Structure and internal consistency of a shoulder model.
Högfors, C; Karlsson, D; Peterson, B
1995-07-01
A three-dimensional biomechanical model of the shoulder is developed for force predictions in 46 shoulder structures. The model is directed towards the analysis of static working situations where the load is low or moderate. Arbitrary static arm postures in the natural shoulder range may be considered, as well as different kinds of external loads including different force and moment directions. The model can predict internal forces for the shoulder muscles, for the glenohumeral, the acromioclavicular and the sternoclavicular joint as well as for the coracohumeral ligament. A solution to the statistically indeterminate force system is obtained by minimising an objective function. The default function chosen for this is the sum of the squared muscle stresses, but other objective functions may be used as well. The structure of the model is described and its ingredients discussed. The internal consistency of the model, its structural stability and the compatibility of the elements that go into it, is investigated.
Self-consistent modelling of resonant tunnelling structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fiig, T.; Jauho, A.P.
1992-01-01
We report a comprehensive study of the effects of self-consistency on the I-V-characteristics of resonant tunnelling structures. The calculational method is based on a simultaneous solution of the effective-mass Schrödinger equation and the Poisson equation, and the current is evaluated...
Linking lipid architecture to bilayer structure and mechanics using self-consistent field modelling
Pera, H.; Kleijn, J.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.
2014-01-01
To understand how lipid architecture determines the lipid bilayer structure and its mechanics, we implement a molecularly detailed model that uses the self-consistent field theory. This numerical model accurately predicts parameters such as Helfrichs mean and Gaussian bending modulus k c and k ¯ and
Consistent model driven architecture
Niepostyn, Stanisław J.
2015-09-01
The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.
ICFD modeling of final settlers - developing consistent and effective simulation model structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Plósz, Benedek G.; Guyonvarch, Estelle; Ramin, Elham
Summary of key findings The concept of interpreted computational fluid dynamic (iCFD) modelling and the development methodology are presented (Fig. 1). The 1-D advection-dispersion model along with the statistically generated, meta-model for pseudo-dispersion constitutes the newly developed i...... nine different model structures based on literature (1; 3; 2; 10; 9) and on more recent considerations (Fig. 2a). Validation tests were done using the CFD outputs from extreme scenarios. The most effective model structure (relatively low the sum of square of relative errors, SSRE, and computational...... time) obtained is that in which the XTC is set at the concentration of the layer just below the feed-layer. The feed-layer location is set to the highest location where X>Xin (solids concentration in SST influent). An effective discretization level (computational time/numerical error) is assessed...
Linking lipid architecture to bilayer structure and mechanics using self-consistent field modelling.
Pera, H; Kleijn, J M; Leermakers, F A M
2014-02-14
To understand how lipid architecture determines the lipid bilayer structure and its mechanics, we implement a molecularly detailed model that uses the self-consistent field theory. This numerical model accurately predicts parameters such as Helfrichs mean and Gaussian bending modulus kc and k̄ and the preferred monolayer curvature J(0)(m), and also delivers structural membrane properties like the core thickness, and head group position and orientation. We studied how these mechanical parameters vary with system variations, such as lipid tail length, membrane composition, and those parameters that control the lipid tail and head group solvent quality. For the membrane composition, negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol (PG) or zwitterionic, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and -ethanolamine (PE) lipids were used. In line with experimental findings, we find that the values of kc and the area compression modulus kA are always positive. They respond similarly to parameters that affect the core thickness, but differently to parameters that affect the head group properties. We found that the trends for k̄ and J(0)(m) can be rationalised by the concept of Israelachivili's surfactant packing parameter, and that both k̄ and J(0)(m) change sign with relevant parameter changes. Although typically k̄ 0, especially at low ionic strengths. We anticipate that these changes lead to unstable membranes as these become vulnerable to pore formation or disintegration into lipid disks.
Linking lipid architecture to bilayer structure and mechanics using self-consistent field modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pera, H.; Kleijn, J. M.; Leermakers, F. A. M.
2014-01-01
To understand how lipid architecture determines the lipid bilayer structure and its mechanics, we implement a molecularly detailed model that uses the self-consistent field theory. This numerical model accurately predicts parameters such as Helfrichs mean and Gaussian bending modulus k c and k ¯ and the preferred monolayer curvature J 0 m , and also delivers structural membrane properties like the core thickness, and head group position and orientation. We studied how these mechanical parameters vary with system variations, such as lipid tail length, membrane composition, and those parameters that control the lipid tail and head group solvent quality. For the membrane composition, negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol (PG) or zwitterionic, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and -ethanolamine (PE) lipids were used. In line with experimental findings, we find that the values of k c and the area compression modulus k A are always positive. They respond similarly to parameters that affect the core thickness, but differently to parameters that affect the head group properties. We found that the trends for k ¯ and J 0 m can be rationalised by the concept of Israelachivili's surfactant packing parameter, and that both k ¯ and J 0 m change sign with relevant parameter changes. Although typically k ¯ 0 m ≫0, especially at low ionic strengths. We anticipate that these changes lead to unstable membranes as these become vulnerable to pore formation or disintegration into lipid disks
Studying the Consistency between and within the Student Mental Models for Atomic Structure
Zarkadis, Nikolaos; Papageorgiou, George; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios
2017-01-01
Science education research has revealed a number of student mental models for atomic structure, among which, the one based on Bohr's model seems to be the most dominant. The aim of the current study is to investigate the coherence of these models when students apply them for the explanation of a variety of situations. For this purpose, a set of…
A self-consistent model for the electronic structure of the u-center in alkali-halides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koiller, B.; Brandi, H.S.
1978-01-01
A simple one-orbital per site model Hamiltonian for the U center in alkali-halides with rock-salt structure where correlation effects are introduced via an Anderson type Hamiltonian is presented. The Cluster-Bethe lattice method is used to determine the local density of states, yielding both localized and extended states. A one-electron approximation is assumed and the problem is solved self consistently in the Hartree-Fock scheme. The optical excitation energy is in fair agreement with experiment. The present approach is compared with other models previously used to describe this center and the results indicate that is adequately incorporates the relevant features of the system indicating the possibility of its application to other physical situations [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martemyanova, Julia A; Ivanov, Victor A; Paul, Wolfgang
2014-01-01
We study conformational properties of a single multiblock copolymer chain consisting of flexible and semiflexible blocks. Monomer units of different blocks are equivalent in the sense of the volume interaction potential, but the intramolecular bending potential between successive bonds along the chain is different. We consider a single flexible-semiflexible regular multiblock copolymer chain with equal content of flexible and semiflexible units and vary the length of the blocks and the stiffness parameter. We perform flat histogram type Monte Carlo simulations based on the Wang-Landau approach and employ the bond fluctuation lattice model. We present here our data on different non-trivial globular morphologies which we have obtained in our model for different values of the block length and the stiffness parameter. We demonstrate that the collapse can occur in one or in two stages depending on the values of both these parameters and discuss the role of the inhomogeneity of intraglobular distributions of monomer units of both flexible and semiflexible blocks. For short block length and/or large stiffness the collapse occurs in two stages, because it goes through intermediate (meta-)stable structures, like a dumbbell shaped conformation. In such conformations the semiflexible blocks form a cylinder-like core, and the flexible blocks form two domains at both ends of such a cylinder. For long block length and/or small stiffness the collapse occurs in one stage, and in typical conformations the flexible blocks form a spherical core of a globule while the semiflexible blocks are located on the surface and wrap around this core.
Consistent Stochastic Modelling of Meteocean Design Parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Sterndorff, M. J.
2000-01-01
Consistent stochastic models of metocean design parameters and their directional dependencies are essential for reliability assessment of offshore structures. In this paper a stochastic model for the annual maximum values of the significant wave height, and the associated wind velocity, current...
ERBE bidirectional model consistency check
Baldwin, D. G.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.
1986-01-01
A short analysis is presented of Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) errors inherent in the directional models used for data interpretation. The models were all developed on the basis of experience with the Nimbus-7 ERB experiment, which had a spatial resolution one-third that of ERBE instrumentation. A pseudo-directional model is defined to simulate the ERBE scanner data, using the assumptions that the average radiant exitance for any particular scene is independent of the viewing geometry, geographic location and time the data is collected. The directionality of the view angle and solar zenith angle is accounted for by a method of bins.
2015-01-05
fully-automatic method to detect cracks from pavement images, that can be used for pavement road maintenance. The developed method consists of three...steps: 1) A geodesic shadow-removal algorithm to remove the pavement shadows while preserving the cracks ; 2) building a crack probability map to enhance... cracks . Cracktree was evaluated on real pavement images and it achieves better performance than existing methods. 1 Multi-label Segmentation Propagation
Borisov, O.V.; Zhulina, E.B.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Muller, A.H.E.
2011-01-01
We present an overview of statistical thermodynamic theories that describe the self-assembly of amphiphilic ionic/hydrophobic diblock copolymers in dilute solution. Block copolymers with both strongly and weakly dissociating (pH-sensitive) ionic blocks are considered. We focus mostly on structural
Self-consistent calculation of atomic structure for mixture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng Xujun; Bai Yun; Sun Yongsheng; Zhang Jinglin; Zong Xiaoping
2000-01-01
Based on relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater self-consistent average atomic model, atomic structure for mixture is studied by summing up component volumes in mixture. Algorithmic procedure for solving both the group of Thomas-Fermi equations and the self-consistent atomic structure is presented in detail, and, some numerical results are discussed
The consistency problems of large scale structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.
1986-01-01
Studies of the early universe are reviewed, with emphasis on galaxy formation, dark matter and the generation of large scale structure. The paper was presented at the conference on ''The early universe and its evolution'', Erice, Italy, 1986. Dark matter, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, baryonic halos, flatness arguments, cosmological constant, galaxy formation, neutrinos plus strings or explosions and string models, are all discussed. (U.K.)
Consistency of the MLE under mixture models
Chen, Jiahua
2016-01-01
The large-sample properties of likelihood-based statistical inference under mixture models have received much attention from statisticians. Although the consistency of the nonparametric MLE is regarded as a standard conclusion, many researchers ignore the precise conditions required on the mixture model. An incorrect claim of consistency can lead to false conclusions even if the mixture model under investigation seems well behaved. Under a finite normal mixture model, for instance, the consis...
Consistent spectroscopy for a extended gauge model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira Neto, G. de.
1990-11-01
The consistent spectroscopy was obtained with a Lagrangian constructed with vector fields with a U(1) group extended symmetry. As consistent spectroscopy is understood the determination of quantum physical properties described by the model in an manner independent from the possible parametrizations adopted in their description. (L.C.J.A.)
Consistent Estimation of Partition Markov Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesús E. García
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The Partition Markov Model characterizes the process by a partition L of the state space, where the elements in each part of L share the same transition probability to an arbitrary element in the alphabet. This model aims to answer the following questions: what is the minimal number of parameters needed to specify a Markov chain and how to estimate these parameters. In order to answer these questions, we build a consistent strategy for model selection which consist of: giving a size n realization of the process, finding a model within the Partition Markov class, with a minimal number of parts to represent the process law. From the strategy, we derive a measure that establishes a metric in the state space. In addition, we show that if the law of the process is Markovian, then, eventually, when n goes to infinity, L will be retrieved. We show an application to model internet navigation patterns.
Self-consistent asset pricing models
Malevergne, Y.; Sornette, D.
2007-08-01
We discuss the foundations of factor or regression models in the light of the self-consistency condition that the market portfolio (and more generally the risk factors) is (are) constituted of the assets whose returns it is (they are) supposed to explain. As already reported in several articles, self-consistency implies correlations between the return disturbances. As a consequence, the alphas and betas of the factor model are unobservable. Self-consistency leads to renormalized betas with zero effective alphas, which are observable with standard OLS regressions. When the conditions derived from internal consistency are not met, the model is necessarily incomplete, which means that some sources of risk cannot be replicated (or hedged) by a portfolio of stocks traded on the market, even for infinite economies. Analytical derivations and numerical simulations show that, for arbitrary choices of the proxy which are different from the true market portfolio, a modified linear regression holds with a non-zero value αi at the origin between an asset i's return and the proxy's return. Self-consistency also introduces “orthogonality” and “normality” conditions linking the betas, alphas (as well as the residuals) and the weights of the proxy portfolio. Two diagnostics based on these orthogonality and normality conditions are implemented on a basket of 323 assets which have been components of the S&P500 in the period from January 1990 to February 2005. These two diagnostics show interesting departures from dynamical self-consistency starting about 2 years before the end of the Internet bubble. Assuming that the CAPM holds with the self-consistency condition, the OLS method automatically obeys the resulting orthogonality and normality conditions and therefore provides a simple way to self-consistently assess the parameters of the model by using proxy portfolios made only of the assets which are used in the CAPM regressions. Finally, the factor decomposition with the
A thermodynamically consistent model for magnetic hysteresis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, Kwangsoo
2014-01-01
A phenomenological constitutive model is presented to describe the magnetization curve within the context of thermodynamics. Due to the phenomenological analogy between the magnetic hysteresis and the stress hysteresis, the basic structure of the proposed model comes from rate-dependent plasticity in continuum mechanics, namely viscoplasticity. The total magnetic flux density is assumed to be the sum of reversible and irreversible parts. The model introduces the evolution laws of two internal state variables to incorporate the effect of the ever-changing internal microstructure on the current state. The conception originated from viscoplasticity enables the frequency dependence of the hysteresis curve to be modeled. - Highlights: • A constitutive model is proposed within the framework of thermodynamic principles. • The basic structure of formulation is originated from the rate-dependent plasticity. • Decomposition of the magnetic flux into reversible and irreversible parts is assumed. • Constitutive model reproduces the frequency dependency of magnetic hysteresis
Developing consistent pronunciation models for phonemic variants
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Davel, M
2006-09-01
Full Text Available from a lexicon containing variants. In this paper we (the authors) address both these issues by creating ‘pseudo-phonemes’ associated with sets of ‘generation restriction rules’ to model those pronunciations that are consistently realised as two or more...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mette Krog; Khaliullin, Renat; Schieber, Jay D.
2012-01-01
knowledge about the effect of dangling ends and soluble structures. To interpret our recent experimental results, we exploit a molecular model that can predict LVE data and non-linear stress–strain data. The slip-link model has proven to be a robust tool for both LVE and non-linear stress–strain predictions...... strands in the ensemble are attached to the network in both ends. Next we add dangling strands to the network representing the stoichiometric imbalance, or imperfections during curing. By considering monodisperse network strands without dangling ends, we find that the relative low-frequency plateau, G0/GN......0G0G0N, decreases linearly with the average number of entanglements. The decrease from GN0G0N to G 0 is a result of monomer fluctuations between entanglements, which is similar to “longitudinal modes” in tube theory. It is found that the slope of G′ is dependent on the fraction of network strands...
Self-consistent model of confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swift, A.R.
1988-01-01
A model of the large-spatial-distance, zero--three-momentum, limit of QCD is developed from the hypothesis that there is an infrared singularity. Single quarks and gluons do not propagate because they have infinite energy after renormalization. The Hamiltonian formulation of the path integral is used to quantize QCD with physical, nonpropagating fields. Perturbation theory in the infrared limit is simplified by the absence of self-energy insertions and by the suppression of large classes of diagrams due to vanishing propagators. Remaining terms in the perturbation series are resummed to produce a set of nonlinear, renormalizable integral equations which fix both the confining interaction and the physical propagators. Solutions demonstrate the self-consistency of the concepts of an infrared singularity and nonpropagating fields. The Wilson loop is calculated to provide a general proof of confinement. Bethe-Salpeter equations for quark-antiquark pairs and for two gluons have finite-energy solutions in the color-singlet channel. The choice of gauge is addressed in detail. Large classes of corrections to the model are discussed and shown to support self-consistency
Parametrization of model consistant expectations in the Sidrauski model
Hoogenveen, Victoria; Sterken, Elmer
1996-01-01
This paper discusses a cubic parametrisation of model consistent expectations in a nonlinear dynamic monetary growth model. The so-called Sidrauski model links money, inflation and consumption growth. Iterative least squares combined with simulation is used to address the alleged impact of inflation
Consistent Alignment of World Embedding Models
2017-03-02
MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood Street Lexington, MA 02421, USA ABSTRACT Word embedding models offer continuous vector representations that can...generated synthetic data points. This generative process is inspired by the observation that a variety of linguistic relationships is captured by simple...as images , and genomic data. In Wang et al. (2016) manifold alignment techniques are used to discover logical relationships in supervised settings. We
Self-Consistent Models of Accretion Disks
Narayan, Ramesh
2000-01-01
Research was carried out on several topics in the theory of astrophysical accretion flows around black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs. The focus of our effort was the advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) model which the PI and his collaborators proposed and developed over the last several years. Our group completed a total of 46 papers, of which 36 are in refereed journals and 12 are in conference proceedings. All the papers have either already appeared in print or are in press.
Consistency test of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pawlowski, M.; Raczka, R.
1997-01-01
If the 'Higgs mass' is not the physical mass of a real particle but rather an effective ultraviolet cutoff then a process energy dependence of this cutoff must be admitted. Precision data from at least two energy scale experimental points are necessary to test this hypothesis. The first set of precision data is provided by the Z-boson peak experiments. We argue that the second set can be given by 10-20 GeV e + e - colliders. We pay attention to the special role of tau polarization experiments that can be sensitive to the 'Higgs mass' for a sample of ∼ 10 8 produced tau pairs. We argue that such a study may be regarded as a negative selfconsistency test of the Standard Model and of most of its extensions
Modeling a Consistent Behavior of PLC-Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. V. Kuzmin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The article extends the cycle of papers dedicated to programming and verificatoin of PLC-programs by LTL-specification. This approach provides the availability of correctness analysis of PLC-programs by the model checking method.The model checking method needs to construct a finite model of a PLC program. For successful verification of required properties it is important to take into consideration that not all combinations of input signals from the sensors can occur while PLC works with a control object. This fact requires more advertence to the construction of the PLC-program model.In this paper we propose to describe a consistent behavior of sensors by three groups of LTL-formulas. They will affect the program model, approximating it to the actual behavior of the PLC program. The idea of LTL-requirements is shown by an example.A PLC program is a description of reactions on input signals from sensors, switches and buttons. In constructing a PLC-program model, the approach to modeling a consistent behavior of PLC sensors allows to focus on modeling precisely these reactions without an extension of the program model by additional structures for realization of a realistic behavior of sensors. The consistent behavior of sensors is taken into account only at the stage of checking a conformity of the programming model to required properties, i. e. a property satisfaction proof for the constructed model occurs with the condition that the model contains only such executions of the program that comply with the consistent behavior of sensors.
Structures, profile consistency, and transport scaling in electrostatic convection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.
2005-01-01
Two mechanisms at the origin of profile consistency in models of electrostatic turbulence in magnetized plasmas are considered. One involves turbulent diffusion in collisionless plasmas and the subsequent turbulent equipartition of Lagrangian invariants. By the very nature of its definition...
A self-consistent spin-diffusion model for micromagnetics
Abert, Claas
2016-12-17
We propose a three-dimensional micromagnetic model that dynamically solves the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation coupled to the full spin-diffusion equation. In contrast to previous methods, we solve for the magnetization dynamics and the electric potential in a self-consistent fashion. This treatment allows for an accurate description of magnetization dependent resistance changes. Moreover, the presented algorithm describes both spin accumulation due to smooth magnetization transitions and due to material interfaces as in multilayer structures. The model and its finite-element implementation are validated by current driven motion of a magnetic vortex structure. In a second experiment, the resistivity of a magnetic multilayer structure in dependence of the tilting angle of the magnetization in the different layers is investigated. Both examples show good agreement with reference simulations and experiments respectively.
Gregory Research Beliefs Scale: Factor Structure and Internal Consistency
Gregory, Virgil L., Jr.
2010-01-01
Objective: This study evaluates the factor structure and internal consistency of the Gregory Research Beliefs Scale (GRBS). Method: Data were collected from subject matter experts, a pilot study, an online sample, and a classroom sample. Psychometric analyses were conducted after combining the online and classroom samples. Results: An a priori…
2016-11-01
assessing wave impact effects on humans . The following paragraphs provide a broad overview of early data acquisition and numerous statistical...defining impact loads that can be applied with common engineering rationale regardless of the topic of interest (e.g., structure, equipment, human ...computational methods for high-speed craft hull design and human comfort evolved with a reliance on statistical parameters to quantify the wave impact
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tea Ya. Danelyan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The article states the general principles of structural modeling in aspect of the theory of systems and gives the interrelation with other types of modeling to adjust them to the main directions of modeling. Mathematical methods of structural modeling, in particular method of expert evaluations are considered.
Self-consistent, relativistic, ferromagnetic band structure of gadolinium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harmon, B.N.; Schirber, J.; Koelling, D.D.
1977-01-01
An initial self-consistent calculation of the ground state magnetic band structure of gadolinium is described. A linearized APW method was used which included all single particle relativistic effects except spin-orbit coupling. The spin polarized potential was obtained in the muffin-tin form using the local spin density approximation for exchange and correlation. The most striking and unorthodox aspect of the results is the position of the 4f spin-down ''bands'' which are required to float just on top of the Fermi level in order to obtain convergence. If the 4f states (l = 3 resonance) are removed from the occupied region of the conduction bands the magnetic moment is approximately .75 μ/sub B//atom; however, as the 4f spin-down states are allowed to find their own position they hybridize with the conduction bands at the Fermi level and the moment becomes smaller. Means of improving the calculation are discussed
Standard Model Vacuum Stability and Weyl Consistency Conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Antipin, Oleg; Gillioz, Marc; Krog, Jens
2013-01-01
At high energy the standard model possesses conformal symmetry at the classical level. This is reflected at the quantum level by relations between the different beta functions of the model. These relations are known as the Weyl consistency conditions. We show that it is possible to satisfy them...... order by order in perturbation theory, provided that a suitable coupling constant counting scheme is used. As a direct phenomenological application, we study the stability of the standard model vacuum at high energies and compare with previous computations violating the Weyl consistency conditions....
Diagnosing a Strong-Fault Model by Conflict and Consistency.
Zhang, Wenfeng; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Hongbo; Zhou, Gan; Feng, Wenquan
2018-03-29
The diagnosis method for a weak-fault model with only normal behaviors of each component has evolved over decades. However, many systems now demand a strong-fault models, the fault modes of which have specific behaviors as well. It is difficult to diagnose a strong-fault model due to its non-monotonicity. Currently, diagnosis methods usually employ conflicts to isolate possible fault and the process can be expedited when some observed output is consistent with the model's prediction where the consistency indicates probably normal components. This paper solves the problem of efficiently diagnosing a strong-fault model by proposing a novel Logic-based Truth Maintenance System (LTMS) with two search approaches based on conflict and consistency. At the beginning, the original a strong-fault model is encoded by Boolean variables and converted into Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF). Then the proposed LTMS is employed to reason over CNF and find multiple minimal conflicts and maximal consistencies when there exists fault. The search approaches offer the best candidate efficiency based on the reasoning result until the diagnosis results are obtained. The completeness, coverage, correctness and complexity of the proposals are analyzed theoretically to show their strength and weakness. Finally, the proposed approaches are demonstrated by applying them to a real-world domain-the heat control unit of a spacecraft-where the proposed methods are significantly better than best first and conflict directly with A* search methods.
Consistent partnership formation: application to a sexually transmitted disease model.
Artzrouni, Marc; Deuchert, Eva
2012-02-01
We apply a consistent sexual partnership formation model which hinges on the assumption that one gender's choices drives the process (male or female dominant model). The other gender's behavior is imputed. The model is fitted to UK sexual behavior data and applied to a simple incidence model of HSV-2. With a male dominant model (which assumes accurate male reports on numbers of partners) the modeled incidences of HSV-2 are 77% higher for men and 50% higher for women than with a female dominant model (which assumes accurate female reports). Although highly stylized, our simple incidence model sheds light on the inconsistent results one can obtain with misreported data on sexual activity and age preferences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Consistent estimation of linear panel data models with measurement error
Meijer, Erik; Spierdijk, Laura; Wansbeek, Thomas
2017-01-01
Measurement error causes a bias towards zero when estimating a panel data linear regression model. The panel data context offers various opportunities to derive instrumental variables allowing for consistent estimation. We consider three sources of moment conditions: (i) restrictions on the
Final Report Fermionic Symmetries and Self consistent Shell Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamick, Larry
2008-01-01
In this final report in the field of theoretical nuclear physics we note important accomplishments.We were confronted with 'anomoulous' magnetic moments by the experimetalists and were able to expain them. We found unexpected partial dynamical symmetries--completely unknown before, and were able to a large extent to expain them. The importance of a self consistent shell model was emphasized.
Detection and quantification of flow consistency in business process models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burattin, Andrea; Bernstein, Vered; Neurauter, Manuel
2017-01-01
, to show how such features can be quantified into computational metrics, which are applicable to business process models. We focus on one particular feature, consistency of flow direction, and show the challenges that arise when transforming it into a precise metric. We propose three different metrics......Business process models abstract complex business processes by representing them as graphical models. Their layout, as determined by the modeler, may have an effect when these models are used. However, this effect is currently not fully understood. In order to systematically study this effect......, a basic set of measurable key visual features is proposed, depicting the layout properties that are meaningful to the human user. The aim of this research is thus twofold: first, to empirically identify key visual features of business process models which are perceived as meaningful to the user and second...
Consistency checks in beam emission modeling for neutral beam injectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Punyapu, Bharathi; Vattipalle, Prahlad; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Baruah, Ujjwal Kumar; Crowley, Brendan
2015-01-01
In positive neutral beam systems, the beam parameters such as ion species fractions, power fractions and beam divergence are routinely measured using Doppler shifted beam emission spectrum. The accuracy with which these parameters are estimated depend on the accuracy of the atomic modeling involved in these estimations. In this work, an effective procedure to check the consistency of the beam emission modeling in neutral beam injectors is proposed. As a first consistency check, at a constant beam voltage and current, the intensity of the beam emission spectrum is measured by varying the pressure in the neutralizer. Then, the scaling of measured intensity of un-shifted (target) and Doppler shifted intensities (projectile) of the beam emission spectrum at these pressure values are studied. If the un-shifted component scales with pressure, then the intensity of this component will be used as a second consistency check on the beam emission modeling. As a further check, the modeled beam fractions and emission cross sections of projectile and target are used to predict the intensity of the un-shifted component and then compared with the value of measured target intensity. An agreement between the predicted and measured target intensities provide the degree of discrepancy in the beam emission modeling. In order to test this methodology, a systematic analysis of Doppler shift spectroscopy data obtained on the JET neutral beam test stand data was carried out
Simplified models for dark matter face their consistent completions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonçalves, Dorival; Machado, Pedro A. N.; No, Jose Miguel
2017-03-01
Simplified dark matter models have been recently advocated as a powerful tool to exploit the complementarity between dark matter direct detection, indirect detection and LHC experimental probes. Focusing on pseudoscalar mediators between the dark and visible sectors, we show that the simplified dark matter model phenomenology departs significantly from that of consistent ${SU(2)_{\\mathrm{L}} \\times U(1)_{\\mathrm{Y}}}$ gauge invariant completions. We discuss the key physics simplified models fail to capture, and its impact on LHC searches. Notably, we show that resonant mono-Z searches provide competitive sensitivities to standard mono-jet analyses at $13$ TeV LHC.
Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model
Russo, Dane M.
2010-01-01
Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.
A Self-consistent Model of the Solar Tachocline
Wood, T. S.; Brummell, N. H.
2018-02-01
We present a local but fully nonlinear model of the solar tachocline, using three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. The tachocline forms naturally as a statistically steady balance between Coriolis, pressure, buoyancy, and Lorentz forces beneath a turbulent convection zone. Uniform rotation is maintained in the radiation zone by a primordial magnetic field, which is confined by meridional flows in the tachocline and convection zone. Such balanced dynamics has previously been found in idealized laminar models, but never in fully self-consistent numerical simulations.
A Consistent Pricing Model for Index Options and Volatility Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kokholm, Thomas
We propose a flexible modeling framework for the joint dynamics of an index and a set of forward variance swap rates written on this index. Our model reproduces various empirically observed properties of variance swap dynamics and enables volatility derivatives and options on the underlying index...... to be priced consistently, while allowing for jumps in volatility and returns. An affine specification using Lévy processes as building blocks leads to analytically tractable pricing formulas for volatility derivatives, such as VIX options, as well as efficient numerical methods for pricing of European options...... on the underlying asset. The model has the convenient feature of decoupling the vanilla skews from spot/volatility correlations and allowing for different conditional correlations in large and small spot/volatility moves. We show that our model can simultaneously fit prices of European options on S&P 500 across...
A Consistent Pricing Model for Index Options and Volatility Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas
2013-01-01
We propose a flexible modeling framework for the joint dynamics of an index and a set of forward variance swap rates written on this index. Our model reproduces various empirically observed properties of variance swap dynamics and enables volatility derivatives and options on the underlying index...... to be priced consistently, while allowing for jumps in volatility and returns. An affine specification using Lévy processes as building blocks leads to analytically tractable pricing formulas for volatility derivatives, such as VIX options, as well as efficient numerical methods for pricing of European options...... on the underlying asset. The model has the convenient feature of decoupling the vanilla skews from spot/volatility correlations and allowing for different conditional correlations in large and small spot/volatility moves. We show that our model can simultaneously fit prices of European options on S&P 500 across...
A Consistent Pricing Model for Index Options and Volatility Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas
We propose and study a flexible modeling framework for the joint dynamics of an index and a set of forward variance swap rates written on this index, allowing options on forward variance swaps and options on the underlying index to be priced consistently. Our model reproduces various empirically...... observed properties of variance swap dynamics and allows for jumps in volatility and returns. An affine specification using L´evy processes as building blocks leads to analytically tractable pricing formulas for options on variance swaps as well as efficient numerical methods for pricing of European...... options on the underlying asset. The model has the convenient feature of decoupling the vanilla skews from spot/volatility correlations and allowing for different conditional correlations in large and small spot/volatility moves. We show that our model can simultaneously fit prices of European options...
Self-consistent Modeling of Elastic Anisotropy in Shale
Kanitpanyacharoen, W.; Wenk, H.; Matthies, S.; Vasin, R.
2012-12-01
Elastic anisotropy in clay-rich sedimentary rocks has increasingly received attention because of significance for prospecting of petroleum deposits, as well as seals in the context of nuclear waste and CO2 sequestration. The orientation of component minerals and pores/fractures is a critical factor that influences elastic anisotropy. In this study, we investigate lattice and shape preferred orientation (LPO and SPO) of three shales from the North Sea in UK, the Qusaiba Formation in Saudi Arabia, and the Officer Basin in Australia (referred to as N1, Qu3, and L1905, respectively) to calculate elastic properties and compare them with experimental results. Synchrotron hard X-ray diffraction and microtomography experiments were performed to quantify LPO, weight proportions, and three-dimensional SPO of constituent minerals and pores. Our preliminary results show that the degree of LPO and total amount of clays are highest in Qu3 (3.3-6.5 m.r.d and 74vol%), moderately high in N1 (2.4-5.6 m.r.d. and 70vol%), and lowest in L1905 (2.3-2.5 m.r.d. and 42vol%). In addition, porosity in Qu3 is as low as 2% while it is up to 6% in L1605 and 8% in N1, respectively. Based on this information and single crystal elastic properties of mineral components, we apply a self-consistent averaging method to calculate macroscopic elastic properties and corresponding seismic velocities for different shales. The elastic model is then compared with measured acoustic velocities on the same samples. The P-wave velocities measured from Qu3 (4.1-5.3 km/s, 26.3%Ani.) are faster than those obtained from L1905 (3.9-4.7 km/s, 18.6%Ani.) and N1 (3.6-4.3 km/s, 17.7%Ani.). By making adjustments for pore structure (aspect ratio) and single crystal elastic properties of clay minerals, a good agreement between our calculation and the ultrasonic measurement is obtained.
Are paleoclimate model ensembles consistent with the MARGO data synthesis?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. C. Hargreaves
2011-08-01
Full Text Available We investigate the consistency of various ensembles of climate model simulations with the Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean Surface (MARGO sea surface temperature data synthesis. We discover that while two multi-model ensembles, created through the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Projects (PMIP and PMIP2, pass our simple tests of reliability, an ensemble based on parameter variation in a single model does not perform so well. We show that accounting for observational uncertainty in the MARGO database is of prime importance for correctly evaluating the ensembles. Perhaps surprisingly, the inclusion of a coupled dynamical ocean (compared to the use of a slab ocean does not appear to cause a wider spread in the sea surface temperature anomalies, but rather causes systematic changes with more heat transported north in the Atlantic. There is weak evidence that the sea surface temperature data may be more consistent with meridional overturning in the North Atlantic being similar for the LGM and the present day. However, the small size of the PMIP2 ensemble prevents any statistically significant results from being obtained.
Development of a Consistent and Reproducible Porcine Scald Burn Model
Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila
2016-01-01
There are very few porcine burn models that replicate scald injuries similar to those encountered by children. We have developed a robust porcine burn model capable of creating reproducible scald burns for a wide range of burn conditions. The study was conducted with juvenile Large White pigs, creating replicates of burn combinations; 50°C for 1, 2, 5 and 10 minutes and 60°C, 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 5 seconds. Visual wound examination, biopsies and Laser Doppler Imaging were performed at 1, 24 hours and at 3 and 7 days post-burn. A consistent water temperature was maintained within the scald device for long durations (49.8 ± 0.1°C when set at 50°C). The macroscopic and histologic appearance was consistent between replicates of burn conditions. For 50°C water, 10 minute duration burns showed significantly deeper tissue injury than all shorter durations at 24 hours post-burn (p ≤ 0.0001), with damage seen to increase until day 3 post-burn. For 5 second duration burns, by day 7 post-burn the 80°C and 90°C scalds had damage detected significantly deeper in the tissue than the 70°C scalds (p ≤ 0.001). A reliable and safe model of porcine scald burn injury has been successfully developed. The novel apparatus with continually refreshed water improves consistency of scald creation for long exposure times. This model allows the pathophysiology of scald burn wound creation and progression to be examined. PMID:27612153
Large scale Bayesian nuclear data evaluation with consistent model defects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnabel, G
2015-01-01
Monte Carlo sampling schemes of available evaluation methods. The second improvement concerns Bayesian evaluation methods based on a certain simplification of the nuclear model. These methods were restricted to the consistent evaluation of tens of thousands of observables. In this thesis, a new evaluation scheme has been developed, which is mathematically equivalent to existing methods, but allows the consistent evaluation of dozens of millions of observables. The new scheme is suited for the implementation as a database application. The realization of such an application with public access can help to accelerate the production of reliable nuclear data sets. Furthermore, in combination with the novel treatment of model deficiencies, problems of the model and the experimental data can be tracked down without user interaction. This feature can foster the development of nuclear models with high predictive power. (author) [de
Mean-field theory and self-consistent dynamo modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokoi, Nobumitsu
2001-12-01
Mean-field theory of dynamo is discussed with emphasis on the statistical formulation of turbulence effects on the magnetohydrodynamic equations and the construction of a self-consistent dynamo model. The dynamo mechanism is sought in the combination of the turbulent residual-helicity and cross-helicity effects. On the basis of this mechanism, discussions are made on the generation of planetary magnetic fields such as geomagnetic field and sunspots and on the occurrence of flow by magnetic fields in planetary and fusion phenomena. (author)
A CVAR scenario for a standard monetary model using theory-consistent expectations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juselius, Katarina
2017-01-01
A theory-consistent CVAR scenario describes a set of testable regularities capturing basic assumptions of the theoretical model. Using this concept, the paper considers a standard model for exchange rate determination and shows that all assumptions about the model's shock structure and steady...
Self-consistent modeling of amorphous silicon devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hack, M.
1987-01-01
The authors developed a computer model to describe the steady-state behaviour of a range of amorphous silicon devices. It is based on the complete set of transport equations and takes into account the important role played by the continuous distribution of localized states in the mobility gap of amorphous silicon. Using one set of parameters they have been able to self-consistently simulate the current-voltage characteristics of p-i-n (or n-i-p) solar cells under illumination, the dark behaviour of field-effect transistors, p-i-n diodes and n-i-n diodes in both the ohmic and space charge limited regimes. This model also describes the steady-state photoconductivity of amorphous silicon, in particular, its dependence on temperature, doping and illumination intensity
Classical and Quantum Consistency of the DGP Model
Nicolis, A; Nicolis, Alberto; Rattazzi, Riccardo
2004-01-01
We study the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model by the method of the boundary effective action. The truncation of this action to the bending mode \\pi consistently describes physics in a wide range of regimes both at the classical and at the quantum level. The Vainshtein effect, which restores agreement with precise tests of general relativity, follows straightforwardly. We give a simple and general proof of stability, i.e. absence of ghosts in the fluctuations, valid for most of the relevant cases, like for instance the spherical source in asymptotically flat space. However we confirm that around certain interesting self-accelerating cosmological solutions there is a ghost. We consider the issue of quantum corrections. Around flat space \\pi becomes strongly coupled below a macroscopic length of 1000 km, thus impairing the predictivity of the model. Indeed the tower of higher dimensional operators which is expected by a generic UV completion of the model limits predictivity at even larger length scales. We outline ...
Thermodynamically consistent mesoscopic model of the ferro/paramagnetic transition
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Benešová, Barbora; Kružík, Martin; Roubíček, Tomáš
2013-01-01
Roč. 64, Č. 1 (2013), s. 1-28 ISSN 0044-2275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802; GA ČR GA106/09/1573; GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA106/08/1397; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06052 Program:GA; LC Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : ferro-para-magnetism * evolution * thermodynamics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UT-L) Impact factor: 1.214, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/kruzik-thermodynamically consistent mesoscopic model of the ferro-paramagnetic transition.pdf
Self-Consistent Dynamical Model of the Broad Line Region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czerny, Bozena; Li, Yan-Rong; Sredzinska, Justyna; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof; Panda, Swayam; Wildy, Conor; Karas, Vladimir
2017-01-01
We develop a self-consistent description of the Broad Line Region based on the concept of a failed wind powered by radiation pressure acting on a dusty accretion disk atmosphere in Keplerian motion. The material raised high above the disk is illuminated, dust evaporates, and the matter falls back toward the disk. This material is the source of emission lines. The model predicts the inner and outer radius of the region, the cloud dynamics under the dust radiation pressure and, subsequently, the gravitational field of the central black hole, which results in asymmetry between the rise and fall. Knowledge of the dynamics allows us to predict the shapes of the emission lines as functions of the basic parameters of an active nucleus: black hole mass, accretion rate, black hole spin (or accretion efficiency) and the viewing angle with respect to the symmetry axis. Here we show preliminary results based on analytical approximations to the cloud motion.
Consistent constraints on the Standard Model Effective Field Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berthier, Laure; Trott, Michael [Niels Bohr International Academy, University of Copenhagen,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)
2016-02-10
We develop the global constraint picture in the (linear) effective field theory generalisation of the Standard Model, incorporating data from detectors that operated at PEP, PETRA, TRISTAN, SpS, Tevatron, SLAC, LEPI and LEP II, as well as low energy precision data. We fit one hundred and three observables. We develop a theory error metric for this effective field theory, which is required when constraints on parameters at leading order in the power counting are to be pushed to the percent level, or beyond, unless the cut off scale is assumed to be large, Λ≳ 3 TeV. We more consistently incorporate theoretical errors in this work, avoiding this assumption, and as a direct consequence bounds on some leading parameters are relaxed. We show how an S,T analysis is modified by the theory errors we include as an illustrative example.
Self-Consistent Dynamical Model of the Broad Line Region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Czerny, Bozena [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Li, Yan-Rong [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Sredzinska, Justyna; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof [Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Panda, Swayam [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Wildy, Conor [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Karas, Vladimir, E-mail: bcz@cft.edu.pl [Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic)
2017-06-22
We develop a self-consistent description of the Broad Line Region based on the concept of a failed wind powered by radiation pressure acting on a dusty accretion disk atmosphere in Keplerian motion. The material raised high above the disk is illuminated, dust evaporates, and the matter falls back toward the disk. This material is the source of emission lines. The model predicts the inner and outer radius of the region, the cloud dynamics under the dust radiation pressure and, subsequently, the gravitational field of the central black hole, which results in asymmetry between the rise and fall. Knowledge of the dynamics allows us to predict the shapes of the emission lines as functions of the basic parameters of an active nucleus: black hole mass, accretion rate, black hole spin (or accretion efficiency) and the viewing angle with respect to the symmetry axis. Here we show preliminary results based on analytical approximations to the cloud motion.
Self-consistent electronic structure of the contracted tungsten (001) surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Posternak, M.; Krakauer, H.; Freeman, A.J.
1982-01-01
Self-consistent linearized-augmented-plane-wave energy-band studies using the warped muffin-tin approximation for a seven-layer W(001) single slab with the surface-layer separation contracted by 6% of the bulk interlayer spacing are reported. Surface electronic structure, local densities of states, generalized susceptibility for the surface, work function, and core-level shifts are found to have insignificant differences with corresponding results for the unrelaxed surface. Several differences in surface states between theory and recent angle-resolved photoemission experiments are discussed in the light of new proposed models of the actual unreconstructed surface structure at high temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaturvedi, D.K.; Senatore, G.; Tosi, M.P.
1980-10-01
An analytic theory is presented for the static structure factor of the one-component classical plasma at strong couplings. The theory combines the hard-core model of Gillan for short-range correlations in the Coulomb fluid with a semiempirical representation of intermediate-range correlations, through which the requirement of thermodynamic consistency on the ''compressibility'' and the known equation of state of the system are satisfied. Excellent agreement is found with the available computer simulation data on the structure of the fluid. The approach becomes inapplicable at intermediate and weak couplings where effects of penetration in the Coulomb hole of each particle become important. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Creminelli, Paolo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Gleyzes, Jérôme; Vernizzi, Filippo [CEA, Institut de Physique Théorique, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 France (France); Hui, Lam [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10027 (United States); Simonović, Marko, E-mail: creminel@ictp.it, E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr, E-mail: lhui@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: msimonov@sissa.it, E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)
2014-06-01
The recently derived consistency relations for Large Scale Structure do not hold if the Equivalence Principle (EP) is violated. We show it explicitly in a toy model with two fluids, one of which is coupled to a fifth force. We explore the constraints that galaxy surveys can set on EP violation looking at the squeezed limit of the 3-point function involving two populations of objects. We find that one can explore EP violations of order 10{sup −3}÷10{sup −4} on cosmological scales. Chameleon models are already very constrained by the requirement of screening within the Solar System and only a very tiny region of the parameter space can be explored with this method. We show that no violation of the consistency relations is expected in Galileon models.
A parameter study of self-consistent disk models around Herbig AeBe stars
Meijer, J.; Dominik, C.; de Koter, A.; Dullemond, C.P.; van Boekel, R.; Waters, L.B.F.M.
2008-01-01
We present a parameter study of self-consistent models of protoplanetary disks around Herbig AeBe stars. We use the code developed by Dullemond and Dominik, which solves the 2D radiative transfer problem including an iteration for the vertical hydrostatic structure of the disk. This grid of models
Toward a Self-Consistent Dynamical Model of the NSSL
Matilsky, Loren
2018-01-01
The advent of helioseismology has revealed in detail the internal differential rotation profile of the Sun. In particular, the presence of two boundary layers, the tachocline at the bottom of the convection zone (CZ) and the Near Surface Shear Layer (NSSL) at the top of the CZ, has remained a mystery. These two boundary layers may have significant consequences for the internal dynamo that operates the Sun's magnetic field, and so understanding their dynamics is an important step in solar physics and in the theory of solar-like stellar structure in general. In this talk, we analyze three numerical models of hydrodynamic convection in rotating spherical shells with varying degrees of stratification in order to understand the dynamical balance of the solar near-surface shear layer (NSSL). We find that with sufficient stratification, a boundary layer with some characteristics of the NSSL develops at high latitudes, and it is maintained purely an inertial balance of torques in which the viscosity is negligible. An inward radial flux of angular momentum from the Reynold's stress (as has been predicted by theory) is balanced by the poleward latitudinal flux of angular momentum due to the meridional circulation. We analyze the similarities of the near surface shear in our models to that of the Sun, and find that the solar NSSL is most likely maintained by the inertial balance our simulations display at high latitudes, but with a modified upper boundary condition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caroline Ghyoot
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Mixotrophy, i.e., the ability to combine phototrophy and phagotrophy in one organism, is now recognized to be widespread among photic-zone protists and to potentially modify the structure and functioning of planktonic ecosystems. However, few biogeochemical/ecological models explicitly include this mode of nutrition, owing to the large diversity of observed mixotrophic types, the few data allowing the parameterization of physiological processes, and the need to make the addition of mixotrophy into existing ecosystem models as simple as possible. We here propose and discuss a flexible model that depicts the main observed behaviors of mixotrophy in microplankton. A first model version describes constitutive mixotrophy (the organism photosynthesizes by use of its own chloroplasts. This model version offers two possible configurations, allowing the description of constitutive mixotrophs (CMs that favor either phototrophy or heterotrophy. A second version describes non-constitutive mixotrophy (the organism performs phototrophy by use of chloroplasts acquired from its prey. The model variants were described so as to be consistent with a plankton conceptualization in which the biomass is divided into separate components on the basis of their biochemical function (Shuter-approach; Shuter, 1979. The two model variants of mixotrophy can easily be implemented in ecological models that adopt the Shuter-approach, such as the MIRO model (Lancelot et al., 2005, and address the challenges associated with modeling mixotrophy.
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2009-01-01
In current practice, it is often difficult to draw firm conclusions about turbulence model accuracy when performing multi-code CFD studies ostensibly using the same model because of inconsistencies in model formulation or implementation in different codes. This paper describes an effort to improve the consistency, verification, and validation of turbulence models within the aerospace community through a website database of verification and validation cases. Some of the variants of two widely-used turbulence models are described, and two independent computer codes (one structured and one unstructured) are used in conjunction with two specific versions of these models to demonstrate consistency with grid refinement for several representative problems. Naming conventions, implementation consistency, and thorough grid resolution studies are key factors necessary for success.
Dynamical self-consistent description of exotic structures in nuclear matter at subnuclear densities
de la Mota, Virginia; Figerou, Sébastien
2010-01-01
We investigate the occurrence of exotic structures in nuclear matter at subnuclear densities within the framework of the dywan model. This approach, developed ab initio for the description of nuclear collisions, is a microscopic dynamical approach in which the numerical treatment makes use of wavelet representation techniques. Before tackling the effects of multi-particle correlations on the overall dynamics, we focused the present work on the study of cold matter within a pure mean field description. Starting from inhomogeneous initial conditions provided by an arrangement of nuclei located on an initial crystalline lattice, the exotic structures result from the dynamical self-consistent evolution. The nuclear system can freely self-organize, it can modify or even break the lattice structure and the initial symmetries of matter distribution. This approach goes beyond the Wigner-Seitz approximation and no assumption of final shapes of matter is made. In this framework, different effects, as the sensitivity of...
Heinkel, Florian; Gsponer, Jörg
2016-01-29
The mapping of folding landscapes remains an important challenge in protein chemistry. Pulsed oxidative labeling of exposed residues and their detection via mass spectrometry provide new means of taking time-resolved "snapshots" of the structural changes that occur during protein folding. However, such experiments have been so far only interpreted qualitatively. Here, we report the detailed structural interpretation of mass spectrometry data from fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) experiments at atomic resolution in a biased molecular dynamics approach. We are able to calculate structures of the early folding intermediate of the model system barstar that are fully consistent with FPOP data and Φ values. Furthermore, structures calculated with both FPOP data and Φ values are significantly less compact and have fewer helical residues than intermediate structures calculated with Φ values only. This improves the agreement with the experimental β-Tanford value and CD measurements. The restraints that we introduce facilitate the structural interpretation of FPOP data and provide new means for refined structure calculations of transiently sampled states on protein folding landscapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Self-consistent approach for neutral community models with speciation
Haegeman, Bart; Etienne, Rampal S.
Hubbell's neutral model provides a rich theoretical framework to study ecological communities. By incorporating both ecological and evolutionary time scales, it allows us to investigate how communities are shaped by speciation processes. The speciation model in the basic neutral model is
Consistency between 2D-3D Sediment Transport models
Villaret, Catherine; Jodeau, Magali
2017-04-01
Sediment transport models have been developed and applied by the engineering community to estimate transport rates and morphodynamic bed evolutions in river flows, coastal and estuarine conditions. Environmental modelling systems like the open-source Telemac modelling system include a hierarchy of models from 1D (Mascaret), 2D (Telemac-2D/Sisyphe) and 3D (Telemac-3D/Sedi-3D) and include a wide range of processes to represent sediment flow interactions under more and more complex situations (cohesive, non-cohesive and mixed sediment). Despite some tremendous progresses in the numerical techniques and computing resources, the quality/accuracy of model results mainly depend on the numerous choices and skills of the modeler. In complex situations involving stratification effects, complex geometry, recirculating flows… 2D model assumptions are no longer valid. A full 3D turbulent flow model is then required in order to capture the vertical mixing processes and to represent accurately the coupled flow/sediment distribution. However a number of theoretical and numerical difficulties arise when dealing with sediment transport modelling in 3D which will be high-lighted : (1) Dependency of model results to the vertical grid refinement and choice of boundary conditions and numerical scheme (2) The choice of turbulence model determines also the sediment vertical distribution which is governed by a balance between the downward settling term and upward turbulent diffusion. (3) The use of different numerical schemes for both hydrodynamics (mean and turbulent flow) and sediment transport modelling can lead to some inconsistency including a mismatch in the definition of numerical cells and definition of boundary conditions. We discuss here those present issues and present some detailed comparison between 2D and 3D simulations on a set of validation test cases which are available in the Telemac 7.2 release using both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments.
A Consistent Pricing Model for Index Options and Volatility Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kokholm, Thomas
We propose a flexible modeling framework for the joint dynamics of an index and a set of forward variance swap rates written on this index. Our model reproduces various empirically observed properties of variance swap dynamics and enables volatility derivatives and options on the underlying index...... on the underlying asset. The model has the convenient feature of decoupling the vanilla skews from spot/volatility correlations and allowing for different conditional correlations in large and small spot/volatility moves. We show that our model can simultaneously fit prices of European options on S&P 500 across...
Is the island universe model consistent with observations?
Piao, Yun-Song
2005-01-01
We study the island universe model, in which initially the universe is in a cosmological constant sea, then the local quantum fluctuations violating the null energy condition create the islands of matter, some of which might corresponds to our observable universe. We examine the possibility that the island universe model is regarded as an alternative scenario of the origin of observable universe.
Mechanistically Consistent Reduced Models of Synthetic Gene Networks
Mier-y-Terán-Romero, Luis; Silber, Mary; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily
2013-01-01
Designing genetic networks with desired functionalities requires an accurate mathematical framework that accounts for the essential mechanistic details of the system. Here, we formulate a time-delay model of protein translation and mRNA degradation by systematically reducing a detailed mechanistic model that explicitly accounts for the ribosomal dynamics and the cleaving of mRNA by endonucleases. We exploit various technical and conceptual advantages that our time-delay model offers over the mechanistic model to probe the behavior of a self-repressing gene over wide regions of parameter space. We show that a heuristic time-delay model of protein synthesis of a commonly used form yields a notably different prediction for the parameter region where sustained oscillations occur. This suggests that such heuristics can lead to erroneous results. The functional forms that arise from our systematic reduction can be used for every system that involves transcription and translation and they could replace the commonly used heuristic time-delay models for these processes. The results from our analysis have important implications for the design of synthetic gene networks and stress that such design must be guided by a combination of heuristic models and mechanistic models that include all relevant details of the process. PMID:23663853
Thermodynamically consistent description of criticality in models of correlated electrons
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Janiš, Václav; Kauch, Anna; Pokorný, Vladislav
2017-01-01
Roč. 95, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-14, č. článku 045108. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14259S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : conserving approximations * Anderson model * Hubbard model * parquet equations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016
Towards a self-consistent dynamical nuclear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roca-Maza, X; Colò, G; Bortignon, P F; Niu, Y F
2017-01-01
Density functional theory (DFT) is a powerful and accurate tool, exploited in nuclear physics to investigate the ground-state and some of the collective properties of nuclei along the whole nuclear chart. Models based on DFT are not, however, suitable for the description of single-particle dynamics in nuclei. Following the field theoretical approach by A Bohr and B R Mottelson to describe nuclear interactions between single-particle and vibrational degrees of freedom, we have taken important steps towards the building of a microscopic dynamic nuclear model. In connection with this, one important issue that needs to be better understood is the renormalization of the effective interaction in the particle-vibration approach. One possible way to renormalize the interaction is by the so-called subtraction method . In this contribution, we will implement the subtraction method in our model for the first time and study its consequences. (paper)
A thermodynamically consistent model of shape-memory alloys
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Benešová, Barbora
2011-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 355-356 ISSN 1617-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : slape memory alloys * model based on relaxation * thermomechanic coupling Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pamm.201110169/abstract
On self-consistent N=1 supersymmetric composite models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pirogov, Yu.F.
1984-01-01
A class of fermion-boson N=1 supersymmetric composite models is considered. The models satisfy the anomaly matching condition, n-independence and the survival hypothesis. A unique admissible set of light states has been found under additional requirements for the two-particle metacolour force saturation, left-right discrete symmetry and observability of spectator states, on a par with the composite ones, the formey being necessary to compensate for axial anomalies. With respect to the unbroken chiral symmetry Gsup((MF))=SU(n)sub(L)xSU(n)sub(R), the light set has in left-chiral notations the form [(n(n-1)/2, 1)+(1, anti n(n-1)/2]+2(anti n, n)+[(n(n+1)/2/, 1)+(1, anti n(n-1)/2] independent of the metacolo group Gsup((MC)). The effective interaction theory for the light set on the mass scales, smaller than that of compositeness, is the N=1 supersymmetric grand unified model Gsup((MF))=SU(n)sub(L)xSU(n)sub(R). Here n=6, 8 are phenomenologically acceptable. On low mass scales, the light set transforms exactly into four families of ordinary leptons and quarks. In accordance with the survival hypothesis, all exotic states are naturally heavy under the spontaneous breaking of Gsup((MF)) to the low-energy standard model symmetry
A seismologically consistent compositional model of Earth's core.
Badro, James; Côté, Alexander S; Brodholt, John P
2014-05-27
Earth's core is less dense than iron, and therefore it must contain "light elements," such as S, Si, O, or C. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to calculate the density and bulk sound velocity in liquid metal alloys at the pressure and temperature conditions of Earth's outer core. We compare the velocity and density for any composition in the (Fe-Ni, C, O, Si, S) system to radial seismological models and find a range of compositional models that fit the seismological data. We find no oxygen-free composition that fits the seismological data, and therefore our results indicate that oxygen is always required in the outer core. An oxygen-rich core is a strong indication of high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of core differentiation in a deep magma ocean with an FeO concentration (oxygen fugacity) higher than that of the present-day mantle.
Flood damage: a model for consistent, complete and multipurpose scenarios
Menoni, Scira; Molinari, Daniela; Ballio, Francesco; Minucci, Guido; Mejri, Ouejdane; Atun, Funda; Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia
2016-12-01
Effective flood risk mitigation requires the impacts of flood events to be much better and more reliably known than is currently the case. Available post-flood damage assessments usually supply only a partial vision of the consequences of the floods as they typically respond to the specific needs of a particular stakeholder. Consequently, they generally focus (i) on particular items at risk, (ii) on a certain time window after the occurrence of the flood, (iii) on a specific scale of analysis or (iv) on the analysis of damage only, without an investigation of damage mechanisms and root causes. This paper responds to the necessity of a more integrated interpretation of flood events as the base to address the variety of needs arising after a disaster. In particular, a model is supplied to develop multipurpose complete event scenarios. The model organizes available information after the event according to five logical axes. This way post-flood damage assessments can be developed that (i) are multisectoral, (ii) consider physical as well as functional and systemic damage, (iii) address the spatial scales that are relevant for the event at stake depending on the type of damage that has to be analyzed, i.e., direct, functional and systemic, (iv) consider the temporal evolution of damage and finally (v) allow damage mechanisms and root causes to be understood. All the above features are key for the multi-usability of resulting flood scenarios. The model allows, on the one hand, the rationalization of efforts currently implemented in ex post damage assessments, also with the objective of better programming financial resources that will be needed for these types of events in the future. On the other hand, integrated interpretations of flood events are fundamental to adapting and optimizing flood mitigation strategies on the basis of thorough forensic investigation of each event, as corroborated by the implementation of the model in a case study.
A non-parametric consistency test of the ΛCDM model with Planck CMB data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aghamousa, Amir; Shafieloo, Arman [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Hamann, Jan, E-mail: amir@aghamousa.com, E-mail: jan.hamann@unsw.edu.au, E-mail: shafieloo@kasi.re.kr [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)
2017-09-01
Non-parametric reconstruction methods, such as Gaussian process (GP) regression, provide a model-independent way of estimating an underlying function and its uncertainty from noisy data. We demonstrate how GP-reconstruction can be used as a consistency test between a given data set and a specific model by looking for structures in the residuals of the data with respect to the model's best-fit. Applying this formalism to the Planck temperature and polarisation power spectrum measurements, we test their global consistency with the predictions of the base ΛCDM model. Our results do not show any serious inconsistencies, lending further support to the interpretation of the base ΛCDM model as cosmology's gold standard.
Consistency problems for Heath-Jarrow-Morton interest rate models
Filipović, Damir
2001-01-01
The book is written for a reader with knowledge in mathematical finance (in particular interest rate theory) and elementary stochastic analysis, such as provided by Revuz and Yor (Continuous Martingales and Brownian Motion, Springer 1991). It gives a short introduction both to interest rate theory and to stochastic equations in infinite dimension. The main topic is the Heath-Jarrow-Morton (HJM) methodology for the modelling of interest rates. Experts in SDE in infinite dimension with interest in applications will find here the rigorous derivation of the popular "Musiela equation" (referred to in the book as HJMM equation). The convenient interpretation of the classical HJM set-up (with all the no-arbitrage considerations) within the semigroup framework of Da Prato and Zabczyk (Stochastic Equations in Infinite Dimensions) is provided. One of the principal objectives of the author is the characterization of finite-dimensional invariant manifolds, an issue that turns out to be vital for applications. Finally, ge...
On the internal consistency of holographic dark energy models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvat, R
2008-01-01
Holographic dark energy (HDE) models, underpinned by an effective quantum field theory (QFT) with a manifest UV/IR connection, have become convincing candidates for providing an explanation of the dark energy in the universe. On the other hand, the maximum number of quantum states that a conventional QFT for a box of size L is capable of describing relates to those boxes which are on the brink of experiencing a sudden collapse to a black hole. Another restriction on the underlying QFT is that the UV cut-off, which cannot be chosen independently of the IR cut-off and therefore becomes a function of time in a cosmological setting, should stay the largest energy scale even in the standard cosmological epochs preceding a dark energy dominated one. We show that, irrespective of whether one deals with the saturated form of HDE or takes a certain degree of non-saturation in the past, the above restrictions cannot be met in a radiation dominated universe, an epoch in the history of the universe which is expected to be perfectly describable within conventional QFT
Amazon Forests Maintain Consistent Canopy Structure and Greenness During the Dry Season
Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.
2014-01-01
The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data.We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.
Magnetoelectric effect in structures which consist from ferrimagnetic and piezoelectric components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koronovs'kij, V.Je.
2007-01-01
Magnetoelectric (ME) properties of the structure which consists from mechanically connected magnetostriction and piezoelectric plates were investigated on example of the yttrium-ferrite-garnet (YIG) - piezoelectric. The laser polarimeter is using
Martinez, Guillermo F.; Gupta, Hoshin V.
2011-12-01
Methods to select parsimonious and hydrologically consistent model structures are useful for evaluating dominance of hydrologic processes and representativeness of data. While information criteria (appropriately constrained to obey underlying statistical assumptions) can provide a basis for evaluating appropriate model complexity, it is not sufficient to rely upon the principle of maximum likelihood (ML) alone. We suggest that one must also call upon a "principle of hydrologic consistency," meaning that selected ML structures and parameter estimates must be constrained (as well as possible) to reproduce desired hydrological characteristics of the processes under investigation. This argument is demonstrated in the context of evaluating the suitability of candidate model structures for lumped water balance modeling across the continental United States, using data from 307 snow-free catchments. The models are constrained to satisfy several tests of hydrologic consistency, a flow space transformation is used to ensure better consistency with underlying statistical assumptions, and information criteria are used to evaluate model complexity relative to the data. The results clearly demonstrate that the principle of consistency provides a sensible basis for guiding selection of model structures and indicate strong spatial persistence of certain model structures across the continental United States. Further work to untangle reasons for model structure predominance can help to relate conceptual model structures to physical characteristics of the catchments, facilitating the task of prediction in ungaged basins.
On the internal consistency of the term structure of forecasts of housing starts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pierdzioch, C.; Rulke, J. C.; Stadtmann, G.
2013-01-01
We use the term structure of forecasts of housing starts to test for rationality of forecasts. Our test is based on the idea that short-term and long-term forecasts should be internally consistent. We test the internal consistency of forecasts using data for Australia, Canada, Japan and the United...
C. SCHLUTER; D. VAN DE GAER
2008-01-01
We formalize the concept of structural mobility and use the framework of subgroup consistent mobility measurement to derive a relative and an absolute measure of mobility that is increasing both in upward structural mobility and exchange mobility. In our empirical illustration, we contribute substantively to the ongoing debate about mobility rankings between the USA and Germany.
Consistency in Estimation and Model Selection of Dynamic Panel Data Models with Fixed Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangjie Li
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We examine the relationship between consistent parameter estimation and model selection for autoregressive panel data models with fixed effects. We find that the transformation of fixed effects proposed by Lancaster (2002 does not necessarily lead to consistent estimation of common parameters when some true exogenous regressors are excluded. We propose a data dependent way to specify the prior of the autoregressive coefficient and argue for comparing different model specifications before parameter estimation. Model selection properties of Bayes factors and Bayesian information criterion (BIC are investigated. When model uncertainty is substantial, we recommend the use of Bayesian Model Averaging to obtain point estimators with lower root mean squared errors (RMSE. We also study the implications of different levels of inclusion probabilities by simulations.
Self-consistent multidimensional electron kinetic model for inductively coupled plasma sources
Dai, Fa Foster
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources have received increasing interest in microelectronics fabrication and lighting industry. In 2-D configuration space (r, z) and 2-D velocity domain (νθ,νz), a self- consistent electron kinetic analytic model is developed for various ICP sources. The electromagnetic (EM) model is established based on modal analysis, while the kinetic analysis gives the perturbed Maxwellian distribution of electrons by solving Boltzmann-Vlasov equation. The self- consistent algorithm combines the EM model and the kinetic analysis by updating their results consistently until the solution converges. The closed-form solutions in the analytical model provide rigorous and fast computing for the EM fields and the electron kinetic behavior. The kinetic analysis shows that the RF energy in an ICP source is extracted by a collisionless dissipation mechanism, if the electron thermovelocity is close to the RF phase velocities. A criterion for collisionless damping is thus given based on the analytic solutions. To achieve uniformly distributed plasma for plasma processing, we propose a novel discharge structure with both planar and vertical coil excitations. The theoretical results demonstrate improved uniformity for the excited azimuthal E-field in the chamber. Non-monotonic spatial decay in electric field and space current distributions was recently observed in weakly- collisional plasmas. The anomalous skin effect is found to be responsible for this phenomenon. The proposed model successfully models the non-monotonic spatial decay effect and achieves good agreements with the measurements for different applied RF powers. The proposed analytical model is compared with other theoretical models and different experimental measurements. The developed model is also applied to two kinds of ICP discharges used for electrodeless light sources. One structure uses a vertical internal coil antenna to excite plasmas and another has a metal shield to prevent the
On the consistency of Monte Carlo track structure DNA damage simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pater, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.pater@mail.mcgill.ca; Seuntjens, Jan; El Naqa, Issam [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Bernal, Mario A. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas 13083-859 (Brazil)
2014-12-15
Purpose: Monte Carlo track structures (MCTS) simulations have been recognized as useful tools for radiobiological modeling. However, the authors noticed several issues regarding the consistency of reported data. Therefore, in this work, they analyze the impact of various user defined parameters on simulated direct DNA damage yields. In addition, they draw attention to discrepancies in published literature in DNA strand break (SB) yields and selected methodologies. Methods: The MCTS code Geant4-DNA was used to compare radial dose profiles in a nanometer-scale region of interest (ROI) for photon sources of varying sizes and energies. Then, electron tracks of 0.28 keV–220 keV were superimposed on a geometric DNA model composed of 2.7 × 10{sup 6} nucleosomes, and SBs were simulated according to four definitions based on energy deposits or energy transfers in DNA strand targets compared to a threshold energy E{sub TH}. The SB frequencies and complexities in nucleosomes as a function of incident electron energies were obtained. SBs were classified into higher order clusters such as single and double strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs) based on inter-SB distances and on the number of affected strands. Results: Comparisons of different nonuniform dose distributions lacking charged particle equilibrium may lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the effect of energy on relative biological effectiveness. The energy transfer-based SB definitions give similar SB yields as the one based on energy deposit when E{sub TH} ≈ 10.79 eV, but deviate significantly for higher E{sub TH} values. Between 30 and 40 nucleosomes/Gy show at least one SB in the ROI. The number of nucleosomes that present a complex damage pattern of more than 2 SBs and the degree of complexity of the damage in these nucleosomes diminish as the incident electron energy increases. DNA damage classification into SSB and DSB is highly dependent on the definitions of these higher order structures and their
On the consistency of Monte Carlo track structure DNA damage simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pater, Piotr; Seuntjens, Jan; El Naqa, Issam; Bernal, Mario A.
2014-01-01
Purpose: Monte Carlo track structures (MCTS) simulations have been recognized as useful tools for radiobiological modeling. However, the authors noticed several issues regarding the consistency of reported data. Therefore, in this work, they analyze the impact of various user defined parameters on simulated direct DNA damage yields. In addition, they draw attention to discrepancies in published literature in DNA strand break (SB) yields and selected methodologies. Methods: The MCTS code Geant4-DNA was used to compare radial dose profiles in a nanometer-scale region of interest (ROI) for photon sources of varying sizes and energies. Then, electron tracks of 0.28 keV–220 keV were superimposed on a geometric DNA model composed of 2.7 × 10 6 nucleosomes, and SBs were simulated according to four definitions based on energy deposits or energy transfers in DNA strand targets compared to a threshold energy E TH . The SB frequencies and complexities in nucleosomes as a function of incident electron energies were obtained. SBs were classified into higher order clusters such as single and double strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs) based on inter-SB distances and on the number of affected strands. Results: Comparisons of different nonuniform dose distributions lacking charged particle equilibrium may lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the effect of energy on relative biological effectiveness. The energy transfer-based SB definitions give similar SB yields as the one based on energy deposit when E TH ≈ 10.79 eV, but deviate significantly for higher E TH values. Between 30 and 40 nucleosomes/Gy show at least one SB in the ROI. The number of nucleosomes that present a complex damage pattern of more than 2 SBs and the degree of complexity of the damage in these nucleosomes diminish as the incident electron energy increases. DNA damage classification into SSB and DSB is highly dependent on the definitions of these higher order structures and their implementations. The authors
Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Verma, Vijay; Hembram, Mahesh; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sinha, Vinod Kumar
2013-07-01
As there are no instruments to measure psychological wellness or distress in visually impaired students, we studied internal consistency and factor structure of GHQ-12 in visually impaired children. Internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha and item total correlation) and exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis) were carried out to identify factor structure of 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). All items of GHQ-12 were significantly associated with each other and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the scale was 0.7. On analysis of principal component, three-factor solution was found that accounted for 47.92% of the total variance. The factors included, 'general well-being', 'depression' and 'cognitive', with Cronbach's alpha coefficients being 0.70, 0.59, and 0.34, respectively. Our study findings suggest GHQ-12 is a reliable with adequate internal consistency scale and multidimensional factor structure in visually impaired students.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, J.R.; Roberts, S.T.; Loparo, J.J.; Tokmakoff, A.; Fayer, M.D.; Skinner, J.L.
2007-01-01
Vibrational spectroscopy can provide important information about structure and dynamics in liquids. In the case of liquid water, this is particularly true for isotopically dilute HOD/D 2 O and HOD/H 2 O systems. Infrared and Raman line shapes for these systems were measured some time ago. Very recently, ultrafast three-pulse vibrational echo experiments have been performed on these systems, which provide new, exciting, and important dynamical benchmarks for liquid water. There has been tremendous theoretical effort expended on the development of classical simulation models for liquid water. These models have been parameterized from experimental structural and thermodynamic measurements. The goal of this paper is to determine if representative simulation models are consistent with steady-state, and especially with these new ultrafast, experiments. Such a comparison provides information about the accuracy of the dynamics of these simulation models. We perform this comparison using theoretical methods developed in previous papers, and calculate the experimental observables directly, without making the Condon and cumulant approximations, and taking into account molecular rotation, vibrational relaxation, and finite excitation pulses. On the whole, the simulation models do remarkably well; perhaps the best overall agreement with experiment comes from the SPC/E model
Self-consistent Dark Matter simplified models with an s-channel scalar mediator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, Nicole F.; Busoni, Giorgio; Sanderson, Isaac W.
2017-01-01
We examine Simplified Models in which fermionic DM interacts with Standard Model (SM) fermions via the exchange of an s -channel scalar mediator. The single-mediator version of this model is not gauge invariant, and instead we must consider models with two scalar mediators which mix and interfere. The minimal gauge invariant scenario involves the mixing of a new singlet scalar with the Standard Model Higgs boson, and is tightly constrained. We construct two Higgs doublet model (2HDM) extensions of this scenario, where the singlet mixes with the 2nd Higgs doublet. Compared with the one doublet model, this provides greater freedom for the masses and mixing angle of the scalar mediators, and their coupling to SM fermions. We outline constraints on these models, and discuss Yukawa structures that allow enhanced couplings, yet keep potentially dangerous flavour violating processes under control. We examine the direct detection phenomenology of these models, accounting for interference of the scalar mediators, and interference of different quarks in the nucleus. Regions of parameter space consistent with direct detection measurements are determined.
Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas
2015-06-30
We introduce a framework for model reduction of polymer chain models for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations, where the properties governing the phase equilibria such as the characteristic size of the chain, compressibility, density, and temperature are preserved. The proposed methodology reduces the number of degrees of freedom required in traditional DPD representations to model equilibrium properties of systems with complex molecules (e.g., linear polymers). Based on geometrical considerations we explicitly account for the correlation between beads in fine-grained DPD models and consistently represent the effect of these correlations in a reduced model, in a practical and simple fashion via power laws and the consistent scaling of the simulation parameters. In order to satisfy the geometrical constraints in the reduced model we introduce bond-angle potentials that account for the changes in the chain free energy after the model reduction. Following this coarse-graining process we represent high molecular weight DPD chains (i.e., ≥200≥200 beads per chain) with a significant reduction in the number of particles required (i.e., ≥20≥20 times the original system). We show that our methodology has potential applications modeling systems of high molecular weight molecules at large scales, such as diblock copolymer and DNA.
Regularized Structural Equation Modeling
Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J.; McArdle, John J.
2016-01-01
A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM’s utility. PMID:27398019
Hossain, Mokarram; Steinmann, Paul
2013-06-01
Rubber-like materials can deform largely and nonlinearly upon loading, and they return to the initial configuration when the load is removed. Such rubber elasticity is achieved due to very flexible long-chain molecules and a three-dimensional network structure that is formed via cross-linking or entanglements between molecules. Over the years, to model the mechanical behavior of such randomly oriented microstructures, several phenomenological and micromechanically motivated network models for nearly incompressible hyperelastic polymeric materials have been proposed in the literature. To implement these models for polymeric material (undoubtedly with widespread engineering applications) in the finite element framework for solving a boundary value problem, one would require two important ingredients, i.e., the stress tensor and the consistent fourth-order tangent operator, where the latter is the result of linearization of the former. In our previous work, 14 such material models are reviewed by deriving the accurate stress tensors and tangent operators from a group of phenomenological and micromechanical models at large deformations. The current contribution will supplement some further important models that were not included in the previous work. For comparison of all selected models in reproducing the well-known Treloar data, the analytical expressions for the three homogeneous defomation modes, i.e., uniaxial tension, equibiaxial tension, and pure shear, have been derived and the performances of the models are analyzed.
A new k-epsilon model consistent with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van der Laan, Paul; Kelly, Mark C.; Sørensen, Niels N.
2017-01-01
A new k-" model is introduced that is consistent with Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST). The proposed k-" model is compared with another k-" model that was developed in an attempt to maintain inlet profiles compatible with MOST. It is shown that the previous k-" model is not consistent with ...
Structural consistency analysis of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin
Cao, Hui-Ling; Sun, Li-Hua; Liu, Li; Li, Jian; Tang, Lin; Guo, Yun-Zhu; Mei, Qi-Bing; He, Jian-Hua; Yin, Da-Chuan
2017-01-01
Recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) is potential alternatives for human serum albumin (HSA) which may ease severe shortage of HSA worldwide. In theory, rHSA and HSA are the same. Structure decides function. Therefore, the 3D structural consistency analysis of rHSA and HSA is outmost importance, which is the base of their function consistency. In this paper, the crystal structures of rHSA at resolution limit of 2.22 Å and HSA at 2.30 Å were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), which were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) with accession codes 4G03 (rHSA) and 4G04 (HSA). The differences between rHSA and HSA were systematically analyzed from the crystallization behavior, diffraction data and three-dimensional (3D) structure. The superimposed contrasted analysis indicated that rHSA and HSA achieved a structural similarity of 99% with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.397 Å for the corresponding overall Cα atoms. In addition, the number of α-helices in the rHSA or HSA molecule was verified to be 30. As a result, rHSA can potentially replace HSA. The study provides a theoretical and experimental basis for the clinical and additional applications of rHSA. Meanwhile, it is also a good example for applications of genetic engineering.
Non local thermodynamic equilibrium self-consistent average atom model for plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faussurier, G.; Blancard, Ch.; Berthier, E.
2000-01-01
A time-dependent collisional-radiative average-atom model is presented to study statistical properties of highly-charged ion plasmas in off-equilibrium conditions. Atomic structure is described either with a screened-hydrogenic model including l-splitting, or by calculating one electron states in a self-consistent average-atom potential. Collisional and radiative excitation/deexcitation and ionization/recombination rats, as well as auto-ionization and dielectronic recombination rates, are formulated within the average-configuration framework. A good agreement with experiment is found for the charge-state distribution of a gold plasma at electron and density temperature equal to 6 x 10 20 cm -3 and 2200 eV. (author)
A self-consistent model for polycrystal deformation. Description and implementation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clausen, B.; Lorentzen, T.
1997-04-01
This report is a manual for the ANSI C implementation of an incremental elastic-plastic rate-insensitive self-consistent polycrystal deformation model based on (Hutchinson 1970). The model is furthermore described in the Ph.D. thesis by Clausen (Clausen 1997). The structure of the main program, sc{sub m}odel.c, and its subroutines are described with flow-charts. Likewise the pre-processor, sc{sub i}ni.c, is described with a flowchart. Default values of all the input parameters are given in the pre-processor, but the user is able to select from other pre-defined values or enter new values. A sample calculation is made and the results are presented as plots and examples of the output files are shown. (au) 4 tabs., 28 ills., 17 refs.
Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Verma, Vijay; Hembram, Mahesh; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sinha, Vinod Kumar
2013-01-01
Background: As there are no instruments to measure psychological wellness or distress in visually impaired students, we studied internal consistency and factor structure of GHQ-12 in visually impaired children. Materials and Methods: Internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha and item total correlation) and exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis) were carried out to identify factor structure of 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results: All items of GHQ-12 were significantly associated with each other and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the scale was 0.7. On analysis of principal component, three-factor solution was found that accounted for 47.92% of the total variance. The factors included, ‘general well-being’, ‘depression’ and ‘cognitive’, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients being 0.70, 0.59, and 0.34, respectively. Conclusion: Our study findings suggest GHQ-12 is a reliable with adequate internal consistency scale and multidimensional factor structure in visually impaired students. PMID:25013310
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ajay Kumar Bakhla
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background: As there are no instruments to measure psychological wellness or distress in visually impaired students, we studied internal consistency and factor structure of GHQ-12 in visually impaired children. Materials and Methods: Internal consistency analysis (Cronbach′s alpha and item total correlation and exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis were carried out to identify factor structure of 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12. Results: All items of GHQ-12 were significantly associated with each other and the Cronbach′s alpha coefficient for the scale was 0.7. On analysis of principal component, three-factor solution was found that accounted for 47.92% of the total variance. The factors included, ′general well-being′, ′depression′ and ′cognitive′, with Cronbach′s alpha coefficients being 0.70, 0.59, and 0.34, respectively. Conclusion: Our study findings suggest GHQ-12 is a reliable with adequate internal consistency scale and multidimensional factor structure in visually impaired students.
Reconstruction of Consistent 3d CAD Models from Point Cloud Data Using a Priori CAD Models
Bey, A.; Chaine, R.; Marc, R.; Thibault, G.; Akkouche, S.
2011-09-01
We address the reconstruction of 3D CAD models from point cloud data acquired in industrial environments, using a pre-existing 3D model as an initial estimate of the scene to be processed. Indeed, this prior knowledge can be used to drive the reconstruction so as to generate an accurate 3D model matching the point cloud. We more particularly focus our work on the cylindrical parts of the 3D models. We propose to state the problem in a probabilistic framework: we have to search for the 3D model which maximizes some probability taking several constraints into account, such as the relevancy with respect to the point cloud and the a priori 3D model, and the consistency of the reconstructed model. The resulting optimization problem can then be handled using a stochastic exploration of the solution space, based on the random insertion of elements in the configuration under construction, coupled with a greedy management of the conflicts which efficiently improves the configuration at each step. We show that this approach provides reliable reconstructed 3D models by presenting some results on industrial data sets.
DeGiorgio, Michael; Rosenberg, Noah A.
2016-01-01
In the last few years, several statistically consistent consensus methods for species tree inference have been devised that are robust to the gene tree discordance caused by incomplete lineage sorting in unstructured ancestral populations. One source of gene tree discordance that has only recently been identified as a potential obstacle for phylogenetic inference is ancestral population structure. In this article, we describe a general model of ancestral population structure, and by relying on a single carefully constructed example scenario, we show that the consensus methods Democratic Vote, STEAC, STAR, R* Consensus, Rooted Triple Consensus, Minimize Deep Coalescences, and Majority-Rule Consensus are statistically inconsistent under the model. We find that among the consensus methods evaluated, the only method that is statistically consistent in the presence of ancestral population structure is GLASS/Maximum Tree. We use simulations to evaluate the behavior of the various consensus methods in a model with ancestral population structure, showing that as the number of gene trees increases, estimates on the basis of GLASS/Maximum Tree approach the true species tree topology irrespective of the level of population structure, whereas estimates based on the remaining methods only approach the true species tree topology if the level of structure is low. However, through simulations using species trees both with and without ancestral population structure, we show that GLASS/Maximum Tree performs unusually poorly on gene trees inferred from alignments with little information. This practical limitation of GLASS/Maximum Tree together with the inconsistency of other methods prompts the need for both further testing of additional existing methods and development of novel methods under conditions that incorporate ancestral population structure. PMID:27086043
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rahmat Allah Rahmani
2015-08-01
Full Text Available An Experimental and numerical study on the flexural behavior of new types of sandwich structures with glass-epoxy skins and a combinatorial core consisting of PVC foam and a corrugated composite was performed. The purpose of inserting a corrugated composite into the core was the reinforcement of the core and so of the sandwich structure without substantial increment in its weight. Samples were prepared by vacuum assisted resin transform molding industrial technique and tested using three-point bending load test according to ASTM C393 and then the load-deflection curves were obtained. The finite element analysis was performed using Abaqus software to determine the maximum deflection of the samples. In order to increase the precision of numerical results, the tensile test was carried out according to ASTM D3039 to obtain the mechanical properties of the skins and corrugated composite. In addition to a reference sample consisting of a simple foam core, three series of samples were prepared, which consisted of corrugated composites, with square, trapezoidal and triangular geometries, inserted in a PVC foam core. For each experiment, three samples were prepared and tested and the data were used as mean values. It was revealed that the highest and lowest increases in flexural stiffness and flexural stiffness-to-weight ratio were obtained for the samples with trapezoidal and triangular geometries, respectively. Finally, the experimental and numerical results were compared and a good agreement was observed in all samples.
Hackett, Paul M. W.
2016-01-01
When behavior is interpreted in a reliable manner (i.e., robustly across different situations and times) its explained meaning may be seen to possess hermeneutic consistency. In this essay I present an evaluation of the hermeneutic consistency that I propose may be present when the research tool known as the mapping sentence is used to create generic structural ontologies. I also claim that theoretical and empirical validity is a likely result of employing the mapping sentence in research design and interpretation. These claims are non-contentious within the realm of quantitative psychological and behavioral research. However, I extend the scope of both facet theory based research and claims for its structural utility, reliability and validity to philosophical and qualitative investigations. I assert that the hermeneutic consistency of a structural ontology is a product of a structural representation's ontological components and the mereological relationships between these ontological sub-units: the mapping sentence seminally allows for the depiction of such structure. PMID:27065932
Modeling Fluid Structure Interaction
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Benaroya, Haym
2000-01-01
The principal goal of this program is on integrating experiments with analytical modeling to develop physics-based reduced-order analytical models of nonlinear fluid-structure interactions in articulated naval platforms...
Hedlund, Ann; Ateg, Mattias; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar
2010-04-01
Workers' motivation to actively take part in improvements to the work environment is assumed to be important for the efficiency of investments for that purpose. That gives rise to the need for a tool to measure this motivation. A questionnaire to measure motivation for improvements to the work environment has been designed. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the domains of the questionnaire have been measured, and the factorial structure has been explored, from the answers of 113 employees. The internal consistency is high (0.94), as well as the correlation for the total score (0.84). Three factors are identified accounting for 61.6% of the total variance. The questionnaire can be a useful tool in improving intervention methods. The expectation is that the tool can be useful, particularly with the aim of improving efficiency of companies' investments for work environment improvements. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Self-consistent modeling of plasma response to impurity spreading from intense localized source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koltunov, Mikhail
2012-07-01
Non-hydrogen impurities unavoidably exist in hot plasmas of present fusion devices. They enter it intrinsically, due to plasma interaction with the wall of vacuum vessel, as well as are seeded for various purposes deliberately. Normally, the spots where injected particles enter the plasma are much smaller than its total surface. Under such conditions one has to expect a significant modification of local plasma parameters through various physical mechanisms, which, in turn, affect the impurity spreading. Self-consistent modeling of interaction between impurity and plasma is, therefore, not possible with linear approaches. A model based on the fluid description of electrons, main and impurity ions, and taking into account the plasma quasi-neutrality, Coulomb collisions of background and impurity charged particles, radiation losses, particle transport to bounding surfaces, is elaborated in this work. To describe the impurity spreading and the plasma response self-consistently, fluid equations for the particle, momentum and energy balances of various plasma components are solved by reducing them to ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of several parameters characterizing the solution in principal details: the magnitudes of plasma density and plasma temperatures in the regions of impurity localization and the spatial scales of these regions. The results of calculations for plasma conditions typical in tokamak experiments with impurity injection are presented. A new mechanism for the condensation phenomenon and formation of cold dense plasma structures is proposed.
Rankin, C. C.
1988-01-01
A consistent linearization is provided for the element-dependent corotational formulation, providing the proper first and second variation of the strain energy. As a result, the warping problem that has plagued flat elements has been overcome, with beneficial effects carried over to linear solutions. True Newton quadratic convergence has been restored to the Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) code for conservative loading using the full corotational implementation. Some implications for general finite element analysis are discussed, including what effect the automatic frame invariance provided by this work might have on the development of new, improved elements.
Locally self-consistent Green’s function approach to the electronic structure problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abrikosov, I.A.; Simak, S.I.; Johansson, B.
1997-01-01
The locally self-consistent Green's function (LSGF) method is an order-N method for calculation of the electronic structure of systems with an arbitrary distribution of atoms of different kinds on an underlying crystal lattice. For each atom Dyson's equation is used to solve the electronic multiple...... scattering problem in a local interaction zone (LIZ) embedded in an effective medium judiciously chosen to minimize the size of the, LIZ. The excellent real-space convergence of the LSGF calculations and the reliability of its results are demonstrated for a broad spectrum of metallic alloys with different...
Fleck, David E; Welge, Jeffrey A; Eliassen, James C; Adler, Caleb M; DelBello, Melissa P; Strakowski, Stephen M
2018-02-27
The neurophysiological substrates of cognition and emotion, as seen with fMRI, are generally explained using modular structures. The present study was designed to probe the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing in bipolar and healthy individuals using factor analysis and compare the results with current conceptions of the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess patterns of covariation among brain regions-of-interest activated during the Continuous Performance Task with Emotional and Neutral Distractors in healthy and bipolar individuals without a priori constraints on the number or composition of latent factors. Results indicated a common cognitive-emotional network consisting of prefrontal, medial temporal, limbic, parietal, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate modules. However, reduced brain activation to emotional stimuli in the frontal, medial temporal and limbic modules was apparent in the bipolar relative to the healthy group, potentially accounting for emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder. This study is limited by a relatively small sample size recruited at a single site. The results have yet to be validated on a larger independent sample. Although the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing is similar in bipolar and healthy individuals, activation in response to emotional/neutral cues varies. These findings are not only consistent with recent conceptions of mood regulation in bipolar disorder, but also suggest that regional activation can be considered within tighter modular structures without compromising data interpretation. This demonstration may serve as a template for data reduction in future region-of-interest analyses to increase statistical power. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Daessman, Ellinor; Baeckstroem, Mattias
2009-01-01
Uranium(VI), which is often elevated in granitoidic groundwaters, is known to adsorb strongly to Fe (hydr)oxides under certain conditions. This process can be used in water treatment to remove U(VI). To develop a consistent geochemical model for U(VI) adsorption to ferrihydrite, batch experiments were performed and previous data sets reviewed to optimize a set of surface complexation constants using the 3-plane CD-MUSIC model. To consider the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on U(VI) speciation, new parameters for the Stockholm Humic Model (SHM) were optimized using previously published data. The model, which was constrained from available X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy evidence, fitted the data well when the surface sites were divided into low- and high-affinity binding sites. Application of the model concept to other published data sets revealed differences in the reactivity of different ferrihydrites towards U(VI). Use of the optimized SHM parameters for U(VI)-DOM complexation showed that this process is important for U(VI) speciation at low pH. However in neutral to alkaline waters with substantial carbonate present, Ca-U-CO 3 complexes predominate. The calibrated geochemical model was used to simulate U(VI) adsorption to ferrihydrite for a hypothetical groundwater in the presence of several competitive ions. The results showed that U(VI) adsorption was strong between pH 5 and 8. Also near the calcite saturation limit, where U(VI) adsorption was weakest according to the model, the adsorption percentage was predicted to be >80%. Hence U(VI) adsorption to ferrihydrite-containing sorbents may be used as a method to bring down U(VI) concentrations to acceptable levels in groundwater
Abma, Femke I; Bültmann, Ute; Amick Iii, Benjamin C; Arends, Iris; Dorland, Heleen F; Flach, Peter A; van der Klink, Jac J L; van de Ven, Hardy A; Bjørner, Jakob Bue
2017-09-09
Objective The Work Role Functioning Questionnaire v2.0 (WRFQ) is an outcome measure linking a persons' health to the ability to meet work demands in the twenty-first century. We aimed to examine the construct validity of the WRFQ in a heterogeneous set of working samples in the Netherlands with mixed clinical conditions and job types to evaluate the comparability of the scale structure. Methods Confirmatory factor and multi-group analyses were conducted in six cross-sectional working samples (total N = 2433) to evaluate and compare a five-factor model structure of the WRFQ (work scheduling demands, output demands, physical demands, mental and social demands, and flexibility demands). Model fit indices were calculated based on RMSEA ≤ 0.08 and CFI ≥ 0.95. After fitting the five-factor model, the multidimensional structure of the instrument was evaluated across samples using a second order factor model. Results The factor structure was robust across samples and a multi-group model had adequate fit (RMSEA = 0.63, CFI = 0.972). In sample specific analyses, minor modifications were necessary in three samples (final RMSEA 0.055-0.080, final CFI between 0.955 and 0.989). Applying the previous first order specifications, a second order factor model had adequate fit in all samples. Conclusion A five-factor model of the WRFQ showed consistent structural validity across samples. A second order factor model showed adequate fit, but the second order factor loadings varied across samples. Therefore subscale scores are recommended to compare across different clinical and working samples.
Fritsch, Daniel; Morgan, Benjamin J.; Walsh, Aron
2017-01-01
The development of new exchange-correlation functionals within density functional theory means that increasingly accurate information is accessible at moderate computational cost. Recently, a newly developed self-consistent hybrid functional has been proposed (Skone et al., Phys. Rev. B 89:195112, 2014), which allows for a reliable and accurate calculation of material properties using a fully ab initio procedure. Here, we apply this new functional to wurtzite ZnO, rutile SnO2, and rocksalt MgO. We present calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties, which we compare to results obtained with the PBE and PBE0 functionals. For all semiconductors considered here, the self-consistent hybrid approach gives improved agreement with experimental structural data relative to the PBE0 hybrid functional for a moderate increase in computational cost, while avoiding the empiricism common to conventional hybrid functionals. The electronic properties are improved for ZnO and MgO, whereas for SnO2 the PBE0 hybrid functional gives the best agreement with experimental data.
Toward self-consistent tectono-magmatic numerical model of rift-to-ridge transition
Gerya, Taras; Bercovici, David; Liao, Jie
2017-04-01
Natural data from modern and ancient lithospheric extension systems suggest three-dimensional (3D) character of deformation and complex relationship between magmatism and tectonics during the entire rift-to-ridge transition. Therefore, self-consistent high-resolution 3D magmatic-thermomechanical numerical approaches stand as a minimum complexity requirement for modeling and understanding of this transition. Here we present results from our new high-resolution 3D finite-difference marker-in-cell rift-to-ridge models, which account for magmatic accretion of the crust and use non-linear strain-weakened visco-plastic rheology of rocks that couples brittle/plastic failure and ductile damage caused by grain size reduction. Numerical experiments suggest that nucleation of rifting and ridge-transform patterns are decoupled in both space and time. At intermediate stages, two patterns can coexist and interact, which triggers development of detachment faults, failed rift arms, hyper-extended margins and oblique proto-transforms. En echelon rift patterns typically develop in the brittle upper-middle crust whereas proto-ridge and proto-transform structures nucleate in the lithospheric mantle. These deep proto-structures propagate upward, inter-connect and rotate toward a mature orthogonal ridge-transform patterns on the timescale of millions years during incipient thermal-magmatic accretion of the new oceanic-like lithosphere. Ductile damage of the extending lithospheric mantle caused by grain size reduction assisted by Zenner pinning plays critical role in rift-to-ridge transition by stabilizing detachment faults and transform structures. Numerical results compare well with observations from incipient spreading regions and passive continental margins.
Self-consistent imbedding and the ellipsoidal model model for porous rocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korringa, J.; Brown, R.J.S.; Thompson, D.D.; Runge, R.J.
1979-01-01
Equations are obtained for the effective elastic moduli for a model of an isotropic, heterogeneous, porous medium. The mathematical model used for computation is abstract in that it is not simply a rigorous computation for a composite medium of some idealized geometry, although the computation contains individual steps which are just that. Both the solid part and pore space are represented by ellipsoidal or spherical 'grains' or 'pores' of various sizes and shapes. The strain of each grain, caused by external forces applied to the medium, is calculated in a self-consistent imbedding (SCI) approximation, which replaces the true surrounding of any given grain or pore by an isotropic medium defined by the effective moduli to be computed. The ellipsoidal nature of the shapes allows us to use Eshelby's theoretical treatment of a single ellipsoidal inclusion in an infiinte homogeneous medium. Results are compared with the literature, and discrepancies are found with all published accounts of this problem. Deviations from the work of Wu, of Walsh, and of O'Connell and Budiansky are attributed to a substitution made by these authors which though an identity for the exact quantities involved, is only approximate in the SCI calculation. This reduces the validity of the equations to first-order effects only. Differences with the results of Kuster and Toksoez are attributed to the fact that the computation of these authors is not self-consistent in the sense used here. A result seems to be the stiffening of the medium as if the pores are held apart. For spherical grains and pores, their calculated moduli are those given by the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bounds. Our calculation reproduces, in the case of spheres, an early result of Budiansky. An additional feature of our work is that the algebra is simpler than in earlier work. We also incorporate into the theory the possibility that fluid-filled pores are interconnected
Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.; Ridley, A. J.
2009-01-01
Further development of our self-consistent model of interacting ring current (RC) ions and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is presented. This model incorporates large scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and treats self-consistently not only EMIC waves and RC ions, but also the magnetospheric electric field, RC, and plasmasphere. Initial simulations indicate that the region beyond geostationary orbit should be included in the simulation of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Additionally, a self-consistent description, based on first principles, of the ionospheric conductance is required. These initial simulations further show that in order to model the EMIC wave distribution and wave spectral properties accurately, the plasmasphere should also be simulated self-consistently, since its fine structure requires as much care as that of the RC. Finally, an effect of the finite time needed to reestablish a new potential pattern throughout the ionosphere and to communicate between the ionosphere and the equatorial magnetosphere cannot be ignored.
Studies of self-consistent field structure in a quasi-optical gyrotron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonsen, T.M. Jr.
1993-04-01
The presence of an electron beam in a quasi-optical gyrotron cavity alters the structure of the fields from that of the empty cavity. A computer code has been written which calculates this alteration for either an electron beam or a thin dielectric tube placed in the cavity. Experiments measuring the quality factor of such a cavity performed for the case of a dielectric tube and the results agree with the predictions of the code. Simulations of the case of an electron beam indicate that self-consistent effects can be made small in that almost all the power leaves the cavity in a symmetric gaussian-like mode provided the resonator parameters are chosen carefully. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs
Development of a Kohn-Sham like potential in the Self-Consistent Atomic Deformation Model
Mehl, M. J.; Boyer, L. L.; Stokes, H. T.
1996-01-01
This is a brief description of how to derive the local ``atomic'' potentials from the Self-Consistent Atomic Deformation (SCAD) model density function. Particular attention is paid to the spherically averaged case.
Self-consistent assessment of Englert-Schwinger model on atomic properties.
Lehtomäki, Jouko; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga
2017-12-21
Our manuscript investigates a self-consistent solution of the statistical atom model proposed by Berthold-Georg Englert and Julian Schwinger (the ES model) and benchmarks it against atomic Kohn-Sham and two orbital-free models of the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac (TFD)-λvW family. Results show that the ES model generally offers the same accuracy as the well-known TFD-15vW model; however, the ES model corrects the failure in the Pauli potential near-nucleus region. We also point to the inability of describing low-Z atoms as the foremost concern in improving the present model.
Adjoint-consistent formulations of slip models for coupled electroosmotic flow systems
Garg, Vikram V
2014-09-27
Background Models based on the Helmholtz `slip\\' approximation are often used for the simulation of electroosmotic flows. The objectives of this paper are to construct adjoint-consistent formulations of such models, and to develop adjoint-based numerical tools for adaptive mesh refinement and parameter sensitivity analysis. Methods We show that the direct formulation of the `slip\\' model is adjoint inconsistent, and leads to an ill-posed adjoint problem. We propose a modified formulation of the coupled `slip\\' model, which is shown to be well-posed, and therefore automatically adjoint-consistent. Results Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the computation and use of the adjoint solution in two-dimensional microfluidics problems. Conclusions An adjoint-consistent formulation for Helmholtz `slip\\' models of electroosmotic flows has been proposed. This formulation provides adjoint solutions that can be reliably used for mesh refinement and sensitivity analysis.
Requirements for UML and OWL Integration Tool for User Data Consistency Modeling and Testing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Oleshchuk, V. A.
2003-01-01
The amount of data available on the Internet is continuously increasing, consequentially there is a growing need for tools that help to analyse the data. Testing of consistency among data received from different sources is made difficult by the number of different languages and schemas being used....... In this paper we analyze requirements for a tool that support integration of UML models and ontologies written in languages like the W3C Web Ontology Language (OWL). The tool can be used in the following way: after loading two legacy models into the tool, the tool user connects them by inserting modeling......, an important part of this technique is attaching of OCL expressions to special boolean class attributes that we call consistency attributes. The resulting integration model can be used for automatic consistency testing of two instances of the legacy models by automatically instantiate the whole integration...
Structural Equation Model Trees
Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman
2013-01-01
In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…
Modeling Structural Brain Connectivity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø
The human brain consists of a gigantic complex network of interconnected neurons. Together all these connections determine who we are, how we react and how we interpret the world. Knowledge about how the brain is connected can further our understanding of the brain’s structural organization, help...... improve diagnosis, and potentially allow better treatment of a wide range of neurological disorders. Tractography based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is a unique tool to estimate this “structural connectivity” of the brain non-invasively and in vivo. During the last decade, brain connectivity...... has increasingly been analyzed using graph theoretic measures adopted from network science and this characterization of the brain’s structural connectivity has been shown to be useful for the classification of populations, such as healthy and diseased subjects. The structural connectivity of the brain...
Structural Equation Model Trees
Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman
2015-01-01
In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree structures that separate a data set recursively into subsets with significantly different parameter estimates in a SEM. SEM Trees provide means for finding covariates and covariate interactions that predict differences in structural parameters in observed as well as in latent space and facilitate theory-guided exploration of empirical data. We describe the methodology, discuss theoretical and practical implications, and demonstrate applications to a factor model and a linear growth curve model. PMID:22984789
Validation study of the magnetically self-consistent inner magnetosphere model RAM-SCB
Yu, Yiqun; Jordanova, Vania; Zaharia, Sorin; Koller, Josef; Zhang, Jichun; Kistler, Lynn M.
2012-03-01
The validation of the magnetically self-consistent inner magnetospheric model RAM-SCB developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented here. The model consists of two codes: a kinetic ring current-atmosphere interaction model (RAM) and a 3-D equilibrium magnetic field code (SCB). The validation is conducted by simulating two magnetic storm events and then comparing the model results against a variety of satellite in situ observations, including the magnetic field from Cluster and Polar spacecraft, ion differential flux from the Cluster/CODIF (Composition and Distribution Function) analyzer, and the ground-based SYM-H index. The model prediction of the magnetic field is in good agreement with observations, which indicates the model's capability of representing well the inner magnetospheric field configuration. This provides confidence for the RAM-SCB model to be utilized for field line and drift shell tracing, which are needed in radiation belt studies. While the SYM-H index, which reflects the total ring current energy content, is generally reasonably reproduced by the model using the Weimer electric field model, the modeled ion differential flux clearly depends on the electric field strength, local time, and magnetic activity level. A self-consistent electric field approach may be needed to improve the model performance in this regard.
Structural Agricultural Land Use Modelling
Fezzi, Carlo; Bateman, Ian J.
2009-01-01
This paper develops a structural econometric model of agricultural land use and production based on the joint multi-output technology representation introduced by Chambers and Just (1989). Starting from a flexible specification of the farm profit function we derive land use allocation, input applications, crops yield and livestock number equations in a joint and theoretically consistent framework. We present an empirical application using fine-scale spatial data covering the entirety of Engla...
Self-consistent treatment of quark-quark interaction in MIT bag model
Simonis, V
1997-01-01
Some features of the MlT bag model are discussed with particular emphasis on static, spherical cavity approximation to the model. A self-consistent procedure for obtaining wave functions and calculating gluon exchange effects is proposed. The equations derived are similar to state-dependent relativistic Hartree-Fock equations. (author)
Estimating long-term volatility parameters for market-consistent models
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Contemporary actuarial and accounting practices (APN 110 in the South African context) require the use of market-consistent models for the valuation of embedded investment derivatives. These models have to be calibrated with accurate and up-to-date market data. Arguably, the most important variable in the valuation of ...
Self-consistent field modeling of adsorption from polymer/surfactant mixtures
Postmus, B.R.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.
2008-01-01
We report on the development of a self-consistent field model that describes the competitive adsorption of nonionic alkyl-(ethylene oxide) surfactants and nonionic polymer poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) from aqueous solutions onto silica. The model explicitly describes the response to the pH and the
New geometric design consistency model based on operating speed profiles for road safety evaluation.
Camacho-Torregrosa, Francisco J; Pérez-Zuriaga, Ana M; Campoy-Ungría, J Manuel; García-García, Alfredo
2013-12-01
To assist in the on-going effort to reduce road fatalities as much as possible, this paper presents a new methodology to evaluate road safety in both the design and redesign stages of two-lane rural highways. This methodology is based on the analysis of road geometric design consistency, a value which will be a surrogate measure of the safety level of the two-lane rural road segment. The consistency model presented in this paper is based on the consideration of continuous operating speed profiles. The models used for their construction were obtained by using an innovative GPS-data collection method that is based on continuous operating speed profiles recorded from individual drivers. This new methodology allowed the researchers to observe the actual behavior of drivers and to develop more accurate operating speed models than was previously possible with spot-speed data collection, thereby enabling a more accurate approximation to the real phenomenon and thus a better consistency measurement. Operating speed profiles were built for 33 Spanish two-lane rural road segments, and several consistency measurements based on the global and local operating speed were checked. The final consistency model takes into account not only the global dispersion of the operating speed, but also some indexes that consider both local speed decelerations and speeds over posted speeds as well. For the development of the consistency model, the crash frequency for each study site was considered, which allowed estimating the number of crashes on a road segment by means of the calculation of its geometric design consistency. Consequently, the presented consistency evaluation method is a promising innovative tool that can be used as a surrogate measure to estimate the safety of a road segment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sovinová, Hana; Csémy, Ladislav
2010-09-01
The primary aim of the study is to examine the psychometric properties and the structure of the Czech version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and to estimate the rate of risky, harmful and problematic alcohol consumers. Two large data sets were analyzed. The first was based on the application of the AUDIT as a part of a general population survey (N = 1.326; age range 18-64), the second represents data gathered by general practitioners (GPs) in the context of a pilot screening and brief advice (SBA) project in the area of Greater Prague (N = 2.589). Analyses of reliability showed satisfying internal consistency of the AUDIT (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83 for population survey and 0.77 for survey based on SBA). Principal component analyses suggest two factor solutions where one factor represents drinking patterns and the second alcohol-related problems or symptoms of dependence. The principal component analyses of both data sets led to similar factor formation. A total of 19% of the general population sample was classified as risky or harmful drinkers and 2% as problem drinkers. These figures were slightly lower in the sample of patients of general practitioners. The Czech version of the AUDIT seems to be a plausible screening instrument. The properties of the instrument suggest usefulness of the summary score for identification of the level of risk.
Hsu, David D.
Due to high nanointerfacial area to volume ratio, the properties of "nanoconfined" polymer thin films, blends, and composites become highly altered compared to their bulk homopolymer analogues. Understanding the structure-property mechanisms underlying this effect is an active area of research. However, despite extensive work, a fundamental framework for predicting the local and system-averaged thermomechanical properties as a function of configuration and polymer species has yet to be established. Towards bridging this gap, here, we present a novel, systematic coarse-graining (CG) method which is able to capture quantitatively, the thermomechanical properties of real polymer systems in bulk and in nanoconfined geometries. This method, which we call thermomechanically consistent coarse-graining (TCCG), is a two-bead-per-monomer CG hybrid approach through which bonded interactions are optimized to match the atomistic structure via the Iterative Boltzmann Inversion method (IBI), and nonbonded interactions are tuned to macroscopic targets through parametric studies. We validate the TCCG method by systematically developing coarse-grain models for a group of five specialized methacrylate-based polymers including poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Good correlation with bulk all-atom (AA) simulations and experiments is found for the temperature-dependent glass transition temperature (Tg) Flory-Fox scaling relationships, self-diffusion coefficients of liquid monomers, and modulus of elasticity. We apply this TCCG method also to bulk polystyrene (PS) using a comparable coarse-grain CG bead mapping strategy. The model demonstrates chain stiffness commensurate with experiments, and we utilize a density-correction term to improve the transferability of the elastic modulus over a 500 K range. Additionally, PS and PMMA models capture the unexplained, characteristically dissimilar scaling of Tg with the thickness of free-standing films as seen in experiments. Using vibrational
Self-consistent field modeling of linear non-ionic micelles
Jodar-Reyes, A.B.; Leermakers, F.A.M.
2006-01-01
A self-consistent field theory is used to predict structural, mechanical, and thermodynamical properties of linear micelles of selected nonionic surfactants of the type CnEm. Upon increase in surfactant concentration the sudden micelle shape transition from spherical to cylindrical (second critical
Self-consistent evolution models for slow CMEs up to 1 AU
Poedts, S.; Pomoell, J.; Zuccarello, F. P.
2016-02-01
Our 2.5D (axi-symmetric) self-consistent numerical magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) models for the onset of CMEs under solar minimum conditions and for their interaction with coronal streamers and subsequent evolution up to 1 AU, are presented and discussed. The CMEs are initiated by magnetic flux emergence/cancellation and/or by shearing the magnetic foot points of a magnetic arcade which is positioned above or below the equatorial plane and embedded in a larger helmet streamer. The overlying magnetic streamer field then deflects the CMEs towards the equator, and the deflection path is dependent on the driving velocity. The core of the CME, created during the onset process, contains a magnetic flux rope and the synthetic white light images often show the typical three-part CME structure. The resulting CMEs propagate only slightly faster than the background solar wind, but this small excess speed is high enough to create a fast MHD shock wave from a distance of 0.25 AU onwards. At 1 AU, the plasma shows the typical characteristics of a magnetic cloud, and the simulated data are in good agreement with the (ACE) observations.
Hazard-consistent ground motions generated with a stochastic fault-rupture model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishida, Akemi, E-mail: nishida.akemi@jaea.go.jp [Center for Computational Science and e-Systems, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 178-4-4, Wakashiba, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0871 (Japan); Igarashi, Sayaka, E-mail: igrsyk00@pub.taisei.co.jp [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Sakamoto, Shigehiro, E-mail: shigehiro.sakamoto@sakura.taisei.co.jp [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Uchiyama, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuo.uchiyama@sakura.taisei.co.jp [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yu, E-mail: ymmyu-00@pub.taisei.co.jp [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, 344-1 Nase-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0051 (Japan); Muramatsu, Ken, E-mail: kmuramat@tcu.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Safety Engineering, Tokyo City University, 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan); Takada, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: takada@load.arch.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Architecture, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
2015-12-15
obtain these acceleration deviations. A similar tendency can be found for some other seismic-source characteristics, meaning that ground motions obtained in this study cannot be generated by simulations of deterministic fault-rupture models with averaged seismic-source characteristics. Generated ground motions incorporate differences between each seismic-source characteristic, and they are effectively available for PRAs of structures.
The Devil in the Dark: A Fully Self-Consistent Seismic Model for Venus
Unterborn, C. T.; Schmerr, N. C.; Irving, J. C. E.
2017-12-01
The bulk composition and structure of Venus is unknown despite accounting for 40% of the mass of all the terrestrial planets in our Solar System. As we expand the scope of planetary science to include those planets around other stars, the lack of measurements of basic planetary properties such as moment of inertia, core-size and thermal profile for Venus hinders our ability to compare the potential uniqueness of the Earth and our Solar System to other planetary systems. Here we present fully self-consistent, whole-planet density and seismic velocity profiles calculated using the ExoPlex and BurnMan software packages for various potential Venusian compositions. Using these models, we explore the seismological implications of the different thermal and compositional initial conditions, taking into account phase transitions due to changes in pressure, temperature as well as composition. Using mass-radius constraints, we examine both the centre frequencies of normal mode oscillations and the waveforms and travel times of body waves. Seismic phases which interact with the core, phase transitions in the mantle, and shallower parts of Venus are considered. We also consider the detectability and transmission of these seismic waves from within the dense atmosphere of Venus. Our work provides coupled compositional-seismological reference models for the terrestrial planet in our Solar System of which we know the least. Furthermore, these results point to the potential wealth of fundamental scientific insights into Venus and Earth, as well as exoplanets, which could be gained by including a seismometer on future planetary exploration missions to Venus, the devil in the dark.
Development of a Model for Dynamic Recrystallization Consistent with the Second Derivative Criterion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Imran
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Dynamic recrystallization (DRX processes are widely used in industrial hot working operations, not only to keep the forming forces low but also to control the microstructure and final properties of the workpiece. According to the second derivative criterion (SDC by Poliak and Jonas, the onset of DRX can be detected from an inflection point in the strain-hardening rate as a function of flow stress. Various models are available that can predict the evolution of flow stress from incipient plastic flow up to steady-state deformation in the presence of DRX. Some of these models have been implemented into finite element codes and are widely used for the design of metal forming processes, but their consistency with the SDC has not been investigated. This work identifies three sources of inconsistencies that models for DRX may exhibit. For a consistent modeling of the DRX kinetics, a new strain-hardening model for the hardening stages III to IV is proposed and combined with consistent recrystallization kinetics. The model is devised in the Kocks-Mecking space based on characteristic transition in the strain-hardening rate. A linear variation of the transition and inflection points is observed for alloy 800H at all tested temperatures and strain rates. The comparison of experimental and model results shows that the model is able to follow the course of the strain-hardening rate very precisely, such that highly accurate flow stress predictions are obtained.
Imran, Muhammad; Kühbach, Markus; Roters, Franz; Bambach, Markus
2017-11-02
Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) processes are widely used in industrial hot working operations, not only to keep the forming forces low but also to control the microstructure and final properties of the workpiece. According to the second derivative criterion (SDC) by Poliak and Jonas, the onset of DRX can be detected from an inflection point in the strain-hardening rate as a function of flow stress. Various models are available that can predict the evolution of flow stress from incipient plastic flow up to steady-state deformation in the presence of DRX. Some of these models have been implemented into finite element codes and are widely used for the design of metal forming processes, but their consistency with the SDC has not been investigated. This work identifies three sources of inconsistencies that models for DRX may exhibit. For a consistent modeling of the DRX kinetics, a new strain-hardening model for the hardening stages III to IV is proposed and combined with consistent recrystallization kinetics. The model is devised in the Kocks-Mecking space based on characteristic transition in the strain-hardening rate. A linear variation of the transition and inflection points is observed for alloy 800H at all tested temperatures and strain rates. The comparison of experimental and model results shows that the model is able to follow the course of the strain-hardening rate very precisely, such that highly accurate flow stress predictions are obtained.
Smith, James R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Burslem, David F R P; Itoh, Akira; Khoo, Eyen; Lee, Soon Leong; Maycock, Colin R; Nanami, Satoshi; Ng, Kevin Kit Siong; Kettle, Chris J
2018-01-01
Documenting the scale and intensity of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS), and the processes that shape it, is relevant to the sustainable management of genetic resources in timber tree species, particularly where logging or fragmentation might disrupt gene flow. In this study we assessed patterns of FSGS in three species of Dipterocarpaceae (Parashorea tomentella, Shorea leprosula and Shorea parvifolia) across four different tropical rain forests in Malaysia using nuclear microsatellite markers. Topographic heterogeneity varied across the sites. We hypothesised that forests with high topographic heterogeneity would display increased FSGS among the adult populations driven by habitat associations. This hypothesis was not supported for S. leprosula and S. parvifolia which displayed little variation in the intensity and scale of FSGS between sites despite substantial variation in topographic heterogeneity. Conversely, the intensity of FSGS for P. tomentella was greater at a more topographically heterogeneous than a homogeneous site, and a significant difference in the overall pattern of FSGS was detected between sites for this species. These results suggest that local patterns of FSGS may in some species be shaped by habitat heterogeneity in addition to limited gene flow by pollen and seed dispersal. Site factors can therefore contribute to the development of FSGS. Confirming consistency in species' FSGS amongst sites is an important step in managing timber tree genetic diversity as it provides confidence that species specific management recommendations based on species reproductive traits can be applied across a species' range. Forest managers should take into account the interaction between reproductive traits and site characteristics, its consequences for maintaining forest genetic resources and how this might influence natural regeneration across species if management is to be sustainable.
Collaborative CAD Synchronization Based on a Symmetric and Consistent Modeling Procedure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yiqi Wu
2017-04-01
Full Text Available One basic issue with collaborative computer aided design (Co-CAD is how to maintain valid and consistent modeling results across all design sites. Moreover, modeling history is important in parametric CAD modeling. Therefore, different from a typical co-editing approach, this paper proposes a novel method for Co-CAD synchronization, in which all Co-CAD sites maintain symmetric and consistent operating procedures. Consequently, the consistency of both modeling results and history can be achieved. In order to generate a valid, unique, and symmetric queue among collaborative sites, a set of correlated mechanisms is presented in this paper. Firstly, the causal relationship of operations is maintained. Secondly, the operation queue is reconstructed for partial concurrency operation, and the concurrent operation can be retrieved. Thirdly, a symmetric, concurrent operation control strategy is proposed to determine the order of operations and resolve possible conflicts. Compared with existing Co-CAD consistency methods, the proposed method is convenient and flexible in supporting collaborative design. The experiment performed based on the collaborative modeling procedure demonstrates the correctness and applicability of this work.
Using a Theory-Consistent CVAR Scenario to Test an Exchange Rate Model Based on Imperfect Knowledge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katarina Juselius
2017-07-01
Full Text Available A theory-consistent CVAR scenario describes a set of testable regularieties one should expect to see in the data if the basic assumptions of the theoretical model are empirically valid. Using this method, the paper demonstrates that all basic assumptions about the shock structure and steady-state behavior of an an imperfect knowledge based model for exchange rate determination can be formulated as testable hypotheses on common stochastic trends and cointegration. This model obtaines remarkable support for almost every testable hypothesis and is able to adequately account for the long persistent swings in the real exchange rate.
Integrative structure modeling with the Integrative Modeling Platform.
Webb, Benjamin; Viswanath, Shruthi; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Pellarin, Riccardo; Greenberg, Charles H; Saltzberg, Daniel; Sali, Andrej
2018-01-01
Building models of a biological system that are consistent with the myriad data available is one of the key challenges in biology. Modeling the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies, for example, can give insights into how biological systems work, evolved, might be controlled, and even designed. Integrative structure modeling casts the building of structural models as a computational optimization problem, for which information about the assembly is encoded into a scoring function that evaluates candidate models. Here, we describe our open source software suite for integrative structure modeling, Integrative Modeling Platform (https://integrativemodeling.org), and demonstrate its use. © 2017 The Protein Society.
Towards an Information Model of Consistency Maintenance in Distributed Interactive Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Zhang
2008-01-01
Full Text Available A novel framework to model and explore predictive contract mechanisms in distributed interactive applications (DIAs using information theory is proposed. In our model, the entity state update scheme is modelled as an information generation, encoding, and reconstruction process. Such a perspective facilitates a quantitative measurement of state fidelity loss as a result of the distribution protocol. Results from an experimental study on a first-person shooter game are used to illustrate the utility of this measurement process. We contend that our proposed model is a starting point to reframe and analyse consistency maintenance in DIAs as a problem in distributed interactive media compression.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santilli, R.M.
1991-03-01
Rutherford conceived the existence of the neutron back in 1920 as a ''compressed hydrogen atom'', i.e., as an electron compressed (say, in the core of a star) inside the proton structure. While the existence of the neutron was subsequently confirmed, Rutherford's original conception of its structure was claimed to possess several ''inconsistencies'', i.e. the lack of a quantitative representation of rest energy, meanlife, spin, etc. In this paper we show that these ''inconsistencies'' appear to be due to the excessive approximations which are inherent in the use of the underlying discipline, ordinary quantum mechanics, for the physical conditions of Rutherford's structure. In fact, quantum mechanics can only provide a point-like abstraction of particles, and thus produce a model of Rutherford's neutron as a sort of small atomic structure, while the latter physical conditions imply the total mutual penetration of the wavepackets of the electron and of the proton one inside the other. It is shown that, if a generalization of quantum mechanics specifically conceived to represent the latter conditions (under the name of hadronic mechanics), is used to treat Rutherford's hypothesis, all ''inconsistencies'' originating in the use of quantum mechanics appear to be resolved by permitting a consistent representation of all characteristics of the neutron, such as: rest energy, meanlife, size, spin, charge, space and charge parity, (anomalous) magnetic moment, as well as the neutron decay. It is therefore conjectured that Rutherford's compression of the hydrogen atom may well be the ultimate mechanism for the creation of neutrinos in Nature. A reinspection of Barut's model on the neutron structure as a bound state of one proton, one electron and an antineutrino, is suggested for possible fundamental advances in the origin of the neutrino. (author). 47 refs, 3 figs
Morisky, Donald E.; Hernandez, Laufred I.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
2014-01-01
This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers’ condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use. PMID:22223297
A pedestal temperature model with self-consistent calculation of safety factor and magnetic shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onjun, T; Siriburanon, T; Onjun, O
2008-01-01
A pedestal model based on theory-motivated models for the pedestal width and the pedestal pressure gradient is developed for the temperature at the top of the H-mode pedestal. The pedestal width model based on magnetic shear and flow shear stabilization is used in this study, where the pedestal pressure gradient is assumed to be limited by first stability of infinite n ballooning mode instability. This pedestal model is implemented in the 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code, where the safety factor and magnetic shear are solved self-consistently in both core and pedestal regions. With the self-consistently approach for calculating safety factor and magnetic shear, the effect of bootstrap current can be correctly included in the pedestal model. The pedestal model is used to provide the boundary conditions in the simulations and the Multi-mode core transport model is used to describe the core transport. This new integrated modeling procedure of the BALDUR code is used to predict the temperature and density profiles of 26 H-mode discharges. Simulations are carried out for 13 discharges in the Joint European Torus and 13 discharges in the DIII-D tokamak. The average root-mean-square deviation between experimental data and the predicted profiles of the temperature and the density, normalized by their central values, is found to be about 14%
A self-consistent kinetic modeling of a 1-D, bounded, plasma in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. A self-consistent kinetic treatment is presented here, where the Boltzmann equation is solved for a particle ... This paper reports on the findings of a kinetic code that retains col- lisions and sources, models ..... was used in the runs reported in this paper, the source of particles is modified from the explicit source Л(Ъ).
A new self-consistent model for thermodynamics of binary solutions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Svoboda, Jiří; Shan, Y. V.; Fischer, F. D.
2015-01-01
Roč. 108, NOV (2015), s. 27-30 ISSN 1359-6462 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-24252S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Thermodynamics * Analytical methods * CALPHAD * Phase diagram * Self-consistent model Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.305, year: 2015
Topologically Consistent Models for Efficient Big Geo-Spatio Data Distribution
Jahn, M. W.; Bradley, P. E.; Doori, M. Al; Breunig, M.
2017-10-01
Geo-spatio-temporal topology models are likely to become a key concept to check the consistency of 3D (spatial space) and 4D (spatial + temporal space) models for emerging GIS applications such as subsurface reservoir modelling or the simulation of energy and water supply of mega or smart cities. Furthermore, the data management for complex models consisting of big geo-spatial data is a challenge for GIS and geo-database research. General challenges, concepts, and techniques of big geo-spatial data management are presented. In this paper we introduce a sound mathematical approach for a topologically consistent geo-spatio-temporal model based on the concept of the incidence graph. We redesign DB4GeO, our service-based geo-spatio-temporal database architecture, on the way to the parallel management of massive geo-spatial data. Approaches for a new geo-spatio-temporal and object model of DB4GeO meeting the requirements of big geo-spatial data are discussed in detail. Finally, a conclusion and outlook on our future research are given on the way to support the processing of geo-analytics and -simulations in a parallel and distributed system environment.
Modelling the Crash Response of Composite Structures
Johnson, A.; Kohlgrüber, D.
1997-01-01
The paper describes recent progress on the materials modelling and numerical simulation of the dynamic crash response of fibre reinforced composite structures. The work is based on the application of explicit finite element analysis codes to composite aircraft structures and structural elements under low velocity impact conditions (up to 15 m/s). Structures studied are designed to absorb crash energy and reduce seat deceleration pulses in aircraft subfloor structures, and consist of an aircra...
Numerical simulation of a thermodynamically consistent four-species tumor growth model.
Hawkins-Daarud, Andrea; van der Zee, Kristoffer G; Oden, J Tinsley
2012-01-01
In this paper, we develop a thermodynamically consistent four-species model of tumor growth on the basis of the continuum theory of mixtures. Unique to this model is the incorporation of nutrient within the mixture as opposed to being modeled with an auxiliary reaction-diffusion equation. The formulation involves systems of highly nonlinear partial differential equations of surface effects through diffuse-interface models. A mixed finite element spatial discretization is developed and implemented to provide numerical results demonstrating the range of solutions this model can produce. A time-stepping algorithm is then presented for this system, which is shown to be first order accurate and energy gradient stable. The results of an array of numerical experiments are presented, which demonstrate a wide range of solutions produced by various choices of model parameters.
Self-consistency in the phonon space of the particle-phonon coupling model
Tselyaev, V.; Lyutorovich, N.; Speth, J.; Reinhard, P.-G.
2018-04-01
In the paper the nonlinear generalization of the time blocking approximation (TBA) is presented. The TBA is one of the versions of the extended random-phase approximation (RPA) developed within the Green-function method and the particle-phonon coupling model. In the generalized version of the TBA the self-consistency principle is extended onto the phonon space of the model. The numerical examples show that this nonlinear version of the TBA leads to the convergence of results with respect to enlarging the phonon space of the model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1997-01-01
This report documents a numerical simulation model of the natural gas market in Germany, France, the Netherlands and Belgium. It is a part of a project called ''Internationalization and structural change in the gas market'' aiming to enhance the understanding of the factors behind the current and upcoming changes in the European gas market, especially the downstream part of the gas chain. The model takes European border prices of gas as given, adds transmission and distribution cost and profit margins as well as gas taxes to calculate gas prices. The model includes demand sub-models for households, chemical industry, other industry, the commercial sector and electricity generation. Demand responses to price changes are assumed to take time, and the long run effects are significantly larger than the short run effects. For the household sector and the electricity sector, the dynamics are modeled by distinguishing between energy use in the old and new capital stock. In addition to prices and the activity level (GDP), the model includes the extension of the gas network as a potentially important variable in explaining the development of gas demand. The properties of numerical simulation models are often described by dynamic multipliers, which describe the behaviour of important variables when key explanatory variables are changed. At the end, the report shows the results of a model experiment where the costs in transmission and distribution were reduced. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-12-31
This report documents a numerical simulation model of the natural gas market in Germany, France, the Netherlands and Belgium. It is a part of a project called ``Internationalization and structural change in the gas market`` aiming to enhance the understanding of the factors behind the current and upcoming changes in the European gas market, especially the downstream part of the gas chain. The model takes European border prices of gas as given, adds transmission and distribution cost and profit margins as well as gas taxes to calculate gas prices. The model includes demand sub-models for households, chemical industry, other industry, the commercial sector and electricity generation. Demand responses to price changes are assumed to take time, and the long run effects are significantly larger than the short run effects. For the household sector and the electricity sector, the dynamics are modeled by distinguishing between energy use in the old and new capital stock. In addition to prices and the activity level (GDP), the model includes the extension of the gas network as a potentially important variable in explaining the development of gas demand. The properties of numerical simulation models are often described by dynamic multipliers, which describe the behaviour of important variables when key explanatory variables are changed. At the end, the report shows the results of a model experiment where the costs in transmission and distribution were reduced. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
Genetic Algorithm-Based Model Order Reduction of Aeroservoelastic Systems with Consistant States
Zhu, Jin; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil; Suh, Peter M.; Brenner, Martin J.
2017-01-01
This paper presents a model order reduction framework to construct linear parameter-varying reduced-order models of flexible aircraft for aeroservoelasticity analysis and control synthesis in broad two-dimensional flight parameter space. Genetic algorithms are used to automatically determine physical states for reduction and to generate reduced-order models at grid points within parameter space while minimizing the trial-and-error process. In addition, balanced truncation for unstable systems is used in conjunction with the congruence transformation technique to achieve locally optimal realization and weak fulfillment of state consistency across the entire parameter space. Therefore, aeroservoelasticity reduced-order models at any flight condition can be obtained simply through model interpolation. The methodology is applied to the pitch-plant model of the X-56A Multi-Use Technology Testbed currently being tested at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center for flutter suppression and gust load alleviation. The present studies indicate that the reduced-order model with more than 12× reduction in the number of states relative to the original model is able to accurately predict system response among all input-output channels. The genetic-algorithm-guided approach exceeds manual and empirical state selection in terms of efficiency and accuracy. The interpolated aeroservoelasticity reduced order models exhibit smooth pole transition and continuously varying gains along a set of prescribed flight conditions, which verifies consistent state representation obtained by congruence transformation. The present model order reduction framework can be used by control engineers for robust aeroservoelasticity controller synthesis and novel vehicle design.
Consistent biases in Antarctic sea ice concentration simulated by climate models
Roach, Lettie A.; Dean, Samuel M.; Renwick, James A.
2018-01-01
The simulation of Antarctic sea ice in global climate models often does not agree with observations. In this study, we examine the compactness of sea ice, as well as the regional distribution of sea ice concentration, in climate models from the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and in satellite observations. We find substantial differences in concentration values between different sets of satellite observations, particularly at high concentrations, requiring careful treatment when comparing to models. As a fraction of total sea ice extent, models simulate too much loose, low-concentration sea ice cover throughout the year, and too little compact, high-concentration cover in the summer. In spite of the differences in physics between models, these tendencies are broadly consistent across the population of 40 CMIP5 simulations, a result not previously highlighted. Separating models with and without an explicit lateral melt term, we find that inclusion of lateral melt may account for overestimation of low-concentration cover. Targeted model experiments with a coupled ocean-sea ice model show that choice of constant floe diameter in the lateral melt scheme can also impact representation of loose ice. This suggests that current sea ice thermodynamics contribute to the inadequate simulation of the low-concentration regime in many models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John (Jack P. Riegel III
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Historically, there has been little correlation between the material properties used in (1 empirical formulae, (2 analytical formulations, and (3 numerical models. The various regressions and models may each provide excellent agreement for the depth of penetration into semi-infinite targets. But the input parameters for the empirically based procedures may have little in common with either the analytical model or the numerical model. This paper builds on previous work by Riegel and Anderson (2014 to show how the Effective Flow Stress (EFS strength model, based on empirical data, can be used as the average flow stress in the analytical Walker–Anderson Penetration model (WAPEN (Anderson and Walker, 1991 and how the same value may be utilized as an effective von Mises yield strength in numerical hydrocode simulations to predict the depth of penetration for eroding projectiles at impact velocities in the mechanical response regime of the materials. The method has the benefit of allowing the three techniques (empirical, analytical, and numerical to work in tandem. The empirical method can be used for many shot line calculations, but more advanced analytical or numerical models can be employed when necessary to address specific geometries such as edge effects or layering that are not treated by the simpler methods. Developing complete constitutive relationships for a material can be costly. If the only concern is depth of penetration, such a level of detail may not be required. The effective flow stress can be determined from a small set of depth of penetration experiments in many cases, especially for long penetrators such as the L/D = 10 ones considered here, making it a very practical approach. In the process of performing this effort, the authors considered numerical simulations by other researchers based on the same set of experimental data that the authors used for their empirical and analytical assessment. The goals were to establish a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Callies
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A simple model of the thermohaline circulation (THC is formulated, with the objective to represent explicitly the geostrophic force balance of the basinwide THC. The model comprises advective-diffusive density balances in two meridional-vertical planes located at the eastern and the western walls of a hemispheric sector basin. Boundary mixing constrains vertical motion to lateral boundary layers along these walls. Interior, along-boundary, and zonally integrated meridional flows are in thermal-wind balance. Rossby waves and the absence of interior mixing render isopycnals zonally flat except near the western boundary, constraining meridional flow to the western boundary layer. The model is forced by a prescribed meridional surface density profile.
This two-plane model reproduces both steady-state density and steady-state THC structures of a primitive-equation model. The solution shows narrow deep sinking at the eastern high latitudes, distributed upwelling at both boundaries, and a western boundary current with poleward surface and equatorward deep flow. The overturning strength has a 2/3-power-law dependence on vertical diffusivity and a 1/3-power-law dependence on the imposed meridional surface density difference. Convective mixing plays an essential role in the two-plane model, ensuring that deep sinking is located at high latitudes. This role of convective mixing is consistent with that in three-dimensional models and marks a sharp contrast with previous two-dimensional models.
Overall, the two-plane model reproduces crucial features of the THC as simulated in simple-geometry three-dimensional models. At the same time, the model self-consistently makes quantitative a conceptual picture of the three-dimensional THC that hitherto has been expressed either purely qualitatively or not self-consistently.
A semi-nonparametric mixture model for selecting functionally consistent proteins.
Yu, Lianbo; Doerge, Rw
2010-09-28
High-throughput technologies have led to a new era of proteomics. Although protein microarray experiments are becoming more common place there are a variety of experimental and statistical issues that have yet to be addressed, and that will carry over to new high-throughput technologies unless they are investigated. One of the largest of these challenges is the selection of functionally consistent proteins. We present a novel semi-nonparametric mixture model for classifying proteins as consistent or inconsistent while controlling the false discovery rate and the false non-discovery rate. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to current methods via simulation under a variety of experimental conditions. We provide a statistical method for selecting functionally consistent proteins in the context of protein microarray experiments, but the proposed semi-nonparametric mixture model method can certainly be generalized to solve other mixture data problems. The main advantage of this approach is that it provides the posterior probability of consistency for each protein.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mookerjee, A.; Chaudhry, V.
1980-09-01
Using the chemical pseudopotential approach of Anderson and Bullett we have generated from first principles pseudo-Hamiltonians for heteropolar alloys. The one-electron density of states has been generated for Gasub(x)Insub(1-x)As using a self-consistent cluster CPA introduced earlier by one of us. Off-diagonal disorder has also been incorporated. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Nakshatrala, Praveen B.; Tortorelli, Daniel A.
2014-01-01
on a differentiate-then-discretize approach, may lead to inconsistent sensitivities. Herein this effect is explicitly demonstrated for a single dof system and the source of inconsistency is identified. Additionally, we outline an alternative discretize-then-differentiate AVM that inherently produces consistent...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scarfone, A.M., E-mail: antoniomaria.scarfone@cnr.it [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi (ISC-CNR) c/o Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Matsuzoe, H. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Wada, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawacho, Hitachi 316-8511 (Japan)
2016-09-07
We show the robustness of the structure of Legendre transform in thermodynamics against the replacement of the standard linear average with the Kolmogorov–Nagumo nonlinear average to evaluate the expectation values of the macroscopic physical observables. The consequence of this statement is twofold: 1) the relationships between the expectation values and the corresponding Lagrange multipliers still hold in the present formalism; 2) the universality of the Gibbs equation as well as other thermodynamic relations are unaffected by the structure of the average used in the theory. - Highlights: • The robustness of the Legendre structure has been shown within the KN average. • The relationships between the expectation values and the Lagrange multipliers still hold in the present formalism. • The universality of the Gibbs equation and other thermodynamic relations are unaffected by the structure of the average used.
Building a Structural Model: Parameterization and Structurality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michel Mouchart
2016-04-01
Full Text Available A specific concept of structural model is used as a background for discussing the structurality of its parameterization. Conditions for a structural model to be also causal are examined. Difficulties and pitfalls arising from the parameterization are analyzed. In particular, pitfalls when considering alternative parameterizations of a same model are shown to have lead to ungrounded conclusions in the literature. Discussions of observationally equivalent models related to different economic mechanisms are used to make clear the connection between an economically meaningful parameterization and an economically meaningful decomposition of a complex model. The design of economic policy is used for drawing some practical implications of the proposed analysis.
Consistency Analysis of Genome-Scale Models of Bacterial Metabolism: A Metamodel Approach.
Ponce-de-Leon, Miguel; Calle-Espinosa, Jorge; Peretó, Juli; Montero, Francisco
2015-01-01
Genome-scale metabolic models usually contain inconsistencies that manifest as blocked reactions and gap metabolites. With the purpose to detect recurrent inconsistencies in metabolic models, a large-scale analysis was performed using a previously published dataset of 130 genome-scale models. The results showed that a large number of reactions (~22%) are blocked in all the models where they are present. To unravel the nature of such inconsistencies a metamodel was construed by joining the 130 models in a single network. This metamodel was manually curated using the unconnected modules approach, and then, it was used as a reference network to perform a gap-filling on each individual genome-scale model. Finally, a set of 36 models that had not been considered during the construction of the metamodel was used, as a proof of concept, to extend the metamodel with new biochemical information, and to assess its impact on gap-filling results. The analysis performed on the metamodel allowed to conclude: 1) the recurrent inconsistencies found in the models were already present in the metabolic database used during the reconstructions process; 2) the presence of inconsistencies in a metabolic database can be propagated to the reconstructed models; 3) there are reactions not manifested as blocked which are active as a consequence of some classes of artifacts, and; 4) the results of an automatic gap-filling are highly dependent on the consistency and completeness of the metamodel or metabolic database used as the reference network. In conclusion the consistency analysis should be applied to metabolic databases in order to detect and fill gaps as well as to detect and remove artifacts and redundant information.
Interstellar turbulence model : A self-consistent coupling of plasma and neutral fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaikh, Dastgeer; Zank, Gary P.; Pogorelov, Nikolai
2006-01-01
We present results of a preliminary investigation of interstellar turbulence based on a self-consistent two-dimensional fluid simulation model. Our model describes a partially ionized magnetofluid interstellar medium (ISM) that couples a neutral hydrogen fluid to a plasma through charge exchange interactions and assumes that the ISM turbulent correlation scales are much bigger than the shock characteristic length-scales, but smaller than the charge exchange mean free path length-scales. The shocks have no influence on the ISM turbulent fluctuations. We find that nonlinear interactions in coupled plasma-neutral ISM turbulence are influenced substantially by charge exchange processes
Alfven-wave particle interaction in finite-dimensional self-consistent field model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padhye, N.; Horton, W.
1998-01-01
A low-dimensional Hamiltonian model is derived for the acceleration of ions in finite amplitude Alfven waves in a finite pressure plasma sheet. The reduced low-dimensional wave-particle Hamiltonian is useful for describing the reaction of the accelerated ions on the wave amplitudes and phases through the self-consistent fields within the envelope approximation. As an example, the authors show for a single Alfven wave in the central plasma sheet of the Earth's geotail, modeled by the linear pinch geometry called the Harris sheet, the time variation of the wave amplitude during the acceleration of fast protons
Self-consistent nonlinearly polarizable shell-model dynamics for ferroelectric materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mkam Tchouobiap, S.E.; Kofane, T.C.; Ngabireng, C.M.
2002-11-01
We investigate the dynamical properties of the polarizable shellmodel with a symmetric double Morse-type electron-ion interaction in one ionic species. A variational calculation based on the Self-Consistent Einstein Model (SCEM) shows that a theoretical ferroelectric (FE) transition temperature can be derive which demonstrates the presence of a first-order phase transition for the potassium selenate (K 2 SeO 4 ) crystal around Tc 91.5 K. Comparison of the model calculation with the experimental critical temperature yields satisfactory agreement. (author)
A consistent modelling methodology for secondary settling tanks: a reliable numerical method.
Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Farås, Sebastian; Nopens, Ingmar; Torfs, Elena
2013-01-01
The consistent modelling methodology for secondary settling tanks (SSTs) leads to a partial differential equation (PDE) of nonlinear convection-diffusion type as a one-dimensional model for the solids concentration as a function of depth and time. This PDE includes a flux that depends discontinuously on spatial position modelling hindered settling and bulk flows, a singular source term describing the feed mechanism, a degenerating term accounting for sediment compressibility, and a dispersion term for turbulence. In addition, the solution itself is discontinuous. A consistent, reliable and robust numerical method that properly handles these difficulties is presented. Many constitutive relations for hindered settling, compression and dispersion can be used within the model, allowing the user to switch on and off effects of interest depending on the modelling goal as well as investigate the suitability of certain constitutive expressions. Simulations show the effect of the dispersion term on effluent suspended solids and total sludge mass in the SST. The focus is on correct implementation whereas calibration and validation are not pursued.
Development of a self-consistent lightning NOx simulation in large-scale 3-D models
Luo, Chao; Wang, Yuhang; Koshak, William J.
2017-03-01
We seek to develop a self-consistent representation of lightning NOx (LNOx) simulation in a large-scale 3-D model. Lightning flash rates are parameterized functions of meteorological variables related to convection. We examine a suite of such variables and find that convective available potential energy and cloud top height give the best estimates compared to July 2010 observations from ground-based lightning observation networks. Previous models often use lightning NOx vertical profiles derived from cloud-resolving model simulations. An implicit assumption of such an approach is that the postconvection lightning NOx vertical distribution is the same for all deep convection, regardless of geographic location, time of year, or meteorological environment. Detailed observations of the lightning channel segment altitude distribution derived from the NASA Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model can be used to obtain the LNOx emission profile. Coupling such a profile with model convective transport leads to a more self-consistent lightning distribution compared to using prescribed postconvection profiles. We find that convective redistribution appears to be a more important factor than preconvection LNOx profile selection, providing another reason for linking the strength of convective transport to LNOx distribution.
An Ice Model That is Consistent with Composite Rheology in GIA Modelling
Huang, P.; Patrick, W.
2017-12-01
There are several popular approaches in constructing ice history models. One of them is mainly based on thermo-mechanical ice models with forcing or boundary conditions inferred from paleoclimate data. The second one is mainly based on the observed response of the Earth to glacial loading and unloading, a process called Glacial Isostatic Adjustment or GIA. The third approach is a hybrid version of the first and second approaches. In this presentation, we will follow the second approach which also uses geological data such as ice flow, terminal moraine data and simple ice dynamic for the ice sheet re-construction (Peltier & Andrew 1976). The global ice model ICE-6G (Peltier et al. 2015) and all its predecessors (Tushingham & Peltier 1991, Peltier 1994, 1996, 2004, Lambeck et al. 2014) are constructed this way with the assumption that mantle rheology is linear. However, high temperature creep experiments on mantle rocks show that non-linear creep laws can also operate in the mantle. Since both linear (e.g. diffusion creep) and non-linear (e.g. dislocation) creep laws can operate simultaneously in the mantle, mantle rheology is likely composite, where the total creep is the sum of both linear and onlinear creep. Preliminary GIA studies found that composite rheology can fit regional RSL observations better than that from linear rheology(e.g. van der Wal et al. 2010). The aim of this paper is to construct ice models in Laurentia and Fennoscandia using this second approach, but with composite rheology, so that its predictions can fit GIA observations such as global RSL data, land uplift rate and g-dot simultaneously in addition to geological data and simple ice dynamics. The g-dot or gravity-rate-of-change data is from the GRACE gravity mission but with the effects of hydrology removed. Our GIA model is based on the Coupled Laplace-Finite Element method as described in Wu(2004) and van der Wal et al.(2010). It is found that composite rheology generally supports a thicker
A review of 20 Ne structure in a full microscopic self-consistent shell ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A set of single-particle energies together with a set of two-body matrix- elements derived in a self –consistent manner from the Reid soft–core potential are used to calculate the energy levels of 20Ne. We used a harmonic oscillator wave function folded with two-body correlation functions in our calculation. It is found that the ...
Possible world based consistency learning model for clustering and classifying uncertain data.
Liu, Han; Zhang, Xianchao; Zhang, Xiaotong
2018-06-01
Possible world has shown to be effective for handling various types of data uncertainty in uncertain data management. However, few uncertain data clustering and classification algorithms are proposed based on possible world. Moreover, existing possible world based algorithms suffer from the following issues: (1) they deal with each possible world independently and ignore the consistency principle across different possible worlds; (2) they require the extra post-processing procedure to obtain the final result, which causes that the effectiveness highly relies on the post-processing method and the efficiency is also not very good. In this paper, we propose a novel possible world based consistency learning model for uncertain data, which can be extended both for clustering and classifying uncertain data. This model utilizes the consistency principle to learn a consensus affinity matrix for uncertain data, which can make full use of the information across different possible worlds and then improve the clustering and classification performance. Meanwhile, this model imposes a new rank constraint on the Laplacian matrix of the consensus affinity matrix, thereby ensuring that the number of connected components in the consensus affinity matrix is exactly equal to the number of classes. This also means that the clustering and classification results can be directly obtained without any post-processing procedure. Furthermore, for the clustering and classification tasks, we respectively derive the efficient optimization methods to solve the proposed model. Experimental results on real benchmark datasets and real world uncertain datasets show that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art uncertain data clustering and classification algorithms in effectiveness and performs competitively in efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boonstra, A.; van Offenbeek, M.A.G.
2010-01-01
Telecare is the use of information and communication systems to facilitate care delivery to individuals in their homes. Although the expectations of telecare are high, its implementation has proved complex. This case study demonstrates this complexity through a structurational analysis of a telecare
Williams, Kristen; Hooper, Joseph
2013-03-01
Ab initio simulations are used to study the variation in geometry and magnetic structure in MnxOy (x = 3,4; y = 1,2) clusters. The groundstate wavefunctions for clusters with different magnetic coupling (ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic and antiferromagnetic) are modeled with linear combinations of atomic orbitals (LCAOs). Self-consistent energies for different spin isomers are calculated by constraining the magnetic moments of Mn atoms constituting each basis AO. The ferrimagnetic and antiferromagnetic ground-state structures of MnxOy are 0.16-1.20 eV lower in energy than their ferromagnetic isomers. The presence of oxygen thus stabilizes low-spin isomers relative to the preferred high-spin ordering of bare Mn3 and Mn4. Each cluster has a preferred overall magnetic moment, and no evidence is seen of competing states with different spin multiplicities. However, non-degenerate isomags (clusters that possess the same spin multiplicity but different arrangements of local moments) do contribute to peak broadening observed in negative-ion photoelectron spectra. Proper accounting for all possible isomags is shown to be critical for accurate comparison with experimental spectra. Research was conducted at Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD and supported by the ONR NREIP program.
Becerra, Marley; Frid, Henrik; Vázquez, Pedro A.
2017-12-01
This paper presents a self-consistent model of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) laminar plumes produced by electron injection from ultra-sharp needle tips in cyclohexane. Since the density of electrons injected into the liquid is well described by the Fowler-Nordheim field emission theory, the injection law is not assumed. Furthermore, the generation of electrons in cyclohexane and their conversion into negative ions is included in the analysis. Detailed steady-state characteristics of EHD plumes under weak injection and space-charge limited injection are studied. It is found that the plume characteristics far from both electrodes and under weak injection can be accurately described with an asymptotic simplified solution proposed by Vazquez et al. ["Dynamics of electrohydrodynamic laminar plumes: Scaling analysis and integral model," Phys. Fluids 12, 2809 (2000)] when the correct longitudinal electric field distribution and liquid velocity radial profile are used as input. However, this asymptotic solution deviates from the self-consistently calculated plume parameters under space-charge limited injection since it neglects the radial variations of the electric field produced by a high-density charged core. In addition, no significant differences in the model estimates of the plume are found when the simulations are obtained either with the finite element method or with a diffusion-free particle method. It is shown that the model also enables the calculation of the current-voltage characteristic of EHD laminar plumes produced by electron field emission, with good agreement with measured values reported in the literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liyan Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper studies multiresolution traffic flow simulation model of urban expressway. Firstly, compared with two-level hybrid model, three-level multiresolution hybrid model has been chosen. Then, multiresolution simulation framework and integration strategies are introduced. Thirdly, the paper proposes an urban expressway multiresolution traffic simulation model by asynchronous integration strategy based on Set Theory, which includes three submodels: macromodel, mesomodel, and micromodel. After that, the applicable conditions and derivation process of the three submodels are discussed in detail. In addition, in order to simulate and evaluate the multiresolution model, “simple simulation scenario” of North-South Elevated Expressway in Shanghai has been established. The simulation results showed the following. (1 Volume-density relationships of three submodels are unanimous with detector data. (2 When traffic density is high, macromodel has a high precision and smaller error and the dispersion of results is smaller. Compared with macromodel, simulation accuracies of micromodel and mesomodel are lower but errors are bigger. (3 Multiresolution model can simulate characteristics of traffic flow, capture traffic wave, and keep the consistency of traffic state transition. Finally, the results showed that the novel multiresolution model can have higher simulation accuracy and it is feasible and effective in the real traffic simulation scenario.
A formally verified algorithm for interactive consistency under a hybrid fault model
Lincoln, Patrick; Rushby, John
1993-01-01
Consistent distribution of single-source data to replicated computing channels is a fundamental problem in fault-tolerant system design. The 'Oral Messages' (OM) algorithm solves this problem of Interactive Consistency (Byzantine Agreement) assuming that all faults are worst-cass. Thambidurai and Park introduced a 'hybrid' fault model that distinguished three fault modes: asymmetric (Byzantine), symmetric, and benign; they also exhibited, along with an informal 'proof of correctness', a modified version of OM. Unfortunately, their algorithm is flawed. The discipline of mechanically checked formal verification eventually enabled us to develop a correct algorithm for Interactive Consistency under the hybrid fault model. This algorithm withstands $a$ asymmetric, $s$ symmetric, and $b$ benign faults simultaneously, using $m+1$ rounds, provided $n is greater than 2a + 2s + b + m$, and $m\\geg a$. We present this algorithm, discuss its subtle points, and describe its formal specification and verification in PVS. We argue that formal verification systems such as PVS are now sufficiently effective that their application to fault-tolerance algorithms should be considered routine.
Structural system identification: Structural dynamics model validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Red-Horse, J.R.
1997-04-01
Structural system identification is concerned with the development of systematic procedures and tools for developing predictive analytical models based on a physical structure`s dynamic response characteristics. It is a multidisciplinary process that involves the ability (1) to define high fidelity physics-based analysis models, (2) to acquire accurate test-derived information for physical specimens using diagnostic experiments, (3) to validate the numerical simulation model by reconciling differences that inevitably exist between the analysis model and the experimental data, and (4) to quantify uncertainties in the final system models and subsequent numerical simulations. The goal of this project was to develop structural system identification techniques and software suitable for both research and production applications in code and model validation.
Consistent phase-change modeling for CO2-based heat mining operation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Singh, Ashok Kumar; Veje, Christian
2017-01-01
–gas phase transition with more accuracy and consistency. Calculation of fluid properties and saturation state were based on the volume translated Peng–Robinson equation of state and results verified. The present model has been applied to a scenario to simulate a CO2-based heat mining process. In this paper......The accuracy of mathematical modeling of phase-change phenomena is limited if a simple, less accurate equation of state completes the governing partial differential equation. However, fluid properties (such as density, dynamic viscosity and compressibility) and saturation state are calculated using...... a highly accurate, complex equation of state. This leads to unstable and inaccurate simulation as the equation of state and governing partial differential equations are mutually inconsistent. In this study, the volume-translated Peng–Robinson equation of state was used with emphasis to model the liquid...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baczmanski, A.; Braham, C.
2004-01-01
A new method for determining the parameters characterising elastoplastic deformation of two-phase material is proposed. The method is based on the results of neutron diffraction and mechanical experiments, which are analysed using the self-consistent rate-independent model of elastoplastic deformation. The neutron diffraction method has been applied to determine the lattice strains and diffraction peak broadening in two-phase austeno-ferritic steel during uniaxial tensile test. The elastoplastic model was used to predict evolution of internal stresses and critical resolved shear stresses. Calculations based on this model were successfully compared with experimental results and the parameters characterising elastoplastic deformation were determined for both phases of duplex steel
Armour, K.
2017-12-01
Global energy budget observations have been widely used to constrain the effective, or instantaneous climate sensitivity (ICS), producing median estimates around 2°C (Otto et al. 2013; Lewis & Curry 2015). A key question is whether the comprehensive climate models used to project future warming are consistent with these energy budget estimates of ICS. Yet, performing such comparisons has proven challenging. Within models, values of ICS robustly vary over time, as surface temperature patterns evolve with transient warming, and are generally smaller than the values of equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS). Naively comparing values of ECS in CMIP5 models (median of about 3.4°C) to observation-based values of ICS has led to the suggestion that models are overly sensitive. This apparent discrepancy can partially be resolved by (i) comparing observation-based values of ICS to model values of ICS relevant for historical warming (Armour 2017; Proistosescu & Huybers 2017); (ii) taking into account the "efficacies" of non-CO2 radiative forcing agents (Marvel et al. 2015); and (iii) accounting for the sparseness of historical temperature observations and differences in sea-surface temperature and near-surface air temperature over the oceans (Richardson et al. 2016). Another potential source of discrepancy is a mismatch between observed and simulated surface temperature patterns over recent decades, due to either natural variability or model deficiencies in simulating historical warming patterns. The nature of the mismatch is such that simulated patterns can lead to more positive radiative feedbacks (higher ICS) relative to those engendered by observed patterns. The magnitude of this effect has not yet been addressed. Here we outline an approach to perform fully commensurate comparisons of climate models with global energy budget observations that take all of the above effects into account. We find that when apples-to-apples comparisons are made, values of ICS in models are
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jenny Roth
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance–congruity and imbalance–dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification depends in part on the (incompatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (incompatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias.
Roth, Jenny; Steffens, Melanie C; Vignoles, Vivian L
2018-01-01
The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility) as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance-congruity and imbalance-dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification) depends in part on the (in)compatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (in)compatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias.
Self-consisting modeling of entangled network strands and dangling ends
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mette Krog; Schieber, Jay D.; Khaliullin, Renat N.
2009-01-01
Text of Abstract We seek knowledge about the effect of dangling ends and soluble structures of stoichiometrically imbalanced networks. To interpretate our recent experimental results we seek a molecular model that can predict LVE data. The discrete slip-link model (DSM) has proven to be a robust......, we call this an ideal entangled network (IEN). We simulate monodisperse polypropylene oxide with an average number of entanglements of ~3.8. Such lightly entangled networks show a G0 that is about 24% lower than GN0. This decrease is a result of monomer fluctuations between entanglements...... of dangling ends and soluble structures. Energy dissipation is increased by adding a fraction of dangling ends, wDE, to the ensemble. We find that when wDE=0.6, G0 is about 75% lower than GN0, this suggests that the fraction of network strands, wNS=1-wDE, largely influences the plateau value at low...
Is the thermal-spike model consistent with experimentally determined electron temperature?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ajryan, Eh.A.; Fedorov, A.V.; Kostenko, B.F.
2000-01-01
Carbon K-Auger electron spectra from amorphous carbon foils induced by fast heavy ions are theoretically investigated. The high-energy tail of the Auger structure showing a clear projectile charge dependence is analyzed within the thermal-spike model framework as well as in the frame of another model taking into account some kinetic features of the process. A poor comparison results between theoretically and experimentally determined temperatures are suggested to be due to an improper account of double electron excitations or due to shake-up processes which leave the system in a more energetic initial state than a statically screened core hole
Self-consistent nonlinear transmission line model of standing wave effects in a capacitive discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chabert, P.; Raimbault, J.L.; Rax, J.M.; Lieberman, M.A.
2004-01-01
It has been shown previously [Lieberman et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 11, 283 (2002)], using a non-self-consistent model based on solutions of Maxwell's equations, that several electromagnetic effects may compromise capacitive discharge uniformity. Among these, the standing wave effect dominates at low and moderate electron densities when the driving frequency is significantly greater than the usual 13.56 MHz. In the present work, two different global discharge models have been coupled to a transmission line model and used to obtain the self-consistent characteristics of the standing wave effect. An analytical solution for the wavelength λ was derived for the lossless case and compared to the numerical results. For typical plasma etching conditions (pressure 10-100 mTorr), a good approximation of the wavelength is λ/λ 0 ≅40 V 0 1/10 l -1/2 f -2/5 , where λ 0 is the wavelength in vacuum, V 0 is the rf voltage magnitude in volts at the discharge center, l is the electrode spacing in meters, and f the driving frequency in hertz
Choi, Sung W; Gerencser, Akos A; Ng, Ryan; Flynn, James M; Melov, Simon; Danielson, Steven R; Gibson, Bradford W; Nicholls, David G; Bredesen, Dale E; Brand, Martin D
2012-11-21
Depressed cortical energy supply and impaired synaptic function are predominant associations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test the hypothesis that presynaptic bioenergetic deficits are associated with the progression of AD pathogenesis, we compared bioenergetic variables of cortical and hippocampal presynaptic nerve terminals (synaptosomes) from commonly used mouse models with AD-like phenotypes (J20 age 6 months, Tg2576 age 16 months, and APP/PS age 9 and 14 months) to age-matched controls. No consistent bioenergetic deficiencies were detected in synaptosomes from the three models; only APP/PS cortical synaptosomes from 14-month-old mice showed an increase in respiration associated with proton leak. J20 mice were chosen for a highly stringent investigation of mitochondrial function and content. There were no significant differences in the quality of the synaptosomal preparations or the mitochondrial volume fraction. Furthermore, respiratory variables, calcium handling, and membrane potentials of synaptosomes from symptomatic J20 mice under calcium-imposed stress were not consistently impaired. The recovery of marker proteins during synaptosome preparation was the same, ruling out the possibility that the lack of functional bioenergetic defects in synaptosomes from J20 mice was due to the selective loss of damaged synaptosomes during sample preparation. Our results support the conclusion that the intrinsic bioenergetic capacities of presynaptic nerve terminals are maintained in these symptomatic AD mouse models.
A Time consistent model for monetary value of man-sievert
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Na, S.H.; Kim, Sun G.
2008-01-01
Full text: Performing a cost-benefit analysis to establish optimum levels of radiation protection under the ALARA principle, we introduce a discrete stepwise model to evaluate man-sievert monetary value of Korea. The model formula, which is unique and country-specific, is composed of GDP, the nominal risk coefficient for cancer and hereditary effects, the aversion factor against radiation exposure, and the average life expectancy. Unlike previous researches on alpha-value assessment, we showed different alpha values optimized with respect to various ranges of individual dose, which would be more realistic and applicable to the radiation protection area. Employing economically constant term of GDP we showed the real values of man-sievert by year, which should be consistent in time series comparison even under price level fluctuation. GDP deflators of an economy have to be applied to measure one's own consistent value of radiation protection by year. In addition, we recommend that the concept of purchasing power parity should be adopted if it needs international comparison of alpha values in real terms. Finally, we explain the way that this stepwise model can be generalized simply to other countries without normalizing any country-specific factors. (author)
Quest for consistent modelling of statistical decay of the compound nucleus
Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu
2018-01-01
A statistical model description of heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions is presented where shell effects, collective enhancement of level density, tilting away effect of compound nuclear spin and dissipation are included. It is shown that the inclusion of all these effects provides a consistent picture of fission where fission hindrance is required to explain the experimental values of both pre-scission neutron multiplicities and evaporation residue cross-sections in contrast to some of the earlier works where a fission hindrance is required for pre-scission neutrons but a fission enhancement for evaporation residue cross-sections.
A Consistent Methodology Based Parameter Estimation for a Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spann, Robert; Roca, Christophe; Kold, David
2017-01-01
Lactic acid bacteria are used in many industrial applications, e.g. as starter cultures in the dairy industry or as probiotics, and research on their cell production is highly required. A first principles kinetic model was developed to describe and understand the biological, physical, and chemical...... mechanisms in a lactic acid bacteria fermentation. We present here a consistent approach for a methodology based parameter estimation for a lactic acid fermentation. In the beginning, just an initial knowledge based guess of parameters was available and an initial parameter estimation of the complete set...
A self-consistent model for thermodynamics of multicomponent solid solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svoboda, J.; Fischer, F.D.
2016-01-01
The self-consistent concept recently published in this journal (108, 27–30, 2015) is extended from a binary to a multicomponent system. This is possible by exploiting the trapping concept as basis for including the interaction of atoms in terms of pairs (e.g. A–A, B–B, C–C…) and couples (e.g. A–B, B–C, …) in a multicomponent system with A as solvent and B, C, … as dilute solutes. The model results in a formulation of Gibbs-energy, which can be minimized. Examples show that the couple and pair formation may influence the equilibrium Gibbs energy markedly.
Kinematic models of extensional structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groshong, R.H. Jr.
1990-01-01
This paper discusses kinematic models that can relate faults of different types and different positions within a single dynamic system and thereby offer the potential to explain the disparate seismic activity characteristic of extensional terrains. The major styles are full grabens, half grabens, domino blocks, and glide-block systems. Half grabens, the most likely models for Basin and Range structure, are formed above a master fault of decreasing dip with depth and a hangingwall that deforms as it passes over the curved fault. Second-order normal faults, typically domino style, accommodate the required hangingwall deformation. According to the author low-angle detachment faults are consistent with the evidence of seismicity only on high-angle faults if the hangingwall of the detachment is broken by multiple half-graben systems
Temnothorax rugatulus ant colonies consistently vary in nest structure across time and context.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas DiRienzo
Full Text Available A host of animals build architectural constructions. Such constructions frequently vary with environmental and individual/colony conditions, and their architecture directly influences behavior and fitness. The nests of ant colonies drive and enable many of their collective behaviors, and as such are part of their 'extended phenotype'. Since ant colonies have been recently shown to differ in behavior and life history strategy, we ask whether colonies differ in another trait: the architecture of the constructions they create. We allowed Temnothorax rugatulus rock ants, who create nests by building walls within narrow rock gaps, to repeatedly build nest walls in a fixed crevice but under two environmental conditions. We find that colonies consistently differ in their architecture across environments and over nest building events. Colony identity explained 12-40% of the variation in nest architecture, while colony properties and environmental conditions explained 5-20%, as indicated by the condition and marginal R2 values. When their nest boxes were covered, which produced higher humidity and lower airflow, colonies built thicker, longer, and heavier walls. Colonies also built more robust walls when they had more brood, suggesting a protective function of wall thickness. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to explicitly investigate the repeatability of nestbuilding behavior in a controlled environment. Our results suggest that colonies may face tradeoffs, perhaps between factors such as active vs. passive nest defense, and that selection may act on individual construction rules as a mechanisms to mediate colony-level behavior.
Tree, A C; Khoo, V S; van As, N J; Partridge, M
2014-04-01
The α/β ratio for prostate cancer is thought to be low and less than for the rectum, which is usually the dose-limiting organ. Hypofractionated radiotherapy should therefore improve the therapeutic ratio, increasing cure rates with less toxicity. A number of models for predicting biochemical relapse-free survival have been developed from large series of patients treated with conventional and moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to test these models when significant numbers of patients treated with profoundly hypofractionated radiotherapy were included. A systematic review of the literature with regard to hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer was conducted, focussing on data recently presented on prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy. For the work described here, we have taken published biochemical control rates for a range of moderately and profoundly fractionated schedules and plotted these together with a range of radiobiological models, which are described. The data reviewed show consistency between the various radiobiological model predictions and the currently observed data. Current radiobiological models provide accurate predictions of biochemical relapse-free survival, even when profoundly hypofractionated patients are included in the analysis. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Comparison of squashing and self-consistent input-output models of quantum feedback
Peřinová, V.; Lukš, A.; Křepelka, J.
2018-03-01
The paper (Yanagisawa and Hope, 2010) opens with two ways of analysis of a measurement-based quantum feedback. The scheme of the feedback includes, along with the homodyne detector, a modulator and a beamsplitter, which does not enable one to extract the nonclassical field. In the present scheme, the beamsplitter is replaced by the quantum noise evader, which makes it possible to extract the nonclassical field. We re-approach the comparison of two models related to the same scheme. The first one admits that in the feedback loop between the photon annihilation and creation operators, unusual commutation relations hold. As a consequence, in the feedback loop, squashing of the light occurs. In the second one, the description arrives at the feedback loop via unitary transformations. But it is obvious that the unitary transformation which describes the modulator changes even the annihilation operator of the mode which passes by the modulator which is not natural. The first model could be called "squashing model" and the second one could be named "self-consistent model". Although the predictions of the two models differ only a little and both the ways of analysis have their advantages, they have also their drawbacks and further investigation is possible.
Baczmański, A.; Gaj, A.; Le Joncour, L.; Wroński, S.; François, M.; Panicaud, B.; Braham, C.; Paradowska, A. M.
2012-08-01
The time-of-flight neutron diffraction technique and the elastoplastic self-consistent model were used to study the behaviour of single and multi-phase materials. Critical resolved shear stresses and hardening parameters in austenitic and austenitic-ferritic steels were found by analysing the evolution of the lattice strains measured during tensile tests. Special attention was paid to the changes of the grain stresses occurring due to transition from elastic to plastic deformation. Using a new method of data analysis, the variation of the stress localisation tensor as a function of macrostress was measured. The experimental results were successfully compared with model predictions for both phases of the duplex steel and also for the austenitic sample.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dixit, P.K.; Vaid, B.A.; Sharma, K.C.
1986-01-01
The structure disorder model, recently proposed to explain the thermodynamic properties near the transition of first order, is generalized to include the pressure-induced transitions in tetrahedrally coordinated tin and A/sup N/B/sup 8-N/ compounds (with N = 2, 3). For Sn the calculated values of the change in thermodynamic quantities during the transition are found to be closer to the experimental values. For A/sup N/B/sup 8-N/ compounds, the transition is explained in a satisfactory manner in terms of partial ionic bonds and covalent bonds. The change in compressibility near the transition is found to be in agreement with that obtained from experiments. (author)
Self-Consistent Generation of Primordial Continental Crust in Global Mantle Convection Models
Jain, C.; Rozel, A.; Tackley, P. J.
2017-12-01
We present the generation of primordial continental crust (TTG rocks) using self-consistent and evolutionary thermochemical mantle convection models (Tackley, PEPI 2008). Numerical modelling commonly shows that mantle convection and continents have strong feedbacks on each other. However in most studies, continents are inserted a priori while basaltic (oceanic) crust is generated self-consistently in some models (Lourenco et al., EPSL 2016). Formation of primordial continental crust happened by fractional melting and crystallisation in episodes of relatively rapid growth from late Archean to late Proterozoic eras (3-1 Ga) (Hawkesworth & Kemp, Nature 2006) and it has also been linked to the onset of plate tectonics around 3 Ga. It takes several stages of differentiation to generate Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks or proto-continents. First, the basaltic magma is extracted from the pyrolitic mantle which is both erupted at the surface and intruded at the base of the crust. Second, it goes through eclogitic transformation and then partially melts to form TTGs (Rudnick, Nature 1995; Herzberg & Rudnick, Lithos 2012). TTGs account for the majority of the Archean continental crust. Based on the melting conditions proposed by Moyen (Lithos 2011), the feasibility of generating TTG rocks in numerical simulations has already been demonstrated by Rozel et al. (Nature, 2017). Here, we have developed the code further by parameterising TTG formation. We vary the ratio of intrusive (plutonic) and extrusive (volcanic) magmatism (Crisp, Volcanol. Geotherm. 1984) to study the relative volumes of three petrological TTG compositions as reported from field data (Moyen, Lithos 2011). Furthermore, we systematically vary parameters such as friction coefficient, initial core temperature and composition-dependent viscosity to investigate the global tectonic regime of early Earth. Continental crust can also be destroyed by subduction or delamination. We will investigate
Krimi, Abdelkader; Rezoug, Mehdi; Khelladi, Sofiane; Nogueira, Xesús; Deligant, Michael; Ramírez, Luis
2018-04-01
In this work, a consistent Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model to deal with interfacial multiphase fluid flows simulation is proposed. A modification to the Continuum Stress Surface formulation (CSS) [1] to enhance the stability near the fluid interface is developed in the framework of the SPH method. A non-conservative first-order consistency operator is used to compute the divergence of stress surface tensor. This formulation benefits of all the advantages of the one proposed by Adami et al. [2] and, in addition, it can be applied to more than two phases fluid flow simulations. Moreover, the generalized wall boundary conditions [3] are modified in order to be well adapted to multiphase fluid flows with different density and viscosity. In order to allow the application of this technique to wall-bounded multiphase flows, a modification of generalized wall boundary conditions is presented here for using the SPH method. In this work we also present a particle redistribution strategy as an extension of the damping technique presented in [3] to smooth the initial transient phase of gravitational multiphase fluid flow simulations. Several computational tests are investigated to show the accuracy, convergence and applicability of the proposed SPH interfacial multiphase model.
Thermodynamically Consistent Algorithms for the Solution of Phase-Field Models
Vignal, Philippe
2016-02-11
Phase-field models are emerging as a promising strategy to simulate interfacial phenomena. Rather than tracking interfaces explicitly as done in sharp interface descriptions, these models use a diffuse order parameter to monitor interfaces implicitly. This implicit description, as well as solid physical and mathematical footings, allow phase-field models to overcome problems found by predecessors. Nonetheless, the method has significant drawbacks. The phase-field framework relies on the solution of high-order, nonlinear partial differential equations. Solving these equations entails a considerable computational cost, so finding efficient strategies to handle them is important. Also, standard discretization strategies can many times lead to incorrect solutions. This happens because, for numerical solutions to phase-field equations to be valid, physical conditions such as mass conservation and free energy monotonicity need to be guaranteed. In this work, we focus on the development of thermodynamically consistent algorithms for time integration of phase-field models. The first part of this thesis focuses on an energy-stable numerical strategy developed for the phase-field crystal equation. This model was put forward to model microstructure evolution. The algorithm developed conserves, guarantees energy stability and is second order accurate in time. The second part of the thesis presents two numerical schemes that generalize literature regarding energy-stable methods for conserved and non-conserved phase-field models. The time discretization strategies can conserve mass if needed, are energy-stable, and second order accurate in time. We also develop an adaptive time-stepping strategy, which can be applied to any second-order accurate scheme. This time-adaptive strategy relies on a backward approximation to give an accurate error estimator. The spatial discretization, in both parts, relies on a mixed finite element formulation and isogeometric analysis. The codes are
Behzadi, Azad Esmailov
1999-10-01
The critical behavior of the fully frustrated XY model has remained controversial in spite of almost two decades of related research. In this study, we have developed a new method inspired by Netz and Berker's hard-spin mean- field theory. Our approach for XY models yields results consistent with Monte Carlo simulations as the ratio of antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic interactions is varied. The method captures two phase transitions clearly separated in temperature for ratios of 0.5, 0.6, and 1.5, with these transitions moving closer together in temperature as the interaction ratio approaches 1.0, the fully frustrated case. From the system's chirality as a function of temperature in the critical region, we calculate the critical exponent β in agreement with an Ising transition for all of the interaction ratios studied, including 1.0. This result provides support for the view that there are two transitions, rather than one transition in a new universality class, occurring in the fully frustrated XY model. Finite size effects in this model can be essentially eliminated by rescaling the local magnetization, the quantity retained self- consistently in our computations. This rescaling scheme also shows excellent results when tested on the two- dimensional Ising model, and the method, as generalized, provides a framework for an analytical approach to complex systems. Monte Carlo simulations of the fully frustrated XY model in a magnetic field provide further evidence of two transitions. The magnetic field breaks the rotational symmetry of the model, but the two-fold chiral degeneracy of the ground state persists in the field. This lower degeneracy with the field present makes Monte Carlo simulations converge more rapidly. The critical exponent δ determined from the sublattice magnetizations as a function of field agrees with the value expected for a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Further, the zero-field specific heat obtained by extrapolation from simulations in a
Integrated materials–structural models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stang, Henrik; Geiker, Mette Rica
2008-01-01
of structural modelling and materials concepts will both operational in both identifying important research issues and in answering the ‘real’ needs of society. Integrated materials-structural models will allow synergy to develop between materials and structural research. On one side the structural modelling......Reliable service life models for load carrying structures are significant elements in the evaluation of the performance and sustainability of existing and new structures. Furthermore, reliable service life models are prerequisites for the evaluation of the sustainability of maintenance strategies...... should define a framework in which materials research results eventually should fit in and on the other side the materials research should define needs and capabilities in structural modelling. Integrated materials-structural models of a general nature are almost non-existent in the field of cement based...
Consistent modelling of wind turbine noise propagation from source to receiver.
Barlas, Emre; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Dag, Kaya O; Moriarty, Patrick
2017-11-01
The unsteady nature of wind turbine noise is a major reason for annoyance. The variation of far-field sound pressure levels is not only caused by the continuous change in wind turbine noise source levels but also by the unsteady flow field and the ground characteristics between the turbine and receiver. To take these phenomena into account, a consistent numerical technique that models the sound propagation from the source to receiver is developed. Large eddy simulation with an actuator line technique is employed for the flow modelling and the corresponding flow fields are used to simulate sound generation and propagation. The local blade relative velocity, angle of attack, and turbulence characteristics are input to the sound generation model. Time-dependent blade locations and the velocity between the noise source and receiver are considered within a quasi-3D propagation model. Long-range noise propagation of a 5 MW wind turbine is investigated. Sound pressure level time series evaluated at the source time are studied for varying wind speeds, surface roughness, and ground impedances within a 2000 m radius from the turbine.
Consistency and discrepancy in the atmospheric response to Arctic sea-ice loss across climate models
Screen, James A.; Deser, Clara; Smith, Doug M.; Zhang, Xiangdong; Blackport, Russell; Kushner, Paul J.; Oudar, Thomas; McCusker, Kelly E.; Sun, Lantao
2018-02-01
The decline of Arctic sea ice is an integral part of anthropogenic climate change. Sea-ice loss is already having a significant impact on Arctic communities and ecosystems. Its role as a cause of climate changes outside of the Arctic has also attracted much scientific interest. Evidence is mounting that Arctic sea-ice loss can affect weather and climate throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The remote impacts of Arctic sea-ice loss can only be properly represented using models that simulate interactions among the ocean, sea ice, land and atmosphere. A synthesis of six such experiments with different models shows consistent hemispheric-wide atmospheric warming, strongest in the mid-to-high-latitude lower troposphere; an intensification of the wintertime Aleutian Low and, in most cases, the Siberian High; a weakening of the Icelandic Low; and a reduction in strength and southward shift of the mid-latitude westerly winds in winter. The atmospheric circulation response seems to be sensitive to the magnitude and geographic pattern of sea-ice loss and, in some cases, to the background climate state. However, it is unclear whether current-generation climate models respond too weakly to sea-ice change. We advocate for coordinated experiments that use different models and observational constraints to quantify the climate response to Arctic sea-ice loss.
Model for ICRF fast wave current drive in self-consistent MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonoli, P.T.; Englade, R.C.; Porkolab, M.; Fenstermacher, M.E.
1993-01-01
Recently, a model for fast wave current drive in the ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF) range was incorporated into the current drive and MHD equilibrium code ACCOME. The ACCOME model combines a free boundary solution of the Grad Shafranov equation with the calculation of driven currents due to neutral beam injection, lower hybrid (LH) waves, bootstrap effects, and ICRF fast waves. The equilibrium and current drive packages iterate between each other to obtain an MHD equilibrium which is consistent with the profiles of driven current density. The ICRF current drive package combines a toroidal full-wave code (FISIC) with a parameterization of the current drive efficiency obtained from an adjoint solution of the Fokker Planck equation. The electron absorption calculation in the full-wave code properly accounts for the combined effects of electron Landau damping (ELD) and transit time magnetic pumping (TTMP), assuming a Maxwellian (or bi-Maxwellian) electron distribution function. Furthermore, the current drive efficiency includes the effects of particle trapping, momentum conserving corrections to the background Fokker Planck collision operator, and toroidally induced variations in the parallel wavenumbers of the injected ICRF waves. This model has been used to carry out detailed studies of advanced physics scenarios in the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Results are shown, for example, which demonstrate the possibility of achieving stable equilibria at high beta and high bootstrap current fraction in TPX. Model results are also shown for the proposed ITER device
A Time-Dependent Λ and G Cosmological Model Consistent with Cosmological Constraints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Kantha
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The prevailing constant Λ-G cosmological model agrees with observational evidence including the observed red shift, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN, and the current rate of acceleration. It assumes that matter contributes 27% to the current density of the universe, with the rest (73% coming from dark energy represented by the Einstein cosmological parameter Λ in the governing Friedmann-Robertson-Walker equations, derived from Einstein’s equations of general relativity. However, the principal problem is the extremely small value of the cosmological parameter (~10−52 m2. Moreover, the dark energy density represented by Λ is presumed to have remained unchanged as the universe expanded by 26 orders of magnitude. Attempts to overcome this deficiency often invoke a variable Λ-G model. Cosmic constraints from action principles require that either both G and Λ remain time-invariant or both vary in time. Here, we propose a variable Λ-G cosmological model consistent with the latest red shift data, the current acceleration rate, and BBN, provided the split between matter and dark energy is 18% and 82%. Λ decreases (Λ~τ-2, where τ is the normalized cosmic time and G increases (G~τn with cosmic time. The model results depend only on the chosen value of Λ at present and in the far future and not directly on G.
Development of a 3D consistent 1D neutronics model for reactor core simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Ki Bog; Joo, Han Gyu; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun
2001-02-01
In this report a 3D consistent 1D model based on nonlinear analytic nodal method is developed to reproduce the 3D results. During the derivation, the current conservation factor (CCF) is introduced which guarantees the same axial neutron currents obtained from the 1D equation as the 3D reference values. Furthermore in order to properly use 1D group constants, a new 1D group constants representation scheme employing tables for the fuel temperature, moderator density and boron concentration is developed and functionalized for the control rod tip position. To test the 1D kinetics model with CCF, several steady state and transient calculations were performed and compared with 3D reference values. The errors of K-eff values were reduced about one tenth when using CCF without significant computational overhead. And the errors of power distribution were decreased to the range of one fifth or tenth at steady state calculation. The 1D kinetics model with CCF and the 1D group constant functionalization employing tables as a function of control rod tip position can provide preciser results at the steady state and transient calculation. Thus it is expected that the 1D kinetics model derived in this report can be used in the safety analysis, reactor real time simulation coupled with system analysis code, operator support system etc.
Liu, Zhihao; Wei, Pingmin; Huang, Minghao; Liu, Yuan bao; Li, Lucy; Gong, Xiao; Chen, Juan; Li, Xiaoning
2014-01-01
Due to the increase incidents of premarital sex and the lack of reproductive health services, college students are at high risk of HIV/AIDS infections in China. This study was designed to examine the predictors of consistency of condom use among college students based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model and to describe the relationships between the model constructs. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess HIV/AIDS related information, motivation, behavioral skills and preventive behavior among college students in five colleges and universities in Nanjing, China. An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted for data collection, and the structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the IMB model. A total of 3183 participants completed this study. The average age was 19.90 years (SD = 1.43, range 16 to 25). 342 (10.7%) participants of them reported having had premarital sex, among whom 30.7% reported having had a consistent condom use, 13.7% with the experience of abortion (including the participants whose sex partner has the same experience), 32.7% of participants had experience of multiple sex partners. The final IMB model provided acceptable fit to the data (CFI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.028). Preventive behavior was significantly predicted by behavioral skills (β = 0.754, Pmotivation (β = 0.363, Pstudents in China. The main influencing factor of preventive behavior among college students is behavioral skills. Both information and motivation could affect preventive behavior through behavioral skills. Further research could develop preventive interventions based on the IMB model to promote consistent condom use among college students in China.
Meek, J
1993-01-01
Purpose. The purpose of this article is to report a review and analysis of the concordance between current comprehensive corporate health promotion programs as described in the published literature and the systems model of health and to explore emerging trends in the field of health promotion. Search Methods. MEDLINE, BIOSIS, and PsycINFO searches were conducted from 1985 to 1991, and the bibliographies of articles thus obtained were back searched for additional descriptions of corporate health promotion programs. Inclusive criteria included "comprehensive" corporate programs, published in peer-reviewed journals or books, and descriptions adequate enough to permit coding in the majority of analysis matrix categories. Out of 63 identified programs, 16 met the inclusion criteria; 47 were excluded. A common reason for rejection was the limitation imposed by inadequate program descriptions in the published literature. Major Findings. On average, the comprehensive corporate programs reviewed were initiated between 1984 and 1987 and set in the context of a manufacturing firm with over 10,000 employees. A minority of programs (12.5%) consistently satisfied systems model criteria. The most common category of programs were those which were inconsistent (44%), meeting some of the criteria of a systems model of health promotion, but not all. The mechanistic medical and public health models predominated strongly (63%) with the preeminent goal being individual risk factor modification. Conclusions. The limitations of the published literature do not permit strong conclusions about the number or degree to which current corporate comprehensive programs are concordant with the systems model of health. Although mechanistic models of health predominated, there is evidence that a number of comprehensive programs were inconsistent with the mechanistic model, meeting some of the criteria, but also meeting some systems model criteria. To continue the advancement of health promotion with
A paradigm shift toward a consistent modeling framework to assess climate impacts
Monier, E.; Paltsev, S.; Sokolov, A. P.; Fant, C.; Chen, H.; Gao, X.; Schlosser, C. A.; Scott, J. R.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Ejaz, Q.; Couzo, E. A.; Prinn, R. G.; Haigh, M.
2017-12-01
Estimates of physical and economic impacts of future climate change are subject to substantial challenges. To enrich the currently popular approaches of assessing climate impacts by evaluating a damage function or by multi-model comparisons based on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), we focus here on integrating impacts into a self-consistent coupled human and Earth system modeling framework that includes modules that represent multiple physical impacts. In a sample application we show that this framework is capable of investigating the physical impacts of climate change and socio-economic stressors. The projected climate impacts vary dramatically across the globe in a set of scenarios with global mean warming ranging between 2.4°C and 3.6°C above pre-industrial by 2100. Unabated emissions lead to substantial sea level rise, acidification that impacts the base of the oceanic food chain, air pollution that exceeds health standards by tenfold, water stress that impacts an additional 1 to 2 billion people globally and agricultural productivity that decreases substantially in many parts of the world. We compare the outcomes from these forward-looking scenarios against the common goal described by the target-driven scenario of 2°C, which results in much smaller impacts. It is challenging for large internationally coordinated exercises to respond quickly to new policy targets. We propose that a paradigm shift toward a self-consistent modeling framework to assess climate impacts is needed to produce information relevant to evolving global climate policy and mitigation strategies in a timely way.
Self-consistent field modeling of adsorption from polymer/surfactant mixtures.
Postmus, Bart R; Leermakers, Frans A M; Cohen Stuart, Martien A
2008-06-01
We report on the development of a self-consistent field model that describes the competitive adsorption of nonionic alkyl-(ethylene oxide) surfactants and nonionic polymer poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) from aqueous solutions onto silica. The model explicitly describes the response to the pH and the ionic strength. On an inorganic oxide surface such as silica, the dissociation of the surface depends on the pH. However, salt ions can screen charges on the surface, and hence, the number of dissociated groups also depends on the ionic strength. Furthermore, the solvent quality for the EO groups is a function of the ionic strength. Using our model, we can compute bulk parameters such as the average size of the polymer coil and the surfactant CMC. We can make predictions on the adsorption behavior of either polymers or surfactants, and we have made adsorption isotherms, i.e., calculated the relationship between the surface excess and its corresponding bulk concentration. When we add both polymer and surfactant to our mixture, we can find a surfactant concentration (or, more precisely, a surfactant chemical potential) below which only the polymer will adsorb and above which only the surfactant will adsorb. The corresponding surfactant concentration is called the CSAC. In a first-order approximation, the surfactant chemical potential has the CMC as its upper bound. We can find conditions for which CMC model is to understand the experimental data from one of our previous articles. We managed to explain most, but unfortunately not all, of the experimental trends. At the end of the article we discuss the possibilities for improving the model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damian M Cummings
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Since the identification of the gene responsible for HD (Huntington's disease, many genetic mouse models have been generated. Each employs a unique approach for delivery of the mutated gene and has a different CAG repeat length and background strain. The resultant diversity in the genetic context and phenotypes of these models has led to extensive debate regarding the relevance of each model to the human disorder. Here, we compare and contrast the striatal synaptic phenotypes of two models of HD, namely the YAC128 mouse, which carries the full-length huntingtin gene on a yeast artificial chromosome, and the CAG140 KI*** (knock-in mouse, which carries a human/mouse chimaeric gene that is expressed in the context of the mouse genome, with our previously published data obtained from the R6/2 mouse, which is transgenic for exon 1 mutant huntingtin. We show that striatal MSNs (medium-sized spiny neurons in YAC128 and CAG140 KI mice have similar electrophysiological phenotypes to that of the R6/2 mouse. These include a progressive increase in membrane input resistance, a reduction in membrane capacitance, a lower frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents and a greater frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in a subpopulation of striatal neurons. Thus, despite differences in the context of the inserted gene between these three models of HD, the primary electrophysiological changes observed in striatal MSNs are consistent. The outcomes suggest that the changes are due to the expression of mutant huntingtin and such alterations can be extended to the human condition.
Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; Roma-Dollase, David; Krankowski, Andrzej; García-Rigo, Alberto; Orús-Pérez, Raül
2017-12-01
A summary of the main concepts on global ionospheric map(s) [hereinafter GIM(s)] of vertical total electron content (VTEC), with special emphasis on their assessment, is presented in this paper. It is based on the experience accumulated during almost two decades of collaborative work in the context of the international global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) service (IGS) ionosphere working group. A representative comparison of the two main assessments of ionospheric electron content models (VTEC-altimeter and difference of Slant TEC, based on independent global positioning system data GPS, dSTEC-GPS) is performed. It is based on 26 GPS receivers worldwide distributed and mostly placed on islands, from the last quarter of 2010 to the end of 2016. The consistency between dSTEC-GPS and VTEC-altimeter assessments for one of the most accurate IGS GIMs (the tomographic-kriging GIM `UQRG' computed by UPC) is shown. Typical error RMS values of 2 TECU for VTEC-altimeter and 0.5 TECU for dSTEC-GPS assessments are found. And, as expected by following a simple random model, there is a significant correlation between both RMS and specially relative errors, mainly evident when large enough number of observations per pass is considered. The authors expect that this manuscript will be useful for new analysis contributor centres and in general for the scientific and technical community interested in simple and truly external ways of validating electron content models of the ionosphere.
Self-Consistent Atmosphere Models of the Most Extreme Hot Jupiters
Lothringer, Joshua; Barman, Travis
2018-01-01
We present a detailed look at self-consistent PHOENIX atmosphere models of the most highly irradiated hot Jupiters known to exist. These hot Jupiters typically have equilibrium temperatures approaching and sometimes exceeding 3000 K, orbiting A, F, and early-G type stars on orbits less than 0.03 AU (10x closer than Mercury is to the Sun). The most extreme example, KELT-9b, is the hottest known hot Jupiter with a measured dayside temperature of 4600 K. Many of the planets we model have recently attracted attention with high profile discoveries, including temperature inversions in WASP-33b and WASP-121, changing phase curve offsets possibly caused by magnetohydrodymanic effects in HAT-P-7b, and TiO in WASP-19b. Our modeling provides a look at the a priori expectations for these planets and helps us understand these recent discoveries. We show that, in the hottest cases, all molecules are dissociated down to relatively high pressures. These planets may have detectable temperature inversions, more akin to thermospheres than stratospheres in that an optical absorber like TiO or VO is not needed. Instead, the inversions are created by a lack of cooling in the IR combined with heating from atoms and ions at UV and blue optical wavelengths. We also reevaluate some of the assumptions that have been made in retrieval analyses of these planets.
Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petráš Rudolf
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters
The self-consistent field model for Fermi systems with account of three-body interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu.M. Poluektov
2015-12-01
Full Text Available On the basis of a microscopic model of self-consistent field, the thermodynamics of the many-particle Fermi system at finite temperatures with account of three-body interactions is built and the quasiparticle equations of motion are obtained. It is shown that the delta-like three-body interaction gives no contribution into the self-consistent field, and the description of three-body forces requires their nonlocality to be taken into account. The spatially uniform system is considered in detail, and on the basis of the developed microscopic approach general formulas are derived for the fermion's effective mass and the system's equation of state with account of contribution from three-body forces. The effective mass and pressure are numerically calculated for the potential of "semi-transparent sphere" type at zero temperature. Expansions of the effective mass and pressure in powers of density are obtained. It is shown that, with account of only pair forces, the interaction of repulsive character reduces the quasiparticle effective mass relative to the mass of a free particle, and the attractive interaction raises the effective mass. The question of thermodynamic stability of the Fermi system is considered and the three-body repulsive interaction is shown to extend the region of stability of the system with the interparticle pair attraction. The quasiparticle energy spectrum is calculated with account of three-body forces.
Self-consistent model of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability in ablatively accelerated laser plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bychkov, V.V.; Golberg, S.M.; Liberman, M.A.
1994-01-01
A self-consistent approach to the problem of the growth rate of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability in laser accelerated targets is developed. The analytical solution of the problem is obtained by solving the complete system of the hydrodynamical equations which include both thermal conductivity and energy release due to absorption of the laser light. The developed theory provides a rigorous justification for the supplementary boundary condition in the limiting case of the discontinuity model. An analysis of the suppression of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability by the ablation flow is done and it is found that there is a good agreement between the obtained solution and the approximate formula σ = 0.9√gk - 3u 1 k, where g is the acceleration, u 1 is the ablation velocity. This paper discusses different regimes of the ablative stabilization and compares them with previous analytical and numerical works
Thermal states of neutron stars with a consistent model of interior
Fortin, M.; Taranto, G.; Burgio, G. F.; Haensel, P.; Schulze, H.-J.; Zdunik, J. L.
2018-04-01
We model the thermal states of both isolated neutron stars and accreting neutron stars in X-ray transients in quiescence and confront them with observations. We use an equation of state calculated using realistic two-body and three-body nucleon interactions, and superfluid nucleon gaps obtained using the same microscopic approach in the BCS approximation. Consistency with low-luminosity accreting neutron stars is obtained, as the direct Urca process is operating in neutron stars with mass larger than 1.1 M⊙ for the employed equation of state. In addition, proton superfluidity and sufficiently weak neutron superfluidity, obtained using a scaling factor for the gaps, are necessary to explain the cooling of middle-aged neutron stars and to obtain a realistic distribution of neutron star masses.
Buchanan, John J; Dean, Noah
2014-02-01
The experiment undertaken was designed to elucidate the impact of model skill level on observational learning processes. The task was bimanual circle tracing with a 90° relative phase lead of one hand over the other hand. Observer groups watched videos of either an instruction model, a discovery model, or a skilled model. The instruction and skilled model always performed the task with the same movement strategy, the right-arm traced clockwise and the left-arm counterclockwise around circle templates with the right-arm leading. The discovery model used several movement strategies (tracing-direction/hand-lead) during practice. Observation of the instruction and skilled model provided a significant benefit compared to the discovery model when performing the 90° relative phase pattern in a post-observation test. The observers of the discovery model had significant room for improvement and benefited from post-observation practice of the 90° pattern. The benefit of a model is found in the consistency with which that model uses the same movement strategy, and not within the skill level of the model. It is the consistency in strategy modeled that allows observers to develop an abstract perceptual representation of the task that can be implemented into a coordinated action. Theoretically, the results show that movement strategy information (relative motion direction, hand lead) and relative phase information can be detected through visual perception processes and be successfully mapped to outgoing motor commands within an observational learning context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
BRANNON,REBECCA M.
2000-11-01
A theory is developed for the response of moderately porous solids (no more than {approximately}20% void space) to high-strain-rate deformations. The model is consistent because each feature is incorporated in a manner that is mathematically compatible with the other features. Unlike simple p-{alpha} models, the onset of pore collapse depends on the amount of shear present. The user-specifiable yield function depends on pressure, effective shear stress, and porosity. The elastic part of the strain rate is linearly related to the stress rate, with nonlinear corrections from changes in the elastic moduli due to pore collapse. Plastically incompressible flow of the matrix material allows pore collapse and an associated macroscopic plastic volume change. The plastic strain rate due to pore collapse/growth is taken normal to the yield surface. If phase transformation and/or pore nucleation are simultaneously occurring, the inelastic strain rate will be non-normal to the yield surface. To permit hardening, the yield stress of matrix material is treated as an internal state variable. Changes in porosity and matrix yield stress naturally cause the yield surface to evolve. The stress, porosity, and all other state variables vary in a consistent manner so that the stress remains on the yield surface throughout any quasistatic interval of plastic deformation. Dynamic loading allows the stress to exceed the yield surface via an overstress ordinary differential equation that is solved in closed form for better numerical accuracy. The part of the stress rate that causes no plastic work (i.e-, the part that has a zero inner product with the stress deviator and the identity tensor) is given by the projection of the elastic stressrate orthogonal to the span of the stress deviator and the identity tensor.The model, which has been numerically implemented in MIG format, has been exercised under a wide array of extremal loading and unloading paths. As will be discussed in a companion
PRODUCT STRUCTURE DIGITAL MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.M. Sineglazov
2005-02-01
Full Text Available Research results of representation of product structure made by means of CADDS5 computer-aided design (CAD system, Product Data Management Optegra (PDM system and Product Life Cycle Management Wind-chill system (PLM, are examined in this work. Analysis of structure component development and its storage in various systems is carried out. Algorithms of structure transformation required for correct representation of the structure are considered. Management analysis of electronic mockup presentation of the product structure is carried out for Windchill system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhihao Liu
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the increase incidents of premarital sex and the lack of reproductive health services, college students are at high risk of HIV/AIDS infections in China. This study was designed to examine the predictors of consistency of condom use among college students based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB model and to describe the relationships between the model constructs. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess HIV/AIDS related information, motivation, behavioral skills and preventive behavior among college students in five colleges and universities in Nanjing, China. An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted for data collection, and the structural equation model (SEM was used to assess the IMB model. RESULTS: A total of 3183 participants completed this study. The average age was 19.90 years (SD = 1.43, range 16 to 25. 342 (10.7% participants of them reported having had premarital sex, among whom 30.7% reported having had a consistent condom use, 13.7% with the experience of abortion (including the participants whose sex partner has the same experience, 32.7% of participants had experience of multiple sex partners. The final IMB model provided acceptable fit to the data (CFI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.028. Preventive behavior was significantly predicted by behavioral skills (β = 0.754, P<0.001. Information (β = 0.138, P<0.001 and motivation (β = 0.363, P<0.001 were indirectly affected preventive behavior, and was mediated through behavioral skills. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study demonstrate the utility of the IMB model for consistent condom use among college students in China. The main influencing factor of preventive behavior among college students is behavioral skills. Both information and motivation could affect preventive behavior through behavioral skills. Further research could develop preventive interventions based on the IMB model to promote consistent condom
Structural dynamic modifications via models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
of structural dynamic optimization techniques. A review of structural optimization in vibratory environments is given by Rao (1989). 2. SDM techniques. SDM methods may be broadly divided into two groups. Those which employ a model of the structure and those that use dynamic test data directly. The model used by the ...
A fast-simplified wheel-rail contact model consistent with perfect plastic materials
Sebès, Michel; Chevalier, Luc; Ayasse, Jean-Bernard; Chollet, Hugues
2012-09-01
A method is described which is an extension of rolling contact models with respect to plasticity. This new method, which is an extension of the STRIPES semi-Hertzian (SH) model, has been implemented in a multi-body-system (MBS) package and does not result in a longer execution time than the STRIPES SH model [J.B. Ayasse and H. Chollet, Determination of the wheel-rail contact patch in semi-Hertzian conditions, Veh. Syst. Dyn. 43(3) (2005), pp. 161-172]. High speed of computation is obtained by some hypotheses about the plastic law, the shape of stresses, the locus of the maximum stress and the slip. Plasticity does not change the vehicle behaviour but there is a need for an extension of rolling contact models with respect to plasticity as far as fatigue analysis of rail is concerned: rolling contact fatigue may be addressed via the finite element method (FEM) including material non-linearities, where loads are the contact stresses provided by the post-processing of MBS results [K. Dang Van, M.H. Maitournam, Z. Moumni, and F. Roger, A comprehensive approach for modeling fatigue and fracture of rails, Eng. Fract. Mech. 76 (2009), pp. 2626-2636]. In STRIPES, like in other MBS models, contact stresses may exceed the plastic yield criterion, leading to wrong results in the subsequent FEM analysis. With the proposed method, contact stresses are kept consistent with a perfect plastic law, avoiding these problems. The method is benchmarked versus non-linear FEM in Hertzian geometries. As a consequence of taking plasticity into account, contact patch area is bigger than the elastic one. In accordance with FEM results, a different ellipse aspect ratio than the one predicted by Hertz theory was also found and finally pressure does not exceed the threshold prescribed by the plastic law. The method also provides more exact results with non-Hertzian geometries. The new approach is finally compared with non-linear FEM in a tangent case with a unidirectional load and a complete
Study of impurity effects on CFETR steady-state scenario by self-consistent integrated modeling
Shi, Nan; Chan, Vincent S.; Jian, Xiang; Li, Guoqiang; Chen, Jiale; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Shengyu; Kong, Defeng; Liu, Xiaoju; Mao, Shifeng; Xu, Guoliang
2017-12-01
Impurity effects on fusion performance of China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) due to extrinsic seeding are investigated. An integrated 1.5D modeling workflow evolves plasma equilibrium and all transport channels to steady state. The one modeling framework for integrated tasks framework is used to couple the transport solver, MHD equilibrium solver, and source and sink calculations. A self-consistent impurity profile constructed using a steady-state background plasma, which satisfies quasi-neutrality and true steady state, is presented for the first time. Studies are performed based on an optimized fully non-inductive scenario with varying concentrations of Argon (Ar) seeding. It is found that fusion performance improves before dropping off with increasing {{Z}\\text{eff}} , while the confinement remains at high level. Further analysis of transport for these plasmas shows that low-k ion temperature gradient modes dominate the turbulence. The decrease in linear growth rate and resultant fluxes of all channels with increasing {{Z}\\text{eff}} can be traced to impurity profile change by transport. The improvement in confinement levels off at higher {{Z}\\text{eff}} . Over the regime of study there is a competition between the suppressed transport and increasing radiation that leads to a peak in the fusion performance at {{Z}\\text{eff}} (~2.78 for CFETR). Extrinsic impurity seeding to control divertor heat load will need to be optimized around this value for best fusion performance.
Deconvolution of experimental data of aggregates using self-consistent polycrystal models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tome, C.N.; Christodoulou, N.; Holt, R.; Woo, C.H.; Lebensohn, R.A.; Turner, P.A.
1994-01-01
We present in this work an overview of self-consistent polycrystal models, together with a comprehensive body of work where those models are used to characterize the response of zirconium alloy aggregates under several deformation regimes. In particular, we address here: evolution of internal stresses associated with heat treatments (thermo-elastic regime) and small deformations (elasto-plastic regime); dimensional changes induced by creep and growth during neutron irradiation (visco-elastic regime); texture development associated with forming operations (visco-plastic regime). In each case we emphasize the effect of texture and internal stresses in the observed response of the aggregate, and from the comparison of the predictions with experimental evidence we determine the single crystal properties from the macroscopic response of the polycrystal. The latter approach is particularly useful in the case of zirconium alloys, a material for which it is not possible to grow single crystals and thus directly measure their single crystal properties. Specifically, we infer information concerning: the stress-free lattice parameters and thermal coefficients of the hexagonal crystals; the irradiation creep compliances and growth coefficients; the crystallographic deformation modes and their associated critical stresses. (au) (38 refs.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Falko Schmidt
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We perform a comprehensive theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of potassium niobate (KNbO3 in the cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, and rhombohedral phase, based on density-functional theory. The influence of different parametrizations of the exchange-correlation functional on the investigated properties is analyzed in detail, and the results are compared to available experimental data. We argue that the PBEsol and AM05 generalized gradient approximations as well as the RTPSS meta-generalized gradient approximation yield consistently accurate structural data for both the external and internal degrees of freedom and are overall superior to the local-density approximation or other conventional generalized gradient approximations for the structural characterization of KNbO3. Band-structure calculations using a HSE-type hybrid functional further indicate significant near degeneracies of band-edge states in all phases which are expected to be relevant for the optical response of the material.
Multi-model comparison highlights consistency in predicted effect of warming on a semi-arid shrub
Renwick, Katherine M.; Curtis, Caroline; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradley, Bethany A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Poulter, Benjamin; Adler, Peter B.
2018-01-01
A number of modeling approaches have been developed to predict the impacts of climate change on species distributions, performance, and abundance. The stronger the agreement from models that represent different processes and are based on distinct and independent sources of information, the greater the confidence we can have in their predictions. Evaluating the level of confidence is particularly important when predictions are used to guide conservation or restoration decisions. We used a multi-model approach to predict climate change impacts on big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), the dominant plant species on roughly 43 million hectares in the western United States and a key resource for many endemic wildlife species. To evaluate the climate sensitivity of A. tridentata, we developed four predictive models, two based on empirically derived spatial and temporal relationships, and two that applied mechanistic approaches to simulate sagebrush recruitment and growth. This approach enabled us to produce an aggregate index of climate change vulnerability and uncertainty based on the level of agreement between models. Despite large differences in model structure, predictions of sagebrush response to climate change were largely consistent. Performance, as measured by change in cover, growth, or recruitment, was predicted to decrease at the warmest sites, but increase throughout the cooler portions of sagebrush's range. A sensitivity analysis indicated that sagebrush performance responds more strongly to changes in temperature than precipitation. Most of the uncertainty in model predictions reflected variation among the ecological models, raising questions about the reliability of forecasts based on a single modeling approach. Our results highlight the value of a multi-model approach in forecasting climate change impacts and uncertainties and should help land managers to maximize the value of conservation investments.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Churchill, Nathan William; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Mørup, Morten
2016-01-01
flexibility: they only estimate segregated structure and do not model interregional functional connectivity, nor do they account for network variability across voxels or between subjects. To address these issues, this letter develops the functional segregation and integration model (FSIM). This extension...... of the GMM framework simultaneously estimates spatial clustering and the most consistent group functional connectivity structure. It also explicitly models network variability, based on voxel- and subject-specific network scaling profiles. We compared the FSIM to standard GMM in a predictive cross......-validation framework and examined the importance of different model parameters, using both simulated and experimental resting-state data. The reliability of parcellations is not significantly altered by flexibility of the FSIM, whereas voxel- and subject-specific network scaling profiles significantly improve...
Probabilistic modeling of timber structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Köhler, Jochen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro
2007-01-01
The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) [Joint Committee of Structural Safety. Probabilistic Model Code, Internet Publ...
Self-consistent model of a solid for the description of lattice and magnetic properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balcerzak, T.; Szałowski, K.; Jaščur, M.
2017-01-01
In the paper a self-consistent theoretical description of the lattice and magnetic properties of a model system with magnetoelastic interaction is presented. The dependence of magnetic exchange integrals on the distance between interacting spins is assumed, which couples the magnetic and the lattice subsystem. The framework is based on summation of the Gibbs free energies for the lattice subsystem and magnetic subsystem. On the basis of minimization principle for the Gibbs energy, a set of equations of state for the system is derived. These equations of state combine the parameters describing the elastic properties (relative volume deformation) and the magnetic properties (magnetization changes). The formalism is extensively illustrated with the numerical calculations performed for a system of ferromagnetically coupled spins S=1/2 localized at the sites of simple cubic lattice. In particular, the significant influence of the magnetic subsystem on the elastic properties is demonstrated. It manifests itself in significant modification of such quantities as the relative volume deformation, thermal expansion coefficient or isothermal compressibility, in particular, in the vicinity of the magnetic phase transition. On the other hand, the influence of lattice subsystem on the magnetic one is also evident. It takes, for example, the form of dependence of the critical (Curie) temperature and magnetization itself on the external pressure, which is thoroughly investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaghloul, Mofreh R.
2003-01-01
Flibe (2LiF-BeF2) is a molten salt that has been chosen as the coolant and breeding material in many design studies of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) chamber. Flibe plasmas are to be generated in the ICF chamber in a wide range of temperatures and densities. These plasmas are more complex than the plasma of any single chemical species. Nevertheless, the composition and thermodynamic properties of the resulting flibe plasmas are needed for the gas dynamics calculations and the determination of other design parameters in the ICF chamber. In this paper, a simple consistent model for determining the detailed plasma composition and thermodynamic functions of high-temperature, fully dissociated and partially ionized flibe gas is presented and used to calculate different thermodynamic properties of interest to fusion applications. The computed properties include the average ionization state; kinetic pressure; internal energy; specific heats; adiabatic exponent, as well as the sound speed. The presented results are computed under the assumptions of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and electro-neutrality. A criterion for the validity of the LTE assumption is presented and applied to the computed results. Other attempts in the literature are assessed with their implied inaccuracies pointed out and discussed
Magy: Time dependent, multifrequency, self-consistent code for modeling electron beam devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botton, M.; Antonsen, T.M.; Levush, B.
1997-01-01
A new MAGY code is being developed for three dimensional modeling of electron beam devices. The code includes a time dependent multifrequency description of the electromagnetic fields and a self consistent analysis of the electrons. The equations of motion are solved with the electromagnetic fields as driving forces and the resulting trajectories are used as current sources for the fields. The calculations of the electromagnetic fields are based on the waveguide modal representation, which allows the solution of relatively small number of coupled one dimensional partial differential equations for the amplitudes of the modes, instead of the full solution of Maxwell close-quote s equations. Moreover, the basic time scale for updating the electromagnetic fields is the cavity fill time and not the high frequency of the fields. In MAGY, the coupling among the various modes is determined by the waveguide non-uniformity, finite conductivity of the walls, and the sources due to the electron beam. The equations of motion of the electrons are solved assuming that all the electrons traverse the cavity in less than the cavity fill time. Therefore, at each time step, a set of trajectories are calculated with the high frequency and other external fields as the driving forces. The code includes a verity of diagnostics for both electromagnetic fields and particles trajectories. It is simple to operate and requires modest computing resources, thus expected to serve as a design tool. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Procassini, R.J.; Birdsall, C.K.; Morse, E.C.
1990-01-01
A fully kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) model is used to self-consistently determine the steady-state potential profile in a collisionless plasma that contacts a floating, absorbing boundary. To balance the flow of particles to the wall, a distributed source region is used to inject particles into the one-dimensional system. The effect of the particle source distribution function on the source region and collector sheath potential drops, and particle velocity distributions is investigated. The ion source functions proposed by Emmert et al. [Phys. Fluids 23, 803 (1980)] and Bissell and Johnson [Phys. Fluids 30, 779 (1987)] (and various combinations of these) are used for the injection of both ions and electrons. The values of the potential drops obtained from the PIC simulations are compared to those from the theories of Emmert et al., Bissell and Johnson, and Scheuer and Emmert [Phys. Fluids 31, 3645 (1988)], all of which assume that the electron density is related to the plasma potential via the Boltzmann relation. The values of the source region and total potential drop are found to depend on the choice of the electron source function, as well as the ion source function. The question of an infinite electric field at the plasma--sheath interface, which arises in the analyses of Bissell and Johnson and Scheuer and Emmert, is also addressed
Self-consistent model of a solid for the description of lattice and magnetic properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balcerzak, T., E-mail: t_balcerzak@uni.lodz.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, ulica Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Szałowski, K., E-mail: kszalowski@uni.lodz.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, ulica Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Jaščur, M. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šáfárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia)
2017-03-15
In the paper a self-consistent theoretical description of the lattice and magnetic properties of a model system with magnetoelastic interaction is presented. The dependence of magnetic exchange integrals on the distance between interacting spins is assumed, which couples the magnetic and the lattice subsystem. The framework is based on summation of the Gibbs free energies for the lattice subsystem and magnetic subsystem. On the basis of minimization principle for the Gibbs energy, a set of equations of state for the system is derived. These equations of state combine the parameters describing the elastic properties (relative volume deformation) and the magnetic properties (magnetization changes). The formalism is extensively illustrated with the numerical calculations performed for a system of ferromagnetically coupled spins S=1/2 localized at the sites of simple cubic lattice. In particular, the significant influence of the magnetic subsystem on the elastic properties is demonstrated. It manifests itself in significant modification of such quantities as the relative volume deformation, thermal expansion coefficient or isothermal compressibility, in particular, in the vicinity of the magnetic phase transition. On the other hand, the influence of lattice subsystem on the magnetic one is also evident. It takes, for example, the form of dependence of the critical (Curie) temperature and magnetization itself on the external pressure, which is thoroughly investigated.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Martin Møller; Meldrum, Andrew
pricing factors using the sequential regression approach. Our findings suggest that the two models largely provide the same in-sample fit, but loadings from ordinary and risk-adjusted Campbell-Shiller regressions are generally best matched by the shadow rate models. We also find that the shadow rate...... models perform better than the QTSMs when forecasting bond yields out of sample....
Oscillating water column structural model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Copeland, Guild [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jepsen, Richard Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-09-01
An oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter is a structure with an opening to the ocean below the free surface, i.e. a structure with a moonpool. Two structural models for a non-axisymmetric terminator design OWC, the Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) are discussed in this report. The results of this structural model design study are intended to inform experiments and modeling underway in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated Reference Model Project (RMP). A detailed design developed by Re Vision Consulting used stiffeners and girders to stabilize the structure against the hydrostatic loads experienced by a BBDB device. Additional support plates were added to this structure to account for loads arising from the mooring line attachment points. A simplified structure was designed in a modular fashion. This simplified design allows easy alterations to the buoyancy chambers and uncomplicated analysis of resulting changes in buoyancy.
2012-06-13
generating , sizing, quan- tifying, and sampling aerosols of inert materials also hold true for bioaerosols , i.e., for aerosolizing materials of...characterization, traditional bioaerosol generation and collection techniques can be employed to achieve consistent and reproducible low-dose expo- sures... generate and aerosolize consistent daily low aerosol concentrations and resultant low inhalation doses to rabbits. The pilot feasibility characterization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sogachev, Andrey; Kelly, Mark C.; Leclerc, Monique Y.
2012-01-01
A self-consistent two-equation closure treating buoyancy and plant drag effects has been developed, through consideration of the behaviour of the supplementary equation for the length-scale-determining variable in homogeneous turbulent flow. Being consistent with the canonical flow regimes of gri...
Microencapsulation of model oil in wall matrices consisting of SPI and maltodextrins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moshe Rosenberg
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Microencapsulation can provide means to entrap, protect and deliver nutritional lipids and related compounds that are susceptible to deterioration. The encapsulation of high lipid loads represents a challenge. The research has investigated the encapsulation by spray drying of a model oil, at a core load of 25–60%, in wall systems consisting of 2.5–10% SPI and 17.5–10% maltodextrin. In general, core-in-wall-emulsions exhibited unimodal PSD and a mean particle diameter < 0.5 µm. Dry microcapsules ranged in diameter from about 5 to less than 50 µm and exhibited only a limited extent of surface indentation. Core domains, in the form of protein-coated droplets, were embedded throughout the wall matrices and no visible cracks connecting these domains with the environment could be detected. Core retention ranged from 72.2 to 95.9% and was significantly affected (p < 0.05 by a combined influence of wall composition and initial core load. Microencapsulation efficiency, MEE, ranged from 25.4 to 91.6% and from 12.4 to 91.4% after 5 and 30 min of extraction, respectively (p < 0.05. MEE was significantly influenced by wall composition, extraction time, initial core load and DE value of the maltodextrins. Results indicated that wall solutions containing as low as 2.5% SPI and 17.5% maltodextrin were very effective as microencapsulating agents for high oil load. Results highlighted the functionality of SPI as microencapsulating agent in food applications and indicated the importance of carefully designing the composition of core-in-wall-emulsions.
Probabilistic Modeling of Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Köhler, J.D.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro
2005-01-01
The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) and of the COST action E24 'Reliability of Timber Structures'. The present pro...... probabilistic model for these basic properties is presented and possible refinements are given related to updating of the probabilistic model given new information, modeling of the spatial variation of strength properties and the duration of load effects.......The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) and of the COST action E24 'Reliability of Timber Structures'. The present...
Sarofim, M. C.; Martinich, J.; Waldhoff, S.; DeAngelo, B. J.; McFarland, J.; Jantarasami, L.; Shouse, K.; Crimmins, A.; Li, J.
2014-12-01
The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project establishes a new multi-model framework to systematically assess the physical impacts, economic damages, and risks from climate change. The primary goal of this framework is to estimate the degree to which climate change impacts and damages in the United States are avoided or reduced in the 21st century under multiple greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation scenarios. The first phase of the CIRA project is a modeling exercise that included two integrated assessment models and 15 sectoral models encompassing five broad impacts sectors: water resources, electric power, infrastructure, human health, and ecosystems. Three consistent socioeconomic and climate scenarios are used to analyze the benefits of global GHG mitigation targets: a reference scenario and two policy scenarios with total radiative forcing targets in 2100 of 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2. In this exercise, the implications of key uncertainties are explored, including climate sensitivity, climate model, natural variability, and model structures and parameters. This presentation describes the motivations and goals of the CIRA project; the design and academic contribution of the first CIRA modeling exercise; and briefly summarizes several papers published in a special issue of Climatic Change. The results across impact sectors show that GHG mitigation provides benefits to the United States that increase over time, the effects of climate change can be strongly influenced by near-term policy choices, adaptation can reduce net damages, and impacts exhibit spatial and temporal patterns that may inform mitigation and adaptation policy discussions.
SPAR Model Structural Efficiencies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
John Schroeder; Dan Henry
2013-04-01
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are supporting initiatives aimed at improving the quality of probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Included in these initiatives are the resolution of key technical issues that are have been judged to have the most significant influence on the baseline core damage frequency of the NRC’s Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models and licensee PRA models. Previous work addressed issues associated with support system initiating event analysis and loss of off-site power/station blackout analysis. The key technical issues were: • Development of a standard methodology and implementation of support system initiating events • Treatment of loss of offsite power • Development of standard approach for emergency core cooling following containment failure Some of the related issues were not fully resolved. This project continues the effort to resolve outstanding issues. The work scope was intended to include substantial collaboration with EPRI; however, EPRI has had other higher priority initiatives to support. Therefore this project has addressed SPAR modeling issues. The issues addressed are • SPAR model transparency • Common cause failure modeling deficiencies and approaches • Ac and dc modeling deficiencies and approaches • Instrumentation and control system modeling deficiencies and approaches
Mathevet, Thibault; Kumar, Rohini; Gupta, Hoshin; Vaze, Jai; Andréassian, Vazken
2015-04-01
This poster introduces the aims of the Large Sample Hydrology working group (LSH-WG) of the new IAHS Panta Rhei decade (2013-2022). The aim of the LSH-WG is to promote large sample hydrology, as discussed by Gupta et al. (2014) and to invite the community to collaborate on building and sharing a comprehensive and representative world-wide sample of watershed datasets. By doing so, LSH will allow the community to work towards 'hydrological consistency' (Martinez and Gupta, 2011) as a basis for hydrologic model development and evaluation, thereby increasing robustness of the model evaluation process. Classical model evaluation metrics based on 'robust statistics' are needed, but clearly not sufficient: multi-criteria assessments based on multiple hydrological signatures can help to better characterize hydrological functioning. Further, large-sample data sets can greatly facilitate: (i) improved understanding through rigorous testing and comparison of competing model hypothesis and structures, (ii) improved robustness of generalizations through statistical analyses that minimize the influence of outliers and case-specific studies, (iii) classification, regionalization and model transfer across a broad diversity of hydrometeorological contexts, and (iv) estimation of predictive uncertainties at a location and across locations (Mathevet et al., 2006; Andréassian et al., 2009; Gupta et al., 2014) References Andréassian, V., Perrin, C., Berthet, L., Le Moine, N., Lerat, J., Loumagne, C., Oudin, L., Mathevet, T., Ramos, M. H., and Valéry, A.: Crash tests for a standardized evaluation of hydrological models, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 1757-1764, 2009. Gupta, H. V., Perrin, C., Blöschl, G., Montanari, A., Kumar, R., Clark, M., and Andréassian, V.: Large-sample hydrology: a need to balance depth with breadth, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 463-477, doi:10.5194/hess-18-463-2014, 2014. Martinez, G. F., and H. V.Gupta (2011), Hydrologic consistency as a basis for
Self-consistent tight-binding model of B and N doping in graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Pedersen, Jesper Goor
2013-01-01
. The impurity potential depends sensitively on the impurity occupancy, leading to a self-consistency requirement. We solve this problem using the impurity Green's function and determine the self-consistent local density of states at the impurity site and, thereby, identify acceptor and donor energy resonances.......Boron and nitrogen substitutional impurities in graphene are analyzed using a self-consistent tight-binding approach. An analytical result for the impurity Green's function is derived taking broken electron-hole symmetry into account and validated by comparison to numerical diagonalization...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schier, V.
1995-12-01
Novel multilayer coatings with metallic and covalent layer materials were prepared by magnetron sputtering and characterised concerning structure, properties and application behaviour. At first single layer coatings were deposited for the determination of the material properties. To evaluate relations between structure and properties of the multilayer coatings, different multilayer concepts were realised: - coatings consisting of at most 7 layers of metallic hard materials, - 100-layer coatings consisting of metallic and covalent hard materials, - TiN-TiC multilayer coatings with different numbers of layers (between 10 and 1000), - 150-layer coatings, based on TiN-TiC multilayers, with thin ( 4 C, AlN, SiC, a:C, Si 3 N 4 , SiAlON). X-rays and electron microscopic analysis indicate in spite of nonstoichiometric compositions single phase crystalline structures for nonreactively and reactively sputtered metastable single layer Ti(B,C)-, Ti(B,N)- and Ti(B,C,N)-coatings. These single layer coatings show excellent mechanical properties (e.g. hardness values up to 6000 HV0,05), caused by lattice stresses as well as by atomic bonding conditions similar to those in c:BN and B 4 C. The good tribological properties shown in pin-on-disk-tests can be attributed to the very high hardness of the coatings. The coatings consisting of at most 7 layers of metallic hard materials show good results mainly for the cutting of steel Ck45, due to the improved mechanical properties (e.g. hardness, toughness) of the multilayers compared to the single layer coatings. This improvement is caused by inserting the hard layer materials and the coherent reinforcement of the coatings. (orig.)
Structured population models in biology and epidemiology
Ruan, Shigui
2008-01-01
This book consists of six chapters written by leading researchers in mathematical biology. These chapters present recent and important developments in the study of structured population models in biology and epidemiology. Topics include population models structured by age, size, and spatial position; size-structured models for metapopulations, macroparasitc diseases, and prion proliferation; models for transmission of microparasites between host populations living on non-coincident spatial domains; spatiotemporal patterns of disease spread; method of aggregation of variables in population dynamics; and biofilm models. It is suitable as a textbook for a mathematical biology course or a summer school at the advanced undergraduate and graduate level. It can also serve as a reference book for researchers looking for either interesting and specific problems to work on or useful techniques and discussions of some particular problems.
A Self-consistent Model of a Ray Through the Orion Complex
Abel, N. P.; Ferland, G. J.
2003-12-01
The Orion Complex is the best studied region of active star formation, with observational data available over the entire electromagnetic spectrum. These extensive observations give us a good idea of the physical structure of Orion, that being a thin ( ˜ 0.1 parsec) blister H II region on the face of the molecular cloud OMC-1. A PDR, where the transition from atoms & ions to molecules occurs, forms an interface between the two. Most of the physical processes are driven by starlight from the Trapezium cluster, with the star Ori C being the strongest source of radiation. Observations made towards lines of sight near Ori C reveal numerous H II and molecular line intensities. Photoionization calculations have played an important role in determining the physical properties of the regions where these lines originate, but thus far have treated the H II region and PDR as separate problems. Actually these regions are energized by the same source of radiation, with the gas hydrodynamics providing the physical link between them. Here were present a unified physical model of a single ray through the Orion Complex. We choose a region 60'' west of Ori C, where extensive observations exist. These include lines that originate within the H II region, background PDR, and from regions deep inside OMC-1 itself. An improved treatment of the grain, molecular hydrogen, and CO physics have all been developed as part of the continuing evolution of the plasma code Cloudy, so that we can now simultaneously predict the full spectrum with few free parameters. This provides a holistic approach that will be validated in this well-studied environment then extended to the distant starburst galaxies. Acknowledgements: We thank the NSF and NASA for support.
Banker, J.G.; Anderson, R.C.
1975-10-21
A method and apparatus are provided for preparing a composite structure consisting of filamentary material within a metal matrix. The method is practiced by the steps of confining the metal for forming the matrix in a first chamber, heating the confined metal to a temperature adequate to effect melting thereof, introducing a stream of inert gas into the chamber for pressurizing the atmosphere in the chamber to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, confining the filamentary material in a second chamber, heating the confined filamentary material to a temperature less than the melting temperature of the metal, evacuating the second chamber to provide an atmosphere therein at a pressure, placing the second chamber in registry with the first chamber to provide for the forced flow of the molten metal into the second chamber to effect infiltration of the filamentary material with the molten metal, and thereafter cooling the metal infiltrated-filamentary material to form said composite structure.
Zhang, Bo
2010-01-01
This article investigates how measurement models and statistical procedures can be applied to estimate the accuracy of proficiency classification in language testing. The paper starts with a concise introduction of four measurement models: the classical test theory (CTT) model, the dichotomous item response theory (IRT) model, the testlet response…
Structure of the standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Langacker, Paul [Pennsylvania Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1996-07-01
This lecture presents the structure of the standard model, approaching the following aspects: the standard model Lagrangian, spontaneous symmetry breaking, gauge interactions, covering charged currents, quantum electrodynamics, the neutral current and gauge self-interactions, and problems with the standard model, such as gauge, fermion, Higgs and hierarchy, strong C P and graviton problems.
Generative models for chemical structures.
White, David; Wilson, Richard C
2010-07-26
We apply recently developed techniques for pattern recognition to construct a generative model for chemical structure. This approach can be viewed as ligand-based de novo design. We construct a statistical model describing the structural variations present in a set of molecules which may be sampled to generate new structurally similar examples. We prevent the possibility of generating chemically invalid molecules, according to our implicit hydrogen model, by projecting samples onto the nearest chemically valid molecule. By populating the input set with molecules that are active against a target, we show how new molecules may be generated that will likely also be active against the target.
Smart, John C.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Umbach, Paul D.
2009-01-01
This study examines the extent to which faculty members in the disparate academic environments of Holland's theory devote different amounts of time in their classes to alternative pedagogical approaches and whether such differences are comparable for those in "consistent" and "inconsistent" environments. The findings show wide variations in the…
Plasma Processes: A self-consistent kinetic modeling of a 1-D ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A self-consistent kinetic treatment is presented here, where the Boltzmann equation is solved for a particle conserving Krook collision operator. The resulting equations have been implemented numerically. The treatment solves for the entire quasineutral column, making no assumptions about mfp/, where mfp is the ...
Consistent and Clear Reporting of Results from Diverse Modeling Techniques: The A3 Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Scott Fortmann-Roe
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The measurement and reporting of model error is of basic importance when constructing models. Here, a general method and an R package, A3, are presented to support the assessment and communication of the quality of a model fit along with metrics of variable importance. The presented method is accurate, robust, and adaptable to a wide range of predictive modeling algorithms. The method is described along with case studies and a usage guide. It is shown how the method can be used to obtain more accurate models for prediction and how this may simultaneously lead to altered inferences and conclusions about the impact of potential drivers within a system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roy E Barnewall
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Repeated low-level exposures to Bacillus anthracis could occur before or after the remediation of an environmental release. This is especially true for persistent agents such as Bacillus anthracis spores, the causative agent of anthrax. Studies were conducted to examine aerosol methods needed for consistent daily low aerosol concentrations to deliver a low-dose (less than 106 colony forming units (CFU of B. anthracis spores and included a pilot feasibility characterization study, acute exposure study, and a multiple fifteen day exposure study. This manuscript focuses on the state-of-the-science aerosol methodologies used to generate and aerosolize consistent daily low aerosol concentrations and resultant low inhalation doses. The pilot feasibility characterization study determined that the aerosol system was consistent and capable of producing very low aerosol concentrations. In the acute, single day exposure experiment, targeted inhaled doses of 1 x 102, 1 x 103, 1 x 104, and 1 x 105 CFU were used. In the multiple daily exposure experiment, rabbits were exposed multiple days to targeted inhaled doses of 1 x 102, 1 x 103, and 1 x 104 CFU. In all studies, targeted inhaled doses remained fairly consistent from rabbit to rabbit and day to day. The aerosol system produced aerosolized spores within the optimal mass median aerodynamic diameter particle size range to reach deep lung alveoli. Consistency of the inhaled dose was aided by monitoring and recording respiratory parameters during the exposure with real-time plethysmography. Overall, the presented results show that the animal aerosol system was stable and highly reproducible between different studies and multiple exposure days.
Fracture model for structured quasibrittle materials
Kurguzov, V. D.; Astapov, N. S.; Astapov, I. S.
2014-11-01
We analyze the applicability of a modified Leonov-Panasyuk-Dugdale model to the description of the propagation of a mode I crack in structured materials under plane stress conditions. For quasi-brittle materials, refined formulas of the critical length of the prefracture zone and the critical load containing a structural parameter are proposed. The Kornev model is extended to the case of quasi-ductile materials. Numerical simulation of plastic zones in square plates of a bimetal and a homogeneous material under quasi-static loading is performed. In the numerical model, the equations of deformable solid mechanics are expressed in the Lagrangian formulation, which is the most preferred for large-strain deformations of elastoplastic materials. The results of the numerical experiments are consistent with the results of calculations using the analytical model for the fracture of structured materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sproviero, Eduardo M [YALE UNIV; Newcomer, Michael [YALE UNIV; Gascon, Jose A [YALE UNIV; Batista, Victor S [YALE UNIV
2008-01-01
The combination of quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) is one of the most promising approaches to study the structure, function, and properties of proteins and nucleic acids. However, there some instances in which the limitations of either the MM (lack of a proper electronic description) or QM (limited to a few number of atoms) methods prevent a proper description of the system. To address this issue, we review here our approach to fine-tune the structure of biological systems using post-QM/MM refinements. These protocols are based on spectroscopy data, and/or partitioning of the system to extend the QM description to a larger region of a protein. We illustrate these methodologies through applications to several biomolecules, which were pre-optimized at the QM/MM level and then further refined using postQM/MM refinement methodologies: mod(QM/MM), which refines the atomic charges of the residues included in the MM region accounting for polarization effects; mod(QM/MM)-opt that partition the MM region in smaller parts and optimizes each part in an iterative. self-consistent way, and the Polarized-Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (P-EXAFS) fitting procedure, which fine-tune the atomic coordinates to reproduce experimental polarized EXAFS spectra. The first two techniques were applied to the guanine quadruplex. while the P-EXAFS refinement was applied to the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II.
Self-consistent gyrokinetic modeling of neoclassical and turbulent impurity transport
Estève , D. ,; Sarazin , Y.; Garbet , X.; Grandgirard , V.; Breton , S. ,; Donnel , P. ,; Asahi , Y. ,; Bourdelle , C.; Dif-Pradalier , G; Ehrlacher , C.; Emeriau , C.; Ghendrih , Ph; Gillot , C.; Latu , G.; Passeron , C.
2018-01-01
International audience; Trace impurity transport is studied with the flux-driven gyrokinetic GYSELA code [V. Grandgirard et al., Comp. Phys. Commun. 207, 35 (2016)]. A reduced and linearized multi-species collision operator has been recently implemented, so that both neoclassical and turbulent transport channels can be treated self-consistently on an equal footing. In the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime likely relevant for tungsten, the standard expression of the neoclassical impurity flux is shown t...
The Bioenvironmental modeling of Bahar city based on Climate-consistent Architecture
Parna Kazemian
2014-01-01
The identification of the climate of a particularplace and the analysis of the climatic needs in terms of human comfort and theuse of construction materials is one of the prerequisites of aclimate-consistent design. In studies on climate and weather, usingillustrative reports, first a picture of the state of climate is offered. Then,based on the obtained results, the range of changes is determined, and thecause-effect relationships at different scales are identified. Finally, by ageneral exam...
Self-consistent gyrokinetic modeling of neoclassical and turbulent impurity transport
Estève, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Breton, S.; Donnel, P.; Asahi, Y.; Bourdelle, C.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ehrlacher, C.; Emeriau, C.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Gillot, C.; Latu, G.; Passeron, C.
2018-03-01
Trace impurity transport is studied with the flux-driven gyrokinetic GYSELA code (Grandgirard et al 2016 Comput. Phys. Commun. 207 35). A reduced and linearized multi-species collision operator has been recently implemented, so that both neoclassical and turbulent transport channels can be treated self-consistently on an equal footing. In the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime that is probably relevant for tungsten, the standard expression for the neoclassical impurity flux is shown to be recovered from gyrokinetics with the employed collision operator. Purely neoclassical simulations of deuterium plasma with trace impurities of helium, carbon and tungsten lead to impurity diffusion coefficients, inward pinch velocities due to density peaking, and thermo-diffusion terms which quantitatively agree with neoclassical predictions and NEO simulations (Belli et al 2012 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 54 015015). The thermal screening factor appears to be less than predicted analytically in the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime, which can be detrimental to fusion performance. Finally, self-consistent nonlinear simulations have revealed that the tungsten impurity flux is not the sum of turbulent and neoclassical fluxes computed separately, as is usually assumed. The synergy partly results from the turbulence-driven in-out poloidal asymmetry of tungsten density. This result suggests the need for self-consistent simulations of impurity transport, i.e. including both turbulence and neoclassical physics, in view of quantitative predictions for ITER.
Temporal structures in shell models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okkels, F.
2001-01-01
The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...
Badenes, C.; Hughes, J.P.; Bravo, E.; Langer, N.
2007-01-01
We explore the relationship between the models for progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae and the properties of the supernova remnants that evolve after the explosion. Most models for Type Ia progenitors in the single-degenerate scenario predict substantial outflows during the presupernova
Physically-consistent wall boundary conditions for the k-ω turbulence model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuhrman, David R.; Dixen, Martin; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl
2010-01-01
A model solving Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-v turbulence closure, is used to simulate steady channel flow on both hydraulically smooth and rough beds. Novel experimental data are used as model validation, with k measured directly from all three components...
CONSISTENT USE OF THE KALMAN FILTER IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS (CTMS) FOR DEDUCING EMISSIONS
Past research has shown that emissions can be deduced using observed concentrations of a chemical, a Chemical Transport Model (CTM), and the Kalman filter in an inverse modeling application. An expression was derived for the relationship between the "observable" (i.e., the con...
O. Fovet; L. Ruiz; M. Hrachowitz; M. Faucheux; C. Gascuel-Odoux
2015-01-01
While most hydrological models reproduce the general flow dynamics, they frequently fail to adequately mimic system-internal processes. In particular, the relationship between storage and discharge, which often follows annual hysteretic patterns in shallow hard-rock aquifers, is rarely considered in modelling studies. One main reason is that catchment storage is...
Consistency tests of cosmogonic theories from models of Uranus and Neptune
Podolak, M.; Reynolds, R. T.
1984-01-01
The planetary ratios of ice to rock (I/R) abundances expected in Uranus and Neptune are derived on the basis of several cosmogonic theories. For both Uranus and Neptune, the value of I/R lies between about 1.0 and 3.6. This value is difficult to reconcile with a scenario in which N and C are accreted primarily in the form of N2 and CO. It is consistent with some versions of both giant protoplanet theories and equilibrium accretion theories.
Derivation of a Self-Consistent Auroral Oval Model Using the Auroral Boundary Index
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Anderson, Keith
2004-01-01
... current HF communications capabilities. The auroral morphology is a good indicator of the level at which space weather and its near-Earth consequences are occurring, and thus it is important to develop an auroral prediction model...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During hypersonic entry into a planetary atmosphere, a spacecraft transitions from free-molecular flow conditions to fully continuum conditions. When modeling and...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keck, Rolf-Erik; Veldkamp, Dick; Wedel-Heinen, Jens Jakob
as a standalone flow-solver for the velocity and turbulence distribution, and power production in a wind farm. The performance of the standalone implementation is validated against field data, higher-order computational fluid dynamics models, as well as the most common engineering wake models in the wind industry...... evolution 4. atmospheric stability effects on wake deficit evolution and meandering The conducted research is to a large extent based on detailed wake investigations and reference data generated through computational fluid dynamics simulations, where the wind turbine rotor has been represented......This thesis describes the further development and validation of the dynamic meandering wake model for simulating the flow field and power production of wind farms operating in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The overall objective of the conducted research is to improve the modelling...
Thermodynamically consistent modeling of elementary electrochemistry in lithium-ion batteries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colclasure, Andrew M.; Kee, Robert J.
2010-01-01
This paper is particularly concerned with the elementary reactions and transport processes that are responsible for Li-ion battery performance. The model generally follows the widely practiced approach developed by Newman and co-workers (e.g., Doyle et al., J. Electrochem. Soc. 140 (1993) 1526 ). However, there are significant departures, especially in modeling electrochemical charge transfer. The present approach introduces systems of microscopically reversible reactions, including both heterogeneous thermal reactions and electrochemical charge-transfer reactions. All reaction rates are evaluated in elementary form, providing a powerful alternative to a Butler-Volmer formalism for the charge-transfer reactions. The paper is particularly concerned with the influence of non-ideal thermodynamics for evaluating reversible potentials as well as charge-transfer rates. The theory and modeling approach establishes a framework for extending chemistry models to incorporate detailed reaction mechanisms that represent multiple competitive reaction pathways.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kock, Anders Bredahl
2016-01-01
as if only these had been included in the model from the outset. In particular, this implies that it is able to discriminate between stationary and nonstationary autoregressions and it thereby constitutes an addition to the set of unit root tests. Next, and important in practice, we show that choosing...... to perform conservative model selection it has power even against shrinking alternatives of this form and compare it to the plain Lasso....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abma, Femke I.; Bültmann, Ute; Amick, Benjamin C.
2017-01-01
Objective: The Work Role Functioning Questionnaire v2.0 (WRFQ) is an outcome measure linking a persons’ health to the ability to meet work demands in the twenty-first century. We aimed to examine the construct validity of the WRFQ in a heterogeneous set of working samples in the Netherlands...... with mixed clinical conditions and job types to evaluate the comparability of the scale structure. Methods: Confirmatory factor and multi-group analyses were conducted in six cross-sectional working samples (total N = 2433) to evaluate and compare a five-factor model structure of the WRFQ (work scheduling....... Therefore subscale scores are recommended to compare across different clinical and working samples....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. P. Gerber
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Currently, the most successful predictive models for activity coefficients are those based on functional groups such as UNIFAC. In contrast, these models require a large amount of experimental data for the determination of their parameter matrix. A more recent alternative is the models based on COSMO, for which only a small set of universal parameters must be calibrated. In this work, a recalibrated COSMO-SAC model was compared with the UNIFAC (Do model employing experimental infinite dilution activity coefficient data for 2236 non-hydrogen-bonding binary mixtures at different temperatures. As expected, UNIFAC (Do presented better overall performance, with a mean absolute error of 0.12 ln-units against 0.22 for our COSMO-SAC implementation. However, in cases involving molecules with several functional groups or when functional groups appear in an unusual way, the deviation for UNIFAC was 0.44 as opposed to 0.20 for COSMO-SAC. These results show that COSMO-SAC provides more reliable predictions for multi-functional or more complex molecules, reaffirming its future prospects.
Consistency Between Convection Allowing Model Output and Passive Microwave Satellite Observations
Bytheway, J. L.; Kummerow, C. D.
2018-01-01
Observations from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite were used along with precipitation forecasts from the High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model to assess and interpret differences between observed and modeled storms. Using a feature-based approach, precipitating objects were identified in both the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Stage IV multisensor precipitation product and HRRR forecast at lead times of 1, 2, and 3 h at valid times corresponding to GPM overpasses. Precipitating objects were selected for further study if (a) the observed feature occurred entirely within the swath of the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and (b) the HRRR model predicted it at all three forecast lead times. Output from the HRRR model was used to simulate microwave brightness temperatures (Tbs), which were compared to those observed by the GMI. Simulated Tbs were found to have biases at both the warm and cold ends of the distribution, corresponding to the stratiform/anvil and convective areas of the storms, respectively. Several experiments altered both the simulation microphysics and hydrometeor classification in order to evaluate potential shortcomings in the model's representation of precipitating clouds. In general, inconsistencies between observed and simulated brightness temperatures were most improved when transferring snow water content to supercooled liquid hydrometeor classes.
Baldwin, Daniel G.; Coakley, James A., Jr.
1991-01-01
The anisotropy of the radiance field estimated from bidirectional models derived from Nimbus 7 ERB scanner data is compared with the anisotropy observed with the ERB Experiment (ERBE) scanner aboard the ERB satellite. The results of averaging over groups of 40 ERBE scanner scan lines for a period of a month revealed significant differences between the modeled and the observed anisotropy for given scene types and the sun-earth-satellite viewing geometries. By comparing the radiative fluxes derived using the observed anisotropy with those derived assuming isotropic reflection, it is concluded that a reasonable estimate for the maximum error due to the use of incorrect bidirectional models is a bias of about 4 percent for a typical 2.5 deg latitude-longitude monthly mean, and an rms error of 15 percent.
Caprarelli, G.; de Pablo Hernandez, M. A.
2014-12-01
The Martian region located immediately north of the dichotomy scarp, between latitudes 120°E and 135°E, is covered by fretted terrains, characterised by the presence of knobs and mesas formed by eroded and reworked material of highlands provenance, and the smoother terrains between them [1]. Topographic depressions of oblong shape, generally parallel to the scarp, of rough and chaotic appearance, are also observed. The high resolution (~ 6 m/pixel, [2]) Context Camera (CTX) on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) makes it possible to examine the morphologies of these topographic depressions in great detail, unveiling their complex geological histories. Here we expand on our earlier work in the adjacent Nepenthes Mensae region [3] and present the results of our observations of morphologies of likely igneous origin. We identified a variety of shapes consistent with magmatic structures and constructs: dikes, collapsed lava tubes, and lava flows are observable in the smoother terrains. Most of the elevated structures in the areas are strongly eroded knobs and mesas covered by dust and debris. In some cases however, the morphological characteristics of 2-10 km-size structures are clear and sharp, which allowed us to identify features consistent with sub-ice volcanic constructs, such as tuyas and tindars [4]. Geological reconstructions involving magma-ice interaction are supported by the presence of lobate aprons around knobs and mesas, and of scalloped ejecta surrounding complex impact craters, suggesting the existence of ice both underground and on the surface of these low elevation areas at the time of formation of these constructs. [1] Tanaka et al. (2005) Geologic Map of the Northern Plains of Mars. USGS SIM 2888. [2] Malin et al. (2007) Context Camera investigation on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. JGR 112, E05S04, 10.1029/2006JE002808. [3] dePablo and Caprarelli (2010) Possible subglacial volcanoes in Nepenthes Mensae, eastern hemisphere, Mars. LPSC
A. Mairesse; H. Goosse; P. Mathiot; H. Wanner; S. Dubinkina (Svetlana)
2013-01-01
htmlabstractThe mid-Holocene (6 kyr BP; thousand years before present) is a key period to study the consistency between model results and proxy-based reconstruction data as it corresponds to a standard test for models and a reasonable number of proxy-based records is available. Taking advantage of
Handbook of structural equation modeling
Hoyle, Rick H
2012-01-01
The first comprehensive structural equation modeling (SEM) handbook, this accessible volume presents both the mechanics of SEM and specific SEM strategies and applications. The editor, contributors, and editorial advisory board are leading methodologists who have organized the book to move from simpler material to more statistically complex modeling approaches. Sections cover the foundations of SEM; statistical underpinnings, from assumptions to model modifications; steps in implementation, from data preparation through writing the SEM report; and basic and advanced applications, inclu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colonna, G.; Pietanza, L.D.; D’Ammando, G.
2012-01-01
Graphical abstract: Self-consistent coupling between radiation, state-to-state kinetics, electron kinetics and fluid dynamics. Highlight: ► A CR model of shock-wave in hydrogen plasma has been presented. ► All equations have been coupled self-consistently. ► Non-equilibrium electron and level distributions are obtained. ► The results show non-local effects and non-equilibrium radiation. - Abstract: A collisional-radiative model for hydrogen atom, coupled self-consistently with the Boltzmann equation for free electrons, has been applied to model a shock tube. The kinetic model has been completed considering atom–atom collisions and the vibrational kinetics of the ground state of hydrogen molecules. The atomic level kinetics has been also coupled with a radiative transport equation to determine the effective adsorption and emission coefficients and non-local energy transfer.
On the Consistency of Gamma-Ray Burst Spectral Indices with the Synchrotron Shock Model
Preece, R. D.; Briggs, M. S.; Giblin, T. W.; Mallozzi, R. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Paciesad, W. S.; Band, D. L.
2002-01-01
The current scenario for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) involves internal shocks for the prompt GRB emission phase and external shocks for the afterglow phase. Assuming optically thin synchrotron emission from isotropically distributed energetic shocked electrons, GRB spectra observed with a low-energy power-law spectral index greater than -2/3 (for positive photon number indices E(exp alpha) indicate a problem with this model. For spectra that do not violate this condition, additional tests of the shock model can be made by comparing the low- and high-energy spectral indices, on the basis of the model's assertion that synchrotron emission from a single power-law distribution of electrons is responsible for both the low-energy and the high-energy power-law portions of the spectra. We find in most cases that the inferred relationship between the two spectral indices of observed GRB spectra is inconsistent with the constraints from the simple optically thin synchrotron shock emission model. In this sense, the prompt burst phase is different from the afterglow phase, and this difference may be related to anisotropic distributions of particles or to their continual acceleration in shocks during the prompt phase.
Loncke, Justine; Mayer, Axel; Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Koot, Hans M.; Buysse, Ann; Loeys, Tom
Support is key to healthy family functioning. Using the family social relations model (SRM), it has already been shown that variability in perceived support is mostly attributed to individual perceiver effects. Little is known, however, as to whether those effects are stable or occasion-specific.
Self-consistent semi-analytic models of the first stars
Visbal, Eli; Haiman, Zoltán; Bryan, Greg L.
2018-01-01
We have developed a semi-analytic framework to model the large-scale evolution of the first Population III (Pop III) stars and the transition to metal-enriched star formation. Our model follows dark matter halos from cosmological N-body simulations, utilizing their individual merger histories and three-dimensional positions, and applies physically motivated prescriptions for star formation and feedback from Lyman-Werner (LW) radiation, hydrogen ionizing radiation, and external metal enrichment due to supernovae winds. This method is intended to complement analytic studies, which do not include clustering or individual merger histories, and hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, which include detailed physics, but are computationally expensive and have limited dynamic range. Utilizing this technique, we compute the cumulative Pop III and metal-enriched star formation rate density (SFRD) as a function of redshift at z ≥ 20. We find that varying the model parameters leads to significant qualitative changes in the global star formation history. The Pop III star formation efficiency and the delay time between Pop III and subsequent metal-enriched star formation are found to have the largest impact. The effect of clustering (i.e. including the three-dimensional positions of individual halos) on various feedback mechanisms is also investigated. The impact of clustering on LW and ionization feedback is found to be relatively mild in our fiducial model, but can be larger if external metal enrichment can promote metal-enriched star formation over large distances.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novello, M [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barcelos-Neto, J [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salim, J M [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2002-06-07
We use a model where the cosmological term can be related to the chiral gauge anomaly of a possible quantum scenario of the initial evolution of the universe. We show that this term is compatible with the Friedmann behaviour of the present universe.
Self-consistent semi-analytic models of the first stars
Visbal, Eli; Haiman, Zoltán; Bryan, Greg L.
2018-04-01
We have developed a semi-analytic framework to model the large-scale evolution of the first Population III (Pop III) stars and the transition to metal-enriched star formation. Our model follows dark matter haloes from cosmological N-body simulations, utilizing their individual merger histories and three-dimensional positions, and applies physically motivated prescriptions for star formation and feedback from Lyman-Werner (LW) radiation, hydrogen ionizing radiation, and external metal enrichment due to supernovae winds. This method is intended to complement analytic studies, which do not include clustering or individual merger histories, and hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, which include detailed physics, but are computationally expensive and have limited dynamic range. Utilizing this technique, we compute the cumulative Pop III and metal-enriched star formation rate density (SFRD) as a function of redshift at z ≥ 20. We find that varying the model parameters leads to significant qualitative changes in the global star formation history. The Pop III star formation efficiency and the delay time between Pop III and subsequent metal-enriched star formation are found to have the largest impact. The effect of clustering (i.e. including the three-dimensional positions of individual haloes) on various feedback mechanisms is also investigated. The impact of clustering on LW and ionization feedback is found to be relatively mild in our fiducial model, but can be larger if external metal enrichment can promote metal-enriched star formation over large distances.
A self-consistent model for the Galactic cosmic ray, antiproton and positron spectra
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
In this talk I will present the escape model of Galactic cosmic rays. This model explains the measured cosmic ray spectra of individual groups of nuclei from TeV to EeV energies. It predicts an early transition to extragalactic cosmic rays, in agreement with recent Auger data. The escape model also explains the soft neutrino spectrum 1/E^2.5 found by IceCube in concordance with Fermi gamma-ray data. I will show that within the same model one can explain the excess of positrons and antiprotons above 20 GeV found by PAMELA and AMS-02, the discrepancy in the slopes of the spectra of cosmic ray protons and heavier nuclei in the TeV-PeV energy range and the plateau in cosmic ray dipole anisotropy in the 2-50 TeV energy range by adding the effects of a 2 million year old nearby supernova.
Application of a Mass-Consistent Wind Model to Chinook Windstorms
1988-06-01
Meteor., 6, 837--344. Endlich, R. M., F. L. Ludwig, C. M. Bhunralkar, and M. A. Estoque , 1380: A practical method for estimating wind character34szics at...Project 8349, Menlo Park, CA. 94025. Endlich, R. M., F. L. Ludwig, C. M. Bhunralkar, and M. A. Estoque , 1982: A diagnostic model for estimating winds
Consistent stress-strain ductile fracture model as applied to two grades of beryllium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Priddy, T.G.; Benzley, S.E.; Ford, L.M.
1980-01-01
Published yield and ultimate biaxial stress and strain data for two grades of beryllium are correlated with a more complete method of characterizing macroscopic strain at fracture initiation in ductile materials. Results are compared with those obtained from an exponential, mean stress dependent, model. Simple statistical methods are employed to illustrate the degree of correlation for each method with the experimental data
Kou, Jisheng
2017-12-09
A general diffuse interface model with a realistic equation of state (e.g. Peng-Robinson equation of state) is proposed to describe the multi-component two-phase fluid flow based on the principles of the NVT-based framework which is an attractive alternative recently over the NPT-based framework to model the realistic fluids. The proposed model uses the Helmholtz free energy rather than Gibbs free energy in the NPT-based framework. Different from the classical routines, we combine the first law of thermodynamics and related thermodynamical relations to derive the entropy balance equation, and then we derive a transport equation of the Helmholtz free energy density. Furthermore, by using the second law of thermodynamics, we derive a set of unified equations for both interfaces and bulk phases that can describe the partial miscibility of multiple fluids. A relation between the pressure gradient and chemical potential gradients is established, and this relation leads to a new formulation of the momentum balance equation, which demonstrates that chemical potential gradients become the primary driving force of fluid motion. Moreover, we prove that the proposed model satisfies the total (free) energy dissipation with time. For numerical simulation of the proposed model, the key difficulties result from the strong nonlinearity of Helmholtz free energy density and tight coupling relations between molar densities and velocity. To resolve these problems, we propose a novel convex-concave splitting of Helmholtz free energy density and deal well with the coupling relations between molar densities and velocity through very careful physical observations with a mathematical rigor. We prove that the proposed numerical scheme can preserve the discrete (free) energy dissipation. Numerical tests are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baldwin, D.G. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA)); Coakley, J.A. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA))
1991-03-20
The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) uses bidirectional models to estimate radiative fluxes from observed radiances. The anisotropy of the radiance field derived from these models is compared with that observed with the ERBE scanner on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS). The bidirectional models used by ERBE were derived from NIMBUS 7 Earth radiation budget (ERB) scanner observations. Because of probable differences in the radiometric calibrations of the ERB and ERBE scanners and because of differences in their field of view sizes, the authors expect to find systematic differences of a few percent between the NIMBUS 7 ERB-derived radiation field anisotropy and the ERBS scanner-observed anisotropy. The differences expected are small compared with the variability of the anisotropy which arises from the variability in cloud cover allowed to occur within the individual scene types. By averaging over groups of 40 ERBE scanner scan lines (equivalent to an average over approximately 2,000 km) for a period of a month, they detect significant differences between the modeled and observed anisotropy for particular scene types and Sun-Earth-satellite viewing geometries. For a typical 2.5{degree} latitude-longitude region these differences give rise to a bias in the radiative flux that is at least 0.3% for the monthly mean and an rms error that is at least 4% for instantaneous observations. By comparing the fluxes derived using the observed anisotropy with those derived assuming isotropic reflection, they conclude that a reasonable estimate for the maximum error due to the use of incorrect bidirectional models is a bias of approximately 4% for a typical 2.5{degree} latitude-longitude, monthly mean and an rms error of 15%.
Self-Consistent 3D Modeling of Electron Cloud Dynamics and Beam Response
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, Miguel; Furman, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Sonnad, K.G.; Vay, J.-L.; Venturini, M.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Molvik, A.; Stoltz, P.
2007-01-01
We present recent advances in the modeling of beam electron-cloud dynamics, including surface effects such as secondary electron emission, gas desorption, etc, and volumetric effects such as ionization of residual gas and charge-exchange reactions. Simulations for the HCX facility with the code WARP/POSINST will be described and their validity demonstrated by benchmarks against measurements. The code models a wide range of physical processes and uses a number of novel techniques, including a large-timestep electron mover that smoothly interpolates between direct orbit calculation and guiding-center drift equations, and a new computational technique, based on a Lorentz transformation to a moving frame, that allows the cost of a fully 3D simulation to be reduced to that of a quasi-static approximation
A self-consistent LTE model of a microwave-driven, high-pressure sulfur lamp
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnston, C.W.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)]. E-mails: C.W.Johnston@tue.nl; J.J.A.M.v.d.Mullen@tue.nl; Heijden, H.W.P. van der; Janssen, G.M.; Dijk, J. van [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)
2002-02-21
A one-dimensional LTE model of a microwave-driven sulfur lamp is presented to aid our understanding of the discharge. The energy balance of the lamp is determined by Ohmic input on one hand and transport due to conductive heat transfer and molecular radiation on the other. We discuss the origin of operational trends in the spectrum, present the model and discuss how the material properties of the plasma are determined. Not only are temperature profiles and electric field strengths simulated but also the spectrum of the lamp from 300 to 900 nm under various conditions of input power and lamp filling pressure. We show that simulated spectra demonstrate observed trends and that radiated power increases linearly with input power as is also found from experiment. (author)
Flood damage: a model for consistent, complete and multipurpose scenarios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Menoni
2016-12-01
implemented in ex post damage assessments, also with the objective of better programming financial resources that will be needed for these types of events in the future. On the other hand, integrated interpretations of flood events are fundamental to adapting and optimizing flood mitigation strategies on the basis of thorough forensic investigation of each event, as corroborated by the implementation of the model in a case study.
A Mind/Brain/Matter Model Consistent with Quantum Physics and UFO phenomena
1979-01-01
realities of a second type (E.P. Wigr, ,.’ "Two Kinds of Reality," The Monist , Vol. 48, No. 2, April 1964). Note that the modei -eing c dvanced by the...biological organism, including egos of "dead" biosystems. Note also that the wave-packet reduction (collapse of the wave function) is not a relativistically ...new fourth law of logic, which is briefly described and summarized. A new photon interaction model. of quantized observable changc is also presented
Ma, Qiang; Cheng, Huanyu; Jang, Kyung-In; Luan, Haiwen; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui
2016-05-01
Development of advanced synthetic materials that can mimic the mechanical properties of non-mineralized soft biological materials has important implications in a wide range of technologies. Hierarchical lattice materials constructed with horseshoe microstructures belong to this class of bio-inspired synthetic materials, where the mechanical responses can be tailored to match the nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves of human skins. The underlying relations between the J-shaped stress-strain curves and their microstructure geometry are essential in designing such systems for targeted applications. Here, a theoretical model of this type of hierarchical lattice material is developed by combining a finite deformation constitutive relation of the building block (i.e., horseshoe microstructure), with the analyses of equilibrium and deformation compatibility in the periodical lattices. The nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves and Poisson ratios predicted by this model agree very well with results of finite element analyses (FEA) and experiment. Based on this model, analytic solutions were obtained for some key mechanical quantities, e.g., elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, peak modulus, and critical strain around which the tangent modulus increases rapidly. A negative Poisson effect is revealed in the hierarchical lattice with triangular topology, as opposed to a positive Poisson effect in hierarchical lattices with Kagome and honeycomb topologies. The lattice topology is also found to have a strong influence on the stress-strain curve. For the three isotropic lattice topologies (triangular, Kagome and honeycomb), the hierarchical triangular lattice material renders the sharpest transition in the stress-strain curve and relative high stretchability, given the same porosity and arc angle of horseshoe microstructure. Furthermore, a demonstrative example illustrates the utility of the developed model in the rapid optimization of hierarchical lattice materials for
A consistent model for leptogenesis, dark matter and the IceCube signal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fiorentin, M. Re [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Niro, V. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Fornengo, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino,via P. Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino,via P. Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)
2016-11-04
We discuss a left-right symmetric extension of the Standard Model in which the three additional right-handed neutrinos play a central role in explaining the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, the dark matter abundance and the ultra energetic signal detected by the IceCube experiment. The energy spectrum and neutrino flux measured by IceCube are ascribed to the decays of the lightest right-handed neutrino N{sub 1}, thus fixing its mass and lifetime, while the production of N{sub 1} in the primordial thermal bath occurs via a freeze-in mechanism driven by the additional SU(2){sub R} interactions. The constraints imposed by IceCube and the dark matter abundance allow nonetheless the heavier right-handed neutrinos to realize a standard type-I seesaw leptogenesis, with the B−L asymmetry dominantly produced by the next-to-lightest neutrino N{sub 2}. Further consequences and predictions of the model are that: the N{sub 1} production implies a specific power-law relation between the reheating temperature of the Universe and the vacuum expectation value of the SU(2){sub R} triplet; leptogenesis imposes a lower bound on the reheating temperature of the Universe at 7×10{sup 9} GeV. Additionally, the model requires a vanishing absolute neutrino mass scale m{sub 1}≃0.
Jha, Sanjeev Kumar
2013-01-01
A downscaling approach based on multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) is presented. The key concept underlying MPS is to sample spatial patterns from within training images, which can then be used in characterizing the relationship between different variables across multiple scales. The approach is used here to downscale climate variables including skin surface temperature (TSK), soil moisture (SMOIS), and latent heat flux (LH). The performance of the approach is assessed by applying it to data derived from a regional climate model of the Murray-Darling basin in southeast Australia, using model outputs at two spatial resolutions of 50 and 10 km. The data used in this study cover the period from 1985 to 2006, with 1985 to 2005 used for generating the training images that define the relationships of the variables across the different spatial scales. Subsequently, the spatial distributions for the variables in the year 2006 are determined at 10 km resolution using the 50 km resolution data as input. The MPS geostatistical downscaling approach reproduces the spatial distribution of TSK, SMOIS, and LH at 10 km resolution with the correct spatial patterns over different seasons, while providing uncertainty estimates through the use of multiple realizations. The technique has the potential to not only bridge issues of spatial resolution in regional and global climate model simulations but also in feature sharpening in remote sensing applications through image fusion, filling gaps in spatial data, evaluating downscaled variables with available remote sensing images, and aggregating/disaggregating hydrological and groundwater variables for catchment studies.
Consistent negative response of US crops to high temperatures in observations and crop models
Schauberger, Bernhard; Archontoulis, Sotirios; Arneth, Almut; Balkovic, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Khabarov, Nikolay; Müller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Rolinski, Susanne; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmid, Erwin; Wang, Xuhui; Schlenker, Wolfram; Frieler, Katja
2017-04-01
High temperatures are detrimental to crop yields and could lead to global warming-driven reductions in agricultural productivity. To assess future threats, the majority of studies used process-based crop models, but their ability to represent effects of high temperature has been questioned. Here we show that an ensemble of nine crop models reproduces the observed average temperature responses of US maize, soybean and wheat yields. Each day above 30°C diminishes maize and soybean yields by up to 6% under rainfed conditions. Declines observed in irrigated areas, or simulated assuming full irrigation, are weak. This supports the hypothesis that water stress induced by high temperatures causes the decline. For wheat a negative response to high temperature is neither observed nor simulated under historical conditions, since critical temperatures are rarely exceeded during the growing season. In the future, yields are modelled to decline for all three crops at temperatures above 30°C. Elevated CO2 can only weakly reduce these yield losses, in contrast to irrigation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Modarres
2007-06-01
Full Text Available By using the convolution formalism which consists of Fermi motion and binding effect, we investigate the deep inelastic electron scattering from A=3 mirror in the deep-valence region. The initial valence quark input is taken from the GRVs (Gluck, Reya and Vogt fitting procedure and the next-to-leading order QCD evolution on FP2 (x,Q2 which gives very good fit to the available data in the (x,Q2-plane. It is shown that the free neutron to proton structure function ratios can be extracted from the corresponding EMC ratios for 3He and 3H mirror nuclei using the self - consistent iteration procedure and the results are in good agreement with other theoretical models as well as the current available experimental data and especially the projected data expected from the proposed 11GeV Jefferson Laboratory in near future.
Drummond, Benjamin; Mayne, N. J.; Manners, James; Carter, Aarynn L.; Boutle, Ian A.; Baraffe, Isabelle; Hebrard, Eric; Tremblin, Pascal; Sing, David K.; Amundsen, David S.; Acreman, Dave
2018-01-01
We present a study of the effect of wind-driven advection on the chemical composition of hot Jupiter atmospheres using a fully-consistent 3D hydrodynamics, chemistry and radiative transfer code, the Met Office Unified Model (UM). Chemical modelling of exoplanet atmospheres has primarily been restricted to 1D models that cannot account for 3D dynamical processes. In this work we couple a chemical relaxation scheme to the UM to account for the chemical interconversion of methane and carbon mono...
Khan, A.; Belluzzi, L.; Landi Degl'Innocenti, E.; Fineschi, S.; Romoli, M.
2011-05-01
Context. The presence and importance of the coronal magnetic field is illustrated by a wide range of phenomena, such as the abnormally high temperatures of the coronal plasma, the existence of a slow and fast solar wind, the triggering of explosive events such as flares and CMEs. Aims: We investigate the possibility of using the Hanle effect to diagnose the coronal magnetic field by analysing its influence on the linear polarisation, i.e. the rotation of the plane of polarisation and depolarisation. Methods: We analyse the polarisation characteristics of the first three lines of the hydrogen Lyman-series using an axisymmetric, self-consistent, minimum-corona MHD model with relatively low values of the magnetic field (a few Gauss). Results: We find that the Hanle effect in the above-mentioned lines indeed seems to be a valuable tool for analysing the coronal magnetic field. However, great care must be taken when analysing the spectropolarimetry of the Lα line, given that a non-radial solar wind and active regions on the solar disk can mimic the effects of the magnetic field, and, in some cases, even mask them. Similar drawbacks are not found for the Lβ and Lγ lines because they are more sensitive to the magnetic field. We also briefly consider the instrumental requirements needed to perform polarimetric observations for diagnosing the coronal magnetic fields. Conclusions: The combined analysis of the three aforementioned lines could provide an important step towards better constrainting the value of solar coronal magnetic fields.
Probabilistic models for structured sparsity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Michael Riis
of each time series is decomposed into a non-negative linear combination of elements from a dictionary of shared covariance matrix components. A variational Bayes algorithm is derived for approximate posterior inference. The proposed model is validated using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (f......Sparsity has become an increasingly popular choice of regularization in machine learning and statistics. The sparsity assumption for a matrixX means that most of the entries in X are equal to exactly zero. Structured sparsity is generalization of sparsity and assumes that the set of locations...... of the non-zero coefficients in X contains structure that can be exploited. This thesis deals with probabilistic models for structured sparsity for regularization of ill-posed problems. The aim of the thesis is two-fold; to construct sparsity promoting prior distributions for structured sparsity...
Self-consistent one-dimensional modelling of x-ray laser plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wan, A.S.; Walling, R.S.; Scott, H.A.; Mayle, R.W.; Osterheld, A.L.
1992-01-01
This paper presents the simulation of a planar, one-dimensional expanding Ge x-ray laser plasma using a new code which combines hydrodynamics, laser absorption, and detailed level population calculations within the same simulation. Previously, these simulations were performed in separate steps. We will present the effect of line transfer on gains and excited level populations and compare the line transfer result with simulations using escape probabilities. We will also discuss the impact of different atomic models on the accuracy of our simulation
Stretched-exponential decay functions from a self-consistent model of dielectric relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milovanov, A.V.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Rypdal, K.
2008-01-01
There are many materials whose dielectric properties are described by a stretched exponential, the so-called Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) relaxation function. Its physical origin and statistical-mechanical foundation have been a matter of debate in the literature. In this Letter we suggest a model of dielectric relaxation, which naturally leads to a stretched exponential decay function. Some essential characteristics of the underlying charge conduction mechanisms are considered. A kinetic description of the relaxation and charge transport processes is proposed in terms of equations with time-fractional derivatives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Louise Scott
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Although cyanobacterial β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Parkinson’s Disease (PD and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, no BMAA animal model has reproduced all the neuropathology typically associated with these neurodegenerative diseases. We present here a neonatal BMAA model that causes β-amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles of hyper-phosphorylated tau, TDP-43 inclusions, Lewy bodies, microbleeds and microgliosis as well as severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus, striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta, and ventral horn of the spinal cord in rats following a single BMAA exposure. We also report here that BMAA exposure on particularly PND3, but also PND4 and 5, the critical period of neurogenesis in the rodent brain, is substantially more toxic than exposure to BMAA on G14, PND6, 7 and 10 which suggests that BMAA could potentially interfere with neonatal neurogenesis in rats. The observed selective toxicity of BMAA during neurogenesis and, in particular, the observed pattern of neuronal loss observed in BMAA-exposed rats suggest that BMAA elicits its effect by altering dopamine and/or serotonin signaling in rats.
A Thermodynamically-consistent FBA-based Approach to Biogeochemical Reaction Modeling
Shapiro, B.; Jin, Q.
2015-12-01
Microbial rates are critical to understanding biogeochemical processes in natural environments. Recently, flux balance analysis (FBA) has been applied to predict microbial rates in aquifers and other settings. FBA is a genome-scale constraint-based modeling approach that computes metabolic rates and other phenotypes of microorganisms. This approach requires a prior knowledge of substrate uptake rates, which is not available for most natural microbes. Here we propose to constrain substrate uptake rates on the basis of microbial kinetics. Specifically, we calculate rates of respiration (and fermentation) using a revised Monod equation; this equation accounts for both the kinetics and thermodynamics of microbial catabolism. Substrate uptake rates are then computed from the rates of respiration, and applied to FBA to predict rates of microbial growth. We implemented this method by linking two software tools, PHREEQC and COBRA Toolbox. We applied this method to acetotrophic methanogenesis by Methanosarcina barkeri, and compared the simulation results to previous laboratory observations. The new method constrains acetate uptake by accounting for the kinetics and thermodynamics of methanogenesis, and predicted well the observations of previous experiments. In comparison, traditional methods of dynamic-FBA constrain acetate uptake on the basis of enzyme kinetics, and failed to reproduce the experimental results. These results show that microbial rate laws may provide a better constraint than enzyme kinetics for applying FBA to biogeochemical reaction modeling.
Greco, Cristina; Jiang, Ying; Chen, Jeff Z Y; Kremer, Kurt; Daoulas, Kostas Ch
2016-11-14
Self Consistent Field (SCF) theory serves as an efficient tool for studying mesoscale structure and thermodynamics of polymeric liquid crystals (LC). We investigate how some of the intrinsic approximations of SCF affect the description of the thermodynamics of polymeric LC, using a coarse-grained model. Polymer nematics are represented as discrete worm-like chains (WLC) where non-bonded interactions are defined combining an isotropic repulsive and an anisotropic attractive Maier-Saupe (MS) potential. The range of the potentials, σ, controls the strength of correlations due to non-bonded interactions. Increasing σ (which can be seen as an increase of coarse-graining) while preserving the integrated strength of the potentials reduces correlations. The model is studied with particle-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and SCF theory which uses partial enumeration to describe discrete WLC. In MC simulations the Helmholtz free energy is calculated as a function of strength of MS interactions to obtain reference thermodynamic data. To calculate the free energy of the nematic branch with respect to the disordered melt, we employ a special thermodynamic integration (TI) scheme invoking an external field to bypass the first-order isotropic-nematic transition. Methodological aspects which have not been discussed in earlier implementations of the TI to LC are considered. Special attention is given to the rotational Goldstone mode. The free-energy landscape in MC and SCF is directly compared. For moderate σ the differences highlight the importance of local non-bonded orientation correlations between segments, which SCF neglects. Simple renormalization of parameters in SCF cannot compensate the missing correlations. Increasing σ reduces correlations and SCF reproduces well the free energy in MC simulations.
Béghin, Christian
2015-02-01
This model is worked out in the frame of physical mechanisms proposed in previous studies accounting for the generation and the observation of an atypical Schumann Resonance (SR) during the descent of the Huygens Probe in the Titan's atmosphere on 14 January 2005. While Titan is staying inside the subsonic co-rotating magnetosphere of Saturn, a secondary magnetic field carrying an Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) modulation is shown to be generated through ion-acoustic instabilities of the Pedersen current sheets induced at the interface region between the impacting magnetospheric plasma and Titan's ionosphere. The stronger induced magnetic field components are focused within field-aligned arcs-like structures hanging down the current sheets, with minimum amplitude of about 0.3 nT throughout the ramside hemisphere from the ionopause down to the Moon surface, including the icy crust and its interface with a conductive water ocean. The deep penetration of the modulated magnetic field in the atmosphere is thought to be allowed thanks to the force balance between the average temporal variations of thermal and magnetic pressures within the field-aligned arcs. However, there is a first cause of diffusion of the ELF magnetic components, probably due to feeding one, or eventually several SR eigenmodes. A second leakage source is ascribed to a system of eddy-Foucault currents assumed to be induced through the buried water ocean. The amplitude spectrum distribution of the induced ELF magnetic field components inside the SR cavity is found fully consistent with the measurements of the Huygens wave-field strength. Waiting for expected future in-situ exploration of Titan's lower atmosphere and the surface, the Huygens data are the only experimental means available to date for constraining the proposed model.
3D self-consistent modeling of a matrix source of negative hydrogen ions.
Tarnev, Kh; Demerdjiev, A; Shivarova, A; Lishev, St
2016-02-01
The paper is in the scope of studies on the rf driving of a matrix source of negative hydrogen ions: a matrix of small radius discharges with planar-coil inductive driving and single aperture extraction from each discharge. The results from a three-dimensional model, in which plasma description is coupled to electrodynamics, confirm former conclusion that a single coil driving of the whole matrix by a zigzag coil with an omega-shaped conductor on the bottom of each discharge tube ensures efficient rf power deposition to the plasma. The latter is due to similarities with the rf driving of a single discharge by a single planar coil, shown by the obtained induced current and spatial distribution of the plasma parameters. Distinctions associated with the coil configuration as a single coil for the whole matrix are also discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meric Ataman
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions have proven to be valuable resources in enhancing our understanding of metabolic networks as they encapsulate all known metabolic capabilities of the organisms from genes to proteins to their functions. However the complexity of these large metabolic networks often hinders their utility in various practical applications. Although reduced models are commonly used for modeling and in integrating experimental data, they are often inconsistent across different studies and laboratories due to different criteria and detail, which can compromise transferability of the findings and also integration of experimental data from different groups. In this study, we have developed a systematic semi-automatic approach to reduce genome-scale models into core models in a consistent and logical manner focusing on the central metabolism or subsystems of interest. The method minimizes the loss of information using an approach that combines graph-based search and optimization methods. The resulting core models are shown to be able to capture key properties of the genome-scale models and preserve consistency in terms of biomass and by-product yields, flux and concentration variability and gene essentiality. The development of these "consistently-reduced" models will help to clarify and facilitate integration of different experimental data to draw new understanding that can be directly extendable to genome-scale models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brinkmann, R.P. [Siemens AG, Munich (Germany); Klick, M.; Rehak, W. [Adolf-Slaby Inst., Berlin (Germany)
1998-12-31
Plasma processing, such as the structuring of wafer surfaces or the deposition of thin films, plays a pivotal role in the manufacturing of VLSI microelectronics and other semiconductors. Increasing wafer diameters and decreasing device dimensions put an ever-growing demand on the stability of the process conditions. Closed loop feed-back control is thought to ensure this stability, even in the presence of run-to-run variations in the chamber state, or similar drifts in the external process parameters. Traditional plasma diagnostics either provides very indirect plasma information, or causes intolerable disturbances of the process itself. Recently, however, a novel method was proposed which allows to characterize an RF plasma in a strictly passive way. This method, termed Self-Excited Electron Resonance Spectroscopy or SEERS, is based on the excitation of global oscillations in the plasma body due to nonlinearities in the sheath. In this work, the authors study the behavior of an inductively coupled, high density plasma reactor (ICP/HDP) under the action of a SEERS-based closed loop control. The approach employs a period-averaged plasma simulator which allows to predict, for any input power P, the secular evolution of the charge distribution in the plasma bulk, and the spatially resolved capacitance of the boundary sheath. Note that the control scheme is realizable, in the sense that it makes use only of that plasma information which is physically available. The results show that already a simple--even only proportional--SEERS-based feedback control can considerably increase the long time stability of industrial plasma processes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, C.S.; Freeman, A.J.
1979-01-01
We present the self-consistent numerical-basis-set linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) discrete variational method for treating the electronic structure of thin films. As in the case of bulk solids, this method provides for thin films accurate solutions of the one-particle local density equations with a non-muffin-tin potential. Hamiltonian and overlap matrix elements are evaluated accurately by means of a three-dimensional numerical Diophantine integration scheme. Application of this method is made to the self-consistent solution of one-, three-, and five-layer Ni(001) unsupported films. The LCAO Bloch basis set consists of valence orbitals (3d, 4s, and 4p states for transition metals) orthogonalized to the frozen-core wave functions. The self-consistent potential is obtained iteratively within the superposition of overlapping spherical atomic charge density model with the atomic configurations treated as adjustable parameters. Thus the crystal Coulomb potential is constructed as a superposition of overlapping spherically symmetric atomic potentials and, correspondingly, the local density Kohn-Sham (α = 2/3) potential is determined from a superposition of atomic charge densities. At each iteration in the self-consistency procedure, the crystal charge density is evaluated using a sampling of 15 independent k points in (1/8)th of the irreducible two-dimensional Brillouin zone. The total density of states (DOS) and projected local DOS (by layer plane) are calculated using an analytic linear energy triangle method (presented as an Appendix) generalized from the tetrahedron scheme for bulk systems. Distinct differences are obtained between the surface and central plane local DOS. The central plane DOS is found to converge rapidly to the DOS of bulk paramagnetic Ni obtained by Wang and Callaway. Only a very small surplus charge (0.03 electron/atom) is found on the surface planes, in agreement with jellium model calculations
Electronic structure of PrBa2Cu3O7 within LSDA+U: Different self-consistent solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M R Mohammadizadeh
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Based on the density functional theory and using the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-waves method the electronic structure of PrBa2Cu3O7 (Pr123 system was calculated. The rotationally invariant local spin density approximation plus Hubbard parameter U was employed for Pr(4f orbitals. One self-consistent solution more stable than the previous solution, which has been proposed by Liechtenstein and Mazin (LM, was found. In contrast to the LM solution, it can explain the results of the 17O NMR spectroscopy study of nonsuperconducting Pr123 samples. This new solution favors the suggestion that the pure Pr123 samples should be intrinsically superconductor and metal similar to the other RBa2Cu3O7 (R=Y or a rare earth element samples. The imperfections cause the superconducting holes are transferred to the nonsuperconducting hole states around the high-symmetry (π/a, π/b, kz line in the Brillouin zone and so, superconductivity is suppressed in the conventional samples. It predicts that the superconducting 2pσ holes in the O2 sites of nonsuperconducting Pr123 samples should be depleted and the ones in the O3 sites should be almost unchanged .
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Staunstrup, Jørgen
1998-01-01
This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....
Complementarity of DM searches in a consistent simplified model: the case of Z{sup ′}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacques, Thomas [SISSA and INFN,via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Katz, Andrey [Theory Division, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),Université de Genève, 24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Morgante, Enrico; Racco, Davide [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),Université de Genève, 24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Rameez, Mohamed [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire,Université de Genève, 24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Riotto, Antonio [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),Université de Genève, 24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)
2016-10-14
We analyze the constraints from direct and indirect detection on fermionic Majorana Dark Matter (DM). Because the interaction with the Standard Model (SM) particles is spin-dependent, a priori the constraints that one gets from neutrino telescopes, the LHC, direct and indirect detection experiments are comparable. We study the complementarity of these searches in a particular example, in which a heavy Z{sup ′} mediates the interactions between the SM and the DM. We find that for heavy dark matter indirect detection provides the strongest bounds on this scenario, while IceCube bounds are typically stronger than those from direct detection. The LHC constraints are dominant for smaller dark matter masses. These light masses are less motivated by thermal relic abundance considerations. We show that the dominant annihilation channels of the light DM in the Sun and the Galactic Center are either bb̄ or tt̄, while the heavy DM annihilation is completely dominated by Zh channel. The latter produces a hard neutrino spectrum which has not been previously analyzed. We study the neutrino spectrum yielded by DM and recast IceCube constraints to allow proper comparison with constraints from direct and indirect detection experiments and LHC exclusions.
Complementarity of DM Searches in a Consistent Simplified Model: the Case of Z'
Jacques, Thomas; Morgante, Enrico; Racco, Davide; Rameez, Mohamed; Riotto, Antonio
2016-01-01
We analyze the constraints from direct and indirect detection on fermionic Majorana Dark Matter (DM). Because the interaction with the Standard Model (SM) particles is spin-dependent, a priori the constraints that one gets from neutrino telescopes, the LHC and direct detection experiments are comparable. We study the complementarity of these searches in a particular example, in which a heavy $Z'$ mediates the interactions between the SM and the DM. We find that in most cases IceCube provides the strongest bounds on this scenario, while the LHC constraints are only meaningful for smaller dark matter masses. These light masses are less motivated by thermal relic abundance considerations. We show that the dominant annihilation channels of the light DM in the Sun are either $b \\bar b$ or $t \\bar t$, while the heavy DM annihilation is completely dominated by $Zh$ channel. The latter produces a hard neutrino spectrum which has not been previously analyzed. We study the neutrino spectrum yielded by DM and recast Ice...
Complementarity of DM searches in a consistent simplified model: the case of Z′
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacques, Thomas; Katz, Andrey; Morgante, Enrico; Racco, Davide; Rameez, Mohamed; Riotto, Antonio
2016-01-01
We analyze the constraints from direct and indirect detection on fermionic Majorana Dark Matter (DM). Because the interaction with the Standard Model (SM) particles is spin-dependent, a priori the constraints that one gets from neutrino telescopes, the LHC, direct and indirect detection experiments are comparable. We study the complementarity of these searches in a particular example, in which a heavy Z ′ mediates the interactions between the SM and the DM. We find that for heavy dark matter indirect detection provides the strongest bounds on this scenario, while IceCube bounds are typically stronger than those from direct detection. The LHC constraints are dominant for smaller dark matter masses. These light masses are less motivated by thermal relic abundance considerations. We show that the dominant annihilation channels of the light DM in the Sun and the Galactic Center are either bb̄ or tt̄, while the heavy DM annihilation is completely dominated by Zh channel. The latter produces a hard neutrino spectrum which has not been previously analyzed. We study the neutrino spectrum yielded by DM and recast IceCube constraints to allow proper comparison with constraints from direct and indirect detection experiments and LHC exclusions.
Cai, Yong; Ye, Xiuxia; Shi, Rong; Xu, Gang; Shen, Lixiao; Ren, Jia; Huang, Hong
2013-06-04
High prevalence of risky sexual behaviors and lack of information, skills and preventive support mean that, adolescents face high risks of HIV/AIDS. This study applied the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to examine the predictors of consistent condom use among senior high school students from three coastal cities in China and clarify the relationships between the model constructs. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess HIV/AIDS related information, motivation, behavioral skills and preventive behaviors among senior high school students in three coastal cities in China. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to assess the IMB model. Of the 12313 participants, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.2-5.0) reported having had premarital sex and among them 25.0% (95% CI: 21.2-29.1) reported having used a condom in their sexual debut. Only about one-ninth of participants reported consistent condom use. The final IMB model provided acceptable fit to the data (CFI = 0.981, RMSEA = 0.014). Consistent condom use was significantly predicted by motivation (β = 0.175, P students in China. The IMB model could predict consistent condom use and suggests that future interventions should focus on improving motivation and behavioral skills.
Models of vertical coordination consistent with the development of bio-energetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gianluca Nardone
Full Text Available To foster the development of the biomasses for solid fuel it is fundamental to build up a strategy at a local level in which co-exists farms as well as industrial farms. To such aim, it is necessary to implement an effective vertical coordination between the stakeholders with the definition of a contract that prevents opportunistic behaviors and guarantees the industrial investments of constant supplies over the time. Starting from a project that foresees a biomasses power plant in the south of Italy, this study reflects on the payments to fix in an eventual contract in such a way to maintain the fidelity of the farmers. These one have a greater flexibility since they can choose the most convenient crop. Therefore, their fidelity can be obtained tying the contractual payments to the price of the main alternative crop to the energetic one. The results of the study seem to indicate the opportunity to fix a purchase price of the raw materials linked to the one of durum wheat that is the most widespread crop in the territory and the one that depends more on a volatile market. Using the data of the District 12 of the province of Foggia Water Consortium with an area of 11.300 hectares (instead of the 20.000 demanded in the proposal, it has been possible to organize approximately 600 enterprises in five cluster, each of them identified by a representative farm. With a model of linear programming, we have run different simulations taking into account the possibility to grow sorghum in different ways. Through an aggregation process, it has been calculated that farmers may find it convenient to supply the energetic crop at a price of 50 €/t when the price of durum wheat is 150 €/t. Anyway, this price is lower than the one offered by firm that is planning to build the power plant. Moreover, it has been identified a strong correlation between the price of the durum wheat and the price that makes convenient for the farmers to grow the sorghum. When the
Models of vertical coordination consistent with the development of bio-energetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosaria Viscecchia
2011-02-01
Full Text Available To foster the development of the biomasses for solid fuel it is fundamental to build up a strategy at a local level in which co-exists farms as well as industrial farms. To such aim, it is necessary to implement an effective vertical coordination between the stakeholders with the definition of a contract that prevents opportunistic behaviors and guarantees the industrial investments of constant supplies over the time. Starting from a project that foresees a biomasses power plant in the south of Italy, this study reflects on the payments to fix in an eventual contract in such a way to maintain the fidelity of the farmers. These one have a greater flexibility since they can choose the most convenient crop. Therefore, their fidelity can be obtained tying the contractual payments to the price of the main alternative crop to the energetic one. The results of the study seem to indicate the opportunity to fix a purchase price of the raw materials linked to the one of durum wheat that is the most widespread crop in the territory and the one that depends more on a volatile market. Using the data of the District 12 of the province of Foggia Water Consortium with an area of 11.300 hectares (instead of the 20.000 demanded in the proposal, it has been possible to organize approximately 600 enterprises in five cluster, each of them identified by a representative farm. With a model of linear programming, we have run different simulations taking into account the possibility to grow sorghum in different ways. Through an aggregation process, it has been calculated that farmers may find it convenient to supply the energetic crop at a price of 50 €/t when the price of durum wheat is 150 €/t. Anyway, this price is lower than the one offered by firm that is planning to build the power plant. Moreover, it has been identified a strong correlation between the price of the durum wheat and the price that makes convenient for the farmers to grow the sorghum. When the
Postmus, B.R.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.
2008-01-01
We have constructed a model to predict the properties of non-ionic (alkyl-ethylene oxide) (C(n)E(m)) surfactants, both in aqueous solutions and near a silica surface, based upon the self-consistent field theory using the Scheutjens-Fleer discretisation scheme. The system has the pH and the ionic
Track structure in biological models.
Curtis, S B
1986-01-01
High-energy heavy ions in the galactic cosmic radiation (HZE particles) may pose a special risk during long term manned space flights outside the sheltering confines of the earth's geomagnetic field. These particles are highly ionizing, and they and their nuclear secondaries can penetrate many centimeters of body tissue. The three dimensional patterns of ionizations they create as they lose energy are referred to as their track structure. Several models of biological action on mammalian cells attempt to treat track structure or related quantities in their formulation. The methods by which they do this are reviewed. The proximity function is introduced in connection with the theory of Dual Radiation Action (DRA). The ion-gamma kill (IGK) model introduces the radial energy-density distribution, which is a smooth function characterizing both the magnitude and extension of a charged particle track. The lethal, potentially lethal (LPL) model introduces lambda, the mean distance between relevant ion clusters or biochemical species along the track. Since very localized energy depositions (within approximately 10 nm) are emphasized, the proximity function as defined in the DRA model is not of utility in characterizing track structure in the LPL formulation.
Structure and modeling of turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novikov, E.A.
1995-01-01
The open-quotes vortex stringsclose quotes scale l s ∼ LRe -3/10 (L-external scale, Re - Reynolds number) is suggested as a grid scale for the large-eddy simulation. Various aspects of the structure of turbulence and subgrid modeling are described in terms of conditional averaging, Markov processes with dependent increments and infinitely divisible distributions. The major request from the energy, naval, aerospace and environmental engineering communities to the theory of turbulence is to reduce the enormous number of degrees of freedom in turbulent flows to a level manageable by computer simulations. The vast majority of these degrees of freedom is in the small-scale motion. The study of the structure of turbulence provides a basis for subgrid-scale (SGS) models, which are necessary for the large-eddy simulations (LES)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. S. Candy
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The approaches taken to describe and develop spatial discretisations of the domains required for geophysical simulation models are commonly ad hoc, model- or application-specific, and under-documented. This is particularly acute for simulation models that are flexible in their use of multi-scale, anisotropic, fully unstructured meshes where a relatively large number of heterogeneous parameters are required to constrain their full description. As a consequence, it can be difficult to reproduce simulations, to ensure a provenance in model data handling and initialisation, and a challenge to conduct model intercomparisons rigorously. This paper takes a novel approach to spatial discretisation, considering it much like a numerical simulation model problem of its own. It introduces a generalised, extensible, self-documenting approach to carefully describe, and necessarily fully, the constraints over the heterogeneous parameter space that determine how a domain is spatially discretised. This additionally provides a method to accurately record these constraints, using high-level natural language based abstractions that enable full accounts of provenance, sharing, and distribution. Together with this description, a generalised consistent approach to unstructured mesh generation for geophysical models is developed that is automated, robust and repeatable, quick-to-draft, rigorously verified, and consistent with the source data throughout. This interprets the description above to execute a self-consistent spatial discretisation process, which is automatically validated to expected discrete characteristics and metrics. Library code, verification tests, and examples available in the repository at https://github.com/shingleproject/Shingle. Further details of the project presented at http://shingleproject.org.
Candy, Adam S.; Pietrzak, Julie D.
2018-01-01
The approaches taken to describe and develop spatial discretisations of the domains required for geophysical simulation models are commonly ad hoc, model- or application-specific, and under-documented. This is particularly acute for simulation models that are flexible in their use of multi-scale, anisotropic, fully unstructured meshes where a relatively large number of heterogeneous parameters are required to constrain their full description. As a consequence, it can be difficult to reproduce simulations, to ensure a provenance in model data handling and initialisation, and a challenge to conduct model intercomparisons rigorously. This paper takes a novel approach to spatial discretisation, considering it much like a numerical simulation model problem of its own. It introduces a generalised, extensible, self-documenting approach to carefully describe, and necessarily fully, the constraints over the heterogeneous parameter space that determine how a domain is spatially discretised. This additionally provides a method to accurately record these constraints, using high-level natural language based abstractions that enable full accounts of provenance, sharing, and distribution. Together with this description, a generalised consistent approach to unstructured mesh generation for geophysical models is developed that is automated, robust and repeatable, quick-to-draft, rigorously verified, and consistent with the source data throughout. This interprets the description above to execute a self-consistent spatial discretisation process, which is automatically validated to expected discrete characteristics and metrics. Library code, verification tests, and examples available in the repository at https://github.com/shingleproject/Shingle. Further details of the project presented at http://shingleproject.org.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoxiao Meng
2018-01-01
Full Text Available AC microgrid mainly comprise inverter-interfaced distributed generators (IIDGs, which are nonlinear complex systems with multiple time scales, including frequency control, time delay measurements, and electromagnetic transients. The droop control-based IIDG in an AC microgrid is selected as the research object in this study, which comprises power droop controller, voltage- and current-loop controllers, and filter and line. The multi-time scale characteristics of the detailed IIDG model are divided based on singular perturbation theory. In addition, the IIDG model order is reduced by neglecting the system fast dynamics. The static and transient stability consistency of the IIDG model order reduction are demonstrated by extracting features of the IIDG small signal model and using the quadratic approximation method of the stability region boundary, respectively. The dynamic response consistencies of the IIDG model order reduction are evaluated using the frequency, damping and amplitude features extracted by the Prony transformation. Results are applicable to provide a simplified model for the dynamic characteristic analysis of IIDG systems in AC microgrid. The accuracy of the proposed method is verified by using the eigenvalue comparison, the transient stability index comparison and the dynamic time-domain simulation.
Lin, M. C.; Verboncoeur, J.
2016-10-01
A maximum electron current transmitted through a planar diode gap is limited by space charge of electrons dwelling across the gap region, the so called space charge limited (SCL) emission. By introducing a counter-streaming ion flow to neutralize the electron charge density, the SCL emission can be dramatically raised, so electron current transmission gets enhanced. In this work, we have developed a relativistic self-consistent model for studying the enhancement of maximum transmission by a counter-streaming ion current. The maximum enhancement is found when the ion effect is saturated, as shown analytically. The solutions in non-relativistic, intermediate, and ultra-relativistic regimes are obtained and verified with 1-D particle-in-cell simulations. This self-consistent model is general and can also serve as a comparison for verification of simulation codes, as well as extension to higher dimensions.
Donnellan, M. Brent; Kenny, David A.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Lucas, Richard E.; Conger, Rand D.
2012-01-01
The present research used a latent variable trait-state model to evaluate the longitudinal consistency of self-esteem during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were based on ten administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) spanning the ages of approximately 13 to 32 for a sample of 451 participants. Results indicated that a completely stable trait factor and an autoregressive trait factor accounted for the majority of the variance in latent self-est...
Velikina, Julia V; Samsonov, Alexey A
2015-11-01
To accelerate dynamic MR imaging through development of a novel image reconstruction technique using low-rank temporal signal models preestimated from training data. We introduce the model consistency condition (MOCCO) technique, which utilizes temporal models to regularize reconstruction without constraining the solution to be low-rank, as is performed in related techniques. This is achieved by using a data-driven model to design a transform for compressed sensing-type regularization. The enforcement of general compliance with the model without excessively penalizing deviating signal allows recovery of a full-rank solution. Our method was compared with a standard low-rank approach utilizing model-based dimensionality reduction in phantoms and patient examinations for time-resolved contrast-enhanced angiography (CE-MRA) and cardiac CINE imaging. We studied the sensitivity of all methods to rank reduction and temporal subspace modeling errors. MOCCO demonstrated reduced sensitivity to modeling errors compared with the standard approach. Full-rank MOCCO solutions showed significantly improved preservation of temporal fidelity and aliasing/noise suppression in highly accelerated CE-MRA (acceleration up to 27) and cardiac CINE (acceleration up to 15) data. MOCCO overcomes several important deficiencies of previously proposed methods based on pre-estimated temporal models and allows high quality image restoration from highly undersampled CE-MRA and cardiac CINE data. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, Maria Celia Ramos; Ludwig, Gerson Otto [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma]. E-mail: mcr@plasma.inpe.br
2004-07-01
Different bootstrap current formulations are implemented in a self-consistent equilibrium calculation obtained from a direct variational technique in fixed boundary tokamak plasmas. The total plasma current profile is supposed to have contributions of the diamagnetic, Pfirsch-Schlueter, and the neoclassical Ohmic and bootstrap currents. The Ohmic component is calculated in terms of the neoclassical conductivity, compared here among different expressions, and the loop voltage determined consistently in order to give the prescribed value of the total plasma current. A comparison among several bootstrap current models for different viscosity coefficient calculations and distinct forms for the Coulomb collision operator is performed for a variety of plasma parameters of the small aspect ratio tokamak ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) at the Associated Plasma Laboratory of INPE, in Brazil. We have performed this comparison for the ETE tokamak so that the differences among all the models reported here, mainly regarding plasma collisionality, can be better illustrated. The dependence of the bootstrap current ratio upon some plasma parameters in the frame of the self-consistent calculation is also analysed. We emphasize in this paper what we call the Hirshman-Sigmar/Shaing model, valid for all collisionality regimes and aspect ratios, and a fitted formulation proposed by Sauter, which has the same range of validity but is faster to compute than the previous one. The advantages or possible limitations of all these different formulations for the bootstrap current estimate are analysed throughout this work. (author)
Berg, Matthew; Hartley, Brian; Richters, Oliver
2015-01-01
By synthesizing stock-flow consistent models, input-output models, and aspects of ecological macroeconomics, a method is developed to simultaneously model monetary flows through the financial system, flows of produced goods and services through the real economy, and flows of physical materials through the natural environment. This paper highlights the linkages between the physical environment and the economic system by emphasizing the role of the energy industry. A conceptual model is developed in general form with an arbitrary number of sectors, while emphasizing connections with the agent-based, econophysics, and complexity economics literature. First, we use the model to challenge claims that 0% interest rates are a necessary condition for a stationary economy and conduct a stability analysis within the parameter space of interest rates and consumption parameters of an economy in stock-flow equilibrium. Second, we analyze the role of energy price shocks in contributing to recessions, incorporating several propagation and amplification mechanisms. Third, implied heat emissions from energy conversion and the effect of anthropogenic heat flux on climate change are considered in light of a minimal single-layer atmosphere climate model, although the model is only implicitly, not explicitly, linked to the economic model.
Blast Testing and Modelling of Composite Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Giversen, Søren
The motivation for this work is based on a desire for finding light weight alternatives to high strength steel as the material to use for armouring in military vehicles. With the use of high strength steel, an increase in the level of armouring has a significant impact on the vehicle weight......-up proved functional and provided consistent data of the panel response. The tests reviled that the sandwich panels did not provide a decrease in panel deflection compared with the monolithic laminates, which was expected due to their higher flexural rigidity. This was found to be because membrane effects...... a pressure distribution on a selected surfaces and has been based on experimental pressure measurement data, and (ii) with a designed 3 step numerical load model, where the blast pressure and FSI (Fluid Structure Interaction) between the pressure wave and modelled panel is modelled numerically. The tested...
Generalized latent variable modeling multilevel, longitudinal, and structural equation models
Skrondal, Anders; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia
2004-01-01
This book unifies and extends latent variable models, including multilevel or generalized linear mixed models, longitudinal or panel models, item response or factor models, latent class or finite mixture models, and structural equation models.
Feofilov, Artem G.; Yankovsky, Valentine A.; Pesnell, William D.; Kutepov, Alexander A.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Mauilova, Rada O.
2007-01-01
We present the new version of the ALI-ARMS (for Accelerated Lambda Iterations for Atmospheric Radiation and Molecular Spectra) model. The model allows simultaneous self-consistent calculating the non-LTE populations of the electronic-vibrational levels of the O3 and O2 photolysis products and vibrational level populations of CO2, N2,O2, O3, H2O, CO and other molecules with detailed accounting for the variety of the electronic-vibrational, vibrational-vibrational and vibrational-translational energy exchange processes. The model was used as the reference one for modeling the O2 dayglows and infrared molecular emissions for self-consistent diagnostics of the multi-channel space observations of MLT in the SABER experiment It also allows reevaluating the thermalization efficiency of the absorbed solar ultraviolet energy and infrared radiative cooling/heating of MLT by detailed accounting of the electronic-vibrational relaxation of excited photolysis products via the complex chain of collisional energy conversion processes down to the vibrational energy of optically active trace gas molecules.
Franz J. St John; Javier M. Gonzalez; Edwin Pozharski
2010-01-01
In this work glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 30 (GH30) is analyzed and shown to consist of its currently classified member sequences as well as several homologous sequence groups currently assigned within family GH5. A large scale amino acid sequence alignment and a phylogenetic tree were generated and GH30 groups and subgroups were designated. A partial rearrangement...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peña, N.A.; Anton, A.; Fantke, Peter
2016-01-01
Quantifying over the life cycle of a product or service the chemical emissions to the environment in the life cycle inventory (LCI) phase is typically based on generic assumptions. Regarding the LCI application to agricultural systems the estimation of pesticide emissions is often based on standard......, and it will influence the outcomes of the impact profile. The pesticide emission model PestLCI 2.0 is the most advanced currently available inventory model for LCA intended to provide an estimation of organic pesticide emission fractions to the environment. We use this model as starting point for quantifying emission...... estimate metal-specific pesticide emission fractions, addressing the issue of inorganic pesticides for inventory analysis in LCA of agricultural systems....
Exploratory Topology Modelling of Form-Active Hybrid Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holden Deleuran, Anders; Pauly, Mark; Tamke, Martin
2016-01-01
The development of novel form-active hybrid structures (FAHS) is impeded by a lack of modelling tools that allow for exploratory topology modelling of shaped assemblies. We present a flexible and real-time computational design modelling pipeline developed for the exploratory modelling of FAHS...... that enables designers and engineers to iteratively construct and manipulate form-active hybrid assembly topology on the fly. The pipeline implements Kangaroo2's projection-based methods for modelling hybrid structures consisting of slender beams and cable networks. A selection of design modelling sketches...... is presented in which the developed modelling pipeline has been integrated to explore the design space delineated by FAHS....
Modeling branching pore structures in membrane filters
Sanaei, Pejman; Cummings, Linda J.
2016-11-01
Membrane filters are in widespread industrial use, and mathematical models to predict their efficacy are potentially very useful, as such models can suggest design modifications to improve filter performance and lifetime. Many models have been proposed to describe particle capture by membrane filters and the associated fluid dynamics, but most such models are based on a very simple structure in which the pores of the membrane are assumed to be simple circularly-cylindrical tubes spanning the depth of the membrane. Real membranes used in applications usually have much more complex geometry, with interconnected pores which may branch and bifurcate. Pores are also typically larger on the upstream side of the membrane than on the downstream side. We present an idealized mathematical model, in which a membrane consists of a series of bifurcating pores, which decrease in size as the membrane is traversed. Feed solution is forced through the membrane by applied pressure, and particles are removed from the feed either by sieving, or by particle adsorption within pores (which shrinks them). Thus the membrane's permeability decreases as the filtration progresses, ultimately falling to zero. We discuss how filtration efficiency depends on the characteristics of the branching structure. Partial support from NSF DMS 1261596 is gratefully acknowledged.
Zhao, Dong; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Sawyer, W Gregory; Banks, Scott A; Fregly, Benjamin J
2008-02-01
Wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene remains a primary factor limiting the longevity of total knee replacements (TKRs). However, wear testing on a simulator machine is time consuming and expensive, making it impractical for iterative design purposes. The objectives of this paper were first, to evaluate whether a computational model using a wear factor consistent with the TKR material pair can predict accurate TKR damage measured in a simulator machine, and second, to investigate how choice of surface evolution method (fixed or variable step) and material model (linear or nonlinear) affect the prediction. An iterative computational damage model was constructed for a commercial knee implant in an AMTI simulator machine. The damage model combined a dynamic contact model with a surface evolution model to predict how wear plus creep progressively alter tibial insert geometry over multiple simulations. The computational framework was validated by predicting wear in a cylinder-on-plate system for which an analytical solution was derived. The implant damage model was evaluated for 5 million cycles of simulated gait using damage measurements made on the same implant in an AMTI machine. Using a pin-on-plate wear factor for the same material pair as the implant, the model predicted tibial insert wear volume to within 2% error and damage depths and areas to within 18% and 10% error, respectively. Choice of material model had little influence, while inclusion of surface evolution affected damage depth and area but not wear volume predictions. Surface evolution method was important only during the initial cycles, where variable step was needed to capture rapid geometry changes due to the creep. Overall, our results indicate that accurate TKR damage predictions can be made with a computational model using a constant wear factor obtained from pin-on-plate tests for the same material pair, and furthermore, that surface evolution method matters only during the initial
Kou, Jisheng
2016-11-25
A general diffuse interface model with a realistic equation of state (e.g. Peng-Robinson equation of state) is proposed to describe the multi-component two-phase fluid flow based on the principles of the NVT-based framework which is a latest alternative over the NPT-based framework to model the realistic fluids. The proposed model uses the Helmholtz free energy rather than Gibbs free energy in the NPT-based framework. Different from the classical routines, we combine the first law of thermodynamics and related thermodynamical relations to derive the entropy balance equation, and then we derive a transport equation of the Helmholtz free energy density. Furthermore, by using the second law of thermodynamics, we derive a set of unified equations for both interfaces and bulk phases that can describe the partial miscibility of two fluids. A relation between the pressure gradient and chemical potential gradients is established, and this relation leads to a new formulation of the momentum balance equation, which demonstrates that chemical potential gradients become the primary driving force of fluid motion. Moreover, we prove that the proposed model satisfies the total (free) energy dissipation with time. For numerical simulation of the proposed model, the key difficulties result from the strong nonlinearity of Helmholtz free energy density and tight coupling relations between molar densities and velocity. To resolve these problems, we propose a novel convex-concave splitting of Helmholtz free energy density and deal well with the coupling relations between molar densities and velocity through very careful physical observations with a mathematical rigor. We prove that the proposed numerical scheme can preserve the discrete (free) energy dissipation. Numerical tests are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Donnellan, M. Brent; Kenny, David A.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Lucas, Richard E.; Conger, Rand D.
2012-01-01
The present research used a latent variable trait-state model to evaluate the longitudinal consistency of self-esteem during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were based on ten administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) spanning the ages of approximately 13 to 32 for a sample of 451 participants. Results indicated that a completely stable trait factor and an autoregressive trait factor accounted for the majority of the variance in latent self-esteem assessments, whereas state factors accounted for about 16% of the variance in repeated assessments of latent self-esteem. The stability of individual differences in self-esteem increased with age consistent with the cumulative continuity principle of personality development. PMID:23180899
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Cheng Hsieh
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to use LabVIEW to help bowlers understand theirjoint movements, forces acting on their joints, and the consistency of their knee movements while competing in ten-pin bowling. Kinetic and kinematic data relating to the lower limbs were derived from bowlers’ joint angles and the joint forces were calculated from the Euler angles using the inverse dynamics method with Newton-Euler equations. An artificial-neural-network (ANN-based data-driven model for predicting knee forces using the Euler angles was developed. This approach allows for the collection of data inbowling alleys without the use of force plates. Correlation coefficients were computed after ANN training and all values exceeded 0.9. This result implies a strong correlation between the joint angles and forces. Furthermore, the predicted 3D forces (obtained from ANN simulations and the measured forces (obtained from force plates via the inverse dynamics method are strongly correlated. The agreement between the predicted andmeasured forces was evaluated by the coefficient of determination (R2, which reflects the bowler’s consistency and steadiness of the bowling motion at the knee. The R2 value was beneficial in assessing the consistency of the bowling motion. An R2 value close to 1 implies a more consistent sliding motion. This research enables the prediction of the forceson the knee during ten-pin bowling by ANN simulations using the measured knee angles. Consequently, coaches and bowlers can use the developed ANN model and the analysis module to improve bowling motion.
Bonnet-Lebrun, Anne-Sophie
2017-03-17
Community characteristics reflect past ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Here, we investigate whether it is possible to obtain realistically shaped modelled communities - i.e., with phylogenetic trees and species abundance distributions shaped similarly to typical empirical bird and mammal communities - from neutral community models. To test the effect of gene flow, we contrasted two spatially explicit individual-based neutral models: one with protracted speciation, delayed by gene flow, and one with point mutation speciation, unaffected by gene flow. The former produced more realistic communities (shape of phylogenetic tree and species-abundance distribution), consistent with gene flow being a key process in macro-evolutionary dynamics. Earlier models struggled to capture the empirically observed branching tempo in phylogenetic trees, as measured by the gamma statistic. We show that the low gamma values typical of empirical trees can be obtained in models with protracted speciation, in pre-equilibrium communities developing from an initially abundant and widespread species. This was even more so in communities sampled incompletely, particularly if the unknown species are the youngest. Overall, our results demonstrate that the characteristics of empirical communities that we have studied can, to a large extent, be explained through a purely neutral model under pre-equilibrium conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Martinich, Jeremy; Sarofim, Marcus; DeAngelo, B. J.; McFarland, Jim; Jantarasami, Lesley; Shouse, Kate C.; Crimmins, Allison; Ohrel, Sara; Li, Jia
2015-07-01
The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) modeling exercise is a unique contribution to the scientific literature on climate change impacts, economic damages, and risk analysis that brings together multiple, national-scale models of impacts and damages in an integrated and consistent fashion to estimate climate change impacts, damages, and the benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation actions in the United States. The CIRA project uses three consistent socioeconomic, emissions, and climate scenarios across all models to estimate the benefits of GHG mitigation policies: a Business As Usual (BAU) and two policy scenarios with radiative forcing (RF) stabilization targets of 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 in 2100. CIRA was also designed to specifically examine the sensitivity of results to uncertainties around climate sensitivity and differences in model structure. The goals of CIRA project are to 1) build a multi-model framework to produce estimates of multiple risks and impacts in the U.S., 2) determine to what degree risks and damages across sectors may be lowered from a BAU to policy scenarios, 3) evaluate key sources of uncertainty along the causal chain, and 4) provide information for multiple audiences and clearly communicate the risks and damages of climate change and the potential benefits of mitigation. This paper describes the motivations, goals, and design of the CIRA modeling exercise and introduces the subsequent papers in this special issue.
Bjerklie, D. M.
2014-12-01
As part of a U. S. Geological Survey effort to (1) estimate river discharge in ungaged basins, (2) understand runoff quantity and timing for watersheds between gaging stations, and (3) estimate potential future streamflow, a national scale precipitation runoff model is in development. The effort uses the USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model. The model development strategy includes methods to assign hydrologic routing coefficients a priori from national scale GIS data bases. Once developed, the model can serve as an initial baseline for more detailed and locally/regionally calibrated models designed for specific projects and purposes. One of the key hydrologic routing coefficients is the groundwater coefficient (gw_coef). This study estimates the gw_coef from continental US GIS data, including geology, drainage density, aquifer type, vegetation type, and baseflow index information. The gw_coef is applied in regional PRMS models and is estimated using two methods. The first method uses a statistical model to predict the gw_coef from weighted average values of surficial geologic materials, dominant aquifer type, baseflow index, vegetation type, and the drainage density. The second method computes the gw_coef directly from the physical conditions in the watershed including the percentage geologic material and the drainage density. The two methods are compared against the gw_coef derived from streamflow records, and tested for selected rivers in different regions of the country. To address the often weak correlation between geology and baseflow, the existence of groundwater sinks, and complexities of groundwater flow paths, the spatial characteristics of the gw_coef prediction error were evaluated, and a correction factor developed from the spatial error distribution. This provides a consistent and improved method to estimate the gw_coef for regional PRMS models that is derived from available GIS data and physical information for watersheds.
A NEW ALGORITHM FOR SELF-CONSISTENT THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF COLLISIONS IN DUSTY DEBRIS DISKS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stark, Christopher C.; Kuchner, Marc J.
2009-01-01
We present a new 'collisional grooming' algorithm that enables us to model images of debris disks where the collision time is less than the Poynting-Robertson (PR) time for the dominant grain size. Our algorithm uses the output of a collisionless disk simulation to iteratively solve the mass flux equation for the density distribution of a collisional disk containing planets in three dimensions. The algorithm can be run on a single processor in ∼1 hr. Our preliminary models of disks with resonant ring structures caused by terrestrial mass planets show that the collision rate for background particles in a ring structure is enhanced by a factor of a few compared to the rest of the disk, and that dust grains in or near resonance have even higher collision rates. We show how collisions can alter the morphology of a resonant ring structure by reducing the sharpness of a resonant ring's inner edge and by smearing out azimuthal structure. We implement a simple prescription for particle fragmentation and show how PR drag and fragmentation sort particles by size, producing smaller dust grains at smaller circumstellar distances. This mechanism could cause a disk to look different at different wavelengths, and may explain the warm component of dust interior to Fomalhaut's outer dust ring seen in the resolved 24 μm Spitzer image of this system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harvey, T.F.; Maninger, R.C.; Rabsatt, S.
1979-01-01
This report describes a sensitivity study using LISTRA1A, a model for use in the development of a long-range, time-dependent plan for licensing nuclear waste repositories. The objectives of the model are: (1) to provide information concerning the impact of various licensing strategies on the ability to dispose of nuclear waste effectively; and (2) to provide long-range budget forecasts for differing strategies of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The model is designed to analyze the interaction between NRC regulatory policy and DOE technical programs. A sensitivity study is reported for a single parameter in a hypothetical review process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malmberg, T.
1993-09-01
The objective of this study is to derive and investigate thermodynamic restrictions for a particular class of internal variable models. Their evolution equations consist of two contributions: the usual irreversible part, depending only on the present state, and a reversible but path dependent part, linear in the rates of the external variables (evolution equations of ''mixed type''). In the first instance the thermodynamic analysis is based on the classical Clausius-Duhem entropy inequality and the Coleman-Noll argument. The analysis is restricted to infinitesimal strains and rotations. The results are specialized and transferred to a general class of elastic-viscoplastic material models. Subsequently, they are applied to several viscoplastic models of ''mixed type'', proposed or discussed in the literature (Robinson et al., Krempl et al., Freed et al.), and it is shown that some of these models are thermodynamically inconsistent. The study is closed with the evaluation of the extended Clausius-Duhem entropy inequality (concept of Mueller) where the entropy flux is governed by an assumed constitutive equation in its own right; also the constraining balance equations are explicitly accounted for by the method of Lagrange multipliers (Liu's approach). This analysis is done for a viscoplastic material model with evolution equations of the ''mixed type''. It is shown that this approach is much more involved than the evaluation of the classical Clausius-Duhem entropy inequality with the Coleman-Noll argument. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pitkaenen, P.; Loefman, J.; Korkealaakso, J.; Koskinen, L.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Hautojaervi, A.; Aeikaes, T.
1999-01-01
In the assessment of the suitability and safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste the understanding of the fluid flow at a site is essential. In order to build confidence in the assessment of the hydrogeological performance of a site in various conditions, integration of hydrological and hydrogeochemical methods and studies provides the primary method for investigating the evolution that has taken place in the past, and for predicting future conditions at the potential disposal site. A systematic geochemical sampling campaign was started since the beginning of 1990's in the Finnish site investigation programme. This enabled the initiating of integration and evaluation of site scale hydrogeochemical and groundwater flow models. Hydrogeochemical information has been used to screen relevant external processes and variables for definition of the initial and boundary conditions in hydrological simulations. The results obtained from interpretation and modelling hydrogeochemical evolution have been employed in testing the hydrogeochemical consistency of conceptual flow models. Integration and testing of flow models with hydrogeochemical information are considered to improve significantly the hydrogeological understanding of a site and increases confidence in conceptual hydrogeological models. (author)
Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim; Joseph, Ilon
2015-11-01
Progress is reported on including self-consistent zonal flows in simulations of drift-resistive ballooning turbulence using the BOUT + + framework. Previous published work addressed the simulation of L-mode edge turbulence in realistic single-null tokamak geometry using the BOUT three-dimensional fluid code that solves Braginskii-based fluid equations. The effects of imposed sheared ExB poloidal rotation were included, with a static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In new work our goal is to include the self-consistent effects on the radial electric field driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We describe a model for including self-consistent zonal flows and an algorithm for maintaining underlying plasma profiles to enable the simulation of steady-state turbulence. We examine the role of Braginskii viscous forces in providing necessary dissipation when including axisymmetric perturbations. We also report on some of the numerical difficulties associated with including the axisymmetric component of the fluctuating fields. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL-ABS-674950).
Soil Retaining Structures : Development of models for structural analysis
Bakker, K.J.
2000-01-01
The topic of this thesis is the development of models for the structural analysis of soil retaining structures. The soil retaining structures being looked at are; block revetments, flexible retaining walls and bored tunnels in soft soil. Within this context typical structural behavior of these
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng, Fanli; Hou, Nannan; Ge, Sheng; Sun, Bai; Jin, Zhen; Shen, Wei; Kong, Lingtao; Guo, Zheng; Sun, Yufeng; Wu, Hao; Wang, Chen; Li, Minqiang
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets were synthesized. • The flower-like hierarchical structured ZnO exhibited higher response and shorter response and recovery times. • The sensing mechanism of the flower-like hierarchical has been systematically analyzed. - Abstract: Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets (FHPSCZNs) were synthesized by a one-pot wet-chemical method followed by an annealing treatment, which combined the advantages between flower-like hierarchical structure and porous single-crystalline structure. XRD, SEM and HRTEM were used to characterize the synthesized FHPSCZN samples. The sensing properties of the FHPSCZN sensor were also investigated by comparing with ZnO powder sensor, which exhibited higher response and shorter response and recovery times. The sensing mechanism of the FHPSCZN sensor has been further analyzed from the aspects of electronic transport and gas diffusion
Macho, Siegfried; Ledermann, Thomas
2011-01-01
The phantom model approach for estimating, testing, and comparing specific effects within structural equation models (SEMs) is presented. The rationale underlying this novel method consists in representing the specific effect to be assessed as a total effect within a separate latent variable model, the phantom model that is added to the main…
Charnay, B.; Bézard, B.; Baudino, J.-L.; Bonnefoy, M.; Boccaletti, A.; Galicher, R.
2018-02-01
We developed a simple, physical, and self-consistent cloud model for brown dwarfs and young giant exoplanets. We compared different parametrizations for the cloud particle size, by fixing either particle radii or the mixing efficiency (parameter f sed), or by estimating particle radii from simple microphysics. The cloud scheme with simple microphysics appears to be the best parametrization by successfully reproducing the observed photometry and spectra of brown dwarfs and young giant exoplanets. In particular, it reproduces the L–T transition, due to the condensation of silicate and iron clouds below the visible/near-IR photosphere. It also reproduces the reddening observed for low-gravity objects, due to an increase of cloud optical depth for low gravity. In addition, we found that the cloud greenhouse effect shifts chemical equilibrium, increasing the abundances of species stable at high temperature. This effect should significantly contribute to the strong variation of methane abundance at the L–T transition and to the methane depletion observed on young exoplanets. Finally, we predict the existence of a continuum of brown dwarfs and exoplanets for absolute J magnitude = 15–18 and J-K color = 0–3, due to the evolution of the L–T transition with gravity. This self-consistent model therefore provides a general framework to understand the effects of clouds and appears well-suited for atmospheric retrievals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinski, F.J.; Stocks, G.M.
1985-01-01
In a previous paper, it was shown that calculations of electronic properties involving energy integrations over the occupied energy bands are greatly facilitated by moving the integration contour into the complex-energy plane. In this paper, by separating the single-particle Green's function into a single-scatterer contribution and a multiple-scattering contribution, we show that an optimal contour can be found that yields a further substantial increase in computational efficiency. This method applies to all multiple-scattering-based electronic-structure calculations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I. A.; Kats, D. Ya.
1994-01-01
-density approximation. Temperature effects were accounted for by means of the cluster-variation method and, for comparison, by mean-field theory. The necessary interaction parameters were calculated by the Connolly-Williams method generalized to the case of a surface of a random alloy. We find the segregation profiles......We have calculated the electronic structure and segregation profiles of the (001) surface of random Cu-Ni alloys with varying bulk concentrations by means of the coherent potential approximation and the linear muffin-tin-orbitals method. Exchange and correlation were included within the local...
José Gómez-Navarro, Juan; Raible, Christoph C.; Blumer, Sandro; Martius, Olivia; Felder, Guido
2016-04-01
Extreme precipitation episodes, although rare, are natural phenomena that can threat human activities, especially in areas densely populated such as Switzerland. Their relevance demands the design of public policies that protect public assets and private property. Therefore, increasing the current understanding of such exceptional situations is required, i.e. the climatic characterisation of their triggering circumstances, severity, frequency, and spatial distribution. Such increased knowledge shall eventually lead us to produce more reliable projections about the behaviour of these events under ongoing climate change. Unfortunately, the study of extreme situations is hampered by the short instrumental record, which precludes a proper characterization of events with return period exceeding few decades. This study proposes a new approach that allows studying storms based on a synthetic, but physically consistent database of weather situations obtained from a long climate simulation. Our starting point is a 500-yr control simulation carried out with the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In a second step, this dataset is dynamically downscaled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to a final resolution of 2 km over the Alpine area. However, downscaling the full CESM simulation at such high resolution is infeasible nowadays. Hence, a number of case studies are previously selected. This selection is carried out examining the precipitation averaged in an area encompassing Switzerland in the ESM. Using a hydrological criterion, precipitation is accumulated in several temporal windows: 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days and 10 days. The 4 most extreme events in each category and season are selected, leading to a total of 336 days to be simulated. The simulated events are affected by systematic biases that have to be accounted before this data set can be used as input in hydrological models. Thus, quantile mapping is used to remove such biases. For this task
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lerche, I.; Low, B.C.
1977-01-01
A theoretical model of quiescent prominences in the form of an infinite vertical sheet is presented. Self-consistent solutions are obtained by integrating simultaneously the set of nonlinear equations of magnetostatic equilibrium and thermal balance. The basic features of the models are: (1) The prominence matter is confined to a sheet and supported against gravity by a bowed magnetic field. (2) The thermal flux is channelled along magnetic field lines. (3) The thermal flux is everywhere balanced by Low's (1975) hypothetical heat sink which is proportional to the local density. (4) A constant component of the magnetic field along the length of the prominence shields the cool plasma from the hot surrounding. It is assumed that the prominence plasma emits more radiation than it absorbes from the radiation fields of the photosphere, chromosphere and corona, and the above hypothetical heat sink is interpreted to represent the amount of radiative loss that must be balanced by a nonradiative energy input. Using a central density and temperature of 10 11 particles cm -3 and 5000 K respectively, a magnetic field strength between 2 to 10 gauss and a thermal conductivity that varies linearly with temperature, the physical properties implied by the model are discussed. The analytic treatment can also be carried out for a class of more complex thermal conductivities. These models provide a useful starting point for investigating the combined requirements of magnetostatic equilibrium and thermal balance in the quiescent prominence. (Auth.)
Models and structures: mathematical physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2003-01-01
This document gathers research activities along 5 main directions. 1) Quantum chaos and dynamical systems. Recent results concern the extension of the exact WKB method that has led to a host of new results on the spectrum and wave functions. Progress have also been made in the description of the wave functions of chaotic quantum systems. Renormalization has been applied to the analysis of dynamical systems. 2) Combinatorial statistical physics. We see the emergence of new techniques applied to various such combinatorial problems, from random walks to random lattices. 3) Integrability: from structures to applications. Techniques of conformal field theory and integrable model systems have been developed. Progress is still made in particular for open systems with boundary conditions, in connection to strings and branes physics. Noticeable links between integrability and exact WKB quantization to 2-dimensional disordered systems have been highlighted. New correlations of eigenvalues and better connections to integrability have been formulated for random matrices. 4) Gravities and string theories. We have developed aspects of 2-dimensional string theory with a particular emphasis on its connection to matrix models as well as non-perturbative properties of M-theory. We have also followed an alternative path known as loop quantum gravity. 5) Quantum field theory. The results obtained lately concern its foundations, in flat or curved spaces, but also applications to second-order phase transitions in statistical systems
Models and structures: mathematical physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2003-07-01
This document gathers research activities along 5 main directions. 1) Quantum chaos and dynamical systems. Recent results concern the extension of the exact WKB method that has led to a host of new results on the spectrum and wave functions. Progress have also been made in the description of the wave functions of chaotic quantum systems. Renormalization has been applied to the analysis of dynamical systems. 2) Combinatorial statistical physics. We see the emergence of new techniques applied to various such combinatorial problems, from random walks to random lattices. 3) Integrability: from structures to applications. Techniques of conformal field theory and integrable model systems have been developed. Progress is still made in particular for open systems with boundary conditions, in connection to strings and branes physics. Noticeable links between integrability and exact WKB quantization to 2-dimensional disordered systems have been highlighted. New correlations of eigenvalues and better connections to integrability have been formulated for random matrices. 4) Gravities and string theories. We have developed aspects of 2-dimensional string theory with a particular emphasis on its connection to matrix models as well as non-perturbative properties of M-theory. We have also followed an alternative path known as loop quantum gravity. 5) Quantum field theory. The results obtained lately concern its foundations, in flat or curved spaces, but also applications to second-order phase transitions in statistical systems.
Yamagishi, Takahiro; Kurihara, Akira; Kawai, Hiroshi
2015-11-01
The green microalga, Pyramimonas parkeae (Prasinophyceae) has an ejective organelle containing a coiled ribbon structure resembling the ejectisome in Cryptophyta. This structure is discharged from the cell by a stimulus and extends to form a tube-like structure, but the molecular components of the structure have not been identified. Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the ribbon-like structure of P. parkeae contains some proteins and low molecular acidic polymers. Edman degradation, LC/MS/MS analyses and immunological studies demonstrated that their proteins are core histones (H3, H2A, H2B and H4). In addition, monosaccharide composition analysis of the ribbon-like structures and degradation by lysozyme strongly indicated that the ribbon-like structure consist of β (1-4) linked polymers containing N-acetyl-glucosamine. Purified polymers and recombinant histones formed glob-like or filamentous structures. Therefore we conclude that the ribbon-like structure of P. parkeae mainly consists of a complex of core histones (H3, H2A, H2B and H4) and polymers containing N-acetyl-glucosamine, and suggest to name the ejective organelle in P. parkeae the "histrosome" to distinguish it from the ejectisome in Cryptophyta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Noel, Valerie A; Francis, Sarah E; Tilley, Micah A
2018-04-01
Parent-youth and peer relationship inventories based on attachment theory measure communication, trust, and alienation, yet sibling relationships have been overlooked. We developed the Sibling Attachment Inventory and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 172 youth ages 10-14 years. We adapted the 25-item Sibling Attachment Inventory from the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Revised peer measure. Items loaded onto three factors, identified as communication, trust, and alienation, α = 0.93, 0.90, and 0.76, respectively. Sibling trust and alienation correlated with depression (r s = -0.33, r s = 0.48) and self-worth (r s = 0.23; r s = -0.32); sibling trust and alienation correlated with depression after controlling for parent trust and parent alienation (r s = -0.23, r s = 0.22). Preliminary analyses showed good internal consistency, construct validity, and incremental predictive validity. Following replication of these properties, this measure can facilitate large cohort assessments of sibling attachment.
Huhn, William P.; Blum, Volker
2017-08-01
We quantify the accuracy of different non-self-consistent and self-consistent spin-orbit coupling (SOC) treatments in Kohn-Sham and hybrid density functional theory by providing a band-structure benchmark set for the valence and low-lying conduction energy bands of 103 inorganic compounds, covering chemical elements up to polonium. Reference energy band structures for the PBE density functional are obtained using the full-potential (linearized) augmented plane wave code wien2k, employing its self-consistent treatment of SOC including Dirac-type p1 /2 orbitals in the basis set. We use this benchmark set to benchmark a computationally simpler, non-self-consistent all-electron treatment of SOC based on scalar-relativistic orbitals and numeric atom-centered orbital basis functions. For elements up to Z ≈50 , both treatments agree virtually exactly. For the heaviest elements considered (Tl, Pb, Bi, Po), the band-structure changes due to SOC are captured with a relative deviation of 11% or less. For different density functionals (PBE versus the hybrid HSE06), we show that the effect of spin-orbit coupling is usually similar but can be dissimilar if the qualitative features of the predicted underlying scalar-relativistic band structures do not agree. All band structures considered in this work are available online via the NOMAD repository to aid in future benchmark studies and methods development.
Self-Consistant Numerical Modeling of E-Cloud Driven Instability of a Bunch Train in the CERN SPS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vay, J.-L.; Furman, M.A.; Secondo, R.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J.D.; Rivetta, C.H.
2010-01-01
The simulation package WARP-POSINST was recently upgraded for handling multiple bunches and modeling concurrently the electron cloud buildup and its effect on the beam, allowing for direct self-consistent simulation of bunch trains generating, and interacting with, electron clouds. We have used the WARP-POSINST package on massively parallel supercomputers to study the growth rate and frequency patterns in space-time of the electron cloud driven transverse instability for a proton bunch train in the CERN SPS accelerator. Results suggest that a positive feedback mechanism exists between the electron buildup and the e-cloud driven transverse instability, leading to a net increase in predicted electron density. Comparisons to selected experimental data are also given. Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS and other accelerators. So far, simulations of electron cloud buildup and their effects on beam dynamics have been performed separately. This is a consequence of the large computational cost of the combined calculation due to large space and time scale disparities between the two processes. We have presented the latest improvements of the simulation package WARP-POSINST for the simulation of self-consistent ecloud effects, including mesh refinement, and generation of electrons from gas ionization and impact at the pipe walls. We also presented simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with electrons clouds in the SPS, which included generation of secondary electrons. The distribution of electrons in front of the first beam was initialized from a dump taken from a preceding buildup calculation using the POSINST code. In this paper, we present an extension of this work where one full batch of 72 bunches is simulated in the SPS, including the entire buildup calculation and the self-consistent interaction between the bunches and the electrons. Comparisons to experimental data are also given.
Fire Response of Loaded Composite Structures - Experiments and Modeling
Burdette, Jason A.
2001-01-01
In this work, the thermo-mechanical response and failure of loaded, fire-exposed composite structures was studied. Unique experimental equipment and procedures were developed and experiments were performed to assess the effects of mechanical loading and fire exposure on the service life of composite beams. A series of analytical models was assembled to describe the fire growth and structural response processes for the system used in the experiments. This series of models consists of a fire...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, C M; Chen, M Y; Hwang, J; Gan, J-Y; Kou, C S
2006-01-01
Vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWCNTs) have been fabricated on carbon nanocones (CNCs) in a gravity-assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. The CNCs with nanoscale Co particles at the top were first grown on the Co/Si(100) substrate biased at 350 V in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process. The CNCs typically are ∼200 nm in height, and their diameters are ∼100 nm near the bottom and ∼10 nm at the top. The nanoscale Co particles ∼10 nm in diameter act as catalysts which favour the growth of VA-SWCNTs out of CNCs at 850 0 C in the gravity-assisted CVD process. The average length and the growth time of VA-SWCNTs are ∼150 nm and 1.5 min, equivalent to a growth rate of ∼6 μm h -1 . The diameters of VA-SWCNTs are estimated to be 1.2-2.1 nm. When VA-SWCNTs are fabricated on CNCs, the turn-on voltage is reduced from 3.9 to 0.7 V μm -1 and the emission current density at the electric field of 5 V μm -1 is enhanced by a factor of more than 200. The composite VA-SWCNT/CNC structure is potentially an excellent field emitter. The emission stability of the VA-SWCNT/CNC field emitter is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rose, Harvey A.; Russell, David A.
2001-01-01
A Vlasov equation based model is used to determine various regimes of electron plasma wave response to a source appropriate to stimulated scatter in a laser hot spot. It incorporates trapped particle effects such as the standard nonlinear frequency shift, extended beyond the weak regime, and a reduction of damping a la Zakharov and Karpman [V. E. Zakharov and V. I. Karpman, JETP 16, 351 (1963)]. The results are consistent with those of Holloway and Dorning [J. P. Holloway and J. J. Dorning, Phys. Rev. A 44, 3856 (1991)] for small amplitude Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal modes. This leads to the prediction that as long as kλ D ≥0.53 for a background Maxwellian distribution function, e.g., a 5 keV plasma with n e /n c ≤0.075, anomalously large backward stimulated Raman scatter can be excluded. A similar analysis leads to density limits on stimulated Brillouin scatter
Tandy, P; Yu, Ming; Leahy, C; Jayanthi, C S; Wu, S Y
2015-03-28
An upgrade of the previous self-consistent and environment-dependent linear combination of atomic orbitals Hamiltonian (referred as SCED-LCAO) has been developed. This improved version of the semi-empirical SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian, in addition to the inclusion of self-consistent determination of charge redistribution, multi-center interactions, and modeling of electron-electron correlation, has taken into account the effect excited on the orbitals due to the atomic aggregation. This important upgrade has been subjected to a stringent test, the construction of the SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian for boron. It was shown that the Hamiltonian for boron has successfully characterized the electron deficiency of boron and captured the complex chemical bonding in various boron allotropes, including the planar and quasi-planar, the convex, the ring, the icosahedral, and the fullerene-like clusters, the two-dimensional monolayer sheets, and the bulk alpha boron, demonstrating its transferability, robustness, reliability, and predictive power. The molecular dynamics simulation scheme based on the Hamiltonian has been applied to explore the existence and the energetics of ∼230 compact boron clusters BN with N in the range from ∼100 to 768, including the random, the rhombohedral, and the spherical icosahedral structures. It was found that, energetically, clusters containing whole icosahedral B12 units are more stable for boron clusters of larger size (N > 200). The ease with which the simulations both at 0 K and finite temperatures were completed is a demonstration of the efficiency of the SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tandy, P.; Yu, Ming; Leahy, C.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 (United States)
2015-03-28
An upgrade of the previous self-consistent and environment-dependent linear combination of atomic orbitals Hamiltonian (referred as SCED-LCAO) has been developed. This improved version of the semi-empirical SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian, in addition to the inclusion of self-consistent determination of charge redistribution, multi-center interactions, and modeling of electron-electron correlation, has taken into account the effect excited on the orbitals due to the atomic aggregation. This important upgrade has been subjected to a stringent test, the construction of the SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian for boron. It was shown that the Hamiltonian for boron has successfully characterized the electron deficiency of boron and captured the complex chemical bonding in various boron allotropes, including the planar and quasi-planar, the convex, the ring, the icosahedral, and the fullerene-like clusters, the two-dimensional monolayer sheets, and the bulk alpha boron, demonstrating its transferability, robustness, reliability, and predictive power. The molecular dynamics simulation scheme based on the Hamiltonian has been applied to explore the existence and the energetics of ∼230 compact boron clusters B{sub N} with N in the range from ∼100 to 768, including the random, the rhombohedral, and the spherical icosahedral structures. It was found that, energetically, clusters containing whole icosahedral B{sub 12} units are more stable for boron clusters of larger size (N > 200). The ease with which the simulations both at 0 K and finite temperatures were completed is a demonstration of the efficiency of the SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tandy, P.; Yu, Ming; Leahy, C.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.
2015-01-01
An upgrade of the previous self-consistent and environment-dependent linear combination of atomic orbitals Hamiltonian (referred as SCED-LCAO) has been developed. This improved version of the semi-empirical SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian, in addition to the inclusion of self-consistent determination of charge redistribution, multi-center interactions, and modeling of electron-electron correlation, has taken into account the effect excited on the orbitals due to the atomic aggregation. This important upgrade has been subjected to a stringent test, the construction of the SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian for boron. It was shown that the Hamiltonian for boron has successfully characterized the electron deficiency of boron and captured the complex chemical bonding in various boron allotropes, including the planar and quasi-planar, the convex, the ring, the icosahedral, and the fullerene-like clusters, the two-dimensional monolayer sheets, and the bulk alpha boron, demonstrating its transferability, robustness, reliability, and predictive power. The molecular dynamics simulation scheme based on the Hamiltonian has been applied to explore the existence and the energetics of ∼230 compact boron clusters B N with N in the range from ∼100 to 768, including the random, the rhombohedral, and the spherical icosahedral structures. It was found that, energetically, clusters containing whole icosahedral B 12 units are more stable for boron clusters of larger size (N > 200). The ease with which the simulations both at 0 K and finite temperatures were completed is a demonstration of the efficiency of the SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian
Dai, Junyi; Kerestes, Rebecca; Upton, Daniel J; Busemeyer, Jerome R; Stout, Julie C
2015-01-01
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Soochow Gambling Task (SGT) are two experience-based risky decision-making tasks for examining decision-making deficits in clinical populations. Several cognitive models, including the expectancy-valence learning (EVL) model and the prospect valence learning (PVL) model, have been developed to disentangle the motivational, cognitive, and response processes underlying the explicit choices in these tasks. The purpose of the current study was to develop an improved model that can fit empirical data better than the EVL and PVL models and, in addition, produce more consistent parameter estimates across the IGT and SGT. Twenty-six opiate users (mean age 34.23; SD 8.79) and 27 control participants (mean age 35; SD 10.44) completed both tasks. Eighteen cognitive models varying in evaluation, updating, and choice rules were fit to individual data and their performances were compared to that of a statistical baseline model to find a best fitting model. The results showed that the model combining the prospect utility function treating gains and losses separately, the decay-reinforcement updating rule, and the trial-independent choice rule performed the best in both tasks. Furthermore, the winning model produced more consistent individual parameter estimates across the two tasks than any of the other models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junyi eDai
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and the Soochow Gambling Task (SGT are two experience-based risky decision-making tasks for examining decision-making deficits in clinical populations. Several cognitive models, including the expectancy-valence learning model (EVL and the prospect valence learning model (PVL, have been developed to disentangle the motivational, cognitive, and response processes underlying the explicit choices in these tasks. The purpose of the current study was to develop an improved model that can fit empirical data better than the EVL and PVL models and, in addition, produce more consistent parameter estimates across the IGT and SGT. Twenty-six opiate users (mean age 34.23; SD 8.79 and 27 control participants (mean age 35; SD 10.44 completed both tasks. Eighteen cognitive models varying in evaluation, updating, and choice rules were fit to individual data and their performances were compared to that of a statistical baseline model to find a best fitting model. The results showed that the model combining the prospect utility function treating gains and losses separately, the decay-reinforcement updating rule, and the trial-independent choice rule performed the best in both tasks. Furthermore, the winning model produced more consistent individual parameter estimates across the two tasks than any of the other models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spectral modeling of the large infrared excess in the Spitzer IRS spectra of HD 172555 suggests that there is more than 10 19 kg of submicron dust in the system. Using physical arguments and constraints from observations, we rule out the possibility of the infrared excess being created by a magma ocean planet or a circumplanetary disk or torus. We show that the infrared excess is consistent with a circumstellar debris disk or torus, located at ∼6 AU, that was created by a planetary scale hypervelocity impact. We find that radiation pressure should remove submicron dust from the debris disk in less than one year. However, the system's mid-infrared photometric flux, dominated by submicron grains, has been stable within 4% over the last 27 years, from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (1983) to WISE (2010). Our new spectral modeling work and calculations of the radiation pressure on fine dust in HD 172555 provide a self-consistent explanation for this apparent contradiction. We also explore the unconfirmed claim that ∼10 47 molecules of SiO vapor are needed to explain an emission feature at ∼8 μm in the Spitzer IRS spectrum of HD 172555. We find that unless there are ∼10 48 atoms or 0.05 M ⊕ of atomic Si and O vapor in the system, SiO vapor should be destroyed by photo-dissociation in less than 0.2 years. We argue that a second plausible explanation for the ∼8 μm feature can be emission from solid SiO, which naturally occurs in submicron silicate ''smokes'' created by quickly condensing vaporized silicate.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, B. C.; Melosh, H. J. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Chen, C. H. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wyatt, M. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Thebault, P. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Henning, W. G. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gaidos, E. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Elkins-Tanton, L. T. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Bridges, J. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Morlok, A., E-mail: johns477@purdue.edu [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)
2012-12-10
Spectral modeling of the large infrared excess in the Spitzer IRS spectra of HD 172555 suggests that there is more than 10{sup 19} kg of submicron dust in the system. Using physical arguments and constraints from observations, we rule out the possibility of the infrared excess being created by a magma ocean planet or a circumplanetary disk or torus. We show that the infrared excess is consistent with a circumstellar debris disk or torus, located at {approx}6 AU, that was created by a planetary scale hypervelocity impact. We find that radiation pressure should remove submicron dust from the debris disk in less than one year. However, the system's mid-infrared photometric flux, dominated by submicron grains, has been stable within 4% over the last 27 years, from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (1983) to WISE (2010). Our new spectral modeling work and calculations of the radiation pressure on fine dust in HD 172555 provide a self-consistent explanation for this apparent contradiction. We also explore the unconfirmed claim that {approx}10{sup 47} molecules of SiO vapor are needed to explain an emission feature at {approx}8 {mu}m in the Spitzer IRS spectrum of HD 172555. We find that unless there are {approx}10{sup 48} atoms or 0.05 M{sub Circled-Plus} of atomic Si and O vapor in the system, SiO vapor should be destroyed by photo-dissociation in less than 0.2 years. We argue that a second plausible explanation for the {approx}8 {mu}m feature can be emission from solid SiO, which naturally occurs in submicron silicate ''smokes'' created by quickly condensing vaporized silicate.
Stability patterns for a size-structured population model and its stage-structured counterpart
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Lai; Pedersen, Michael; Lin, Zhigui
2015-01-01
delayed system consisting of a renewal equation for the consumer population birth rate and a delayed differential equation for the resource. Results show that the size- and stage-structured models differ considerably with respect to equilibrium stability, although the two models have completely identical...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, C.T.; Vanderbilt, D.; Louie, S.G.; Materials and Molecular Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720)
1986-01-01
We present a general self-consistency procedure formulated in momentum space for electronic structure and total-energy calculations of crystalline solids. It is shown that both the charge density and the change in the Hamiltonian matrix elements in each iteration can be calculated in a straight-forward fashion once a set of overlap matrices is computed. The present formulation has the merit of bringing the self-consistency problem for different basis sets to the same footing. The scheme is used to extend a first-principles pseudopotential linear combination of Gaussian orbitals method to full point-by-point self-consistency, without refitting of potentials. It is shown that the set of overlap matrices can be calculated very efficiently if we exploit the translational and space-group symmetries of the system under consideration. This scheme has been applied to study the structural and electronic properties of Si and W, prototypical systems of very different bonding properties. The results agree well with experiment and other calculations. The fully self-consistent results are compared with those obtained by a variational procedure [J. R. Chelikowsky and S. G. Louie, Phys. Rev. B 29, 3470 (1984)]. We find that the structural properties for bulk Si and W (both systems have no interatomic charge transfer) can be treated accurately by the variational procedure. However, full self-consistency is needed for an accurate description of the band energies
Permina, Elizaveta A.
2013-01-01
Identification of bacterial modulons from series of gene expression measurements on microarrays is a principal problem, especially relevant for inadequately studied but practically important species. Usage of a priori information on regulatory interactions helps to evaluate parameters for regulatory subnetwork inference. We suggest a procedure for modulon construction where a seed regulon is iteratively updated with genes having expression patterns similar to those for regulon member genes. A set of genes essential for a regulon is used to control modulon updating. Essential genes for a regulon were selected as a subset of regulon genes highly related by different measures to each other. Using Escherichia coli as a model, we studied how modulon identification depends on the data, including the microarray experiments set, the adopted relevance measure and the regulon itself. We have found that results of modulon identification are highly dependent on all parameters studied and thus the resulting modulon varies substantially depending on the identification procedure. Yet, modulons that were identified correctly displayed higher stability during iterations, which allows developing a procedure for reliable modulon identification in the case of less studied species where the known regulatory interactions are sparse. Copyright © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kawakami, Norito; Adachi, Hidehiko; Inoue, Shigeru; Meyer, M Renee Umstattd
2017-01-24
Self-regulation for physical activity is considered as one of the most effective factors in promoting physical activity. However, there is no reliable and valid scale to measure it in Japanese. The purpose of this study was to investigate the internal consistency, convergent validity, and structural validity of the newly developed Japanese version of the 12-item Physical Activity Self-Regulation scale (PASR-12) among Japanese workers. A cross-sectional Internet-based survey recruiting 516 Japanese workers was conducted in Japan. The PASR-12 was translated according to the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) task force guidelines. Physical activity and self-efficacy for physical activity were measured as comparisons for convergent validity. We calculated Cronbach's alphas, and conducted correlational analyses and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Of 516 workers, 485 workers were eligible for all analyses. Cronbach's alpha for the scale scores ranged from 0.79 to 0.95. The scores of the total and 6 factor scales of the Japanese version of the PASR-12 had small-to-moderate positive correlations with the total physical activity and self-efficacy. Moreover, the 6-factor hypothesized model demonstrated excellent fit (χ2 (39) = 100.74, CFI = 0.973, RMSEA = 0.057). The Japanese version of the PASR-12 showed good reliability and factor-based and construct validity. Therefore, this scale could be applied to assess self-regulation for physical activity among Japanese workers.
Bigagli, Lorenzo; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Nativi, Stefano; Bastin, Lucy; Masó, Joan
2013-04-01
a few products are annotated with their PID; recent studies show that on a total of about 100000 Clearinghouse products, only 37 have the Product Identifier. Furthermore the association should be persistent within the GeoViQua scope. GeoViQua architecture is built on the brokering approach successfully experimented within the EuroGEOSS project and realized by the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker). Part of the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI), the GEO DAB allows for harmonization and distribution in a transparent way for both users and data providers. This way, GeoViQua can effectively complement and extend the GEO DAB obtaining a Quality-augmentation broker (GeoViQua Broker) which plays a central role in ensuring the consistency of the Producer and User quality models. This work is focused on the typical use case in which the GeoViQua Broker performs data discovery from different data providers, and then integrates in the Quality Information Model the producer quality report with the feedback given by users. In particular, this work highlights the problems faced by the GeoViQua Broker and the techniques adopted to ensure consistency and persistency also for quality reports whose target products are not annotated with a PID. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement n° 265178.
Structural dynamic modifications via models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2nd Int. Modal Analysis Conference (Orlando) 2: 930±936. Natke H G (ed.) 1982 Identification of vibrating structures (New York: Springer Verlag, Wein). Rao S S 1989 Optimum design of structures under shock and vibration environment. Shock Vibr. Dig. 21(7):. Ravi S S A 1994 Structural dynamic modifications and design ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Zhaoquan, E-mail: zqchen@aust.edu.cn [Faculty of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, Anhui 232001 (China); Yin, Zhixiang, E-mail: zxyin66@163.com; Chen, Minggong; Hong, Lingli; Hu, Yelin; Huang, Yourui [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, Anhui 232001 (China); Xia, Guangqing; Liu, Minghai [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [Faculty of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)
2014-10-21
In present study, a pulsed lower-power microwave-driven atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet has been introduced with the type of coaxial transmission line resonator. The plasma jet plume is with room air temperature, even can be directly touched by human body without any hot harm. In order to study ionization process of the proposed plasma jet, a self-consistent hybrid fluid model is constructed in which Maxwell's equations are solved numerically by finite-difference time-domain method and a fluid model is used to study the characteristics of argon plasma evolution. With a Guass type input power function, the spatio-temporal distributions of the electron density, the electron temperature, the electric field, and the absorbed power density have been simulated, respectively. The simulation results suggest that the peak values of the electron temperature and the electric field are synchronous with the input pulsed microwave power but the maximum quantities of the electron density and the absorbed power density are lagged to the microwave power excitation. In addition, the pulsed plasma jet excited by the local enhanced electric field of surface plasmon polaritons should be the discharge mechanism of the proposed plasma jet.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Jiang
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical formalism for describing systems of semiflexible polymers, which can have density variations due to finite compressibility and exhibit an isotropic-nematic transition. The molecular architecture of the semiflexible polymers is described by a continuum wormlike-chain model. The non-bonded interactions are described through a functional of two collective variables, the local density and local segmental orientation tensor. In particular, the functional depends quadratically on local density-variations and includes a Maier–Saupe-type term to deal with the orientational ordering. The specified density-dependence stems from a free energy expansion, where the free energy of an isotropic and homogeneous homopolymer melt at some fixed density serves as a reference state. Using this framework, a self-consistent field theory is developed, which produces a Helmholtz free energy that can be used for the calculation of the thermodynamics of the system. The thermodynamic properties are analysed as functions of the compressibility of the model, for values of the compressibility realizable in mesoscopic simulations with soft interactions and in actual polymeric materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saleh, Ahmed A.; Pereloma, Elena V.; Clausen, Bjørn; Brown, Donald W.; Tomé, Carlos N.; Gazder, Azdiar A.
2014-01-01
The evolution of lattice strains in a fully recrystallised Fe–24Mn–3Al–2Si–1Ni–0.06C TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel subjected to uniaxial tensile loading up to a true strain of ∼35% was investigated via in-situ neutron diffraction. Typical of fcc elastic and plastic anisotropy, the {111} and {200} grain families record the lowest and highest lattice strains, respectively. Using modelling cases with and without latent hardening, the recently extended Elasto-Plastic Self-Consistent model successfully predicted the macroscopic stress–strain response, the evolution of lattice strains and the development of crystallographic texture. Compared to the isotropic hardening case, latent hardening did not have a significant effect on lattice strains and returned a relatively faster development of a stronger 〈111〉 and a weaker 〈100〉 double fibre parallel to the tensile axis. Close correspondence between the experimental lattice strains and those predicted using particular orientations embedded within a random aggregate was obtained. The result suggests that the exact orientations of the surrounding aggregate have a weak influence on the lattice strain evolution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Powell, Brian [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Arai, Yuji [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Becker, Udo [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ewing, Rod [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
2016-12-29
This university lead SBR project is a collaboration lead by Dr. Brian Powell (Clemson University) with co-principal investigators Dan Kaplan (Savannah River National Laboratory), Yuji Arai (presently at the University of Illinois), Udo Becker (U of Michigan) and Rod Ewing (presently at Stanford University). Hypothesis: The underlying hypothesis of this work is that strong interactions of plutonium with mineral surfaces are due to formation of inner sphere complexes with a limited number of high-energy surface sites, which results in sorption hysteresis where Pu(IV) is the predominant sorbed oxidation state. The energetic favorability of the Pu(IV) surface complex is strongly influenced by positive sorption entropies, which are mechanistically driven by displacement of solvating water molecules from the actinide and mineral surface during sorption. Objectives: The overarching objective of this work is to examine Pu(IV) and Pu(V) sorption to pure metal (oxyhydr)oxide minerals and sediments using variable temperature batch sorption, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and quantum-mechanical and empirical-potential calculations. The data will be compiled into a self-consistent surface complexation model. The novelty of this effort lies largely in the manner the information from these measurements and calculations will be combined into a model that will be used to evaluate the thermodynamics of plutonium sorption reactions as well as predict sorption of plutonium to sediments from DOE sites using a component additivity approach.
Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cartwright, Julyan H.E.; Escribano, Bruno; Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio
2010-01-01
Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10 -4 Pa to 10 2 Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.
Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cartwright, Julyan H.E. [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.escribano.salazar@gmail.co [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)
2010-04-02
Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10{sup -4} Pa to 10{sup 2} Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.
Drummond, B.; Mayne, N. J.; Manners, J.; Carter, A. L.; Boutle, I. A.; Baraffe, I.; Hébrard, É.; Tremblin, P.; Sing, D. K.; Amundsen, D. S.; Acreman, D.
2018-03-01
We present a study of the effect of wind-driven advection on the chemical composition of hot-Jupiter atmospheres using a fully consistent 3D hydrodynamics, chemistry, and radiative transfer code, the Met Office Unified Model (UM). Chemical modeling of exoplanet atmospheres has primarily been restricted to 1D models that cannot account for 3D dynamical processes. In this work, we couple a chemical relaxation scheme to the UM to account for the chemical interconversion of methane and carbon monoxide. This is done consistently with the radiative transfer meaning that departures from chemical equilibrium are included in the heating rates (and emission) and hence complete the feedback between the dynamics, thermal structure, and chemical composition. In this Letter, we simulate the well studied atmosphere of HD 209458b. We find that the combined effect of horizontal and vertical advection leads to an increase in the methane abundance by several orders of magnitude, which is directly opposite to the trend found in previous works. Our results demonstrate the need to include 3D effects when considering the chemistry of hot-Jupiter atmospheres. We calculate transmission and emission spectra, as well as the emission phase curve, from our simulations. We conclude that gas-phase nonequilibrium chemistry is unlikely to explain the model–observation discrepancy in the 4.5 μm Spitzer/IRAC channel. However, we highlight other spectral regions, observable with the James Webb Space Telescope, where signatures of wind-driven chemistry are more prominant.
Damping mechanisms and models in structural dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
2002-01-01
Several aspects of damping models for dynamic analysis of structures are investigated. First the causality condition for structural response is used to identify rules for the use of complex-valued frequency dependent material models, illustrated by the shortcomings of the elastic hysteretic model...
Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models
Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.
2002-01-01
To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems,
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rauscher, Emily; Menou, Kristen
2013-01-01
We present the first three-dimensional circulation models for extrasolar gas giant atmospheres with geometrically and energetically consistent treatments of magnetic drag and ohmic dissipation. Atmospheric resistivities are continuously updated and calculated directly from the flow structure, strongly coupling the magnetic effects with the circulation pattern. We model the hot Jupiters HD 189733b (T eq ≈ 1200 K) and HD 209458b (T eq ≈ 1500 K) and test planetary magnetic field strengths from 0 to 30 G. We find that even at B = 3 G the atmospheric structure and circulation of HD 209458b are strongly influenced by magnetic effects, while the cooler HD 189733b remains largely unaffected, even in the case of B = 30 G and super-solar metallicities. Our models of HD 209458b indicate that magnetic effects can substantially slow down atmospheric winds, change circulation and temperature patterns, and alter observable properties. These models establish that longitudinal and latitudinal hot spot offsets, day-night flux contrasts, and planetary radius inflation are interrelated diagnostics of the magnetic induction process occurring in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters and other similarly forced exoplanets. Most of the ohmic heating occurs high in the atmosphere and on the dayside of the planet, while the heating at depth is strongly dependent on the internal heat flux assumed for the planet, with more heating when the deep atmosphere is hot. We compare the ohmic power at depth in our models, and estimates of the ohmic dissipation in the bulk interior (from general scaling laws), to evolutionary models that constrain the amount of heating necessary to explain the inflated radius of HD 209458b. Our results suggest that deep ohmic heating can successfully inflate the radius of HD 209458b for planetary magnetic field strengths of B ≥ 3-10 G.
Baker, Allison H.; Hu, Yong; Hammerling, Dorit M.; Tseng, Yu-heng; Xu, Haiying; Huang, Xiaomeng; Bryan, Frank O.; Yang, Guangwen
2016-07-01
The Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the ocean model component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), is widely used in climate research. Most current work in CESM-POP focuses on improving the model's efficiency or accuracy, such as improving numerical methods, advancing parameterization, porting to new architectures, or increasing parallelism. Since ocean dynamics are chaotic in nature, achieving bit-for-bit (BFB) identical results in ocean solutions cannot be guaranteed for even tiny code modifications, and determining whether modifications are admissible (i.e., statistically consistent with the original results) is non-trivial. In recent work, an ensemble-based statistical approach was shown to work well for software verification (i.e., quality assurance) on atmospheric model data. The general idea of the ensemble-based statistical consistency testing is to use a qualitative measurement of the variability of the ensemble of simulations as a metric with which to compare future simulations and make a determination of statistical distinguishability. The capability to determine consistency without BFB results boosts model confidence and provides the flexibility needed, for example, for more aggressive code optimizations and the use of heterogeneous execution environments. Since ocean and atmosphere models have differing characteristics in term of dynamics, spatial variability, and timescales, we present a new statistical method to evaluate ocean model simulation data that requires the evaluation of ensemble means and deviations in a spatial manner. In particular, the statistical distribution from an ensemble of CESM-POP simulations is used to determine the standard score of any new model solution at each grid point. Then the percentage of points that have scores greater than a specified threshold indicates whether the new model simulation is statistically distinguishable from the ensemble simulations. Both ensemble size and composition are important. Our
The KBC Void: Consistency with Supernovae Type Ia and the Kinematic SZ Effect in a ΛLTB Model
Hoscheit, Benjamin L.; Barger, Amy J.
2018-02-01
There is substantial and growing observational evidence from the normalized luminosity density in the near-infrared that the local universe is underdense on scales of several hundred megaparsecs. We test whether our parameterization of the observational data of such a “void” is compatible with the latest supernovae type Ia data and with constraints from line-of-sight peculiar-velocity motions of galaxy clusters with respect to the cosmic microwave background rest-frame, known as the linear kinematic Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (kSZ) effect. Our study is based on the large local void (LLV) radial profile observed by Keenan, Barger, and Cowie (KBC) and a theoretical void description based on the Lemaître–Tolman–Bondi model with a nonzero cosmological constant (ΛLTB). We find consistency with the measured luminosity distance–redshift relation on radial scales relevant to the KBC LLV through a comparison with 217 low-redshift supernovae type Ia over the redshift range 0.0233Cosmology Telescope, are fully compatible with the existence of the KBC LLV.
Webb Model of Nuclear Structure and Forces
Webb, Bill
2008-10-01
String theory has established that neutrons and protons consist of threesomes of string-like quarks. These threesomes nucleosynthesize to build larger nuclei. This Webb Model differs by postulating that the larger nuclei are also threesomes: threesomes of string-like ring shaped Jumbo Quarks. A threesome of Jumbo Quarks make up every larger nucleus. From this starting point, the Webb Model uses only the forces of gravity and electromagnetics to accurately calculate a large variety of nuclear properties including - fundamental structural shapes and charge arrangements - the size, shape, internal forces and relativistic mass energies of the neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, alpha particle and oxygen - the details of all types of beta decay - the correct slope of the lower end of the nuclear chart - the calculated stability of the 45 smallest stable nuclei and their 59 naturally occurring unstable isotopes - and mathematical confirmation of the magic number 2,8 and 20. This Webb model satisfies the empirical tests of the Scientific Method. The mathematics is simple enough to be confirmed by any scientist without bias.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svane, Axel; Christensen, Niels Egede; Cardona,, M.
2010-01-01
The electronic band structures of PbS, PbSe, and PbTe in the rocksalt structure are calculated with the quasiparticle self-consistent GW (QSGW) approach with spin-orbit coupling included. The semiconducting gaps and their deformation potentials as well as the effective masses are obtained. The GW...... approximation provides a correct description of the electronic structure around the gap, in contrast to the local-density approximation, which leads to inverted gaps in the lead chalcogenides. The QSGW calculations are in good quantitative agreement with experimental values of the gaps and masses. At moderate...... hole doping a complex filamental Fermi-surface structure develops with ensuing large density of states. The pressure-induced gap closure leads to linear (Dirac-type) band dispersions around the L point....
Correlated binomial models and correlation structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hisakado, Masato; Kitsukawa, Kenji; Mori, Shintaro
2006-01-01
We discuss a general method to construct correlated binomial distributions by imposing several consistent relations on the joint probability function. We obtain self-consistency relations for the conditional correlations and conditional probabilities. The beta-binomial distribution is derived by a strong symmetric assumption on the conditional correlations. Our derivation clarifies the 'correlation' structure of the beta-binomial distribution. It is also possible to study the correlation structures of other probability distributions of exchangeable (homogeneous) correlated Bernoulli random variables. We study some distribution functions and discuss their behaviours in terms of their correlation structures
Validation of Superelement Modelling of Complex Offshore Support Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Shaofeng; Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior
2016-01-01
calculations consisting of up to thousands design load cases needs to be evaluated. However, even the simplest aero-elastic model of such structures has many more DOFs than monopile, resulting in excessive computation burden. In order to deal with this problem, the superelement method has been introduced...... for modelling such structures. One superelement method has been proven very promising in the previous project of Wave Loads [1] and a fundamental question in such DOFs reduction methods is which modes that are essential and which modes can be neglected. For the jacket structure, the introduction of a gravity...
Virtuous organization: A structural equation modeling approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Majid Zamahani
2013-02-01
Full Text Available For years, the idea of virtue was unfavorable among researchers and virtues were traditionally considered as culture-specific, relativistic and they were supposed to be associated with social conservatism, religious or moral dogmatism, and scientific irrelevance. Virtue and virtuousness have been recently considered seriously among organizational researchers. The proposed study of this paper examines the relationships between leadership, organizational culture, human resource, structure and processes, care for community and virtuous organization. Structural equation modeling is employed to investigate the effects of each variable on other components. The data used in this study consists of questionnaire responses from employees in Payam e Noor University in Yazd province. A total of 250 questionnaires were sent out and a total of 211 valid responses were received. Our results have revealed that all the five variables have positive and significant impacts on virtuous organization. Among the five variables, organizational culture has the most direct impact (0.80 and human resource has the most total impact (0.844 on virtuous organization.
Generalized Swept Mid-structure for Polygonal Models
Martin, Tobias
2012-05-01
We introduce a novel mid-structure called the generalized swept mid-structure (GSM) of a closed polygonal shape, and a framework to compute it. The GSM contains both curve and surface elements and has consistent sheet-by-sheet topology, versus triangle-by-triangle topology produced by other mid-structure methods. To obtain this structure, a harmonic function, defined on the volume that is enclosed by the surface, is used to decompose the volume into a set of slices. A technique for computing the 1D mid-structures of these slices is introduced. The mid-structures of adjacent slices are then iteratively matched through a boundary similarity computation and triangulated to form the GSM. This structure respects the topology of the input surface model is a hybrid mid-structure representation. The construction and topology of the GSM allows for local and global simplification, used in further applications such as parameterization, volumetric mesh generation and medical applications.
The use of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) in Capital Structure ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
analytic structural equation modelling (SEM) methodology. The SEM Methodology allows the use of more than one indicator for a latent variable. It also estimates the latent variables and accommodates reciprocal causation and interdependences ...
Di Remigio, Roberto; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Cornaton, Yann; Ringholm, Magnus; Steindal, Arnfinn Hykkerud; Ruud, Kenneth; Frediani, Luca
2016-12-21
The study of high-order absorption properties of molecules is a field of growing importance. Quantum-chemical studies can help design chromophores with desirable characteristics. Given that most experiments are performed in solution, it is important to devise a cost-effective strategy to include solvation effects in quantum-chemical studies of these properties. We here present an open-ended formulation of self-consistent field (SCF) response theory for a molecular solute coupled to a polarizable continuum model (PCM) description of the solvent. Our formulation relies on the open-ended, density matrix-based quasienergy formulation of SCF response theory of Thorvaldsen, et al., [J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 129, 214108] and the variational formulation of the PCM, as presented by Lipparini et al., [J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 133, 014106]. Within the PCM approach to solvation, the mutual solute-solvent polarization is represented by means of an apparent surface charge (ASC) spread over the molecular cavity defining the solute-solvent boundary. In the variational formulation, the ASC is an independent, variational degree of freedom. This allows us to formulate response theory for molecular solutes in the fixed-cavity approximation up to arbitrary order and with arbitrary perturbation operators. For electric dipole perturbations, pole and residue analyses of the response functions naturally lead to the identification of excitation energies and transition moments. We document the implementation of this approach in the Dalton program package using a recently developed open-ended response code and the PCMSolver libraries and present results for one-, two-, three-, four- and five-photon absorption processes of three small molecules in solution.
Spin structure of the nucleon and the constituent quark model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbas, Afsar
1989-05-01
It is shown that the constituent quark model is capable of giving a consistent description of the integrated spin-dependent structure function of the nucleon. This enables us to perceive an intrinsic connection between the current and the constituent pictures of the quark. (author).
Modeling of soil-water-structure interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tang, Tian
to dynamic ocean waves. The goal of this research project is to develop numerical soil models for computing realistic seabed response in the interacting offshore environment, where ocean waves, seabed and offshore structure highly interact with each other. The seabed soil models developed are based...... as the developed nonlinear soil displacements and stresses under monotonic and cyclic loading. With the FVM nonlinear coupled soil models as a basis, multiphysics modeling of wave-seabed-structure interaction is carried out. The computations are done in an open source code environment, OpenFOAM, where FVM models...... of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and structural mechanics are available. The interaction in the system is modeled in a 1-way manner: First detailed free surface CFD calculations are executed to obtain a realistic wave field around a given structure. Then the dynamic structural response, due to the motions...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartje, U.A.J.
2005-01-01
This script contains theses for an universal 'Spiral-Field-Theory' that are capable to dissolve problems in parallel from different areas which are far from each other. Starting point is the stuck principle discussion about the relationships between the Classic Physics and the Quantum Physics. Aim is the clarification of questions which remained open. In 1925 Max Planck had formulated as follows: 'The research of physics can not rest, so long not has been together-welded: on the one hand the mechanics and the electrodynamics with on the other hand the lesson of the stationary one and the radiating heat to a sole unitary theory'. The Spiral-Field-Model develops a supporting structure from General Field into which they will class the secure knowledge from experiments and well-proved theories. The most important thing of this new Final Theory is the detailed generating of all nature courses of phenomena exclusively from radiation and that in the direct meaning of the word. In the final effect the two great disciplines of the physics which are drifted from each other, become bonded together to a super ordinate theoretical building of the nature sciences. (orig.)
Garrett, T. J.
2014-12-01
Studies of the response of global climate to anthropogenic activities rely upon scenarios for future human activity to provide a range of possible trajectories for greenhouse gases emissions over the coming century. Sophisticated integrated models are used to explore not only what will happen, but what should happen in order to optimize societal well-being. Hundreds of equations might be used to account for the interplay between human decisions, technological change, and macroeconomic priniciples. In contrast, the model equations used to describe geophysical phenomena look very different because they are a) purely deterministic and b) consistent with basic thermodynamic laws. This inconsistency between macroeconomics and physics suggests a rather unhappy marriage. During the Anthropocene the evolution of humanity and our environment will become increasingly intertwined. Representing such a coupling suggests a need for a common theoretical basis. To this end, the approach that is described here is to treat civilization like any other physical process, that is as an open, non-equilibrium thermodynamic system that dissipates energy and diffuses matter in order to sustain existing circulations and to further its material growth. Theoretical arguments and over 40 years of measurements show that a very general representation of global economic wealth (not GDP) has been tied to rates of global primary energy consumption through a constant 7.1 ± 0.1 mW per year 2005 USD. This link between physics and economics leads to very simple expressions for how fast civilization and its rate of energy consumption grow. These are expressible as a function of rates of energy and material resource discovery and depletion, and of the magnitude of externally imposed decay. The equations are validated through hindcasts that show, for example, that economic conditions in the 1950s can be invoked to make remarkably accurate forecasts of present rates of global GDP growth and primary energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartje, Udo A.J.
2008-01-01
Internationally stressed physics is looking for the solution of the basic problems of physics at higher and higher energies in impressive plants which outbid themselves in their expenditure for technology reciprocally. If with this manner shall be to seek the ''atomos'' and the ''unit of the physics'' then this is an error way. Sought-after Higgs particles are certainly not a simply thing; but a most complex object which would contain an enormous number of effect quanta in its structure. Since Planck, Poincare, Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, Schroedinger, De Broglie and others well-known physicists we know that this ''atomos'' have only a tiny energy quantity which single is not measurable. The search with gigantic machines is at all besides more nonsensical than such processes there will pump even energy into it. The elementary contains only fractions from the energy what is in known smallest particles or weakest beams too. This work follows another approach to grasp the nature in a Final Theory (Grand Unification) on a deductive way. It starts from a most general analysis and synthesis of scientific and everyday-language concepts. This shored up it on the principle of general physical field. The dynamic processes of the field are vivid illustrated by graphic means in systems of coordinates with space-time. Through it arises a everywhere consistent view for most simple existences and simple structures up to most complicate existences for all fields of physics and philosophy. That remained shut off till now obstinately for the cognition. A important result is the solution of the puzzle of ''Dualism of Wave and Particle''. Matter-structures consist not from 'a priori' existing 'little verdicts' which secondary swing. But they consist from beams; which remain in the inside of the particles radiation-like: and they rotate there in themselves. This creates locality without changing the radiation itself into 'electrons' which rotate on paths. The Classical Physics and the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartje, Udo A.J.
2007-01-01
Internationally stressed physics is looking for the solution of the basic problems of physics at higher and higher energies in impressive plants which outbid themselves in their expenditure for technology reciprocally. If with this manner shall be to seek the ''atomos'' and the ''unit of the physics'' then this is an error way. Sought-after Higgs particles are certainly not a simply thing; but a most complex object which would contain an enormous number of effect quanta in its structure. Since Planck, Poincare, Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, Schroedinger, De Broglie and others well-known physicists we know that this ''atomos'' have only a tiny energy quantity which single is not measurable. The search with gigantic machines is at all besides more nonsensical than such processes there will pump even energy into it. The elementary contains only fractions from the energy what is in known smallest particles or weakest beams too. This work follows another approach to grasp the nature in a Final Theory (Grand Unification) on a deductive way. It starts from a most general analysis and synthesis of scientific and everyday-language concepts. This shored up it on the principle of general physical field. The dynamic processes of the field are vivid illustrated by graphic means in systems of coordinates with space-time. Through it arises a everywhere consistent view for most simple existences and simple structures up to most complicate existences for all fields of physics and philosophy. That remained shut off till now obstinately for the cognition. A important result is the solution of the puzzle of ''Dualism of Wave and Particle''. Matter-structures consist not from 'a priori' existing 'little verdicts' which secondary swing. But they consist from beams; which remain in the inside of the particles radiation-like: and they rotate there in themselves. This creates locality without changing the radiation itself into 'electrons' which rotate on paths. The Classical Physics and the
Phenomenological models of raft structure
Shirotori, H.; Komura, S.; Kato, T.; Olmsted, P. D.
2004-04-01
We propose two phenomenological models describing the phase behavior of lipid-lipid systems and lipid-cholesterol systems in order to understand the "rafts" in cell membranes. In our models, the coupling between the lateral phase separation and the internal degree of freedom of a lipid membrane is considered. The calculated phase diagrams are in semiquantitative agreement with the experimental phase diagrams.
Mathematical Modeling: A Structured Process
Anhalt, Cynthia Oropesa; Cortez, Ricardo
2015-01-01
Mathematical modeling, in which students use mathematics to explain or interpret physical, social, or scientific phenomena, is an essential component of the high school curriculum. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) classify modeling as a K-12 standard for mathematical practice and as a conceptual category for high school…
Modelling the harmonized tertiary Institutions Salary Structure ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper analyses the Harmonized Tertiary Institution Salary Structure (HATISS IV) used in Nigeria. The irregularities in the structure are highlighted. A model that assumes a polynomial trend for the zero step salary, and exponential trend for the incremental rates, is suggested for the regularization of the structure.
A Teaching Model for Truss Structures
Bigoni, Davide; Dal Corso, Francesco; Misseroni, Diego; Tommasini, Mirko
2012-01-01
A classroom demonstration model has been designed, machined and successfully tested in different learning environments to facilitate understanding of the mechanics of truss structures, in which struts are subject to purely axial load and deformation. Gaining confidence with these structures is crucial for the development of lattice models, which…
Modeling the subsurface structure of sunspots
Moradi, H.; Baldner, C.; Birch, A.C.; Braun, D.C.; Cameron, R.H.; Duvall Jr., T.L.; Gizon, L.; Haber, D.; Hanasoge, S.M.; Hindman, B.W.; Jackiewicz, J.; Khomenko, E.; Komm, R.; Rajaguru, P.; Rempel, M.; Roth, M.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schunker, H.; Spruit, H.C.; Strassmeier, K.G.; Thompson, M.J.; Zharkov, S.
2010-01-01
While sunspots are easily observed at the solar surface, determining their subsurface structure is not trivial. There are two main hypotheses for the subsurface structure of sunspots: the monolithic model and the cluster model. Local helioseismology is the only means by which we can investigate
Silva, Goncalo; Semiao, Viriato
2017-07-01
The first nonequilibrium effect experienced by gaseous flows in contact with solid surfaces is the slip-flow regime. While the classical hydrodynamic description holds valid in bulk, at boundaries the fluid-wall interactions must consider slip. In comparison to the standard no-slip Dirichlet condition, the case of slip formulates as a Robin-type condition for the fluid tangential velocity. This makes its numerical modeling a challenging task, particularly in complex geometries. In this work, this issue is handled with the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), motivated by the similarities between the closure relations of the reflection-type boundary schemes equipping the LBM equation and the slip velocity condition established by slip-flow theory. Based on this analogy, we derive, as central result, the structure of the LBM boundary closure relation that is consistent with the second-order slip velocity condition, applicable to planar walls. Subsequently, three tasks are performed. First, we clarify the limitations of existing slip velocity LBM schemes, based on discrete analogs of kinetic theory fluid-wall interaction models. Second, we present improved slip velocity LBM boundary schemes, constructed directly at discrete level, by extending the multireflection framework to the slip-flow regime. Here, two classes of slip velocity LBM boundary schemes are considered: (i) linear slip schemes, which are local but retain some calibration requirements and/or operation limitations, (ii) parabolic slip schemes, which use a two-point implementation but guarantee the consistent prescription of the intended slip velocity condition, at arbitrary plane wall discretizations, further dispensing any numerical calibration procedure. Third and final, we verify the improvements of our proposed slip velocity LBM boundary schemes against existing ones. The numerical tests evaluate the ability of the slip schemes to exactly accommodate the steady Poiseuille channel flow solution, over
Silva, Goncalo; Semiao, Viriato
2017-07-01
The first nonequilibrium effect experienced by gaseous flows in contact with solid surfaces is the slip-flow regime. While the classical hydrodynamic description holds valid in bulk, at boundaries the fluid-wall interactions must consider slip. In comparison to the standard no-slip Dirichlet condition, the case of slip formulates as a Robin-type condition for the fluid tangential velocity. This makes its numerical modeling a challenging task, particularly in complex geometries. In this work, this issue is handled with the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), motivated by the similarities between the closure relations of the reflection-type boundary schemes equipping the LBM equation and the slip velocity condition established by slip-flow theory. Based on this analogy, we derive, as central result, the structure of the LBM boundary closure relation that is consistent with the second-order slip velocity condition, applicable to planar walls. Subsequently, three tasks are performed. First, we clarify the limitations of existing slip velocity LBM schemes, based on discrete analogs of kinetic theory fluid-wall interaction models. Second, we present improved slip velocity LBM boundary schemes, constructed directly at discrete level, by extending the multireflection framework to the slip-flow regime. Here, two classes of slip velocity LBM boundary schemes are considered: (i) linear slip schemes, which are local but retain some calibration requirements and/or operation limitations, (ii) parabolic slip schemes, which use a two-point implementation but guarantee the consistent prescription of the intended slip velocity condition, at arbitrary plane wall discretizations, further dispensing any numerical calibration procedure. Third and final, we verify the improvements of our proposed slip velocity LBM boundary schemes against existing ones. The numerical tests evaluate the ability of the slip schemes to exactly accommodate the steady Poiseuille channel flow solution, over
Relativistic models of nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gillet, V.; Kim, E.J.; Cauvin, M.; Kohmura, T.; Ohnaka, S.
1991-01-01
The introduction of the relativistic field formalism for the description of nuclear structure has improved our understanding of fundamental nuclear mechanisms such as saturation or many body forces. We discuss some of these progresses, both in the semi-classical mean field approximation and in a quantized meson field approach. (author)
The Protein Model Portal--a comprehensive resource for protein structure and model information.
Haas, Juergen; Roth, Steven; Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Schmidt, Tobias; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten
2013-01-01
The Protein Model Portal (PMP) has been developed to foster effective use of 3D molecular models in biomedical research by providing convenient and comprehensive access to structural information for proteins. Both experimental structures and theoretical models for a given protein can be searched simultaneously and analyzed for structural variability. By providing a comprehensive view on structural information, PMP offers the opportunity to apply consistent assessment and validation criteria to the complete set of structural models available for proteins. PMP is an open project so that new methods developed by the community can contribute to PMP, for example, new modeling servers for creating homology models and model quality estimation servers for model validation. The accuracy of participating modeling servers is continuously evaluated by the Continuous Automated Model EvaluatiOn (CAMEO) project. The PMP offers a unique interface to visualize structural coverage of a protein combining both theoretical models and experimental structures, allowing straightforward assessment of the model quality and hence their utility. The portal is updated regularly and actively developed to include latest methods in the field of computational structural biology. Database URL: http://www.proteinmodelportal.org.
The Protein Model Portal—a comprehensive resource for protein structure and model information
Haas, Juergen; Roth, Steven; Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Schmidt, Tobias; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten
2013-01-01
The Protein Model Portal (PMP) has been developed to foster effective use of 3D molecular models in biomedical research by providing convenient and comprehensive access to structural information for proteins. Both experimental structures and theoretical models for a given protein can be searched simultaneously and analyzed for structural variability. By providing a comprehensive view on structural information, PMP offers the opportunity to apply consistent assessment and validation criteria to the complete set of structural models available for proteins. PMP is an open project so that new methods developed by the community can contribute to PMP, for example, new modeling servers for creating homology models and model quality estimation servers for model validation. The accuracy of participating modeling servers is continuously evaluated by the Continuous Automated Model EvaluatiOn (CAMEO) project. The PMP offers a unique interface to visualize structural coverage of a protein combining both theoretical models and experimental structures, allowing straightforward assessment of the model quality and hence their utility. The portal is updated regularly and actively developed to include latest methods in the field of computational structural biology. Database URL: http://www.proteinmodelportal.org PMID:23624946
Wu, Xiaojie; Li, Xiantao
2015-01-01
Results from molecular dynamics simulations often need to be further processed to understand the physics on a larger scale. This paper considers the definitions of momentum and energy fluxes obtained from a control-volume approach. To assess the validity of these defined quantities, two consistency criteria are proposed. As examples, the embedded atom potential and the Tersoff potential are considered. The consistency is verified using analytical and numerical methods.
Modelling collagen diseases: STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY
Brodsky, Barbara; Baum, Jean
2008-01-01
Mutations in collagen lead to hereditary disorders such as brittle-bone disease. Peptide models for aberrant collagens are beginning to clarify how these amino-acid replacements lead to clinical problems.
Structural equation modeling methods and applications
Wang, Jichuan
2012-01-01
A reference guide for applications of SEM using Mplus Structural Equation Modeling: Applications Using Mplus is intended as both a teaching resource and a reference guide. Written in non-mathematical terms, this book focuses on the conceptual and practical aspects of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Basic concepts and examples of various SEM models are demonstrated along with recently developed advanced methods, such as mixture modeling and model-based power analysis and sample size estimate for SEM. The statistical modeling program, Mplus, is also featured and provides researchers with a
Bravo, S.; Ocania, G.
1991-04-01
energetization of the wind, one of the possibilities allowed for fltix the observational uncertailities shows a very good agreement wi4 an NI Ill) seli'consistent modelling with the only additional term of the Lorentz force in the iiii equation. Key words: SUN-CORONA
Network structure exploration via Bayesian nonparametric models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Y; Wang, X L; Xiang, X; Tang, B Z; Bu, J Z
2015-01-01
Complex networks provide a powerful mathematical representation of complex systems in nature and society. To understand complex networks, it is crucial to explore their internal structures, also called structural regularities. The task of network structure exploration is to determine how many groups there are in a complex network and how to group the nodes of the network. Most existing structure exploration methods need to specify either a group number or a certain type of structure when they are applied to a network. In the real world, however, the group number and also the certain type of structure that a network has are usually unknown in advance. To explore structural regularities in complex networks automatically, without any prior knowledge of the group number or the certain type of structure, we extend a probabilistic mixture model that can handle networks with any type of structure but needs to specify a group number using Bayesian nonparametric theory. We also propose a novel Bayesian nonparametric model, called the Bayesian nonparametric mixture (BNPM) model. Experiments conducted on a large number of networks with different structures show that the BNPM model is able to explore structural regularities in networks automatically with a stable, state-of-the-art performance. (paper)
Validation of the measurement model concept for error structure identification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, Pavan K.; Orazem, Mark E.; Crisalle, Oscar D.
2004-01-01
The development of different forms of measurement models for impedance has allowed examination of key assumptions on which the use of such models to assess error structure are based. The stochastic error structures obtained using the transfer-function and Voigt measurement models were identical, even when non-stationary phenomena caused some of the data to be inconsistent with the Kramers-Kronig relations. The suitability of the measurement model for assessment of consistency with the Kramers-Kronig relations, however, was found to be more sensitive to the confidence interval for the parameter estimates than to the number of parameters in the model. A tighter confidence interval was obtained for Voigt measurement model, which made the Voigt measurement model a more sensitive tool for identification of inconsistencies with the Kramers-Kronig relations
Rolf, T.; Crameri, F.; Tackley, P. J.
2012-04-01
The dynamics of the Earth's lithosphere and mantle are strongly influenced by its upper mechanical boundary condition. For instance, our previous work has shown that a necessity for the evolution of Earth-like, single-sided subduction is a free surface, which allows for vertical movement of the two converging plates, i.e. the development of surface topography [Crameri et al (2012), in press]. Single-sided subduction has an important effect on the evolution of self-consistent plate tectonics, e.g. by shaping subduction trenches. However, due to the usage of a homogeneous, i.e. purely oceanic, lithosphere these models tend to favour the rigid lid mode of plate tectonics for a realistic strength of the lithosphere, which is in contradiction to the present-day Earth. In contrast, our previous work with a pre-existing heterogeneous structure of the lithosphere has shown that the presence of continents floating at the top of the mantle may play an important role in the evolution of plate tectonics. Convective stresses may be focussed at the rheological boundary between continent and ocean, which facilitates the formation of plate boundaries and makes the Earth-like, mobile lid mode of plate tectonics easier to observe [Rolf & Tackley (2011)]. However, in these models subduction is single-sided when one oceanic and one continental plate converge, but double-sided in the case of two converging oceanic plates. Taking the previous findings as a motivation, we now combine both ingredients: the free surface and the heterogeneous lithosphere, in one self-consistent model. We approximate the free surface by using a "sticky air" layer [Schmeling et al, 2008; Crameri et al., submitted] and the continents by strong Archaean cratons, which can resist recycling on long timescales [Rolf & Tackley (2011)]. Such a model might produce single-sided subduction that is continuously evolving supported by the presence of continents. Performing global-scale self-consistent mantle convection
Consistent Pricing of VIX and Equity Derivatives with the 4/2 Stochastic Volatility Plus Jumps Model
Lin, Wei; Li, Shenghong; Luo, Xingguo; Chern, Shane
2015-01-01
In this paper, we develop a 4/2 stochastic volatility plus jumps model, namely, a new stochastic volatility model including the Heston model and 3/2 model as special cases. Our model is highly tractable by applying the Lie symmetries theory for PDEs, which means that the pricing procedure can be performed efficiently. In fact, we obtain a closed-form solution for the joint Fourier-Laplace transform so that equity and realized-variance derivatives can be priced. We also employ our model to con...
Structural sensitivity of biological models revisited.
Cordoleani, Flora; Flora, Cordoleani; Nerini, David; David, Nerini; Gauduchon, Mathias; Mathias, Gauduchon; Morozov, Andrew; Andrew, Morozov; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; Jean-Christophe, Poggiale
2011-08-21
Enhancing the predictive power of models in biology is a challenging issue. Among the major difficulties impeding model development and implementation are the sensitivity of outcomes to variations in model parameters, the problem of choosing of particular expressions for the parametrization of functional relations, and difficulties in validating models using laboratory data and/or field observations. In this paper, we revisit the phenomenon which is referred to as structural sensitivity of a model. Structural sensitivity arises as a result of the interplay between sensitivity of model outcomes to variations in parameters and sensitivity to the choice of model functions, and this can be somewhat of a bottleneck in improving the models predictive power. We provide a rigorous definition of structural sensitivity and we show how we can quantify the degree of sensitivity of a model based on the Hausdorff distance concept. We propose a simple semi-analytical test of structural sensitivity in an ODE modeling framework. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of directly linking the variability of field/experimental data and model predictions, and we demonstrate a way of assessing the robustness of modeling predictions with respect to data sampling variability. As an insightful illustrative example, we test our sensitivity analysis methods on a chemostat predator-prey model, where we use laboratory data on the feeding of protozoa to parameterize the predator functional response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The structure of VapB, a member of the Vap protein family that is involved in virulence of the bacterial pathogen R. equi, was determined by SAD phasing and reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel similar to avidin, suggestive of a binding function. Made up of two Greek-key motifs, the topology of VapB is unusual or even unique. Members of the virulence-associated protein (Vap) family from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi regulate virulence in an unknown manner. They do not share recognizable sequence homology with any protein of known structure. VapB and VapA are normally associated with isolates from pigs and horses, respectively. To contribute to a molecular understanding of Vap function, the crystal structure of a protease-resistant VapB fragment was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. The structure was solved by SAD phasing employing the anomalous signal of one endogenous S atom and two bound Co ions with low occupancy. VapB is an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel with a single helix. Structural similarity to avidins suggests a potential binding function. Unlike other eight- or ten-stranded β-barrels found in avidins, bacterial outer membrane proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins and lysozyme inhibitors, Vaps do not have a next-neighbour arrangement but consist of two Greek-key motifs with strand order 41238567, suggesting an unusual or even unique topology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geerds, Christina [Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Wohlmann, Jens; Haas, Albert [University of Bonn, Ulrich-Haberland Strasse 61a, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Niemann, Hartmut H., E-mail: hartmut.niemann@uni-bielefeld.de [Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany)
2014-06-18
The structure of VapB, a member of the Vap protein family that is involved in virulence of the bacterial pathogen R. equi, was determined by SAD phasing and reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel similar to avidin, suggestive of a binding function. Made up of two Greek-key motifs, the topology of VapB is unusual or even unique. Members of the virulence-associated protein (Vap) family from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi regulate virulence in an unknown manner. They do not share recognizable sequence homology with any protein of known structure. VapB and VapA are normally associated with isolates from pigs and horses, respectively. To contribute to a molecular understanding of Vap function, the crystal structure of a protease-resistant VapB fragment was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. The structure was solved by SAD phasing employing the anomalous signal of one endogenous S atom and two bound Co ions with low occupancy. VapB is an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel with a single helix. Structural similarity to avidins suggests a potential binding function. Unlike other eight- or ten-stranded β-barrels found in avidins, bacterial outer membrane proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins and lysozyme inhibitors, Vaps do not have a next-neighbour arrangement but consist of two Greek-key motifs with strand order 41238567, suggesting an unusual or even unique topology.
Quantitative structure - mesothelioma potency model ...
Cancer potencies of mineral and synthetic elongated particle (EP) mixtures, including asbestos fibers, are influenced by changes in fiber dose composition, bioavailability, and biodurability in combination with relevant cytotoxic dose-response relationships. A unique and comprehensive rat intra-pleural (IP) dose characterization data set with a wide variety of EP size, shape, crystallographic, chemical, and bio-durability properties facilitated extensive statistical analyses of 50 rat IP exposure test results for evaluation of alternative dose pleural mesothelioma response models. Utilizing logistic regression, maximum likelihood evaluations of thousands of alternative dose metrics based on hundreds of individual EP dimensional variations within each test sample, four major findings emerged: (1) data for simulations of short-term EP dose changes in vivo (mild acid leaching) provide superior predictions of tumor incidence compared to non-acid leached data; (2) sum of the EP surface areas (ÓSA) from these mildly acid-leached samples provides the optimum holistic dose response model; (3) progressive removal of dose associated with very short and/or thin EPs significantly degrades resultant ÓEP or ÓSA dose-based predictive model fits, as judged by Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC); and (4) alternative, biologically plausible model adjustments provide evidence for reduced potency of EPs with length/width (aspect) ratios 80 µm. Regar
Candy, A.S.; Pietrzak, J.D.
2018-01-01
The approaches taken to describe and develop spatial discretisations of the domains required for geophysical simulation models are commonly ad hoc, model- or application-specific, and under-documented. This is particularly acute for simulation models that are flexible in their use of multi-scale,
Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Golay, Philippe; McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.
2018-01-01
Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) was used to investigate the latent structure of the Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition core battery using the standardization sample normative data for ages 7-17. Results revealed plausibility of a three-factor model, consistent with publisher theory, expressed as either a higher-order (HO) or a…
Modeling protein structures: construction and their applications.
Ring, C S; Cohen, F E
1993-06-01
Although no general solution to the protein folding problem exists, the three-dimensional structures of proteins are being successfully predicted when experimentally derived constraints are used in conjunction with heuristic methods. In the case of interleukin-4, mutagenesis data and CD spectroscopy were instrumental in the accurate assignment of secondary structure. In addition, the tertiary structure was highly constrained by six cysteines separated by many residues that formed three disulfide bridges. Although the correct structure was a member of a short list of plausible structures, the "best" structure was the topological enantiomer of the experimentally determined conformation. For many proteases, other experimentally derived structures can be used as templates to identify the secondary structure elements. In a procedure called modeling by homology, the structure of a known protein is used as a scaffold to predict the structure of another related protein. This method has been used to model a serine and a cysteine protease that are important in the schistosome and malarial life cycles, respectively. The model structures were then used to identify putative small molecule enzyme inhibitors computationally. Experiments confirm that some of these nonpeptidic compounds are active at concentrations of less than 10 microM.
Basics of Structural Equation Modeling
Maruyama, Dr Geoffrey M
1997-01-01
With the availability of software programs, such as LISREL, EQS, and AMOS, modeling (SEM) techniques have become a popular tool for formalized presentation of the hypothesized relationships underlying correlational research and test for the plausibility of hypothesizing for a particular data set. Through the use of careful narrative explanation, Maruyama's text describes the logic underlying SEM approaches, describes how SEM approaches relate to techniques like regression and factor analysis, analyzes the strengths and shortcomings of SEM as compared to alternative methodologies, and explores
Multiplicity Control in Structural Equation Modeling
Cribbie, Robert A.
2007-01-01
Researchers conducting structural equation modeling analyses rarely, if ever, control for the inflated probability of Type I errors when evaluating the statistical significance of multiple parameters in a model. In this study, the Type I error control, power and true model rates of famsilywise and false discovery rate controlling procedures were…
A first course in structural equation modeling
Raykov, Tenko
2012-01-01
In this book, authors Tenko Raykov and George A. Marcoulides introduce students to the basics of structural equation modeling (SEM) through a conceptual, nonmathematical approach. For ease of understanding, the few mathematical formulas presented are used in a conceptual or illustrative nature, rather than a computational one.Featuring examples from EQS, LISREL, and Mplus, A First Course in Structural Equation Modeling is an excellent beginner's guide to learning how to set up input files to fit the most commonly used types of structural equation models with these programs. The basic ideas and methods for conducting SEM are independent of any particular software.Highlights of the Second Edition include: Review of latent change (growth) analysis models at an introductory level Coverage of the popular Mplus program Updated examples of LISREL and EQS A CD that contains all of the text's LISREL, EQS, and Mplus examples.A First Course in Structural Equation Modeling is intended as an introductory book for students...
MODEL OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE OF AGROHOLDING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Александр Витальевич ШМАТКО
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This article describes the main problems of functioning of the agricultural holding, the analysis of literature on strategic management of agricultural holdin gs. Revealed the main disadvantage of the existing approaches, namely - they rely on the existing structure of the holding, not considering that the structure itself is a complex for the analysis and understanding. The basic methods and models of organizational structure of agricultural holdings. Are discrete model of the management structure of agricultural holdings, which minimizes costs associated with attracting candidates to work.
Model techniques for testing heated concrete structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stefanou, G.D.
1983-01-01
Experimental techniques are described which may be used in the laboratory to measure strains of model concrete structures representing to scale actual structures of any shape or geometry, operating at elevated temperatures, for which time-dependent creep and shrinkage strains are dominant. These strains could be used to assess the distribution of stress in the scaled structure and hence to predict the actual behaviour of concrete structures used in nuclear power stations. Similar techniques have been employed in an investigation to measure elastic, thermal, creep and shrinkage strains in heated concrete models representing to scale parts of prestressed concrete pressure vessels for nuclear reactors. (author)
Structure functions in the chiral bag model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.
1989-07-13
We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).
Automated Protein Structure Modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal
Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten
2012-01-01
Comparative protein structure modeling is a computational approach to build three-dimensional structural models for proteins using experimental structures of related protein family members as templates. Regular blind assessments of modeling accuracy have demonstrated that comparative protein structure modeling is currently the most reliable technique to model protein structures. Homology models are often sufficiently accurate to substitute for experimental structures in a wide variety of appl...
Evolutionary triplet models of structured RNA.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert K Bradley
2009-08-01
Full Text Available The reconstruction and synthesis of ancestral RNAs is a feasible goal for paleogenetics. This will require new bioinformatics methods, including a robust statistical framework for reconstructing histories of substitutions, indels and structural changes. We describe a "transducer composition" algorithm for extending pairwise probabilistic models of RNA structural evolution to models of multiple sequences related by a phylogenetic tree. This algorithm draws on formal models of computational linguistics as well as the 1985 protosequence algorithm of David Sankoff. The output of the composition algorithm is a multiple-sequence stochastic context-free grammar. We describe dynamic programming algorithms, which are robust to null cycles and empty bifurcations, for parsing this grammar. Example applications include structural alignment of non-coding RNAs, propagation of structural information from an experimentally-characterized sequence to its homologs, and inference of the ancestral structure of a set of diverged RNAs. We implemented the above algorithms for a simple model of pairwise RNA structural evolution; in particular, the algorithms for maximum likelihood (ML alignment of three known RNA structures and a known phylogeny and inference of the common ancestral structure. We compared this ML algorithm to a variety of related, but simpler, techniques, including ML alignment algorithms for simpler models that omitted various aspects of the full model and also a posterior-decoding alignment algorithm for one of the simpler models. In our tests, incorporation of basepair structure was the most important factor for accurate alignment inference; appropriate use of posterior-decoding was next; and fine details of the model were least important. Posterior-decoding heuristics can be substantially faster than exact phylogenetic inference, so this motivates the use of sum-over-pairs heuristics where possible (and approximate sum-over-pairs. For more exact
Antibody structural modeling with prediction of immunoglobulin structure (PIGS)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marcatili, Paolo; Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Chailyan, Anna
2014-01-01
applications in all of these areas. Over the years, we have developed or collaborated in developing a strategy that enables researchers to predict the 3D structure of antibodies with a very satisfactory accuracy. The strategy is completely automated and extremely fast, requiring only a few minutes (∼10 min...... on average) to build a structural model of an antibody. It is based on the concept of canonical structures of antibody loops and on our understanding of the way light and heavy chains pack together....
Modeling the Structure of Hot Star Disks: a Critical Evaluation of the Viscous Decretion Scenario
Carciofi, A. C.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Magalhães, A. M.; Bjorkman, K. S.
2007-03-01
We present self-consistent solutions for the disk structure of classical Be stars. Our disk model is hydrostatically supported in the vertical direction and the radial structure is governed by viscosity (α-disks). We perform 3-D NLTE Monte Carlo simulations to calculate simultaneously both the equilibrium temperature and Hydrogen level populations and to solve self-consistently for the density structure of the disk. We discuss the general properties of the solution for the disk structure and test our model against observations of δ Scorpii. Our results confirm that a viscous decretion disk model is consistent with these observations.
A framework to assess the realism of model structures using hydrological signatures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Euser
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The use of flexible hydrological model structures for hypothesis testing requires an objective and diagnostic method to identify whether a rainfall-runoff model structure is suitable for a certain catchment. To determine if a model structure is realistic, i.e. if it captures the relevant runoff processes, both performance and consistency are important. We define performance as the ability of a model structure to mimic a specific part of the hydrological behaviour in a specific catchment. This can be assessed based on evaluation criteria, such as the goodness of fit of specific hydrological signatures obtained from hydrological data. Consistency is defined as the ability of a model structure to adequately reproduce several hydrological signatures simultaneously while using the same set of parameter values. In this paper we describe and demonstrate a new evaluation Framework for Assessing the Realism of Model structures (FARM. The evaluation framework tests for both performance and consistency using a principal component analysis on a range of evaluation criteria, all emphasizing different hydrological behaviour. The utility of this evaluation framework is demonstrated in a case study of two small headwater catchments (Maimai, New Zealand, and Wollefsbach, Luxembourg. Eight different hydrological signatures and eleven model structures have been used for this study. The results suggest that some model structures may reveal the same degree of performance for selected evaluation criteria while showing differences in consistency. The results also show that some model structures have a higher performance and consistency than others. The principal component analysis in combination with several hydrological signatures is shown to be useful to visualise the performance and consistency of a model structure for the study catchments. With this framework performance and consistency are evaluated to identify which model structure suits a catchment better
Model reduction in integrated controls-structures design
Maghami, Peiman G.
1993-01-01
It is the objective of this paper to present a model reduction technique developed for the integrated controls-structures design of flexible structures. Integrated controls-structures design problems are typically posed as nonlinear mathematical programming problems, where the design variables consist of both structural and control parameters. In the solution process, both structural and control design variables are constantly changing; therefore, the dynamic characteristics of the structure are also changing. This presents a problem in obtaining a reduced-order model for active control design and analysis which will be valid for all design points within the design space. In other words, the frequency and number of the significant modes of the structure (modes that should be included) may vary considerably throughout the design process. This is also true as the locations and/or masses of the sensors and actuators change. Moreover, since the number of design evaluations in the integrated design process could easily run into thousands, any feasible order-reduction method should not require model reduction analysis at every design iteration. In this paper a novel and efficient technique for model reduction in the integrated controls-structures design process, which addresses these issues, is presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeng, Zhenhua; Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Greeley, Jeffrey Philip
2014-01-01
how the structural information can be used as a starting point for accurate calculations of the kinetics of fuel oxidation reactions, in particular the hydrogen oxidation reaction. More generally, we anticipate that the scheme will be a valuable theoretical tool to describe solid–solid electrochemical......Solid oxide fuel cells are attractive devices in a sustainable energy context because of their fuel flexibility and potentially highly efficient conversion of chemical to electrical energy. The performance of the device is to a large extent determined by the atomic structure of the electrode......–electrolyte interface. Lack of atomic-level information about the interface has limited the fundamental understanding, which further limits the opportunity for optimization. The atomic structure of the interface is affected by electrode potential, chemical potential of oxygen ions, temperature, and gas pressures...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weimer-Jehle, Wolfgang; Wassermann, Sandra; Kosow, Hannah [Internationales Zentrum fuer Kultur- und Technikforschung an der Univ. Stuttgart (Germany). ZIRN Interdisziplinaerer Forschungsschwerpunkt Risiko und Nachhaltige Technikentwicklung
2011-04-15
Model-based environmental scenarios normally require multiple framework assumptions regarding future social, political and economic developments (external developments). In most cases these framework assumptions are highly uncertain. Furthermore, different external developments are not isolated from each other and their interdependences can be described by qualitative judgments only. If the internal consistency of framework assumptions is not methodologically addressed, environmental models risk to be based on inconsistent combinations of framework assumptions which do not reflect existing relations between the respective factors in an appropriate way. This report aims at demonstrating how consistent context scenarios can be developed with the help of the cross-impact balance analysis (CIB). This method allows not only for the internal consistency of framework assumptions of a single model but also for the overall consistency of framework assumptions of modeling instruments, supporting the integrated interpretation of the results of different models. In order to demonstrate the method, in a first step, ten common framework assumptions were chosen and their possible future developments until 2030 were described. In a second step, a qualitative impact network was developed based on expert elicitation. The impact network provided the basis for a qualitative but systematic analysis of the internal consistency of combinations of framework assumptions. This analysis was carried out with the CIB-method and resulted in a set of consistent context scenarios. These scenarios can be used as an informative background for defining framework assumptions for environmental models at the UBA. (orig.)
VISCOELASTIC STRUCTURAL MODEL OF ASPHALT CONCRETE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Bogomolov
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The viscoelastic rheological model of asphalt concrete based on the generalized Kelvin model is offered. The mathematical model of asphalt concrete viscoelastic behavior that can be used for calculation of asphalt concrete upper layers of non-rigid pavements for strength and rutting has been developed. It has been proved that the structural model of Burgers does not fully meet all the requirements of the asphalt-concrete.
Observations and Modeling of Atmospheric Radiance Structure
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Wintersteiner, Peter
2001-01-01
The overall purpose of the work that we have undertaken is to provide new capabilities for observing and modeling structured radiance in the atmosphere, particularly the non-LTE regions of the atmosphere...
Linear causal modeling with structural equations
Mulaik, Stanley A
2009-01-01
Emphasizing causation as a functional relationship between variables that describe objects, Linear Causal Modeling with Structural Equations integrates a general philosophical theory of causation with structural equation modeling (SEM) that concerns the special case of linear causal relations. In addition to describing how the functional relation concept may be generalized to treat probabilistic causation, the book reviews historical treatments of causation and explores recent developments in experimental psychology on studies of the perception of causation. It looks at how to perceive causal
Exploring RNA structure by integrative molecular modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Masquida, Benoît; Beckert, Bertrand; Jossinet, Fabrice
2010-01-01
on interactive all-atom molecular modelling relies on the observation that specific structural motifs are recurrently found in RNA sequences. Once identified by a combination of comparative sequence analysis and biochemical data, the motifs composing the secondary structure of a given RNA can be extruded...
Evolving the structure of hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
won, K. J.; Prugel-Bennett, A.; Krogh, A.
2006-01-01
A genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for finding the structure of hidden Markov Models (HMMs) used for biological sequence analysis. The GA is designed to preserve biologically meaningful building blocks. The search through the space of HMM structures is combined with optimization of the emission...
Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models
Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.
2003-01-01
To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems, on
Schröder, Tom
2009-01-01
To understand how the uptake of water by roots locally affects and is affected by the soil water distribution, 3D soil-root water transfer models are needed. Nowadays, fully coupled 3D models at the plant scale, that simulate water flow along water potential gradients in the soil-root continuum, are available. However, the coupling of the soil and root system is not investigated thoroughly. In the available models the soil water potential gradient below the soil spatial discretization is negl...
Li, Jiahui; Yu, Qiqing
2016-01-01
Dinse (Biometrics, 38:417-431, 1982) provides a special type of right-censored and masked competing risks data and proposes a non-parametric maximum likelihood estimator (NPMLE) and a pseudo MLE of the joint distribution function [Formula: see text] with such data. However, their asymptotic properties have not been studied so far. Under the extention of either the conditional masking probability (CMP) model or the random partition masking (RPM) model (Yu and Li, J Nonparametr Stat 24:753-764, 2012), we show that (1) Dinse's estimators are consistent if [Formula: see text] takes on finitely many values and each point in the support set of [Formula: see text] can be observed; (2) if the failure time is continuous, the NPMLE is not uniquely determined, and the standard approach (which puts weights only on one element in each observed set) leads to an inconsistent NPMLE; (3) in general, Dinse's estimators are not consistent even under the discrete assumption; (4) we construct a consistent NPMLE. The consistency is given under a new model called dependent masking and right-censoring model. The CMP model and the RPM model are indeed special cases of the new model. We compare our estimator to Dinse's estimators through simulation and real data. Simulation study indicates that the consistent NPMLE is a good approximation to the underlying distribution for moderate sample sizes.
Sun, W. L.; Wang, J.; Soukhovitskii, E. Sh.; Capote, R.; Quesada, J. M.
2017-09-01
A fully Lane-consistent dispersive spherical optical potential is proposed to describe nucleon scattering interaction with doubly magic nucleus 208Pb up to 200 MeV. The experimental neutron total cross sections, elastically scattered nucleon angular distributions and (p,n) data had been used to search the potential parameters. Good agreement between experiments and the calculations with this potential is observed. Meanwhile, the application of the determined optical potential with the same parameters to neighbouring near magic Pb-Bi isotopes is also examined to show the predictive power of this potential.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galán, J; Verleysen, P; Lebensohn, R A
2014-01-01
A new algorithm for the solution of the deformation of a polycrystalline material using a self-consistent scheme, and its integration as part of the finite element software Abaqus/Standard are presented. The method is based on the original VPSC formulation by Lebensohn and Tomé and its integration with Abaqus/Standard by Segurado et al. The new algorithm has been implemented as a set of Fortran 90 modules, to be used either from a standalone program or from Abaqus subroutines. The new implementation yields the same results as VPSC7, but with a significantly better performance, especially when used in multicore computers. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo de Paula Lima
2012-01-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder resulting from exposure to traumatic events. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL is a self-report measure largely used to evaluate the presence of PTSD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the internal consistency, temporal reliability and factor validity of the Portuguese language version of the PCL used in Brazil. METHODS: A total of 186 participants were recruited. The sample was heterogeneous with regard to occupation, sociodemographic data, mental health history, and exposure to traumatic events. Subjects answered the PCL at two occasions within a 15 days’ interval (range: 5-15 days. RESULTS: Cronbach’s alpha coefficients indicated high internal consistency for the total scale (0.91 and for the theoretical dimensions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV (0.83, 0.81, and 0.80. Temporal reliability (test-retest was high and consistent for different cutoffs. Maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted and oblique rotation (Promax was applied. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO index (0.911 and Bartlett’s test of sphericity (χ² = 1,381.34, p INTRODUÇÃO: O transtorno do estresse pós-traumático (TEPT é um transtorno de ansiedade decorrente da exposição a eventos traumáticos. Entre as medidas de avaliação dos sintomas, destaca-se o Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL. OBJETIVO: Investigar a consistência interna, a confiabilidade temporal e a validade fatorial da versão do PCL em português, utilizada no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 186 indivíduos heterogêneos em relação a ocupação, características sociodemográficas, histórico de saúde mental e exposição a eventos traumáticos. O PCL foi aplicado em dois momentos considerando um intervalo máximo de 15 dias (intervalo: 5-15 dias. RESULTADOS: A consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach foi adequada para a escala
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lakomek, Nils-Alexander; Walter, Korvin F. A.; Fares, Christophe [Max-Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department for NMR-based Structural Biology (Germany); Lange, Oliver F.; Groot, Bert L. de; Grubmueller, Helmut [Max-Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department for Theoretical and Computational Biophysics (Germany); Brueschweiler, Rafael [Florida State University, NHFML (United States); Munk, Axel [University of Goettingen, Institut for Mathematical Stochastics (Germany); Becker, Stefan [Max-Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department for NMR-based Structural Biology (Germany); Meiler, Jens [Vanderbilt University, Department of Chemistry, Center of Structural Biology (United States); Griesinger, Christian [Max-Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department for NMR-based Structural Biology (Germany)], E-mail: cigr@nmr.mpibpc.mpg.de
2008-07-15
Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) provide information about the dynamic average orientation of inter-nuclear vectors and amplitudes of motion up to milliseconds. They complement relaxation methods, especially on a time-scale window that we have called supra-{tau}{sub c} ({tau}{sub c} < supra-{tau}{sub c} < 50 {mu}s). Here we present a robust approach called Self-Consistent RDC-based Model-free analysis (SCRM) that delivers RDC-based order parameters-independent of the details of the structure used for alignment tensor calculation-as well as the dynamic average orientation of the inter-nuclear vectors in the protein structure in a self-consistent manner. For ubiquitin, the SCRM analysis yields an average RDC-derived order parameter of the NH vectors = 0.72 {+-} 0.02 compared to = 0.778 {+-} 0.003 for the Lipari-Szabo order parameters, indicating that the inclusion of the supra-{tau}{sub c} window increases the averaged amplitude of mobility observed in the sub-{tau}{sub c} window by about 34%. For the {beta}-strand spanned by residues Lys48 to Leu50, an alternating pattern of backbone NH RDC order parameter S{sub rdc}{sup 2} (NH) = (0.59, 0.72, 0.59) was extracted. The backbone of Lys48, whose side chain is known to be involved in the poly-ubiquitylation process that leads to protein degradation, is very mobile on the supra-{tau}{sub c} time scale (S{sub rdc}{sup 2} (NH) = 0.59 {+-} 0.03), while it is inconspicuous (S{sub LS}{sup 2} (NH) = 0.82) on the sub-{tau}{sub c} as well as on {mu}s-ms relaxation dispersion time scales. The results of this work differ from previous RDC dynamics studies of ubiquitin in the sense that the results are essentially independent of structural noise providing a much more robust assessment of dynamic effects that underlie the RDC data.
Bowron, D T; Diaz-Moreno, S
2007-10-04
Hydrogen/deuterium isotopic neutron diffraction techniques have been used to investigate the structure of a 1 m aqueous solution of YCl3 at room temperature. Empirical potential structure refinement (EPSR) has been used to build a three-dimensional model of the solution structure that is consistent with the bulk solvent correlations strongly probed by the neutron scattering technique. Optimization of the local structural environment of the Y3+ ion sites within the model has been performed through calculations of the yttrium K-edge, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectrum of the solution, and detailed information has been extracted on the structure of the ion hydration shell and the extent of inner-sphere ion pairing within the solution. The results demonstrate the significant potential of this hybrid data analysis approach to circumvent the limitations of the individual experimental methods, to refine atomic potential models, and to produce accurate, quantitative structural models of the local environment of dilute atomic species within tightly constrained bulk network structures.
Modeling of creep for structural analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naumenko, K.; Altenbach, H. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Mechanik
2007-07-01
''Creep Modeling for Structural Analysis'' develops methods to simulate and analyze the time-dependent changes of stress and strain states in engineering structures up to the critical stage of creep rupture. The principal subjects of creep mechanics are the formulation of constitutive equations for creep in structural materials under multi-axial stress states; the application of structural mechanics models of beams, plates, shells and three-dimensional solids and the utilization of procedures for the solution of non-linear initial-boundary value problems. The objective of this book is to review some of the classical and recently proposed approaches to the modeling of creep for structural analysis applications as well as to extend the collection of available solutions of creep problems by new, more sophisticated examples. In Chapter 1, the book discusses basic features of the creep behavior in materials and structures and presents an overview of various approaches to the modeling of creep. Chapter 2 collects constitutive models that describe creep and damage processes under multi-axial stress states. Chapter 3 deals with the application of constitutive models to the description of creep for several structural materials. Constitutive and evolution equations, response functions and material constants are presented according to recently published experimental data. In Chapter 4 the authors discuss structural mechanics problems. Governing equations of creep in three-dimensional solids, direct variational methods and time step algorithms are reviewed. Examples are presented to illustrate the application of advanced numerical methods to the structural analysis. An emphasis is placed on the development and verification of creep-damage material subroutines inside the general purpose finite element codes. (orig.)
Reservoir structural model updating using the Ensemble Kalman Filter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seiler, Alexandra
2010-09-15
In reservoir characterization, a large emphasis is placed on risk management and uncertainty assessment, and the dangers of basing decisions on a single base-case reservoir model are widely recognized. In the last years, statistical methods for assisted history matching have gained popularity for providing integrated models with quantified uncertainty, conditioned on all available data. Structural modeling is the first step in a reservoir modeling work flow and consists in defining the geometrical framework of the reservoir, based on the information from seismic surveys and well data. Large uncertainties are typically associated with the processing and interpretation of seismic data. However, the structural model is often fixed to a single interpretation in history-matching work flows due to the complexity of updating the structural model and related reservoir grid. This thesis present a method that allows to account for the uncertainties in the structural model and continuously update the model and related uncertainties by assimilation of production data using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). We consider uncertainties in the depth of the reservoir horizons and in the fault geometry, and assimilate production data, such as oil production rate, gas-oil ratio and water-cut. In the EnKF model-updating work flow, an ensemble of reservoir models, expressing explicitly the model uncertainty, is created. We present a parameterization that allows to generate different realizations of the structural model to account for the uncertainties in faults and horizons and that maintains the consistency throughout the reservoir characterization project, from the structural model to the prediction of production profiles. The uncertainty in the depth of the horizons is parameterized as simulated depth surfaces, the fault position as a displacement vector and the fault throw as a throw-scaling factor. In the EnKF, the model parameters and state variables are updated sequentially in
Intelligent structural optimization: Concept, Model and Methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Dagang; Wang, Guangyuan; Peng, Zhang
2002-01-01
Structural optimization has many characteristics of Soft Design, and so, it is necessary to apply the experience of human experts to solving the uncertain and multidisciplinary optimization problems in large-scale and complex engineering systems. With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) and computational intelligence (CI), the theory of structural optimization is now developing into the direction of intelligent optimization. In this paper, a concept of Intelligent Structural Optimization (ISO) is proposed. And then, a design process model of ISO is put forward in which each design sub-process model are discussed. Finally, the design methods of ISO are presented
Antibody structural modeling with prediction of immunoglobulin structure (PIGS)
Marcatili, Paolo
2014-11-06
© 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Antibodies (or immunoglobulins) are crucial for defending organisms from pathogens, but they are also key players in many medical, diagnostic and biotechnological applications. The ability to predict their structure and the specific residues involved in antigen recognition has several useful applications in all of these areas. Over the years, we have developed or collaborated in developing a strategy that enables researchers to predict the 3D structure of antibodies with a very satisfactory accuracy. The strategy is completely automated and extremely fast, requiring only a few minutes (~10 min on average) to build a structural model of an antibody. It is based on the concept of canonical structures of antibody loops and on our understanding of the way light and heavy chains pack together.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suwanna, S.; Onjun, T.; Wongpan, P.; Parail, V.; Poolyarat, N.; Picha, R.
2009-01-01
Full text: A formation of a steep pressure gradient region near the plasma edge, called the pedestal, is a main reason for an improved performance in H-mode plasma. In this work, new pedestal temperature models are developed based on different theoretical-based width concepts: flow shear stabilization width concept, magnetic and flow shear stabilization width concept, and diamagnetic stabilization width concept. In the BALDUR code, each pedestal width model is combined with a ballooning mode pressure gradient model to predict the pedestal temperature, which is a boundary condition needed to predict plasma profiles. In the JETTO code, an anomalous transport is suppressed within the pedestal region, which results in a formation of a steep pressure gradient region. The pedestal width is predicted using these theoretically based width concepts. The plasma profiles in the pedestal region are limited by ELM crashes, which can be triggered either by ballooning modes or by peeling modes, depending on which instability is destabilized first. It is found in the BALDUR simulations that the simulated pedestal temperature profiles agree well with experimental data in the region close to the pedestal, but show larger deviation in the core region. In a preliminary investigation, these models agree reasonably well with experiments, yielding overall RMS less than 20%. Furthermore, the model based flow shear stabilization matches very well data from both DIII-D and JET, while the model based on magnetic and flow shear stabilization over-predicts results from JET and under-predicts those from DIII-D. Other statistical analyses such a calculation of offset values, ratios of predicted pedestal (resp. core) temperatures to those from experiments are performed. (author)
Categorical model of structural operational semantics for imperative language
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William Steingartner
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Definition of programming languages consists of the formal definition of syntax and semantics. One of the most popular semantic methods used in various stages of software engineering is structural operational semantics. It describes program behavior in the form of state changes after execution of elementary steps of program. This feature makes structural operational semantics useful for implementation of programming languages and also for verification purposes. In our paper we present a new approach to structural operational semantics. We model behavior of programs in category of states, where objects are states, an abstraction of computer memory and morphisms model state changes, execution of a program in elementary steps. The advantage of using categorical model is its exact mathematical structure with many useful proved properties and its graphical illustration of program behavior as a path, i.e. a composition of morphisms. Our approach is able to accentuate dynamics of structural operational semantics. For simplicity, we assume that data are intuitively typed. Visualization and facility of our model is not only a new model of structural operational semantics of imperative programming languages but it can also serve for education purposes.
Heald, C.R.; Stolnik, S.; Matteis, De C.; Garnett, M.C.; Illum, L.; Davis, S.S.; Leermakers, F.A.M.
2003-01-01
Self-consistent field (SCF) modelling studies can be used to predict the properties of poly(lactic acid):poly(ethyleneoxide) (PLA:PEG) nanoparticles using the theory developed by Scheutjens and Fleer. Good agreement in the results between experimental and modelled data has been observed previously
Modelling of Deterioration Effects on Concrete Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Teplý
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In order to predict the service life of concrete structures models for deterioration effects are needed. This paper has the form of a survey, listing and describing such analytical models, namely carbonation of concrete, ingress of chlorides, corrosion of reinforcing steel and prestressing tendons. The probabilistic approach is applied.
Impact damages modeling in laminated composite structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kreculj Dragan D.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Laminated composites have an important application in modern engineering structures. They are characterized by extraordinary properties, such as: high strength and stiffness and lightweight. Nevertheless, a serious obstacle to more widespread use of those materials is their sensitivity to the impact loads. Impacts cause initiation and development of certain types of damages. Failures that occur in laminated composite structures can be intralaminar and interlaminar. To date it was developed a lot of simulation models for impact damages analysis in laminates. Those models can replace real and expensive testing in laminated structures with a certain accuracy. By using specialized software the damage parameters and distributions can be determined (at certain conditions on laminate structures. With performing numerical simulation of impact on composite laminates there are corresponding results valid for the analysis of these structures.
Banerjee, S.; Hassenklover, E.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Leermakers, F.A.M.
2013-01-01
This paper presents experimental and modeling results on water–CO2 interfacial tension (IFT) together with wettability studies of water on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces immersed in CO2. CO2–water interfacial tension (IFT) measurements showed that the IFT decreased with increasing
Dijkstra, J.J.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Sloot, van der H.A.; Comans, R.N.J.
2008-01-01
To improve the long-term environmental risk assessment of waste applications, a predictive "multi-surface" modelling approach has been developed to simultaneously predict the leaching and reactive transport of a broad range of major and trace elements (i.e., pH, Na, Al, Fe, Ca, SO4, Mg, Si, PO4,
Automated protein structure modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal.
Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten
2012-01-01
Comparative protein structure modeling is a computational approach to build three-dimensional structural models for proteins using experimental structures of related protein family members as templates. Regular blind assessments of modeling accuracy have demonstrated that comparative protein structure modeling is currently the most reliable technique to model protein structures. Homology models are often sufficiently accurate to substitute for experimental structures in a wide variety of applications. Since the usefulness of a model for specific application is determined by its accuracy, model quality estimation is an essential component of protein structure prediction. Comparative protein modeling has become a routine approach in many areas of life science research since fully automated modeling systems allow also nonexperts to build reliable models. In this chapter, we describe practical approaches for automated protein structure modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal.
Power mos devices: structures and modelling procedures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rossel, P.; Charitat, G.; Tranduc, H.; Morancho, F.; Moncoqut
1997-05-01
In this survey, the historical evolution of power MOS transistor structures is presented and currently used devices are described. General considerations on current and voltage capabilities are discussed and configurations of popular structures are given. A synthesis of different modelling approaches proposed last three years is then presented, including analytical solutions, for basic electrical parameters such as threshold voltage, on-resistance, saturation and quasi-saturation effects, temperature influence and voltage handling capability. The numerical solutions of basic semiconductor devices is then briefly reviewed along with some typical problems which can be solved this way. A compact circuit modelling method is finally explained with emphasis on dynamic behavior modelling
Structured building model reduction toward parallel simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobbs, Justin R. [Cornell University; Hencey, Brondon M. [Cornell University
2013-08-26
Building energy model reduction exchanges accuracy for improved simulation speed by reducing the number of dynamical equations. Parallel computing aims to improve simulation times without loss of accuracy but is poorly utilized by contemporary simulators and is inherently limited by inter-processor communication. This paper bridges these disparate techniques to implement efficient parallel building thermal simulation. We begin with a survey of three structured reduction approaches that compares their performance to a leading unstructured method. We then use structured model reduction to find thermal clusters in the building energy model and allocate processing resources. Experimental results demonstrate faster simulation and low error without any interprocessor communication.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.
1988-12-01
The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig
A MATLAB toolbox for structural kinetic modeling.
Girbig, Dorothee; Selbig, Joachim; Grimbs, Sergio
2012-10-01
Structural kinetic modeling (SKM) enables the analysis of dynamical properties of metabolic networks solely based on topological information and experimental data. Current SKM-based experiments are hampered by the time-intensive process of assigning model parameters and choosing appropriate sampling intervals for Monte-Carlo experiments. We introduce a toolbox for the automatic and efficient construction and evaluation of structural kinetic models (SK models). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of network stability properties are performed in an automated manner. We illustrate the model building and analysis process in detailed example scripts that provide toolbox implementations of previously published literature models. The source code is freely available for download at http://bioinformatics.uni-potsdam.de/projects/skm. girbig@mpimp-golm.mpg.de.
Salama-Younes, Mareï; Montazeri, Ali; Ismaïl, Amany; Roncin, Charles
2009-03-05
The objectives of this study were to test the factor structure and internal consistency of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS) in elderly French people, and to test the relationship between these two questionnaires. Using a standard 'forward-backward' translation procedure, the English language versions of the two instruments (i.e. the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Subjective Vitality Scale) were translated into French. A sample of adults aged 58-72 years then completed both questionnaires. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The factor structures of the two instruments were extracted by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Finally, the relationship between the two instruments was assessed by correlation analysis. In all, 217 elderly adults participated in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 61.7 (SD = 6.2) years. The mean GHQ-12 score was 17.4 (SD = 8.0), and analysis showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.78). The mean VS score was 22.4 (SD = 7.4) and its internal consistency was found to be good (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.83). While CFA showed that the VS was uni-dimensional, analysis for the GHQ-12 demonstrated a good fit not only to the two-factor model (positive vs. negative items) but also to a three-factor model. As expected, there was a strong and significant negative correlation between the GHQ-12 and the VS (r = -0.71, P GHQ-12) and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS) are reliable measures of psychological distress and vitality. They also confirm a significant negative correlation between these two instruments, lending support to their convergent validity in an elderly French population. The findings indicate that both measures have good structural characteristics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ismaïl Amany
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to test the factor structure and internal consistency of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS in elderly French people, and to test the relationship between these two questionnaires. Methods Using a standard 'forward-backward' translation procedure, the English language versions of the two instruments (i.e. the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Subjective Vitality Scale were translated into French. A sample of adults aged 58–72 years then completed both questionnaires. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The factor structures of the two instruments were extracted by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Finally, the relationship between the two instruments was assessed by correlation analysis. Results In all, 217 elderly adults participated in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 61.7 (SD = 6.2 years. The mean GHQ-12 score was 17.4 (SD = 8.0, and analysis showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.78. The mean VS score was 22.4 (SD = 7.4 and its internal consistency was found to be good (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.83. While CFA showed that the VS was uni-dimensional, analysis for the GHQ-12 demonstrated a good fit not only to the two-factor model (positive vs. negative items but also to a three-factor model. As expected, there was a strong and significant negative correlation between the GHQ-12 and the VS (r = -0.71, P Conclusion The results showed that the French versions of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS are reliable measures of psychological distress and vitality. They also confirm a significant negative correlation between these two instruments, lending support to their convergent validity in an elderly French population. The findings indicate that both measures have good structural
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhukov, V.P.; Yarlborg, T.; Gubanov, V.A.; Shvejkin, G.P.
1985-01-01
Self-consistent band structure calculations of V, Nb, VC, NbC, WC are carried out by the methods of LMTO and canonical Anderson zones with account for hybridization. The presence of an abnormally wide the 2pC-5dW-band and band of the 5d-states of tungsten below the Fermi level, predominantly, is found for WC. The crystal lattice constants, moduli of volume elasticity and sound velocities, Debye temperatures and melting temperatures are calculated. The results mainly correspond to the trends observed in the experiements. It is shown that a high VC elasticity is, basically, determined by hybridization of the metal s- and p-states with the carbon 2s- and 2p-states, while hybridization of the 5d-W- and 2pC-, 2sC-states makes the greatest contribution to the extreme elasticity
Feature Extraction for Structural Dynamics Model Validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nishio, Mayuko [Yokohama University; Hemez, Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stull, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam Univesity; Cornwell, Phil [Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology; Figueiredo, Eloi [Universidade Lusófona; Luscher, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worden, Keith [University of Sheffield
2016-01-13
As structural dynamics becomes increasingly non-modal, stochastic and nonlinear, finite element model-updating technology must adopt the broader notions of model validation and uncertainty quantification. For example, particular re-sampling procedures must be implemented to propagate uncertainty through a forward calculation, and non-modal features must be defined to analyze nonlinear data sets. The latter topic is the focus of this report, but first, some more general comments regarding the concept of model validation will be discussed.
Quadratic Term Structure Models in Discrete Time
Marco Realdon
2006-01-01
This paper extends the results on quadratic term structure models in continuos time to the discrete time setting. The continuos time setting can be seen as a special case of the discrete time one. Recursive closed form solutions for zero coupon bonds are provided even in the presence of multiple correlated underlying factors. Pricing bond options requires simple integration. Model parameters may well be time dependent without scuppering such tractability. Model estimation does not require a r...
A structural model of intrinsic motivation
Aguilar, Javier; González, Daniel; Aguilar, Amira
2017-01-01
The main purpose of this research was to develop and test a structural model of intrinsic motivation among students of the University of Sonora to the curriculum of their careers. A secondary objective was to overcome the limitations of the model developed among students of the UNAM. Eight psychometric scales developed by the authors in previous studies were used, which showed satisfactory reliability and validity values. The model tested was similar to the sample of the UNAM, except for the ...
Time series modelling of overflow structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.
1997-01-01
The dynamics of a storage pipe is examined using a grey-box model based on on-line measured data. The grey-box modelling approach uses a combination of physically-based and empirical terms in the model formulation. The model provides an on-line state estimate of the overflows, pumping capacities...... to the overflow structures. The capacity of a pump draining the storage pipe has been estimated for two rain events, revealing that the pump was malfunctioning during the first rain event. The grey-box modelling approach is applicable for automated on-line surveillance and control. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Ji-hoon; Wise, John H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2011-11-04
There is mounting evidence for the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs) in a hierarchical structure formation paradigm. To tackle the nonlinear processes of galaxy-MBH interaction, we describe a self-consistent numerical framework which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs. The high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code Enzo is modified to model the formation and feedback of molecular clouds at their characteristic scale of 15.2 pc and the accretion of gas onto an MBH. Two major channels of MBH feedback, radiative feedback (X-ray photons followed through full three-dimensional adaptive ray tracing) and mechanical feedback (bipolar jets resolved in high-resolution AMR), are employed. We investigate the coevolution of a 9.2 x 10{sup 11} M {circle_dot} galactic halo and its 10{sup 5} {circle_dot} M embedded MBH at redshift 3 in a cosmological CDM simulation. The MBH feedback heats the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) up to 10{sup 6} K through photoionization and Compton heating and locally suppresses star formation in the galactic inner core. The feedback considerably changes the stellar distribution there. This new channel of feedback from a slowly growing MBH is particularly interesting because it is only locally dominant and does not require the heating of gas globally on the disk. The MBH also self-regulates its growth by keeping the surrounding ISM hot for an extended period of time.
A Self-consistent Model for a Full Cycle of Recurrent Novae—Wind Mass-loss Rate and X-Ray Luminosity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kato, Mariko [Department of Astronomy, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8521 (Japan); Saio, Hideyuki [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8578 (Japan); Hachisu, Izumi, E-mail: mariko.kato@hc.st.keio.ac.jp [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, College of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)
2017-04-01
An unexpectedly slow evolution in the pre-optical-maximum phase was suggested in the very short recurrence period of nova M31N 2008-12a. To obtain reasonable nova light curves we have improved our calculation method by consistently combining optically thick wind solutions of hydrogen-rich envelopes with white dwarf (WD) structures calculated by a Henyey-type evolution code. The wind mass-loss rate is properly determined with high accuracy. We have calculated light curve models for 1.2 M {sub ⊙} and 1.38 M {sub ⊙} WDs with mass accretion rates corresponding to recurrence periods of 10 yr and 1 yr, respectively. The outburst lasts 590/29 days, in which the pre-optical-maximum phase is 82/16 days, for 1.2/1.38 M {sub ⊙}, respectively. Optically thick winds start at the end of the X-ray flash and cease at the beginning of the supersoft X-ray phase. We also present supersoft X-ray light curves including a prompt X-ray flash and later supersoft X-ray phase.
2011-02-01
human volunteers with sporozoites. 6 A sporozoite challenge model has been available for P. falciparum for several decades and has led to...the reproduc- ibility of the infection. In those studies, sporozoites inoculated by < 5 mosquitoes led to an irregular infection in malaria-naive...particularly to Juana Vergara and Johanna Parra, for the vol- unteers’ recruitment and health assistance. We also thank Luz Amparo Martínez and all the
Choi, Sung W.; Gerencser, Akos A.; Ng, Ryan; Flynn, James M.; Melov, Simon; Danielson, Steven R.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Nicholls, David G.; Bredesen, Dale E.; Brand, Martin D.
2012-01-01
Depressed cortical energy supply and impaired synaptic function are predominant associations of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To test the hypothesis that presynaptic bioenergetic deficits are associated with the progression of AD pathogenesis, we compared bioenergetic variables of cortical and hippocampal presynaptic nerve terminals (synaptosomes) from commonly used mouse models with AD-like phenotypes (J20 age 6 months, Tg2576 age 16 months and APP/PS age 9 and 14 months) to ag...
Kajino, Mizuo; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.
2013-09-01
triple-moment sectional (TMS) aerosol dynamics model, Modal Bin Hybrid Model (MBHM), has been developed. In addition to number and mass (volume), surface area is predicted (and preserved), which is important for aerosol processes and properties such as gas-to-particle mass transfer, heterogeneous reaction, and light extinction cross section. The performance of MBHM was evaluated against double-moment sectional (DMS) models with coarse (BIN4) to very fine (BIN256) size resolutions for simulating evolution of particles under simultaneously occurring nucleation, condensation, and coagulation processes (BINx resolution uses x sections to cover the 1 nm to 1 µm size range). Because MBHM gives a physically consistent form of the intrasectional distributions, errors and biases of MBHM at BIN4-8 resolution were almost equivalent to those of DMS at BIN16-32 resolution for various important variables such as the moments Mk (k: 0, 2, 3), dMk/dt, and the number and volume of particles larger than a certain diameter. Another important feature of MBHM is that only a single bin is adequate to simulate full aerosol dynamics for particles whose size distribution can be approximated by a single lognormal mode. This flexibility is useful for process-oriented (multicategory and/or mixing state) modeling: Primary aerosols whose size parameters would not differ substantially in time and space can be expressed by a single or a small number of modes, whereas secondary aerosols whose size changes drastically from 1 to several hundred nanometers can be expressed by a number of modes. Added dimensions can be applied to MBHM to represent mixing state or photochemical age for aerosol mixing state studies.
Cosmological structure formation in Decaying Dark Matter models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, Dalong; Chu, M.-C.; Tang, Jiayu, E-mail: dlcheng@phy.cuhk.edu.hk, E-mail: mcchu@phy.cuhk.edu.hk, E-mail: jytang@phy.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)
2015-07-01
The standard cold dark matter (CDM) model predicts too many and too dense small structures. We consider an alternative model that the dark matter undergoes two-body decays with cosmological lifetime τ into only one type of massive daughters with non-relativistic recoil velocity V{sub k}. This decaying dark matter model (DDM) can suppress the structure formation below its free-streaming scale at time scale comparable to τ. Comparing with warm dark matter (WDM), DDM can better reduce the small structures while being consistent with high redshfit observations. We study the cosmological structure formation in DDM by performing self-consistent N-body simulations and point out that cosmological simulations are necessary to understand the DDM structures especially on non-linear scales. We propose empirical fitting functions for the DDM suppression of the mass function and the concentration-mass relation, which depend on the decay parameters lifetime τ, recoil velocity V{sub k} and redshift. The fitting functions lead to accurate reconstruction of the the non-linear power transfer function of DDM to CDM in the framework of halo model. Using these results, we set constraints on the DDM parameter space by demanding that DDM does not induce larger suppression than the Lyman-α constrained WDM models. We further generalize and constrain the DDM models to initial conditions with non-trivial mother fractions and show that the halo model predictions are still valid after considering a global decayed fraction. Finally, we point out that the DDM is unlikely to resolve the disagreement on cluster numbers between the Planck primary CMB prediction and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect number count for τ ∼ H{sub 0}{sup −1}.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morris, J.R.; Gooding, R.J.
1992-01-01
We examine an extension of self-consistent phonon theory (SCPT) that allows for the explicit evaluation of second-order corrections to the free energy for both the high- and low-temperature phases for a system undergoing a first-order structural phase transition. The motivation for the inclusion of these terms stemmed from the many-body theory developed to treat the lattice vibrations in anharmonic crystals. This approach does not modify predictions for the phonon frequencies that would be observed by inelastic neutron scattering; however, we show that these higher-order contributions to the free energy are essential if the bulk limit of the equilibrium thermodynamic quantities are to be forecast accurately. Finite-size scaling is used to extrapolate the bulk limit, and we present arguments showing that precursor fluctuations are not allowed in bulk systems that are truly ergodic. Thus, in part the effectiveness of our second-order SCPT may be understood by noting the absence of large-amplitude fluctuations. In addition, dynamical structure factors, calculated using molecular-dynamic simulations, for systems of a strip geometry, show sharp phonon peaks at the SCPT frequencies, with lifetimes much longer than phonon periods--these lifetimes grow as one approaches the bulk limit
Shoda, Munehito; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Suzuki, Takeru K.
2018-02-01
We propose a novel one-dimensional model that includes both shock and turbulence heating and qualify how these processes contribute to heating the corona and driving the solar wind. Compressible MHD simulations allow us to automatically consider shock formation and dissipation, while turbulent dissipation is modeled via a one-point closure based on Alfvén wave turbulence. Numerical simulations were conducted with different photospheric perpendicular correlation lengths {λ }0, which is a critical parameter of Alfvén wave turbulence, and different root-mean-square photospheric transverse-wave amplitudes δ {v}0. For the various {λ }0, we obtain a low-temperature chromosphere, high-temperature corona, and supersonic solar wind. Our analysis shows that turbulence heating is always dominant when {λ }0≲ 1 {Mm}. This result does not mean that we can ignore the compressibility because the analysis indicates that the compressible waves and their associated density fluctuations enhance the Alfvén wave reflection and therefore the turbulence heating. The density fluctuation and the cross-helicity are strongly affected by {λ }0, while the coronal temperature and mass-loss rate depend weakly on {λ }0.
Wójcicki, Tomasz; Nowicki, Michał
2016-01-01
The article presents a selected area of research and development concerning the methods of material analysis based on the automatic image recognition of the investigated metallographic sections. The objectives of the analyses of the materials for gas nitriding technology are described. The methods of the preparation of nitrided layers, the steps of the process and the construction and operation of devices for gas nitriding are given. We discuss the possibility of using the methods of digital images processing in the analysis of the materials, as well as their essential task groups: improving the quality of the images, segmentation, morphological transformations and image recognition. The developed analysis model of the nitrided layers formation, covering image processing and analysis techniques, as well as selected methods of artificial intelligence are presented. The model is divided into stages, which are formalized in order to better reproduce their actions. The validation of the presented method is performed. The advantages and limitations of the developed solution, as well as the possibilities of its practical use, are listed. PMID:28773389
Knight, Kevin S.
2015-03-01
The thermoelastic properties of the thermoelectric chalcogenide galena, lead sulfide (PbS), have been determined in the temperature interval 10-350 K from high resolution neutron powder diffraction data, and literature values of the isobaric heat capacity. Within this temperature range, galena can be described by a simple phenomenological model in which the cation and anion vibrate independently of one another in a Debye-like manner, with vibrational Debye temperatures of 120(1) K for the lead, and 324(2) K for the sulfur. Simultaneous fitting of the unit cell volume and the isochoric heat capacity to a two-term Debye internal energy function gives characteristic temperatures of 110(2), and 326(5) K in excellent agreement with the measured vibrational Debye temperatures derived from fitting the atomic displacement parameters. The thermodynamic Grüneisen constant derived from the isochoric heat capacity is found to monotonically increase with decreasing temperature, from 2.5 at 300 K, to 3.25 at 25 K, in agreement with the deductions of earlier work. The full phonon density of states calculated from the two-term Debye model shows fair agreement with that derived from density functional theory.
Wójcicki, Tomasz; Nowicki, Michał
2016-04-01
The article presents a selected area of research and development concerning the methods of material analysis based on the automatic image recognition of the investigated metallographic sections. The objectives of the analyses of the materials for gas nitriding technology are described. The methods of the preparation of nitrided layers, the steps of the process and the construction and operation of devices for gas nitriding are given. We discuss the possibility of using the methods of digital images processing in the analysis of the materials, as well as their essential task groups: improving the quality of the images, segmentation, morphological transformations and image recognition. The developed analysis model of the nitrided layers formation, covering image processing and analysis techniques, as well as selected methods of artificial intelligence are presented. The model is divided into stages, which are formalized in order to better reproduce their actions. The validation of the presented method is performed. The advantages and limitations of the developed solution, as well as the possibilities of its practical use, are listed.
The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bosetti, V.; Massetti, E.; Tavoni, M.
2007-07-01
WITCH - World Induced Technical Change Hybrid - is a regionally disaggregated hard link hybrid global model with a neoclassical optimal growth structure (top down) and an energy input detail (bottom up). The model endogenously accounts for technological change, both through learning curves affecting prices of new vintages of capital and through R and D investments. The model features the main economic and environmental policies in each world region as the outcome of a dynamic game. WITCH belongs to the class of Integrated Assessment Models as it possesses a climate module that feeds climate changes back into the economy. In this paper we provide a thorough discussion of the model structure and baseline projections. We report detailed information on the evolution of energy demand, technology and CO2 emissions. Finally, we explicitly quantifiy the role of free riding in determining the emissions scenarios. (auth)
Neradilek, Moni B; Polissar, Nayak L; Einstein, Daniel R; Glenny, Robb W; Minard, Kevin R; Carson, James P; Jiao, Xiangmin; Jacob, Richard E; Cox, Timothy C; Postlethwait, Edward M; Corley, Richard A
2012-06-01
We examine a previously published branch-based approach for modeling airway diameters that is predicated on the assumption of self-consistency across all levels of the tree. We mathematically formulate this assumption, propose a method to test it and develop a more general model to be used when the assumption is violated. We discuss the effect of measurement error on the estimated models and propose methods that take account of error. The methods are illustrated on data from MRI and CT images of silicone casts of two rats, two normal monkeys, and one ozone-exposed monkey. Our results showed substantial departures from self-consistency in all five subjects. When departures from self-consistency exist, we do not recommend using the self-consistency model, even as an approximation, as we have shown that it may likely lead to an incorrect representation of the diameter geometry. The new variance model can be used instead. Measurement error has an important impact on the estimated morphometry models and needs to be addressed in the analysis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amaral, N.C.; Maffeo, B.; Guenzburger, D.J.R.
1982-01-01
Molecular orbitals calculations were performed for clusters representing the CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 ionic crystals. The discrete variational method was employed, with the Xα approximation for the exchange interaction; a detailed investigation of different models for embedding the clusters in the solids led to a realistic description of the effect of neighbour ions in the infinite crystal. The results obtained were used to interpret optical and photoelectron data reported in the literature. In the case of CaF 2 , comparisons were made with existing band structure calculations. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouyang, Bing; Xue, Jia-Dan; Zheng, Xuming; Fang, Wei-Hai
2014-01-01
The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S 2 (A′), S 6 (A′), and S 7 (A′) excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S 2 (A′), S 6 (A′), and S 7 (A′) excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S 2 /S 1 ) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S 2 (A′) state: the radiative S 2,min → S 0 transition and the nonradiative S 2 → S 1 internal conversion via CI(S 2 /S 1 ). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S 1 /T 1 ) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated