survey was conducted with 288 participants using the critical incident approach. Results indicate that predictors of intention to complain differ based on…
Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley
Students from several ethnic minority groups are underrepresented in the sciences, such that minority students more frequently drop out of the scientific career path than non-minority students. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that minority students do not integrate into the scientific community at the same rate as non-minority students. Kelman (1958, 2006) describes a tripartite integration model of social influence (TIMSI) by which a person orients to a social system. To test if this model predicts integration into the scientific community, we conducted analyses of data from a national panel of minority science students. A structural equation model framework showed that self-efficacy (operationalized consistent with Kelman’s ‘rule-orientation’) predicted student intentions to pursue a scientific career. However, when identification as a scientist and internalization of values are added to the model, self-efficacy becomes a poorer predictor of intention. Additional mediation analyses support the conclusion that while having scientific self-efficacy is important, identifying with and endorsing the values of the social system reflect a deeper integration and more durable motivation to persist as a scientist. PMID:21552374
Harris, S. E.; Gold, A. U.
Individual understanding of climate science, and the greenhouse effect in particular, is one factor important for societal decision-making. Ideally, learning opportunities about the greenhouse effect will not only move people toward expert-like ideas but will also have long-lasting effects for those individuals. We assessed university students' mental models of the greenhouse effect before and after specific learning experiences, on a final exam, then again a few months later. Our aim was to measure retention after students had not necessarily been thinking about, nor studying, the greenhouse effect recently. How sticky were the ideas learned? 164 students in an introductory science course participated in a sequence of two learning activities and assessments regarding the greenhouse effect. The first lesson involved the full class, then, for the second lesson, half the students completed a simulation-based activity and the other half completed a data-driven activity. We assessed student thinking through concept sketches, multiple choice and short answer questions. All students generated concept sketches four times, and completed a set of multiple choice (MCQs) and short answer questions twice. Later, 3-4 months after the course ended, 27 students ('retention students') completed an additional concept sketch and answered the questions again, as a retention assessment. These 27 students were nearly evenly split between the two contrasting second lessons in the sequence and included both high and low-achieving students. We then compared student sketches and scores to 'expert' answers. The general pattern over time showed a significant increase in student scores from before the lesson sequence to after, both on concept sketches and MCQs, then an additional increase in concept sketch score on the final exam (MCQs were not asked on the final exam). The scores for the retention students were not significantly different from the full class. Within the retention group
McGowan, Linda; Luker, Karen; Creed, Francis; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) has an adverse effect on women's quality of life. Research has suggested that many women become dissatisfied with their care and withdraw from seeking help despite continuing symptoms. The aim of this study was to explore the processes which lead to disengagement and to understand the psychosocial processes that affect this group of women. A qualitative narrative approach was used, guided by phenomenological-hermeneutic tradition, and informed by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. Thirty-two women with CPP were asked to write their stories about their illness trajectories. These written stories served as data which were analysed thematically according to narrative theory. In the search for validation and recognition women engaged in the diagnostic cycle. Many women do not complete this cycle, become stuck at a certain point, or re-enter the cycle repeatedly. They can only opt out if the problem is resolved or by choosing to disengage with medical care. While the medical consultation was a dominant theme, a complex interaction of factors was required to initiate disengagement. The dualistic nature of the diagnostic process prohibits women from telling their stories. Women were left feeling disempowered and in limbo, and they were at a loss as to how to manage their pain.
Pagan, Julia K; Marzio, Antonio; Jones, Mathew J K; Saraf, Anita; Jallepalli, Prasad V; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Pagano, Michele
An intercentrosomal linker keeps a cell's two centrosomes joined together until it is dissolved at the onset of mitosis. A second connection keeps daughter centrioles engaged to their mothers until they lose their orthogonal arrangement at the end of mitosis. Centriole disengagement is required to license centrioles for duplication. We show that the intercentrosomal linker protein Cep68 is degraded in prometaphase through the SCF(βTrCP) (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex. Cep68 degradation is initiated by PLK1 phosphorylation of Cep68 on Ser 332, allowing recognition by βTrCP. We also found that Cep68 forms a complex with Cep215 (also known as Cdk5Rap2) and PCNT (also known as pericentrin), two PCM (pericentriolar material) proteins involved in centriole engagement. Cep68 and PCNT bind to different pools of Cep215. We propose that Cep68 degradation allows Cep215 removal from the peripheral PCM preventing centriole separation following disengagement, whereas PCNT cleavage mediates Cep215 removal from the core of the PCM to inhibit centriole disengagement and duplication.
Whittle, Sue R.
Recent studies have indicated that the "sophomore slump" (dissatisfaction and disengagement of second year students in the US) may also be observed in other countries, including the UK. However, no studies have reported on the effects of support interventions on student perceptions. This study used the DREEM-S survey, a modification of…
Labouta, Hagar Ibrahim; Adams, Jennifer Dawn; Cramb, David Thomas
In this paper we reflect on the article "I am smart enough to study postsecondary science: a critical discourse analysis of latecomers' identity construction in an online forum", by Phoebe Jackson and Gale Seiler (Cult Stud Sci Educ. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11422-017-9818-0). In their article, the authors did a significant amount of qualitative analysis of a discussion on an online forum by four latecomer students with past negative experiences in science education. The students used this online forum as an out-of-class resource to develop a cultural model based on their ability to ask questions together with solidarity as a new optimistic way to position themselves in science. In this forum, we continue by discussing the identity of marginalized science students in relation to resources available in postsecondary science classes. Recent findings on a successful case of a persistent marginalized science student in spite of prior struggles and failures are introduced. Building on their model and our results, we proposed a new cultural model, emphasizing interaction between inside and outside classroom resources which can further our understanding of the identity of marginalized science students. Exploring this cultural model could better explain drop-outs or engagement of marginalized science students to their study. We, then, used this model to reflect on both current traditional and effective teaching and learning practices truncating or re-enforcing relationships of marginalized students with the learning environment. In this way, we aim to further the discussion initiated by Jackson and Seiler and offer possible frameworks for future research on the interactions between marginalized students with past low achievements and other high and mid achieving students, as well as other interactions between resources inside and outside science postsecondary classrooms.
Olakanmi, Eunice Eyitayo
This study establishes the effects of a flipped classroom model of instruction on academic performance and attitudes of 66 first-year secondary school students towards chemistry. A pre-test and post-test experimental design was employed to assign students randomly into either the experimental or control group. In order to assess the suitability of using flipped model of instruction, students were divided in two groups. For the first group called the experimental group, a "flipped classroom" was used in which the students were given video lessons and reading materials, before the class to be revised at home. On the other hand, the second group followed traditional methodology, and it was used as control. The rate of reaction knowledge test and the chemistry attitude scale were administered. In addition, the researcher documented classroom observations, experiences, thoughts and insights regarding the intervention in a journal on a daily basis in order to enrich the data. Students were interviewed at the end of the research in order to enrich the qualitative data also. Findings from this study reveal that the flipped instruction model facilitates a shift in students' conceptual understanding of the rate of chemical reaction significantly more than the control condition. Positive significant differences were found on all assessments with the flipped class students performing higher on average. Students in the flipped classroom model condition benefited by preparing for the lesson before the classes and had the opportunity to interact with peers and the teacher during the learning processes in the classroom. The findings support the notion that teachers should be trained or retrained on how to incorporate the flipped classroom model into their teaching and learning processes because it encourages students to be directly involved and active in the learning.