WorldWideScience

Sample records for model state idling

  1. UML/OMG IDL建模%UML/OMG IDL Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅秀芬; 王静; 李志均

    2001-01-01

    介绍UML/OMG IDL建模技术,UML/IDL建模的方法和步骤,最后结合一个电子银行应用,阐述了UML/IDL建模的基本过程.%After making a short presentation on the UML technology,this paper takes an emphasis on UML/OMG IDL modeling technology and analyzes methods and steps of UML/IDL Modeling.Then with an electronic bank application,the basic process of UML/IDL Modeling is given.

  2. 77 FR 9239 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling... relating to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to this... standards (other than crankcase emission standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or...

  3. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling... certification, inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March...

  4. Novel 3D Approach to Flare Modeling via Interactive IDL Widget Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, G. M.; Fleishman, G. D.; Gary, D. E.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kontar, E. P.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, and soon-to-be, available sophisticated 3D models of particle acceleration and transport in solar flares require a new level of user-friendly visualization and analysis tools allowing quick and easy adjustment of the model parameters and computation of realistic radiation patterns (images, spectra, polarization, etc). We report the current state of the art of these tools in development, already proved to be highly efficient for the direct flare modeling. We present an interactive IDL widget application intended to provide a flexible tool that allows the user to generate spatially resolved radio and X-ray spectra. The object-based architecture of this application provides full interaction with imported 3D magnetic field models (e.g., from an extrapolation) that may be embedded in a global coronal model. Various tools provided allow users to explore the magnetic connectivity of the model by generating magnetic field lines originating in user-specified volume positions. Such lines may serve as reference lines for creating magnetic flux tubes, which are further populated with user-defined analytical thermal/non thermal particle distribution models. By default, the application integrates IDL callable DLL and Shared libraries containing fast GS emission codes developed in FORTRAN and C++ and soft and hard X-ray codes developed in IDL. However, the interactive interface allows interchanging these default libraries with any user-defined IDL or external callable codes designed to solve the radiation transfer equation in the same or other wavelength ranges of interest. To illustrate the tool capacity and generality, we present a step-by-step real-time computation of microwave and X-ray images from realistic magnetic structures obtained from a magnetic field extrapolation preceding a real event, and compare them with the actual imaging data obtained by NORH and RHESSI instruments. We discuss further anticipated developments of the tools needed to accommodate

  5. STEADY-STATE AND IDLE OPTIMIZA- TION OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng; MAO Xiaojian; YANG Lin; ZHUO Bin

    2008-01-01

    A novel steady-state optimization (SSO) of internal combustion engine (ICE) strategy is proposed to maximize the efficiency of the overall powertrain for hybrid electric vehicles, in which the ICE efficiency, the efficiencies of the electric motor (EM) and the energy storage device are all explicitly taken into account. In addition, a novel idle optimization of ICE strategy is implemented to obtain the optimal idle operating point of the ICE and corresponding optimal parking generation power of the EM using the view of the novel SSO of ICE strategy. Simulations results show that potential fuel economy improvement is achieved relative to the conventional one which only optimized the ICE efficiency by the novel SSO of ICE strategy, and fuel consumption per voltage increment decreases a lot during the parking charge by the novel idle optimization of ICE strategy.

  6. Delay-dependent guaranteed cost control for state-delayed system with disturbance and its application to engine idle speed control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihu WU; Run PEI

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a delay-dependent guaranteed cost control scheme for engine idle speed control (ISC) with induction-to-torque delay and external load disturbance.An augmented linearization model of engine at idle speed operating mode was developed based on physical principle and experiment data.To provide a compromise between disturbance rejection and other performance requirements of ISC,a multi-objective cost function upper bound was given,which can help us to take into account the fuel economy and disturbance rejection performance together in ISC.Poles constraint was added to the closed-loop system to guarantee convergence rates of state.The whole optimization solution to ISC can be solved under the framework of LMI.A commercial engine model was utilized to assess the performance of the controller.Simulation results on this model show us that designed controller can achieve desired performance.

  7. A MULTIYEAR LAGS INPUT-HOLDING-OUTPUT MODEL ON EDUCATION WITH EXCLUDING IDLE CAPITAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue FU; Xikang CHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a multi-year lag Input-Holding-Output (I-H-O) Model on education with exclusion of the idle capital to address the reasonable education structure in support of a sus-tainable development strategy in China. First, the model considers the multiyear lag of human capital because the lag time of human capital is even longer and more important than that of fixed capital. Second, it considers the idle capital resulting from the output decline in education, for example, stu-dent decrease in primary school. The new generalized Leonitief dynamic inverse is deduced to obtain a positive solution on education when output declines as well as expands. After compiling the 2000 I-H-O table on education, the authors adopt modifications-by-step method to treat nonlinear coefficients, and calculate education scale, the requirement of human capital, and education expenditure from 2005 to 2020. It is found that structural imbalance of human capital is a serious problem for Chinese economic development.

  8. Idling is Not the Way to Go

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    Researchers estimate that idling from heavy-duty and light-duty vehicles combined wastes about 6 billion gallons of fuel annually. Many states have put restrictions on idling, especially in metropolitan areas. Clearly, idling is not the way to go.

  9. GX_Simulator: An Interactive Idl Widget Tool For Visualization And Simulation Of Imaging Spectroscopy Models And Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, G. D.; Gary, D. E.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Kontar, E. P.

    2011-05-01

    An interactive IDL widget application intended to provide a flexible tool that allows the user to generate spatially resolved radio and/or X-ray spectra is presented. The object-based architecture of this application provides full interaction with local 3D magnetic field models (e.g., from an extrapolation) that may be embedded in a global coronal model. Various tools provided allow users to explore the magnetic connectivity of the model by generating magnetic field lines originating in user-specified volume positions. Such lines may serve as reference lines for creating magnetic flux tubes, which are further populated with user-defined analytical thermal/non thermal particle distribution models. By default, the application integrates IDL callable DLL and Shared libraries containing fast GS emission codes developed in FORTRAN and C++ and soft and hard X-ray codes developed in IDL. However, the interactive interface allows interchanging these default libraries with any user-defined IDL or external callable codes designed to solve the radiation transfer equation in the same or other wavelength ranges of interest. We illustrate the tool capacity and generality by a real-time computation of microwave and X-ray images from realistic magnetic structures obtained from nonlinear force-free field extrapolations. This work was supported in part by NSF grants AGS-0961867, AST-0908344, and NASA grants NNX10AF27G and NNX11AB49G to New Jersey Institute of Technology, by a UK STFC rolling grant, STFC/PPARC Advanced Fellowship, and the Leverhulme Trust, UK. Financial support by the European Commission through the SOLAIRE and HESPE Networks is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. DanIDL: IDL solutions for science and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramich, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    DanIDL provides IDL functions and routines for many standard astronomy needs, such as searching for matching points between two coordinate lists of two-dimensional points where each list corresponds to a different coordinate space, estimating the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) and ellipticity of the PSF of an image, calculating pixel variances for a set of calibrated image data, and fitting a 3-parameter plane model to image data. The library also supplies astrometry, general image processing, and general scientific applications.

  11. Binary Logistic Regression Modeling of Idle CO Emissions in Order to Estimate Predictors Influences in Old Vehicle Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Milosavljević

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines, by experiments, the CO emissions at idle running with 1,785 vehicles powered by spark ignition engine, in order to verify the correctness of emissions values with a representative sample of vehicles in Serbia. The permissible emissions limits were considered for three (3 fitted binary logistic regression (BLR models, and the key reason for such analysis is finding the predictors that can have a crucial influence on the accuracy of the estimation whether such vehicles have correct emissions or not. Having summarized the research results, we found out that vehicles produced in Serbia (hereinafter referred to as “domestic vehicles” cause more pollution than imported cars (hereinafter referred to as “foreign vehicles”, although domestic vehicles are of lower average age and mileage. Another trend was observed: low-power vehicles and vehicles produced before 1992 are potentially more serious polluters.

  12. Idling - cruising the fuel inefficiency highway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.; Levinson, T. (Energy Systems); (DOE)

    2011-06-30

    What is the purpose of idling? The scale of idling can be small, as when parents idle their vehicles while waiting for their children outside of school, or it can be large, as when ocean liners are in port. In many cases, the primary purpose for idling is to control the temperature of a passenger or freight compartment. Large line-haul trucks idle overnight to keep fuel and the engine warm, for the resting driver's comfort, to mask out noises and smells, and for safety. In addition, all classes of trucks idle during the workday at ports and terminals, busy delivery sites, border crossings, and other work sites. They may be idling to enable slow movement in a queue (creep idling) or to provide other services. Bus drivers also idle their vehicles while they wait for passengers and to warm up in the morning. Even locomotive engines are idled so they start, for hotel load, to keep the battery charged, to keep the toilet water from freezing, and for air brakes, or because the operator idles out of habit. Although this document focuses on long-haul trucks, much of the information applies to other vehicles as well. The impacts of idling are substantial, with as much as 6 billion gallons of fuel burned unnecessarily each year in the United States at a cost of over $20 billion. The extra hours of engine operation also cost the owners money for more frequent maintenance and overhauls. In addition, idling vehicles emit particulates (PM{sub 10}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). These emissions, along with noise from idling vehicles, have led to many local and state restrictions on idling. Two main factors have combined to create a surge of interest in idling reduction (IR): (1) Increasing restrictions on idling for heavy vehicles and (2) The price of diesel fuel. Because stakeholders focus their efforts on improving different factors (air quality, fuel economy, noise level), they do not necessarily agree on the most

  13. Work Truck Idling Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid utility trucks, with auxiliary power sources for on-board equipment, significantly reduce unnecessary idling resulting in fuel costs savings, less engine wear, and reduction in noise and emissions.

  14. Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-07

    Fact sheet on reducing engine idling in personal vehicles. Idling your vehicle--running your engine when you're not driving it--truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does.

  15. Lightly loaded lubricated impacts: Idle gear rattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangasawi, O.; Theodossiades, S.; Rahnejat, H.

    2007-12-01

    Idle gear rattle is associated with the characteristic noise that unselected impacting gears radiate to the environment. It is induced by engine order vibration in the presence of backlash in the unengaged gear pairs, resulting in oscillatory response within their backlash range. A tribo-dynamic model of a front wheel drive manual transmission has been developed to study idle rattle, considering the hydrodynamic contact film reaction and flank friction. The model includes the torsional motions of the idle gears and the lateral motions of the supporting output shafts. The hydrodynamic lubricant film formed between the gear teeth under light impact loads behaves as a nonlinear spring-damper mechanism, whilst the inclusion of the shafts' bearing compliances introduces additional nonlinear terms, which are modelled as piecewise linear functions. The aim of the paper is to extend the existing methodology reported by the authors on idle rattle investigations of geared lubricated systems, based on torsional vibrations only, by considering the system response, which is eventually transferred to the gearbox case through the bearings. These are preliminary results found, which conform closely to experimental measurements taken from a vehicle equipped with a manual transmission of the same type.

  16. Coronal Magnetism and Forward Solarsoft Idl Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The FORWARD suite of Solar Soft IDL codes is a community resource for model-data comparison, with a particular emphasis on analyzing coronal magnetic fields. FORWARD may be used both to synthesize a broad range of coronal observables, and to access and compare to existing data. FORWARD works with numerical model datacubes, interfaces with the web-served Predictive Science Inc MAS simulation datacubes and the Solar Soft IDL Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) package, and also includes several analytic models (more can be added). It connects to the Virtual Solar Observatory and other web-served observations to download data in a format directly comparable to model predictions. It utilizes the CHIANTI database in modeling UV/EUV lines, and links to the CLE polarimetry synthesis code for forbidden coronal lines. FORWARD enables "forward-fitting" of specific observations, and helps to build intuition into how the physical properties of coronal magnetic structures translate to observable properties.

  17. Situational analysis : the status of anti-idling by-laws in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, J. [Clean Air Partnership, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-03-15

    More than 20 Ontario municipalities have either stand-alone anti-idling by-laws or anti-idling provisions in other by-laws. This report outlined the status of anti-idling by-laws in Canada with the aim of developing a model anti-idling by-law. Stand-alone anti-idling by-laws were reviewed, as well as anti-idling provisions incorporated in noise and other by-laws. Issues concerning the Ontario Provincial Offences Act in relation to anti-idling by-laws were discussed. Typical features of idling provisions in noise, nuisance and other by-laws were reviewed. It was noted that several municipalities in Ontario have developed anti-idling by-laws as part of more comprehensive clean air strategies to address air quality concerns. Issues concerning internal anti-idling fleet policies and ongoing anti-idling education and awareness campaigns for the general public were also discussed. Two main areas of potential difficulty in the development and implementation of anti-idling by-laws included specific provisions and exemptions in the by-laws; and, enforcement administration and resources. Issues concerning penalties and procedures to evaluate the impact of the by-laws were reviewed as well as inconsistent provisions in different municipalities, the large number of exemptions, and the practice of extending idling times for transit vehicles. It was concluded that there are a number of problematic provisions in many of the by-laws that complicate their application and make enforcement difficult. In addition, education and enforcement activities are not sufficiently documented or evaluated to assess the impact that by-laws have had on idling behaviours.

  18. PERHITUNGAN IDLE CAPACITY DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN CAM-I CAPACITY MODEL DALAM RANGKA EFISIENSI BIAYA PADA PT X

    OpenAIRE

    Muammar Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Aim for this research are to analyze capacity cost which incure from company production machines and human resources whose operate the production machine using CAM-I capacity model. CAM-I capacity model is an approach which focus  upon how to manage company resources. This research initiated at PT X which focus to production activity that used small mixer machine, extruder machine, oven drying machine, enrober machine, pan coting machine which consist of hot and cold pan coating machine, and ...

  19. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason Aaron; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory J.; Yeakel, Skip; Adelman, Steven; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-04-05

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  20. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory; Adelman, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-03-24

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  1. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory; Adelman, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-06-01

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  2. Alternative Method to Simulate a Sub-idle Engine Operation in Order to Synthesize Its Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhovii, Sergii I.; Sirenko, Feliks F.; Yepifanov, Sergiy V.; Loboda, Igor

    2016-09-01

    The steady-state and transient engine performances in control systems are usually evaluated by applying thermodynamic engine models. Most models operate between the idle and maximum power points, only recently, they sometimes address a sub-idle operating range. The lack of information about the component maps at the sub-idle modes presents a challenging problem. A common method to cope with the problem is to extrapolate the component performances to the sub-idle range. Precise extrapolation is also a challenge. As a rule, many scientists concern only particular aspects of the problem such as the lighting combustion chamber or the turbine operation under the turned-off conditions of the combustion chamber. However, there are no reports about a model that considers all of these aspects and simulates the engine starting. The proposed paper addresses a new method to simulate the starting. The method substitutes the non-linear thermodynamic model with a linear dynamic model, which is supplemented with a simplified static model. The latter model is the set of direct relations between parameters that are used in the control algorithms instead of commonly used component performances. Specifically, this model consists of simplified relations between the gas path parameters and the corrected rotational speed.

  3. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  4. Non-linear Least Squares Fitting in IDL with MPFIT

    CERN Document Server

    Markwardt, Craig B

    2009-01-01

    MPFIT is a port to IDL of the non-linear least squares fitting program MINPACK-1. MPFIT inherits the robustness of the original FORTRAN version of MINPACK-1, but is optimized for performance and convenience in IDL. In addition to the main fitting engine, MPFIT, several specialized functions are provided to fit 1-D curves and 2-D images; 1-D and 2-D peaks; and interactive fitting from the IDL command line. Several constraints can be applied to model parameters, including fixed constraints, simple bounding constraints, and "tying" the value to another parameter. Several data weighting methods are allowed, and the parameter covariance matrix is computed. Extensive diagnostic capabilities are available during the fit, via a call-back subroutine, and after the fit is complete. Several different forms of documentation are provided, including a tutorial, reference pages, and frequently asked questions. The package has been translated to C and Python as well. The full IDL and C packages can be found at http://purl.co...

  5. Energy Saving by the Idle Engine Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Editor [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    The high energy price facing up to $30 per barrel is the cost increasing factor that brings a deathblow to the domestic transportation industry, so it is serious to practice the energy saving in order to overcome such a situation. Transportation industry once got the great effect from the promotion for a light car, the improvement of auto structure, and the induction to economical driving way. According to the recent survey on drivers, however, the rate of the respondents that replied on the survey as 'in cases of stopping or parking for 1 minute, turn off the engine.' was just 14%, 86% of respondents did not have any consciousness of the problem about the idle operation. The Government has been promoting the legalization of the restriction to prevent an idle operation and enacting 'An Act of Idle Regulation in a Specific Area' and 'A Rule of Idle Restriction in a General Area'. An idle operation, which is one of the biggest factors in excessive consumption of oil as well as an air pollutant, should eradicate by self-participation. However, because an idle operation is conducted by unconsciousness, the development of an automatic controller is required for the restriction of unnecessary energy consumption. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Characterization of PTO and Idle Behavior for Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Adam W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Konan, Arnaud M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Eric S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    This report presents the results of analyses performed on utility vehicle data composed primarily of aerial lift bucket trucks sampled from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to characterize power takeoff (PTO) and idle operating behavior for utility trucks. Two major data sources were examined in this study: a 75-vehicle sample of Odyne electric PTO (ePTO)-equipped vehicles drawn from multiple fleets spread across the United States and 10 conventional PTO-equipped Pacific Gas and Electric fleet vehicles operating in California. Novel data mining approaches were developed to identify PTO and idle operating states for each of the datasets using telematics and controller area network/onboard diagnostics data channels. These methods were applied to the individual datasets and aggregated to develop utilization curves and distributions describing PTO and idle behavior in both absolute and relative operating terms. This report also includes background information on the source vehicles, development of the analysis methodology, and conclusions regarding the study's findings.

  7. Idleness, returns to education and child labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raimundo Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although recent trends about child labor are positive, see ILO (2006, there still are important shortcomings which require further investigation. Among them, the exclusion of the category "idle children" (those who neither work nor study from past studies, as well as the lack of reliable information on returns to education are two significant omissions. By using a data base that contains details on idle children and a proxy for the returns to education, we find evidence that confirms traditional findings both with regard to the strong positive effect of parental background and to the positive relationship between the number of children in the household and child labor. On the other hand, our estimates point out new insights, such as the great regional variation of estimates and the fact that the Body Mass Index effect is positive. Finally, we suggest a new perspective on the issue of "street children" through the analysis of the category of "idle children".

  8. Effects of idle reduction technologies on real world fuel use and exhaust emissions of idling long-haul trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher; Kuo, Po-Yao; Villa, Charles

    2009-09-01

    Idling long-haul freight tucks may consume nearly one billion gallons of diesel fuel per year in the U.S. There is a need for real-world data by which to quantify avoided fuel use and emissions attributable to idle reduction techniques of auxiliary power units (APUs) and shore-power (SP). Field data were obtained from 20 APU-equipped and SP-compatible trucks observed during 2.8 million miles of travel in 42 states. Base engine fuel use and emission rates varied depending on ambient temperature. APU and SP energy use and emission rates varied depending on electrical load. APUs reduced idling fuel use and CO2 emissions for single and team drivers by 22 and 5% annually, respectively. SP offers greater reductions in energy use of 48% for single drivers, as well as in emissions, except for SO2. APUs were cost-effective for single drivers with a large number of APU usage hours per year, but not for team drivers or for single drivers with low APU utilization rates. The findings support more accurate assessments of avoided fuel use and emissions, and recommendations to encourage greater APU utilization by single drivers and to further develop infrastructure for SP.

  9. Flexible IDL Compilation for Complex Communication Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Eide

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed applications are complex by nature, so it is essential that there be effective software development tools to aid in the construction of these programs. Commonplace “middleware” tools, however, often impose a tradeoff between programmer productivity and application performance. For instance, many CORBA IDL compilers generate code that is too slow for high‐performance systems. More importantly, these compilers provide inadequate support for sophisticated patterns of communication. We believe that these problems can be overcome, thus making idl compilers and similar middleware tools useful for a broader range of systems. To this end we have implemented Flick, a flexible and optimizing IDL compiler, and are using it to produce specialized high‐performance code for complex distributed applications. Flick can produce specially “decomposed” stubs that encapsulate different aspects of communication in separate functions, thus providing application programmers with fine‐grain control over all messages. The design of our decomposed stubs was inspired by the requirements of a particular distributed application called Khazana, and in this paper we describe our experience to date in refitting Khazana with Flick‐generated stubs. We believe that the special idl compilation techniques developed for Khazana will be useful in other applications with similar communication requirements.

  10. Computational modeling of geometry effects on the IDL surface concentration in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field - links to atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminfar, H.; Mohammadpourfard, M.; Khajeh, K.

    2016-01-01

    Effect of geometry on the atherosclerosis is a significant issue, so the 3D s-shape and 2D axisymmetric stenosis tube as a blood vessel have been analyzed in this work. This paper has focused on the most important parameters in the LSC uptake, inlet Re number and infiltration velocity in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. The magnetic field is arising from the thin wire with electric current placed vertically to the arterial blood vessel. According to the results of this study, applying magnetic field can be a treatment for atherosclerosis by reducing LSC along the vessel wall. It is observed that, application of magnetic field leads to production of a vortex in the flow, high strain rate, increment of WSS, and also reduction in LSC. For solving the mass transport equation, Lumen-wall model has been used. Blood flow has been considered laminar and incompressible containing Ferro fluid (blood and 4 vol% Fe3O4) under steady state conditions. Numerical solution of governing equations was obtained by using the single-phase model and control volume technique for flow field.

  11. Idling Reduction for Emergency and Other Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-07

    This is a fact sheet about reducing idling for emergency and service vehicles. Emergency vehicles, such as police cars, ambulances, and fire trucks, along with other service vehicles such as armored cars, are often exempt from laws that limit engine idling. However, these vehicles can save fuel and reduce emissions with technologies that allow them to perform vital services without idling.

  12. Associations of PM2.5 and black carbon concentrations with traffic, idling, background pollution, and meteorology during school dismissals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Bryant, J; Saganich, C; Bukiewicz, L; Kalin, R

    2009-05-01

    An air quality study was performed outside a cluster of schools in the East Harlem neighborhood of New York City. PM(2.5) and black carbon concentrations were monitored using real-time equipment with a one-minute averaging interval. Monitoring was performed at 1:45-3:30 PM during school days over the period October 31-November 17, 2006. The designated time period was chosen to capture vehicle emissions during end-of-day dismissals from the schools. During the monitoring period, minute-by-minute volume counts of idling and passing school buses, diesel trucks, and automobiles were obtained. These data were transcribed into time series of number of diesel vehicles idling, number of gasoline automobiles idling, number of diesel vehicles passing, and number of automobiles passing along the block adjacent to the school cluster. Multivariate regression models of the log-transform of PM(2.5) and black carbon (BC) concentrations in the East Harlem street canyon were developed using the observation data and data from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation on meteorology and background PM(2.5). Analysis of variance was used to test the contribution of each covariate to variability in the log-transformed concentrations as a means to judge the relative contribution of each covariate. The models demonstrated that variability in background PM(2.5) contributes 80.9% of the variability in log[PM(2.5)] and 81.5% of the variability in log[BC]. Local traffic sources were demonstrated to contribute 5.8% of the variability in log[BC] and only 0.43% of the variability in log[PM(2.5)]. Diesel idling and passing were both significant contributors to variability in log[BC], while diesel passing was a significant contributor to log[PM(2.5)]. Automobile idling and passing did not contribute significant levels of variability to either concentration. The remainder of variability in each model was explained by temperature, along-canyon wind, and cross-canyon wind, which were

  13. Application of Sleeper Cab Thermal Management Technologies to Reduce Idle Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Venson, T.; Adelman, S.; Dehart, C.; Yeakel, S.; Castillo, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Each intercity long-haul truck in the U.S. idles approximately 1,800 hrs per year, primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads. Including workday idling, over 2 billion gallons of fuel are used annually for truck idling. NREL's CoolCab project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling and fuel use. The impact of thermal load reduction technologies on idle reduction systems were characterized by conducting thermal soak tests, overall heat transfer tests, and 10-hour rest period A/C tests. Technologies evaluated include advanced insulation packages, a solar reflective film applied to the vehicle's opaque exterior surfaces, a truck featuring both film and insulation, and a battery-powered A/C system. Opportunities were identified to reduce heating and cooling loads for long-haul truck idling by 36% and 34%, respectively, which yielded a 23% reduction in battery pack capacity of the idle-reduction system. Data were also collected for development and validation of a CoolCalc HVAC truck cab model. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches.

  14. Idle School Buildings in Rural Areas: Will they Be Useful?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taking the case of Enshi City,we survey the supply of public services in rural areas from education,health,culture and social security; reveal the relationship between the use of idle school buildings in rural areas and the improvement of public services in rural areas. On the basis of expounding the status quo of idle school buildings and public services in rural areas of Enshi City,the following recommendations are put forward: using the idle school buildings to develop rural public education; using the idle school buildings to develop rural public health and medical services; using the idle school buildings to develop public cultural undertakings in rural areas; using the idle school buildings to develop social security undertakings in rural areas.

  15. Aeroelastic Stability of Idling Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Riziotis, Vasilis A.; Voutsinas, Spyros G.

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbine rotors in idling operation mode can experience high angles of attack, within the post stall region that are capable of triggering stall-induced vibrations. In the present paper rotor stability in slow idling operation is assessed on the basis of non-linear time domain and linear eigenvalue analysis. Analysis is performed for a 10 MW conceptual wind turbine designed by DTU. First the flow conditions that are likely to favour stall induced instabilities are identified through non-linear time domain aeroelastic analysis. Next, for the above specified conditions, eigenvalue stability simulations are performed aiming at identifying the low damped modes of the turbine. Finally the results of the eigenvalue analysis are evaluated through computations of the work of the aerodynamic forces by imposing harmonic vibrations following the shape and frequency of the various modes. Eigenvalue analysis indicates that the asymmetric and symmetric out-of-plane modes have the lowest damping. The results of the eigenvalue analysis agree well with those of the time domain analysis.

  16. A multi-site analysis of the association between black carbon concentrations and vehicular idling, traffic, background pollution, and meteorology during school dismissals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Bryant, J; Bukiewicz, L; Kalin, R; Galarraga, C; Mirer, F

    2011-05-01

    A study was performed to assess the relationship between black carbon (BC), passing traffic, and vehicular idling outside New York City (NYC) schools during student dismissal. Monitoring was performed at three school sites in East Harlem, the Bronx, and Brooklyn for 1month per year over a two-year period from November 2006-October 2008. Monitoring at each site was conducted before and after the Asthma Free School Zone (AFSZ) asthma reduction education program was administered. Real-time equipment with a one-minute averaging interval was used to obtain the BC data, while volume counts of idling and passing school busses, trucks, and automobiles were collected each minute by study staff. These data were matched to ambient PM(2.5) and meteorology data obtained from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. A generalized additive model (GAM) model was run to examine the relationship between BC concentration and each variable while accounting for site-to-site differences. F-tests were employed to assess the significance of each of the predictor variables. The model results suggested that variability in ambient PM(2.5) concentration contributed 24% of the variability in transformed BC concentration, while variability in the number of idling busses and trucks on the street during dismissal contributed 20% of the variability in transformed BC concentration. The results of this study suggest that a combination of urban scale and local traffic control approaches in combination with cessation of school bus idling will produce improved local BC concentration outside schools.

  17. Idleness, returns to education and child labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raimundo Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although recent trends about child labor are positive, see ILO (2006, there still are important shortcomings which require further investigation. Among them, the exclusion of the category "idle children" (those who neither work nor study from past studies, as well as the lack of reliable information on returns to education are two significant omissions. By using a data base that contains details on idle children and a proxy for the returns to education, we find evidence that confirms traditional findings both with regard to the strong positive effect of parental background and to the positive relationship between the number of children in the household and child labor. On the other hand, our estimates point out new insights, such as the great regional variation of estimates and the fact that the Body Mass Index effect is positive. Finally, we suggest a new perspective on the issue of "street children" through the analysis of the category of "idle children".Apesar das recentes tendências sobre trabalho infantil serem positivas, ver ILO (2006, há importantes deficiências no entendimento do fenômeno. A exclusão da categoria "crianças desocupadas" (não trabalham e nem estudam em estudos passados, como também a ausência de informações fidedignas sobre retornos da educação são importantes omissões. Utilizando uma base de dados mais detalhada, bem como uma proxy para retornos da educação encontramos evidências que confirmam resultados tradicionais como o efeito positivo das características dos pais e a relação positiva entre o número de crianças, no trabalho infantil. Por outro lado, apontamos para novos entendimentos, como o fato da variável Índice de Massa Corporal possuir efeito positivo e a grande variação regional dos efeitos das estimativas. Por fim, sugerimos uma nova perspectiva sobre a questão das "crianças de rua" através da análise da categoria de "crianças desocupadas".

  18. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  19. A Novel Method for Idle-Stop-Start Control of Micro Hybrid Construction Equipment—Part A: Fundamental Concepts and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Quang Dinh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although micro hybrid propulsion (MHP systems are recognized as a feasible solution for off-highway construction machines (OHCMs, there is still a lack of understanding how existing MHP technologies can be transferred effectively from the automotive sector to the construction sector. To fill this gap, this paper is the first of a two-part study which focuses on micro hybrid construction machines paying attention to a novel idle-stop-start control (ISSC strategy. Part A presents the system concepts and design procedure while Part B studies on a hardware-in-the-loop test platform for a comprehensive analysis on the potential fuel/emission saving of the proposed system in real-time. In this study—Part A—different types of OHCMs are briefly discussed to identify the target machine. The procedure to model the machine powertrain is also concisely introduced. Next, to minimize the fuel consumption and emissions without degrading the machine performance, a prediction-based idle-stop-start control (PISSC approach is properly designed. The core of the PISSC is to estimate online the future engine working state changes in order to directly shut down the engine or shift it to low power regions during idle periods. Numerical simulations have been carried out to validate the potential of the proposed PISSC method.

  20. TRL, IDL, and LDL apolipoprotein B-100 and HDL apolipoprotein A-I kinetics as a function of age and menopausal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Jalbert, Susan M; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Welty, Francine K; Barrett, Hugh R; Schaefer, Ernst J; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2005-08-01

    To determine mechanisms contributing to the altered lipoprotein profile associated with aging and menopause, apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) and apoA-I kinetic behavior was assessed. Eight premenopausal (25+/-3 years) and 16 postmenopausal (65+/-6 years) women consumed for 6 weeks a standardized Western diet, at the end of which a primed-constant infusion of deuterated leucine was administered in the fed state to determine the kinetic behavior of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apoB-100, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) apoA-I. Data were fit to a multicompartmental model using SAAM II to calculate fractional catabolic rate (FCR) and production rate (PR). Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), TRL-C, and triglyceride levels were higher (50%, 55%, 130%, and 232%, respectively) in the postmenopausal compared with the premenopausal women, whereas HDL-C levels were similar. Plasma TRL, IDL, and LDL-apoB-100 levels and pool sizes (PS) were significantly higher in the postmenopausal than premenopausal women. These differences were accounted for by lower TRL, IDL, and LDL apoB-100 FCR (Pkinetic parameters. Plasma TRL-C concentrations were negatively correlated with TRL apoB-100 FCR (r=-0.46; Pkinetics between groups.

  1. Real-world energy use and emission rates for idling long-haul trucks and selected idle reduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher; Kuo, Po-Yao

    2009-07-01

    Long-haul freight trucks typically idle for 2000 or more hours per year, motivating interest in reducing idle fuel use and emissions using auxiliary power units (APUs) and shore-power (SP). Fuel-use rates are estimated based on electronic control unit (ECU) data for truck engines and measurements for APU engines. Engine emission factors were measured using a portable emission measurement system. Indirect emissions from SP were based on average utility grid emission factors. Base engine fuel use and APU and SP electrical load were analyzed for 20 trucks monitored for more than 1 yr during 2.76 million mi of activity within 42 U.S. states. The average base engine fuel use varied from 0.46 to 0.65 gal/hr. The average APU fuel use varied from 0.24 to 0.41 gal/hr. Fuel-use rates are typically lowest in mild weather, highest in hot or cold weather, and depend on engine speed (revolutions per minute [RPM]). Compared with the base engine, APU fuel use and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are lower by 36-47%. Oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions are lower by 80-90%. Reductions in particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbon emissions vary from approximately 10 to over 50%. SP leads to more substantial reductions, except for SO2. The actual achievable reductions will be lower because only a fraction of base engine usage will be replaced by APUs, SP, or both. Recommendations are made for reducing base engine fuel use and emissions, accounting for variability in fuel use and emissions reductions, and further work to quantify real-world avoided fuel use and emissions.

  2. Caterpillar MorElectric DOE Idle Reduction Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Bernardi

    2007-09-30

    This project titled 'Demonstration of the New MorElectric{trademark} Technology as an Idle Reduction Solution' is one of four demonstration projects awarded by the US Department of Energy in 2002. The goal of these demonstration and evaluation projects was to gather objective in-use information on the performance of available idle reduction technologies by characterizing the cost; fuel, maintenance, and engine life savings; payback; and user impressions of various systems and techniques. In brief, the Caterpillar Inc. project involved applying electrically driven accessories for cab comfort during engine-off stops and for reducing fuel consumption during on-highway operation. Caterpillar had equipped and operated five new trucks with the technology in conjunction with International Truck and Engine Corporation and COX Transfer. The most significant result of the project was a demonstrated average idle reduction of 13.8% for the 5 truck MEI fleet over the control fleet. It should be noted that the control fleet trucks were also equipped with an idle reduction device that would start and stop the main engine automatically in order to maintain cab temperature. The control fleet idle usage would have been reduced by 3858 hours over the 2 year period with the MEI system installed, or approximately 2315 gallons of fuel less (calculations assume a fuel consumption of 0.6 gallons per hour for the 13 liter engine at idle). The fuel saved will be significantly larger for higher displacement engines without idle reduction equipment such as the engine auto start/stop device used by COX Transfer. It is common for engines to consume 1.0 gallons per hour which would increase the fuel savings to approximately 1260 gallons per truck per year of typical idling (1800 hours idle/yr).

  3. Non-linear Least-squares Fitting in IDL with MPFIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwardt, C. B.

    2009-09-01

    MPFIT is a port to IDL of the non-linear least squares fitting program MINPACK-1. MPFIT inherits the robustness of the original FORTRAN version of MINPACK-1, but is optimized for performance and convenience in IDL. In addition to the main fitting engine, MPFIT, several specialized functions are provided to fit 1-D curves and 2-D images, 1-D and 2-D peaks, and interactive fitting from the IDL command line. Several constraints can be applied to model parameters, including fixed constraints, simple bounding constraints, and ``tying'' the value to another parameter. Several data-weighting methods are allowed, and the parameter covariance matrix is computed. Extensive diagnostic capabilities are available during the fit, via a call-back subroutine, and after the fit is complete. Several different forms of documentation are provided, including a tutorial, reference pages, and frequently asked questions. The package has been translated to C and Python as well. The full IDL and C packages can be found at http://purl.com/net/mpfit.

  4. Balanced Neural Architecture and the Idling Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent eDoiron

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A signature feature of cortical spike trains is their trial-to-trial variability. This variability is large in spontaneous conditions and is reduced when cortex is driven by a stimulus or task. Models of recurrent cortical networks with unstructured, yet balanced, excitation and inhibition generate variability consistent with evoked conditions. However, these models lack the long timescale fluctuations and large variability present in spontaneous conditions. We propose that global network architectures which support a large number of stable states (attractor networks allow balanced networks to capture key features of neural variability in both spontaneous and evoked conditions. We illustrate this using balanced spiking networks with clustered assembly, feedforward chain, and ring structures. By assuming that global network structure is related to stimulus preference, we show that signal correlations are related to the magnitude of correlations in the spontaneous state. In our models, the dynamics of spontaneous activity encompasses much of the possible evoked states, consistent with many experimental reports. Finally, we contrast the impact of stimulation on the trial-to-trial variability in attractor networks with that of strongly coupled spiking networks with chaotic firing rate instabilities, recently investigated by Ostojic (2014. We find that only attractor networks replicate an experimentally observed stimulus-induced quenching of trial-to-trial variability. In total, the comparison of the trial-variable dynamics of single neurons or neuron pairs during spontaneous and evoked activity can be a window into the global structure of balanced cortical networks.

  5. Oxidizer heat exchangers for rocket engine operation in idle modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanic, P. G.; Kmiec, T. D.

    1987-01-01

    The heat exchanger concept is discussed together with its role in rocket engine operation in idle modes. Two heat exchanger designs (low and high heat transfer) utilizing different approaches to achieve stable oxygen vaporization are presented as well as their performance test results. It is concluded that compact and lightweight heat exchangers can be used in a stable manner under the 'idle' operating conditions expected with the RL10 rocket engine.

  6. Electrical assistance for S.I. engine idle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidan, P.; Kouadio, I.K.; Valentin, M.; Montseny, G.

    1997-07-01

    An original method for improving spark-ignition engine idling conditions, is presented. The proposed solution has the distinctive feature of simultaneously combining the traditional airflow rate control and the usual automobile alternator operating as a synchronous motor in order to provide a fast supplementary torque. Experimental validation of the electric assistance system is carried out on a production engine, and the new method is compared with the standard one in terms of idle stability, fuel consumption and pollution emissions

  7. Balanced neural architecture and the idling brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Brent; Litwin-Kumar, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    A signature feature of cortical spike trains is their trial-to-trial variability. This variability is large in the spontaneous state and is reduced when cortex is driven by a stimulus or task. Models of recurrent cortical networks with unstructured, yet balanced, excitation and inhibition generate variability consistent with evoked conditions. However, these models produce spike trains which lack the long timescale fluctuations and large variability exhibited during spontaneous cortical dynamics. We propose that global network architectures which support a large number of stable states (attractor networks) allow balanced networks to capture key features of neural variability in both spontaneous and evoked conditions. We illustrate this using balanced spiking networks with clustered assembly, feedforward chain, and ring structures. By assuming that global network structure is related to stimulus preference, we show that signal correlations are related to the magnitude of correlations in the spontaneous state. Finally, we contrast the impact of stimulation on the trial-to-trial variability in attractor networks with that of strongly coupled spiking networks with chaotic firing rate instabilities, recently investigated by Ostojic (2014). We find that only attractor networks replicate an experimentally observed stimulus-induced quenching of trial-to-trial variability. In total, the comparison of the trial-variable dynamics of single neurons or neuron pairs during spontaneous and evoked activity can be a window into the global structure of balanced cortical networks.

  8. Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.

  9. Improving Energy Efficiency in Idle Listening of IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to improve energy efficiency of IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs by effectively dealing with idle listening (IL, which is required for channel sensing and is unavoidable in a contention-based channel access mechanism. Firstly, we show that IL is a dominant source of energy drain in WLANs and it cannot be effectively alleviated by the power saving mechanism proposed in the IEEE 802.11 standard. To solve this problem, we propose an energy-efficient mechanism that combines three schemes in a systematic way: downclocking, frame aggregation, and contention window adjustment. The downclocking scheme lets a station remain in a semisleep state when overhearing frames destined to neighbor stations, whereby the station consumes the minimal energy without impairing channel access capability. As well as decreasing the channel access overhead, the frame aggregation scheme prolongs the period of semisleep time. Moreover, by controlling the size of contention window based on the number of stations, the proposed mechanism decreases unnecessary IL time due to collision and retransmission. By deriving an analysis model and performing extensive simulations, we confirm that the proposed mechanism significantly improves the energy efficiency and throughput, by up to 2.8 and 1.8 times, respectively, compared to the conventional power saving mechanisms.

  10. A Heuristic Scheduling Algorithm for Minimizing Makespan and Idle Time in a Nagare Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muthukumaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a focused factory is a powerful approach for today manufacturing enterprise. This paper introduces the basic manufacturing concept for a struggling manufacturer with limited conventional resources, providing an alternative solution to cell scheduling by implementing the technique of Nagare cell. Nagare cell is a Japanese concept with more objectives than cellular manufacturing system. It is a combination of manual and semiautomatic machine layout as cells, which gives maximum output flexibility for all kind of low-to-medium- and medium-to-high- volume productions. The solution adopted is to create a dedicated group of conventional machines, all but one of which are already available on the shop floor. This paper focuses on the development of heuristic scheduling algorithm in step-by-step method. The algorithm states that the summation of processing time of all products on each machine is calculated first and then the sum of processing time is sorted by the shortest processing time rule to get the assignment schedule. Based on the assignment schedule Nagare cell layout is arranged for processing the product. In addition, this algorithm provides steps to determine the product ready time, machine idle time, and product idle time. And also the Gantt chart, the experimental analysis, and the comparative results are illustrated with five (1×8 to 5×8 scheduling problems. Finally, the objective of minimizing makespan and idle time with greater customer satisfaction is studied through.

  11. Environmental Impact Assessment, Brownfield Areas. Brownfields are defined by the Florida DEP as abandoned, idled, or underused industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination., Published in 2001, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Environmental Impact Assessment dataset current as of 2001. Brownfield Areas. Brownfields are defined by the Florida DEP as abandoned, idled, or underused industrial...

  12. Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-12

    Long-haul truck drivers perform a vitally important service. In the course of their work, they must take rest periods as required by federal law. Most drivers remain in their trucks, which they keep running to provide power for heating, cooling, and other necessities. Such idling, however, comes at a cost; it is an expensive and polluting way to keep drivers safe and comfortable. Increasingly affordable alternatives to idling not only save money and reduce pollution, but also help drivers get a better night's rest.

  13. Abnormal Noise Source Identification and Control for Automobile Transmission in the Neutral Idle Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the abnormal noise of a domestically-made automobile transmission in the neutral idle condition, seriously affecting the vehicle market competitiveness and the riding comfort ability for customers, the objective of this study to reduce the noise and vibration of the automobile transmission by accurately identifying the noise source of the transmission in the neutral idle condition. For this purpose, based on the working characteristics of the transmission, modal analysis of automobile transmission housing is formulated using 3D graphics software Pro/E together with Finite Element Method. In addition, the calculation of meshing frequency of gear pair is conducted also. Finally, through comparing model analysis results to the calculation results, it is indicated that the gear meshing impact noise of the third gear pair was identified as the noise resource of the automobile transmission in neutral idle condition, which will provide the theoretic basis to analyze its dynamic characteristics of the transmission as well as its improvement to reduce vibration and noise.

  14. Probability state modeling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, C Bruce; Hunsberger, Benjamin C; Herbert, Donald J; Munson, Mark E; Hill, Beth L; Bray, Chris M; Preffer, Frederic I

    2015-07-01

    As the technology of cytometry matures, there is mounting pressure to address two major issues with data analyses. The first issue is to develop new analysis methods for high-dimensional data that can directly reveal and quantify important characteristics associated with complex cellular biology. The other issue is to replace subjective and inaccurate gating with automated methods that objectively define subpopulations and account for population overlap due to measurement uncertainty. Probability state modeling (PSM) is a technique that addresses both of these issues. The theory and important algorithms associated with PSM are presented along with simple examples and general strategies for autonomous analyses. PSM is leveraged to better understand B-cell ontogeny in bone marrow in a companion Cytometry Part B manuscript. Three short relevant videos are available in the online supporting information for both of these papers. PSM avoids the dimensionality barrier normally associated with high-dimensionality modeling by using broadened quantile functions instead of frequency functions to represent the modulation of cellular epitopes as cells differentiate. Since modeling programs ultimately minimize or maximize one or more objective functions, they are particularly amenable to automation and, therefore, represent a viable alternative to subjective and inaccurate gating approaches.

  15. Vortex shedding noise control in idling circular saws using air ejection at the teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagimoto, K.; Mote, C. D.; Ichimiya, R.

    1994-04-01

    Aerodynamically induced noise from an idling circular saw can be very intense. The purpose of the present investigation is noise reduction through vortex shedding control in idling circular saws. Reduction of aerodynamic noise in idling circular saws may be possible by controlling the shed vortices and flow structures in the space between teeth, based on the earlier observations.

  16. IDLING AND NATURAL POWER TRANSFER LOSS SAVING BY MEANS OF SHUNT REACTORS AND REACTIVE POWER SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsiuk V.I

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The closed formulas for definition of the steady–state values of voltages, currents, active and reactive power in a line with the distributed and lumped constants are shown. The influence of the shunt reactors and reactive power sources in the form of capacitor banks on losses of idling with various wave lengths is investigated. For the half-wave transmissions line the optimal parameters (which allow increasing of the output during the natural-power transfer of the shunt reactors were obtained.

  17. Idle Object Detection in Video for Banking ATM Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kausalya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method to detect idle object and applies it for analysis of suspicious events. Partitioning and Normalized Cross Correlation (PNCC based algorithm is proposed for the detection of moving object. This algorithm takes less processing time, which increases the speed and also the detection rate. In this an approach is proposed for the detection and tracking of moving object in an image sequence. Two consecutive frames from image sequence are partitioned into four quadrants and then the Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC is applied to each sub frame. The sub frame which has minimum value of NCC, indicates the presence of moving object. The proposed system is going to use the suspicious tracking of human behaviour in video surveillance and it is mainly used for security purpose in ATM application. The suspicious object’s visual properties so that it can be accurately segmented from videos. After analyzing its subsequent motion features, different abnormal events like robbery can be effectively detected from videos. The suspicious action in ATM are many, such as using mobile phones, multiple persons trying to access the ATM machine in same time, kicking of each other, idle object and it shows event corresponding to Vandalism and robbery. In proposed system, idle object detection is used to identify by using PNCC algorithm with P-filter (Particle and by extracting the features of the object in an enhanced way by using the curvelet based transformation.

  18. From Product Models to Product State Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    A well-known technology designed to handle product data is Product Models. Product Models are in their current form not able to handle all types of product state information. Hence, the concept of a Product State Model (PSM) is proposed. The PSM and in particular how to model a PSM is the Research...... Object for this project. In the presentation, benefits and challenges of the PSM will be presented as a basis for the discussion....

  19. Reflections on the different sides of idleness in contemporary times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Zaczuk Bassinello

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, idleness experienced a modernization and democratization process especially with the crisis of a society focused on work – the post-Industrial Revolution - and the emergence of new ideas that put the free time, the leisure and recreation in the role of structural elements of the new social context and like tools for the new ways of life. In this work, we we seek to focus on the significant aspects of reality and function of leisure in our time, clarifying their relationship with the processes of personal, social and economic innovation by establishing a balance of our acts in thinking the leisure and work and leisure and life from different angles of approach. In order to analyze this phenomenon, we were based on scientific sources which are representative in the context, and then we elaborated a general overview of the subject from the contributions of the bakhtinian perspectives. We observed that the increase in leisure options in the last decades of the twentieth century, along with the growth of the studies of the idleness phenomenon and its possibilities, allowed an evolution of its concepts, from activities or practices associated to the consumption and to digital entertainment, to its understanding as an experience whose key of the discussion is the subject living these experiences. We believe that this reflection about idleness may open possibilities of a better comprehension of its insertion in the social and human sciences field and, especially, in its contribution to a new attitude of the relational production, centered on the subject, which stimulates a society that creates and innovates goods and services and who deepens the studies of leisure from the dynamic experiential horizon to the right to the otherness and to its time – the own one and the others’ – such as "the right to unfunctionality", from listening to the other word.

  20. Chapter 29: Using an Existing Environment in the VO (IDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    The local environment of a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) can provide insight into the (still not understood) formation process of the BCG itself. BCGs are the most massive galaxies in the Universe, and their formation and evolution are a popular and current research topic (Linden et al. 2006, Bernardi et al. 2006, Lauer et al. 2006). They have been studied for some time (Sandage 1972, Ostriker & Tremaine 1975, White 1976, Thuan & Romanishin 1981, Merritt 1985, Postman and Lauer 1995, among many others). Our goal in this chapter is to study how the local environment can affect the physical and measurable properties of BCGs. We will conduct an exploratory research exercise. In this chapter, we will show how the Virtual Observatory (VO) can be effectively utilized for doing modern scientific research on BCGs. We identify the scientific functionalities we need, the datasets we require, and the service locations in order to discover and access those data. This chapter utilizes IDL's VOlib, which is described in Chapter 24 of this book and is available at http://www.nvo.noao.edu. IDL provides the capability to perform the entire range of astronomical scientific analyses in one environment: from image reduction and analysis to complex catalog manipulations, statistics, and publication quality figures. At the 2005 and 2006 NVO Summer Schools, user statistics show that IDL was the most commonly used programming language by the students (nearly 3-to-1 over languages like IRAF, Perl, and Python). In this chapter we show how the integration of IDL to the VO through VOlib provides even greater capabilities and possibilities for conducting science in the era of the Virtual Observatory. The reader should familiarize themselves with the VOlib libraries before attempting the examples in this tutorial. We first build a research plan. We then discover the service URLs we will need to access the data. We then apply the necessary functions and tools to these data before we can do our

  1. Reflections on the different sides of idleness in contemporary times

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Zaczuk Bassinello; Valdemir Miotello

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century, idleness experienced a modernization and democratization process especially with the crisis of a society focused on work – the post-Industrial Revolution - and the emergence of new ideas that put the free time, the leisure and recreation in the role of structural elements of the new social context and like tools for the new ways of life. In this work, we we seek to focus on the significant aspects of reality and function of leisure in our time, clarifying their relation...

  2. Inventory of state energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, A.G.; Gist, R.L.; Underwood, R.G.; Weber, J.C.

    1980-03-31

    These models address a variety of purposes, such as supply or demand of energy or of certain types of energy, emergency management of energy, conservation in end uses of energy, and economic factors. Fifty-one models are briefly described as to: purpose; energy system; applications;status; validation; outputs by sector, energy type, economic and physical units, geographic area, and time frame; structure and modeling techniques; submodels; working assumptions; inputs; data sources; related models; costs; references; and contacts. Discussions in the report include: project purposes and methods of research, state energy modeling in general, model types and terminology, and Federal legislation to which state modeling is relevant. Also, a state-by-state listing of modeling efforts is provided and other model inventories are identified. The report includes a brief encylopedia of terms used in energy models. It is assumed that many readers of the report will not be experienced in the technical aspects of modeling. The project was accomplished by telephone conversations and document review by a team from the Colorado School of Mines Research Institute and the faculty of the Colorado School of Mines. A Technical Committee (listed in the report) provided advice during the course of the project.

  3. Flight Management System Execution of Idle-Thrust Descents in Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stell, Laurel L.

    2011-01-01

    To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the trajectory predictor and its error models, commercial flights executed idle-thrust descents, and the recorded data includes the target speed profile and FMS intent trajectories. The FMS computes the intended descent path assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and any intervention by the controllers that alters the FMS execution of the descent is recorded so that such flights are discarded from the analysis. The horizontal flight path, cruise and meter fix altitudes, and actual TOD location are extracted from the radar data. Using more than 60 descents in Boeing 777 aircraft, the actual speeds are compared to the intended descent speed profile. In addition, three aspects of the accuracy of the FMS intent trajectory are analyzed: the meter fix crossing time, the TOD location, and the altitude at the meter fix. The actual TOD location is within 5 nmi of the intent location for over 95% of the descents. Roughly 90% of the time, the airspeed is within 0.01 of the target Mach number and within 10 KCAS of the target descent CAS, but the meter fix crossing time is only within 50 sec of the time computed by the FMS. Overall, the aircraft seem to be executing the descents as intended by the designers of the onboard automation.

  4. Steady-State Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    This chapter covers the basic principles of steady state modelling and simulation using a number of case studies. Two principal approaches are illustrated that develop the unit operation models from first principles as well as through application of standard flowsheet simulators. The approaches i...

  5. Studi Implementasi Lean Six Sigma dengan Pendekatan Value Stream Mapping untuk Mereduksi Idle Time Material pada Gudang Pelat dan Profil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Widiatmoko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan volume kegiatan industri maritim di Indonesia menuntut industri perkapalan di daerah Surabaya untuk lebih meningkatkan pelayanan baik berupa bangunan baru maupun reparasi kapal. Berdasarkan hal tersebut galangan harus mampu mengelola proses produksi dengan baik sehingga menghasilkan keuntungan yang maksimum. Salah satunya adalah proses inventory dan transport of materials yang efektif. Tugas akhir bertujuan untuk mengetahui sistem inventori yang diterapkan oleh perusahaan yang dijadikan sampel serta idle time material pelat dan profil yang ada di gudang bahan baku dengan menggunakan metode lean six sigma dengan pendekatan value stream mapping. Dari hasil perhitungan menggunakan diperoleh nilai sigma perhitungan idle time sebesar 0.1976 sehingga perlu dilakukan upaya peningkatan nilai sigma pengadaan material itu sendiri. Berdasarkan hasil analisa penyebab adanya idle time dengan menggunakan RCA diperoleh beberapa faktor yaitu : rendahnya nilai sigma penggunaan material, tidak tercapainya target pengerjaan pada proses fabrikasi, proses pengadaan material yang tidak mempertimbangkan strategi proses pembangunan kapal. Dengan penerapan lean six sigma dengan pendekatan value stream mapping dihasilkan usulan perbaikan proses inventori di perusahaan antara lain : meningkatkan nilai sigma penggunaan material, melakukan strategi pembelian material sesuai strategi pembangunan kapal berdasarkan zona, memperbaiki kerjasama dengan supplier material pelat dan profil. Pembuatan future state mapping mendapatkan usulan perbaikan dengan pembuatan perencanaan pengadaan material dengan mempertimbangkan strategi pembangunan kapal berdasarkan zona pembangunannya. Diperoleh strategi pengadaan material yang dilakukan sebanyak 4 kali order.

  6. Modeling solid-state precipitation

    CERN Document Server

    Nebylov, AlexanderKozeschnik, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    Over recent decades, modeling and simulation of solid-state precipitation has attracted increased attention in academia and industry due to their important contributions in designing properties of advanced structural materials and in increasing productivity and decreasing costs for expensive alloying. In particular, precipitation of second phases is an important means for controlling the mechanical-technological properties of structural materials. However, profound physical modeling of precipitation is not a trivial task. This book introduces you to the classical methods of precipitation model

  7. The carrot, the stick, and the combo : a recipe for reducing vehicle idling in Canadian communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented guidelines for municipal anti-idling programs. A broad cross-section of municipalities and community groups across Canada that have implemented voluntary or regulatory idle-free initiatives were identified. Detailed case studies of 10 municipalities were presented which identified success factors, best practices and costs associated with both voluntary and regulatory approaches. The roles of voluntary and regulatory approaches in changing the public's behaviour and perceptions towards vehicle engine idling were investigated. A framework was presented for the development of a municipal idle-free program which focused on 4 areas: (1) the development and maintenance of partnerships, (2) the development of a case or background on the reasons why idling is a serious issue and why a reduced-idling program is needed, (3) the generation of public support for reducing vehicle idling, and (4) the development of education and outreach programs to enable effective by-law development and implementation. The development of idling initiatives within overall environmental strategies was examined, as well as the customization of outreach approaches to meet the needs of target audiences. The importance of open and public discussion as part of idling control by-law development was emphasized. Features of the framework included linking idling to local concerns such as air quality, health and climate change; volunteerism; the initiation of a no-idling policy for municipal fleets; the establishment of an environmental coordinator; and, the recognition that education is key to support by-law development and implementation. Issues concerning the enforcement of by-laws were also discussed. tabs., figs.

  8. Steady-State Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    illustrate the “equation oriented” approach as well as the “sequential modular” approach to solving complex flowsheets for steady state applications. The applications include the Williams-Otto plant, the hydrodealkylation (HDA) of toluene, conversion of ethylene to ethanol and a bio-ethanol process.......This chapter covers the basic principles of steady state modelling and simulation using a number of case studies. Two principal approaches are illustrated that develop the unit operation models from first principles as well as through application of standard flowsheet simulators. The approaches...

  9. Conceptualization of Idle (Laghw) and its relation to medical futility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Aderyani, Mohsen; Javadi, Mohsen; Nazari Tavakkoli, Saeid; Kiani, Mehrzad; Abbasi, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    A major debate in medical ethics is the request for futile treatment. The topic of medical futility requires discrete assessment in Iran for at least two reasons. First, the common principles and foundations of medical ethics have taken shape in the context of Western culture and secularism. Accordingly, the implementation of the same guidelines and codes of medical ethics as Western societies in Muslim communities does not seem rational. Second, the challenges arising in health service settings are divergent across different countries. The Quranic concept of idle (laghw) and its derivatives are used in 11 honorable verses of the Holy Quran. Among these verses, the 3rd verse of the blessed Al-Muminūn Surah was selected for its closer connection to the concept under examination. The selected verse was researched in the context of all dictionaries presented in Noor Jami` al-Tafasir 2 (The Noor Collection of Interpretations 2) software. "Idle" is known as any insignificant speech, act, or thing that is not beneficial; an action from which no benefit is gained; any falsehood (that is not stable or realized); an entertaining act; any foul, futile talk and action unworthy of attention; loss of hope; and something that is not derived from method and thought. The word has also been used to refer to anything insignificant. The notes and derived interpretations were placed in the following categories: A) Having no significant benefit (When medical care does not benefit the patient (his body and/or soul and his life in this world and/or the Hereafter), it is wrong to proceed with that medical modality; B) Falsehood (Actions that fail to provide, maintain, and improve health are clearly futile); C) Unworthy of attention (An action that neither improves health nor threatens it is wrong and impermissible).

  10. 40 CFR 85.2220 - Preconditioned two speed idle test-EPA 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preconditioned two speed idle test-EPA... Warranty Short Tests § 85.2220 Preconditioned two speed idle test—EPA 91. (a) General requirements—(1... between 2200 and 2800 rpm. If the engine speed falls below 2200 rpm or exceeds 2800 rpm for more than two...

  11. Summary of OEM Idling Recommendations from Vehicle Owner's Manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keel-Blackmon, Kristy [East Tennessee Clean Fuels Coalition (ETCleanFuels), Knoxville, TN (United States); Curran, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The project upon which this report is based was conceived in 2012 during discussions between the East Tennessee Clean Fuels Coalition (ETCleanFuels) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) who both noted that a detailed summary of idling recommendations for a wide variety of engines and vehicles were not available in the literature. The two organizations agreed that ETCleanFuels would develop a first-of-its-kind collection of idling recommendations from the owner’s manuals of modern production vehicles. Vehicle engine idling, a subject that has long been debated, is largely shrouded in misinformation. The justifications for idling seem to be many: driver comfort, waiting in lines, and talking on cell phones to name a few. Assuredly, a great number of people idle because of the myths and misinformation surrounding this issue. This report addresses these myths by turning to statements taken directly from the automobile and engine manufacturers themselves.

  12. Modeling solid-state precipitation

    CERN Document Server

    Nebylov, AlexanderKozeschnik, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    Over recent decades, modeling and simulation of solid-state precipitation has attracted increased attention in academia and industry due to their important contributions in designing properties of advanced structural materials and in increasing productivity and decreasing costs for expensive alloying. In particular, precipitation of second phases is an important means for controlling the mechanical-technological properties of structural materials. However, profound physical modeling of precipitation is not a trivial task. This book introduces you to the classical methods of precipitation modeling and to recently-developed advanced, computationally-efficient techniques. If you're a research professional, academic, or student, you'll learn: nucleation theory, precipitate growth, calculation of interfacial energies. advanced techniques for technologically relevant multicomponent systems and complex thermo-mechanical treatments. numerical approaches using evolution equations and discrete particle size distribu...

  13. AN IMPROVED EPON UPSTREAM TRANSMISSION SCHEME WITH ZERO INTER-PERIOD IDLE LOSS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Jianhua; Guo Hongmei; Mi Zhengkun

    2011-01-01

    Existing Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithms suffer from the disadvantage of idle time loss,which lower the upstream bandwidth utilization.This letter proposes an improved upstream transmission scheme with idle-time eliminating mechanism.Theoretical analysis and numerical calculation prove that the improved scheme can effectively eliminate the idle time and enhance the efficiency of upstream link utilization.Simulation results have shown that the bandwidth utilization can be raised up to 15% in heavy-load scenarios while the time delay performance of Assured Forwarding (AF) and Best Effort (BE) services are improved simultaneously.

  14. Functional State Modelling of Cultivation Processes: Dissolved Oxygen Limitation State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new functional state, namely dissolved oxygen limitation state for both bacteria Escherichia coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultivation processes is presented in this study. Functional state modelling approach is applied to cultivation processes in order to overcome the main disadvantages of using global process model, namely complex model structure and a big number of model parameters. Alongwith the newly introduced dissolved oxygen limitation state, second acetate production state and first acetate production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of E. coli, while mixed oxidative state and first ethanol production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of S. cerevisiae. For all mentioned above functional states both structural and parameter identification is here performed based on experimental data of E. coli and S. cerevisiae fed-batch cultivations.

  15. KONTROL ROBUST IDLE SPEED MITSUBISHI 4G63 DENGAN METODE MULTI INPUT MULTI OUTPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Nur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu kerja mesin otomotif adalah kinerja idle speed yang secara signifikan dipengaruhi oleh parameter kontrol pada electronic control unit (ECU. Pada mesin, idle speed merupakan kompromi antara kecepatan mesin rendah untuk menghemat bahan bakar dan kemampuan untuk menolak gangguan dengan baik. Gangguan putaran mesin terjadi karena permintaan listrik pada alternator, yang mana dengan cepat akan menyebabkan naiknya kecepatan mesin sehingga bahan bakar yang di injeksi akan lebih banyak. Idle speed pada penelitian ini akan dikontrol menggunakan metode pengaturan robust multi input multi output (MIMO yang mana sistem akan lebih kuat atau robust terhadap gangguan yang diberikan, kemudian menghasilkan perpaduan performance kecepatan optimal dengan emisi gas buang yang dihasilkan dalam seperti yang diinginkan serta waktu yang digunakan untuk kembali pada kecepatan idle speed yang diingikan lebih cepat. 

  16. A community-based participatory research partnership to reduce vehicle idling near public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbalnia, Cynthia; Sharkey, Ken; Garland-Porter, Denisha; Alam, Mohammad; Crumpton, Marilyn; Jones, Camille; Ryan, Patrick H

    2013-05-01

    The authors implemented and assessed the effectiveness of a public health initiative aimed at reducing traffic-related air pollution exposure of the school community at four Cincinnati public schools. A partnership was fostered with academic environmental health researchers and community members. Anti-idling campaign materials were developed and education and training were provided to school bus drivers, students, parents, and school staff. Pledge drives and pre- and posteducation assessments were documented to measure the effectiveness of the program. After completing the educational component of the public health initiative, bus drivers (n = 397), community members (n = 53), and staff (n = 214) demonstrated significantly increased knowledge about the health effects of idling (p community-driven public health initiative can be effective in both 1) enhancing community awareness about the benefits of reducing idling vehicles and 2) increasing active participation in idling reduction. The partnership initially developed has continued to develop toward a sustainable and growing process.

  17. Seamless online science workflow development and collaboration using IDL and the ENVI Services Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. T.; Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Exelis-developed IDL and ENVI software are ubiquitous tools in Earth science research environments. The IDL Workbench is used by the Earth science community for programming custom data analysis and visualization modules. ENVI is a software solution for processing and analyzing geospatial imagery that combines support for multiple Earth observation scientific data types (optical, thermal, multi-spectral, hyperspectral, SAR, LiDAR) with advanced image processing and analysis algorithms. The ENVI & IDL Services Engine (ESE) is an Earth science data processing engine that allows researchers to use open standards to rapidly create, publish and deploy advanced Earth science data analytics within any existing enterprise infrastructure. Although powerful in many ways, the tools lack collaborative features out-of-box. Thus, as part of the NASA funded project, Collaborative Workbench to Accelerate Science Algorithm Development, researchers at the University of Alabama in Huntsville and Exelis have developed plugins that allow seamless research collaboration from within IDL workbench. Such additional features within IDL workbench are possible because IDL workbench is built using the Eclipse Rich Client Platform (RCP). RCP applications allow custom plugins to be dropped in for extended functionalities. Specific functionalities of the plugins include creating complex workflows based on IDL application source code, submitting workflows to be executed by ESE in the cloud, and sharing and cloning of workflows among collaborators. All these functionalities are available to scientists without leaving their IDL workbench. Because ESE can interoperate with any middleware, scientific programmers can readily string together IDL processing tasks (or tasks written in other languages like C++, Java or Python) to create complex workflows for deployment within their current enterprise architecture (e.g. ArcGIS Server, GeoServer, Apache ODE or SciFlo from JPL). Using the collaborative IDL

  18. EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF INFLUENCE OF COMPOSITE FUEL ON DIESEL OPERATION IN IDLE MODE

    OpenAIRE

    Godina, E.; Ukhanov, A.

    2014-01-01

    Unfavorable condition of the diesel engine is a separate idle mode, which is characterized by incomplete combustion, wasteful fuel consumption and increased emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. To evaluate the feasibility of using radish oil (RadishO) as the biological component of the diesel composite fuel (DCF) the experimental studies of tractor diesel engine D-243 at idle were conducted and the degree of the effect of different composition of radish and mineral fuel on eco...

  19. Analysis of Technology Options to Reduce the Fuel Consumption of Idling Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Stodolsky; L. Gaines; A. Vyas

    2000-06-01

    Long-haul trucks idling overnight consume more than 838 million gallons (20 million barrels) of fuel annually. Idling also emits pollutants. Truck drivers idle their engines primarily to (1) heat or cool the cab and/or sleeper, (2) keep the fuel warm in winter, and (3) keep the engine warm in the winter so that the engine is easier to start. Alternatives to overnight idling could save much of this fuel, reduce emissions, and cut operating costs. Several fuel-efficient alternatives to idling are available to provide heating and cooling: (1) direct-fired heater for cab/sleeper heating, with or without storage cooling; (2) auxiliary power units; and (3) truck stop electrification. Many of these technologies have drawbacks that limit market acceptance. Options that supply electricity are economically viable for trucks that are idled for 1,000-3,000 or more hours a year, while heater units could be used across the board. Payback times for fleets, which would receive quantity discounts on the prices, would be somewhat shorter.

  20. Modeling Transient States in Language Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, G.J.; Truswell, Robert; Mattieu, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Models of language change may include, apart from an initial state and a terminal state, an intermediate transient state T. Building further on they Failed Change Model (Postma 2010) that ties the dynamics of the transient state T to the dynamics of the overall change A → B, we present an generalize

  1. Mean Shift Detection for State Space Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, J.; Mandjes, M.; Taimre, T.; Weber, T.; McPhee, M.J.; Anderssen, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop and validate a procedure for testing against a shift in mean in the observations and hidden state sequence of state space models with Gaussian noise. State space models are popular for modelling stochastic networks as they allow to take into account that observations of the

  2. My Life with State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    . The conceptual idea behind the state space model is that the evolution over time in the object we are observing and the measurement process itself are modelled separately. My very first serious analysis of a data set was done using a state space model, and since then I seem to have been "haunted" by state space...

  3. Developing an Upper Bound and Heuristic Solution Algorithm for Order Scheduling Problem with Machines Idle Time Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mokhtari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of received order scheduling by a manufacturer, with the measure of maximum completion times of orders, has been formulated and then an analytical approach has been devised for its solution. At the beginning of a planning period, the manufacturer receives a number of orders from customers, each of which requires two different stages for processing. In order to minimize the work in process inventories, the no-wait condition between two operations of each order is regarded. Then, the equality of obtained schedules is proved by machine idle time minimization, as objective, with the schedules obtained by maximum completion time minimization. A concept entitled “Order pairing” has been defined and an algorithm for achieving optimal order pairs which is based on symmetric assignment problem has been presented. Using the established order pairs, an upper bound has been developed based on contribution of every order pair out of total machines idle time. Out of different states of improving upper bound, 12 potential situations of order pairs sequencing have been also evaluated and then the upper bound improvement has been proved in each situation, separately. Finally, a heuristic algorithm has been developed based on attained results of pair improvement and a case study in printing industry has been investigated and analyzed to approve its applicability.

  4. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real

  5. Effects of idle time on biological phosphorus removal by sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawen; Yin, Hang; Liu, Lin; Li, Xing; Liang, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Three identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to investigate the effects of various idle times on the biological phosphorus (P) removal. The idle times were set to 3 hr (R1), 10 hr (R2) and 17 hr (R3). The results showed that the idle time of a SBR had potential impact on biological phosphorus removal, especially when the influent phosphorus concentration increased. The phosphorus removal efficiencies of the R2 and R3 systems declined dramatically compared with the stable R1 system, and the P-release and P-uptake rates of the R3 system in particular decreased dramatically. The PCR-DGGE analysis showed that uncultured Pseudomonas sp. (GQ183242.1) and beta-Proteobacteria (AY823971) were the dominant phosphorus removal bacteria for the R1 and R2 systems, while uncultured gamma-Proteobacteria were the dominant phosphorus removal bacteria for the R3 system. Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs), such as uncultured Sphingomonas sp. (AM889077), were found in the R2 and R3 systems. Overall, the R1 system was the most stable and exhibited the best phosphorus removal efficiency. It was found that although the idle time can be prolonged to allow the formation of intracellular polymers when the phosphorus concentration of the influent is low, systems with a long idle time can become unstable when the influent phosphorus concentration is increased.

  6. xdamp Version 6 : an IDL-based data and image manipulation program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, William Parker

    2012-04-01

    The original DAMP (DAta Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA{trademark} (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of Unix(reg sign)-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL(reg sign) software, available from Research Systems Incorporated, a Xerox company, in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP and earlier versions of xdamp. IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of Unix platforms such as IBM(reg sign) workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN(reg sign) workstations, Microsoft(reg sign) Windows{trademark} computers, Macintosh(reg sign) computers and Digital Equipment Corporation VMS(reg sign) and Alpha(reg sign) systems. Thus, xdamp is portable across many platforms. We have verified operation, albeit with some minor IDL bugs, on personal computers using Windows 7 and Windows Vista; Unix platforms; and Macintosh computers. Version 6 is an update that uses the IDL Virtual Machine to resolve the need for licensing IDL.

  7. Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variat...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variation State-Level Characteristics Matter, published in Volume 3, Issue 4, of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  8. Transit Analysis Package: An IDL Graphical User Interface for Exoplanet Transit Photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zachary Gazak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an IDL graphical user-interface-driven software package designed for the analysis of exoplanet transit light curves. The Transit Analysis Package (TAP software uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC techniques to fit light curves using the analytic model of Mandal and Agol (2002. The package incorporates a wavelet-based likelihood function developed by Carter and Winn (2009, which allows the MCMC to assess parameter uncertainties more robustly than classic χ2 methods by parameterizing uncorrelated “white” and correlated “red” noise. The software is able to simultaneously analyze multiple transits observed in different conditions (instrument, filter, weather, etc.. The graphical interface allows for the simple execution and interpretation of Bayesian MCMC analysis tailored to a user’s specific data set and has been thoroughly tested on ground-based and Kepler photometry. This paper describes the software release and provides applications to new and existing data. Reanalysis of ground-based observations of TrES-1b, WASP-4b, and WASP-10b (Winn et al., 2007, 2009; Johnson et al., 2009; resp. and space-based Kepler 4b–8b (Kipping and Bakos 2010 show good agreement between TAP and those publications. We also present new multi-filter light curves of WASP-10b and we find excellent agreement with previously published values for a smaller radius.

  9. Statistical Evaluation of the Identified Structural Parameters of an idling Offshore Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramers, Hendrik C.; van der Valk, Paul L. C.; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2016-09-01

    With the increased need for renewable energy, new offshore wind farms are being developed at an unprecedented scale. However, as the costs of offshore wind energy are still too high, design optimization and new innovations are required for lowering its cost. The design of modern day offshore wind turbines relies on numerical models for estimating ultimate and fatigue loads of the turbines. The dynamic behavior and the resulting structural loading of the turbines is determined for a large part by its structural properties, such as the natural frequencies and damping ratios. Hence, it is important to obtain accurate estimates of these modal properties. For this purpose stochastic subspace identification (SSI), in combination with clustering and statistical evaluation methods, is used to obtain the variance of the identified modal properties of an installed 3.6MW offshore wind turbine in idling conditions. It is found that one is able to obtain confidence intervals for the means of eigenfrequencies and damping ratios of the fore-aft and side-side modes of the wind turbine.

  10. Investigating Emission Values of a Passenger Vehicle in the Idle Mode and Comparison with Regulated Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N Aduagba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of emission values of a passenger vehicle in idle mode in comparison to regulated values. The results from the emission test conducted on the Golf 3 GTi Volkswagen 1996 model popularly used as “Taxi” in Nigeria were compared with emission value in Euro 2 to depict the year the car was manufactured. The devices used in the experimental work consist of aSV-5Q automobile exhaust gas analyzer and SV-1 engine tachometer. The measured emission results were 12.98, 1.43 and 1.58g/km for CO, HC and NO respectively. Generally, age and fatigue will produce a number of poor performances of engine such as break down in major operating variables that affect sparks ignition, engine performance, emission control (catalytic converter if installed. This study showed high emission values in the aged vehicle andconcluded that efforts to reduce the rate of emissions are necessary and to set standards for vehicular emission in the country using the accepted standards

  11. Development of an integrated model for analysis of the kinetics of apolipoprotein B in plasma very low density lipoproteins, intermediate density lipoproteins, and low density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, W F; Kesäniemi, Y A; Howard, B V; Grundy, S M

    1985-01-01

    To quantify more precisely the metabolism of apolipoprotein B (apo B) in human beings, an integrated model was developed for the analysis of the isotope kinetics of apo B in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), and low density lipoproteins (LDL). The experimental basis for model development was a series of 30 triple-isotope studies in which patients received autologous 131I-VLDL, 125I-IDL, and [3H]glycerol as a precursor of VLDL triglycerides. The currently proposed model contains the following components: (a) a VLDL delipidation cascade that has a variable number of subcompartments, (b) a slowly catabolized pool of VLDL, (c) an IDL compartment consisting of two closely connected subcompartments, one of which is outside the immediate circulation, and (d) a two-compartment subsystem for LDL. Because mass data indicate that not all VLDL were converted to LDL, the model allows for irreversible removal of apo B from VLDL (or IDL) subsystems. It accounts for apparent "direct" input of LDL by postulating an early, rapidly metabolized compartment of VLDL that is converted directly to IDL. The model appears to be consistent with specific activity curves from the current triple-isotope studies and with present concepts of lipoprotein physiology; it also can be used to quantify pathways of lipoprotein apo B transport in normal and abnormal states. PMID:4031063

  12. On Friedrichs Model with Two Continuum States

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Zhiguang

    2016-01-01

    The Friedrichs model with one discrete state coupled to more than one continuum is studied. The exact eigenstates for the full Hamiltonian can be solved explicitly. The discrete state is found to generate more than one virtual state pole or more than one pair of resonance poles in different Riemann sheets in different situations. The form factors could also generate new states on different sheets. All these states can appear in the generalized completeness relation.

  13. Subsetting hyperspectral core imaging data using a graphic-identification-based IDL program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jun-Ting; Zhang, Chuan; Yu, Zhang-Fa; Xu, Qing-Jun; Wu, Ding; Li, Wei-Wei; Yao, Jia-Lei

    2017-09-01

    This study presents an IDL program to subset hyperspectral drill core imagery automatically based on graphic identification. A HySpex SWIR-320m-e imager and drill cores from the Xiangshan uranium deposit were used to do an application test. Based on the HySpex images, we found that the ratio variation tolerance of 75%, minimum marker size of 37 pixel × 37 pixel (28 mm × 28 mm), and wavelength of 1141.3 nm (band #30) are preferences for the IDL program. The results indicate that the IDL program subsets hyperspectral images with high accuracy and efficiency without consuming additional time during the scanning process. Additionally, deformation of the core box, the material from which the core box is made, and variation in the diameter of the drill core do not significantly affect the quality of the results.

  14. Model Checking Multivariate State Rewards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    We consider continuous stochastic logics with state rewards that are interpreted over continuous time Markov chains. We show how results from multivariate phase type distributions can be used to obtain higher-order moments for multivariate state rewards (including covariance). We also generalise ...... the treatment of eventuality to unbounded path formulae. For all extensions we show how to obtain closed form definitions that are straightforward to implement and we illustrate our development on a small example.......We consider continuous stochastic logics with state rewards that are interpreted over continuous time Markov chains. We show how results from multivariate phase type distributions can be used to obtain higher-order moments for multivariate state rewards (including covariance). We also generalise...

  15. Beltrami States for Plasma Dynamics Models

    OpenAIRE

    Shivamoggi, B. K.

    2007-01-01

    The various plasma models - incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, compressible MHD model, incompressible Hall MHD model, compressible Hall MHD model, electron MHD model, compressible Hall MHD with electron inertia model - notwithstanding the diversity of the underlying physics, are shown to exhibit some common features in the Beltrami states like certain robustness with respect to the plasma compressibility effects (albeit in the barotropy assumption) and the {\\it Bernoulli} conditi...

  16. Operationalizing resilience using state and transition models

    Science.gov (United States)

    In management, restoration, and policy contexts, the notion of resilience can be confusing. Systematic development of conceptual models of ecological state change (state transition models; STMs) can help overcome semantic confusion and promote a mechanistic understanding of resilience. Drawing on ex...

  17. Steady state HNG combustion modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louwers, J.; Gadiot, G.M.H.J.L. [TNO Prins Maurits Lab., Rijswijk (Netherlands); Brewster, M.Q. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Son, S.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Parr, T.; Hanson-Parr, D. [Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Two simplified modeling approaches are used to model the combustion of Hydrazinium Nitroformate (HNF, N{sub 2}H{sub 5}-C(NO{sub 2}){sub 3}). The condensed phase is treated by high activation energy asymptotics. The gas phase is treated by two limit cases: the classical high activation energy, and the recently introduced low activation energy approach. This results in simplification of the gas phase energy equation, making an (approximate) analytical solution possible. The results of both models are compared with experimental results of HNF combustion. It is shown that the low activation energy approach yields better agreement with experimental observations (e.g. regression rate and temperature sensitivity), than the high activation energy approach.

  18. 77 FR 20292 - Small Business Investment Companies-Conflicts of Interest and Investment of Idle Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 RIN 3245-AF56 Small Business Investment Companies--Conflicts of Interest and.... Small Business Administration is revising a rule which prohibits a small business investment company... requirements. Second, it expands the types of investments an SBIC is permitted to make with its ``idle...

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF VEHICLE’S ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES IN FORCED IDLING MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baginov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method that allowing to improve the economic and the ecological performances of the vehicle in the forced idling mode is considered. Experimental researches are carried out. It is shown that fuel economy can constitute about 5% in the urban mode.

  20. Dynamic ambulance dispatching: is the closest-idle policy always optimal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Jagtenberg (Caroline); S. Bhulai (Sandjai); R.D. van der Mei (Rob)

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractWe address the problem of ambulance dispatching, in which we must decide which ambulance to send to an incident in real time. In practice, it is commonly believed that the ‘closest idle ambulance’ rule is near-optimal and it is used throughout most literature. In this paper, we present

  1. Approximate Methods for State-Space Models

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, Shinsuke; Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Kass, Robert E; 10.1198/jasa.2009.tm08326

    2010-01-01

    State-space models provide an important body of techniques for analyzing time-series, but their use requires estimating unobserved states. The optimal estimate of the state is its conditional expectation given the observation histories, and computing this expectation is hard when there are nonlinearities. Existing filtering methods, including sequential Monte Carlo, tend to be either inaccurate or slow. In this paper, we study a nonlinear filter for nonlinear/non-Gaussian state-space models, which uses Laplace's method, an asymptotic series expansion, to approximate the state's conditional mean and variance, together with a Gaussian conditional distribution. This {\\em Laplace-Gaussian filter} (LGF) gives fast, recursive, deterministic state estimates, with an error which is set by the stochastic characteristics of the model and is, we show, stable over time. We illustrate the estimation ability of the LGF by applying it to the problem of neural decoding and compare it to sequential Monte Carlo both in simulat...

  2. A genetic Algorithm for the Single Machine Scheduling Problem with Linear Earliness and Quadratic Tardiness Penalties with Consideration of Preemption and Idle Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad_Bagher Fakhrzad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a non linear mathematical model has been proposed for solving a single machine scheduling problem with a linear earliness and quadratic tardiness cost, where machine idle time and preemptions are allowed. As the model is complex and cannot be solved in polynomial time, it has been assumed to be a NP hard problem, so the known optimal solution methods may not be applicable for its solution. A Genetic Algorithm approach has been developed for solving the model and numerical examples has been presented, which imply that the proposed method is efficient and effective.

  3. Modelling end-pumped solid state lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, E.H.; Bollig, C.; Forbes, A.; Esser, M.J.D.; Wörhoff, K.; Agazzi, L.; Ismail, N.; Leijtens, X.

    2008-01-01

    The operation dynamics of end-pumped solid-state lasers are investigated by means of a spatially resolved numerical rate-equation model and a time-dependent analytical thermal model. The rate-equation model allows the optimization of parameters such as the output coupler transmission and gain medium

  4. State-oriented models in software specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luiz Bonifácio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available These techniques can be formal or not according to the developing system. In this work, a formal modeling technique is applied in a case study. The Finite State Machine model is used to specify the calculator functionalities, which models the basic arithmetical operations.

  5. The State Space Models Toolbox for MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Ying Peng

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available State Space Models (SSM is a MATLAB toolbox for time series analysis by state space methods. The software features fully interactive construction and combination of models, with support for univariate and multivariate models, complex time-varying (dy- namic models, non-Gaussian models, and various standard models such as ARIMA and structural time-series models. The software includes standard functions for Kalman fil- tering and smoothing, simulation smoothing, likelihood evaluation, parameter estimation, signal extraction and forecasting, with incorporation of exact initialization for filters and smoothers, and support for missing observations and multiple time series input with com- mon analysis structure. The software also includes implementations of TRAMO model selection and Hillmer-Tiao decomposition for ARIMA models. The software will provide a general toolbox for time series analysis on the MATLAB platform, allowing users to take advantage of its readily available graph plotting and general matrix computation capabilities.

  6. Bound States in Boson Impurity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Wu, Ying-Hai; González-Tudela, A.; Cirac, J. I.

    2016-04-01

    The formation of bound states involving multiple particles underlies many interesting quantum physical phenomena, such as Efimov physics or superconductivity. In this work, we show the existence of an infinite number of such states for some boson impurity models. They describe free bosons coupled to an impurity and include some of the most representative models in quantum optics. We also propose a family of wave functions to describe the bound states and verify that it accurately characterizes all parameter regimes by comparing its predictions with exact numerical calculations for a one-dimensional tight-binding Hamiltonian. For that model, we also analyze the nature of the bound states by studying the scaling relations of physical quantities, such as the ground-state energy and localization length, and find a nonanalytical behavior as a function of the coupling strength. Finally, we discuss how to test our theoretical predictions in experimental platforms, such as photonic crystal structures and cold atoms in optical lattices.

  7. Outlier Rejecting Multirate Model for State Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet transform was introduced to detect and eliminate outliers in time-frequency domain. The outlier rejection and multirate information extraction were initially incorporated by wavelet transform, a new outlier rejecting multirate model for state estimation was proposed. The model is applied to state estimation with interacting multiple model, as the outlier is eliminated and more reasonable multirate information is extracted, the estimation accuracy is greatly enhanced. The simulation results prove that the new model is robust to outliers and the estimation performance is significantly improved.

  8. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bent Greve

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states. These include, for example, full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and a high level of public spending on welfare. The article further presents data, which enables the reader to a comparison with welfare states in Europe and to analyse whether we are witnessing convergence in Europe and/or the withering away of the Nordic Model. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model is here t...

  9. The STAMP Software for State Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Mendelssohn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of STAMP (Structural Time Series Analyser, Modeler and Predictor for modeling time series data using state-space methods with unobserved components. STAMP is a commercial, GUI-based program that runs on Windows, Linux and Macintosh computers as part of the larger OxMetrics System. STAMP can estimate a wide-variety of both univariate and multivariate state-space models, provides a wide array of diagnostics, and has a batch mode capability. The use of STAMP is illustrated for the Nile river data which is analyzed throughout this issue, as well as by modeling a variety of oceanographic and climate related data sets. The analyses of the oceanographic and climate data illustrate the breadth of models available in STAMP, and that state-space methods produce results that provide new insights into important scientific problems.

  10. PINGSoft 2: an IDL Integral Field Spectroscopy Software, ready for the CALIFA survey data

    CERN Document Server

    Rosales-Ortega, F F

    2012-01-01

    PINGSoft, is a set of IDL routines designed to visualise, manipulate, and analyse integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data regardless of the original instrument and spaxel shape. PINGSoft 2 is a relatively major upgrade with respect to the first version: the overall functionality and layout have been improved, while the command syntax has been simplified. This version includes new routines that offer powerful spatial and spectral visualisation of the data, improved extraction routines, and new analysis tools. PINGSoft is optimised for a fast visualisation rendering, it supports RSS and 3D cube formats, it is able to run on practically any computer platform with minimal library requirements, and is adapted to work natively with the CALIFA survey data. The PINGSoft 2 IDL Integral Field Spectroscopy Software is freely available at http://califa.caha.es/pingsoft

  11. Characterization of high level nuclear waste glass samples following extended melter idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2015-06-16

    The Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter was recently idled with glass remaining in the melt pool and riser for approximately three months. This situation presented a unique opportunity to collect and analyze glass samples since outages of this duration are uncommon. The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the potential for crystal formation in the glass resulting from an extended idling period. The results will be used to support development of a crystal-tolerant approach for operation of the high level waste melter at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Two glass pour stream samples were collected from DWPF when the melter was restarted after idling for three months. The samples did not contain crystallization that was detectible by X-ray diffraction. Electron microscopy identified occasional spinel and noble metal crystals of no practical significance. Occasional platinum particles were observed by microscopy as an artifact of the sample collection method. Reduction/oxidation measurements showed that the pour stream glasses were fully oxidized, which was expected after the extended idling period. Chemical analysis of the pour stream glasses revealed slight differences in the concentrations of some oxides relative to analyses of the melter feed composition prior to the idling period. While these differences may be within the analytical error of the laboratories, the trends indicate that there may have been some amount of volatility associated with some of the glass components, and that there may have been interaction of the glass with the refractory components of the melter. These changes in composition, although small, can be attributed to the idling of the melter for an extended period. The changes in glass composition resulted in a 70-100 °C increase in the predicted spinel liquidus temperature (TL) for the pour stream glass samples relative to the analysis of the melter feed prior to

  12. Characterization of high level nuclear waste glass samples following extended melter idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Kevin M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peeler, David K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-16

    The Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter was recently idled with glass remaining in the melt pool and riser for approximately three months. This situation presented a unique opportunity to collect and analyze glass samples since outages of this duration are uncommon. The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the potential for crystal formation in the glass resulting from an extended idling period. The results will be used to support development of a crystal-tolerant approach for operation of the high-level waste melter at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Two glass pour stream samples were collected from DWPF when the melter was restarted after idling for three months. The samples did not contain crystallization that was detectible by X-ray diffraction. Electron microscopy identified occasional spinel and noble metal crystals of no practical significance. Occasional platinum particles were observed by microscopy as an artifact of the sample collection method. Reduction/oxidation measurements showed that the pour stream glasses were fully oxidized, which was expected after the extended idling period. Chemical analysis of the pour stream glasses revealed slight differences in the concentrations of some oxides relative to analyses of the melter feed composition prior to the idling period. While these differences may be within the analytical error of the laboratories, the trends indicate that there may have been some amount of volatility associated with some of the glass components, and that there may have been interaction of the glass with the refractory components of the melter. These changes in composition, although small, can be attributed to the idling of the melter for an extended period. The changes in glass composition resulted in a 70-100 °C increase in the predicted spinel liquidus temperature (TL) for the pour stream glass samples relative to the analysis of the melter feed prior to

  13. Worker selection of safe speed and idle condition in simulated monitoring of two industrial robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, W; Rahimi, M

    1991-05-01

    Industrial robots often operate at high speed, with unpredictable motion patterns and erratic idle times. Serious injuries and deaths have occurred due to operator misperception of these robot design and performance characteristics. The main objective of the research project was to study human perceptual aspects of hazardous robotics workstations. Two laboratory experiments were designed to investigate workers' perceptions of two industrial robots with different physical configurations and performance capabilities. Twenty-four subjects participated in the study. All subjects were chosen from local industries, and had had considerable exposure to robots and other automated equipment in their working experience. Experiment 1 investigated the maximum speed of robot arm motions that workers, who were experienced with operation of industrial robots, judged to be 'safe' for monitoring tasks. It was found that the selection of safe speed depends on the size of the robot and the speed with which the robot begins its operation. Speeds of less than 51 cm/s and 63 cm/s for large and small robots, respectively, were perceived as safe, i.e., ones that did not result in workers feeling uneasy or endangered when working in close proximity to the robot and monitoring its actions. Experiment 2 investigated the minimum value of robot idle time (inactivity) perceived by industrial workers as system malfunction, and an indication of the 'safe-to-approach' condition. It was found that idle times of 41 s and 28 s or less for the small and large robots, respectively, were perceived by workers to be a result of system malfunction. About 20% of the workers waited only 10 s or less before deciding that the robot had stopped because of system malfunction. The idle times were affected by the subjects' prior exposure to a simulated robot accident. Further interpretations of the results and suggestions for operational limitations of robot systems are discussed.

  14. THE RESEARCH OF CORBA AND IDL COMPILER%CORBA及其IDL编译器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志蜀; 尹皓

    2000-01-01

    介绍了CORBA规范作为分布式对象计算(DOC,Distributed Obiect Computing)的主流技术.分析了CORBA系统的体系结构以及IDL编译器的工作原理.%CORBA specification, as one of the main technologies in distributed object computing, has been developed rapidly. Authors discuss the structure of CORBA and analyse the job principle of IDL compiler.

  15. Evaluation of Joint Sleep and Idle Mode in IEEE 802.16e WIMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad M. Abinader Jr.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As energy availability limits usage time for mobile devices, modern wireless systems implement Power Saving Mechanisms (PSMs. Determining optimal PSM parameters and switch points when applying all PSM mechanisms jointly in the same scenario is a trade-off between power savings and system performance degradation. This work presents an unpublished performance study of the joint operation of Sleep Mode and Idle Mode on an accurate 802.16e PSM NS-2 simulation implementation, with the MS experiencing two different classes of Internet traffic, namely HTTP Web Browsing and Always-On traffic. We first determine which set of PSM parameters influence the most on power savings and performance degradation (in terms of TCP retransmissions via a 2k.r factorial analysis. Then, we explore those PSM parameters via full factorial analysis in order to determine optimal transition points between Sleep Mode and Idle Mode, such that we achieve power savings without high performance degradation. Results showed that although we managed to obtain good power saving results for a wide range of PSM parameters, performance degradation can be substantial if the Sleep Mode Inactivity Timer is such that PSM is activated within TCP RTT or the timers for Sleep Mode and Idle Mode are such that there is a €œcompetition€ between which PSM mechanism should be activated. Under established conditions, we observe a significant power saving gains followed by a surprising system performance enhancement.

  16. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI Time-Series of Idle Agriculture Lands: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Skidmore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the NDVI time-series collected from the study area between year 2003 and 2005 of all land cover types are plotted and compared. The study area is the agricultural zones in Banphai District, Khonkean, Thailand. The LANDSAT satellite images of different dates were first transformed into a time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI images before the investigation. It can be visually observed that the NDVI time series of the Idle Agriculture Land (IAL has the NDVI values closed to zero. In other words, the trend of the NDVI values remains, approximately, unchanged about the zero level for the whole period of the study time. In contrast, the non-idle areas hold a higher level of the NDVI variation. The NDVI values above 0.5 can be found in these non-idle areas during the growing seasons. Thus, it can be hypothesized that the NDVI time-series of the different land cover types can be used for IAL classification. This outcome is a prerequisite to the follow-up study of the NDVI pattern classification that will be done in the near future.

  17. Approximate Methods for State-Space Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinsuke; Pérez-Bolde, Lucia Castellanos; Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Kass, Robert E

    2010-03-01

    State-space models provide an important body of techniques for analyzing time-series, but their use requires estimating unobserved states. The optimal estimate of the state is its conditional expectation given the observation histories, and computing this expectation is hard when there are nonlinearities. Existing filtering methods, including sequential Monte Carlo, tend to be either inaccurate or slow. In this paper, we study a nonlinear filter for nonlinear/non-Gaussian state-space models, which uses Laplace's method, an asymptotic series expansion, to approximate the state's conditional mean and variance, together with a Gaussian conditional distribution. This Laplace-Gaussian filter (LGF) gives fast, recursive, deterministic state estimates, with an error which is set by the stochastic characteristics of the model and is, we show, stable over time. We illustrate the estimation ability of the LGF by applying it to the problem of neural decoding and compare it to sequential Monte Carlo both in simulations and with real data. We find that the LGF can deliver superior results in a small fraction of the computing time.

  18. A Model of Mental State Transition Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hua; Jiang, Peilin; Xiao, Shuang; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Emotion is one of the most essential and basic attributes of human intelligence. Current AI (Artificial Intelligence) research is concentrating on physical components of emotion, rarely is it carried out from the view of psychology directly(1). Study on the model of artificial psychology is the first step in the development of human-computer interaction. As affective computing remains unpredictable, creating a reasonable mental model becomes the primary task for building a hybrid system. A pragmatic mental model is also the fundament of some key topics such as recognition and synthesis of emotions. In this paper a Mental State Transition Network Model(2) is proposed to detect human emotions. By a series of psychological experiments, we present a new way to predict coming human's emotions depending on the various current emotional states under various stimuli. Besides, people in different genders and characters are taken into consideration in our investigation. According to the psychological experiments data derived from 200 questionnaires, a Mental State Transition Network Model for describing the transitions in distribution among the emotions and relationships between internal mental situations and external are concluded. Further more the coefficients of the mental transition network model were achieved. Comparing seven relative evaluating experiments, an average precision rate of 0.843 is achieved using a set of samples for the proposed model.

  19. Optimized Markov State Models for Metastable Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Guarnera, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    A method is proposed to identify target states that optimize a metastability index amongst a set of trial states and use these target states as milestones to build Markov State Models. If the optimized metastability index is small, this automatically guarantees the accuracy of the MSM in the sense that the transitions between the target milestones is indeed approximately Markovian. The method is simple to implement and use, it does not require that the dynamics on the trial milestones be Markovian, and it also offers the possibility to partition the system's state-space by assigning every trial milestone to the target milestones it is most likely to visit next and to identify transition state regions. Here the method is tested on the Gly-Ala-Gly peptide, where it shown to correctly identify the known metastable states in the dihedral angle space of the molecule without a priori information about these states. It is also applied to analyze the folding landscape of the Beta3s min-protein, where it is shown to i...

  20. A novel system for collecting longitudinal self-reported dietary consumption information: the internet data logger (iDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chensheng; Pearson, Melanie; Renker, Stephen; Myerburg, Stuart; Farino, Chris

    2006-09-01

    As diet has been considered as the major exposure pathway for toxic chemicals, such as heavy metals and pesticides, we have developed a web-based questionnaire system, the internet data logger (iDL), in order to facilitate the collection of detailed self-recording of standardized daily dietary consumption. An iDL prototype optimized for hand-held devices was tested in the on-going Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (CPES) in Atlanta, GA in which 15 consecutive days of dietary consumption information were recorded by 11 children or their parents and transmitted to a server via broadband wireless internet connection. Participants spent an average of 6.2 min in day 1 to enter a meal into iDL and approximately 4 min per meal for the remaining 14 study days. Approximately 75% of 446 total meals were entered into iDL on the date of consumption. A within-person comparison revealed that many food items recorded on paper diary were later classified as "unknown" according to iDL standards due to the lack of detailed information provided by the participants. The development of iDL represents a novel and pioneering tool, which integrates dietary data collection, transmission, and management in a real-time and automated manner. iDL provides the needed flexibility and mobility for research focused on collecting not only dietary consumption data but also other time-sensitive behavior data. This study has demonstrated that iDL can be deployed to collect long-term dietary consumption information in a population-based study, though future modifications/enhancements will undoubtedly improve its usability and application.

  1. Multi-state modeling of biomolecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie I Stefan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-state modeling of biomolecules refers to a series of techniques used to represent and compute the behavior of biological molecules or complexes that can adopt a large number of possible functional states. Biological signaling systems often rely on complexes of biological macromolecules that can undergo several functionally significant modifications that are mutually compatible. Thus, they can exist in a very large number of functionally different states. Modeling such multi-state systems poses two problems: the problem of how to describe and specify a multi-state system (the "specification problem" and the problem of how to use a computer to simulate the progress of the system over time (the "computation problem". To address the specification problem, modelers have in recent years moved away from explicit specification of all possible states and towards rule-based formalisms that allow for implicit model specification, including the κ-calculus, BioNetGen, the Allosteric Network Compiler, and others. To tackle the computation problem, they have turned to particle-based methods that have in many cases proved more computationally efficient than population-based methods based on ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations, or the Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm. Given current computing technology, particle-based methods are sometimes the only possible option. Particle-based simulators fall into two further categories: nonspatial simulators, such as StochSim, DYNSTOC, RuleMonkey, and the Network-Free Stochastic Simulator (NFSim, and spatial simulators, including Meredys, SRSim, and MCell. Modelers can thus choose from a variety of tools, the best choice depending on the particular problem. Development of faster and more powerful methods is ongoing, promising the ability to simulate ever more complex signaling processes in the future.

  2. Forecasting Models in the State Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas DZEMYDA

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents model-based assessment and forecasting of the Lithuanian education system in the period of 2001-2010. In order to obtain satisfactory forecasting results, constructing of models used for these aims should be grounded on some interactive data mining. Data mining of data stored in the system of the Lithuanian teacher's database and of data from other sources representing the state of education system and the demographic changes in Lithuania was used. The models cover the estimation of data quality in the databases, the analysis of flow of teachers and pupils, the clustering of schools, the model of dynamics of pedagogical staff and pupils, and the quality analysis of teachers. The main results of forecasting and integrated analysis of the Lithuanian teachers' database with other data reflecting the state of the education system and demographic changes in Lithuania are presented.

  3. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states are presented. These include full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and public sector spending. The Nordic countries are compared to other European countries. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model...

  4. Steady state modeling of desiccant wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2014-01-01

    Desiccant wheels are rotary desiccant dehumidifiers used in air conditioning and drying applications. The modeling of simultaneous heat and mass transfer in these components is crucial for estimating their performances, as well as for simulating and optimizing their implementation in complete sys...... be taken into account in a future version of the model. More experimental data have to be gathered to implement eventual missing phenomena and validate the model for all input parameters....... systems. A steady state two-dimensional model is formulated and implemented aiming to obtain good accuracy and short computational times. Comparison with experimental data from the literature shows that the model reproduces the physical behavior of desiccant wheels. Mass diffusion in the desiccant should......Desiccant wheels are rotary desiccant dehumidifiers used in air conditioning and drying applications. The modeling of simultaneous heat and mass transfer in these components is crucial for estimating their performances, as well as for simulating and optimizing their implementation in complete...

  5. A critical appraisal of Markov state models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Ch.; Sarich, M.

    2015-09-01

    Markov State Modelling as a concept for a coarse grained description of the essential kinetics of a molecular system in equilibrium has gained a lot of attention recently. The last 10 years have seen an ever increasing publication activity on how to construct Markov State Models (MSMs) for very different molecular systems ranging from peptides to proteins, from RNA to DNA, and via molecular sensors to molecular aggregation. Simultaneously the accompanying theory behind MSM building and approximation quality has been developed well beyond the concepts and ideas used in practical applications. This article reviews the main theoretical results, provides links to crucial new developments, outlines the full power of MSM building today, and discusses the essential limitations still to overcome.

  6. Multivariable Wind Modeling in State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Pedersen, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Turbulence of the incoming wind field is of paramount importance to the dynamic response of wind turbines. Hence reliable stochastic models of the turbulence should be available from which time series can be generated for dynamic response and structural safety analysis. In the paper an empirical...... cross-spectral density function for the along-wind turbulence component over the rotor plane is taken as the starting point. The spectrum is spatially discretized in terms of a Hermitian cross-spectral density matrix for the turbulence state vector which turns out not to be positive definite. Since...... the succeeding state space and ARMA modeling of the turbulence rely on the positive definiteness of the cross-spectral density matrix, the problem with the non-positive definiteness of such matrices is at first addressed and suitable treatments regarding it are proposed. From the adjusted positive definite cross...

  7. Techno-economic analysis of fuel cell auxiliary power units as alternative to idling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Semant; Chen, Hsieh-Yeh; Schwank, Johannes

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APUs), with emphasis on applications in the trucking industry and the military. The APU system is intended to reduce the need for discretionary idling of diesel engines or gas turbines. The analysis considers the options for on-board fuel processing of diesel and compares the two leading fuel cell contenders for automotive APU applications: proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell. As options for on-board diesel reforming, partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming are considered. Finally, using estimated and projected efficiency data, fuel consumption patterns, capital investment, and operating costs of fuel-cell APUs, an economic evaluation of diesel-based APUs is presented, with emphasis on break-even periods as a function of fuel cost, investment cost, idling time, and idling efficiency. The analysis shows that within the range of parameters studied, there are many conditions where deployment of an SOFC-based APU is economically viable. Our analysis indicates that at an APU system cost of 100 kW -1, the economic break-even period is within 1 year for almost the entire range of conditions. At 500 kW -1 investment cost, a 2-year break-even period is possible except for the lowest end of the fuel consumption range considered. However, if the APU investment cost is 3000 kW -1, break-even would only be possible at the highest fuel consumption scenarios. For Abram tanks, even at typical land delivered fuel costs, a 2-year break-even period is possible for APU investment costs as high as 1100 kW -1.

  8. Architecture of the Product State Model Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Larsen, Michael; Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of using product models to support product lifecycle activities withparticular focus on the production phase. The motivation of the research is that products are producedmore costly and with longer lead-time than necessary.The paper provides a review of product...... modelling technologies and approaches, and the overallarchitecture for the Product State Model (PSM) Environment as a basis for quality monitoring.Especially, the paper focuses on the circumstances prevailing in a one-of-a-kind manufacturingenvironment like the shipbuilding industry, where product modelling...... technologies already haveproved their worth in the design and engineering phases of shipbuilding and in the operation phase.However, the handling of product information on the shop floor is not yet equally developed.The paper reports from the Brite-Euram project (No. BE97-4510) QualiGlobe focusing...

  9. Multimedia Mapping using Continuous State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a system that transforms speech waveforms to animated faces are proposed. The system relies on continuous state space models to perform the mapping, this makes it possible to ensure video with no sudden jumps and allows continuous control of the parameters in 'face space'. Simulations...... are performed on recordings of 3-5 sec. video sequences with sentences from the Timit database. The model is able to construct an image sequence from an unknown noisy speech sequence fairly well even though the number of training examples are limited....

  10. Challenges for models with composite states

    CERN Document Server

    Cline, James M; Moore, Guy D

    2016-01-01

    Composite states of electrically charged and QCD-colored hyperquarks (HQs) in a confining SU(N_HC) hypercolor gauge sector are a plausible extension of the standard model at the TeV scale, and have been widely considered as an explanation for the tentative LHC diphoton excess. Additional new physics is required to avoid a stable charged hyperbaryon in such theories. We classify renormalizable models allowing the decay of this unwanted relic directly into standard model states, showing that they are significantly restricted if the new scalar states needed for UV completion are at the TeV scale. Alternatively, if hyperbaryon number is conserved, the charged relic can decay into a neutral hyperbaryon. Such theories are strongly constrained by direct detection, if the neutral constituent hyperquark carries color or weak isospin, and by LHC searches for leptoquarks if it is a color singlet. We show that the neutral hyperbaryon can have the observed relic abundance if the confinement scale and the hyperquark mass a...

  11. Challenges for models with composite states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, James M.; Huang, Weicong; Moore, Guy D.

    2016-09-01

    Composite states of electrically charged and QCD-colored hyperquarks (HQs) in a confining SU (NHC) hypercolor gauge sector are a plausible extension of the standard model at the TeV scale and have been widely considered as an explanation for the tentative LHC diphoton excess. Additional new physics is required to avoid a stable charged hyperbaryon in such theories. We classify renormalizable models allowing the decay of this unwanted relic directly into standard model states, showing that they are significantly restricted if the new scalar states needed for UV completion are at the TeV scale. Alternatively, if hyperbaryon number is conserved, the charged relic can decay into a neutral hyperbaryon. Such theories are strongly constrained by direct detection, if the neutral constituent hyperquark carries color or weak isospin, and by LHC searches for leptoquarks if it is a color singlet. We show that the neutral hyperbaryon can have the observed relic abundance if the confinement scale and the hyperquark mass are above TeV scale, even in the absence of any hyperbaryon asymmetry.

  12. Modeling Bivariate Longitudinal Hormone Profiles by Hierarchical State Space Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziyue; Cappola, Anne R; Crofford, Leslie J; Guo, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is crucial in coping with stress and maintaining homeostasis. Hormones produced by the HPA axis exhibit both complex univariate longitudinal profiles and complex relationships among different hormones. Consequently, modeling these multivariate longitudinal hormone profiles is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a bivariate hierarchical state space model, in which each hormone profile is modeled by a hierarchical state space model, with both population-average and subject-specific components. The bivariate model is constructed by concatenating the univariate models based on the hypothesized relationship. Because of the flexible framework of state space form, the resultant models not only can handle complex individual profiles, but also can incorporate complex relationships between two hormones, including both concurrent and feedback relationship. Estimation and inference are based on marginal likelihood and posterior means and variances. Computationally efficient Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms are used for implementation. Application of the proposed method to a study of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia reveals that the relationships between adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol in the patient group are weaker than in healthy controls.

  13. Parameter and State Estimator for State Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifeng Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a parameter and state estimator for canonical state space systems from measured input-output data. The key is to solve the system state from the state equation and to substitute it into the output equation, eliminating the state variables, and the resulting equation contains only the system inputs and outputs, and to derive a least squares parameter identification algorithm. Furthermore, the system states are computed from the estimated parameters and the input-output data. Convergence analysis using the martingale convergence theorem indicates that the parameter estimates converge to their true values. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to show that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  14. Parameter and state estimator for state space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ruifeng; Zhuang, Linfan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a parameter and state estimator for canonical state space systems from measured input-output data. The key is to solve the system state from the state equation and to substitute it into the output equation, eliminating the state variables, and the resulting equation contains only the system inputs and outputs, and to derive a least squares parameter identification algorithm. Furthermore, the system states are computed from the estimated parameters and the input-output data. Convergence analysis using the martingale convergence theorem indicates that the parameter estimates converge to their true values. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to show that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  15. A three states sleep-waking model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comte, J.C. [Laboratoire de Physiopathologie des Reseaux Neuronaux du Cycle Veille-Sommeil, UMR 5167, CNRS/Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec 7, Rue Guillaume Paradin 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France)]. E-mail: comtejc@gmail.com; Schatzman, M. [MAPLY, Laboratoire de Mathematiques appliquees de Lyon, UMR5585, CNRS/Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, 21, Avenue Claude Bernard, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ravassard, P. [Laboratoire de Physiopathologie des Reseaux Neuronaux du Cycle Veille-Sommeil, UMR 5167, CNRS/Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec 7, Rue Guillaume Paradin 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Luppi, P.H. [Laboratoire de Physiopathologie des Reseaux Neuronaux du Cycle Veille-Sommeil, UMR 5167, CNRS/Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec 7, Rue Guillaume Paradin 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Salin, P.A. [Laboratoire de Physiopathologie des Reseaux Neuronaux du Cycle Veille-Sommeil, UMR 5167, CNRS/Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec 7, Rue Guillaume Paradin 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France)

    2006-08-15

    The mechanisms underlying the sleep-states periodicity in animals are a mystery of biology. Recent studies identified a new neuronal population activated during the slow wave sleep (SWS) in the ventral lateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus. Interactions between this neuronal population and the others populations implicated in the vigilance states (paradoxical sleep (PS) and wake (W)) dynamics are not determined. Thus, we propose here a sleep-waking theoretical model that depicts the potential interactions between the neuronal populations responsible for the three vigilance states. First, we pooled data from previous papers regarding the neuronal populations firing rate time course and characterized statistically the experimental hypnograms. Then, we constructed a nonlinear differential equations system describing the neuronal populations activity time course. A simple rule playing the firing threshold role applied to the model allows to construct a theoretical hypnogram. A random modulation of the neuronal activity, shows that theoretical hypnograms present a dynamics close to the experimental observations. Furthermore, we show that the wake promoting neurons activity can predict the next SWS episode duration.

  16. xdamp Version 4 An IDL Based Data and Image Manipulation Program

    CERN Document Server

    William-Ballar, P

    2002-01-01

    The original DAMP (W t a Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA(trademark) (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of Unix(reg sub s ign)-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL(reg sub s ign) software, available from Research Systems Incorporated, a Xerox company, in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP and earlier versions of xdamp. IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of Unix platforms such as IBM(reg sub s ign) workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN(reg sub s ign) workstations, Microsoft(reg sub s ign) Windows(trademark) computers, Macinto...

  17. Generalised linear models for correlated pseudo-observations, with applications to multi-state models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Klein, John P.; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    Generalised estimating equation; Generalised linear model; Jackknife pseudo-value; Logistic regression; Markov Model; Multi-state model......Generalised estimating equation; Generalised linear model; Jackknife pseudo-value; Logistic regression; Markov Model; Multi-state model...

  18. Granger causality for state-space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lionel; Seth, Anil K

    2015-04-01

    Granger causality has long been a prominent method for inferring causal interactions between stochastic variables for a broad range of complex physical systems. However, it has been recognized that a moving average (MA) component in the data presents a serious confound to Granger causal analysis, as routinely performed via autoregressive (AR) modeling. We solve this problem by demonstrating that Granger causality may be calculated simply and efficiently from the parameters of a state-space (SS) model. Since SS models are equivalent to autoregressive moving average models, Granger causality estimated in this fashion is not degraded by the presence of a MA component. This is of particular significance when the data has been filtered, downsampled, observed with noise, or is a subprocess of a higher dimensional process, since all of these operations-commonplace in application domains as diverse as climate science, econometrics, and the neurosciences-induce a MA component. We show how Granger causality, conditional and unconditional, in both time and frequency domains, may be calculated directly from SS model parameters via solution of a discrete algebraic Riccati equation. Numerical simulations demonstrate that Granger causality estimators thus derived have greater statistical power and smaller bias than AR estimators. We also discuss how the SS approach facilitates relaxation of the assumptions of linearity, stationarity, and homoscedasticity underlying current AR methods, thus opening up potentially significant new areas of research in Granger causal analysis.

  19. A 2-categorical state sum model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratin, Aristide; Freidel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    It has long been argued that higher categories provide the proper algebraic structure underlying state sum invariants of 4-manifolds. This idea has been refined recently, by proposing to use 2-groups and their representations as specific examples of 2-categories. The challenge has been to make these proposals fully explicit. Here, we give a concrete realization of this program. Building upon our earlier work with Baez and Wise on the representation theory of 2-groups, we construct a four-dimensional state sum model based on a categorified version of the Euclidean group. We define and explicitly compute the simplex weights, which may be viewed a categorified analogue of Racah-Wigner 6j-symbols. These weights solve a hexagon equation that encodes the formal invariance of the state sum under the Pachner moves of the triangulation. This result unravels the combinatorial formulation of the Feynman amplitudes of quantum field theory on flat spacetime proposed in A. Baratin and L. Freidel [Classical Quantum Gravity 24, 2027-2060 (2007)] which was shown to lead after gauge-fixing to Korepanov's invariant of 4-manifolds.

  20. A 2-categorical state sum model

    CERN Document Server

    Baratin, Aristide

    2014-01-01

    It has long been argued that higher categories provide the proper algebraic structure underlying state sum invariants of 4-manifolds. This idea has been refined recently, by proposing to use 2-groups and their representations as specific examples of 2-categories. The challenge has been to make these proposals fully explicit. Here we give a concrete realization of this program. Building upon our earlier work with Baez and Wise on the representation theory of 2-groups, we construct a four-dimensional state sum model based on a categorified version of the Euclidean group. We define and explicitly compute the simplex weights, which may be viewed a categorified analogue of Racah-Wigner 6$j$-symbols. These weights solve an hexagon equation that encodes the formal invariance of the state sum under the Pachner moves of the triangulation. This result unravels the combinatorial formulation of the Feynman amplitudes of quantum field theory on flat spacetime proposed in [1], which was shown to lead after gauge-fixing to ...

  1. A 2-categorical state sum model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratin, Aristide, E-mail: abaratin@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Freidel, Laurent, E-mail: lfreidel@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Str. N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    It has long been argued that higher categories provide the proper algebraic structure underlying state sum invariants of 4-manifolds. This idea has been refined recently, by proposing to use 2-groups and their representations as specific examples of 2-categories. The challenge has been to make these proposals fully explicit. Here, we give a concrete realization of this program. Building upon our earlier work with Baez and Wise on the representation theory of 2-groups, we construct a four-dimensional state sum model based on a categorified version of the Euclidean group. We define and explicitly compute the simplex weights, which may be viewed a categorified analogue of Racah-Wigner 6j-symbols. These weights solve a hexagon equation that encodes the formal invariance of the state sum under the Pachner moves of the triangulation. This result unravels the combinatorial formulation of the Feynman amplitudes of quantum field theory on flat spacetime proposed in A. Baratin and L. Freidel [Classical Quantum Gravity 24, 2027–2060 (2007)] which was shown to lead after gauge-fixing to Korepanov’s invariant of 4-manifolds.

  2. Markov state modeling of sliding friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, F.; Landes, François P.; Laio, A.; Prestipino, S.; Tosatti, E.

    2016-11-01

    Markov state modeling (MSM) has recently emerged as one of the key techniques for the discovery of collective variables and the analysis of rare events in molecular simulations. In particular in biochemistry this approach is successfully exploited to find the metastable states of complex systems and their evolution in thermal equilibrium, including rare events, such as a protein undergoing folding. The physics of sliding friction and its atomistic simulations under external forces constitute a nonequilibrium field where relevant variables are in principle unknown and where a proper theory describing violent and rare events such as stick slip is still lacking. Here we show that MSM can be extended to the study of nonequilibrium phenomena and in particular friction. The approach is benchmarked on the Frenkel-Kontorova model, used here as a test system whose properties are well established. We demonstrate that the method allows the least prejudiced identification of a minimal basis of natural microscopic variables necessary for the description of the forced dynamics of sliding, through their probabilistic evolution. The steps necessary for the application to realistic frictional systems are highlighted.

  3. 基于ENVI+IDL的遥感三维地形可视化技术研究与实现%Research and Realization of Remote Sensing Three-Dimension Terrain Visualization Based on ENVI+IDL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁立伟; 杨树文; 杨维芳; 刘涛

    2011-01-01

    IDL是进行三维数据可视化显示、分析及应用开发的理想工具.研究了三维地形建模的原理、相关技术及用IDL实现三维可视化的方法和流程,并基于ENVI+IDL研究开发了遥感三维地形可视化功能模块.该模块依据在研的工程地质遥感解译软件系统的要求,实现了三维地形可视化的放缩、平移、旋转、漫游等相关功能.%IDL is the ideal tool for 3D data visualization display, analysis and application development. The principles and technologies of 3D terrain modeling, methods and process of 3D visualization realizing with IDL are studied,and the remote sensing 3D terrain visualization module which is based on ENVI+ IDL is developed. The module realizes 3D terrain visualization and zooming,panning,rotating and flying functions, which meets requirements of the EGRIS project.

  4. Functional state modelling approach validation for yeast and bacteria cultivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeva, Olympia; Pencheva, Tania

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the functional state modelling approach is validated for modelling of the cultivation of two different microorganisms: yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bacteria (Escherichia coli). Based on the available experimental data for these fed-batch cultivation processes, three different functional states are distinguished, namely primary product synthesis state, mixed oxidative state and secondary product synthesis state. Parameter identification procedures for different local models are performed using genetic algorithms. The simulation results show high degree of adequacy of the models describing these functional states for both S. cerevisiae and E. coli cultivations. Thus, the local models are validated for the cultivation of both microorganisms. This fact is a strong structure model verification of the functional state modelling theory not only for a set of yeast cultivations, but also for bacteria cultivation. As such, the obtained results demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the functional state modelling approach. PMID:26740778

  5. Functional state modelling approach validation for yeast and bacteria cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeva, Olympia; Pencheva, Tania

    2014-09-03

    In this paper, the functional state modelling approach is validated for modelling of the cultivation of two different microorganisms: yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bacteria (Escherichia coli). Based on the available experimental data for these fed-batch cultivation processes, three different functional states are distinguished, namely primary product synthesis state, mixed oxidative state and secondary product synthesis state. Parameter identification procedures for different local models are performed using genetic algorithms. The simulation results show high degree of adequacy of the models describing these functional states for both S. cerevisiae and E. coli cultivations. Thus, the local models are validated for the cultivation of both microorganisms. This fact is a strong structure model verification of the functional state modelling theory not only for a set of yeast cultivations, but also for bacteria cultivation. As such, the obtained results demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the functional state modelling approach.

  6. International migration: concepts, models and state policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. A. Cebrián

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of international migratory flows in recent years has provoked much thinking as to what might be an appropriate national migratory policy. Following this tendency, in this article we present several considerations relating to the ethical implications of migratory policies. Our point of departure for this discussion consists in the analysis of two concepts, which we believe differ in meaning. We refer to the terms solidarity and citizenship, whose function and meaning in «politically correct» discourse (undefined and undefinable we study in this article. Following this we deal with the different models of the state in the Western world. In this way the understanding of the cultural and political factors of international migration which we analyse in the final section of the article is made easier.

  7. PINGSoft: an IDL visualisation and manipulation tool for Integral Field Spectroscopic data

    CERN Document Server

    Rosales-Ortega, F F

    2010-01-01

    In this article we introduce PINGSoft, a set of IDL routines designed to visualise and manipulate, in an interactive and friendly way, Integral Field Spectroscopic data. The package is optimised for large databases and a fast visualisation rendering. PINGSoft includes routines to extract regions of interest by hand or within a given geometric aperture, to integrate the spectra within a given region, to convert between different IFS formats, to read, edit and write IFS data files, and some other miscellaneous codes especially useful in astronomy and spectroscopy. Here we describe its major characteristics and requirements, providing examples and describing its capabilities. The PINGSoft package is freely available at http://www.ast.cam.ac.uk/research/pings

  8. DASHA-2: Improving Visualization and Processing of Photometric Data with IDL Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Oleg

    DASHA-2 is the next iteration of the DASHA package (Smirnov & Ipatov 1995) for processing data produced by the DAOPHOT II PSF photometry software (Stetson 1987, 1992). The original package was implemented under the pcIPS image processing system (Smirnov & Piskunov 1995), whereas DASHA-2 is completely written in IDL. The package is tailored for the reduction of large batches of CCD observations, where the same field is observed at different exposures and in different photometric bands. DASHA-2 is currently in heavy use at the Institute of Astronomy, where it is routinely employed to reduce observations of globular clusters, resulting in photometric data for upwards of 15,000 objects in a single field.

  9. An introduction to state space modeling (in Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Tsyplakov

    2011-01-01

    Many time series models, primarily various models with unobservable components, can be represented in a so called state space form. A state space model is a powerful tool that allows one to apply to the original model a wide range of standard procedures including estimation and forecasting. This essay provides a survey of this universal class of models and related procedures.

  10. Building a Snow Data Management System using Open Source Software (and IDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, C. E.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Hart, A. F.; Painter, T.; Zimdars, P. A.; Bryant, A.; Brodzik, M.; Skiles, M.; Seidel, F. C.; Rittger, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory free and open source software is used everyday to support a wide range of projects, from planetary to climate to research and development. In this abstract I will discuss the key role that open source software has played in building a robust science data processing pipeline for snow hydrology research, and how the system is also able to leverage programs written in IDL, making JPL's Snow Data System a hybrid of open source and proprietary software. Main Points: - The Design of the Snow Data System (illustrate how the collection of sub-systems are combined to create a complete data processing pipeline) - Discuss the Challenges of moving from a single algorithm on a laptop, to running 100's of parallel algorithms on a cluster of servers (lesson's learned) - Code changes - Software license related challenges - Storage Requirements - System Evolution (from data archiving, to data processing, to data on a map, to near-real-time products and maps) - Road map for the next 6 months (including how easily we re-used the snowDS code base to support the Airborne Snow Observatory Mission) Software in Use and their Software Licenses: IDL - Used for pre and post processing of data. Licensed under a proprietary software license held by Excelis. Apache OODT - Used for data management and workflow processing. Licensed under the Apache License Version 2. GDAL - Geospatial Data processing library used for data re-projection currently. Licensed under the X/MIT license. GeoServer - WMS Server. Licensed under the General Public License Version 2.0 Leaflet.js - Javascript web mapping library. Licensed under the Berkeley Software Distribution License. Python - Glue code and miscellaneous data processing support. Licensed under the Python Software Foundation License. Perl - Script wrapper for running the SCAG algorithm. Licensed under the General Public License Version 3. PHP - Front-end web application programming. Licensed under the PHP License Version

  11. proEQUIB: IDL/GDL library for atomic level populations and line emissivities in statistical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehkar, Ashkbiz

    2016-11-01

    The proEQUIB library calculates atomic level populations and line emissivities in statistical equilibrium in multi-level atoms for different physical conditions of stratified layers in a nebula where chemical elements are ionized. It includes an Interactive Data Language (IDL)/GNU Data Language (GDL) implementation of the Fortran code EQUIB (ascl:1603.005).

  12. A branch-and-bound algorithm for single-machine earliness-tardiness scheduling with idle time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Velde, van de S.L.

    1996-01-01

    We address the NP-hard single-machine problem of scheduling n independent jobs so as to minimize the sum of α times total completion time and β times total earliness with β > α, which can be rewritten as an earliness–tardiness problem. Postponing jobs by leaving the machine idle may then be advantag

  13. A branch-and-bound algorithm for single-machine earliness-tardiness scheduling with idle time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; van de Velde, S.L.; van de Velde, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    We address the NP-hard single-machine problem of scheduling n independent jobs so as to minimize the sum of α times total completion time and β times total earliness with β > α, which can be rewritten as an earliness–tardiness problem. Postponing jobs by leaving the machine idle may then be

  14. A branch-and-bound algorithm for single-machine earliness-tardiness scheduling with idle time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Hoogeveen (Han); S.L. van de Velde (Steef)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractPresents a branch-and-bound algorithm which is based upon many dominance rules and various lower bound approaches, including relaxation of the machine capacity, data manipulation and Lagrangian relaxation. Insertion of the idle time for a given sequence; Properties of the proposed lower

  15. RESULTS OF INTERBANK EXCHANGE RATES FORECASTING USING STATE SPACE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of three alternative models for forecasting daily interbank exchange rate of U.S. dollar measured in Pak rupees. The simple ARIMA models and complex models such as GARCH-type models and a state space model are discussed and compared. Four different measures are used to evaluate the forecasting accuracy. The main result is the state space model provides the best performance among all the models.

  16. State-space size considerations for disease-progression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Eva D; Shechter, Steven M

    2013-09-30

    Markov models of disease progression are widely used to model transitions in patients' health state over time. Usually, patients' health status may be classified according to a set of ordered health states. Modelers lump together similar health states into a finite and usually small, number of health states that form the basis of a Markov chain disease-progression model. This increases the number of observations used to estimate each parameter in the transition probability matrix. However, lumping together observably distinct health states also obscures distinctions among them and may reduce the predictive power of the model. Moreover, as we demonstrate, precision in estimating the model parameters does not necessarily improve as the number of states in the model declines. This paper explores the tradeoff between lumping error introduced by grouping distinct health states and sampling error that arises when there are insufficient patient data to precisely estimate the transition probability matrix. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Modeling diurnal hormone profiles by hierarchical state space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziyue; Guo, Wensheng

    2015-10-30

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) diurnal patterns contain both smooth circadian rhythms and pulsatile activities. How to evaluate and compare them between different groups is a challenging statistical task. In particular, we are interested in testing (1) whether the smooth ACTH circadian rhythms in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia patients differ from those in healthy controls and (2) whether the patterns of pulsatile activities are different. In this paper, a hierarchical state space model is proposed to extract these signals from noisy observations. The smooth circadian rhythms shared by a group of subjects are modeled by periodic smoothing splines. The subject level pulsatile activities are modeled by autoregressive processes. A functional random effect is adopted at the pair level to account for the matched pair design. Parameters are estimated by maximizing the marginal likelihood. Signals are extracted as posterior means. Computationally efficient Kalman filter algorithms are adopted for implementation. Application of the proposed model reveals that the smooth circadian rhythms are similar in the two groups but the pulsatile activities in patients are weaker than those in the healthy controls. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Mathematical model of transmission network static state estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the characteristics and capabilities of the power transmission network static state estimator are presented. The solving process of the mathematical model containing the measurement errors and their processing is developed. To evaluate difference between the general model of state estimation and the fast decoupled state estimation model, the both models are applied to an example, and so derived results are compared.

  19. Neural mass model-based tracking of anesthetic brain states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Levin; Freestone, Dean R.; Manton, Jonathan H.; Heyse, Bjorn; Vereecke, Hugo E. M.; Lipping, Tarmo; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Liley, David T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Neural mass model-based tracking of brain states from electroencephalographic signals holds the promise of simultaneously tracking brain states while inferring underlying physiological changes in various neuroscientific and clinical applications. Here, neural mass model-based tracking of brain state

  20. On virtual states and generalized completeness relation in Friedrichs Model

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Zhiguang

    2016-01-01

    We study the well-known Friedrichs model, in which a discrete state is coupled to a continuum state. By examining the pole behaviors of the Friedrichs model in a specific form factor thoroughly, we find that, in general, when the bare discrete state is below the threshold of the continuum state, there should also be a virtual-state pole accompanying the bound-state pole originating from the bare discrete state as the coupling is turned on. There are also other second-sheet poles originating from the singularities of the form factor. We give a general argument for the existence of these two kinds of states. As the coupling is increased to a certain value, the second-sheet poles may merge and become higher-order poles. We then discuss the completeness relations incorporating bound states, virtual states, and resonant states corresponding to higher-order poles.

  1. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  2. Embedding a State Space Model Into a Markov Decision Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund; Jørgensen, Erik; Højsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    estimated from data collected from the animal or herd. State space models (SSMs) are a general tool for modeling repeated measurements over time where the model parameters can evolve dynamically. In this paper we consider methods for embedding an SSM into an MDP with finite state and action space. Different...

  3. Asymptotic-bound-state model for Feshbach resonances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiecke, T.G.; Goosen, M.R.; Walraven, J.T.M.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an asymptotic-bound-state model which can be used to accurately describe all Feshbach resonance positions and widths in a two-body system. With this model we determine the coupled bound states of a particular two-body system. The model is based on analytic properties of the two-body

  4. Assessing the state of substitution models describing noncoding RNA evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E; Whelan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is widely used to investigate the relationships between homologous sequences. RNA molecules have played a key role in these studies because they are present throughout life and tend to evolve slowly. Phylogenetic inference has been shown to be dependent on the substitution model used. A wide range of models have been developed to describe RNA evolution, either with 16 states describing all possible canonical base pairs or with 7 states where the 10 mismatched nucleotides are reduced to a single state. Formal model selection has become a standard practice for choosing an inferential model and works well for comparing models of a specific type, such as comparisons within nucleotide models or within amino acid models. Model selection cannot function across different sized state spaces because the likelihoods are conditioned on different data. Here, we introduce statistical state-space projection methods that allow the direct comparison of likelihoods between nucleotide models and 7-state and 16-state RNA models. To demonstrate the general applicability of our new methods, we extract 287 RNA families from genomic alignments and perform model selection. We find that in 281/287 families, RNA models are selected in preference to nucleotide models, with simple 7-state RNA models selected for more conserved families with shorter stems and more complex 16-state RNA models selected for more divergent families with longer stems. Other factors, such as the function of the RNA molecule or the GC-content, have limited impact on model selection. Our models and model selection methods are freely available in the open-source PHASE 3.0 software.

  5. Numerical implementation of a state variable model for friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzekwa, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Boyce, D.E. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A general state variable model for friction has been incorporated into a finite element code for viscoplasticity. A contact area evolution model is used in a finite element model of a sheet forming friction test. The results show that a state variable model can be used to capture complex friction behavior in metal forming simulations. It is proposed that simulations can play an important role in the analysis of friction experiments and the development of friction models.

  6. Modeling software with finite state machines a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Ferdinand; Wagner, Thomas; Wolstenholme, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Modeling Software with Finite State Machines: A Practical Approach explains how to apply finite state machines to software development. It provides a critical analysis of using finite state machines as a foundation for executable specifications to reduce software development effort and improve quality. This book discusses the design of a state machine and of a system of state machines. It also presents a detailed analysis of development issues relating to behavior modeling with design examples and design rules for using finite state machines. This volume describes a coherent and well-tested fr

  7. Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers: State Space Model versus Rate Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Taleb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and accurate dynamic model for QD-SOAs is proposed. The proposed model is based on the state space theory, where by eliminating the distance dependence of the rate equation model of the QD-SOA; we derive a state space model for the device. A comparison is made between the rate equation model and the state space model under both steady state and transient regimes. Simulation results demonstrate that the derived state space model not only is much simpler and faster than the rate equation model, but also it is as accurate as the rate equation model.

  8. Evolution analysis of the states of the EZ model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qing-Hua; Ding Yi-Ming; Dong Hong-Guang

    2009-01-01

    Based on suitable choice of states,this paper studies the stability of the equilibrium state of the EZ model by regarding the evolution of the EZ model as a Markov chain and by showing that the Markov chain is ergodic.The Markov analysis is applied to the EZ model with small number of agents,the exact equilibrium state for N=5 and numerical results for N=18 are obtained.

  9. Microbial community analysis involved in the aerobic/extended-idle process performing biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tian-jing; Yang, Guo-jing; Wang, Dong-bo; Li, Xiao-ming; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been found that biological phosphorus removal can be achieved in an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) process using both glucose and acetate as the sole substrate. However, the microbial consortiums involved in glucose-fed and acetate-fed systems have not yet been characterized. Thus the aims of this paper were to investigate the diversities and dynamics of bacterial communities during the acclimation period, and to quantify polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in the systems. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the microbial communities were mainly composed of phylum Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi and another six kinds of unclassified bacteria. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that PAOs and GAOs accounted for 43 ± 7 and 16 ± 3% of all bacteria in the glucose-fed system, and 19 ± 4 and 35 ± 5% of total bacteria in the acetate-fed system, respectively. The results showed that the conventional PAOs could thrive in the AEI process, and a defined anaerobic zone was not necessarily required for putative PAOs growth.

  10. Temperature influence on biological phosphorus removal induced by aerobic/extended-idle regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Bo; Wang, Dong-Bo; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Luo, Kun; Zeng, Guang-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Previous researches have demonstrated that biological phosphorus removal (BPR) from wastewater could be driven by the aerobic/extended-idle (A/EI) regime. This study further investigated temperature effects on phosphorus removal performance in six A/EI sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated at temperatures ranging from 5 to 30 °C. The results showed that phosphorus removal efficiency increased with temperature increasing from 5 to 20 °C but slightly decreased when temperature continually increased to 30 °C. The highest phosphorus removal rate of 97.1 % was obtained at 20 °C. The biomass cultured at 20 °C contained more polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) and less glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) than that cultured at any other temperatures investigated. The mechanism studies revealed that temperature affected the transformations of glycogen and polyhydroxyalkanoates, and the activities of exopolyphosphatase and polyphosphate kinase activities. In addition, phosphorus removal performances of the A/EI and traditional anaerobic/oxic (A/O) SBRs were compared at 5 and 20 °C, respectively. The results showed the A/EI regime drove better phosphorus removal than the A/O regime at both 5 and 20 °C, and more PAO and less GAO abundances in the biomass might be the principal reason for the higher BPR in the A/EI SBRs as compared with the A/O SBRs.

  11. Shell model states around $^{208}Pb$

    CERN Document Server

    Liendo, J A; Gómez, R; Caussyn, D D

    2015-01-01

    The experimental binding energies of single-particle and single-hole neutron states belonging to neutron shells that extend from N = 126 to 184 and 82 to 126 respectively, have been reproduced by solving Schr\\"{o}edinger's equation with a potential containing the traditional Woods-Saxon (WS) plus spin-orbit (SO) potential [1-6], and a superficial term proportional to the derivative of a Woods-Saxon like potential. The agreement between theory and experiment has been achieved by varying the strength of the superficial potential for each state studied, until the theoretical binding energy matches the corresponding measured value. Our results indicate the existence of a explicit relationship between the strength of the superficial potential and the orbital angular momentum quantum number $\\ell$ of the state. This dependence has been used to make reasonable predictions for the excitation energy centroids of states located inside and outside the neutron shells investigated. Comparisons are made with results report...

  12. Inference in Hidden Markov Models with Explicit State Duration Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dewar, Michael; Wood, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this letter we borrow from the inference techniques developed for unbounded state-cardinality (nonparametric) variants of the HMM and use them to develop a tuning-parameter free, black-box inference procedure for Explicit-state-duration hidden Markov models (EDHMM). EDHMMs are HMMs that have latent states consisting of both discrete state-indicator and discrete state-duration random variables. In contrast to the implicit geometric state duration distribution possessed by the standard HMM, EDHMMs allow the direct parameterisation and estimation of per-state duration distributions. As most duration distributions are defined over the positive integers, truncation or other approximations are usually required to perform EDHMM inference.

  13. String Models, Stability and Regge Trajectories for Hadron States

    CERN Document Server

    Sharov, G S

    2013-01-01

    Various string models of mesons and baryons include a string carrying 2 or 3 massive points (quarks or antiquarks). Rotational states (planar uniform rotations) of these systems generate quasilinear Regge trajectories and may be used for describing excited hadron states on these trajectories. For different string models of baryon we are to solve the problem of choice between them and the stability problem for their rotational states. An unexpected result is that for the Y string baryon model these rotations are unstable with respect to small disturbances on the classical level. This instability has specific feature, disturbances grow linearly, whereas for the linear string baryon model they grow exponentially and may increase predictions for baryon's width $\\Gamma$. The classical instability of rotational states and nonstandard Regge slope are the arguments in favor of the stable simplest model of string with massive ends both for baryons and mesons. Rotational states of this model with two types of spin-orbi...

  14. The effect of overbooking on idle dental chair capacity in the Pretoria region of the Gauteng Oral Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtshousen, W S J; Coetzee, E

    2012-09-01

    An analysis of annual reports revealed that on average 20% of patient appointments with oral hygienists in the Department of Health in the Pretoria region were not utilised due to patient noncompliance (i.e. broken appointments). Many solutions have been considered to address the high rate of noncompliance and the resulting idle chair capacity. One solution selected to overcome some of the negative consequences of broken appointments was deliberate overbooking. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of overbooking on idle dental chair capacity by measuring the utilisation rate over a three month period (July to September) after 25% overbooking was introduced in the Pretoria region. A statistical analysis was conducted on our results to determine an overbooking rate that would ensure full utilisation of the available dental chair capacity. The available time units over the three month study period amounted to 1365, allocated to 1427 patients resulting in an overal overbooking rate of 4.54%. The overall utilisation rate was found to be 79.2%. The calculated regression line estimated that there would be full utilisation of dental chair capacity at an overbooking rate of 26.7%. Overbooking at the levels applied in this study had a minimal overall effect on idle dental chair capacity. Our results confirm the need for careful planning and management in addressing noncompliance. In a manner similar to the clinical situation, organisational development requires a correct diagnosis in order that an appropriate and effective intervention may be designed.

  15. Group-size-dependent punishment of idle subordinates in a cooperative breeder where helpers pay to stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stefan; Zöttl, Markus; Groenewoud, Frank; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-08-22

    In cooperative breeding systems, dominant breeders sometimes tolerate unrelated individuals even if they inflict costs on the dominants. According to the 'pay-to-stay' hypothesis, (i) subordinates can outweigh these costs by providing help and (ii) dominants should be able to enforce help by punishing subordinates that provide insufficient help. This requires that dominants can monitor helping and can recognize group members individually. In a field experiment, we tested whether cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates increase their help after a forced 'idle' period, how other group members respond to a previously idle helper, and how helper behaviour and group responses depend on group size. Previously, idle helpers increased their submissiveness and received more aggression than control helpers, suggesting that punishment occurred to enforce help. Subordinates in small groups increased their help more than those in large groups, despite receiving less aggression. When subordinates were temporarily removed, dominants in small groups were more likely to evict returning subordinates. Our results suggest that only in small groups do helpers face a latent threat of punishment by breeders as predicted by the pay-to-stay hypothesis. In large groups, cognitive constraints may prevent breeders from tracking the behaviour of a large number of helpers.

  16. Nonequilibrium Markov state modeling of the globule-stretch transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoch, Fabian; Speck, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We describe a systematic approach to construct coarse-grained Markov state models from molecular dynamics data of systems driven into a nonequilibrium steady state. We apply this method to study the globule-stretch transition of a single tethered model polymer in shear flow. The folding and unfolding rates of the coarse-grained model agree with the original detailed model. We demonstrate that the folding and unfolding proceeds through the same narrow region of configuration space but along different cycles.

  17. Comparing State SAT Scores Using a Mixture Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungKoung Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Presented at the national conference for AERA (American Educational Research Association) in April 2009. The large variability of SAT taker population across states makes state-by-state comparisons of the SAT scores challenging. Using a mixture modeling approach, therefore, the current study presents a method of identifying subpopulations in terms…

  18. Southern european model welfare state and economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoutsiou S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has affected the exercise of social policy and has shrunk welfare states in southern Europe. The welfare state, a structure that is a pillar and constant goal of Greek ideology and culture seems to accept strong tremors that threaten the social cohesion of Greek society. This literature review presents the characteristics of the applied social policy and the different models of welfare states, focusing on South model welfare state. Additionally presented benefits of the welfare state such as pension and insurance system and the degree of their contribution to the economic crisis in Greece in recent years.

  19. Dynamic State Space Partitioning for External Memory Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Sami; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2009-01-01

    We describe a dynamic partitioning scheme usable by model checking techniques that divide the state space into partitions, such as most external memory and distributed model checking algorithms. The goal of the scheme is to reduce the number of transitions that link states belonging to different...

  20. State model for partly undetected non-communicable diseases (NCDs)

    OpenAIRE

    Brinks, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an age-structured compartment model for irreversible diseases with a pre-clinical state of undiagnosed cases that precedes the diagnosis. The model is able to cope with mortality rates differing between the pre-clinical and the clinical state (differential mortality). Applicability is tested in a hypothetical disease with realistic incidence and mortality rates.

  1. Dependency in State Transitions of Wind Turbines - Inference on model Residuals for State Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herp, Jürgen; Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; S. Nadimi, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    the state transitions are based on a hidden variable relevant for the predictor, namely the information of the current state. Given an underlying predictive model based on a Student's t-distribution for the samples and a conditional prior on the state transition, it is shown that state transitions can...... configurations. Comparing to heuristic interpretations of the residuals both models can qualitatively inform about the time when a state transition occurs.......Abstracting turbine states and predicting the transition into failure states ahead of time is important in operation and maintenance of wind turbines. This study presents a method to monitor state transitions of a wind turbine based on the online inference on residuals. In a Bayesian framework...

  2. Energy efficiency by idle power compensation. Pt. 2. Common steps for climate protection; Energieeffizienz durch Blindleistungskompensation. T. 2. Gemeinsame Schritte fuer den Klimaschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Just, Wolfgang; Simon, Thomas [Schneider Electric GmbH, Ratingen (Germany)

    2009-10-05

    Saving resources by energy efficiency is an important aim. By idle power compensation grid losses become significantly lower in power transmission- and distribution systems. The active contribution of idle power compensation resulted for Germany in 2007 a further decreasing of grid losses to about 3,5 billions kWh. This stands for a carbon dioxide reduction of about 2 Mio t annually. (orig./GL)

  3. An axisymmetric steady state vortex ring model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ruo-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Based on the solution of Atanasiu et al. (2004), a theoretical model for axisymmetric vortex flows is derived in the present study by solving the vorticity transport equation for an inviscid, incompressible fluid in cylindrical coordinates. The model can describe a variety of axisymmetric flows with particular boundary conditions at a moderately high Reynolds number. This paper shows one example: a high Reynolds number laminar vortex ring. The model can represent a family of vortex rings by specifying the modulus function using a Rayleigh distribution function. The characteristics of this vortex ring family are illustrated by numerical methods. For verification, the model results compare well with the recent direct numerical simulations (DNS) in terms of the vorticity distribution and streamline patterns, cross-sectional areas of the vortex core and bubble, and radial vorticity distribution through the vortex center. Most importantly, the asymmetry and elliptical outline of the vorticity profile are well capt...

  4. Finite State Transducers Approximating Hidden Markov Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kempe, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the conversion of a Hidden Markov Model into a sequential transducer that closely approximates the behavior of the stochastic model. This transformation is especially advantageous for part-of-speech tagging because the resulting transducer can be composed with other transducers that encode correction rules for the most frequent tagging errors. The speed of tagging is also improved. The described methods have been implemented and successfully tested on six languages.

  5. A Simple Hubbard Model for the Excited States of Dibenzoterrylene

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeq, Z S

    2016-01-01

    We use a simple Hubbard model to characterize the electronic excited states of the dibenzoterrylene (DBT) molecule; we compute the excited state transition energies and oscillator strengths from the ground state to several singlet excited states. We consider the lowest singlet and triplet states of the molecule, examine their wavefunctions, and compute the density correlation functions that describe these states. We find that the DBT ground state is mostly a closed shell singlet with very slight radical character. We predict a relatively small singlet-triplet splitting of 0.75 eV, which is less than the mid-sized -acenes but larger than literature predictions for this state; this is because the Hubbard interaction makes a very small correction to the singlet and triplet states.

  6. Estimation methods for nonlinear state-space models in ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2011-01-01

    The use of nonlinear state-space models for analyzing ecological systems is increasing. A wide range of estimation methods for such models are available to ecologists, however it is not always clear, which is the appropriate method to choose. To this end, three approaches to estimation in the theta...... logistic model for population dynamics were benchmarked by Wang (2007). Similarly, we examine and compare the estimation performance of three alternative methods using simulated data. The first approach is to partition the state-space into a finite number of states and formulate the problem as a hidden...... Markov model (HMM). The second method uses the mixed effects modeling and fast numerical integration framework of the AD Model Builder (ADMB) open-source software. The third alternative is to use the popular Bayesian framework of BUGS. The study showed that state and parameter estimation performance...

  7. Modeling new XYZ states at JPAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilloni, Alessandro [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The observation of the unexpected XYZP resonances has challenged the usual heavy quarkonium framework. One of the most studied exotic states, the X(3872), happens to be copiously produced in high-energy hadron collisions. We discuss how this large prompt production cross-section, together with the comparison with light nuclei production data, disfavors a loosely-bound molecule interpretation, and calls for a new interpretation for the exotic hadron resonances. We also present the research of the Joint Physics Analysis Center in Hadron Spectroscopy.

  8. State of Modeling Symmetry in Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-22

    Modeling radiation drive asymmetry is challenging problem whose agreement with data depends on the hohlraum gas fill density. Modeling to date uses the HYDRA code with crossbeam energy transfer (CBET) calculated separately, and backscattered light removed from the input laser. For high fill hohlraums (~>1 mg/cc), matching symmetry requires ad hoc adjustments to CBET during picket and peak of drive. For near-vacuum hohlraums, there is little CBET or backscatter, and drive is more waist-high than predicted. For intermediate fill densities (~0.6 mg/cc) there appears to be a region of small CBET and backscatter where symmetry is reasonably well modeled. A new technique where backscatter and CBET are done “inline” appears it could bring high fill simulations closer to data.

  9. Coupling dark energy with Standard Model states

    CERN Document Server

    Bento, M C; Bertolami, O

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution one examines the coupling of dark energy to the gauge fields, to neutrinos, and to the Higgs field. In the first case, one shows how a putative evolution of the fundamental couplings of strong and weak interactions via coupling to dark energy through a generalized Bekenstein-type model may cause deviations on the statistical nuclear decay Rutherford-Soddy law. Existing bounds for the weak interaction exclude any significant deviation. For neutrinos, a perturbative approach is developed which allows for considering viable varying mass neutrino models coupled to any quintessence-type field. The generalized Chaplygin model is considered as an example. For the coupling with the Higgs field one obtains an interesting cosmological solution which includes the unification of dark energy and dark matter.

  10. Shell Model States in the Continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Shirokov, A M; Mazur, I A; Vary, J P

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a method for calculating scattering phase shifts and energies and widths of resonances which utilizes only eigenenergies obtained in variational calculations with oscillator basis and their dependence on oscillator basis spacing $\\hbar\\Omega$. We make use of simple expressions for the $S$-matrix at eigenstates of a finite (truncated) Hamiltonian matrix in the oscillator basis obtained in the HORSE ($J$-matrix) formalism of quantum scattering theory. The validity of the suggested approach is verified in calculations with model Woods--Saxon potentials and applied to calculations of $n\\alpha$ resonances and non-resonant scattering using the no-core shell model.

  11. Minimal model for spoof acoustoelastic surface states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, J., E-mail: jochri@fotonik.dtu.dk; Willatzen, M. [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Liang, Z. [College of Electronic Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen (China)

    2014-12-15

    Similar to textured perfect electric conductors for electromagnetic waves sustaining artificial or spoof surface plasmons we present an equivalent phenomena for the case of sound. Aided by a minimal model that is able to capture the complex wave interaction of elastic cavity modes and airborne sound radiation in perfect rigid panels, we construct designer acoustoelastic surface waves that are entirely controlled by the geometrical environment. Comparisons to results obtained by full-wave simulations confirm the feasibility of the model and we demonstrate illustrative examples such as resonant transmissions and waveguiding to show a few examples of many where spoof elastic surface waves are useful.

  12. Minimal model for spoof acoustoelastic surface states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christensen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Similar to textured perfect electric conductors for electromagnetic waves sustaining artificial or spoof surface plasmons we present an equivalent phenomena for the case of sound. Aided by a minimal model that is able to capture the complex wave interaction of elastic cavity modes and airborne sound radiation in perfect rigid panels, we construct designer acoustoelastic surface waves that are entirely controlled by the geometrical environment. Comparisons to results obtained by full-wave simulations confirm the feasibility of the model and we demonstrate illustrative examples such as resonant transmissions and waveguiding to show a few examples of many where spoof elastic surface waves are useful.

  13. Minimal model for spoof acoustoelastic surface states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Johan; Liang, Z.; Willatzen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Similar to textured perfect electric conductors for electromagnetic waves sustaining artificial or spoof surface plasmons we present an equivalent phenomena for the case of sound. Aided by a minimal model that is able to capture the complex wave interaction of elastic cavity modes and airborne...... sound radiation in perfect rigid panels, we construct designer acoustoelastic surface waves that are entirely controlled by the geometrical environment. Comparisons to results obtained by full-wave simu- lations confirm the feasibility of the model and we demonstrate illustrative examples...

  14. Transformation of Neural State Space Models into LFT Models for Robust Control Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers the extraction of linear state space models and uncertainty models from neural networks trained as state estimators with direct application to robust control. A new method for writing a neural state space model in a linear fractional transformation form in a non...

  15. Artificial emotional model based on finite state machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-mei; WU Wei-guo

    2008-01-01

    According to the basic emotional theory, the artificial emotional model based on the finite state machine(FSM) was presented. In finite state machine model of emotion, the emotional space included the basic emotional space and the multiple emotional spaces. The emotion-switching diagram was defined and transition function was developed using Markov chain and linear interpolation algorithm. The simulation model was built using Stateflow toolbox and Simulink toolbox based on the Matlab platform.And the model included three subsystems: the input one, the emotion one and the behavior one. In the emotional subsystem, the responses of different personalities to the external stimuli were described by defining personal space. This model takes states from an emotional space and updates its state depending on its current state and a state of its input (also a state-emotion). The simulation model realizes the process of switching the emotion from the neutral state to other basic emotions. The simulation result is proved to correspond to emotion-switching law of human beings.

  16. Disturbance modeling and state estimation for offset-free predictive control with state-space process models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjewski Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance modeling and design of state estimators for offset-free Model Predictive Control (MPC with linear state-space process models is considered in the paper for deterministic constant-type external and internal disturbances (modeling errors. The application and importance of constant state disturbance prediction in the state-space MPC controller design is presented. In the case with a measured state, this leads to the control structure without disturbance state observers. In the case with an unmeasured state, a new, simpler MPC controller-observer structure is proposed, with observation of a pure process state only. The structure is not only simpler, but also with less restrictive applicability conditions than the conventional approach with extended process-and-disturbances state estimation. Theoretical analysis of the proposed structure is provided. The design approach is also applied to the case with an augmented state-space model in complete velocity form. The results are illustrated on a 2×2 example process problem.

  17. A Simple Exponent Extrapolation Method of Sub-idle Characteristics on Aero-engine%一种简便的叶轮部件低状态特性的指数扩展方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鲁兵; 潘尚能; 陈竞炜

    2013-01-01

    A simple exponent extrapolation method of sub-idle characteristics on aero-engine was presented.Based on the basic theory of similarity of pump at low speed and taking the influence of air/gas compressibility into account,a correctional exponent extrapolation mathematic model was developed and was applied to supplement the sub-idle rotating component characteristics through selected two lowest speed line.The comparison between calculated results and original datas for a certain compressor and turbine characteristics indicated that this exponent extrapolation method is simple,general and has acceptable precision,and the supplemented sub-idle component characteristics can be applied to estimate the starting characteristics of aero-engine.%介绍了一种简便的航空发动机叶轮部件低状态特性的扩展方法.基于低转速泵相似理论,并考虑了空气/燃气的可压缩性影响,给出了修正的指数关系方程;针对已知的两条较低转速特性线外插得到更低转速状态的部件特性.结合已有叶轮部件特性进行有效性验证.结果表明方法具有较强的实用性、通用性和一定的精度,扩展得到的低状态部件特性可以满足发动机起动性能模拟的工程应用.

  18. 乘用车怠速车内噪声源识别及控制措施研究%Investigation on Noise Sources Identification and Control of Idling Noise inside Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈达亮; 李洪亮; 高辉; 车云龙

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a car model of domestic brand is taken as research object to investigate the interior noise control in idling. The vibration isolation test of engine mounts and interior noises separation test, etc., are carried out to quantify contribution of different interior noise sources. Measures to improve interior noise control in idling are presented in this paper including control of noise source at exhaust outlet, control of suspension cushion structure transfer path, and control of air transfer path of firewall and sound-proof pad. With such modifications, the test car reduces its interior noise by 3.5 dB (A) in idling, which enables its noise level in line with that the noise level of Sino-foreign joint venture car products.%以某自主品牌乘用车怠速车内噪声为研究对象,通过动力总成悬置系统隔振率试验、车内噪声分离试验等方法定量确定车内各噪声源的贡献量大小,并从排气管口噪声源控制、悬置垫结构传递路径控制及防火墙隔音垫空气传递路径控制等方面分别提出怠速车内噪声控制的改进措施。采取改进措施后的试验样车怠速工况下车内噪声降低3.5dB(A),达到国内合资品牌水平。

  19. Nonequilibrium steady states in a model for prebiotic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, A.; Fedorov, I.; Halley, J. W.

    2014-02-01

    Some statistical features of steady states of a Kauffman-like model for prebiotic evolution are reported from computational studies. We postulate that the interesting "lifelike" states will be characterized by a nonequilibrium distribution of species and a time variable species self-correlation function. Selecting only such states from the population of final states produced by the model yields the probability of the appearance of such states as a function of a parameter p of the model. p is defined as the probability that a possible reaction in the the artificial chemistry actually appears in the network of chemical reactions. Small p corresponds to sparse networks utilizing a small fraction of the available reactions. We find that the probability of the appearance of such lifelike states exhibits a maximum as a function of p: at large p, most final states are in chemical equilibrium and hence are excluded by our criterion. At very small p, the sparseness of the network makes the probability of formation of any nontrivial dynamic final state low, yielding a low probability of production of lifelike states in this limit as well. We also report results on the diversity of the lifelike states (as defined here) that are produced. Repeated starts of the model evolution with different random number seeds in a given reaction network lead to final lifelike states which have a greater than random likelihood of resembling one another. Thus a form of "convergence" is observed. On the other hand, in different reaction networks with the same p, lifelike final states are statistically uncorrelated. In summary, the main results are (1) there is an optimal p or "sparseness" for production of lifelike states in our model—neither very dense nor very sparse networks are optimal—and (2) for a given p or sparseness, the resulting lifelike states can be extremely different. We discuss some possible implications for studies of the origin of life.

  20. Monitoring alert and drowsy states by modeling EEG source nonstationarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Hsiou; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2017-10-01

    Objective. As a human brain performs various cognitive functions within ever-changing environments, states of the brain characterized by recorded brain activities such as electroencephalogram (EEG) are inevitably nonstationary. The challenges of analyzing the nonstationary EEG signals include finding neurocognitive sources that underlie different brain states and using EEG data to quantitatively assess the state changes. Approach. This study hypothesizes that brain activities under different states, e.g. levels of alertness, can be modeled as distinct compositions of statistically independent sources using independent component analysis (ICA). This study presents a framework to quantitatively assess the EEG source nonstationarity and estimate levels of alertness. The framework was tested against EEG data collected from 10 subjects performing a sustained-attention task in a driving simulator. Main results. Empirical results illustrate that EEG signals under alert versus drowsy states, indexed by reaction speeds to driving challenges, can be characterized by distinct ICA models. By quantifying the goodness-of-fit of each ICA model to the EEG data using the model deviation index (MDI), we found that MDIs were significantly correlated with the reaction speeds (r  =  ‑0.390 with alertness models and r  =  0.449 with drowsiness models) and the opposite correlations indicated that the two models accounted for sources in the alert and drowsy states, respectively. Based on the observed source nonstationarity, this study also proposes an online framework using a subject-specific ICA model trained with an initial (alert) state to track the level of alertness. For classification of alert against drowsy states, the proposed online framework achieved an averaged area-under-curve of 0.745 and compared favorably with a classic power-based approach. Significance. This ICA-based framework provides a new way to study changes of brain states and can be applied to

  1. 基于ADAMS的12自由度动力总成悬置系统怠速隔振分析%Idle Vibration Isolation Analysis of Twelve Degrees of Freedom Power-train Mounting System Based on ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 杨啟梁; 胡溧; 杨胜; 杨培刚

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes a light duty bus as study object to establish ADAMS dynamic model which includes twelve degrees of freedom powertrain mounting system of two rigid bodies of powertrain and body, and presents a method to determine engine idle excitation which combines test and theoretical calculation. The paper uses this model to carry out simulation calculation and analysis of idle vibration isolation performance of powertrain mounting system. The comparison between simulation results and test results shows that these two results agree well, indicating that the established twelve degrees of freedom ADAMS model and the engine excitation are correct.%以某轻型客车为研究对象,建立了包括动力总成和车身两个刚体的12自由度动力总成悬置系统的ADAMS动力学模型,提出了一种试验与理论计算相结合确定发动机怠速激励的方法.采用该模型对动力总成悬置系统怠速隔振性能进行了仿真计算与分析.仿真结果与试验结果对比表明二者吻合较好,说明所建立的12自由度ADAMS模型和确定的发动机激励是准确的.

  2. Secure State UML: Modeling and Testing Security Concerns of Software Systems Using UML State Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Batool

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research we present a technique by using which, extended UML models can be converted to standard UML models so that existing MBT techniques can be applied directly on these models. Existing Model Based Testing (MBT Techniques cannot be directly applied to extended UML models due to the difference of modeling notation and new model elements. Verification of these models is also very important. Realizing and testing non functional requirements such as efficiency, portability and security, at model level strengthens the ability of model to turn down risk, cost and probability of system failure in cost effective way. Access control is most widely used technique for implementing security in software systems. Existing approaches for security modeling focus on representation of access control policies such as authentication, role based access control by introducing security oriented model elements through extension in Unified Modelling Language (UML. But doing so hinders the potential and application of MBT techniques to verify these models and test access control policies. In this research we introduce a technique secure State UML to formally design security models with secure UML and then transform it to UML state machine diagrams so that it can be tested, verified by existing MBT techniques. By applying proposed technique on case studies, we found the results that MBT techniques can be applied on resulting state machine diagrams and generated test paths have potential to identify the risks associated with security constraints violation.

  3. Elements of a Model State Education Agency Diffusion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojkowski, Charles

    A study, presented to the National Dissemination Conference, provides a conceptualization of a model diffusion system as it might exist within a state education agency (SEA) and places this diffusion model within the context of the SEA's expanding role as an educational service. Five conclusions were reached regarding a model diffusion system.…

  4. Validation of ecological state space models using the Laplace approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard; Berg, Casper Willestofte

    2017-01-01

    Many statistical models in ecology follow the state space paradigm. For such models, the important step of model validation rarely receives as much attention as estimation or hypothesis testing, perhaps due to lack of available algorithms and software. Model validation is often based on a naive...... for estimation in general mixed effects models. Implementing one-step predictions in the R package Template Model Builder, we demonstrate that it is possible to perform model validation with little effort, even if the ecological model is multivariate, has non-linear dynamics, and whether observations...... are continuous or discrete. With both simulated data, and a real data set related to geolocation of seals, we demonstrate both the potential and the limitations of the techniques. Our results fill a need for convenient methods for validating a state space model, or alternatively, rejecting it while indicating...

  5. Oscillations and multiple steady states in active membrane transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F M; Bisch, P M

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of some non-linear extensions of the six-state alternating access model for active membrane transport is investigated. We use stoichio-metric network analysis to study the stability of steady states. The bifurcation analysis has been done through standard numerical methods. For the usual six-state model we have proved that there is only one steady state, which is globally asymptotically stable. When we added an autocatalytic step we found self-oscillations. For the competition between a monomer cycle and a dimer cycle, with steps of dimer formation, we have also found self-oscillations. We have also studied models involving the formation of a complex with other molecules. The addition of two steps for formation of a complex of the monomer with another molecule does not alter either the number or the stability of steady states of the basic six-state model. The model which combines the formation of a complex with an autocatalytic step shows both self-oscillations and multiple steady states. The results lead us to conclude that oscillations could be produced by active membrane transport systems if the transport cycle contains a sufficiently large number of steps (six in the present case) and is coupled to at least one autocatalytic reaction,. Oscillations are also predicted when the monomer cycle is coupled to a dimer cycle. In fact, the autocatalytic reaction can be seen as a simplification of the model involving competition between monomer and dimer cycles, which seems to be a more realistic description of biological systems. A self-regulation mechanism of the pumps, related to the multiple stationary states, is expected only for a combined effect of autocatalysis and formation of complexes with other molecules. Within the six-state model this model also leads to oscillation.

  6. The electronic excited states of green fluorescent protein chromophore models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Seth Carlton

    We explore the properties of quantum chemical approximations to the excited states of model chromophores of the green fluorescent protein of A. victoria. We calculate several low-lying states by several methods of quantum chemical calculation, including state-averaged complete active space SCF (CASSCF) methods, time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), equation-of motion coupled cluster (EOM-CCSD) and multireference perturbation theory (MRPT). Amongst the low-lying states we identify the optically bright pipi* state of the molecules and examine its properties. We demonstrate that the state is dominated by a single configuration function. We calculate zero-time approximations to the resonance Raman spectrum of GFP chromophore models, and assign published spectra based upon these.

  7. Modeling the fractional magnetic states of magnetostructural transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Torre, Edward [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute for Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The large inverse magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in the off-stoichiometric Heusler alloys occurs at a critical temperature near room temperature. At this temperature, the material is in a mixed-state and can have a variable ratio of two stable magnetic crystallographic-states; a high magnetization state (HM) and a low magnetization state (LM). The field-induced thermal hysteresis in the virgin curve of Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} and the virgin first-order reversal curves (VFORC) are presented. A model is introduced to describe the descending branches of these curves based on the different magnetic fields of conversion (from HM to LM). Using limited measurements, the model is used as a tool to determine the fractions of the two crystallographic-states within the mixed-state region.

  8. Structured fusion lasso penalized multi-state models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennhenn-Reulen, Holger; Kneib, Thomas

    2016-11-10

    Multi-state models generalize survival or duration time analysis to the estimation of transition-specific hazard rate functions for multiple transitions. When each of the transition-specific risk functions is parametrized with several distinct covariate effect coefficients, this leads to a model of potentially high dimension. To decrease the parameter space dimensionality and to work out a clear image of the underlying multi-state model structure, one can either aim at setting some coefficients to zero or to make coefficients for the same covariate but two different transitions equal. The first issue can be approached by penalizing the absolute values of the covariate coefficients as in lasso regularization. If, instead, absolute differences between coefficients of the same covariate on different transitions are penalized, this leads to sparse competing risk relations within a multi-state model, that is, equality of covariate effect coefficients. In this paper, a new estimation approach providing sparse multi-state modelling by the aforementioned principles is established, based on the estimation of multi-state models and a simultaneous penalization of the L1 -norm of covariate coefficients and their differences in a structured way. The new multi-state modelling approach is illustrated on peritoneal dialysis study data and implemented in the R package penMSM. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Product State Modelling based on a Meta Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Sørensen, Christian; Langer, Gilad

    1999-01-01

    ) is a product model that contains continuously updated data regarding the outcome of the production processes. The main contribution of this paper is a definition and a description of a Production Meta Product State Model (Production Meta PSM), using the Unified Modelling Language (UML). The meta model......As products often deviate from their original design and specifications when being produced, adjustments of the product or process are required in order to meet specifications. A prerequisite for this adjustment, is appropriate and effectively collected shop floor data. The Product State Model (PSM...... incorporates a set of characteristics associated to the (1) scope or application domain of the PSM, (2) the artefact or product, and (3) the events transforming the product and trigging product state changes. Moreover, the paper provides guidelines for a specialisation of the meta model with respect...

  10. Development of a production meta Product State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Sørensen, Christian; Langer, Gilad

    1999-01-01

    ) is a product model that contains continuously updated data regarding the outcome of the production processes. The main contribution of this paper is a definition and a description of a Production Meta Product State Model (Production Meta PSM), using the Unified Modelling Language (UML). The meta model......As products often deviate from their original design and specifications when being produced, adjustments of the product or process are required in order to meet specifications. A prerequisite for this adjustment, is appropriate and effectively collected shop floor data. The Product State Model (PSM...... incorporates a set of characteristics associated to the (1) scope or application domain of the PSM, (2) the artefact or product, and (3) the events transforming the product and trigging product state changes. Moreover, the paper provides guidelines for a specialisation of the meta model with respect...

  11. Metropolitan and state economic regions (MASTER) model - overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.; Moe, R.J.; Scott, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    The Metropolitan and State Economic Regions (MASTER) model is a unique multi-regional economic model designed to forecast regional economic activity and assess the regional economic impacts caused by national and regional economic changes (e.g., interest rate fluctuations, energy price changes, construction and operation of a nuclear waste storage facility, shutdown of major industrial operations). MASTER can be applied to any or all of the 268 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) and 48 non-SMSA rest-of-state-areas (ROSAs) in the continental US. The model can also be applied to any or all of the continental US counties and states. This report is divided into four sections: capabilities and applications of the MASTER model, development of the model, model simulation, and validation testing.

  12. Quantum-dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers in State Space Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hussein Taleb; Kambiz Abedi; Saeed Golmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    A state space model (SSM) is derived for quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers (QD-SOAs).Rate equations of QD-SOA are formulated in the form of state update equations,where average occupation probabilities along QD-SOA cavity are considered as state variables of the system.Simulations show that SSM calculates QD-SOA's static and dynamic characteristics with high accuracy.

  13. q-state Potts model on the Apollonian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Nuno A M; Andrade, Roberto F S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2010-10-01

    The q-state Potts model is studied on the Apollonian network with Monte Carlo simulations and the transfer matrix method. The spontaneous magnetization, correlation length, entropy, and specific heat are analyzed as a function of temperature for different number of states, q. Different scaling functions in temperature and q are proposed. A quantitative agreement is found between results from both methods. No critical behavior is observed in the thermodynamic limit for any number of states.

  14. Near-horizon states of black holes and Calogero models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Basu-Mallick; Pijush K Ghosh; Kumar S Gupta

    2004-03-01

    We find self-adjoint extensions of the rational Calogero model in the presence of the harmonic interaction. The corresponding eigenfunctions may describe the near-horizon quantum states of certain types of black holes.

  15. Critical state soil constitutive model for methane hydrate soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S. Uchida; K. Soga; K. Yamamoto

    2012-01-01

      This paper presents a new constitutive model that simulates the mechanical behavior of methane hydrate-bearing soil based on the concept of critical state soil mechanics, referred to as the Methane...

  16. Modeling systems containing alkanolamines with the CPA equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2008-01-01

    An association model, the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state (EoS), is applied for the first time to a class of multifunctional compounds (alkanolamines). Three alkanolamines of practical and scientific significance are considered; monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA...... studied using the CPA equation of state (alcohols, amines, and glycols)....

  17. Formulating state space models in R with focus on longitudinal regression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

      We provide a language for formulating a range of state space models. The described methodology is implemented in the R -package sspir available from cran.r-project.org . A state space model is specified similarly to a generalized linear model in R , by marking the time-varying terms in the form......  We provide a language for formulating a range of state space models. The described methodology is implemented in the R -package sspir available from cran.r-project.org . A state space model is specified similarly to a generalized linear model in R , by marking the time-varying terms...

  18. A model for luminescence of localized state ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Q.; Xu, S. J.; Xie, M H; Tong, S. Y.

    2004-01-01

    A distribution function for localized carriers, $f(E,T)=\\frac{1}{e^{(E-E_a)/k_BT}+\\tau_{tr}/\\tau_r}$, is proposed by solving a rate equation, in which, electrical carriers' generation, thermal escape, recapture and radiative recombination are taken into account. Based on this distribution function, a model is developed for luminescence from localized state ensemble with a Gaussian-type density of states. The model reproduces quantitatively all the anomalous temperature behaviors of localized ...

  19. The MICOR hadronization model with final state interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, P

    2002-01-01

    Final state interactions on the hadron spectra obtained from the MIcroscopic COalescence Rehadronization (MICOR) model are investigated. MICOR generates baryon and meson resonances in an out- of-equilibrium distribution, directly from quark matter. At the next step, resonances decay into stable hadrons by the JETSET event generator. The final state interactions are simulated using a hadronic cascade, with initial momentum distributions given by MICOR. For the initial space distributions, two simple models are applied and compared. (12 refs).

  20. Parameter redundancy in discrete state-space and integrated models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Diana J; McCrea, Rachel S

    2016-09-01

    Discrete state-space models are used in ecology to describe the dynamics of wild animal populations, with parameters, such as the probability of survival, being of ecological interest. For a particular parametrization of a model it is not always clear which parameters can be estimated. This inability to estimate all parameters is known as parameter redundancy or a model is described as nonidentifiable. In this paper we develop methods that can be used to detect parameter redundancy in discrete state-space models. An exhaustive summary is a combination of parameters that fully specify a model. To use general methods for detecting parameter redundancy a suitable exhaustive summary is required. This paper proposes two methods for the derivation of an exhaustive summary for discrete state-space models using discrete analogues of methods for continuous state-space models. We also demonstrate that combining multiple data sets, through the use of an integrated population model, may result in a model in which all parameters are estimable, even though models fitted to the separate data sets may be parameter redundant. © 2016 The Author. Biometrical Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Steady states in Leith's model of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenev, V. N.; Griffin, A.; Medvedev, S. B.; Nazarenko, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    We present a comprehensive study and full classification of the stationary solutions in Leith’s model of turbulence with a generalised viscosity. Three typical types of boundary value problems are considered: Problems 1 and 2 with a finite positive value of the spectrum at the left (right) and zero at the right (left) boundaries of a wave number range, and Problem 3 with finite positive values of the spectrum at both boundaries. Settings of these problems and analysis of existence of their solutions are based on a phase-space analysis of orbits of the underlying dynamical system. One of the two fixed points of the underlying dynamical system is found to correspond to a ‘sharp front’ where the energy flux and the spectrum vanish at the same wave number. The other fixed point corresponds to the only exact power-law solution—the so-called dissipative scaling solution. The roles of the Kolmogorov, dissipative and thermodynamic scaling, as well as of sharp front solutions, are discussed.

  2. Modified Critical State Two-Surface Plasticity Model for Sands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Shajarati, Amir

    This article describes the outline of a numerical integration scheme for a critical state two-surface plasticity model for sands. The model is slightly modified by LeBlanc (2008) compared to the original formulation presented by Manzari and Dafalias (1997) and has the ability to correctly model...... calculations can be performed with the Forward Euler integration scheme. Furthermore, the model is formulated for a single point....

  3. A Functional Inspection Model for the Immeasurable Potential Failure State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen-ge; LI Shi-qi; ZHAO Di

    2008-01-01

    Functional inspection is a type of preventive maintenance of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). We, in this paper, establish a functional inspection model(FIM)--the cost model and the availability model for the immeasurable potential failure state based on the delay time concept. This model can be used to determine the appropriate Functional Inspection Interval(FII) to achieve the goal of specific cost and availability and to assist in maintenance decision making.

  4. Petri nets extension to model state-varying failure rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common assumptions in reliability modeling is the constant failure rate. This has been increasingly changing lately, yielding significant research towards abandoning simulation results based on this assumption; thus, deeming constant failure rates as inadequate to model failures......-varying failure rates and extend the formalism of Petri nets to model them. To illustrate our approach we provide an example model that features state-varying failure rates....

  5. 'tomo_display' and 'vol_tools': IDL VM Packages for Tomography Data Reconstruction, Processing, and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, M. L.; Gualda, G. A.

    2009-05-01

    One of the challenges in tomography is the availability of suitable software for image processing and analysis in 3D. We present here 'tomo_display' and 'vol_tools', two packages created in IDL that enable reconstruction, processing, and visualization of tomographic data. They complement in many ways the capabilities offered by Blob3D (Ketcham 2005 - Geosphere, 1: 32-41, DOI: 10.1130/GES00001.1) and, in combination, allow users without programming knowledge to perform all steps necessary to obtain qualitative and quantitative information using tomographic data. The package 'tomo_display' was created and is maintained by Mark Rivers. It allows the user to: (1) preprocess and reconstruct parallel beam tomographic data, including removal of anomalous pixels, ring artifact reduction, and automated determination of the rotation center, (2) visualization of both raw and reconstructed data, either as individual frames, or as a series of sequential frames. The package 'vol_tools' consists of a series of small programs created and maintained by Guilherme Gualda to perform specific tasks not included in other packages. Existing modules include simple tools for cropping volumes, generating histograms of intensity, sample volume measurement (useful for porous samples like pumice), and computation of volume differences (for differential absorption tomography). The module 'vol_animate' can be used to generate 3D animations using rendered isosurfaces around objects. Both packages use the same NetCDF format '.volume' files created using code written by Mark Rivers. Currently, only 16-bit integer volumes are created and read by the packages, but floating point and 8-bit data can easily be stored in the NetCDF format as well. A simple GUI to convert sequences of tiffs into '.volume' files is available within 'vol_tools'. Both 'tomo_display' and 'vol_tools' include options to (1) generate onscreen output that allows for dynamic visualization in 3D, (2) save sequences of tiffs to disk

  6. A Learning State-Space Model for Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Greg C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach based on a state-space model for learning the user concepts in image retrieval. We first design a scheme of region-based image representation based on concept units, which are integrated with different types of feature spaces and with different region scales of image segmentation. The design of the concept units aims at describing similar characteristics at a certain perspective among relevant images. We present the details of our proposed approach based on a state-space model for interactive image retrieval, including likelihood and transition models, and we also describe some experiments that show the efficacy of our proposed model. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using a state-space model to estimate the user intuition in image retrieval.

  7. Boson bound states in the -Fermi–Pasta–Ulam model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xin-Guang Hu; Ju Xiang; Zheng Jiao; Yang Liu; Guo-Qiu Xie; Ke Hu

    2013-11-01

    The bound states of four bosons in the quantum -Fermi–Pasta–Ulam model are investigated and some interesting results are presented using the number conserving approximation combined with the number state method. We find that the relative magnitude of anharmonic coefficient has a significant effect on forming localized energy in the model, and the wave number plays an important role in forming different bound states. The signature of the quantum breather is also set up by the square of the amplitudes of the corresponding eigenvectors in real space.

  8. CMB Constraints on Reheating Models with Varying Equation of State

    CERN Document Server

    de Freitas, Rodolfo C

    2015-01-01

    The temperature at the end of reheating and the length of this cosmological phase can be bound to the inflationary observables if one considers the cosmological evolution from the time of Hubble crossing until today. There are many examples in the literature where it is made for single-field inflationary models and a constant equation of state during reheating. We adopt two simple varying equation of state parameters during reheating, combine the allowed range of the reheating parameters with the observational limits of the scalar perturbations spectral index and compare the constraints of some inflationary models with the case of a constant equation of state parameter during reheating.

  9. A nonlocal, ordinary, state-based plasticity model for peridynamics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, John Anthony

    2011-05-01

    An implicit time integration algorithm for a non-local, state-based, peridynamics plasticity model is developed. The flow rule was proposed in [3] without an integration strategy or yield criterion. This report addresses both of these issues and thus establishes the first ordinary, state-based peridynamics plasticity model. Integration of the flow rule follows along the lines of the classical theories of rate independent J{sub 2} plasticity. It uses elastic force state relations, an additive decomposition of the deformation state, an elastic force state domain, a flow rule, loading/un-loading conditions, and a consistency condition. Just as in local theories of plasticity (LTP), state variables are required. It is shown that the resulting constitutive model does not violate the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The report also develops a useful non-local yield criterion that depends upon the yield stress and horizon for the material. The modulus state for both the ordinary elastic material and aforementioned plasticity model is also developed and presented.

  10. Ising percolation in a three-state majority vote model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balankin, Alexander S., E-mail: abalankin@ipn.mx [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Martínez-Cruz, M.A.; Gayosso Martínez, Felipe [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Mena, Baltasar [Laboratorio de Ingeniería y Procesos Costeros, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sisal, Yucatán, 97355 (Mexico); Tobon, Atalo; Patiño-Ortiz, Julián; Patiño-Ortiz, Miguel; Samayoa, Didier [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico)

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • Three-state non-consensus majority voter model is introduced. • Phase transition in the absorbing state non-consensus is revealed. • The percolation transition belongs to the universality class of Ising percolation. • The effect of an updating rule for a tie between voter neighbors is highlighted. - Abstract: In this Letter, we introduce a three-state majority vote model in which each voter adopts a state of a majority of its active neighbors, if exist, but the voter becomes uncommitted if its active neighbors are in a tie, or all neighbors are the uncommitted. Numerical simulations were performed on square lattices of different linear size with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from a random distribution of active voters, the model leads to a stable non-consensus state in which three opinions coexist. We found that the “magnetization” of the non-consensus state and the concentration of uncommitted voters in it are governed by an initial composition of system and are independent of the lattice size. Furthermore, we found that a configuration of the stable non-consensus state undergoes a second order percolation transition at a critical concentration of voters holding the same opinion. Numerical simulations suggest that this transition belongs to the same universality class as the Ising percolation. These findings highlight the effect of an updating rule for a tie between voter neighbors on the critical behavior of models obeying the majority vote rule whenever a strict majority exists.

  11. Intermittent Bellerophon state in frequency-weighted Kuramoto model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenchang; Zou, Yong; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Zonghua; Guan, Shuguang

    2016-12-01

    Recently, the Bellerophon state, which is a quantized, time dependent, clustering state, was revealed in globally coupled oscillators [Bi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 204101 (2016)]. The most important characteristic is that in such a state, the oscillators split into multiple clusters. Within each cluster, the instantaneous frequencies of the oscillators are not the same, but their average frequencies lock to a constant. In this work, we further characterize an intermittent Bellerophon state in the frequency-weighted Kuramoto model with a biased Lorentzian frequency distribution. It is shown that the evolution of oscillators exhibits periodical intermittency, following a synchronous pattern of bursting in a short period and resting in a long period. This result suggests that the Bellerophon state might be generic in Kuramoto-like models regardless of different arrangements of natural frequencies.

  12. Ontology and modeling patterns for state-based behavior representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Rozek, Matthew L.; Ingham, Michel D.; Rouquette, Nicolas F.; Chung, Seung H.; Kerzhner, Aleksandr A.; Donahue, Kenneth M.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; Karban, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an approach to capture state-based behavior of elements, that is, the specification of their state evolution in time, and the interactions amongst them. Elements can be components (e.g., sensors, actuators) or environments, and are characterized by state variables that vary with time. The behaviors of these elements, as well as interactions among them are represented through constraints on state variables. This paper discusses the concepts and relationships introduced in this behavior ontology, and the modeling patterns associated with it. Two example cases are provided to illustrate their usage, as well as to demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of the behavior ontology: a simple flashlight electrical model and a more complex spacecraft model involving instruments, power and data behaviors. Finally, an implementation in a SysML profile is provided.

  13. Ontology and modeling patterns for state-based behavior representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Rozek, Matthew L.; Ingham, Michel D.; Rouquette, Nicolas F.; Chung, Seung H.; Kerzhner, Aleksandr A.; Donahue, Kenneth M.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an approach to capture state-based behavior of elements, that is, the specification of their state evolution in time, and the interactions amongst them. Elements can be components (e.g., sensors, actuators) or environments, and are characterized by state variables that vary with time. The behaviors of these elements, as well as interactions among them are represented through constraints on state variables. This paper discusses the concepts and relationships introduced in this behavior ontology, and the modeling patterns associated with it. Two example cases are provided to illustrate their usage, as well as to demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of the behavior ontology: a simple flashlight electrical model and a more complex spacecraft model involving instruments, power and data behaviors. Finally, an implementation in a SysML profile is provided.

  14. Modeling protein density of states: additive hydrophobic effects are insufficient for calorimetric two-state cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H S

    2000-09-01

    A well-established experimental criterion for two-state thermodynamic cooperativity in protein folding is that the van't Hoff enthalpy DeltaH(vH) around the transition midpoint is equal, or very nearly so, to the calorimetric enthalpy DeltaH(cal) of the entire transition. This condition is satisfied by many small proteins. We use simple lattice models to provide a statistical mechanical framework to elucidate how this calorimetric two-state picture may be reconciled with the hierarchical multistate scenario emerging from recent hydrogen exchange experiments. We investigate the feasibility of using inverse Laplace transforms to recover the underlying density of states (i.e., enthalpy distribution) from calorimetric data. We find that the constraint imposed by DeltaH(vH)/DeltaH(cal) approximately 1 on densities of states of proteins is often more stringent than other "two-state" criteria proposed in recent theoretical studies. In conjunction with reasonable assumptions, the calorimetric two-state condition implies a narrow distribution of denatured-state enthalpies relative to the overall enthalpy difference between the native and the denatured conformations. This requirement does not always correlate with simple definitions of "sharpness" of a transition and has important ramifications for theoretical modeling. We find that protein models that assume capillarity cooperativity can exhibit overall calorimetric two-state-like behaviors. However, common heteropolymer models based on additive hydrophobic-like interactions, including highly specific two-dimensional Gō models, fail to produce proteinlike DeltaH(vH)/DeltaH(cal) approximately 1. A simple model is constructed to illustrate a proposed scenario in which physically plausible local and nonlocal cooperative terms, which mimic helical cooperativity and environment-dependent hydrogen bonding strength, can lead to thermodynamic behaviors closer to experiment. Our results suggest that proteinlike thermodynamic

  15. Thermodynamic state ensemble models of cis-regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc S Sherman

    Full Text Available A major goal in computational biology is to develop models that accurately predict a gene's expression from its surrounding regulatory DNA. Here we present one class of such models, thermodynamic state ensemble models. We describe the biochemical derivation of the thermodynamic framework in simple terms, and lay out the mathematical components that comprise each model. These components include (1 the possible states of a promoter, where a state is defined as a particular arrangement of transcription factors bound to a DNA promoter, (2 the binding constants that describe the affinity of the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions that occur in each state, and (3 whether each state is capable of transcribing. Using these components, we demonstrate how to compute a cis-regulatory function that encodes the probability of a promoter being active. Our intention is to provide enough detail so that readers with little background in thermodynamics can compose their own cis-regulatory functions. To facilitate this goal, we also describe a matrix form of the model that can be easily coded in any programming language. This formalism has great flexibility, which we show by illustrating how phenomena such as competition between transcription factors and cooperativity are readily incorporated into these models. Using this framework, we also demonstrate that Michaelis-like functions, another class of cis-regulatory models, are a subset of the thermodynamic framework with specific assumptions. By recasting Michaelis-like functions as thermodynamic functions, we emphasize the relationship between these models and delineate the specific circumstances representable by each approach. Application of thermodynamic state ensemble models is likely to be an important tool in unraveling the physical basis of combinatorial cis-regulation and in generating formalisms that accurately predict gene expression from DNA sequence.

  16. Unified State Model theory and application in astrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittaldev, V.; Mooij, E.; Naeije, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The Unified State Model is a method for expressing orbits using a set of seven elements. The elements consist of a quaternion and three parameters based on the velocity hodograph. A complete derivation of the original model is given in addition to two proposed modifications. Both modifications reduc

  17. Performance Aspects of Orbit Propagation using the Unified State Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittaldev, V.; Mooij, E.; Naeije, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Unified State Model is a method for expressing orbits using a set of seven elements. The elements consist of a quaternion and three parameters based on the velocity hodograph. The equations of this model and the background theory necessary to understand them have been shown here. Numerical simul

  18. Hyperstate matrix models : extending demographic state spaces to higher dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, G.; Caswell, H.

    2016-01-01

    1. Demographic models describe population dynamics in terms of the movement of individuals among states (e.g. size, age, developmental stage, parity, frailty, physiological condition). Matrix population models originally classified individuals by a single characteristic. This was enlarged to two cha

  19. Information Sharing In Shipbuilding based on the Product State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    The paper provides a review of product modelling technologies and the overall architecture for the Product State Model (PSM) environment as a basis for how dynamically updated product data can improve control of production activities. Especially, the paper focuses on the circumstances prevailing...

  20. The three-state antiferromagnetic Potts model: scaling laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlob, A.P. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany); Hasenbusch, M. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP)

    1995-04-01

    We present the results of a Monte Carlo study of the three-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic three-state Potts model. We computed the correlation length, the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat for various coupling parameters in the high temperature phase of the model. From the scaling behaviour of these quantities we determine estimates for the critical temperature and critical exponents. ((orig.)).

  1. F-Susy And The Three States Potts Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sedra, M B

    2009-01-01

    In view of its several involvements in various physical and mathematical contexts, 2D-fractional supersymmetry (F-susy) is once again considered in this work. We are, for instance, interested to study the three states Potts model $(k = 3)$ which represents with the tricritical Ising model $(k = 2)$ the two leading examples of more general spin $1/k$ fractional supersymmetric theories.

  2. 某6×2载货汽车怠速转向沉重问题分析与改进%A 6 × 2 truck idling heavy steering problem analysis and improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王五春

    2014-01-01

    Heavy steering failure is one of the most common car faults, which factors are more complex. Based on a 6 × 2 trucks, for example, computational analysis and experimental verification by the relevant depth theoretical, points out the main reasons for the theoretical calculation and experimental verification of such models produced by idling heavy steering failure proposed by combining a optimized and improved measures to address the problem of idle heavy steering.%转向沉重问题是汽车最常见的故障之一,其影响因素较为复杂。本文以某6×2载货汽车为例,通过深入的理论计算分析及相关试验验证,指出了该类车型怠速转向沉重故障产生的主要原因,提出了一种优化改进措施,解决了怠速转向沉重的问题。

  3. State-Space Modelling of Loudspeakers using Fractional Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Alexander Weider; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the use of fractional order derivatives in modeling moving-coil loudspeakers. A fractional order state-space solution is developed, leading the way towards incorporating nonlinearities into a fractional order system. The method is used to calculate the response....... It is shown that the identified parameters can be used in a linear fractional order state-space model to simulate the loudspeakers’ time domain response...... of a fractional harmonic oscillator, representing the mechanical part of a loudspeaker, showing the effect of the fractional derivative and its relationship to viscoelasticity. Finally, a loudspeaker model with a fractional order viscoelastic suspension and fractional order voice coil is fit to measurement data...

  4. Evolution of states in a continuum migration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiev, Yuri; Kozitsky, Yuri

    2017-03-01

    The Markov evolution of states of a continuum migration model is studied. The model describes an infinite system of entities placed in R^d in which the constituents appear (immigrate) with rate b(x) and disappear, also due to competition. For this model, we prove the existence of the evolution of states μ _0 mapsto μ _t such that the moments μ _t(N_Λ ^n) , nin N, of the number of entities in compact Λ subset R^d remain bounded for all t>0 . Under an additional condition, we prove that the density of entities and the second correlation function remain point-wise bounded globally in time.

  5. Formulating state space models in R with focus on longitudinal regression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    We provide a language for formulating a range of state space models with response densities within the exponential family. The described methodology is implemented in the R-package sspir. A state space model is specified similarly to a generalized linear model in R, and then the time-varying terms...

  6. THE EUROPEAN MODEL OF STATE REGULATION OF TOURISM ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Davydova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the existing model of state regulation of the development of tourism. Expediency of the European model of state regulation of tourism development in Ukraine. It is noted that the European model of state regulation of tourism activities based on the coordination of marketing activities and the development of cooperation between the public and private sectors. The basic forms of public-private partnerships and the advantages of using cluster model of development of tourism, namely, contracts, production sharing agreement, lease, joint venture. Promising areas of application of the PPP identified the transport sector, housing and utilities, energy and tourism sector. The features of cluster formations in the country and the prospects for tourism clusters.

  7. Dynamic two state stochastic models for ecological regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Carstensen, Niels Jacob; Madsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A simple non-linear stochastic two state, discrete-time model is presented. The interaction between benthic and pelagic vegetation in aquatic ecosystems subject to changing external nutrient loading is described by the nonlinear functions. The dynamical behavior of the deterministic part...... of regimes, depending on how the noise propagates through the system. The dynamical properties of a system should therefore be described through propagation of the state distributions rather than the state means and consequently, stochastic models should be compared in a probabilistic framework....... of the model illustrates that hysteresis effect and regime shifts can be obtained for a limited range of parameter values only. The effect of multiplicative noise components entering at different levels of the model is presented and discussed. Including noise leads to very different results on the stability...

  8. Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using Structured Augmented State Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen Aβfalg; Frank Allg(o)wer

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an internal model approach for modeling and diagnostic functionality design for nonlinear systems operating subject to single- and multiple-faults. We therefore provide the framework of structured augmented state models. Fault characteristics are considered to be generated by dynamical exosystems that are switched via equality constraints to overcome the augmented state observability limiting the number of diagnosable faults. Based on the proposed model, the fault diagnosis problem is specified as an optimal hybrid augmented state estimation problem. Sub-optimal solutions are motivated and exemplified for the fault diagnosis of the well-known three-tank benchmark. As the considered class of fault diagnosis problems is large, the suggested approach is not only of theoretical interest but also of high practical relevance.

  9. Transformation of Neural State Space Models into LFT Models for Robust Control Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers the extraction of linear state space models and uncertainty models from neural networks trained as state estimators with direct application to robust control. A new method for writing a neural state space model in a linear fractional transformation form in a non-conservative ......This paper considers the extraction of linear state space models and uncertainty models from neural networks trained as state estimators with direct application to robust control. A new method for writing a neural state space model in a linear fractional transformation form in a non......-conservative way is proposed, and it is demonstrated how a standard robust control law can be designed for a system described by means of a multi layer perceptron....

  10. Model checking abstract state machines with answer set programming

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a logic programming paradigm that has been shown as a useful tool in various application areas due to its expressive modelling language. These application areas include Bourided Model Checking (BMC). BMC is a verification technique that is recognized for its strong ability of finding errors in computer systems. To apply BMC, a system needs to be modelled in a formal specification language, such as the widely used formalism of Abstract State Machines (ASMs). In ...

  11. An autonomous DNA model for finite state automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Perez, Israel M; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz; Ignatova, Zoya

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an autonomous DNA model for finite state automata. This model called sticker automaton model is based on the hybridisation of single stranded DNA molecules (stickers) encoding transition rules and input data. The computation is carried out in an autonomous manner by one enzyme which allows us to determine whether a resulting double-stranded DNA molecule belongs to the automaton's language or not.

  12. Adverse Selection Models with Three States of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela MARINESCU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we analyze an adverse selection model with three states of nature, where both the Principal and the Agent are risk neutral. When solving the model, we use the informational rents and the efforts as variables. We derive the optimal contract in the situation of asymmetric information. The paper ends with the characteristics of the optimal contract and the main conclusions of the model.

  13. Discrete state space modeling and control of nonlinear unknown systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Aydogan

    2013-11-01

    A novel procedure for integrating neural networks (NNs) with conventional techniques is proposed to design industrial modeling and control systems for nonlinear unknown systems. In the proposed approach, a new recurrent NN with a special architecture is constructed to obtain discrete-time state-space representations of nonlinear dynamical systems. It is referred as the discrete state-space neural network (DSSNN). In the DSSNN, the outputs of the hidden layer neurons of the DSSNN represent the system's (pseudo) state. The inputs are fed to output neurons and the delayed outputs of the hidden layer neurons are fed to their inputs via adjustable weights. The discrete state space model of the actual system is directly obtained by training the DSSNN with the input-output data. A training procedure based on the back-propagation through time (BPTT) algorithm is developed. The Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method with a trust region approach is used to update the DSSNN weights. Linear state space models enable to use well developed conventional analysis and design techniques. Thus, building a linear model of a system has primary importance in industrial applications. Thus, a suitable linearization procedure is proposed to derive the linear state space model from the nonlinear DSSNN representation. The controllability, observability and stability properties are examined. The state feedback controllers are designed with both the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and the pole placement techniques. The regulator and servo control problems are both addressed. A full order observer is also designed to estimate the state variables. The performance of the proposed procedure is demonstrated by applying for both single-input single-output (SISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) nonlinear control problems. © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Two-state mechanochemical model for microtubule growth

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a two-state mechanochemical model is presented to describe the dynamic properties of microtubule (MT) growth in cells. The MT switches between two states, assembly state and disassembly state. In assembly state, the growth of microtubule includes two processes: GTP-tubulin binding to the tip of protofilament (PF) and conformational change of PF, during which the penultimate GTP is hydrolyzed and the first tubulin unit that curls out the MT surface is rearranged into MT surface using the energy released from GTP hydrolysis. In disassembly state, the shortening of microtubule is also described by two processes, the release of GDP-tibulin from the tip of PF and one new tubulin unit curls out from the MT surface. Switches between these two states, which are usually called rescue and catastrophe, happen stochastically with external force dependent rates. Using this two-state model with parameters obtained by fitting the recent experimental data, detailed properties of MT growth are obtained, we find...

  15. Nonlinear regime-switching state-space (RSSS) models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Zhang, Guangjian

    2013-10-01

    Nonlinear dynamic factor analysis models extend standard linear dynamic factor analysis models by allowing time series processes to be nonlinear at the latent level (e.g., involving interaction between two latent processes). In practice, it is often of interest to identify the phases--namely, latent "regimes" or classes--during which a system is characterized by distinctly different dynamics. We propose a new class of models, termed nonlinear regime-switching state-space (RSSS) models, which subsumes regime-switching nonlinear dynamic factor analysis models as a special case. In nonlinear RSSS models, the change processes within regimes, represented using a state-space model, are allowed to be nonlinear. An estimation procedure obtained by combining the extended Kalman filter and the Kim filter is proposed as a way to estimate nonlinear RSSS models. We illustrate the utility of nonlinear RSSS models by fitting a nonlinear dynamic factor analysis model with regime-specific cross-regression parameters to a set of experience sampling affect data. The parallels between nonlinear RSSS models and other well-known discrete change models in the literature are discussed briefly.

  16. 惰行和制动工况下重载列车曲线通过数值模拟%Numerical Simulation on Curve Negotiating of Heavy Haul Train under Idling and Braking Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亮亮; 罗世辉; 傅茂海; 许自强; 周尚书

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the characteristics of wheel-rail contact of heavy haul train negotiating curve route under idling and braking conditions,train dynamic models mixed with single DOF and full DOF were built u-sing numerical method.Running safety,wheel wear distribution and wheel-rail rolling resistance characteristics of heavy haul train during curve negotiating under idling and braking conditions were analyzed contrastively. The results indicated that the lateral wheel-rail force and derailment factor in train model passing through a curve with coupler load effects and the effects of brake shoe pressing on wheels under braking condition were larger than those under idling condition,while the wheel unloading rate remained basically the same under the two running conditions.The yawing constraint of the wheelset was enhanced with the pressure of brake shoes during braking,causing the dynamic distribution area of guide wheel wear power to be closer to the flange, compared with the idle running condition.The scope of traction ratio linearly changing with the degree of curve under braking condition was larger than that under idling condition.The traction ratio was gradually increasing with the increase of the braking strength.%为了研究重载列车在惰行和制动工况下通过曲线时的轮轨接触特性,采用数值方法建立单自由度车辆和全自由度车辆混合的列车动力学模型,对比分析了惰行和制动工况下列车曲线通过时的运行安全性、车轮磨耗分布特征、轮轨滚动阻力特性影响。结果表明:考虑车钩负载效应和闸瓦贴靠车轮作用的列车模型在曲线制动工况下的轮轨横向力和脱轨系数指标均比惰行工况时略差,但轮重减载率指标几乎相当;由于制动时闸瓦压力增大了轮对的摇头约束,导致通过曲线时导向车轮磨耗功率的动态分布区域比惰行时更靠近轮缘处;制动工况下的牵引比率随曲线曲度线性变化

  17. Excited-state quantum phase transition in the Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Ricardo; Hwang, Myung-Joong; Plenio, Martin B.

    2016-08-01

    The Rabi model, a two-level atom coupled to a harmonic oscillator, can undergo a second-order quantum phase transition (QPT) [M.-J. Hwang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 180404 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.180404]. Here we show that the Rabi QPT accompanies critical behavior in the higher-energy excited states, i.e., the excited-state QPT (ESQPT). We derive analytic expressions for the semiclassical density of states, which show a logarithmic divergence at a critical energy eigenvalue in the broken symmetry (superradiant) phase. Moreover, we find that the logarithmic singularities in the density of states lead to singularities in the relevant observables in the system such as photon number and atomic polarization. We corroborate our analytical semiclassical prediction of the ESQPT in the Rabi model with its numerically exact quantum mechanical solution.

  18. The continuum shell-model neutron states of 209Pb

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramendra Nath Majumdar

    2003-12-01

    The neutron strength distributions of the three high-spin 117/2, 2ℎ11/2 and 113/2 states of 209Pb have been obtained within the formalism of the core-polarisation effect where the effect of interaction of the neutron shell-model states of 209Pb with the collective vibrational states (originating also from the giant resonances) have been taken into consideration. The theoretical results have been discussed in the light of works on 117/2, 2ℎ11/2 and 113/2 neutron orbitals of 209Pb. The shell-model energies of the neutron states have been obtained by Skyrme–Hartree–Fock method.

  19. 试论闲散青少年的就业帮扶%On employment assistance for idle youth and teenagers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雪红

    2012-01-01

      闲散青少年引发的社会问题,吸引了大家对这一特殊群体的关注。本文通过分析闲散青少年失业及犯罪的原因,寻找他们更好融入社会的途径,在此基础上提出帮扶闲散青少年就业的策略。%  Idle teenagers caused social problem, has attracted everybody to this special group of attention. In this paper, through the analysis of idle youth and teenagers unemployment and crime reason, looking for better integrate into society, put forward on this foundation helps idle youth and teenagers employment strategy.

  20. State resolved vibrational relaxation modeling for strongly nonequilibrium flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Iain D.; Josyula, Eswar

    2011-05-01

    Vibrational relaxation is an important physical process in hypersonic flows. Activation of the vibrational mode affects the fundamental thermodynamic properties and finite rate relaxation can reduce the degree of dissociation of a gas. Low fidelity models of vibrational activation employ a relaxation time to capture the process at a macroscopic level. High fidelity, state-resolved models have been developed for use in continuum gas dynamics simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). By comparison, such models are not as common for use with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In this study, a high fidelity, state-resolved vibrational relaxation model is developed for the DSMC technique. The model is based on the forced harmonic oscillator approach in which multi-quantum transitions may become dominant at high temperature. Results obtained for integrated rate coefficients from the DSMC model are consistent with the corresponding CFD model. Comparison of relaxation results obtained with the high-fidelity DSMC model shows significantly less excitation of upper vibrational levels in comparison to the standard, lower fidelity DSMC vibrational relaxation model. Application of the new DSMC model to a Mach 7 normal shock wave in carbon monoxide provides better agreement with experimental measurements than the standard DSMC relaxation model.

  1. QCD Equations of State and the QGP Liquid Model

    CERN Document Server

    Letessier, J

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of equations of state of thermal lattice Quantum Chromodynamics obtained at non-zero baryon density allow validation of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) liquid model equations of state (EoS). We study here the properties of the QGP-EoS near to the phase transformation boundary at finite baryon density and show a close agreement with the lattice results.

  2. State Predictive Model Following Control System for Linear Time Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Zhong Wang; Shu-Jing Wu; Shigenori Okubo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new state predictive model following control system (MFCS). The considered system has linear time delays. With the MFCS method, we obtain a simple input control law. The bounded property of the internal states for the control is given and the utility of this control design is guaranteed. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. A detailed aerosol mixing state model for investigating interactions between mixing state, semivolatile partitioning, and coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for describing externally mixed particles, the Detailed Aerosol Mixing State (DAMS representation, is presented in this study. This novel method classifies aerosols by both composition and size, using a user-specified mixing criterion to define boundaries between compositional populations. Interactions between aerosol mixing state, semivolatile partitioning, and coagulation are investigated with a Lagrangian box model that incorporates the DAMS approach. Model results predict that mixing state affects the amount and types of semivolatile organics that partition to available aerosol phases, causing external mixtures to produce a more size-varying composition than internal mixtures. Both coagulation and condensation contribute to the mixing of emitted particles, producing a collection of multiple compositionally distinct aerosol populations that exists somewhere between the extremes of a strictly external or internal mixture. The selection of mixing criteria has a significant impact on the size and type of individual populations that compose the modeled aerosol mixture.

  4. A schematic model for QCD I Low energy meson states

    CERN Document Server

    Lerma, S; Hess, P O; Civitarese, O; Reboiro, M

    2003-01-01

    A simple model for QCD is presented, which is able to reproduce the meson spectrum at low energy. The model is a Lipkin type model for quarks coupled to gluons. The basic building blocks are pairs of quark-antiquarks coupled to a definite flavor and spin. These pairs are coupled to pairs of gluons with spin zero. The multiplicity problem, which dictates that a given experimental state can be described in various manners, is removed when a particle-mixing interaction is turned on. In this first paper of a series we concentrates on the discussion of meson states at low energy, the so-called zero temperature limit of the theory. The treatment of baryonic states is indicated, also.

  5. Equation of State of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Eugenio; Miller, Luke A.; Drewes, Jan H.; Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Köhl, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The subtle interplay between kinetic energy, interactions, and dimensionality challenges our comprehension of strongly correlated physics observed, for example, in the solid state. In this quest, the Hubbard model has emerged as a conceptually simple, yet rich model describing such physics. Here we present an experimental determination of the equation of state of the repulsive two-dimensional Hubbard model over a broad range of interactions 0 ≲U /t ≲20 and temperatures, down to kBT /t =0.63 (2 ) using high-resolution imaging of ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices. We show density profiles, compressibilities, and double occupancies over the whole doping range, and, hence, our results constitute benchmarks for state-of-the-art theoretical approaches.

  6. Hindcasting to measure ice sheet model sensitivity to initial states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aschwanden

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of the Greenland ice sheet indicate rapid mass loss at an accelerating rate with an increasing contribution to global mean sea level. Ice sheet models are used for projections of such future contributions of ice sheets to sea level, but the quality of projections is difficult to measure directly. Realistic initial states are crucial for accurate simulations. To test initial states we use hindcasting, i.e. forcing a model with known or closely-estimated inputs for past events to see how well the output matches observations. By simulating the recent past of Greenland, and comparing to observations of ice thickness, ice discharge, surface speeds, mass loss and surface elevation changes for validation, we find that the short term model response is strongly influenced by the initial state. We show that the dynamical state can be mis-represented despite a good agreement with some observations, stressing the importance of using multiple observations. Some initial states generate good agreement with measured mass time series in the hindcast period, and good agreement with present-day kinematic fields. We suggest hindcasting as a methodology for careful validation of initial states that can be done before making projections on decadal to century time-scales.

  7. Insights from simple models for surface states in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Timothy B.; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2017-03-01

    Surface passivation is of great technological importance due to the increasing miniaturisation of electronic devices. It has been known for many years that under certain conditions surface states can form; when they do so in a quantum well (QW) the result is an unbound (i.e., evanescent) state in the QW. Such surface states are generally undesirable, so a good physical understanding of them is important. A simple single-p-orbital valence band model is used with two types of surface passivation to examine surface states in a QW: (1) an energy upshift added to the terminal atoms; and (2) explicit passivation by an s-orbital on each end of the QW. These models show these unbound/evanescent QW states can occur in both models; that in them the wavefunction is bound to the terminal atoms; and that the existence of these states is connected to the effective valence-band offset between the terminal atoms and the bulk QW.

  8. Critical Points in Nuclei and Interacting Boson Model Intrinsic States

    CERN Document Server

    Ginocchio, J N; Ginocchio, Joseph N.

    2003-01-01

    We consider properties of critical points in the interacting boson model, corresponding to flat-bottomed potentials as encountered in a second-order phase transition between spherical and deformed $\\gamma$-unstable nuclei. We show that intrinsic states with an effective $\\beta$-deformation reproduce the dynamics of the underlying non-rigid shapes. The effective deformation can be determined from the the global minimum of the energy surface after projection onto the appropriate symmetry. States of fixed $N$ and good O(5) symmetry projected from these intrinsic states provide good analytic estimates to the exact eigenstates, energies and quadrupole transition rates at the critical point.

  9. Product State Models in Holonic shop floor control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Sørensen, Christian; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the concepts of the product state models as an integrated database for Holonic Shop Floor Control. One of the requirements of agility is to be able to realise real-time control of manufacturing systems based on the actual state of the system and especially the state of its...... this as well as the general concepts of the PSM and the important parts of the HoMuCS system architecture. Finally the integration of a PSM is illustrated in a case study based on an industrial case at the Odense Steel Shipyard Ltd....

  10. Purely optical navigation with model-based state prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendobry, Alexander; Graber, Thorsten; Klingauf, Uwe

    2010-10-01

    State-of-the-art Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) have a lack of precision especially in GPS denied environments like urban canyons or in pure indoor missions. The proposed Optical Navigation System (ONS) provides bias free ego-motion estimates using triple redundant sensor information. In combination with a model based state prediction our system is able to estimate velocity, position and attitude of an arbitrary aircraft. Simulating a high performance flow-field estimator the algorithm can compete with conventional low-cost INS. By using measured velocities instead of accelerations the system states drift behavior is not as distinctive as for an INS.

  11. Steady States and Universal Conductance in a Quenched Luttinger Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmann, Edwin; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Mastropietro, Vieri; Moosavi, Per

    2016-05-01

    We obtain exact analytical results for the evolution of a 1+1-dimensional Luttinger model prepared in a domain wall initial state, i.e., a state with different densities on its left and right sides. Such an initial state is modeled as the ground state of a translation invariant Luttinger Hamiltonian {H_{λ}} with short range non-local interaction and different chemical potentials to the left and right of the origin. The system evolves for time t > 0 via a Hamiltonian {H_{λ'}} which differs from {H_{λ}} by the strength of the interaction. Asymptotically in time, as {t to &infty}; , after taking the thermodynamic limit, the system approaches a translation invariant steady state. This final steady state carries a current I and has an effective chemical potential difference {μ+ - μ-} between right- (+) and left- (-) moving fermions obtained from the two-point correlation function. Both I and {μ+ - μ-} depend on {λ} and {λ'} . Only for the case {λ = λ' = 0} does {μ+ - μ-} equal the difference in the initial left and right chemical potentials. Nevertheless, the Landauer conductance for the final state, {G = I/(μ+ - μ-)} , has a universal value equal to the conductance quantum {e^2/h} for the spinless case.

  12. Steady States and Universal Conductance in a Quenched Luttinger Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmann, Edwin; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Mastropietro, Vieri; Moosavi, Per

    2017-01-01

    We obtain exact analytical results for the evolution of a 1+1-dimensional Luttinger model prepared in a domain wall initial state, i.e., a state with different densities on its left and right sides. Such an initial state is modeled as the ground state of a translation invariant Luttinger Hamiltonian {H_{λ}} with short range non-local interaction and different chemical potentials to the left and right of the origin. The system evolves for time t > 0 via a Hamiltonian {H_{λ'}} which differs from {H_{λ}} by the strength of the interaction. Asymptotically in time, as {t to ∞}, after taking the thermodynamic limit, the system approaches a translation invariant steady state. This final steady state carries a current I and has an effective chemical potential difference {μ+ - μ-} between right- (+) and left- (-) moving fermions obtained from the two-point correlation function. Both I and {μ+ - μ-} depend on {λ} and {λ'}. Only for the case {λ = λ' = 0} does {μ+ - μ-} equal the difference in the initial left and right chemical potentials. Nevertheless, the Landauer conductance for the final state, {G = I/(μ+ - μ-)}, has a universal value equal to the conductance quantum {e^2/h} for the spinless case.

  13. Exploring extensions to multi-state models with multiple unobservable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, L.L.; Kendall, W.L.; Church, D.R.; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Many biological systems include a portion of the target population that is unobservable during certain life history stages. Transition to and from an unobservable state may be of primary interest in many ecological studies and such movements are easily incorporated into multi-state models. Several authors have investigated properties of open-population multi-state mark-recapture models with unobservable states, and determined the scope and constraints under which parameters are identifiable (or, conversely, are redundant), but only in the context of a single observable and a single unobservable state (Schmidt et al. 2002; Kendall and Nichols 2002; Schaub et al. 2004; Kendall 2004). Some of these constraints can be relaxed if data are collected under a version of the robust design (Kendall and Bjorkland 2001; Kendall and Nichols 2002; Kendall 2004; Bailey et al. 2004), which entails >1 capture period per primary period of interest (e.g., 2 sampling periods within a breeding season). The critical assumption shared by all versions of the robust design is that the state of the individual (e.g. observable or unobservable) remains static for the duration of the primary period (Kendall 2004). In this paper, we extend previous work by relaxing this assumption to allow movement among observable states within primary periods while maintaining static observable or unobservable states. Stated otherwise, both demographic and geographic closure assumptions are relaxed, but all individuals are either observable or unobservable within primary periods. Within these primary periods transitions are possible among multiple observable states, but transitions are not allowed among the corresponding unobservable states. Our motivation for this work is exploring potential differences in population parameters for pond-breeding amphibians, where the quality of habitat surrounding the pond is not spatially uniform. The scenario is an example of a more general case where individuals move

  14. Multi-state models: metapopulation and life history analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnason, A. N.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi–state models are designed to describe populations that move among a fixed set of categorical states. The obvious application is to population interchange among geographic locations such as breeding sites or feeding areas (e.g., Hestbeck et al., 1991; Blums et al., 2003; Cam et al., 2004 but they are increasingly used to address important questions of evolutionary biology and life history strategies (Nichols & Kendall, 1995. In these applications, the states include life history stages such as breeding states. The multi–state models, by permitting estimation of stage–specific survival and transition rates, can help assess trade–offs between life history mechanisms (e.g. Yoccoz et al., 2000. These trade–offs are also important in meta–population analyses where, for example, the pre–and post–breeding rates of transfer among sub–populations can be analysed in terms of target colony distance, density, and other covariates (e.g., Lebreton et al. 2003; Breton et al., in review. Further examples of the use of multi–state models in analysing dispersal and life–history trade–offs can be found in the session on Migration and Dispersal. In this session, we concentrate on applications that did not involve dispersal. These applications fall in two main categories: those that address life history questions using stage categories, and a more technical use of multi–state models to address problems arising from the violation of mark–recapture assumptions leading to the potential for seriously biased predictions or misleading insights from the models. Our plenary paper, by William Kendall (Kendall, 2004, gives an overview of the use of Multi–state Mark–Recapture (MSMR models to address two such violations. The first is the occurrence of unobservable states that can arise, for example, from temporary emigration or by incomplete sampling coverage of a target population. Such states can also occur for life history reasons, such

  15. Determining state-space models from sequential output data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiguan Gene

    1988-01-01

    This talk focuses on the determination of state-space models for large space systems using only the output data. The output data could be generated by the unknown or deliberate initial conditions of the space structure in question. We shall review some relevant fundamental work on the state-space modeling of sequential output data that is potentially applicable to large space structures. If formulated in terms of some generalized Markov parameters, this approach is in some sense similar to, but much simpler than, the Juang-Pappa Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) and the Ho-Kalman construction procedure.

  16. A Right Coprime Factorization of Neural State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, various methods for identification of nonlinear systems in closed loop using open-loop approaches have received considerable attention. However, these methods rely on differentially coprime factorizations of the nonlinear plants, which can be difficult to compute in practice....... To address this issue, this paper presents various technical results leading up to explicit formulae for right coprime factorizations of neural state space models, i.e., nonlinear system models represented in state space using neural networks, which satisfy a Bezout identity. ...

  17. Irregular conformal states and spectral curve: Irregular matrix model approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chaiho

    2016-01-01

    We present recent developments of irregular conformal conformal states. Irregular vertex operators and their adjoint are used to define the irregular conformal states and their Inner product. Free field formalism can be augmented by screening operators which provide more degrees of freedom. The inner product is conveniently given as partition function of a irregular matrix model. (Deformed) spectral curve is the loop equation of the matrix model at Nekrasov-Shatashivili limit. We present the details of analytic structure of the spectral curve for Virasoso symmetry and its extensions, W-symmetry and super-symmetry.

  18. A Computationally Efficient State Space Approach to Estimating Multilevel Regression Models and Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fei; Preacher, Kristopher J; Wu, Wei; Yung, Yiu-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Although the state space approach for estimating multilevel regression models has been well established for decades in the time series literature, it does not receive much attention from educational and psychological researchers. In this article, we (a) introduce the state space approach for estimating multilevel regression models and (b) extend the state space approach for estimating multilevel factor models. A brief outline of the state space formulation is provided and then state space forms for univariate and multivariate multilevel regression models, and a multilevel confirmatory factor model, are illustrated. The utility of the state space approach is demonstrated with either a simulated or real example for each multilevel model. It is concluded that the results from the state space approach are essentially identical to those from specialized multilevel regression modeling and structural equation modeling software. More importantly, the state space approach offers researchers a computationally more efficient alternative to fit multilevel regression models with a large number of Level 1 units within each Level 2 unit or a large number of observations on each subject in a longitudinal study.

  19. Nonlinear state space model identification of synchronous generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghani, M.; Nikravesh, S.K.Y. [Electrical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-05-15

    A method for identification of a synchronous generator is suggested in this paper. The method uses the theoretical relations of machine parameters and the Prony method to find the state space model of the system. Such models are useful for controller design and stability tests. The proposed identification method is applied to a third order model of a synchronous generator. In this study, the field voltage is considered as the input and the active output power and the rotor angle are considered as the outputs of the synchronous generator. Simulation results show good accuracy of the identified model. (author)

  20. Boundary States of the Potts Model on Random Planar Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Atkin, Max; Wheater, John

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the 3-states Potts model on random planar triangulations as a Hermitian matrix model. As a novelty, we obtain an algebraic curve which encodes the partition function on the disc with both fixed and mixed spin boundary conditions. We investigate the critical behaviour of this model and find scaling exponents consistent with previous literature. We argue that the conformal field theory that describes the double scaling limit is Liouville quantum gravity coupled to the $(A_4,D_4)$ minimal model with extended $\\mathcal{W}_3$-symmetry.

  1. SPICE modeling of memristors with multilevel resistance states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Xu-Dong; Tang Yu-Hua; Wu Jun-Jie

    2012-01-01

    With CMOS technologies approaching the scaling ceiling,novel memory technologies have thrived in recent years,among which the memristor is a rather promising candidate for future resistive memory (RRAM).Memristor's potential to store multiple bits of information as different resistance levels allows its application in multilevel cell (MCL) technology,which can significantly increase the memory capacity.However,most existing memristor models are built for binary or continuous memristance switching.In this paper,we propose the simulation program with integrated circuits emphasis (SPICE) modeling of charge-controlled and flux-controlled memristors with multilevel resistance states based on the memristance versus state map.In our model,the memristance switches abruptly between neighboring resistance states.The proposed model allows users to easily set the number of the resistance levels as parameters,and provides the predictability of resistance switching time if the input current/voltage waveform is given.The functionality of our models has been validated in HSPICE.The models can be used in multilevel RRAM modeling as well as in artificial neural network simulations.

  2. Hindcasting to measure ice sheet model sensitivity to initial states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aschwanden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Validation is a critical component of model development, yet notoriously challenging in ice sheet modeling. Here we evaluate how an ice sheet system model responds to a given forcing. We show that hindcasting, i.e. forcing a model with known or closely estimated inputs for past events to see how well the output matches observations, is a viable method of assessing model performance. By simulating the recent past of Greenland, and comparing to observations of ice thickness, ice discharge, surface speeds, mass loss and surface elevation changes for validation, we find that the short term model response is strongly influenced by the initial state. We show that the thermal and dynamical states (i.e. the distribution of internal energy and momentum can be misrepresented despite a good agreement with some observations, stressing the importance of using multiple observations. In particular we identify rates of change of spatially dense observations as preferred validation metrics. Hindcasting enables a qualitative assessment of model performance relative to observed rates of change. It thereby reduces the number of admissible initial states more rigorously than validation efforts that do not take advantage of observed rates of change.

  3. Reasons and Clearing of Electronically Controlled Engine Idling Fault%电控发动机怠速不良故障原因及排除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范梦吾

    2013-01-01

    Idle fault is one of the common failures in electronically controlled engine maintenance,it has a variety of forms including unstable idle,idle flameout,poor cold idle,hot cars idling fault and so on.The reasons that cause idling fault are often complicated.Nowadays,most cars have fault self-diagnosis system,but it often shows the normal code or displays fault-independent code when the car in bad conditions.Wrong diagnostic ideas will extend the repair time,reduce work efficiency.The paper based on the long-term practice,explored and summarized this kind of fault,analyzed the reasons that caused poor engine idle,and proposed recommendations about how to detect and clearing idling fault.%怠速不良是电控发动机维修中较为常见的故障之一,有多种表现形式,包括怠速不稳、怠速熄火以及冷车和热车怠速不良等.造成怠速不良的原因较多,常常是几种原因综合引起的.目前,尽管大多数的汽车都有故障自诊断系统;但也会出现汽车有故障时,自诊断系统却显示正常代码或显示与故障无关的代码的情况.如果诊断思路不正确,会延长修理时间,降低工作效率.本文基于长期的实践,对此类故障进行了摸索和总结,详细分析了导致发动机怠速不良的原因,并对如何检测和排除怠速故障提出了建议.

  4. STEADY-STATE MODEL OF SOLAR WIND ELECTRONS REVISITED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Choe, G. S., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-20

    In a recent paper, Kim et al. put forth a steady-state model for the solar wind electrons. The model assumed local equilibrium between the halo electrons, characterized by an intermediate energy range, and the whistler-range fluctuations. The basic wave–particle interaction is assumed to be the cyclotron resonance. Similarly, it was assumed that a dynamical steady state is established between the highly energetic superhalo electrons and high-frequency Langmuir fluctuations. Comparisons with the measured solar wind electron velocity distribution function (VDF) during quiet times were also made, and reasonable agreements were obtained. In such a model, however, only the steady-state solution for the Fokker–Planck type of electron particle kinetic equation was considered. The present paper complements the previous analysis by considering both the steady-state particle and wave kinetic equations. It is shown that the model halo and superhalo electron VDFs, as well as the assumed wave intensity spectra for the whistler and Langmuir fluctuations, approximately satisfy the quasi-linear wave kinetic equations in an approximate sense, thus further validating the local equilibrium model constructed in the paper by Kim et al.

  5. Nonequilibrium Steady States of a Stochastic Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiwei

    We study the nonequilibrium steady state of a stochastic lattice gas model, originally proposed by Katz, Lebowitz and Spohn (Phys. Rev. B 28: 1655 (1983)). Firstly, we solve the model on some small lattices exactly in order to see the general dependence of the steady state upon different parameters of the model. Nextly, we derive some analytical results for infinite lattice systems by taking some suitable limits. We then present some renormalization group results for the continuum version of the model via field theoretical techniques, the supersymmetry of the critical dynamics in zero field is also explored. Finally, we report some very recent 3-D Monte Carlo simulation results, which have been obtained by applying Multi-Spin-Coding techniques on a CDC vector supercomputer - Cyber 205 at John von Neumann Center.

  6. Classical electromagnetic model of surface states in topological insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2016-01-01

    A topological insulator is classically modeled as an isotropic dielectric-magnetic with a magnetoelectric pseudoscalar $\\Psi$ existing in its bulk while its surface is charge-free and current-free. An alternative model is obtained by setting $\\Psi\\equiv0$ and incorporating surface charge and current densities characterized by an admittance $\\gamma$. Analysis of plane-wave reflection and refraction due to a topological-insulator half space reveals that the parameters $\\Psi$ and $\\gamma$ arise identically in the reflection and transmission coefficients, implying that the two classical models cannot be distinguished on the basis of any scattering scenario. However, as $\\Psi$ disappears from the Maxwell equations applicable to any region occupied by the topological insulator, and because surface states exist on topological insulators as protected conducting states, the alternative model must be chosen.

  7. Classical electromagnetic model of surface states in topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Mackay, Tom G.

    2016-07-01

    A topological insulator is classically modeled as an isotropic material with a magnetoelectric pseudoscalar Ψ existing in its bulk while its surface is charge free and current free. An alternative model is obtained by setting Ψ≡0 and incorporating surface charge and current densities characterized by an admittance γ. Analysis of planewave reflection and refraction due to a topological-insulator half space reveals that the parameters Ψ and γ arise identically in the reflection and transmission coefficients, implying that the two classical models cannot be distinguished on the basis of any scattering scenario. However, as Ψ disappears from the Maxwell equations applicable to any region occupied by the topological insulator, and because surface states exist on topological insulators as protected conducting states, the alternative model must be chosen.

  8. Staggered Flux State in Two-Dimensional Hubbard Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hisatoshi; Tamura, Shun; Ogata, Masao

    2016-12-01

    The stability and other properties of a staggered flux (SF) state or a correlated d-density wave state are studied for the Hubbard (t-t'-U) model on extended square lattices, as a low-lying state that competes with the dx2 - y2-wave superconductivity (d-SC) and possibly causes the pseudogap phenomena in underdoped high-Tc cuprates and organic κ-BEDT-TTF salts. In calculations, a variational Monte Carlo method is used. In the trial wave function, a configuration-dependent phase factor, which is vital to treat a current-carrying state for a large U/t, is introduced in addition to ordinary correlation factors. Varying U/t, t'/t, and the doping rate (δ) systematically, we show that the SF state becomes more stable than the normal state (projected Fermi sea) for a strongly correlated (U/t ≳ 5) and underdoped (δ ≲ 0.16) area. The decrease in energy is sizable, particularly in the area where Mott physics prevails and the circular current (order parameter) is strongly suppressed. These features are consistent with those for the t-J model. The effect of the frustration t'/t plays a crucial role in preserving charge homogeneity and appropriately describing the behavior of hole- and electron-doped cuprates and κ-BEDT-TTF salts. We argue that the SF state does not coexist with d-SC and is not a "normal state" from which d-SC arises. We also show that a spin current (flux or nematic) state is never stabilized in the same regime.

  9. Values of decentralized systems that avoid investments in idle capacity within the wastewater sector: a theoretical justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng

    2014-04-01

    In this work, the values of decentralized (onsite) systems that avoid investments in idle capacity within wastewater plans are quantitatively justified using the specific net present value (SNPV) approach. SNPV is a currently proposed criterion in environmental engineering economics that is defined as the net present value of the cost per unit of service or per population equivalent (PE). The SNPV approach was reintroduced with bugs fixed and then applied to the economic analysis of the capital and operating costs of one-stage completed central plants, stage-expanded central plants, and decentralized treatment facilities. The results show that under a demand growth scenario, the central plant will inevitably reach idle capacity, which can be reduced by a staged expansion. However, the staged expansion plan will lose the economies of scale and, hence, is only viable under projections of a low or moderate price inflation rate or high demand growth rate. Onsite treatment systems can theoretically achieve 100% utilization. Assuming that the capital costs per PE of the onsite and central systems are equal, the former is economically favorable in most cases of price inflation as a result of its cost saving on idle capacity. Onsite treatment systems can be viable even though their capital expenditures per PE are higher than that of a comparable centralized option as to a capital investment. This finding suggests wide opening of onsite technology choices. Use of the SNPV showed that average operating expenses of centralized plants decrease as demand growth rates increase as a benefit of economies of scale, whereas those of onsite treatment systems depend only on price inflation. Semi-decentralized systems feature both the financial advantage of the onsite system (capital investment) and the superiority of centralized systems (operation and maintenance); thus, it is worth consideration. The results of this study illustrate not only the value of decentralized systems but

  10. Urban Configuration Analysis of ldle Land Market Based on Game Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jintao Ll; Yixue Ll; Yuling GONG; Zhanyong Ql; Lijing TANG

    2014-01-01

    ln recent years, the speed of urban development becomes faster and faster with expanding of land construction scale, and a lot of idle lands lead to seri-ous land waste. This paper builds game model by carrying out a market al ocation analysis and applying economic game theory to the analysis of current idle land problem; it gets six kinds of results through analyzing the game model of idle land market, and the final Nash equilibrium is (system innovation, publicly traded) through contrastive to help balance the game relationship between government and the user of idle land and raise some new scientific and rational institutions to serve as future references for effective usage of idle land.

  11. Nonequilibrium stationary states and phase transitions in directed Ising models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godrèche, Claude; Bray, Alan J.

    2009-12-01

    We study the nonequilibrium properties of directed Ising models with non-conserved dynamics, in which each spin is influenced by only a subset of its nearest neighbours. We treat the following models: (i) the one-dimensional chain; (ii) the two-dimensional square lattice; (iii) the two-dimensional triangular lattice and (iv) the three-dimensional cubic lattice. We raise and answer the question: (a) under what conditions is the stationary state described by the equilibrium Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution? We show that, for models (i), (ii) and (iii), in which each spin 'sees' only half of its neighbours, there is a unique set of transition rates, namely with exponential dependence in the local field, for which this is the case. For model (iv), we find that any rates satisfying the constraints required for the stationary measure to be Gibbsian should satisfy detailed balance, ruling out the possibility of directed dynamics. We finally show that directed models on lattices of coordination number z>=8 with exponential rates cannot accommodate a Gibbsian stationary state. We conjecture that this property extends to any form of the rates. We are thus led to the conclusion that directed models with Gibbsian stationary states only exist in dimensions one and two. We then raise the question: (b) do directed Ising models, augmented by Glauber dynamics, exhibit a phase transition to a ferromagnetic state? For the models considered above, the answers are open problems, with the exception of the simple cases (i) and (ii). For Cayley trees, where each spin sees only the spins further from the root, we show that there is a phase transition provided the branching ratio, q, satisfies q>=3.

  12. Lambda(1405) in the bound state soliton model

    CERN Document Server

    Schat, C L; Gobbi, C; Schat, C L; Scoccola, N N; Gobbi, C

    1994-01-01

    The strong and electromagnetic properties of the Lambda(1405) hyperon are studied in the framework of the bound state soliton model. We explicitly evaluate the strong coupling constant g(Lambda^*-N-K), the Lambda^* magnetic moment, mean square radii and radiative decay amplitudes. The results are shown to be in general agreement with available empirical data. A comparison with results of other models is also presented.

  13. Ising percolation in a three-state majority vote model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Martínez-Cruz, M. A.; Gayosso Martínez, Felipe; Mena, Baltasar; Tobon, Atalo; Patiño-Ortiz, Julián; Patiño-Ortiz, Miguel; Samayoa, Didier

    2017-02-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a three-state majority vote model in which each voter adopts a state of a majority of its active neighbors, if exist, but the voter becomes uncommitted if its active neighbors are in a tie, or all neighbors are the uncommitted. Numerical simulations were performed on square lattices of different linear size with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from a random distribution of active voters, the model leads to a stable non-consensus state in which three opinions coexist. We found that the "magnetization" of the non-consensus state and the concentration of uncommitted voters in it are governed by an initial composition of system and are independent of the lattice size. Furthermore, we found that a configuration of the stable non-consensus state undergoes a second order percolation transition at a critical concentration of voters holding the same opinion. Numerical simulations suggest that this transition belongs to the same universality class as the Ising percolation. These findings highlight the effect of an updating rule for a tie between voter neighbors on the critical behavior of models obeying the majority vote rule whenever a strict majority exists.

  14. Forecasting house prices in the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2015-01-01

    We examine house price forecastability across the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection, which allow for model change and parameter shifts. By allowing the entire forecasting model to change over time and across locations, the forecasting accuracy improves...

  15. Internal Behavioral Modeling of Embedded Systems through State Box Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chandra Prakash

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Clean Room Software Engineering (CRSE methodology is intended for the development of high quality systems. The methodology is centered on three structures which include Black Box (BB, State Box (SB and Clear Box (CB and it assures high quality through implementation of Verification and Validation models at every stage of development. The models, suggested earlier, are built using the Mathematics for implementing the formalism which is needed to assure high quality. The mathematical way of implementing the formalism has been proved to be complex, unwieldy and impracticable. The Verification and Validation methods suggested are classical and do not support formalism which is the key element of CRSE. In this paper, three UML models and the associated algorithms have been proposed that help developing state box structures in more formal way and also to automate the process of generating State Box Structures. The refined CRSE model incorporating the suggested models is also presented. The models are used to develop the internal behavior of a Pilot Project called “Temperature Monitoring and Controlling of Nuclear Reactor System” (TMCNRS which is an embedded system designed in more formal and automated way.

  16. SBWR Model for Steady-State and Transient Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Espinosa-Paredes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of a simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR to analyze the steady-state and transient behavior. The SBWR model is based on approximations of lumped and distributed parameters to consider neutronics and natural circulation processes. The main components of the model are vessel dome, downcomer, lower plenum, core (channel and fuel, upper plenum, pressure, and level controls. Further consideration of the model is the natural circulation path in the internal circuit of the reactor, which governs the safety performance of the SBWR. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, the predictions were compared with plant data, manufacturer_s predictions, and RELAP5 under steady-state and transient conditions of a typical BWR. In steady-state conditions, the profiles of the main variables of the SBWR core such as superficial velocity, void fraction, temperatures, and convective heat transfer coefficient are presented and analyzed. The transient behavior of SBWR was analyzed during the closure of all main steam line isolation valves (MSIVs. Our results in this transient show that the cooling system due to natural circulation in the SBWR is around 70% of the rated core flow. According to the results shown here, one of the main conclusions of this work is that the simplified model could be very helpful in the licensing process.

  17. An application of queuing theory to SIS and SEIS epidemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Suarez, Carlos M; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Lopez, Osval Montesinos; Hernandez-Cuevas, Karla

    2010-10-01

    In this work we consider every individual of a population to be a server whose state can be either busy (infected) or idle (susceptible). This server approach allows to consider a general distribution for the duration of the infectious state, instead of being restricted to exponential distributions. In order to achieve this we first derive new approximations to quasistationary distribution (QSD) of SIS (Susceptible- Infected- Susceptible) and SEIS (Susceptible- Latent- Infected- Susceptible) stochastic epidemic models. We give an expression that relates the basic reproductive number, R0 and the server utilization,p.

  18. Markov state model of the two-state behaviour of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Peter

    2016-10-01

    With the help of a Markov State Model (MSM), two-state behaviour is resolved for two computer models of water in a temperature range from 255 K to room temperature (295 K). The method is first validated for ST2 water, for which the so far strongest evidence for a liquid-liquid phase transition exists. In that case, the results from the MSM can be cross-checked against the radial distribution function g5(r) of the 5th-closest water molecule around a given reference water molecule. The latter is a commonly used local order parameter, which exhibits a bimodal distribution just above the liquid-liquid critical point that represents the low-density form of the liquid (LDL) and the high density liquid. The correlation times and correlation lengths of the corresponding spatial domains are calculated and it is shown that they are connected via a simple diffusion model. Once the approach is established, TIP4P/2005 will be considered, which is the much more realistic representation of real water. The MSM can resolve two-state behavior also in that case, albeit with significantly smaller correlation times and lengths. The population of LDL-like water increases with decreasing temperature, thereby explaining the density maximum at 4 °C along the lines of the two-state model of water.

  19. Regimes, Non-State Actors and the State System: A 'Structurational' Regime Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, B.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Regime analysis has become a popular approach in International Relations theory and in international policy studies. However, current regime models exhibit some shortcomings with regard to (1) addressing non-state actors, and in particular nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), (2) the balancing of

  20. Regimes, Non-State Actors and the State System: A 'Structurational' Regime Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, B.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Regime analysis has become a popular approach in International Relations theory and in international policy studies. However, current regime models exhibit some shortcomings with regard to (1) addressing non-state actors, and in particular nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), (2) the balancing of a

  1. Fast Filtering and Smoothing for Multivariate State Space Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.M.; Durbin, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives a new approach to diffuse filtering and smoothing for multivariate state space models. The standard approach treats the observations as vectors while our approach treats each element of the observational vector individually. This strategy leads to computationally efficient methods f

  2. Molecular Modeling and Computational Chemistry at Humboldt State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paselk, Richard A.; Zoellner, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a molecular modeling and computational chemistry (MM&CC) facility for undergraduate instruction and research at Humboldt State University. This facility complex allows the introduction of MM&CC throughout the chemistry curriculum with tailored experiments in general, organic, and inorganic courses as well as a new molecular modeling…

  3. Forward models and state estimation in compensatory eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten A Frens

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The compensatory eye movement system maintains a stable retinal image, integrating information from different sensory modalities to compensate for head movements. Inspired by recent models of physiology of limb movements, we suggest that compensatory eye movements (CEM can be modeled as a control system with three essential building blocks: a forward model that predicts the effects of motor commands; a state estimator that integrates sensory feedback into this prediction; and, a feedback controller that translates a state estimate into motor commands. We propose a specific mapping of nuclei within the CEM system onto these control functions. Specifically, we suggest that the Flocculus is responsible for generating the forward model prediction and that the Vestibular Nuclei integrate sensory feedback to generate an estimate of current state. Finally, the brainstem motor nuclei – in the case of horizontal compensation this means the Abducens Nucleus and the Nucleus Prepositus Hypoglossi – implement a feedback controller, translating state into motor commands. While these efforts to understand the physiological control system as a feedback control system are in their infancy, there is the intriguing possibility that compensatory eye movements and targeted voluntary movements use the same cerebellar circuitry in fundamentally different ways.

  4. Estimation of pump operational state with model-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, Tero; Tamminen, Jussi; Ahola, Jero; Viholainen, Juha; Aranto, Niina [Institute of Energy Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Kestilae, Juha [ABB Drives, P.O. Box 184, FI-00381 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-06-15

    Pumps are widely used in industry, and they account for 20% of the industrial electricity consumption. Since the speed variation is often the most energy-efficient method to control the head and flow rate of a centrifugal pump, frequency converters are used with induction motor-driven pumps. Although a frequency converter can estimate the operational state of an induction motor without external measurements, the state of a centrifugal pump or other load machine is not typically considered. The pump is, however, usually controlled on the basis of the required flow rate or output pressure. As the pump operational state can be estimated with a general model having adjustable parameters, external flow rate or pressure measurements are not necessary to determine the pump flow rate or output pressure. Hence, external measurements could be replaced with an adjustable model for the pump that uses estimates of the motor operational state. Besides control purposes, modelling the pump operation can provide useful information for energy auditing and optimization purposes. In this paper, two model-based methods for pump operation estimation are presented. Factors affecting the accuracy of the estimation methods are analyzed. The applicability of the methods is verified by laboratory measurements and tests in two pilot installations. Test results indicate that the estimation methods can be applied to the analysis and control of pump operation. The accuracy of the methods is sufficient for auditing purposes, and the methods can inform the user if the pump is driven inefficiently. (author)

  5. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  6. General Quantum State Swap: an XY model analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ben-Qiong; Shao, Bin; Zou, Jian

    2011-01-01

    We consider an exact state swap, defined as the swap between two quantum states |A> and |B> in the Hilbert space of a quantum system. We show that, given an arbitrary Hamiltonian dynamics, there is a straightforward approach to calculating the probability of the occurrence of an exact state swap, by employing an exchange operator P_{AB}. For a given dynamics, the feasibilities of proposed quantum setups, such as quantum state amplifications and transfers can be evaluated. These setups are only distinguished by different forms of P_{AB}, which easily lead to innovative designs of quantum setups or devices. We illustrate the method with the isotropic XY model, whose unnoticed features are revealed.

  7. Dimensional reduction of Markov state models from renormalization group theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orioli, S.; Faccioli, P.

    2016-09-01

    Renormalization Group (RG) theory provides the theoretical framework to define rigorous effective theories, i.e., systematic low-resolution approximations of arbitrary microscopic models. Markov state models are shown to be rigorous effective theories for Molecular Dynamics (MD). Based on this fact, we use real space RG to vary the resolution of the stochastic model and define an algorithm for clustering microstates into macrostates. The result is a lower dimensional stochastic model which, by construction, provides the optimal coarse-grained Markovian representation of the system's relaxation kinetics. To illustrate and validate our theory, we analyze a number of test systems of increasing complexity, ranging from synthetic toy models to two realistic applications, built form all-atom MD simulations. The computational cost of computing the low-dimensional model remains affordable on a desktop computer even for thousands of microstates.

  8. Dimensional reduction of Markov state models from renormalization group theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orioli, S; Faccioli, P

    2016-09-28

    Renormalization Group (RG) theory provides the theoretical framework to define rigorous effective theories, i.e., systematic low-resolution approximations of arbitrary microscopic models. Markov state models are shown to be rigorous effective theories for Molecular Dynamics (MD). Based on this fact, we use real space RG to vary the resolution of the stochastic model and define an algorithm for clustering microstates into macrostates. The result is a lower dimensional stochastic model which, by construction, provides the optimal coarse-grained Markovian representation of the system's relaxation kinetics. To illustrate and validate our theory, we analyze a number of test systems of increasing complexity, ranging from synthetic toy models to two realistic applications, built form all-atom MD simulations. The computational cost of computing the low-dimensional model remains affordable on a desktop computer even for thousands of microstates.

  9. Arquitectura para balancear carga dinámica por demanda adaptativa, utilizando CORBA en JAVA-IDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Chávez Esparza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo desglosaremos la elaboración de una nueva Arquitectura para balancear carga dinámica, por demanda adaptativa, utilizando CORBA en JAVA-IDL. Una arquitectura de balanceo de carga es un sistema que permite distribuir el trabajo computacional entre varias máquinas, con el objetivo de reducir el tiempo de respuesta global del sistema. A través de las pruebas se justifica el uso de la arquitectura y se definen los parámetros a considerar para obtener un óptimo desempeño, refiriéndose al número de réplicas, al tipo de requerimiento y la estrategia de balanceo.

  10. Vortex ring state by full-field actuator disc model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, J.N.; Shen, W.Z.; Munduate, X. [DTU, Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    One-dimensional momentum theory provides a simple analytical tool for analysing the gross flow behavior of lifting propellers and rotors. Combined with a blade-element strip-theory approach, it has for many years been the most popular model for load and performance predictions of wind turbines. The model works well at moderate and high wind velocities, but is not reliable at small wind velocities, where the expansion of the wake is large and the flow field behind the rotor dominated by turbulent mixing. This is normally referred to as the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state. In the vortex ring state, momentum theory predicts a decrease of thrust whereas the opposite is found from experiments. The reason for the disagreement is that recirculation takes place behind the rotor with the consequence that the stream tubes past the rotor becomes effectively chocked. This represents a condition at which streamlines no longer carry fluid elements from far upstream to far downstream, hence one-dimensional momentum theory is invalid and empirical corrections have to be introduced. More sophisticated analytical or semi-analytical rotor models have been used to describe stationary flow fields for heavily loaded propellers. In recent years generalized actuator disc models have been developed, but up to now no detailed computations of the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state have been performed. In the present work the phenomenon is simulated by direct simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, where the influence of the rotor on the flow field is modelled simply by replacing the blades by an actuator disc with a constant normal load. (EG) 13 refs.

  11. Protective Bystander Effects Simulated with the State-Vector Model

    OpenAIRE

    Schöllnberger, Helmut; Peter M. Eckl

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis induced in non-hit bystander cells is an important biological mechanism which operates after exposure to low doses of low-LET radiation. This process was implemented into a deterministic multistage model for in vitro neoplastic transformation: the State-Vector Model (SVM). The new model is tested on two data sets that show a reduction of the transformation frequency below the spontaneous level after exposure of the human hybrid cell line CGL1 to low doses of γ-radiation. Stronger pr...

  12. Steady-state models of glucose-perturbed Dictyostelium discoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, B.E.; Reimers, J.M.

    1988-10-15

    Young sorocarps of Dictyostelium discoideum were incubated in the presence of 50 mM (/sup 14/C)glucose, and nine metabolites were isolated over a period of 60 min to determine their specific radioactivity. The program TFLUX was used to construct models consisting of 17 metabolite pools and 40 reactions (excluding external pools). Net glucose uptake was 10% or less in the two experiments chosen for extensive analysis, and a single steady-state model was adequate to describe the data in both cases. Despite differences in metabolite levels, flux, and labeling kinetics, the models of glucose-perturbed metabolism confirm earlier conclusions regarding metabolic compartments.

  13. Information Sharing In Shipbuilding based on the Product State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    The paper provides a review of product modelling technologies and the overall architecture for the Product State Model (PSM) environment as a basis for how dynamically updated product data can improve control of production activities. Especially, the paper focuses on the circumstances prevailing...... in a one-of-a-kind manufacturing environment like the shipbuilding industry, where product modelling technologies already have proved their worth in the design and engineering phases of shipbuilding and in the operation phase. However, the handling of product information on the shop floor is not yet...

  14. Three-state herding model of the financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononovicius, A.; Gontis, V.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a Markov jump process with the three-state herding interaction. We see our approach as an agent-based model for the financial markets. Under certain assumptions this agent-based model can be related to the stochastic description exhibiting sophisticated statistical features. Along with power-law probability density function of the absolute returns we are able to reproduce the fractured power spectral density, which is observed in the high-frequency financial market data. The given example of consistent agent-based and stochastic modeling will provide a background for further developments in the research of complex social systems.

  15. New business models for state companies in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanţău Adrian D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature business models are defined as architecture of the value creation, profit formula, key processes and key resources. For the oil industry there is a need to develop new business models that have to describe the specificity of this industry and to take into consideration the new objectives after the global oil crisis. Although crude oil price has dropped dramatically since second quarter 2014, OPEC raised crude output to the its highest value in more than three years as it pressed on with a strategy to protect market share and pressure competing producers. The objective of this article is to identify and promote new business models for state companies in the oil industry. The research methodology is based on case studies that present and analyze the business models in two of the main oil producers Iran and Iraq, where the state companies are playing an important role in this industry. The subject is relevant because the business models for state companies in the oil industry have to be modified after the oil crisis and these are not real analysed in the scientific literature. Furthermore, the aspects discussed in the current article represent the main factors that will influence investment prospects of companies in the field in the next decade.

  16. The S-state model: a work horse for HRTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geuens, P.; Dyck, D. van

    2002-12-15

    The S-state model describes the dynamical scattering of electrons in a specimen foil, consisting of atom columns parallel to the beam direction, such as a crystal or a particular crystal defect. In this model the electrons are considered to be trapped in the electrostatic potential of an atom column, in which it scatters dynamically. This picture allows physical insight, and it explains why a one-to-one correspondence is maintained between the exit wave and the projected structure, even in case of strong dynamical scattering. Furthermore the model can be parameterised in a simple closed analytical form. Apart from the computational advantages, the S-state model proves to be very useful to deduce the projected structure directly from the exit wave, so as to 'invert' the dynamical scattering. In this paper the validity of the S-state model, is evaluated in much depth by a proper quantum mechanical treatment. The analytical parameterisation of the 1S eigenfunction and eigenenergy is discussed. It is shown that the method, even in case of small tilts, is valid for most thicknesses, currently used in HRTEM studies. Even for closely spaced atom columns, such as the dumbbells in Si [1 1 0], Sn [1 1 0] and GaN [1 1 0], the positions of the atom columns can be deduced with an accuracy of a few pm.

  17. Energy modeling. Volume 2: Inventory and details of state energy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, A. G.; Underwood, R. G.; Weber, J. C.; Gist, R. L.; Holman, R. P.; Donald, D. W.

    1981-05-01

    An inventory of energy models developed by or for state governments is presented, and certain models are discussed in depth. These models address a variety of purposes such as: supply or demand of energy or of certain types of energy; emergency management of energy; and energy economics. Ten models are described. The purpose, use, and history of the model is discussed, and information is given on the outputs, inputs, and mathematical structure of the model. The models include five models dealing with energy demand, one of which is econometric and four of which are econometric-engineering end-use models.

  18. Inequivalent models of irreversible dimer filling: ``Transition state'' dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, R. S.; Evans, J. W.

    1990-12-01

    Irreversible adsorption of diatomics on crystalline surfaces is sometimes modeled as random dimer filling of adjacent pairs of sites on a lattice. We note that this process can be implemented in two distinct ways: (i) randomly pick adjacent pairs of sites, jj', and fill jj' only if both are empty (horizontal transition state); or (ii) randomly pick a single site, j, and if j and at least one neighbor are empty, then fill j and a randomly chosen empty neighbor (vertical transition state). Here it is instructive to consider processes which also include competitive random monomer filling of single sites. We find that although saturation (partial) coverages differ little between the models for pure dimer filling, there is a significant difference for comparable monomer and dimer filling rates. We present exact results for saturation coverage behavior for a linear lattice, and estimates for a square lattice. Ramifications for simple models of CO oxidation on surfaces are indicated.

  19. 3-state Hamiltonians associated to solvable 33-vertex models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampé, N.; Frappat, L.; Ragoucy, E.; Vanicat, M.

    2016-09-01

    Using the nested coordinate Bethe ansatz, we study 3-state Hamiltonians with 33 non-vanishing entries, or 33-vertex models, where only one global charge with degenerate eigenvalues exists and each site possesses three internal degrees of freedom. In the context of Markovian processes, they correspond to diffusing particles with two possible internal states which may be exchanged during the diffusion (transmutation). The first step of the nested coordinate Bethe ansatz is performed providing the eigenvalues in terms of rapidities. We give the constraints ensuring the consistency of the computations. These rapidities also satisfy Bethe equations involving 4 × 4 R-matrices, solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation which implies new constraints on the models. We solve them allowing us to list all the solvable 33-vertex models.

  20. Using Markov State Models to Study Self-Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Perkett, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Markov state models (MSMs) have been demonstrated to be a powerful method for computationally studying intramolecular processes such as protein folding and macromolecular conformational changes. In this article, we present a new approach to construct MSMs that is applicable to modeling a broad class of multi-molecular assembly reactions. Distinct structures formed during assembly are distinguished by their undirected graphs, which are defined by strong subunit interactions. Spatial inhomogeneities of free subunits are accounted for using a recently developed Gaussian-based signature. Simplifications to this state identification are also investigated. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on two different coarse-grained models for virus self-assembly. We find good agreement between the dynamics predicted by the MSMs and long, unbiased simulations, and that the MSMs can reduce overall simulation time by orders of magnitude.

  1. 78 FR 11751 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Kansas; Idle Reduction of Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... Development Branch, 11201 Renner Boulevard, Lenexa, Kansas 66219. The Regional Office's official hours of... subject to the rules may allow or permit NO X to be emitted in excess of specified emission limits. The... the Kansas City Board of Public Utilities (BPU) power generating facilities located in Wyandotte...

  2. Asymptotic state behaviour and its modeling for saturated sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new double hardening elasto-plastic model is proposed in this paper based on the existing unified hardening model (UH model). By assuming that there is part coupling effect between the plastic volumetric strain and plastic shear strain, hardening parameters consisting of a coupled and an uncoupled components are adopted in this model. A unique feature of this model is that it can describe not only the conventional drained and undrained behaviors of soil, but also the stress-strain relationships of soil under partially drained conditions which can be volumetric compression or dilation. Adopting the asymptotic state concept, simple equations for estimating the limiting stress ratio under undrained or earth pressure at rest (i.e. K0) conditions are derived. The new model is relatively simple to be adopted in practice for two reasons. First, the same soil parameters as in Cam-clay model are used except the addition of one extra parameter, the stress ratio at the characteristic state. Second, all the parameters can be determined using conventional triaxial compression tests.

  3. State-time spectrum of signal transduction logic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Aidan; Terfve, Camille; Henriques, David; Peñalver Bernabé, Beatriz; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2012-08-01

    Despite the current wealth of high-throughput data, our understanding of signal transduction is still incomplete. Mathematical modeling can be a tool to gain an insight into such processes. Detailed biochemical modeling provides deep understanding, but does not scale well above relatively a few proteins. In contrast, logic modeling can be used where the biochemical knowledge of the system is sparse and, because it is parameter free (or, at most, uses relatively a few parameters), it scales well to large networks that can be derived by manual curation or retrieved from public databases. Here, we present an overview of logic modeling formalisms in the context of training logic models to data, and specifically the different approaches to modeling qualitative to quantitative data (state) and dynamics (time) of signal transduction. We use a toy model of signal transduction to illustrate how different logic formalisms (Boolean, fuzzy logic and differential equations) treat state and time. Different formalisms allow for different features of the data to be captured, at the cost of extra requirements in terms of computational power and data quality and quantity. Through this demonstration, the assumptions behind each formalism are discussed, as well as their advantages and disadvantages and possible future developments.

  4. MODELING THE DEMAND FOR E85 IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    How demand for E85 might evolve in the future in response to changing economics and policies is an important subject to include in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This report summarizes a study to develop an E85 choice model for NEMS. Using the most recent data from the states of Minnesota, North Dakota, and Iowa, this study estimates a logit model that represents E85 choice as a function of prices of E10 and E85, as well as fuel availability of E85 relative to gasoline. Using more recent data than previous studies allows a better estimation of non-fleet demand and indicates that the price elasticity of E85 choice appears to be higher than previously estimated. Based on the results of the econometric analysis, a model for projecting E85 demand at the regional level is specified. In testing, the model produced plausible predictions of US E85 demand to 2040.

  5. State space modeling of Memristor-based Wien oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2011-12-01

    State space modeling of Memristor based Wien \\'A\\' oscillator has been demonstrated for the first time considering nonlinear ion drift in Memristor. Time dependant oscillating resistance of Memristor is reported in both state space solution and SPICE simulation which plausibly provide the basis of realizing parametric oscillation by Memristor based Wien oscillator. In addition to this part Memristor is shown to stabilize the final oscillation amplitude by means of its nonlinear dynamic resistance which hints for eliminating diode in the feedback network of conventional Wien oscillator. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Ground states of the SU(N) Heisenberg model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Naoki; Tanabe, Yuta

    2007-02-02

    The SU(N) Heisenberg model with various single-row representations is investigated by quantum Monte Carlo simulations. While the zero-temperature phase boundary agrees qualitatively with the theoretical predictions based on the 1/N expansion, some unexpected features are also observed. For N> or =5 with the fundamental representation, for example, it is suggested that the ground states possess exact or approximate U(1) degeneracy. In addition, for the representation of Young tableau with more than one column, the ground state shows no valence-bond-solid order even at N greater than the threshold value.

  7. Modeling the dynamics of disease states in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demic, Selver; Cheng, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and costly disorder associated with considerable morbidity, disability, and risk for suicide. The disorder is clinically and etiologically heterogeneous. Despite intense research efforts, the response rates of antidepressant treatments are relatively low and the etiology and progression of MDD remain poorly understood. Here we use computational modeling to advance our understanding of MDD. First, we propose a systematic and comprehensive definition of disease states, which is based on a type of mathematical model called a finite-state machine. Second, we propose a dynamical systems model for the progression, or dynamics, of MDD. The model is abstract and combines several major factors (mechanisms) that influence the dynamics of MDD. We study under what conditions the model can account for the occurrence and recurrence of depressive episodes and how we can model the effects of antidepressant treatments and cognitive behavioral therapy within the same dynamical systems model through changing a small subset of parameters. Our computational modeling suggests several predictions about MDD. Patients who suffer from depression can be divided into two sub-populations: a high-risk sub-population that has a high risk of developing chronic depression and a low-risk sub-population, in which patients develop depression stochastically with low probability. The success of antidepressant treatment is stochastic, leading to widely different times-to-remission in otherwise identical patients. While the specific details of our model might be subjected to criticism and revisions, our approach shows the potential power of computationally modeling depression and the need for different type of quantitative data for understanding depression.

  8. Modeling the dynamics of disease states in depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selver Demic

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a common and costly disorder associated with considerable morbidity, disability, and risk for suicide. The disorder is clinically and etiologically heterogeneous. Despite intense research efforts, the response rates of antidepressant treatments are relatively low and the etiology and progression of MDD remain poorly understood. Here we use computational modeling to advance our understanding of MDD. First, we propose a systematic and comprehensive definition of disease states, which is based on a type of mathematical model called a finite-state machine. Second, we propose a dynamical systems model for the progression, or dynamics, of MDD. The model is abstract and combines several major factors (mechanisms that influence the dynamics of MDD. We study under what conditions the model can account for the occurrence and recurrence of depressive episodes and how we can model the effects of antidepressant treatments and cognitive behavioral therapy within the same dynamical systems model through changing a small subset of parameters. Our computational modeling suggests several predictions about MDD. Patients who suffer from depression can be divided into two sub-populations: a high-risk sub-population that has a high risk of developing chronic depression and a low-risk sub-population, in which patients develop depression stochastically with low probability. The success of antidepressant treatment is stochastic, leading to widely different times-to-remission in otherwise identical patients. While the specific details of our model might be subjected to criticism and revisions, our approach shows the potential power of computationally modeling depression and the need for different type of quantitative data for understanding depression.

  9. Reduced M(atrix) theory models: ground state solutions

    CERN Document Server

    López, J L

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to find exact ground state solutions to reduced models of the SU($N$) invariant matrix model arising from the quantization of the 11-dimensional supermembrane action in the light-cone gauge. We illustrate the method by applying it to lower dimensional toy models and for the SU(2) group. This approach could, in principle, be used to find ground state solutions to the complete 9-dimensional model and for any SU($N$) group. The Hamiltonian, the supercharges and the constraints related to the SU($2$) symmetry are built from operators that generate a multicomponent spinorial wave function. The procedure is based on representing the fermionic degrees of freedom by means of Dirac-like gamma matrices, as was already done in the first proposal of supersymmetric (SUSY) quantum cosmology. We exhibit a relation between these finite $N$ matrix theory ground state solutions and SUSY quantum cosmology wave functions giving a possible physical significance of the theory even for finite $N$.

  10. Cavitation modeling for steady-state CFD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanimann, L.; Mangani, L.; Casartelli, E.; Widmer, M.

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation in hydraulic turbomachines is an important phenomenon to be considered for performance predictions. Correct analysis of the cavitation onset and its effect on the flow field while diminishing the pressure level need therefore to be investigated. Even if cavitation often appears as an unsteady phenomenon, the capability to compute it in a steady state formulation for the design and assessment phase in the product development process is very useful for the engineer. In the present paper the development and corresponding application of a steady state CFD solver is presented, based on the open source toolbox OpenFOAM®. In the first part a review of different cavitation models is presented. Adopting the mixture-type cavitation approach, various models are investigated and developed in a steady state CFD RANS solver. Particular attention is given to the coupling between cavitation and turbulence models as well as on the underlying numerical procedure, especially the integration in the pressure- correction step of pressure-based solvers, which plays an important role in the stability of the procedure. The performance of the proposed model is initially assessed on simple cases available in the open literature. In a second step results for different applications are presented, ranging from airfoils to pumps.

  11. SWEDEN AND TURKEY: TWO MODELS OF WELFARE STATE IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea - Emanuela Dragoi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes two models of economic development: Sweden and Turkey. The main objective of this analysis is to highlight in which way two countries with different development strategies, economic geography, mentality and culture have managed to maintain growth before and during the global economic crisis, becoming gradually genuine models of welfare state. The analysis undertaken in this paper is, consequently, divided into two parts. The first shows the Swedish model of welfare state, that was an inspirational one in the ’70 and ’80, and its specific strengths and vulnerabilities. The second part summarizes Turkey's economic development over the past decade,emphasizing comparative advantages that have made it the 16th largest economy of the world and its strategy in terms of managing the international economic crisis. The final part of our comparative approach aims to respond to the following question: may those two economic models be considered proper economic lessons for the other states that are confronted with economic vulnerabilities?

  12. Modeling of cortical signals using echo state networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hanying; Wang, Yongji; Huang, Jiangshuai

    2009-10-01

    Diverse modeling frameworks have been utilized with the ultimate goal of translating brain cortical signals into prediction of visible behavior. The inputs to these models are usually multidimensional neural recordings collected from relevant regions of a monkey's brain while the outputs are the associated behavior which is typically the 2-D or 3-D hand position of a primate. Here our task is to set up a proper model in order to figure out the move trajectories by input the neural signals which are simultaneously collected in the experiment. In this paper, we propose to use Echo State Networks (ESN) to map the neural firing activities into hand positions. ESN is a newly developed recurrent neural network(RNN) model. Besides its dynamic property and short term memory just as other recurrent neural networks have, it has a special echo state property which endows it with the ability to model nonlinear dynamic systems powerfully. What distinguished it from transitional recurrent neural networks most significantly is its special learning method. In this paper we train this net with a refined version of its typical training method and get a better model.

  13. Nonequilibrium Steady States in Models of Prebiotic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, J. W.; Wynveen, A.

    2014-12-01

    We report computational results from a model for prebiotic evolution.The model is schematic, but contains a correct description of thebasic statistical problem associated with understanding how the initiation of life can occur given the strong entropic barriers (sometimesknown as 'Eigen's paradox' and appearing in experiments as the 'tar problem'). The model is similar to one of the modelsintroduced years ago by Kauffman and coworkers. The important innovationwhich we introduce is imposition of the requirement that, to qualifyas a lifelike dynamical chemical system, the system must not be inchemical equilibrium. That constraint turns out to have major qualitativeeffects on the conclusions. In particular, very sparse chemical networksturn out to be the most favorable ones for generating autocatalyticnonequilibrium states. This suggests qualitatively that deserts might bebetter than ponds for initiating life. Some details of the models andsimulations will be described, including recent results in which weintroduce spatial diffusion and a proxy for temperature into the description ofthe model chemistry. Results on growth rates, convergence and theoverall probability of generation of lifelike states as a function ofparameters of the chemical network model will be presented.

  14. Vibrational exciton-mediated quantum state transfert: a simple model

    CERN Document Server

    Pouthier, Vincent J C

    2012-01-01

    A communication protocol is proposed in which quantum state transfer is mediated by a vibrational exciton. We consider two distant molecular groups grafted on the sides of a lattice. These groups behave as two quantum computers where the information in encoded and received. The lattice plays the role of a communication channel along which the exciton propagates and interacts with a phonon bath. Special attention is paid for describing the system involving an exciton dressed by a single phonon mode. The Hamiltonian is thus solved exactly so that the relevance of the perturbation theory is checked. Within the nonadiabatic weak-coupling limit, it is shown that the system supports three quasi-degenerate states that define the relevant paths followed by the exciton to tunnel between the computers. When the model parameters are judiciously chosen, constructive interferences take place between these paths. Phonon-induced decoherence is minimized and a high-fidelity quantum state transfer occurs over a broad temperat...

  15. Markov State Models for Rare Events in Molecular Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sarich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare, but important, transition events between long-lived states are a key feature of many molecular systems. In many cases, the computation of rare event statistics by direct molecular dynamics (MD simulations is infeasible, even on the most powerful computers, because of the immensely long simulation timescales needed. Recently, a technique for spatial discretization of the molecular state space designed to help overcome such problems, so-called Markov State Models (MSMs, has attracted a lot of attention. We review the theoretical background and algorithmic realization of MSMs and illustrate their use by some numerical examples. Furthermore, we introduce a novel approach to using MSMs for the efficient solution of optimal control problems that appear in applications where one desires to optimize molecular properties by means of external controls.

  16. A Bayesian state-space formulation of dynamic occupancy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J Andrew; Kéry, Marc

    2007-07-01

    Species occurrence and its dynamic components, extinction and colonization probabilities, are focal quantities in biogeography and metapopulation biology, and for species conservation assessments. It has been increasingly appreciated that these parameters must be estimated separately from detection probability to avoid the biases induced by non-detection error. Hence, there is now considerable theoretical and practical interest in dynamic occupancy models that contain explicit representations of metapopulation dynamics such as extinction, colonization, and turnover as well as growth rates. We describe a hierarchical parameterization of these models that is analogous to the state-space formulation of models in time series, where the model is represented by two components, one for the partially observable occupancy process and another for the observations conditional on that process. This parameterization naturally allows estimation of all parameters of the conventional approach to occupancy models, but in addition, yields great flexibility and extensibility, e.g., to modeling heterogeneity or latent structure in model parameters. We also highlight the important distinction between population and finite sample inference; the latter yields much more precise estimates for the particular sample at hand. Finite sample estimates can easily be obtained using the state-space representation of the model but are difficult to obtain under the conventional approach of likelihood-based estimation. We use R and WinBUGS to apply the model to two examples. In a standard analysis for the European Crossbill in a large Swiss monitoring program, we fit a model with year-specific parameters. Estimates of the dynamic parameters varied greatly among years, highlighting the irruptive population dynamics of that species. In the second example, we analyze route occupancy of Cerulean Warblers in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) using a model allowing for site

  17. A Bayesian state-space formulation of dynamic occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Kery, M.

    2007-01-01

    Species occurrence and its dynamic components, extinction and colonization probabilities, are focal quantities in biogeography and metapopulation biology, and for species conservation assessments. It has been increasingly appreciated that these parameters must be estimated separately from detection probability to avoid the biases induced by nondetection error. Hence, there is now considerable theoretical and practical interest in dynamic occupancy models that contain explicit representations of metapopulation dynamics such as extinction, colonization, and turnover as well as growth rates. We describe a hierarchical parameterization of these models that is analogous to the state-space formulation of models in time series, where the model is represented by two components, one for the partially observable occupancy process and another for the observations conditional on that process. This parameterization naturally allows estimation of all parameters of the conventional approach to occupancy models, but in addition, yields great flexibility and extensibility, e.g., to modeling heterogeneity or latent structure in model parameters. We also highlight the important distinction between population and finite sample inference; the latter yields much more precise estimates for the particular sample at hand. Finite sample estimates can easily be obtained using the state-space representation of the model but are difficult to obtain under the conventional approach of likelihood-based estimation. We use R and Win BUGS to apply the model to two examples. In a standard analysis for the European Crossbill in a large Swiss monitoring program, we fit a model with year-specific parameters. Estimates of the dynamic parameters varied greatly among years, highlighting the irruptive population dynamics of that species. In the second example, we analyze route occupancy of Cerulean Warblers in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) using a model allowing for site

  18. The Z3 model with the density of states method

    CERN Document Server

    Mercado, Ydalia Delgado; Gattringer, Christof

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we apply a new variant of the density of states method to the Z3 spin model at finite density. We use restricted expectation values evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and study their dependence on a control parameter lambda. We show that a sequence of one-parameter fits to the Monte-Carlo data as a function of lambda is sufficient to completely determine the density of states. We expect that this method has smaller statistical errors than other approaches since all generated Monte Carlo data are used in the determination of the density. We compare results for magnetization and susceptibility to a reference simulation in the dual representation of the Z3 spin model and find good agreement for a wide range of parameters.

  19. Latent state-space models for neural decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghagolzadeh, Mehdi; Truccolo, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Ensembles of single-neurons in motor cortex can show strong low-dimensional collective dynamics. In this study, we explore an approach where neural decoding is applied to estimated low-dimensional dynamics instead of to the full recorded neuronal population. A latent state-space model (SSM) approach is used to estimate the low-dimensional neural dynamics from the measured spiking activity in population of neurons. A second state-space model representation is then used to decode kinematics, via a Kalman filter, from the estimated low-dimensional dynamics. The latent SSM-based decoding approach is illustrated on neuronal activity recorded from primary motor cortex in a monkey performing naturalistic 3-D reach and grasp movements. Our analysis show that 3-D reach decoding performance based on estimated low-dimensional dynamics is comparable to the decoding performance based on the full recorded neuronal population.

  20. Approximating the XY model on a random graph with a q -state clock model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Cosimo; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2017-02-01

    Numerical simulations of spin glass models with continuous variables set the problem of a reliable but efficient discretization of such variables. In particular, the main question is how fast physical observables computed in the discretized model converge toward the ones of the continuous model when the number of states of the discretized model increases. We answer this question for the XY model and its discretization, the q -state clock model, in the mean-field setting provided by random graphs. It is found that the convergence of physical observables is exponentially fast in the number q of states of the clock model, so allowing a very reliable approximation of the XY model by using a rather small number of states. Furthermore, such an exponential convergence is found to be independent from the disorder distribution used. Only at T =0 , the convergence is slightly slower (stretched exponential). Thanks to the analytical solution to the q -state clock model, we compute accurate phase diagrams in the temperature versus disorder strength plane. We find that, at zero temperature, spontaneous replica symmetry breaking takes place for any amount of disorder, even an infinitesimal one. We also study the one step of replica symmetry breaking (1RSB) solution in the low-temperature spin glass phase.

  1. Fermion Coherent State Studies of One-Dimensional Hubbard Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Ji; GAO Xian-Long; WANG Ke-Lin

    2007-01-01

    We present a comparative study of the ground state of the one-dimensional Hubbard model. We first use a new fermion coherent state method in the framework of Fermi liquid theory by introducing a hole operator and considering the interactions of two pairs electrons and holes. We construct the ground state of the Hubbard model as |〉 = [f + ∑′ψc+k1σ1 h+k2σ2 c+k3σ3 h+k4σ4 ∏exp(ρc+k1σ1 h+k2σ2)] [〉0, where ψ and ρ are the coupling constants. Our results are then compared to those of variational methods, density functional theory based on the exact solvable Bethe ansatz solutions, variational Monto-Carlo method (VMC) as well as to the exact result of the infinite system. We find satisfactory agreement between the fermion coherent state scheme and the VMC data, and provide a new picture to deal with the strongly correlated system.

  2. Spatial Bayesian hierarchical modelling of extreme sea states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Colm; O'Sullivan, John; Sweeney, Conor; Dias, Frédéric; Parnell, Andrew C.

    2016-11-01

    A Bayesian hierarchical framework is used to model extreme sea states, incorporating a latent spatial process to more effectively capture the spatial variation of the extremes. The model is applied to a 34-year hindcast of significant wave height off the west coast of Ireland. The generalised Pareto distribution is fitted to declustered peaks over a threshold given by the 99.8th percentile of the data. Return levels of significant wave height are computed and compared against those from a model based on the commonly-used maximum likelihood inference method. The Bayesian spatial model produces smoother maps of return levels. Furthermore, this approach greatly reduces the uncertainty in the estimates, thus providing information on extremes which is more useful for practical applications.

  3. The Sensitivity of State Differential Game Vessel Traffic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisowski Józef

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of the theory of deterministic sensitivity control systems for sensitivity analysis implemented to game control systems of moving objects, such as ships, airplanes and cars. The sensitivity of parametric model of game ship control process in collision situations have been presented. First-order and k-th order sensitivity functions of parametric model of process control are described. The structure of the game ship control system in collision situations and the mathematical model of game control process in the form of state equations, are given. Characteristics of sensitivity functions of the game ship control process model on the basis of computer simulation in Matlab/Simulink software have been presented. In the end, have been given proposals regarding the use of sensitivity analysis to practical synthesis of computer-aided system navigator in potential collision situations.

  4. Current state of genome-scale modeling in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Julian; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2015-01-01

    The group of filamentous fungi contains important species used in industrial biotechnology for acid, antibiotics and enzyme production. Their unique lifestyle turns these organisms into a valuable genetic reservoir of new natural products and biomass degrading enzymes that has not been used to full...... testing them in vivo. The increasing availability of high quality models and molecular biological tools for manipulating filamentous fungi renders the model-guided engineering of these fungal factories possible with comprehensive metabolic networks. A typical fungal model contains on average 1138 unique...... metabolic reactions and 1050 ORFs, making them a vast knowledge-base of fungal metabolism. In the present review we focus on the current state as well as potential future applications of genome-scale models in filamentous fungi....

  5. An Adsorption Equilibria Model for Steady State Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Azhar Bin

    2016-02-29

    The investigation of adsorption isotherms is a prime factor in the ongoing development of adsorption cycles for a spectrum of advanced, thermally-driven engineering applications, including refrigeration, natural gas storage, and desalination processes. In this work, a novel semi-empirical mathematical model has been derived that significantly enhances the prediction of the steady state uptake in adsorbent surfaces. This model, a combination of classical Langmuir and a novel modern adsorption isotherm equation, allows for a higher degree of regression of both energetically homogenous and heterogeneous adsorbent surfaces compared to several isolated classical and modern isotherm models, and has the ability to regress isotherms for all six types under the IUPAC classification. Using a unified thermodynamic framework, a single asymmetrical energy distribution function (EDF) has also been proposed that directly relates the mathematical model to the adsorption isotherm types. This fits well with the statistical rate theory approach and offers mechanistic insights into adsorption isotherms.

  6. A continuous switching model for piezoelectric state switching methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopp, Garrett K.; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.

    2017-04-01

    Piezoelectric-based, semi-active vibration reduction approaches have been studied for over a decade due to their potential in controlling vibration over a large frequency range. Previous studies have relied on a discrete model when switching between the stiffness states of the system. In such a modeling approach, the energy dissipation of the stored potential energy and the transient dynamics, in general, are not well understood. In this paper, a switching model is presented using a variable capacitance in the attached shunt circuit. When the switch duration is small in comparison to the period of vibration, the vibration reduction performance approaches that of the discrete model with an instantaneous switch, whereas longer switch durations lead to less vibration reduction. An energy analysis is then performed that results in the appearance of an energy dissipation term due to the varying capacitance in the shunt circuit.

  7. Unifying model for two-state and downhill protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, D.; Meng, W. Q.; Sun, Y. Q.

    2011-04-01

    A protein-folding model is proposed at the amino acid level, in which the folding process is divided into two successive stages: the rate-determining step, dominated by the “stochastic interactions”of solvent molecules, and the rapid phase, dominated by the “order interactions”among atoms in polypeptide. The master equation approach is used to investigate the folding kinetics, and an analytical treatment of the master equation yields a simple three-parameter expression for folding time. It is found that both two-state and downhill protein-folding kinetics can be described by a unifying model.

  8. Modelling transition states of a small once-through boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talonpoika, T. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    This article presents a model for the unsteady dynamic behaviour of a once-through counter flow boiler that uses an organic working fluid. The boiler is a compact waste-heat boiler without a furnace and it has a preheater, a vaporiser and a superheater. The relative lengths of the boiler parts vary with the operating conditions since they are all parts of a single tube. The boiler model is presented using a selected example case that uses toluene as the process fluid and flue gas from natural gas combustion as the heat source. The dynamic behaviour of the boiler means transition from the steady initial state towards another steady state that corresponds to the changed process conditions. The solution method chosen is to find such a pressure of the process fluid that the mass of the process fluid in the boiler equals the mass calculated using the mass flows into and out of the boiler during a time step, using the finite difference method. A special method of fast calculation of the thermal properties is used, because most of the calculation time is spent in calculating the fluid properties. The boiler is divided into elements. The values of the thermodynamic properties and mass flows are calculated in the nodes that connect the elements. Dynamic behaviour is limited to the process fluid and tube wall, and the heat source is regarded as to be steady. The elements that connect the preheater to the vaporiser and the vaporiser to the superheater are treated in a special way that takes into account a flexible change from one part to the other. The initial state of the boiler is received from a steady process model that is not a part of the boiler model. The known boundary values that may vary during the dynamic calculation were the inlet temperature and mass flow rates of both the heat source fluid and the process fluid. The dynamic boiler model is analysed for linear and step charges of the entering fluid temperatures and flow rates. The heat source side tests show that

  9. Modelling and simulation SSM: latest state of the art technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jahajeeah, N

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available during filling stage Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness ? Shear rate history important factor in design and casting processes ? Viscosity decreases over time after applied shear rate ? Ideally... and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness Modelling and Simulation SSM Latest state of the art technology N Jahajeeah Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness BEHAVIOUR OF THIXOTROPIC...

  10. Benchmarking spin-state chemistry in starless core models

    CERN Document Server

    Sipilä, O; Harju, J

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We aim to present simulated chemical abundance profiles for a variety of important species, with special attention given to spin-state chemistry, in order to provide reference results against which present and future models can be compared. Methods. We employ gas-phase and gas-grain models to investigate chemical abundances in physical conditions corresponding to starless cores. To this end, we have developed new chemical reaction sets for both gas-phase and grain-surface chemistry, including the deuterated forms of species with up to six atoms and the spin-state chemistry of light ions and of the species involved in the ammonia and water formation networks. The physical model is kept simple in order to facilitate straightforward benchmarking of other models against the results of this paper. Results. We find that the ortho/para ratios of ammonia and water are similar in both gas-phase and gas-grain models, at late times in particular, implying that the ratios are determined by gas-phase processes. We d...

  11. Z(3) metastable states in Polyakov Quark Meson model

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Hiranmaya

    2016-01-01

    We study the existence of Z(3) metastable states in the presence of the dynamical quarks within the ambit of Polyakov quark meson (PQM) model. Within the parameters of the model, it is seen that for temperatures $T_m$ greater than the chiral transition temperature $T_c$, Z(3) metastable states exist ( $T_{m} \\sim 310$ MeV at zero chemical potential). At finite chemical potential $T_m$ is larger than the same at vanishing chemical potential. We also observe a shift of ($\\sim 5^\\circ$) in the phase of the metastable vacua at zero chemical potential. The energy density difference between true and Z(3) metastable vacua is very large in this model. This indicates a strong explicit symmetry breaking effect due to quarks in PQM model. We compare this explicit symmetry breaking in PQM model with small explicit symmetry breaking as a linear term in Polyakov loop added to the Polyakov loop potential. We also study about the possibility of domain growth in a quenched transition to QGP in relativistic heavy ion collision...

  12. Modeling, State Estimation and Control of Unmanned Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Tak Kit

    Unmanned helicopters hold both tremendous potential and challenges. Without risking the lives of human pilots, these vehicles exhibit agile movement and the ability to hover and hence open up a wide range of applications in the hazardous situations. Sparing human lives, however, comes at a stiff price for technology. Some of the key difficulties that arise in these challenges are: (i) There are unexplained cross-coupled responses between the control axes on the hingeless helicopters that have puzzled researchers for years. (ii) Most, if not all, navigation on the unmanned helicopters relies on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs), which are susceptible to jamming. (iii) It is often necessary to accommodate the re-configurations of the payload or the actuators on the helicopters by repeatedly tuning an autopilot, and that requires intensive human supervision and/or system identification. For the dynamics modeling and analysis, we present a comprehensive review on the helicopter actuation and dynamics, and contributes toward a more complete understanding on the on-axis and off-axis dynamical responses on the helicopter. We focus on a commonly used modeling technique, namely the phase-lag treatment, and employ a first-principles modeling method to justify that (i) why that phase-lag technique is inaccurate, (ii) how we can analyze the helicopter actuation and dynamics more accurately. Moreover, these dynamics modeling and analysis reveal the hard-to-measure but crucial parameters on a helicopter model that require the constant identifications, and hence convey the reasoning of seeking a model-implicit method to solve the state estimation and control problems on the unmanned helicopters. For the state estimation, we present a robust localization method for the unmanned helicopter against the GNSS outage. This method infers position from the acceleration measurement from an inertial measurement unit (IMU). In the core of our method are techniques of the sensor

  13. Nonlinear State Space Modeling and System Identification for Electrohydraulic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with nonlinear modeling and identification of an electrohydraulic control system for improving its tracking performance. We build the nonlinear state space model for analyzing the highly nonlinear system and then develop a Hammerstein-Wiener (H-W model which consists of a static input nonlinear block with two-segment polynomial nonlinearities, a linear time-invariant dynamic block, and a static output nonlinear block with single polynomial nonlinearity to describe it. We simplify the H-W model into a linear-in-parameters structure by using the key term separation principle and then use a modified recursive least square method with iterative estimation of internal variables to identify all the unknown parameters simultaneously. It is found that the proposed H-W model approximates the actual system better than the independent Hammerstein, Wiener, and ARX models. The prediction error of the H-W model is about 13%, 54%, and 58% less than the Hammerstein, Wiener, and ARX models, respectively.

  14. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard Jason; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2015-01-01

    This report introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this report is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the report. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  15. Optimal State-Space Reduction for Pedigree Hidden Markov Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    To analyze whole-genome genetic data inherited in families, the likelihood is typically obtained from a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) having a state space of 2^n hidden states where n is the number of meioses or edges in the pedigree. There have been several attempts to speed up this calculation by reducing the state-space of the HMM. One of these methods has been automated in a calculation that is more efficient than the naive HMM calculation; however, that method treats a special case and the efficiency gain is available for only those rare pedigrees containing long chains of single-child lineages. The other existing state-space reduction method treats the general case, but the existing algorithm has super-exponential running time. We present three formulations of the state-space reduction problem, two dealing with groups and one with partitions. One of these problems, the maximum isometry group problem was discussed in detail by Browning and Browning. We show that for pedigrees, all three of these problems hav...

  16. State-to-state modeling of non equilibrium low-temperature atomic plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultel, Arnaud; Morel, Vincent; Annaloro, Julien; Druguet, Marie-Claude

    2017-03-01

    The most relevant approach leading to a thorough understanding of the behavior of non equilibrium atomic plasmas is to elaborate state-to-state models in which the mass conservation equation is applied directly to atoms or ions on their excited states. The present communication reports the elaboration of such models and the results obtained. Two situations close to each other are considered. First, the plasmas produced behind shock fronts obtained in ground test facilities (shock tubes) or during planetary atmospheric entries of spacecrafts are discussed. We focused our attention on the nitrogen case for which a complete implementation of the CoRaM-N2 collisional-radiative model has been performed in a steady one-dimensional computation code based on the Rankine-Hugoniot assumptions. Second, the plasmas produced by the interaction between an ultra short laser pulse and a tungsten sample are discussed in the framework of the elaboration of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. In the present case, tungsten has been chosen in the purpose of validating an in situ experimental method able to provide the elemental composition of the divertor wall of a tokamak like WEST or ITER undergoing high energetic deuterium and tritium nuclei fluxes.

  17. Entropy and equilibrium state of free market models

    CERN Document Server

    Iglesias, J R

    2011-01-01

    Many recent models of trade dynamics use the simple idea of wealth exchanges among economic agents in order to obtain a stable or equilibrium distribution of wealth among the agents. In particular, a plain analogy compares the wealth in a society with the energy in a physical system, and the trade between agents to the energy exchange between molecules during collisions. In physical systems, the energy exchange among molecules leads to a state of equipartition of the energy and to an equilibrium situation where the entropy is a maximum. On the other hand, in the majority of exchange models, the system converges to a very unequal condensed state, where one or a few agents concentrate all the wealth of the society while the wide majority of agents shares zero or almost zero fraction of the wealth. So, in those economic systems a minimum entropy state is attained. We propose here an analytical model where we investigate the effects of a particular class of economic exchanges that minimize the entropy. By solving...

  18. A Knowledge Discovery from POS Data using State Space Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadahiko; Higuchi, Tomoyuki

    The number of competing-brands changes by new product's entry. The new product introduction is endemic among consumer packaged goods firm and is an integral component of their marketing strategy. As a new product's entry affects markets, there is a pressing need to develop market response model that can adapt to such changes. In this paper, we develop a dynamic model that capture the underlying evolution of the buying behavior associated with the new product. This extends an application of a dynamic linear model, which is used by a number of time series analyses, by allowing the observed dimension to change at some point in time. Our model copes with a problem that dynamic environments entail: changes in parameter over time and changes in the observed dimension. We formulate the model with framework of a state space model. We realize an estimation of the model using modified Kalman filter/fixed interval smoother. We find that new product's entry (1) decreases brand differentiation for existing brands, as indicated by decreasing difference between cross-price elasticities; (2) decreases commodity power for existing brands, as indicated by decreasing trend; and (3) decreases the effect of discount for existing brands, as indicated by a decrease in the magnitude of own-brand price elasticities. The proposed framework is directly applicable to other fields in which the observed dimension might be change, such as economic, bioinformatics, and so forth.

  19. Steady state analysis of Boolean molecular network models via model reduction and computational algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A key problem in the analysis of mathematical models of molecular networks is the determination of their steady states. The present paper addresses this problem for Boolean network models, an increasingly popular modeling paradigm for networks lacking detailed kinetic information. For small models, the problem can be solved by exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. But for larger models this is not feasible, since the size of the phase space grows exponentially with the dimension of the network. The dimension of published models is growing to over 100, so that efficient methods for steady state determination are essential. Several methods have been proposed for large networks, some of them heuristic. While these methods represent a substantial improvement in scalability over exhaustive enumeration, the problem for large networks is still unsolved in general. Results This paper presents an algorithm that consists of two main parts. The first is a graph theoretic reduction of the wiring diagram of the network, while preserving all information about steady states. The second part formulates the determination of all steady states of a Boolean network as a problem of finding all solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the finite number system with two elements. This problem can be solved with existing computer algebra software. This algorithm compares favorably with several existing algorithms for steady state determination. One advantage is that it is not heuristic or reliant on sampling, but rather determines algorithmically and exactly all steady states of a Boolean network. The code for the algorithm, as well as the test suite of benchmark networks, is available upon request from the corresponding author. Conclusions The algorithm presented in this paper reliably determines all steady states of sparse Boolean networks with up to 1000 nodes. The algorithm is effective at analyzing virtually all published models even those of moderate

  20. Steady state analysis of Boolean molecular network models via model reduction and computational algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Aguilar, Boris; Hinkelmann, Franziska; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-06-26

    A key problem in the analysis of mathematical models of molecular networks is the determination of their steady states. The present paper addresses this problem for Boolean network models, an increasingly popular modeling paradigm for networks lacking detailed kinetic information. For small models, the problem can be solved by exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. But for larger models this is not feasible, since the size of the phase space grows exponentially with the dimension of the network. The dimension of published models is growing to over 100, so that efficient methods for steady state determination are essential. Several methods have been proposed for large networks, some of them heuristic. While these methods represent a substantial improvement in scalability over exhaustive enumeration, the problem for large networks is still unsolved in general. This paper presents an algorithm that consists of two main parts. The first is a graph theoretic reduction of the wiring diagram of the network, while preserving all information about steady states. The second part formulates the determination of all steady states of a Boolean network as a problem of finding all solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the finite number system with two elements. This problem can be solved with existing computer algebra software. This algorithm compares favorably with several existing algorithms for steady state determination. One advantage is that it is not heuristic or reliant on sampling, but rather determines algorithmically and exactly all steady states of a Boolean network. The code for the algorithm, as well as the test suite of benchmark networks, is available upon request from the corresponding author. The algorithm presented in this paper reliably determines all steady states of sparse Boolean networks with up to 1000 nodes. The algorithm is effective at analyzing virtually all published models even those of moderate connectivity. The problem for

  1. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  2. Mapping from Speech to Images Using Continuous State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a system that transforms speech waveforms to animated faces are proposed. The system relies on continuous state space models to perform the mapping, this makes it possible to ensure video with no sudden jumps and allows continuous control of the parameters in 'face space......'. The performance of the system is critically dependent on the number of hidden variables, with too few variables the model cannot represent data, and with too many overfitting is noticed. Simulations are performed on recordings of 3-5 sec.\\$\\backslash\\$ video sequences with sentences from the Timit database. From...... a subjective point of view the model is able to construct an image sequence from an unknown noisy speech sequence even though the number of training examples are limited....

  3. Disturbed state concept as unified constitutive modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant S. Desai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A unified constitutive modeling approach is highly desirable to characterize a wide range of engineering materials subjected simultaneously to the effect of a number of factors such as elastic, plastic and creep deformations, stress path, volume change, microcracking leading to fracture, failure and softening, stiffening, and mechanical and environmental forces. There are hardly available such unified models. The disturbed state concept (DSC is considered to be a unified approach and is able to provide material characterization for almost all of the above factors. This paper presents a description of the DSC, and statements for determination of parameters based on triaxial, multiaxial and interface tests. Statements of DSC and validation at the specimen level and at the boundary value problem levels are also presented. An extensive list of publications by the author and others is provided at the end. The DSC is considered to be a unique and versatile procedure for modeling behaviors of engineering materials and interfaces.

  4. Disturbed state concept as unified constitutive modeling approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandrakant S. Desai

    2016-01-01

    A unified constitutive modeling approach is highly desirable to characterize a wide range of engineering materials subjected simultaneously to the effect of a number of factors such as elastic, plastic and creep deformations, stress path, volume change, microcracking leading to fracture, failure and softening, stiffening, and mechanical and environmental forces. There are hardly available such unified models. The disturbed state concept (DSC) is considered to be a unified approach and is able to provide material characterization for almost all of the above factors. This paper presents a description of the DSC, and statements for determination of parameters based on triaxial, multiaxial and interface tests. Statements of DSC and validation at the specimen level and at the boundary value problem levels are also presented. An extensive list of publications by the author and others is provided at the end. The DSC is considered to be a unique and versatile procedure for modeling behaviors of engineering materials and interfaces.

  5. Regression Analysis of Top of Descent Location for Idle-thrust Descents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stell, Laurel; Bronsvoort, Jesper; McDonald, Greg

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, multiple regression analysis is used to model the top of descent (TOD) location of user-preferred descent trajectories computed by the flight management system (FMS) on over 1000 commercial flights into Melbourne, Australia. The independent variables cruise altitude, final altitude, cruise Mach, descent speed, wind, and engine type were also recorded or computed post-operations. Both first-order and second-order models are considered, where cross-validation, hypothesis testing, and additional analysis are used to compare models. This identifies the models that should give the smallest errors if used to predict TOD location for new data in the future. A model that is linear in TOD altitude, final altitude, descent speed, and wind gives an estimated standard deviation of 3.9 nmi for TOD location given the trajec- tory parameters, which means about 80% of predictions would have error less than 5 nmi in absolute value. This accuracy is better than demonstrated by other ground automation predictions using kinetic models. Furthermore, this approach would enable online learning of the model. Additional data or further knowl- edge of algorithms is necessary to conclude definitively that no second-order terms are appropriate. Possible applications of the linear model are described, including enabling arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the FMS even in congested airspace. In particular, a model for TOD location that is linear in the independent variables would enable decision support tool human-machine interfaces for which a kinetic approach would be computationally too slow.

  6. Modeling individual effects in the Cormack-Jolly-Seber Model: A state-space formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    In population and evolutionary biology, there exists considerable interest in individual heterogeneity in parameters of demographic models for open populations. However, flexible and practical solutions to the development of such models have proven to be elusive. In this article, I provide a state-space formulation of open population capture-recapture models with individual effects. The state-space formulation provides a generic and flexible framework for modeling and inference in models with individual effects, and it yields a practical means of estimation in these complex problems via contemporary methods of Markov chain Monte Carlo. A straightforward implementation can be achieved in the software package WinBUGS. I provide an analysis of a simple model with constant parameter detection and survival probability parameters. A second example is based on data from a 7-year study of European dippers, in which a model with year and individual effects is fitted.

  7. Modeling the human invader in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Giri, Chandra P.

    2010-02-01

    Modern biogeographers recognize that humans are seen as constituents of ecosystems, drivers of significant change, and perhaps, the most invasive species on earth. We found it instructive to model humans as invasive organisms with the same environmental factors. We present a preliminary model of the spread of modern humans in the conterminous United States between 1992 and 2001 based on a subset of National Land Cover Data (NLCD), a time series LANDSAT product. We relied on the commonly used Maxent model, a species-environmental matching model, to map urbanization. Results: Urban areas represented 5.1% of the lower 48 states in 2001, an increase of 7.5% (18,112 km2) in the nine year period. At this rate, an area the size of Massachusetts is converted to urban land use every ten years. We used accepted models commonly used for mapping plant and animal distributions and found that climatic and environmental factors can strongly predict our spread (i.e., the conversion of forests, shrub/grass, and wetland areas into urban areas), with a 92.5% success rate (Area Under the Curve). Adding a roads layer in the model improved predictions to a 95.5% success rate. 8.8% of the 1-km2 cells in the conterminous U.S. now have a major road in them. In 2001, 0.8% of 1-km2 cells in the U.S. had an urbanness value of > 800, (>89% of a 1-km2 cell is urban), while we predict that 24.5% of 1-km2 cells in the conterminous U.S. will be > 800 eventually. Main conclusion: Humans have a highly predictable pattern of urbanization based on climatic and topographic variables. Conservation strategies may benefit from that predictability.

  8. Modeling Reader's Emotional State Response on Document's Typographic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tsonos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of an experimental study towards modeling the reader's emotional state variations induced by the typographic elements in electronic documents. Based on the dimensional theory of emotions we investigate how typographic elements, like font style (bold, italics, bold-italics and font (type, size, color and background color, affect the reader's emotional states, namely, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD. An experimental procedure was implemented conforming to International Affective Picture System guidelines and incorporating the Self-Assessment Manikin test. Thirty students participated in the experiment. The stimulus was a short paragraph of text for which any content, emotion, and/or domain dependent information was excluded. The Analysis of Variance revealed the dependency of (a all the three emotional dimensions on font size and font/background color combinations and (b the Pleasure dimension on font type and font style. We introduce a set of mapping rules showing how PAD vary on the discrete values of font style and font type elements. Moreover, we introduce a set of equations describing the PAD dimensions' dependency on font size. This novel model can contribute to the automated reader's emotional state extraction in order, for example, to enhance the acoustic rendition of the documents, utilizing text-to-speech synthesis.

  9. Nonlinear system modeling with random matrices: echo state networks revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bai; Miller, David J; Wang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Echo state networks (ESNs) are a novel form of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) that provide an efficient and powerful computational model approximating nonlinear dynamical systems. A unique feature of an ESN is that a large number of neurons (the "reservoir") are used, whose synaptic connections are generated randomly, with only the connections from the reservoir to the output modified by learning. Why a large randomly generated fixed RNN gives such excellent performance in approximating nonlinear systems is still not well understood. In this brief, we apply random matrix theory to examine the properties of random reservoirs in ESNs under different topologies (sparse or fully connected) and connection weights (Bernoulli or Gaussian). We quantify the asymptotic gap between the scaling factor bounds for the necessary and sufficient conditions previously proposed for the echo state property. We then show that the state transition mapping is contractive with high probability when only the necessary condition is satisfied, which corroborates and thus analytically explains the observation that in practice one obtains echo states when the spectral radius of the reservoir weight matrix is smaller than 1.

  10. Effective Model Approach to the Dense State of QCD Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    The first-principle approach to the dense state of QCD matter, i.e. the lattice-QCD simulation at finite baryon density, is not under theoretical control for the moment. The effective model study based on QCD symmetries is a practical alternative. However the model parameters that are fixed by hadronic properties in the vacuum may have unknown dependence on the baryon chemical potential. We propose a new prescription to constrain the effective model parameters by the matching condition with the thermal Statistical Model. In the transitional region where thermal quantities blow up in the Statistical Model, deconfined quarks and gluons should smoothly take over the relevant degrees of freedom from hadrons and resonances. We use the Polyakov-loop coupled Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model as an effective description in the quark side and show how the matching condition is satisfied by a simple ansatz on the Polyakov loop potential. Our results favor a phase diagram with the chiral phase transition located at sligh...

  11. Modeling of state parameter and hardening function for granular materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭芳乐; 李建中

    2004-01-01

    A modified plastic strain energy as hardening state parameter for dense sand was proposed, based on the results from a series of drained plane strain tests on saturated dense Japanese Toyoura sand with precise stress and strain measurements along many stress paths. In addition, a unique hardening function between the plastic strain energy and the instantaneous stress path was also presented, which was independent of stress history. The proposed state parameter and hardening function was directly verified by the simple numerical integration method. It is shown that the proposed hardening function is independent of stress history and stress path and is appropriate to be used as the hardening rule in constitutive modeling for dense sand, and it is also capable of simulating the effects on the deformation characteristics of stress history and stress path for dense sand.

  12. Matrix product states and the nonabelian rotor model

    CERN Document Server

    Milsted, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    We use uniform matrix product states (MPS) to study the (1+1)D $O(2)$ and $O(4)$ rotor models, which are equivalent to the Kogut-Susskind formulation of matter-free nonabelian lattice gauge theory on a "hawaiian earring" graph for $U(1)$ and $SU(2)$, respectively. Applying tangent space methods to obtain ground states and determine the mass gap and the $\\beta$-function, we find excellent agreement with known strong results, locating the BKT transition for $O(2)$ and successfully entering the asymptotic weak-coupling regime for $O(4)$. To obtain a finite local Hilbert space, we truncate in the space of irreducible representations (irreps) of the gauge group, comparing the effects of different cutoff values. We find that higher irreps become important in the crossover and weak-coupling regimes of the nonabelian theory, where entanglement also suddenly increases. This could have important consequences for TNS studies of Yang-Mills on higher dimensional graphs.

  13. Modeling of efficient solid-state cooler on layered multiferroics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Ivan; Starkov, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    We have developed theoretical foundations for the design and optimization of a solid-state cooler working through caloric and multicaloric effects. This approach is based on the careful consideration of the thermodynamics of a layered multiferroic system. The main section of the paper is devoted to the derivation and solution of the heat conduction equation for multiferroic materials. On the basis of the obtained results, we have performed the evaluation of the temperature distribution in the refrigerator under periodic external fields. A few practical examples are considered to illustrate the model. It is demonstrated that a 40-mm structure made of 20 ferroic layers is able to create a temperature difference of 25K. The presented work tries to address the whole hierarchy of physical phenomena to capture all of the essential aspects of solid-state cooling.

  14. Model for Triplet State Engineering in Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Prodhan, Suryoday; Ramasesha, S

    2014-01-01

    Engineering the position of the lowest triplet state (T1) relative to the first excited singlet state (S1) is of great importance in improving the efficiencies of organic light emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. We have carried out model exact calculations of substituted polyene chains to understand the factors that affect the energy gap between S1 and T1. The factors studied are backbone dimerisation, different donor-acceptor substitutions and twisted geometry. The largest system studied is an eighteen carbon polyene which spans a Hilbert space of about 991 million. We show that for reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) process, the best system involves substituting all carbon sites on one half of the polyene with donors and the other half with acceptors.

  15. A state-based model of prevention: Indiana's example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agley, Jon; Gassman, Ruth

    2008-04-01

    Public health officials in the United States have battled alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents for the past few decades, but only in 2002 did they begin to see a decline in rates of use. ATOD use and abuse are associated with numerous problems, including criminal behavior and increased adolescent morbidity and mortality rates. Researchers have sought to identify best-practice procedures for ATOD prevention; the state of Indiana has a strong ATOD prevention system in place that has the potential to serve as a model for other U.S. localities because of its best-practice approach to public health services. This article outlines the activities of the Indiana Prevention Resource Center to provide an example to strengthen public health professionals' ability to prevent ATOD use and abuse and to provide for a healthy adolescent population.

  16. Three-nucleon bound states using realistic potential models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogga, A.; Kievsky, A.; Kamada, H.; Glöckle, W.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.; Viviani, M.

    2003-03-01

    The bound states of 3H and 3He have been calculated by using the Argonne v18 plus the Urbana IX three-nucleon potential. The isospin T=3/2 state have been included in the calculations as well as the n-p mass difference. The 3H-3He mass difference has been evaluated through the charge-dependent terms explicitly included in the two-body potential. The calculations have been performed using two different methods: the solution of the Faddeev equations in momentum space and the expansion on the correlated hyperspherical harmonic basis. The results are in agreement within 0.1% and can be used as benchmark tests. Results for the charge-dependent Bonn interaction in conjunction with the Tucson-Melbourne three-nucleon force are also presented. It is shown that the 3H and 3He binding energy difference can be predicted model independently.

  17. The three-nucleon bound state using realistic potential models

    CERN Document Server

    Nogga, A; Kamada, H; Glöckle, W; Marcucci, L E; Rosati, S; Viviani, M

    2003-01-01

    The bound states of $^3$H and $^3$He have been calculated using the Argonne $v_{18}$ plus the Urbana three-nucleon potential. The isospin $T=3/2$ state have been included in the calculations as well as the $n$-$p$ mass difference. The $^3$H-$^3$He mass difference has been evaluated through the charge dependent terms explicitly included in the two-body potential. The calculations have been performed using two different methods: the solution of the Faddeev equations in momentum space and the expansion on the correlated hyperspherical harmonic basis. The results are in agreement within 0.1% and can be used as benchmark tests. Results for the CD-Bonn interaction are also presented. It is shown that the $^3$H and $^3$He binding energy difference can be predicted model independently.

  18. Eigenvectors in the superintegrable model II: ground-state sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au-Yang, Helen; Perk, Jacques H H [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, 145 Physical Sciences, Stillwater, OK 74078-3072 (United States)], E-mail: helenperk@yahoo.com, E-mail: perk@okstate.edu

    2009-09-18

    In 1993, Baxter gave 2{sup m{sub Q}} eigenvalues of the transfer matrix of the N-state superintegrable chiral Potts model with the spin-translation quantum number Q, where m{sub Q} = lfloor(NL - L - Q)/Nrfloor. In our previous paper we studied the Q = 0 ground-state sector, when the size L of the transfer matrix is chosen to be a multiple of N. It was shown that the corresponding {tau}{sub 2} matrix has a degenerate eigenspace generated by the generators of r = m{sub 0} simple sl{sub 2} algebras. These results enable us to express the transfer matrix in the subspace in terms of these generators E{sup {+-}}{sub m} and H{sub m} for m = 1, ..., r. Moreover, the corresponding 2{sup r} eigenvectors of the transfer matrix are expressed in terms of rotated eigenvectors of H{sub m}.

  19. Sea State Estimation Using Model-scale DP Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Brodtkorb, Astrid; Nielsen, Ulrik D.; J. Sørensen, Asgeir

    2015-01-01

    Complex marine operations are moving further from shore, into deeper waters, and harsher environments. The operating hours of a vessel are weather dependent, and good knowledge of the prevailing weather conditions may ensure cost-efficient and safe operations. This paper considers the estimation...... of the peak wave frequency of the on-site sea state based on the vessel’s motion in waves. A sea state can be described by significant wave height, peak wave frequency, wave direction, and often wind speed and direction are added as well. The signal-based algorithm presented in this paper is based on Fourier...... transforms of the vessel response in heave, roll and pitch. The measurements are used directly to obtain an estimate of the peak frequency of the waves. Experimental results from model-scale offshore ship runs at the Marine Cybernetics Laboratory (MCLab) at NTNU demonstrate the performance of the proposed...

  20. Equivalence and Differences between Structural Equation Modeling and State-Space Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Ho, Moon-ho R.; Hamaker, Ellen L.; Dolan, Conor V.

    2010-01-01

    State-space modeling techniques have been compared to structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques in various contexts but their unique strengths have often been overshadowed by their similarities to SEM. In this article, we provide a comprehensive discussion of these 2 approaches' similarities and differences through analytic comparisons and…

  1. Alignment of Product Models and Product State Models - Integration of the Product Lifecycle Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Kirkby, Lars Phillip; Vesterager, Johan

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the integration of the Product Model (PM) and the Product State Model (PCM). Focus is on information exchange from the PSM to the PM within the manufacturing of a single ship. The paper distinguishes between information and knowledge integration. The paper...

  2. Equivalence and differences between structural equation modeling and state-space modeling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Ho, Moon-ho R.; Hamaker, E.L.; Dolan, C.V.

    2010-01-01

    State-space modeling techniques have been compared to structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques in various contexts but their unique strengths have often been overshadowed by their similarities to SEM. In this article, we provide a comprehensive discussion of these 2 approaches' similarities and

  3. Equivalence and Differences between Structural Equation Modeling and State-Space Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Ho, Moon-ho R.; Hamaker, Ellen L.; Dolan, Conor V.

    2010-01-01

    State-space modeling techniques have been compared to structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques in various contexts but their unique strengths have often been overshadowed by their similarities to SEM. In this article, we provide a comprehensive discussion of these 2 approaches' similarities and differences through analytic comparisons and…

  4. Language Model Combination and Adaptation Using Weighted Finite State Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Gales, M. J. F.; Hieronymus, J. L.; Woodland, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In speech recognition systems language model (LMs) are often constructed by training and combining multiple n-gram models. They can be either used to represent different genres or tasks found in diverse text sources, or capture stochastic properties of different linguistic symbol sequences, for example, syllables and words. Unsupervised LM adaption may also be used to further improve robustness to varying styles or tasks. When using these techniques, extensive software changes are often required. In this paper an alternative and more general approach based on weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs) is investigated for LM combination and adaptation. As it is entirely based on well-defined WFST operations, minimum change to decoding tools is needed. A wide range of LM combination configurations can be flexibly supported. An efficient on-the-fly WFST decoding algorithm is also proposed. Significant error rate gains of 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art broadcast audio recognition task using a history dependently adapted multi-level LM modelling both syllable and word sequences

  5. K¯ nuclear bound states in a dynamical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2006-05-01

    A comprehensive data base of K-atom level shifts and widths is re-analyzed in order to study the density dependence of the K¯-nuclear optical potential. Significant departure from a tρ form is found only for ρ(r)/ρ ≲ 0.2 and extrapolation to nuclear-matter density ρ yields an attractive potential, about 170 MeV deep. Partial restoration of chiral symmetry compatible with pionic atoms and low-energy pion-nuclear data plays no role at the relevant low-density regime, but this effect is not ruled out at densities of order ρ and beyond. K¯-nuclear bound states are generated across the periodic table self consistently, using a relativistic mean-field model Lagrangian which couples the K¯ to the scalar and vector meson fields mediating the nuclear interactions. The reduced phase space available for K¯ absorption from these bound states is taken into account by adding an energy-dependent imaginary term which underlies the corresponding K¯-nuclear level widths, with a strength required by fits to the atomic data. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for light nuclei, and the binding energies and widths calculated in this dynamical model differ appreciably from those calculated for a static nucleus. A wide range of binding energies is spanned by varying the K¯ couplings to the meson fields. Our calculations provide a lower limit of Γ=50±10 MeV on the width of nuclear bound states for K¯-binding energy in the range B˜100-200 MeV. Comments are made on the interpretation of the FINUDA experiment at DAΦNE which claimed evidence for deeply bound Kpp states in light nuclei.

  6. A mathematical model of pan evaporation under steady state conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wee Ho; Roderick, Michael L.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of changing climate, global pan evaporation records have shown a spatially-averaged trend of ∼ -2 to ∼ -3 mm a-2 over the past 30-50 years. This global phenomenon has motivated the development of the "PenPan" model (Rotstayn et al., 2006). However, the original PenPan model has yet to receive an independent experimental evaluation. Hence, we constructed an instrumented US Class A pan at Canberra Airport (Australia) and monitored it over a three-year period (2007-2010) to uncover the physics of pan evaporation under non-steady state conditions. The experimental investigations of pan evaporation enabled theoretical formulation and parameterisation of the aerodynamic function considering the wind, properties of air and (with or without) the bird guard effect. The energy balance investigation allowed for detailed formulation of the short- and long-wave radiation associated with the albedos and the emissivities of the pan water surface and the pan wall. Here, we synthesise and generalise those earlier works to develop a new model called the "PenPan-V2" model for application under steady state conditions (i.e., uses a monthly time step). Two versions (PenPan-V2C and PenPan-V2S) are tested using pan evaporation data available across the Australian continent. Both versions outperformed the original PenPan model with better representation of both the evaporation rate and the underlying physics of a US Class A pan. The results show the improved solar geometry related calculations (e.g., albedo, area) for the pan system led to a clear improvement in representing the seasonal cycle of pan evaporation. For general applications, the PenPan-V2S is simpler and suited for applications including an evaluation of long-term trends in pan evaporation.

  7. The adventures of climate science in the sweet land of idle arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsberg, Eric; Goodwin, William Mark

    2016-05-01

    In a recent series of papers Roman Frigg, Leonard Smith, and several coauthors have developed a general epistemological argument designed to cast doubt on the capacity of a broad range of mathematical models to generate "decision relevant predictions." The presumptive targets of their argument are at least some of the modeling projects undertaken in contemporary climate science. In this paper, we trace and contrast two very different readings of the scope of their argument. We do this by considering the very different implications for climate science that these interpretations would have. Then, we lay out the structure of their argument-an argument by analogy-with an eye to identifying points at which certain epistemically significant distinctions might limit the force of the analogy. Finally, some of these epistemically significant distinctions are introduced and defended as relevant to a great many of the predictive mathematical modeling projects employed in contemporary climate science.

  8. Traffic model with an absorbing-state phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannini, M. L. L.; Dickman, Ronald

    2017-02-01

    We consider a modified Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model in which drivers do not decelerate if their speed is smaller than the headway (number of empty sites to the car ahead). (In the original NS model, such a reduction in speed occurs with probability p , independent of the headway, as long as the current speed is greater than zero.) In the modified model the free-flow state (with all vehicles traveling at the maximum speed, vmax) is absorbing for densities ρ smaller than a critical value ρc=1 /(vmax+2 ) . The phase diagram in the ρ -p plane is reentrant: for densities in the range ρc ,<<ρ <ρc , both small and large values of p favor free flow, while for intermediate values, a nonzero fraction of vehicles have speeds model. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between traffic models and stochastic sandpiles.

  9. Current state of genome-scale modeling in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Julian; Andersen, Mikael R

    2015-06-01

    The group of filamentous fungi contains important species used in industrial biotechnology for acid, antibiotics and enzyme production. Their unique lifestyle turns these organisms into a valuable genetic reservoir of new natural products and biomass degrading enzymes that has not been used to full capacity. One of the major bottlenecks in the development of new strains into viable industrial hosts is the alteration of the metabolism towards optimal production. Genome-scale models promise a reduction in the time needed for metabolic engineering by predicting the most potent targets in silico before testing them in vivo. The increasing availability of high quality models and molecular biological tools for manipulating filamentous fungi renders the model-guided engineering of these fungal factories possible with comprehensive metabolic networks. A typical fungal model contains on average 1138 unique metabolic reactions and 1050 ORFs, making them a vast knowledge-base of fungal metabolism. In the present review we focus on the current state as well as potential future applications of genome-scale models in filamentous fungi.

  10. New equation of state models for hydrodynamic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David A.; Barbee, Troy W.; Rogers, Forrest J.

    1998-07-01

    Two new theoretical methods for computing the equation of state of hot, dense matter are discussed. The ab initio phonon theory gives a first-principles calculation of lattice frequencies, which can be used to compare theory and experiment for isothermal and shock compression of solids. The ACTEX dense plasma theory has been improved to allow it to be compared directly with ultrahigh pressure shock data on low-Z materials. The comparisons with experiment are good, suggesting that these models will be useful in generating global EOS tables for hydrodynamic simulations.

  11. New equation of state model for hydrodynamic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.A.; Barbee, T.W. III; Rogers, F.J.

    1997-07-01

    Two new theoretical methods for computing the equation of state of hot, dense matter are discussed.The ab initio phonon theory gives a first-principles calculation of lattice frequencies, which can be used to compare theory and experiment for isothermal and shock compression of solids. The ACTEX dense plasma theory has been improved to allow it to be compared directly with ultrahigh pressure shock data on low-Z materials. The comparisons with experiment are good, suggesting that these models will be useful in generating global EOS tables for hydrodynamic simulations.

  12. New equation of state models for hydrodynamic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.A.; Barbee, T.W. III; Rogers, F.J. [Physics Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Two new theoretical methods for computing the equation of state of hot, dense matter are discussed. The ab initio phonon theory gives a first-principles calculation of lattice frequencies, which can be used to compare theory and experiment for isothermal and shock compression of solids. The ACTEX dense plasma theory has been improved to allow it to be compared directly with ultrahigh pressure shock data on low-Z materials. The comparisons with experiment are good, suggesting that these models will be useful in generating global EOS tables for hydrodynamic simulations. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Stieltjes electrostatic model interpretation for bound state problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V S Shiv Chaitanya

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, it is shown that Stieltjes electrostatic model and quantum Hamilton Jacobi formalism are analogous to each other. This analogy allows the bound state problem to mimic as unit moving imaginary charges $i\\hbar$, which are placed in between the two fixed imaginary charges arising due to the classical turning points of the potential. The interaction potential between unit moving imaginary charges $i\\hbar$ is given by the logarithm of the wave function. For an exactly solvable potential, this system attains stable equilibrium position at the zeros of the orthogonal polynomials depending upon the interval of the classical turning points.

  14. Approximate State Transition Matrix and Secular Orbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The state transition matrix (STM is a part of the onboard orbit determination system. It is used to control the satellite’s orbital motion to a predefined reference orbit. Firstly in this paper a simple orbit model that captures the secular behavior of the orbital motion in the presence of all perturbation forces is derived. Next, an approximate STM to match the secular effects in the orbit due to oblate earth effect and later in the presence of all perturbation forces is derived. Numerical experiments are provided for illustration.

  15. Transient state model of actin-based motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    We developed a transient model for actin-based motility.Diffusion of actin monomers was included in the formulation and its influence on the speed of actin-driven cargos was examined in detail.Our results clearly demonstrated how actin polymerization accelerates cargos that are initially stationary,as well as how steady-state is eventually reached.We also found that,due to polymerization and diffusion,actin monomer concentration near the load surface can be significantly lower than that in the rest of th...

  16. A model independent description of the deutron asymptotic D state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, T. E. O.; Rosa-Clot, M.

    1982-04-01

    The asymptotic deutron D state is shown to result nearly model-independently from iterated OPEP yielding a predicted value η = (0.02633 ± 0.00035). Alternatively the result leads to a determination of the πN coupling constant [ f2 = (0.0792 ± 0.0012 )]. Attention is drawn to the implications for the size of quark bags. Analogous considerations of the deutron quadrupole moment permit the first direct determination of its non-potential part from experiment ΔQ = (0.005 ± 0.004) fm 2.

  17. A Novel Wireless TCP and its Steady State Throughput Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ling; JI Hong; YUE Guang-xin

    2004-01-01

    Unlike wired networks, random packet loss due to bit errors may cause significant performance degradation of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). We propose and study a novel end-to-end congestion control mechanism called TCP-LD (Loss Detection) that is simple and effective for dealing with random packet loss. We also give its steady state throughput model. Both the ns2 and numerical simulation results show that our scheme can achieve significant throughput improvements without adversely affecting other concurrent TCP connections, including other concurrent Reno connections both in wired and wireless environment.

  18. Clinical states model for biomarkers in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolo, Andrea B; Milowsky, Matthew; Bajorin, Dean F

    2009-09-01

    Bladder cancer is a significant healthcare problem in the USA, with a high recurrence rate, the need for expensive continuous surveillance and limited treatment options for patients with advanced disease. Research has contributed to an understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the development and progression of bladder cancer, and that understanding has led to the discovery of potentially diagnostic, predictive and prognostic biomarkers. In this review, a clinical states model of bladder cancer is introduced and integrated into a paradigm for biomarker development. Biomarkers are systematically incorporated with predefined end points to aid in clinical management.

  19. Constrained model predictive control, state estimation and coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun

    In this dissertation, we study the interaction between the control performance and the quality of the state estimation in a constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework for systems with stochastic disturbances. This consists of three parts: (i) the development of a constrained MPC formulation that adapts to the quality of the state estimation via constraints; (ii) the application of such a control law in a multi-vehicle formation coordinated control problem in which each vehicle operates subject to a no-collision constraint posed by others' imperfect prediction computed from finite bit-rate, communicated data; (iii) the design of the predictors and the communication resource assignment problem that satisfy the performance requirement from Part (ii). Model Predictive Control (MPC) is of interest because it is one of the few control design methods which preserves standard design variables and yet handles constraints. MPC is normally posed as a full-state feedback control and is implemented in a certainty-equivalence fashion with best estimates of the states being used in place of the exact state. However, if the state constraints were handled in the same certainty-equivalence fashion, the resulting control law could drive the real state to violate the constraints frequently. Part (i) focuses on exploring the inclusion of state estimates into the constraints. It does this by applying constrained MPC to a system with stochastic disturbances. The stochastic nature of the problem requires re-posing the constraints in a probabilistic form. In Part (ii), we consider applying constrained MPC as a local control law in a coordinated control problem of a group of distributed autonomous systems. Interactions between the systems are captured via constraints. First, we inspect the application of constrained MPC to a completely deterministic case. Formation stability theorems are derived for the subsystems and conditions on the local constraint set are derived in order to

  20. Investigation of Diesel combustion using multiple injection strategies for idling after cold start of passenger-car engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Salavert, J.M.; Martin, J. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Aptdo. 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    A comprehensive investigation was carried out in order to better understand the combustion behaviour in a low compression ratio DI Diesel engine when multiple injection strategies are applied just after the engine cold starts in low temperature conditions (idling). More specifically, the aim of this study was twofold: on one hand, to understand the effect of the multiple injection strategies on the indicated mean effective pressure; on the other hand, to contribute to the understanding of combustion stability characterized by the coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure. The first objective was fulfilled by analyzing the rate of heat release obtained by in-cylinder pressure diagnosis. The results showed that the timing of the pilot injection closest to the main injection was the most influential parameter based on the behaviour of the rate of heat release (regardless of the multiple injection strategy applied). For the second objective, the combustion stability was found to be correlated with the combustion centroid angle. The results showed a trend between them and the existence of a range of centroid angles where the combustion stability is strong enough. In addition, it was also evident that convenient split injection allows shifting the centroid to such a zone and improves combustion stability after start. (author)

  1. A System for Harvesting the Vehicle Idle Kinetic Energy%汽车闲散动能收集系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘隽; 刘俊标; 俞国勤; 邵宇鹰; 霍荣岭; 段中夏

    2012-01-01

    This paper has developed a new practical power generation system by combining the technology of hydraulic transmission and electromagnetic power generation for the purpose of harvesting the idle kinetic energy when vehicles are decelerating. The system design process and its component selection have been introduced, and the relevant ex- periments have been conducted. Finally experiment results show that the developed system can harvest about 4.5W electric power every time a car passes the system. The energy harvesting efficiency is about 3%.%介绍了利用液压传动和电磁发电等技术研制的一种新型实用的发电系统,目的在于收集产生车辆在减速等场合产生的闲散动能;讨论了该系统的设计思路及部件选型,并对研制的系统进行了相关实验。实验结果表明:一辆小汽车通过所研制系统时,一次可以获得4.5W左右的电能,能量收集效率约为3%。

  2. Model-independent confirmation of the $Z(4430)^-$ state

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jezabek, Marek; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manzali, Matteo; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spinella, Franco; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The decay $B^0\\to \\psi(2S) K^+\\pi^-$ is analyzed using $\\rm 3~fb^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data collected with the LHCb detector. A model-independent description of the $\\psi(2S) \\pi$ mass spectrum is obtained, using as input the $K\\pi$ mass spectrum and angular distribution derived directly from data, without requiring a theoretical description of resonance shapes or their interference. The hypothesis that the $\\psi(2S)\\pi$ mass spectrum can be described in terms of $K\\pi$ reflections alone is rejected with more than 8$\\sigma$ significance. This provides confirmation, in a model-independent way, of the need for an additional resonant component in the mass region of the $Z(4430)^-$ exotic state.

  3. Modelling of pulsed and steady-state DEMO scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J. F.; Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Fable, E.; Garzotti, L.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Kemp, R.; King, D. B.; Schneider, M.; Stankiewicz, R.; Stępniewski, W.; Vincenzi, P.; Ward, D.; Zagórski, R.

    2015-07-01

    Scenario modelling for the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) has been carried out using a variety of simulation codes. Two DEMO concepts have been analysed: a pulsed tokamak, characterized by rather conventional physics and technology assumptions (DEMO1) and a steady-state tokamak, with moderately advanced physics and technology assumptions (DEMO2). Sensitivity to impurity concentrations, radiation, and heat transport models has been investigated. For DEMO2, the impact of current driven non-inductively by neutral beams has been studied by full Monte Carlo simulations of the fast ion distribution. The results obtained are a part of a more extensive research and development (R&D) effort carried out in the EU in order to develop a viable option for a DEMO reactor, to be adopted after ITER for fusion energy research.

  4. Demand Model Combining Stated And Revealed Preference Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Londero Brandli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The revealed and stated preference methods have been contributing a lot for the development of the econometric literature in the attempt of determining the variables that influence the individual decision in a choice process. This article combines preference data, with the objective of obtaining the advantages of the complementarity of the forces and frankness of both types of data. The approach involves the estimate of a model only with RP data, only with SP data and combining RP and SP data. The application is in the housing market, where it is observed, through the literature, that most of the papers of the consumer's choice has restricted the only one approaches. The utility functions obtained show the relative importance of the attributes, the tendency of behavior through the signs and its significance statistical. The results analysis of the models indicates differences and similarities about the attribute’s behavior.

  5. String Models for the Heavy Quark-Antiquark Bound States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Sze-Man

    1988-12-01

    The heavy quark-antiquark bound state is examined in the phenomenological string models. Specifically, the Nambu-Goto model and the Polyakov's smooth string model are studied in the large-D limit, D being the number of transverse space-time dimensions. The static potential V(R) is extracted in both models in the large-D limit. In the former case, this amounts to the usual saddle point calculation. In the latter case, the renormalized, physical string tension is expressed in terms of the bare string tension and the extrinsic curvature coupling. A systematic loop expansion of V(R) is developed and carried out explicitly to one loop order, with the two loops result presented without detail. For large separations R, the potential is linear in R with corrections of order 1/R. The coefficient of the 1/R Luscher term has the universal value -piD/24 to any finite order in the loop expansion. For very small separations R, the potential V(R) is also proportional to 1/R with a coefficient twice that of Luscher's term. The corrections are logarithmically small. Polyakov's smooth string model is extended to the finite temperature situation. The temperature dependence of the string tension is investigated in the large-D limit. The effective string tension is calculated to the second order in the loop expansion. At low temperature, it differs from that of the Nambu-Goto model only by terms that fall exponentially with inverse temperature. Comparison of the potential V(R) in the smooth string model with lattice gauge calculation and hadron spectroscopy data yields a consistent result.

  6. An Examination of State Funding Models Regarding Virtual Schools for Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedrak, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    This study contains an analysis of virtual schools, public policy, and funding in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine what public policies and legislation were in place regarding the funding models of virtual education on a state by state basis. Furthermore, this study addressed how allocations were being made by state…

  7. Throttle pneumatic impact mechanism equipped with afterburner idle-stroke chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, Alexey; Frantseva, Eleanor; Dmitriev, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Pneumatic impact mechanisms are widely used in construction, mining and other economic sectors of a country. Such mechanisms are a base for a wide range of machines of various types and dimensions from hand-held tools to mounted piling hammers with impact energy up to 10 000 J. This paper is aimed at creation of pneumatic impact mechanism with the improved characteristics, including operation, energy use, weight and size which is especially important in space-limited working conditions. The research methods include development of computer mathematical model that can solve equations system and test a prototype model at the experimental stand. As a result of conducted research the pneumatic impact mechanism with the improved characteristics was developed. An engineering method for calculating throttle pneumatic impact mechanisms with a preset value of impact energy from 1 to 20 000 was investigated. This method allows creating percussive machines of a wide range of application.

  8. S.I. engine idle control improvement by using automobile reversible alternator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouadio, L.; Bidan, P.; Valentin, M.; Berry, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the improvements which can be made to spark ignition engine by extensive use of automatic control. Particular emphasis is placed on fast transient phases produced by simultaneous action on the throttle and the electronic fuel injection device. The aim is to achieve better performance for the fuel/air ratio regulation system, thereby improving engine efficiency and exhaust emission during these transient phases. The authors begin by presenting an average dynamic model of the intake manifold validated on an engine test bench and goes on to develop a closed-loop system controlling average pressure in the intake manifold using the reference tracking model method. The air supply control system is combined with a predictor to compensate for delays in the injection procedure. The paper concludes with a comparison between the results obtained using simulation and those obtained experimentally from the engine. (authors) 15 refs.

  9. Matrix product states and the non-Abelian rotor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsted, Ashley

    2016-04-01

    We use uniform matrix product states to study the (1 +1 )D O (2 ) and O (4 ) rotor models, which are equivalent to the Kogut-Susskind formulation of matter-free non-Abelian lattice gauge theory on a "Hawaiian earring" graph for U (1 ) and S U (2 ), respectively. Applying tangent space methods to obtain ground states and determine the mass gap and the β function, we find excellent agreement with known results, locating the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition for O (2 ) and successfully entering the asymptotic weak-coupling regime for O (4 ). To obtain a finite local Hilbert space, we truncate in the space of generalized Fourier modes of the gauge group, comparing the effects of different cutoff values. We find that higher modes become important in the crossover and weak-coupling regimes of the non-Abelian theory, where entanglement also suddenly increases. This could have important consequences for tensor network state studies of Yang-Mills on higher-dimensional graphs.

  10. Integrated stoichiometric, thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of steady state metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, R M T; Thiele, I; Provan, G; Nasheuer, H P

    2010-06-07

    The quantitative analysis of biochemical reactions and metabolites is at frontier of biological sciences. The recent availability of high-throughput technology data sets in biology has paved the way for new modelling approaches at various levels of complexity including the metabolome of a cell or an organism. Understanding the metabolism of a single cell and multi-cell organism will provide the knowledge for the rational design of growth conditions to produce commercially valuable reagents in biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate how equations representing steady state mass conservation, energy conservation, the second law of thermodynamics, and reversible enzyme kinetics can be formulated as a single system of linear equalities and inequalities, in addition to linear equalities on exponential variables. Even though the feasible set is non-convex, the reformulation is exact and amenable to large-scale numerical analysis, a prerequisite for computationally feasible genome scale modelling. Integrating flux, concentration and kinetic variables in a unified constraint-based formulation is aimed at increasing the quantitative predictive capacity of flux balance analysis. Incorporation of experimental and theoretical bounds on thermodynamic and kinetic variables ensures that the predicted steady state fluxes are both thermodynamically and biochemically feasible. The resulting in silico predictions are tested against fluxomic data for central metabolism in Escherichia coli and compare favourably with in silico prediction by flux balance analysis.

  11. A traffic model with an absorbing-state phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Iannini, M L L

    2016-01-01

    We consider a modified Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model in which drivers do not decelerate if their speed is smaller than the headway (number of empty sites to the car ahead). (In the original NS model, such a reduction in speed occurs with probability $p$, independent of the headway, as long as the current speed is greater than zero.) In the modified model the free-flow state (with all vehicles traveling at the maximum speed, $v_{max}$) is {\\it absorbing} for densities $\\rho$ smaller than a critical value $\\rho_c = 1/(v_{max} + 2)$. The phase diagram in the $\\rho - p$ plane is reentrant: for densities in the range $\\rho_{c,<} < \\rho < \\rho_c$, both small and large values of $p$ favor free flow, while for intermediate values, a nonzero fraction of vehicles have speeds $< v_{max}$. In addition to representing a more realistic description of driving behavior, this change leads to a better understanding of the phase transition in the original model. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between ...

  12. New model of load transfer function for pile analysis based on disturbed state model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qijian; YANG Linde; WU Jun

    2007-01-01

    Based on the disturbed state concept (DSC),a new model of load transfer function for pile analysis is established by the idea that the deformed material between pile and soil can be treated as a mixture of two constituent parts,which are in intact or critical state and assumed to obey random distribution.Starting from the homogenization theory of heterogeneous materials and statistics method,a parameter D to describe the disturbance degree is proposed,and a formula to determine the parameter has been derived by using the plastic displacement of a pile as distribution variable.In the model,shear intensity of elements in an intact state are simulated by Duncan-Zhang model and that in a critical state by Mohr-Coulomb criterion.The model of this paper has few parameters,which can reflect the aspects of load transfer function,such as hardening,softening and the effects of confining pressure.The well agreement between the in-situ data and the predicted shows that the validity of the model herein.So the proposed model in this paper is easy to be used in engineering practice.

  13. Developing a PLC-friendly state machine model: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessemier, Wim; Deconinck, Geert; Raskin, Gert; Saey, Philippe; Van Winckel, Hans

    2014-07-01

    Modern Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have become an attractive platform for controlling real-time aspects of astronomical telescopes and instruments due to their increased versatility, performance and standardization. Likewise, vendor-neutral middleware technologies such as OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) have recently demonstrated that they can greatly facilitate the integration of these industrial platforms into the overall control system. Many practical questions arise, however, when building multi-tiered control systems that consist of PLCs for low level control, and conventional software and platforms for higher level control. How should the PLC software be structured, so that it can rely on well-known programming paradigms on the one hand, and be mapped to a well-organized OPC UA interface on the other hand? Which programming languages of the IEC 61131-3 standard closely match the problem domains of the abstraction levels within this structure? How can the recent additions to the standard (such as the support for namespaces and object-oriented extensions) facilitate a model based development approach? To what degree can our applications already take advantage of the more advanced parts of the OPC UA standard, such as the high expressiveness of the semantic modeling language that it defines, or the support for events, aggregation of data, automatic discovery, ... ? What are the timing and concurrency problems to be expected for the higher level tiers of the control system due to the cyclic execution of control and communication tasks by the PLCs? We try to answer these questions by demonstrating a semantic state machine model that can readily be implemented using IEC 61131 and OPC UA. One that does not aim to capture all possible states of a system, but rather one that attempts to organize the course-grained structure and behaviour of a system. In this paper we focus on the intricacies of this seemingly simple task, and on the lessons that we

  14. Colesterol-IDL y parámetros lipídicos en diabéticos tipo 2 IDL-cholesterol and lipidic parameters in diabetic patients type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Bonneau

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes mellitus ocupa el sexto lugar de las defunciones por causas definidas en la provincia de Misiones. Nos propusimos establecer si existen diferencias significativas para Colesterol Total (CT, Triglicéridos (TG, Colesterol-HDL(CHDL, Colesterol-LDL(CLDL, Colesterol-IDL(CIDL, Colesterol no-HDL y los índices CT/CHDL y TG/CHDL entre diabéticos tipo 2 y un grupo control y comparar los valores de CIDL entre ambos grupos según fenotipo de dislipidemia. Se estudiaron 70 diabéticos tipo 2 (DM 2 y 57 controles. CT, TG, CHDL y CLDL se determinaron por métodos enzimáticos colorimétricos y CIDL por método de Wikinski. Los resultados obtenidos en DM 2 vs. controles fueron: CT 214±49 vs. 205±34 mg/dl (p=0.488; TG 194±119 vs. 128±65 mg/dl (pDiabetes Mellitus is in the sixth death cause in the province of Misiones. Majority of patients die in relation with atherosclerosis, being dislipidemias one of the mechanism that explain this increased risk. We aimed to establish if there are significant differences for total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, HDL-cholesterol (HDLC, LDL-Cholesterol (LDLC, IDL-Cholesterol (IDLC, no-HDL Cholesterol and the index TC/HDLC and TG/HDLC between diabetic patients type 2 and a control group, as well as comparing the IDLC amount between both groups according to the dislipidemia phenotype. We studied 70 diabetic patients type 2 and 57 controls, with similar distribution in age, sex and body mass index. TC, TG, HDLC and LDLC were tested by enzymatic colorimetric methods with internal and external quality controls and the IDLC by Wikinski method. The results obtained in diabetic patients vs controls were (table N°1: TC 214 ±49 vs 205± 34 mg/dl (p=0.488; TG 194±119 vs 128±65 mg/dl (p<0.001; HDLC 43±11 vs 50±13 mg/dl(p=0.001; LDLC 135±43 vs 132± 32 mg/dl (p=0.934; IDLC 13.8± 8.7 vs 7.2±3.5 mg/dl (p<0.001 (figure N°1; TC/HDLC 5.26 ±1.54 vs 4.40± 1.33 (p=0.001; TG/HDLC 5.01±3.95 vs 2.97±2.24 (p<0.001 y

  15. Research of the Control Strategy for DFIG Idle Load Grid-Connect%DFIG空载并网控制策略的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾鹏飞; 李含善; 孙冬梅

    2011-01-01

    DFIG的并网技术主要有三种:带独立负载并网、孤岛并网和空载并网。空载并网由于其实现简单,并网时冲击电流小,在风电并网中占有很大的优势。文章根据DFIG的运行特点,提出了基于电网电压定向的空载并网控制策略,根据电机转速和电网电压来调节转子励磁电流,实现了有功和无功解耦控制。%The grid-connection technology of DFIG mainly include:taking independent load grid,island grid and idle load grid-connect.The idle load grid-connect has large advantage in wind power grid,because of operating simply and small impact current in grid-connect.According to the operating characteristics of DFIG,the paper proposes some control strategies of idle load grid-connect.Based on grid voltage orientation,the paper realizes decoupling control of active power and reactive power by controlling motor speed and grid voltage to regulate the rotor excitation current.

  16. Interactive Visualization of Shadow Effects in the Planetary System of Saturn, its Rings and its Moons using an OpenGL Shader in IDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo Hernandez, E. M.; Pomarède, D.

    2012-09-01

    The planetary system of Saturn, its rings and its moons is a fantastic playground where physicists are confronting theories and observations. Since its insertion into orbit in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft has returned a wealth of high-resolution images and data that calls for the development of dedicated interactive, immersive, three-dimensional, multi-purpose analysis and visualization tools. Alongside with observations, numerical simulations also provide new insights into the fundamental processes at stake in the formation of this system. The SDvision graphical interface, developed in the context of IDL Object Graphics and intended primarily for the visualization of complex and massive astrophysical plasma simulations, has been extended to provide an interactive visualization of both numerical simulations and observations of Saturn, its rings, and its moons. One major missing feature of IDL Object Graphics is the ability to render shadow effects at all. We have overcome this limitation by developing a custom GLSL Shader that is invoked by IDL objects. This Shader, based on purely geometrical computations, is fast and allows for seamless exploratory visualization of the planetary system.

  17. Specificity in transition state binding: the Pauling model revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyes, Tina L; Richard, John P

    2013-03-26

    Linus Pauling proposed that the large rate accelerations for enzymes are caused by the high specificity of the protein catalyst for binding the reaction transition state. The observation that stable analogues of the transition states for enzymatic reactions often act as tight-binding inhibitors provided early support for this simple and elegant proposal. We review experimental results that support the proposal that Pauling's model provides a satisfactory explanation for the rate accelerations for many heterolytic enzymatic reactions through high-energy reaction intermediates, such as proton transfer and decarboxylation. Specificity in transition state binding is obtained when the total intrinsic binding energy of the substrate is significantly larger than the binding energy observed at the Michaelis complex. The results of recent studies that aimed to characterize the specificity in binding of the enolate oxygen at the transition state for the 1,3-isomerization reaction catalyzed by ketosteroid isomerase are reviewed. Interactions between pig heart succinyl-coenzyme A:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase (SCOT) and the nonreacting portions of coenzyme A (CoA) are responsible for a rate increase of 3 × 10(12)-fold, which is close to the estimated total 5 × 10(13)-fold enzymatic rate acceleration. Studies that partition the interactions between SCOT and CoA into their contributing parts are reviewed. Interactions of the protein with the substrate phosphodianion group provide an ~12 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for the reactions catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase, orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, and α-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase. The interactions of these enzymes with the substrate piece phosphite dianion provide a 6-8 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for reaction of the appropriate truncated substrate. Enzyme activation by phosphite dianion reflects the higher dianion affinity for binding to the enzyme

  18. Mixture of a seismicity model based on the rate-and-state friction and ETAS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, T.

    2015-12-01

    Currently the ETAS model [Ogata, 1988, JASA] is considered to be a standard model of seismicity. However, because the ETAS model is a purely statistical one, the physics-based seismicity model derived from the rate-and-state friction (hereafter referred to as Dieterich model) [Dieterich, 1994, JGR] is frequently examined. However, the original version of the Dieterich model has several problems in the application to real earthquake sequences and therefore modifications have been conducted in previous studies. Iwata [2015, Pageoph] is one of such studies and shows that the Dieterich model is significantly improved as a result of the inclusion of the effect of secondary aftershocks (i.e., aftershocks caused by previous aftershocks). However, still the performance of the ETAS model is superior to that of the improved Dieterich model. For further improvement, the mixture of the Dieterich and ETAS models is examined in this study. To achieve the mixture, the seismicity rate is represented as a sum of the ETAS and Dieterich models of which weights are given as k and 1-k, respectively. This mixture model is applied to the aftershock sequences of the 1995 Kobe and 2004 Mid-Niigata sequences which have been analyzed in Iwata [2015]. Additionally, the sequence of the Matsushiro earthquake swarm in central Japan 1965-1970 is also analyzed. The value of k and parameters of the ETAS and Dieterich models are estimated by means of the maximum likelihood method, and the model performances are assessed on the basis of AIC. For the two aftershock sequences, the AIC values of the ETAS model are around 3-9 smaller (i.e., better) than those of the mixture model. On the contrary, for the Matsushiro swarm, the AIC value of the mixture model is 5.8 smaller than that of the ETAS model, indicating that the mixture of the two models results in significant improvement of the seismicity model.

  19. Structural properties of effective potential model by liquid state theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yuan-Tao; Andrej Jamnik; Yang Kai-Wei

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the structural properties of a model fluid dictated by an effective inter-particle oscillatory potential by grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo (GCEMC) simulation and classical liquid state theories. The chosen oscillatory potential incorporates basic interaction terms used in modeling of various complex fluids which is composed of mesoscopic particles dispersed in a solvent bath, the studied structural properties include radial distribution function in bulk and inhomogeneous density distribution profile due to influence of several external fields. The GCEMC results are employed to test the validity of two recently proposed theoretical approaches in the field of atomic fluids. One is an Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory approach; the other is a third order + second order perturbation density functional theory. Satisfactory agreement between the GCEMC simulation and the pure theories fully indicates the ready adaptability of the atomic fluid theories to effective model potentials in complex fluids, and classifies the proposed theoretical approaches as convenient tools for the investigation of complex fluids under the single component macro-fluid approximation.

  20. Forecasting seasonal influenza with a state-space SIR model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthus, Dave; Hickmann, Kyle S; Caragea, Petruţa C; Higdon, Dave; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2017-03-01

    Seasonal influenza is a serious public health and societal problem due to its consequences resulting from absenteeism, hospitalizations, and deaths. The overall burden of influenza is captured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's influenza-like illness network, which provides invaluable information about the current incidence. This information is used to provide decision support regarding prevention and response efforts. Despite the relatively rich surveillance data and the recurrent nature of seasonal influenza, forecasting the timing and intensity of seasonal influenza in the U.S. remains challenging because the form of the disease transmission process is uncertain, the disease dynamics are only partially observed, and the public health observations are noisy. Fitting a probabilistic state-space model motivated by a deterministic mathematical model [a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model] is a promising approach for forecasting seasonal influenza while simultaneously accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty. A significant finding of this work is the importance of thoughtfully specifying the prior, as results critically depend on its specification. Our conditionally specified prior allows us to exploit known relationships between latent SIR initial conditions and parameters and functions of surveillance data. We demonstrate advantages of our approach relative to alternatives via a forecasting comparison using several forecast accuracy metrics.

  1. Cointegration between trends and their estimators in state space models and CVAR models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Tabor, Morten Nyboe

    2017-01-01

    In a linear state space model Y(t)=BT(t) e(t), we investigate if the unobserved trend, T(t), cointegrates with the predicted trend, E(t), and with the estimated predicted trend, in the sense that the spreads are stationary. We find that this result holds for the spread B......(T(t)-E(t)) and the estimated spread. For the spread between the trend and the estimated trend, T(t)-E(t), however, cointegration depends on the identification of B. The same results are found, if the observations Y(t), from the state space model are analysed using a cointegrated vector autoregressive model, where the trend...... is defined as the common trend. Finally, we investigate cointegration between the spread between trends and their estimators based on the two models, and find the same results. We illustrate with two examples and confirm the results by a small simulation study....

  2. Towards an automatic model transformation mechanism from UML state machines to DEVS models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel González

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of complex event-driven systems requires studies and analysis prior to deployment with the goal of detecting unwanted behavior. UML is a language widely used by the software engineering community for modeling these systems through state machines, among other mechanisms. Currently, these models do not have appropriate execution and simulation tools to analyze the real behavior of systems. Existing tools do not provide appropriate libraries (sampling from a probability distribution, plotting, etc. both to build and to analyze models. Modeling and simulation for design and prototyping of systems are widely used techniques to predict, investigate and compare the performance of systems. In particular, the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS formalism separates the modeling and simulation; there are several tools available on the market that run and collect information from DEVS models. This paper proposes a model transformation mechanism from UML state machines to DEVS models in the Model-Driven Development (MDD context, through the declarative QVT Relations language, in order to perform simulations using tools, such as PowerDEVS. A mechanism to validate the transformation is proposed. Moreover, examples of application to analyze the behavior of an automatic banking machine and a control system of an elevator are presented.

  3. Comparison of Family Clinic Community Health Service Model with State-owned Community Health Service Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万方荣; 卢祖洵; 张金隆

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Based on a survey of community health service organization in several cities, communi-ty health service model based on the family clinic was compared with state-owned communityhealth service model, and status quo, advantages and problems of family community health serviceorganization were analyzed. Furthermore, policies for the management of community health ser-vice organization based on the family clinic were put forward.

  4. Langevin equation with fluctuating diffusivity: A two-state model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Tomoshige; Akimoto, Takuma; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2016-07-01

    Recently, anomalous subdiffusion, aging, and scatter of the diffusion coefficient have been reported in many single-particle-tracking experiments, though the origins of these behaviors are still elusive. Here, as a model to describe such phenomena, we investigate a Langevin equation with diffusivity fluctuating between a fast and a slow state. Namely, the diffusivity follows a dichotomous stochastic process. We assume that the sojourn time distributions of these two states are given by power laws. It is shown that, for a nonequilibrium ensemble, the ensemble-averaged mean-square displacement (MSD) shows transient subdiffusion. In contrast, the time-averaged MSD shows normal diffusion, but an effective diffusion coefficient transiently shows aging behavior. The propagator is non-Gaussian for short time and converges to a Gaussian distribution in a long-time limit; this convergence to Gaussian is extremely slow for some parameter values. For equilibrium ensembles, both ensemble-averaged and time-averaged MSDs show only normal diffusion and thus we cannot detect any traces of the fluctuating diffusivity with these MSDs. Therefore, as an alternative approach to characterizing the fluctuating diffusivity, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the time-averaged MSD is utilized and it is shown that the RSD exhibits slow relaxation as a signature of the long-time correlation in the fluctuating diffusivity. Furthermore, it is shown that the RSD is related to a non-Gaussian parameter of the propagator. To obtain these theoretical results, we develop a two-state renewal theory as an analytical tool.

  5. Steady States in SIRS Epidemical Model of Mobile Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duan-Ming; He, Min-Hua; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Pan, Gui-Jun; Sun, Hong-Zhang; Su, Xiang-Ying; Sun, Fan; Yin, Yan-Ping; Li, Rui; Liu, Dan

    2006-01-01

    We consider an epidemical model within socially interacting mobile individuals to study the behaviors of steady states of epidemic propagation in 2D networks. Using mean-field approximation and large scale simulations, we recover the usual epidemic behavior with critical thresholds δc and pc below which infectious disease dies out. For the population density δ far above δc, it is found that there is linear relationship between contact rate λ and the population density δ in the main. At the same time, the result obtained from mean-field approximation is compared with our numerical result, and it is found that these two results are similar by and large but not completely the same.

  6. Critical state model with anisotropic critical current density

    CERN Document Server

    Bhagwat, K V; Ravikumar, G

    2003-01-01

    Analytical solutions of Bean's critical state model with critical current density J sub c being anisotropic are obtained for superconducting cylindrical samples of arbitrary cross section in a parallel geometry. We present a method for calculating the flux fronts and magnetization curves. Results are presented for cylinders with elliptical cross section with a specific form of the anisotropy. We find that over a certain range of the anisotropy parameter the flux fronts have shapes similar to those for an isotropic sample. However, in general, the presence of anisotropy significantly modifies the shape of the flux fronts. The field for full flux penetration also depends on the anisotropy parameter. The method is extended to the case of anisotropic J sub c that also depends on the local field B, and magnetization hysteresis curves are presented for typical values of the anisotropy parameter for the case of |J sub c | that decreases exponentially with |B|.

  7. Twelve-state Potts model in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassan-Ogly, F. A.; Filippov, B. N.; Proshkin, A. I.; Zarubin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we have obtained an exact solution to the one-dimensional modified 12-state Potts model using the Kramers-Wannier transfer matrix with allowance for the exchange interaction between nearest neighbors in an external magnetic field. Analytical expressions have been derived for the heat capacity, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, magnetic entropy, and magnetocaloric effect as functions of temperature, magnitude and sign of exchange interaction, and the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field. The behavior of all of these parameters has been investigated in detail using numerical methods. The possibility of applying the results obtained to explain the observed magnetic properties of real cubic magnets with a NaCl structure and easy axes oriented along the [110] crystallographic directions has been discussed.

  8. Thermodynamics of bread baking: A two-state model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    Bread baking can be viewed as a complex physico-chemical process. It is governed by transport of heat and is accompanied by changes such as gelation of starch, the expansion of air cells within dough, and others. We focus on the thermodynamics of baking and investigate the heat flow through dough and find that the evaporation of excess water in dough is the rate-limiting step. We consider a simplified one-dimensional model of bread, treating the excess water content as a two-state variable that is zero for baked bread and a fixed constant for unbaked dough. We arrive at a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved using a standard Runge-Kutta integration method. The calculated baking times are consistent with common baking experience.

  9. SatelliteDL - An IDL Toolkit for the Analysis of Satellite Earth Observations - GOES, MODIS, VIIRS and CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, D. W.; Galloy, M. D.; Kindig, D.

    2013-12-01

    SatelliteDL is an IDL toolkit for the analysis of satellite Earth observations from a diverse set of platforms and sensors. The design features an abstraction layer that allows for easy inclusion of new datasets in a modular way. The core function of the toolkit is the spatial and temporal alignment of satellite swath and geostationary data. IDL has a powerful suite of statistical and visualization tools that can be used in conjunction with SatelliteDL. Our overarching objective is to create utilities that automate the mundane aspects of satellite data analysis, are extensible and maintainable, and do not place limitations on the analysis itself. Toward this end we have constructed SatelliteDL to include (1) HTML and LaTeX API document generation, (2) a unit test framework, (3) automatic message and error logs, (4) HTML and LaTeX plot and table generation, and (5) several real world examples with bundled datasets available for download. For ease of use, datasets, variables and optional workflows may be specified in a flexible format configuration file. Configuration statements may specify, for example, a region and date range, and the creation of images, plots and statistical summary tables for a long list of variables. SatelliteDL enforces data provenance; all data should be traceable and reproducible. The output NetCDF file metadata holds a complete history of the original datasets and their transformations, and a method exists to reconstruct a configuration file from this information. Release 0.1.0 of SatelliteDL is anticipated for the 2013 Fall AGU conference. It will distribute with ingest methods for GOES, MODIS, VIIRS and CERES radiance data (L1) as well as select 2D atmosphere products (L2) such as aerosol and cloud (MODIS and VIIRS) and radiant flux (CERES). Future releases will provide ingest methods for ocean and land surface products, gridded and time averaged datasets (L3 Daily, Monthly and Yearly), and support for 3D products such as temperature and

  10. Entanglement and Majorana edge states in the Kitaev model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Saptarshi; Maiti, Moitri; Varma, Vipin Kerala

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the von Neumann entanglement entropy and Schmidt gap in the vortex-free ground state of the Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice for square/rectangular and cylindrical subsystems. We find that, for both the subsystems, the free-fermionic contribution to the entanglement entropy SE exhibits signatures of the phase transitions between the gapless and gapped phases. However, within the gapless phase, we find that SE does not show an expected monotonic behavior as a function of the coupling Jz between the suitably defined one-dimensional chains for either geometry; moreover, the system generically reaches a point of minimum entanglement within the gapless phase before the entanglement saturates or increases again until the gapped phase is reached. This may be attributed to the onset of gapless modes in the bulk spectrum and the competition between the correlation functions along various bonds. In the gapped phase, on the other hand, SE always monotonically varies with Jz independent of the subregion size or shape. Finally, further confirming the Li-Haldane conjecture, we find that the Schmidt gap Δ defined from the entanglement spectrum also signals the topological transitions but only if there are corresponding zero-energy Majorana edge states that simultaneously appear or disappear across the transitions. We analytically corroborate some of our results on entanglement entropy, the Schmidt gap, and the bulk-edge correspondence using perturbation theory.

  11. Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A; Northrop, William F; Bohac, Stanislav V; Assanis, Dennis N

    2012-11-15

    Diesel exhaust emissions have been reported for a number of engine operating strategies, after-treatment technologies, and fuels. However, information is limited regarding emissions of many pollutants during idling and when biodiesel fuels are used. This study investigates regulated and unregulated emissions from both light-duty passenger car (1.7 L) and medium-duty (6.4 L) diesel engines at idle and load and compares a biodiesel blend (B20) to conventional ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Exhaust aftertreatment devices included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particle filter (DPF). For the 1.7 L engine under load without a DOC, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of particulate matter (PM), elemental carbon (EC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to ULSD; however, formaldehyde brake-specific emissions increased. With a DOC and high load, B20 increased brake-specific emissions of NMHC, nitrogen oxides (NOx), formaldehyde, naphthalene, and several other VOCs. For the 6.4 L engine under load, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, and most VOCs; however, NOx brake-specific emissions increased. When idling, the effects of fuel type were different: B20 increased NMHC, PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, benzene, and other VOC emission rates from both engines, and changes were sometimes large, e.g., PM2.5 increased by 60% for the 6.4 L/2004 calibration engine, and benzene by 40% for the 1.7 L engine with the DOC, possibly reflecting incomplete combustion and unburned fuel. Diesel exhaust emissions depended on the fuel type and engine load (idle versus loaded). The higher emissions found when using B20 are especially important given the recent attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the health significance of PM2.5. The emission profiles demonstrate the effects of fuel type, engine calibration, and emission control system, and they can be used as source profiles for apportionment

  12. Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A.; Northrop, William F.; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Assanis, Dennis N.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions have been reported for a number of engine operating strategies, after-treatment technologies, and fuels. However, information is limited regarding emissions of many pollutants during idling and when biodiesel fuels are used. This study investigates regulated and unregulated emissions from both light-duty passenger car (1.7 L) and medium-duty (6.4 L) diesel engines at idle and load and compares a biodiesel blend (B20) to conventional ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Exhaust aftertreatment devices included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particle filter (DPF). For the 1.7 L engine under load without a DOC, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of particulate matter (PM), elemental carbon (EC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to ULSD; however, formaldehyde brake-specific emissions increased. With a DOC and high load, B20 increased brake-specific emissions of NMHC, nitrogen oxides (NOx), formaldehyde, naphthalene, and several other VOCs. For the 6.4 L engine under load, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, and most VOCs; however, NOx brake-specific emissions increased. When idling, the effects of fuel type were different: B20 increased NMHC, PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, benzene, and other VOC emission rates from both engines, and changes were sometimes large, e.g., PM2.5 increased by 60% for the 6.4 L/2004 calibration engine, and benzene by 40% for the 1.7 L engine with the DOC, possibly reflecting incomplete combustion and unburned fuel. Diesel exhaust emissions depended on the fuel type and engine load (idle versus loaded). The higher emissions found when using B20 are especially important given the recent attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the health significance of PM2.5. The emission profiles demonstrate the effects of fuel type, engine calibration, and emission control system, and they can be used as source profiles for apportionment

  13. Review: Regional groundwater flow modeling in heavily irrigated basins of selected states in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Nathan R.; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.

    2013-09-01

    Water resources in agriculture-dominated basins of the arid western United States are stressed due to long-term impacts from pumping. A review of 88 regional groundwater-flow modeling applications from seven intensively irrigated western states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska and Texas) was conducted to provide hydrogeologists, modelers, water managers, and decision makers insight about past modeling studies that will aid future model development. Groundwater models were classified into three types: resource evaluation models (39 %), which quantify water budgets and act as preliminary models intended to be updated later, or constitute re-calibrations of older models; management/planning models (55 %), used to explore and identify management plans based on the response of the groundwater system to water-development or climate scenarios, sometimes under water-use constraints; and water rights models (7 %), used to make water administration decisions based on model output and to quantify water shortages incurred by water users or climate changes. Results for 27 model characteristics are summarized by state and model type, and important comparisons and contrasts are highlighted. Consideration of modeling uncertainty and the management focus toward sustainability, adaptive management and resilience are discussed, and future modeling recommendations, in light of the reviewed models and other published works, are presented.

  14. Using multi-state markov models to identify credit card risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Evangelista Régis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main interest of this work is to analyze the application of multi-state Markov models to evaluate credit card risk by investigating the characteristics of different state transitions in client-institution relationships over time, thereby generating score models for various purposes. We also used logistic regression models to compare the results with those obtained using multi-state Markov models. The models were applied to an actual database of a Brazilian financial institution. In this application, multi-state Markov models performed better than logistic regression models in predicting default risk, and logistic regression models performed better in predicting cancellation risk.

  15. Effect of initial pH control on biological phosphorus removal induced by the aerobic/extended-idle regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Zheng, Wei; Liao, Dexiang; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-02-01

    Recently, it has been reported that biological phosphorus removal (BPR) can be induced by an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) regime. This study further investigated the effect of initial pH ranging from 6.6 to 8.2 on BPR in the AEI process, and compared the BPR performance between the AEI and the anaerobic/oxic (A/O) regimes under their optimal initial pH value. Experimental results firstly showed that phosphorus removal linearly increased with initial pH increasing from 6.6 to 7.8, but slightly decreased when initial pH increased from 7.8 to 8.2. The optimal initial pH should be controlled at 7.8, and the phosphorus removal at initial pH 7.8 was approximately 1.7-time than that at initial pH 6.6. The mechanism studies showed that the biomass cultured at initial pH 7.8 contained more polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), lower glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), and had higher activities of exopolyphosphatase and polyphosphate kinase than that cultured at initial pH 6.6. Cyclic studies revealed that initial pH control affected the transformations of intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen, which might thereby influence microbial competition between PAOs and GAOs. Then, BPR performance between the AEI and the A/O regimes by adjusting initial pH at 7.8 was also compared. The results showed the AEI regime could drive a better BPR than the generally accepted A/O regime (98% vs 88%). Finally, controlling initial pH at 7.8 to promote BPR in the AEI process was confirmed for a municipal wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Emerging Governance in State-Level Higher Education: Competing Pressures and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Brad Leon

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study considered reforms in state-level higher education governance in the United States. Many researchers have suggested the emergence of market-oriented models in higher education governance. This study explored the existence of market-oriented models as well as other reform models in two western states, Utah and Washington. …

  17. Oxygen consumption dynamics in steady-state tumour models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David Robert; Fletcher, Alexander G; Partridge, Mike

    2014-09-01

    Oxygen levels in cancerous tissue can have a significant effect on treatment response: hypoxic tissue is both more radioresistant and more chemoresistant than well-oxygenated tissue. While recent advances in medical imaging have facilitated real-time observation of macroscopic oxygenation, the underlying physics limits the resolution to the millimetre domain, whereas oxygen tension varies over a micrometre scale. If the distribution of oxygen in the tumour micro-environment can be accurately estimated, then the effect of potential dose escalation to these hypoxic regions could be better modelled, allowing more realistic simulation of biologically adaptive treatments. Reaction-diffusion models are commonly used for modelling oxygen dynamics, with a variety of functional forms assumed for the dependence of oxygen consumption rate (OCR) on cellular status and local oxygen availability. In this work, we examine reaction-diffusion models of oxygen consumption in spherically and cylindrically symmetric geometries. We consider two different descriptions of oxygen consumption: one in which the rate of consumption is constant and one in which it varies with oxygen tension in a hyperbolic manner. In each case, we derive analytic approximations to the steady-state oxygen distribution, which are shown to closely match the numerical solutions of the equations and accurately predict the extent to which oxygen can diffuse. The derived expressions relate the limit to which oxygen can diffuse into a tissue to the OCR of that tissue. We also demonstrate that differences between these functional forms are likely to be negligible within the range of literature estimates of the hyperbolic oxygen constant, suggesting that the constant consumption rate approximation suffices for modelling oxygen dynamics for most values of OCR. These approximations also allow the rapid identification of situations where hyperbolic consumption forms can result in significant differences from constant

  18. An application of a queuing model for sea states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, L.; Monbaliu, J.; Anderson, C.

    2012-04-01

    Unimodal approaches in design practice have shown inconsistencies in terms of directionality and limitations for accurate sea states description. Spectral multimodality needs to be included in the description of the wave climate. It can provide information about the coexistence of different wave systems originating from different meteorological events, such as locally generated wind waves and swell systems from distant storms. A 20 years dataset (1989-2008) for a location on the North Sea (K13, 53.2°N 3.2°E) has been retrieved from the ECMWF ERA- Interim re-analysis data archive, providing a consistent and homogeneous dataset. The work focuses on the joint and conditional probability distributions of wind sea and swell systems. For marine operations and design applications, critical combinations of wave systems may exist. We define a critical sea state on the basis of a set of thresholds, which can be not necessarily extreme, the emphasis is given to the dangerous combination of different wave systems concerning certain operations (i.e. small vessels navigation, dredging). The distribution of non-operability windows is described by a point process model with random and independent events, whose occurrences and lengths can be described only probabilistically. These characteristics allow to treat the emerging patterns as a part of a queuing system. According to this theory, generally adopted for several applications including traffic flows and waiting lines, the input process describes the sequence of requests for a service and the service mechanism the length of time that these requests will occupy the facilities. For weather-driven processes at sea an alternating renewal process appears as a suitable model. It consists of a sequence of critical events (period of inoperability), each of random duration, separated by calms, also of random durations. Inoperability periods and calms are assumed independent. In this model it is not possible more than one critical

  19. Stationary-State Mutagenesis in Escherichia coli: a Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. K. Mahajan; A. V. S. S. Narayana Rao; S. K. Bhattacharjee

    2000-04-01

    Stationary-phase mutagenesis in nondividing E. coli cells exposed to a nonlethal stress was, a few years ago, claimed to be a likely case of a Lamarckian mechanism capable of producing exclusively useful mutations in a directed manner. After a heated debate over the last decade it now appears to involve a Darwinian mechanism that generates a transient state of hypermutagenesis, operating on a large number of sites spread over the entire genome, at least in a proportion of the resting cells. Most of the studies that clarified this position were on the reversion of a frameshift mutation present in a lacI -- lacZ fusion in E. coli strain FC40. Several groups have extensively examined both the sequence changes associated with these reversions and the underlying genetic requirements. On the basis of our studies on the genomic sequence analysis, we recently proposed a model to explain the specific changes associated with the reversion hotspots. Here we propose a more detailed version of this model that also takes into account the observed genetic requirements of stationary-state mutagenesis. Briefly, G:T/U mismatches produced at methylatable cytosines are preferentially repaired in nondividing cells by the very short patch mismatch repair (VSPMR) mechanism which is itself mutagenic and can produce mutations in very short stretches located in the immediate vicinity of these cytosine methylation sites. This mechanism requires a homologous or homeologous strand invasion step and an error-prone DNA synthesis step and is dependent on RecA, RecBCD and a DNA polymerase. The process is initiated near sequences recognized by Dcm and Vsr enzymes and further stimulated if these sequences are a part of CHI or CHI-like sequences, but a double-strand-break-dependent recombination mediated by the RecBCD pathways proposed by others seems to be nonessential. The strand transfer step is proposed to depend on RecA, RuvA, RuvB and RuvC and is opposed by RecG and MutS. The model also gives

  20. Seasonal rainfall predictions over the southeast United States using the Florida State University nested regional spectral model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocke, Steven; Larow, T. E.; Shin, D. W.

    2007-02-01

    Seasonal rainfall predictions over the southeast United States using the recently developed Florida State University (FSU) nested regional spectral model are presented. The regional model is nested within the FSU coupled model, which includes a version of the Max Plank Institute Hamburg Ocean Primitive Equation model. The southeast U.S. winter has a rather strong climatic signal due to teleconnections with tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures and thus provides a good test case scenario for a modeling study. Simulations were done for 12 boreal winter seasons, from 1986 to 1997. Both the regional and global models captured the basic large-scale patterns of precipitation reasonably well when compared to observed station data. The regional model was able to predict the anomaly pattern somewhat better than the global model. The regional model was particularly more skillful at predicting the frequency of significant rainfall events, in part because of the ability to produce heavier rainfall events.

  1. Marginal dimensions of the Potts model with invisible states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnytska, M.; Sarkanych, P.; Berche, B.; Holovatch, Yu; Kenna, R.

    2016-06-01

    We reconsider the mean-field Potts model with q interacting and r non-interacting (invisible) states. The model was recently introduced to explain discrepancies between theoretical predictions and experimental observations of phase transitions in some systems where the Z q -symmetry is spontaneously broken. We analyse the marginal dimensions of the model, i.e., the value of r at which the order of the phase transition changes. In the q = 2 case, we determine that value to be {r}{{c}}=3.65(5); there is a second-order phase transition there when r\\lt {r}{{c}} and a first-order one at r\\gt {r}{{c}}. We also analyse the region 1≤slant q\\lt 2 and show that the change from second to first order there is manifest through a new mechanism involving two marginal values of r. The q = 1 limit gives bond percolation. Above the lower value r c1, the order parameters exhibit discontinuities at temperature \\tilde{t} below a critical value t c. The larger value r c2 marks the point at which the phase transition at t c changes from second to first order. Thus, for {r}{{c}1}\\lt r\\lt {r}{{c}2}, the transition at t c remains second order while at \\tilde{t} the system undergoes a first order phase transition. As r increases further, \\tilde{t} increases, bringing the discontinuity closer to t c. Finally, when r exceeds r c2 \\tilde{t} coincides with t c and the phase transition becomes first order. This new mechanism indicates how the discontinuity characteristic of first order phase transitions emerges.

  2. Transitions in state public health law: comparative analysis of state public health law reform following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2009-03-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.

  3. Adaptive Mixture Modelling Metropolis Methods for Bayesian Analysis of Non-linear State-Space Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Jarad; West, Mike

    2010-06-01

    We describe a strategy for Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of non-linear, non-Gaussian state-space models involving batch analysis for inference on dynamic, latent state variables and fixed model parameters. The key innovation is a Metropolis-Hastings method for the time series of state variables based on sequential approximation of filtering and smoothing densities using normal mixtures. These mixtures are propagated through the non-linearities using an accurate, local mixture approximation method, and we use a regenerating procedure to deal with potential degeneracy of mixture components. This provides accurate, direct approximations to sequential filtering and retrospective smoothing distributions, and hence a useful construction of global Metropolis proposal distributions for simulation of posteriors for the set of states. This analysis is embedded within a Gibbs sampler to include uncertain fixed parameters. We give an example motivated by an application in systems biology. Supplemental materials provide an example based on a stochastic volatility model as well as MATLAB code.

  4. Modelling population dynamics model formulation, fitting and assessment using state-space methods

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, K B; Morgan, B J T; King, R; Borchers, D L; Cole, D J; Besbeas, P; Gimenez, O; Thomas, L

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a unifying framework for estimating the abundance of open populations: populations subject to births, deaths and movement, given imperfect measurements or samples of the populations.  The focus is primarily on populations of vertebrates for which dynamics are typically modelled within the framework of an annual cycle, and for which stochastic variability in the demographic processes is usually modest. Discrete-time models are developed in which animals can be assigned to discrete states such as age class, gender, maturity,  population (within a metapopulation), or species (for multi-species models). The book goes well beyond estimation of abundance, allowing inference on underlying population processes such as birth or recruitment, survival and movement. This requires the formulation and fitting of population dynamics models.  The resulting fitted models yield both estimates of abundance and estimates of parameters characterizing the underlying processes.  

  5. A microphysical model explains rate-and-state friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianye; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2015-04-01

    The rate-and-state friction (RSF) laws were originally developed as a phenomenological description of the frictional behavior observed in lab experiments. In previous studies, the empirical RSF laws have been extensively and quite successfully applied to fault mechanisms. However, these laws can not readily be envisioned in terms of the underlying physics. There are several critical discrepancies between seismological constraints on RSF behavior associated with earthquakes and lab-derived RSF parameters, in particular regarding the static stress drop and characteristic slip distance associated with seismic events. Moreover, lab friction studies can address only limited fault topographies, displacements, experimental durations and P-T conditions, which means that scale issues, and especially processes like dilatation and fluid-rock interaction, cannot be fully taken into account. Without a physical basis accounting for such effects, extrapolation of lab-derived RSF data to nature involves significant, often unknown uncertainties. In order to more reliably apply experimental results to natural fault zones, and notably to extrapolate lab data beyond laboratory pressure, temperature and velocity conditions, an understanding of the microphysical mechanisms governing fault frictional behavior is required. Here, following some pioneering efforts (e.g. Niemeijer and Spiers, 2007; Den Hartog and Spiers, 2014), a mechanism-based microphysical model is developed for describing the frictional behavior of carbonate fault gouge, assuming that the frictional behavior seen in lab experiments is controlled by competing processes of intergranular slip versus contact creep by pressure solution. The model basically consists of two governing equations derived from energy/entropy balance considerations and the kinematic relations that apply to a granular fault gouge undergoing shear and dilation/compaction. These two equations can be written as ˙τ/K = Vimp- Lt[λ˙γsbps +(1-

  6. Multi-temperature model derived from state-to-state kinetics for hypersonic entry in Jupiter atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colonna, G.; Pietanza, L. D. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e Plasmi, CNR, Via Amendola 144/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); D' Ambrosio, D. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Aerospaziale, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); D' Ammando, G.; Capitelli, M. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e Plasmi, CNR, Via Amendola 144/D, 70126 Bari, Italy and Dipartimento di Chimica, Universitá degli studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy)

    2014-12-09

    A state-to-state model of H{sub 2}/He plasmas coupling the master equations for internal distributions of heavy species with the transport equation for the free electrons has been used as a basis for implementing a multi-temperature kinetic model. In the multi-temperature model internal distributions of heavy particles are Boltzmann, the electron energy distribution function is Maxwell, and the rate coefficients of the elementary processes become a function of local temperatures associated to the relevant equilibrium distributions. The state-to-state and multi-temperature models have been compared in the case of a homogenous recombining plasma, reproducing the conditions met during supersonic expansion though converging-diverging nozzles.

  7. Multi-state models for the analysis of time-to-event data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meira-Machado, Luís; de Uña-Alvarez, Jacobo; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The experience of a patient in a survival study may be modelled as a process with two states and one possible transition from an "alive" state to a "dead" state. In some studies, however, the "alive" state may be partitioned into two or more intermediate (transient) states, each of which...... corresponding to a particular stage of the illness. In such studies, multi-state models can be used to model the movement of patients among the various states. In these models issues, of interest include the estimation of progression rates, assessing the effects of individual risk factors, survival rates...... or prognostic forecasting. In this article, we review modelling approaches for multi-state models, and we focus on the estimation of quantities such as the transition probabilities and survival probabilities. Differences between these approaches are discussed, focussing on possible advantages and disadvantages...

  8. Two-vibron bound states in the β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Xin-Guang; Tang Yi

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the two-vibron bound states in the β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model by means of the number conserving approximation combined with the number state method.The results indicate that on-site,adjacent-site and mixed two-vibron bound states may exist in the model.Specially,wave number has a significant effect on such bound states,which may be considered as the quantum effects of the localized states in quantum systems.

  9. Non-gaussian Test Models for Prediction and State Estimation with Model Errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michal BRANICKI; Nan CHEN; Andrew J.MAJDA

    2013-01-01

    Turbulent dynamical systems involve dynamics with both a large dimensional phase space and a large number of positive Lyapunov exponents.Such systems are ubiquitous in applications in contemporary science and engineering where the statistical ensemble prediction and the real time filtering/state estimation are needed despite the underlying complexity of the system.Statistically exactly solvable test models have a crucial role to provide firm mathematical underpinning or new algorithms for vastly more complex scientific phenomena.Here,a class of statistically exactly solvable non-Gaussian test models is introduced,where a generalized Feynman-Kac formulation reduces the exact behavior of conditional statistical moments to the solution to inhomogeneous Fokker-Planck equations modified by linear lower order coupling and source terms.This procedure is applied to a test model with hidden instabilities and is combined with information theory to address two important issues in the contemporary statistical prediction of turbulent dynamical systems:the coarse-gained ensemble prediction in a perfect model and the improving long range forecasting in imperfect models.The models discussed here should be useful for many other applications and algorithms for the real time prediction and the state estimation.

  10. Estimation of State Transition Probabilities: A Neural Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hiroshi; Takiyama, Ken; Okada, Masato

    2015-12-01

    Humans and animals can predict future states on the basis of acquired knowledge. This prediction of the state transition is important for choosing the best action, and the prediction is only possible if the state transition probability has already been learned. However, how our brains learn the state transition probability is unknown. Here, we propose a simple algorithm for estimating the state transition probability by utilizing the state prediction error. We analytically and numerically confirmed that our algorithm is able to learn the probability completely with an appropriate learning rate. Furthermore, our learning rule reproduced experimentally reported psychometric functions and neural activities in the lateral intraparietal area in a decision-making task. Thus, our algorithm might describe the manner in which our brains learn state transition probabilities and predict future states.

  11. Modeling lake trophic state: a random forest approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Productivity of lentic ecosystems has been well studied and it is widely accepted that as nutrient inputs increase, productivity increases and lakes transition from low trophic state (e.g. oligotrophic) to higher trophic states (e.g. eutrophic). These broad trophic state classi...

  12. Modeling of Cancer Stem Cell State Transitions Predicts Therapeutic Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Sehl

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs possess capacity to both self-renew and generate all cells within a tumor, and are thought to drive tumor recurrence. Targeting the stem cell niche to eradicate CSCs represents an important area of therapeutic development. The complex nature of many interacting elements of the stem cell niche, including both intracellular signals and microenvironmental growth factors and cytokines, creates a challenge in choosing which elements to target, alone or in combination. Stochastic stimulation techniques allow for the careful study of complex systems in biology and medicine and are ideal for the investigation of strategies aimed at CSC eradication. We present a mathematical model of the breast cancer stem cell (BCSC niche to predict population dynamics during carcinogenesis and in response to treatment. Using data from cell line and mouse xenograft experiments, we estimate rates of interconversion between mesenchymal and epithelial states in BCSCs and find that EMT/MET transitions occur frequently. We examine bulk tumor growth dynamics in response to alterations in the rate of symmetric self-renewal of BCSCs and find that small changes in BCSC behavior can give rise to the Gompertzian growth pattern observed in breast tumors. Finally, we examine stochastic reaction kinetic simulations in which elements of the breast cancer stem cell niche are inhibited individually and in combination. We find that slowing self-renewal and disrupting the positive feedback loop between IL-6, Stat3 activation, and NF-κB signaling by simultaneous inhibition of IL-6 and HER2 is the most effective combination to eliminate both mesenchymal and epithelial populations of BCSCs. Predictions from our model and simulations show excellent agreement with experimental data showing the efficacy of combined HER2 and Il-6 blockade in reducing BCSC populations. Our findings will be directly examined in a planned clinical trial of combined HER2 and IL-6 targeted

  13. Freed by interaction kinetic states in the Harper model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-12-01

    We study the problem of two interacting particles in a one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattice of the Harper model. We show that a short or long range interaction between particles leads to emergence of delocalized pairs in the non-interacting localized phase. The properties of these freed by interaction kinetic states (FIKS) are analyzed numerically including the advanced Arnoldi method. We find that the number of sites populated by FIKS pairs grows algebraically with the system size with the maximal exponent b = 1, up to a largest lattice size N = 10 946 reached in our numerical simulations, thus corresponding to a complete delocalization of pairs. For delocalized FIKS pairs the spectral properties of such quasiperiodic operators represent a deep mathematical problem. We argue that FIKS pairs can be detected in the framework of recent cold atom experiments [M. Schreiber et al., Science 349, 842 (2015)] by a simple setup modification. We also discuss possible implications of FIKS pairs for electron transport in the regime of charge-density wave and high T c superconductivity.

  14. Interprofessional Education in Occupational Therapy: The Idaho State University Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Gee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interprofessional education (IPE is becoming a common practice among most allied health professions as a part of entry level training. IPE is intended to promote greater professional collaboration in routine clinical practice. The prerequisites for this type of educational process include gaining an understanding of one’s own and other professions while developing mutual respect, trust, and communication skills. The Idaho State University (ISU Interdisciplinary Evaluation Team (IET course delivery model is one such vehicle which fosters IPE across numerous disciplines while providing significant clinical support to the local community. This study presents the ISU IET course process, which combines clinical care of community pediatric clients via student/clinician partnership, which reflect on the process of interprofessional care. Occupational therapy student perceptions of the IET course consistently trended in favorable directions. All participants desired more opportunities for IPE combined with direct client interaction as a part of their other course work. Occupational therapy educational programs are well suited and positioned to host and/or to establish key roles in IPE to support student clinical training and meet the health and needs of their local communities.

  15. Models of steady state cooling flows in elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Peter W.; Trester, Jeffrey J.; Canizares, Claude R.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive set of steady state models for spherically symmetric cooling flows in early-type galaxies is presented. It is found that a reduction of the supernova (SN) rate in ellipticals produces a decrease in the X-ray luminosity of galactic cooling flows and a steepening of the surface brightness profile. The mean X-ray temperature of the cooling flow is not affected noticeably by a change in the SN rate. The external pressure around a galaxy does not markedly change the luminosity of the gas within the galaxy but does change the mean temperature of the gas. The presence of a dark matter halo in a galaxy only changes the mean X-ray temperature slightly. The addition of a distribution of mass sinks which remove material from the general accretion flow reduces L(X) very slightly, flattens the surface brightness profile, and reduces the central surface brightness level to values close to those actually observed. A reduction in the stellar mass-loss rate only slightly reduces the X-ray luminosity of the cooling flow and flattens the surface brightness by a small amount.

  16. Modeling asymmetric cavity collapse with plasma equations of state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Brett; Hawker, Nicholas; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2016-05-01

    We explore the effect that equation of state (EOS) thermodynamics has on shock-driven cavity-collapse processes. We account for full, multidimensional, unsteady hydrodynamics and incorporate a range of relevant EOSs (polytropic, QEOS-type, and SESAME). In doing so, we show that simplified analytic EOSs, like ideal gas, capture certain critical parameters of the collapse such as velocity of the main transverse jet and pressure at jet strike, while also providing a good representation of overall trends. However, more sophisticated EOSs yield different and more relevant estimates of temperature and density, especially for higher incident shock strengths. We model incident shocks ranging from 0.1 to 1000 GPa, the latter being of interest in investigating the warm dense matter regime for which experimental and theoretical EOS data are difficult to obtain. At certain shock strengths, there is a factor of two difference in predicted density between QEOS-type and SESAME EOS, indicating cavity collapse as an experimental method for exploring EOS in this range.

  17. Improved biological phosphorus removal performance driven by the aerobic/extended-idle regime with propionate as the sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Zheng, Wei; Wu, Yan; Zeng, Tianjing; Zeng, Guangming

    2012-08-01

    Our previous studies proved that biological phosphorus removal (BPR) could be achieved in an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) process employing two typical substrates of glucose and acetate as the carbon sources. This paper further evaluated the feasibility of another important substrate, propionate, serving as the carbon source for BPR in the AEI process, and compared the BPR performance between the AEI and anaerobic/oxic (A/O) processes. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated, respectively, as the AEI and A/O regimes for BPR using propionate as the sole substrate. The results showed that the AEI-reactor removed 2.98 ± 0.04-4.06 ± 0.06 mg of phosphorus per g of total suspended solids during the course of the steady operational trial, and the phosphorus content of the dried sludge was reached 8.0 ± 0.4% after 56-day operation, demonstrating the good performance of phosphorus removal. Then, the efficiencies of BPR and the transformations of the intracellular storages were compared between two SBRs. It was observed that the phosphorus removal efficiency was maintained around 95% in the AEI-reactor, and about 83% in the A/O-reactor, although the latter showed much greater transformations of both polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen. The facts clearly showed that BPR could be enhanced by the AEI regime using propionate as the carbon source. Finally, the mechanisms for the propionate fed AEI-reactor improving BPR were investigated. It was found that the sludge cultured by the AEI regime had more polyphosphate containing cells than that by the A/O regime. Further investigation revealed that the residual nitrate generated in the last aerobic period was readily deteriorated BPR in the A/O-SBR, but a slight deterioration was observed in the AEI-SBR. Moreover, the lower glycogen transformation measured in the AEI-SBR indicated that the biomass cultured by the AEI regime contained less glycogen accumulating organisms activities than that by the A/O regime

  18. Degenerate ground states and multiple bifurcations in a two-dimensional q-state quantum Potts model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yan-Wei; Cho, Sam Young; Batchelor, Murray T; Zhou, Huan-Qiang

    2014-06-01

    We numerically investigate the two-dimensional q-state quantum Potts model on the infinite square lattice by using the infinite projected entangled-pair state (iPEPS) algorithm. We show that the quantum fidelity, defined as an overlap measurement between an arbitrary reference state and the iPEPS ground state of the system, can detect q-fold degenerate ground states for the Z_{q} broken-symmetry phase. Accordingly, a multiple bifurcation of the quantum ground-state fidelity is shown to occur as the transverse magnetic field varies from the symmetry phase to the broken-symmetry phase, which means that a multiple-bifurcation point corresponds to a critical point. A (dis)continuous behavior of quantum fidelity at phase transition points characterizes a (dis)continuous phase transition. Similar to the characteristic behavior of the quantum fidelity, the magnetizations, as order parameters, obtained from the degenerate ground states exhibit multiple bifurcation at critical points. Each order parameter is also explicitly demonstrated to transform under the Z_{q} subgroup of the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian. We find that the q-state quantum Potts model on the square lattice undergoes a discontinuous (first-order) phase transition for q=3 and q=4 and a continuous phase transition for q=2 (the two-dimensional quantum transverse Ising model).

  19. Impact Analysis of Tourism Construction's Idleness on Economic Income%旅游建筑闲置对经济收入的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任静

    2015-01-01

    旅游行业的发展对现如今国内的整体经济具有深刻影响,旅游建筑是旅游业的重要组成部分。目前旅游建筑闲置问题日益突出,因此重点分析导致旅游建筑用地闲置的原因以及旅游建筑闲置现象对经济有何影响具有重要的实际意义。本文分析了旅游建筑用地闲置的原因,阐释了旅游业发展对经济收入的影响,讨论了旅游建筑未来合理发展的方向和趋势,以期提供参考。%The development of tourism industry has produced profound influence on the overall domestic economy nowa⁃days, and tourism building is an important component of tourism industry. At present, tourism building's idleness problem turns to be increasingly prominent, in this way, selective analysis of the cause of tourism building land idleness and this phenomenon's impact on economy is of great practical significance. The article analyzes the reasons of the idleness of tour⁃ism building land, illustrates the influence of tourism industry's development on the country's economic income, and on this basis it discusses the trend and direction of tourism building 's rational development in the future, in order to provide some reference for the industry.

  20. Analysis and Control of Interior Noise Test During Idle%怠速车内噪声的测试分析和控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶志刚; 程志伟; 叶子文

    2011-01-01

    To reduce interior noise (exceeding 46 dB (A)) and excessive body vibration of a test vehicle during idle, elimination method in noise control is used to identify source of noise, and fuel pipe and body floor vibration measurement analysis during idle is made. The results show that reduction of fuel pipe vibration or improving damping function of hose clip can control the effect of source of vibration on interior noise. Three noise reduction measures are put forward: vibration isolation made to fuel pipe, make acoustic chamber treatment on the locations between engine compartment side member weight reduction hole and exhaust pipe heat shield and floor. The test results show that the three measures can reduce interior noise of the test car down to 42 dB(A) in idle.%针对某试验样车怠速车内噪声大于46 dB(A)和车身振动量偏大的问题,利用噪声控制中的消元法识别出噪声源,并进行了怠速时燃油管和车身地板振动测量分析.结果表明,减小油管的振动或提高管夹的减振功能可控制振动源对车内噪声的影响.提出了3项降噪措施:对燃油管路做隔振处理、对发动机舱纵梁减重孔和排气管隔热罩与地板之间的部位做声腔处理.试验结果表明,这3项降噪措施可使样车的怠速车内噪声降低至42dB(A).

  1. A Manifold of Pure Gibbs States of the Ising Model on the Lobachevsky Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfo, Daniel; Ruiz, Jean; Shlosman, Senya

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we construct many `new' Gibbs states of the Ising model on the Lobachevsky plane, the millefeuilles. Unlike the usual states on the integer lattices, our foliated states have infinitely many interfaces. The interfaces are rigid and fill the Lobachevsky plane with positive density. We also construct analogous states on the Cayley trees.

  2. Modeling regulatory policies associated with offshore structure removal requirements in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J. [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Energy Coast and Environment Building, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Federal regulations require that a lease in the Outer Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico be cleared of all structures within one year after production on the lease ceases, but in recent years, the Minerals Management Service has begun to encourage operators to remove idle (non-producing) structures on producing leases that are no longer ''economically viable''. At the end of 2003, there were 2175 producing structures, 898 idle (non-producing) structures, and 440 auxiliary (never-producing) structures on 1356 active leases; and 329 idle structures and 65 auxiliary structures on 273 inactive leases. The purpose of this paper is to model the impact of alternative regulatory policies on the removal trends of structures and the inventory of idle iron, and to provide first-order estimates of the cost of each regulatory option. A description of the modeling framework and implementation results is presented. (author)

  3. A new Nawaz-Enscore-Ham-based heuristic for permutation flow-shop problems with bicriteria of makespan and machine idle time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weibo; Jin, Yan; Price, Mark

    2016-10-01

    A new heuristic based on the Nawaz-Enscore-Ham algorithm is proposed in this article for solving a permutation flow-shop scheduling problem. A new priority rule is proposed by accounting for the average, mean absolute deviation, skewness and kurtosis, in order to fully describe the distribution style of processing times. A new tie-breaking rule is also introduced for achieving effective job insertion with the objective of minimizing both makespan and machine idle time. Statistical tests illustrate better solution quality of the proposed algorithm compared to existing benchmark heuristics.

  4. Algorithmic Construction of Local Hidden Variable Models for Entangled Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Flavien; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Vértesi, Tamás; Pusey, Matthew F.; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Constructing local hidden variable (LHV) models for entangled quantum states is a fundamental problem, with implications for the foundations of quantum theory and for quantum information processing. It is, however, a challenging problem, as the model should reproduce quantum predictions for all possible local measurements. Here we present a simple method for building LHV models, applicable to any entangled state and considering continuous sets of measurements. This leads to a sequence of tests which, in the limit, fully captures the set of quantum states admitting a LHV model. Similar methods are developed for local hidden state models. We illustrate the practical relevance of these methods with several examples.

  5. Algorithmic Construction of Local Hidden Variable Models for Entangled Quantum States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Flavien; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Vértesi, Tamás; Pusey, Matthew F; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-11-04

    Constructing local hidden variable (LHV) models for entangled quantum states is a fundamental problem, with implications for the foundations of quantum theory and for quantum information processing. It is, however, a challenging problem, as the model should reproduce quantum predictions for all possible local measurements. Here we present a simple method for building LHV models, applicable to any entangled state and considering continuous sets of measurements. This leads to a sequence of tests which, in the limit, fully captures the set of quantum states admitting a LHV model. Similar methods are developed for local hidden state models. We illustrate the practical relevance of these methods with several examples.

  6. State-space models' dirty little secrets: even simple linear Gaussian models can have estimation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger-Méthé, Marie; Field, Chris; Albertsen, Christoffer M; Derocher, Andrew E; Lewis, Mark A; Jonsen, Ian D; Mills Flemming, Joanna

    2016-05-25

    State-space models (SSMs) are increasingly used in ecology to model time-series such as animal movement paths and population dynamics. This type of hierarchical model is often structured to account for two levels of variability: biological stochasticity and measurement error. SSMs are flexible. They can model linear and nonlinear processes using a variety of statistical distributions. Recent ecological SSMs are often complex, with a large number of parameters to estimate. Through a simulation study, we show that even simple linear Gaussian SSMs can suffer from parameter- and state-estimation problems. We demonstrate that these problems occur primarily when measurement error is larger than biological stochasticity, the condition that often drives ecologists to use SSMs. Using an animal movement example, we show how these estimation problems can affect ecological inference. Biased parameter estimates of a SSM describing the movement of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) result in overestimating their energy expenditure. We suggest potential solutions, but show that it often remains difficult to estimate parameters. While SSMs are powerful tools, they can give misleading results and we urge ecologists to assess whether the parameters can be estimated accurately before drawing ecological conclusions from their results.

  7. Cointegration between trends and their estimators in state space models and CVAR models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Tabor, Morten Nyboe

    In a linear state space model, y_{t+1}=BT_{t}+eps_{t+1}, we investigate if the unobserved trend, T_{t}, cointegrates with the extracted trend E_{t}T_{t}, and with the estimated trend E^_{t}T_{t}, in the sense that the spreads T_{t}-E_{t}T_{t} and E_{t}T_{t}-E^_{t}T_{t} are stationary. We find...... that this result holds for BT_{t}-BE_{t}T_{t} and BE_{t}T_{t}-B^E^_{t}T_{t}. For the trends T_{t} and E^_{t}T_{t}, however, this type cointegration depends on the identification of B and T_{t}. The same results are found, if the observations, y_{t}, from the state space model are analysed using a cointegrated...... vector autoregressive model, where the trend is defined as the common trend. Finally we investigate cointegration between trends and their estimators based on the two models, and find the same results. We illustrate with two examples and confirm the results by a small simulation study....

  8. Simulation of the Ising model, memory for Bell states and generation of four-atom entangled states in cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A scheme is proposed to simulate the Ising model and preserve the maximum entangled states (Bell states) in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) driven by a classical field with large detuning. In the strong driving and large-detuning regime, the effective Hamiltonian of the system is the same as the standard Ising model, and the scheme can also make the initial four Bell states of two atoms at the maximum entanglement all the time. So it is a simple memory for the maximal entangled states. The system is insensitive to the cavity decay and the thermal field and more immune to decoherence. These advantages can warrant the experimental feasibility of the current scheme. Furthermore, the genuine four-atom entanglement may be acquired via two Bell states through one-step implementation on four two-level atoms in the strong-driven model, and when two Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states are prepared in our scheme, the entangled cluster state may be acquired easily. The success probability for the scheme is 1.

  9. Fuzzy Adaptive Model Following Speed Control for Vector Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdad BELABES

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid controller combining a linear model following controller (LMFC and fuzzy logic control (FLC for speed vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is described on this study. The FLC is introduced at the adaptive mechanism level. First, an LMFC system is designed to allow the plant states to be controlled to follow the states produced by a reference model. In the nominal conditions, the model following is perfect and the adaptive mechanism based on the fuzzy logic is idle. Secondly, when parameter variations or external disturbances occur, an augmented signal will be generated by FLC mechanism to preserve the desired model following control performance. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by some simulation results.

  10. Coexistence Steady States in a Predator-Prey Model

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    An age-structured predator-prey system with diffusion and Holling-Tanner-type nonlinearities is considered. Regarding the intensity of the fertility of the predator as bifurcation parameter, we prove that a branch of positive coexistence steady states bifurcates from the marginal steady state with no prey. A similar result is obtained when the fertility of the prey varies.

  11. Conceptual geologic model and native state model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulder, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual geologic model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system was developed by a review of the available literature. The hydrothermal system consists of a meteoric recharge area in the Mineral Mountains, fluid circulation paths to depth, a heat source, and an outflow plume. A conceptual model based on the available data can be simulated in the native state using parameters that fall within observed ranges. The model temperatures, recharge rates, and fluid travel times are sensitive to the permeability in the Mineral Mountains. The simulation results suggests the presence of a magma chamber at depth as the likely heat source. A two-dimensional study of the hydrothermal system can be used to establish boundary conditions for further study of the geothermal reservoir. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  12. TBA equations for excited states in the O(3) and O(4) nonlinear $\\sigma$-model

    OpenAIRE

    Balog, J.; Hegedus, A

    2003-01-01

    TBA integral equations are proposed for 1-particle states in the sausage- and SS-models and their $\\sigma$-model limits. Combined with the ground state TBA equations the exact mass gap is computed in the O(3) and O(4) nonlinear $\\sigma$-model and the results are compared to 3-loop perturbation theory and Monte Carlo data.

  13. A Linear Programming Model to Optimize Various Objective Functions of a Foundation Type State Support Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Orville R.

    The purpose of this study was to formulate a linear programming model to simulate a foundation type support program and to apply this model to a state support program for the public elementary and secondary school districts in the State of Iowa. The model was successful in producing optimal solutions to five objective functions proposed for…

  14. State-space reduction and equivalence class sampling for a molecular self-assembly model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packwood, Daniel M; Han, Patrick; Hitosugi, Taro

    2016-07-01

    Direct simulation of a model with a large state space will generate enormous volumes of data, much of which is not relevant to the questions under study. In this paper, we consider a molecular self-assembly model as a typical example of a large state-space model, and present a method for selectively retrieving 'target information' from this model. This method partitions the state space into equivalence classes, as identified by an appropriate equivalence relation. The set of equivalence classes H, which serves as a reduced state space, contains none of the superfluous information of the original model. After construction and characterization of a Markov chain with state space H, the target information is efficiently retrieved via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. This approach represents a new breed of simulation techniques which are highly optimized for studying molecular self-assembly and, moreover, serves as a valuable guideline for analysis of other large state-space models.

  15. MCMC for non-linear state space models using ensembles of latent sequences

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Non-linear state space models are a widely-used class of models for biological, economic, and physical processes. Fitting these models to observed data is a difficult inference problem that has no straightforward solution. We take a Bayesian approach to the inference of unknown parameters of a non-linear state model; this, in turn, requires the availability of efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods for the latent (hidden) variables and model parameters. Using the ensemble ...

  16. Steady-state existence of passive vector fields under the Kraichnan model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arponen, Heikki

    2010-03-01

    The steady-state existence problem for Kraichnan advected passive vector models is considered for isotropic and anisotropic initial values in arbitrary dimension. The models include the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, linear pressure model, and linearized Navier-Stokes (LNS) equations. In addition to reproducing the previously known results for the MHD model, we obtain the values of the Kraichnan model roughness parameter xi for which the LNS steady state exists.

  17. Measurement of the Equation of State of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Cocchi, Eugenio; Drewes, Jan; Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Koehl, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The subtle interplay between kinetic energy, interactions and dimensionality challenges our comprehension of strongly-correlated physics observed, for example, in the solid state. In this quest, the Hubbard model has emerged as a conceptually simple, yet rich model describing such physics. Here we present an experimental determination of the equation of state of the repulsive two-dimensional Hubbard model over a broad range of interactions, 0 constitute benchmarks for state-of-the-art theoretical approaches.

  18. Insights on the role of accurate state estimation in coupled model parameter estimation by a conceptual climate model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Shaoqing; Lin, Xiaopei; Li, Mingkui

    2017-03-01

    The uncertainties in values of coupled model parameters are an important source of model bias that causes model climate drift. The values can be calibrated by a parameter estimation procedure that projects observational information onto model parameters. The signal-to-noise ratio of error covariance between the model state and the parameter being estimated directly determines whether the parameter estimation succeeds or not. With a conceptual climate model that couples the stochastic atmosphere and slow-varying ocean, this study examines the sensitivity of state-parameter covariance on the accuracy of estimated model states in different model components of a coupled system. Due to the interaction of multiple timescales, the fast-varying atmosphere with a chaotic nature is the major source of the inaccuracy of estimated state-parameter covariance. Thus, enhancing the estimation accuracy of atmospheric states is very important for the success of coupled model parameter estimation, especially for the parameters in the air-sea interaction processes. The impact of chaotic-to-periodic ratio in state variability on parameter estimation is also discussed. This simple model study provides a guideline when real observations are used to optimize model parameters in a coupled general circulation model for improving climate analysis and predictions.

  19. Intercomparison of state-of-the-art models for wind energy resources with mesoscale models:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Bjarke Tobias; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Badger, Jake; Joergensen, Hans E.

    2016-04-01

    vertical resolution, model parameterizations, surface roughness length) that could be used to group the various models and interpret the results of the intercomparison. 3. Main body abstract Twenty separate entries were received by the deadline of 31 March 2015. They included simulations done with various versions of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, but also of six other well-known mesoscale models. The various entries represent an excellent sample of the various models used in by the wind energy industry today. The analysis of the submitted time series included comparison to observations, summarized with well-known measures such as biases, RMSE, correlations, and of sector-wise statistics, e.g. frequency and Weibull A and k. The comparison also includes the observed and modeled temporal spectra. The various statistics were grouped as a function of the various models, their spatial resolution, forcing data, and the various integration methods. Many statistics have been computed and will be presented in addition to those shown in the Helsinki presentation. 4. Conclusions The analysis of the time series from twenty entries has shown to be an invaluable source of information about state of the art in wind modeling with mesoscale models. Biases between the simulated and observed wind speeds at hub heights (80-100 m AGL) from the various models are around ±1.0 m/s and fairly independent of the site and do not seem to be directly related to the model horizontal resolution used in the modeling. As probably expected, the wind speeds from the simulations using the various version of the WRF model cluster close to each other, especially in their description of the wind profile.

  20. 基于模型的变门限状态反馈事件触发控制%Model-based event-triggered state feedback control with variable threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国梁; 张合新; 周鑫; 惠俊军

    2016-01-01

    针对基于模型的事件触发状态反馈控制系统,提出一种触发门限可变的触发机制.该触发机制能够在被控对象面临变化较大且快的干扰时,自动调整触发门限变大,避免频繁的事件触发导致网络通信资源浪费;能够在被控对象面临变化较小的干扰时,通过定时触发,避免长时间没有事件发生导致的通信网闲置,同时自动调整触发门限变小,提升控制性能.仿真结果表明,较固定门限触发机制,所提出的触发机制能利用更少的通信资源实现整体控制性能的提升.%An event-triggering mechanism with variable threshold for model-based event-triggered state-feedback control system is propoesd.When strong and fast varying disturbances act on the plant,this event-triggering mechanism can enlarge the threshold automatically to mitigate the unnecessary waste of communication resources.When slowly varying disturbances act on the plant,this event-triggering mechanism can avoid the communication network lies idle by using a timetriggering mechanism.Meanwhile,this event-triggering mechanism can also decrease the threshold automatically to improve the control performance.Simulation results show that,compared with the fixed threshold event-triggering mechanism,the proposed variable threshold event-triggering mechanism consumes less communication resources,but makes better whole performance.

  1. 2014 Report: Wetland State-and-transition Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report from the 2014 field season of the Wetland State-and-Transition Project. Many National Wildlife Refuges in the Intermountain West and Prairie Pothole regions...

  2. Electronic State Decomposition of Energetic Materials and Model Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    tetrazine1,4-dioxde ( DATO ), is investigated. Although these molecules are based on N -oxides of a tetrazine aromatic heterocyclic ring, their...nitramines, furazan, tetrazines, tetrazine-N oxides, terazoles, PETN, RDX,HMX,CL-20,DAATO,ACTO, DATO ,conical intersections Elliot R Bernstein Colorado State...Tetrazine-N-Oxide Based High Nitrogen Content Energetic Materials from Excited Electronic States," J. Chem. Phys. 131, 194304 (2009). A

  3. State-shared model for multiple-input multiple-output systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua TIAN; Karlene A. HOO

    2005-01-01

    This work proposes a method to construct a state-shared model for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)systems. A state-shared model is defined as a linear time invariant state-space structure that is driven by measurement signals-the plant outputs and the manipulated variables, but shared by different multiple input/output models. The genesis of the state-shared model is based on a particular reduced non-minimal realization. Any such realization necessarily fulfills the requirement that the output of the state-shared model is an asymptotically correct estimate of the output of the plant, if the process model is selected appropriately. The approach is demonstrated on a nonlinear MIMO system- a physiological model of calcium fluxes that controls muscle contraction and relaxation in human cardiac myocytes.

  4. Photonic states mixing beyond the plasmon hybridization model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadharma, Radius N. S.; Iskandar, Alexander A.; Tjia, May-On

    2016-07-01

    A study is performed on a photonic-state mixing-pattern in an insulator-metal-insulator cylindrical silver nanoshell and its rich variations induced by changes in the geometry and dielectric media of the system, representing the combined influences of plasmon coupling strength and cavity effects. This study is performed in terms of the photonic local density of states (LDOS) calculated using the Green tensor method, in order to elucidate those combined effects. The energy profiles of LDOS inside the dielectric core are shown to exhibit consistently growing number of redshifted photonic states due to an enhanced plasmon coupling induced state mixing arising from decreased shell thickness, increased cavity size effect, and larger symmetry breaking effect induced by increased permittivity difference between the core and the background media. Further, an increase in cavity size leads to increased additional peaks that spread out toward the lower energy regime. A systematic analysis of those variations for a silver nanoshell with a fixed inner radius in vacuum background reveals a certain pattern of those growing number of redshifted states with an analytic expression for the corresponding energy downshifts, signifying a photonic state mixing scheme beyond the commonly adopted plasmon hybridization scheme. Finally, a remarkable correlation is demonstrated between the LDOS energy profiles outside the shell and the corresponding scattering efficiencies.

  5. Photonic states mixing beyond the plasmon hybridization model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryadharma, Radius N. S.; Iskandar, Alexander A., E-mail: iskandar@fi.itb.ac.id; Tjia, May-On [Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2016-07-28

    A study is performed on a photonic-state mixing-pattern in an insulator-metal-insulator cylindrical silver nanoshell and its rich variations induced by changes in the geometry and dielectric media of the system, representing the combined influences of plasmon coupling strength and cavity effects. This study is performed in terms of the photonic local density of states (LDOS) calculated using the Green tensor method, in order to elucidate those combined effects. The energy profiles of LDOS inside the dielectric core are shown to exhibit consistently growing number of redshifted photonic states due to an enhanced plasmon coupling induced state mixing arising from decreased shell thickness, increased cavity size effect, and larger symmetry breaking effect induced by increased permittivity difference between the core and the background media. Further, an increase in cavity size leads to increased additional peaks that spread out toward the lower energy regime. A systematic analysis of those variations for a silver nanoshell with a fixed inner radius in vacuum background reveals a certain pattern of those growing number of redshifted states with an analytic expression for the corresponding energy downshifts, signifying a photonic state mixing scheme beyond the commonly adopted plasmon hybridization scheme. Finally, a remarkable correlation is demonstrated between the LDOS energy profiles outside the shell and the corresponding scattering efficiencies.

  6. Multilevel Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling of Daily Diary Coping Data: Modeling Trait and State Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Scott C.; Aldridge, Arianna A.; Stocking, Stephanie N.; Villodas, Feion; Leung, Queenie; Bartley, Carrie E.; Black, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    This study used multilevel modeling of daily diary data to model within-person (state) and between-person (trait) components of coping variables. This application included the introduction of multilevel factor analysis (MFA) and a comparison of the predictive ability of these trait/state factors. Daily diary data were collected on a large (n =…

  7. 某车型怠速转向异响问题分析%Analysis of Abnormal Steering Noise of An Idling Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高龙; 张奇奇; 徐春梅; 葛士显

    2014-01-01

    针对某车型怠速转向异响问题,利用实车测试和 CAE 软件进行分析,找出异响原因,并提出了整改措施。利用 CFD 软件对整改前、后管路流场进行分析,结果显示整改后管路中的湍流大大降低,降低了由于湍流而产生噪声的风险。通过实车验证表明,整改后管路可有效解决该车型转向异响问题。%To eliminate abnormal steering noise of an idling vehicle, we use vehicle test and CAE software to analyze and identify the causes of the abnormal noise, and propose corrective measures. We use CFD software to analyze pipeline flow field before and after rectification, the results show that after rectification of the pipeline, the turbulence is greatly reduced, which reduces the risk of the noise generated by turbulence. The vehicle test verifies that the rectified pipeline can effectively eliminate the abnormal steering noise during idling.

  8. Effect of fuel zoning and fuel nozzle design on pollution emissions at ground idle conditions for a double-annular ram-induction combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    An exhaust emission survey was conducted on a double-annular ram induction combustor at simulated ground idle conditions. The combustor was designed for a large augmented turbofan engine capable of sustained flight speeds up to Mach 3.0. The emission levels of total hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitric oxide were measured. The effects of fuel zoning, fuel nozzle design, and operating conditions (inlet temperature and reference Mach number) on the level of these emissions were determined. At an overall combustor fuel/air ratio of 0.007, fuel zoning reduced THC emissions by a factor of 5 to 1. The reduction in THC emissions is attributed to the increase in local fuel/air ratio provided by the fuel zoning. An alternative method of increasing fuel/air ratio would be to operate with larger-than-normal compressor overboard bleed; however, analysis on this method indicated an increase in idle fuel consumption of 20 percent. The use of air-atomizing nozzles reduced the THC emissions by 2 to 1.

  9. Developing Performance Management in State Government: An Exploratory Model for Danish State Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Rikhardsson, Pall M.

    management model. The findings are built on a questionnaire study of 45 high level accounting officers in central governmental institutions. Our statistical model consists of five explored constructs: improvements; initiatives and reforms, incentives and contracts, the use of management accounting practices......, and cost allocations and their relations to performance management. Findings based on structural equation modelling and partial least squares regression (PLS) indicates a positive effect on the latent depending variable, called performance management results. The models/theories explain a significant...

  10. A Stochastic and State Space Model for Tumour Growth and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Yuan Tan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a state space model documenting Gompertz behaviour of tumour growth. The state space model consists of two sub-models: a stochastic system model that is an extension of the deterministic model proposed by Gyllenberg and Webb (1991, and an observation model that is a statistical model based on data for the total number of tumour cells over time. In the stochastic system model we derive through stochastic equations the probability distributions of the numbers of different types of tumour cells. Combining with the statistic model, we use these distribution results to develop a generalized Bayesian method and a Gibbs sampling procedure to estimate the unknown parameters and to predict the state variables (number of tumour cells. We apply these models and methods to real data and to computer simulated data to illustrate the usefulness of the models, the methods, and the procedures.

  11. Prevalence of Prostate Cancer Clinical States and Mortality in the United States: Estimates Using a Dynamic Progression Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard I Scher

    Full Text Available To identify patient populations most in need of treatment across the prostate cancer disease continuum, we developed a novel dynamic transition model based on risk of disease progression and mortality.We modeled the flow of patient populations through eight prostate cancer clinical states (PCCS that are characterized by the status of the primary tumor, presence of metastases, prior and current treatment, and testosterone levels. Simulations used published US incidence rates for each year from 1990. Progression and mortality rates were derived from published clinical trials, meta-analyses, and observational studies. Model outputs included the incidence, prevalence, and mortality for each PCCS. The impact of novel treatments was modeled in three distinct scenarios: metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC, non-metastatic CRPC (nmCRPC, or both.The model estimated the prevalence of prostate cancer as 2,219,280 in the US in 2009 and 3,072,480 in 2020, and incidence of mCRPC as 36,100 and 42,970, respectively. All-cause mortality in prostate cancer was estimated at 168,290 in 2009 and 219,360 in 2020, with 20.5% and 19.5% of these deaths, respectively, occurring in men with mCRPC. The majority (86% of incidence flow into mCRPC states was from the nmCRPC clinical state. In the scenario with novel interventions for nmCRPC states, the progression to mCRPC is reduced, thus decreasing mCRPC incidence by 12% in 2020, with a sustained decline in mCRPC mortality. A limitation of the model is that it does not estimate prostate cancer-specific mortality.The model informs clinical trial design for prostate cancer by quantifying outcomes in PCCS, and demonstrates the impact of an effective therapy applied in an earlier clinical state of nmCRPC on the incidence of mCRPC morbidity and subsequent mortality.

  12. Network structures as a model of interaction between state and non-state actors in EU foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinegubov Alexey Leonidovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the role of network structures in EU foreign policy. The role of networks in functioning of EU is analyzed as the model of interaction between state and non-state actors in contemporary world politics. Some studies, including the project of National Intelligence Council of USA, demonstrate that there is a tendency of growing influence of non-state actors. The model of interaction that has developed in EU can be considered as a model of the future. That’s why the type of force used by EU is called “post-modern”. This model is conductive to wide use of “soft power” and some of its variants including “normative” and “network” power. Quasi-federal character of EU’s structure, whiсh is characterized by many intersecting and delegated sovereign functions, is a reason of appearance of the analyzed model. Network practices and network technologies are widely used in the process of developing and realization of EU’s policy on three levels: 1 development and realization of EU’s general policy; 2 the policy of EU’s enlargement and deeper integration of the newcomers into Europe’s life; 3 the neighborhood policy and “Europeanization” of neighboring to EU states that cannot become EU members. The last dimension of EU policy causes a conflict with Russia, which makes this analysis politically relevant.

  13. Jump Markov models and transition state theory: the quasi-stationary distribution approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gesù, Giacomo; Lelièvre, Tony; Le Peutrec, Dorian; Nectoux, Boris

    2016-12-22

    We are interested in the connection between a metastable continuous state space Markov process (satisfying e.g. the Langevin or overdamped Langevin equation) and a jump Markov process in a discrete state space. More precisely, we use the notion of quasi-stationary distribution within a metastable state for the continuous state space Markov process to parametrize the exit event from the state. This approach is useful to analyze and justify methods which use the jump Markov process underlying a metastable dynamics as a support to efficiently sample the state-to-state dynamics (accelerated dynamics techniques). Moreover, it is possible by this approach to quantify the error on the exit event when the parametrization of the jump Markov model is based on the Eyring-Kramers formula. This therefore provides a mathematical framework to justify the use of transition state theory and the Eyring-Kramers formula to build kinetic Monte Carlo or Markov state models.

  14. Jump Markov models and transition state theory: the Quasi-Stationary Distribution approach

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gesù, Giacomo; Peutrec, Dorian Le; Nectoux, Boris

    2016-01-01

    We are interested in the connection between a metastable continuous state space Markov process (satisfying e.g. the Langevin or overdamped Langevin equation) and a jump Markov process in a discrete state space. More precisely, we use the notion of quasi-stationary distribution within a metastable state for the continuous state space Markov process to parametrize the exit event from the state. This approach is useful to analyze and justify methods which use the jump Markov process underlying a metastable dynamics as a support to efficiently sample the state-to-state dynamics (accelerated dynamics techniques). Moreover, it is possible by this approach to quantify the error on the exit event when the parametrization of the jump Markov model is based on the Eyring-Kramers formula. This therefore provides a mathematical framework to justify the use of transition state theory and the Eyring-Kramers formula to build kinetic Monte Carlo or Markov state models.

  15. State-Based Models for Light Curve Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A.

    I discuss here the application of continuous time autoregressive models to the characterization of astrophysical variability. These types of models are general enough to represent many classes of variability, and descriptive enough to provide features for lightcurve classification. Importantly, the features of these models may be interpreted in terms of the power spectrum of the lightcurve, enabling constraints on characteristic timescales and periodicity. These models may be extended to include vector-valued inputs, raising the prospect of a fully general modeling and classification environment that uses multi-passband inputs to create a single phenomenological model. These types of spectral-temporal models are an important extension of extant techniques, and necessary in the upcoming eras of Gaia and LSST.

  16. A Rigorous Investigation on the Ground State of the Penson-Kolb Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kai-Hua; TIAN Guang-Shan; HAN Ru-Qi

    2003-01-01

    By using either numerical calculations or analytical methods, such as the bosonization technique, the ground state of the Penson-Kolb model has been previously studied by several groups. Some physicists argued that, as far as the existence of superconductivity in this model is concerned, it is canonically equivalent to the negative-U Hubbard model.However, others did not agree. In the present paper, we shall investigate this model by an independent and rigorous approach. We show that the ground state of the Penson-Kolb model is nondegenerate and has a nonvanishing overlap with the ground state of the negative-U Hubbard model. Furthermore, we also show that the ground states of both the models have the same good quantum numbers and may have superconducting long-range order at the same momentum q = 0. Our results support the equivalence between these models.

  17. Nonexistence of nonconstant steady-state solutions in a triangular cross-diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yuan; Tao, Youshan; Winkler, Michael

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we study the Shigesada-Kawasaki-Teramoto model for two competing species with triangular cross-diffusion. We determine explicit parameter ranges within which the model exclusively possesses constant steady state solutions.

  18. The boundary states and correlation functions of the tricritical Ising model

    CERN Document Server

    Balaska, S

    2006-01-01

    We consider the minimal model describing the tricritical Ising model on the upper half plane or equivalently on an infinite strip of finite width and we determine its consistents boundary states as well as its 1-point correlation functions.

  19. Role of band states and trap states in the electrical properties of organic semiconductors: Hopping versus mobility edge model

    KAUST Repository

    Mehraeen, Shafigh

    2013-05-01

    We compare the merits of a hopping model and a mobility edge model in the description of the effect of charge-carrier concentration on the electrical conductivity, carrier mobility, and Fermi energy of organic semiconductors. We consider the case of a composite electronic density of states (DOS) that consists of a superposition of a Gaussian DOS and an exponential DOS. Using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we apply the two models in order to interpret the recent experimental data reported for n-doped C60 films. While both models are capable of reproducing the experimental data very well and yield qualitatively similar characteristic parameters for the density of states, some discrepancies are found at the quantitative level. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  20. Modelling Water-Sanitation Relationship in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa O. Idogho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An effective understanding of water and sanitation supply in developing states such as Edo-state is a veritable tool in addressing uneven distribution of these utilities. This research study focuses on the evaluation of water and sanitation supply in the state using baseline and demand responsiveness approaches to capture data on water and sanitation supplies in all the 18 local government areas in the State. Variables such as coverage of access or no access to water and sanitation supply, sources of water and incidences of water-related diseases were captured and technically analysed. The output of the analysis revealed that 62% representing 1,346, 649, population could not access portable water, while 38% corresponding to 813,199 could fairly access portable water in 1993. However, coverage for safe drinking water between 1993 and 2002 in Edo-State is not significant at 95% confidence interval. In addition, 72% (2,009,566 population did not have any access to sanitation; while 28% (777,210 population had fair supply of sanitation. The regions with poor sanitation and water index are Etsako central, Etsako west, Esan west, Esan north-west, while Oredo, Akoko-Edo, Egor and Owan east have improved sanitation and water index. The results obtained also indicate widespread of water and sanitation related diseased in the State with the recorded highest cases of Schistosomaisis (134, 361:43%; Typhoid (81,981:27%; Cholera (62,191:20% and Diarrhea (29,893:10% respectively. Water harvesting is the major source of water supply in the Edo-state with 69.8% in Etsako West, 65.6% in Esan north East 65.5% in Etsako central while Oredo and Akoko-Edo had 5.9% and 4.3% respectively. Protected water supply from pipe borne water and borehole were noticeable in Oredo with 54.2%, 19.9% and Akoko-Edo with 5.2% and 6.0 respectively. The result on social sector expenditure shows that water and sanitation had least allocation of 18.4%, while Education, Health and